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Sample records for lnm crc compared

  1. Markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma : Case LNM Salibandy

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Jussa-Matti

    2015-01-01

    Tekijä: Jussa-Matti Wright Opinnäytetyön nimi: Markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma: Case LNM Salibandy Työn ohjaaja: Outi Sutinen Työn valmistumislukukausi- ja vuosi: Kevät 2015 Sivumäärä: 86 + 1 liitesivu Työn tarkoituksena oli luoda Limingan Niittomiesten Salibandylle nollabudjetin markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma, joka auttaa tuomaan johdonmukaisuutta ja suunnitelmallisuutta seuran markkinointiviestintään, ja sitä kautta auttaa parantamaan seuran tunnettuutta Oulun seudulla ja L...

  2. Protecting Children from Violence and Maltreatment: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis Assessing the Implementation of U.N. CRC Article 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svevo-Cianci, Kimberly A.; Hart, Stuart N.; Rubinson, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To identify which United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) recommended child protection (CP) measures, such as policy, reporting systems, and services for child abuse and neglect (CAN) victims, individually or in combination, were most important in establishing a basic level of child protection in 42 countries;…

  3. Pseudomonas putida growing at low temperature shows increased levels of CrcZ and CrcY sRNAs, leading to reduced Crc-dependent catabolite repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Pilar; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The Crc protein of Pseudomonas inhibits the expression of genes involved in the transport and assimilation of a number of non-preferred carbon sources when preferred substrates are available, thus coordinating carbon metabolism. Crc acts by binding to target mRNAs, inhibiting their translation. In Pseudomonas putida, the amount of free Crc available is controlled by two sRNAs, CrcY and CrcZ, which bind to and sequester Crc. The levels of these sRNAs vary according to metabolic conditions. Pseudomonas putida grows optimally at 30°C, but can also thrive at 10°C. The present work shows that when cells grow exponentially at 10°C, the repressive effect of Crc on many genes is significantly reduced compared with that seen at 30°C. Total Crc levels were similar at both temperatures, but those of CrcZ and CrcY were significantly higher at 10°C. Therefore, Crc-mediated repression may, at least in part, be reduced at 10°C because the fraction of Crc protein sequestered by CrcZ and CrcY is larger, reducing the amount of free Crc available to bind its targets. This may help P. putida to face cold stress. The results reported might help understanding the behaviour of this bacterium in bioremediation or rhizoremediation strategies at low temperatures. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Tape Storage and CRC Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ha, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Over 100 Petabytes of data is stored on several kind of physical support, namely disks and tapes. Data on any physical support or traveling on a data link (network, fibre channel...) can be subject to silent data corruption. A possible improvement is introducing end-to-end data integrity from the filesystem down to the tape layer. For the tape back-end it can be done by using Logical Block Protection, which computes and compares CRC checksum of every single block of data. During my work, I improved on-the-fly CRC calculation for the tape storage system, which was achieved by introducing a multithreaded implementation - a technique applicable to arbitrary CRC algorithm. Finally, I per...

  5. Slender CRC Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarup, Bendt; Jensen, Lars Rom; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    CRC is a high-performance steel fibre reinforced concrete with a typical compressive strength of 150 MPa. Design methods for a number of structural elements have been developed since CRC was invented in 1986, but the current project set out to further investigate the range of columns for which...

  6. Advances in CRC prevention: screening and surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Evelien; Rex, Douglas K.

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is amongst the most commonly diagnosed cancers and causes of death from cancer across the world. CRC can, however, be detected in asymptomatic patients at a curable stage, and several studies have shown lower mortality among patients who undergo screening compared to those

  7. Main: CRC101 [AT Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CRC101 CRC1 Establishment of Chemical Library and Development of Protein Regulation... Technology Chemical library Tetsuo Nagano Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University CRC101.csml ...

  8. Advances in CRC Prevention: Screening and Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Evelien; Rex, Douglas K

    2018-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most commonly diagnosed cancers and causes of death from cancer across the world. CRC can, however, be detected in asymptomatic patients at a curable stage, and several studies have shown lower mortality among patients who undergo screening compared with those who do not. Using colonoscopy in CRC screening also results in the detection of precancerous polyps that can be directly removed during the procedure, thereby reducing the incidence of cancer. In the past decade, convincing evidence has appeared that the effectiveness of colonoscopy as CRC prevention tool is associated with the quality of the procedure. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of recent efforts to improve colonoscopy effectiveness by enhancing detection and improving the completeness and safety of resection of colorectal lesions. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Melanoma patients with unknown primary site or nodal recurrence after initial diagnosis have a favourable survival compared to those with synchronous lymph node metastasis and primary tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weide

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A direct comparison of prognosis between patients with regional lymph node metastases (LNM detected synchronously with the primary melanoma (primary LNM, patients who developed their first LNM subsequently (secondary LNM and those with initial LNM in melanoma with unknown primary site (MUP is missing thus far. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Survival of 498 patients was calculated from the time point of the first macroscopic LNM using Kaplan Meier and multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis. RESULTS: Patients with secondary LNM (HR = 0.67; p = 0.009 and those with initial LNM in MUP (HR = 0.45; p = 0.008 had a better prognosis compared to patients with primary LNM (median survival time 52 and 65 vs. 24 months, respectively. A high number of involved nodes, the presence of in-transit/satellite metastases and male gender had an additional independent unfavourable effect. CONCLUSIONS: Survival of patients with LNM in MUP and with secondary LNM is similar and considerably more favourable compared to those with primary LNM. This difference needs to be considered during patient counselling and for stratification purposes in clinical trials. The assumption of an immune privilege of patients with MUP which is responsible for rejection of the primary melanoma, and results in a favourable prognosis is not supported by our data.

  10. Upregulated STAT3 and RhoA signaling in colorectal cancer (CRC) regulate the invasion and migration of CRC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G-Y; Yang, W-H; Chen, Z

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to reveal the expression and activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and RhoA/Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase 1 (ROCK1) signaling in CRC tissues, and to investigate the regulatory role of STAT3 and RhoA signaling in the invasion and migration of colorectal cancer cells. We examined the expression of STAT3, RhoA and ROCK1 in CRC tissues with real-time PCR and Western blotting methods. And then we examined the interaction between STAT3 and RhoA/ROCK1 signaling in CRC HT-29 cells with gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies. In addition, we determined the regulation by STAT3 and RhoA/ROCK1 on the invasion and migration of CRC HT-29 cells. Our study demonstrated a significant upregulation of RhoA and ROCK1 expression and STAT3-Y705 phosphorylation in 32 CRC specimens, compared to the 17 normal CRC tissues. Further study demonstrated there was a coordination between STAT3 and RhoA/Rock signaling in the HT-29 cells. Moreover, STAT3 knockdown or RhoA knockdown significantly repressed the migration and invasion in HT-29 cells and vice versa. STAT3 and RhoA signaling regulate the invasion and migration of CRC cells, implying the orchestrated and oncogenic roles of STAT3 and RhoA/ROCK1 signaling in CRC.

  11. Genetic diagnosis of high-penetrance susceptibility for colorectal cancer (CRC) is achievable for a high proportion of familial CRC by exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Daniel; Broderick, Peter; Frampton, Matthew; Kinnersley, Ben; Sherborne, Amy; Penegar, Steven; Lloyd, Amy; Ma, Yussanne P; Dobbins, Sara E; Houlston, Richard S

    2015-02-10

    Knowledge of the contribution of high-penetrance susceptibility to familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is relevant to the counseling, treatment, and surveillance of CRC patients and families. To quantify the impact of germline mutation to familial CRC, we sequenced the mismatch repair genes (MMR) APC, MUTYH, and SMAD4/BMPR1A in 626 early-onset familial CRC cases ascertained through a population-based United Kingdom national registry. In addition, we evaluated the contribution of mutations in the exonuclease domain (exodom) of POLE and POLD1 genes that have recently been reported to confer CRC risk. Overall mutations (pathogenic, likely pathogenic) in MMR genes make the highest contribution to familial CRC (10.9%). Mutations in the other established CRC genes account for 3.3% of cases. POLE/POLD1 exodom mutations were identified in three patients with family histories consistent with dominant transmission of CRC. Collectively, mutations in the known genes account for 14.2% of familial CRC (89 of 626 cases; 95% CI = 11.5, 17.2). A genetic diagnosis is feasible in a high proportion of familial CRC. Mainstreaming such analysis in clinical practice should enable the medical management of patients and their families to be optimized. Findings suggest CRC screening of POLE and POLD1 mutation carriers should be comparable to that afforded to those at risk of HNPCC. Although the risk of CRC associated with unexplained familial CRC is in general moderate, in some families the risk is substantive and likely to be the consequence of unidentified genes, as exemplified by POLE and POLD1. Our findings have utility in the design of genetic analyses to identify such novel CRC risk genes. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. CRC concise encyclopedia of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Weisstein, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    Upon publication, the first edition of the CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics received overwhelming accolades for its unparalleled scope, readability, and utility. It soon took its place among the top selling books in the history of Chapman & Hall/CRC, and its popularity continues unabated. Yet also unabated has been the dedication of author Eric Weisstein to collecting, cataloging, and referencing mathematical facts, formulas, and definitions. He has now updated most of the original entries and expanded the Encyclopedia to include 1000 additional pages of illustrated entries. The accessibility of the Encyclopedia along with its broad coverage and economical price make it attractive to the widest possible range of readers and certainly a must for libraries, from the secondary to the professional and research levels. For mathematical definitions, formulas, figures, tabulations, and references, this is simply the most impressive compendium available.

  13. Report: Cultural Research Centre (CRC)

    OpenAIRE

    Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda

    2010-01-01

    This report arises from research carried out in Iganga and Namutumba districts in late 2006/early 2007 by the Cultural Research Centre (CRC), based in Jinja. Our research focus was to gauge the impact of using Lusoga as a medium of instruction (since 2005 in "pilot" lower primary classes) within and outside the classroom. This initiative was in response to a new set of circumstances in the education sector in Uganda, especially the introduction by Government of teaching in local languages in ...

  14. Two small RNAs, CrcY and CrcZ, act in concert to sequester the Crc global regulator in Pseudomonas putida, modulating catabolite repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Renata; Fonseca, Pilar; Rojo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The Crc protein is a translational repressor that recognizes a specific target at some mRNAs, controlling catabolite repression and co-ordinating carbon metabolism in pseudomonads. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the levels of free Crc protein are controlled by CrcZ, a sRNA that sequesters Crc, acting as an antagonist. We show that, in Pseudomonas putida, the levels of free Crc are controlled by CrcZ and by a novel 368 nt sRNA named CrcY. CrcZ and CrcY, which contain six potential targets for Crc, were able to bind Crc specifically in vitro. The levels of CrcZ and CrcY were low under conditions generating a strong catabolite repression, and increased strongly when catabolite repression was absent. Deletion of either crcZ or crcY had no effect on catabolite repression, but the simultaneous absence of both sRNAs led to constitutive catabolite repression that compromised growth on some carbon sources. Overproduction of CrcZ or CrcY significantly reduced repression. We propose that CrcZ and CrcY act in concert, sequestering and modulating the levels of free Crc according to metabolic conditions. The CbrA/CbrB two-component system activated crcZ transcription, but had little effect on crcY. CrcY was detected in P. putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas syringae, but not in P. aeruginosa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. CRC handbook of modern telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Morreale, Patricia A

    2001-01-01

    This authoritative handbook, contributed to by a team of international experts, covers the most dynamic areas in the changing telecommunications landscape. Written for telecommunications specialists who implement the new technologies, The CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications is an excellent companion volume to the authors' The Telecommunications Handbook, but stands well on its own, as it extends the range of topics to include voice over Internet, traffic management, quality of service, and other dominant future trends. It is an indispensable reference for all professionals working in the

  16. The requirement for freshly isolated human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in isolating CRC stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, F; Bellister, S; Lu, J; Ye, X; Boulbes, D R; Tozzi, F; Sceusi, E; Kopetz, S; Tian, F; Xia, L; Zhou, Y; Bhattacharya, R; Ellis, L M

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell populations enriched for cancer stem cells (CSCs) may facilitate target identification. There is no consensus regarding the best methods for isolating CRC stem cells (CRC-SCs). We determined the suitability of various cellular models and various stem cell markers for the isolation of CRC-SCs. Established human CRC cell lines, established CRC cell lines passaged through mice, patient-derived xenograft (PDX)-derived cells, early passage/newly established cell lines, and cells directly from clinical specimens were studied. Cells were FAC-sorted for the CRC-SC markers CD44, CD133, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Sphere formation and in vivo tumorigenicity studies were used to validate CRC-SC enrichment. None of the markers studied in established cell lines, grown either in vitro or in vivo, consistently enriched for CRC-SCs. In the three other cellular models, CD44 and CD133 did not reliably enrich for stemness. In contrast, freshly isolated PDX-derived cells or early passage/newly established CRC cell lines with high ALDH activity formed spheres in vitro and enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas cells with low ALDH activity did not. PDX-derived cells, early passages/newly established CRC cell lines and cells from clinical specimen with high ALDH activity can be used to identify CRC-SC-enriched populations. Established CRC cell lines should not be used to isolate CSCs.

  17. Two variants on T2DM susceptible gene HHEX are associated with CRC risk in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Liu, Jian-Ping; Gao, Chang; Xiong, Ying-Ying; Li, Min; Wang, Ya-Ping; Su, Yan-Wei; Lin, Mei; Jiang, An-Li; Xiong, Ling-Fan; Xie, Yan; Feng, Jue-Ping

    2016-05-17

    Increasing amounts of evidence has demonstrated that T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) patients have increased susceptibility to CRC (colorectal cancer). As HHEX is a recognized susceptibility gene in T2DM, this work was focused on two SNPs in HHEX, rs1111875 and rs7923837, to study their association with CRC. T2DM patients without CRC (T2DM-only, n=300), T2DM with CRC (T2DM/CRC, n=135), cancer-free controls (Control, n=570), and CRC without T2DM (CRC-only, n=642) cases were enrolled. DNA samples were extracted from the peripheral blood leukocytes of the patients and sequenced by direct sequencing. The χ2 test was used to compare categorical data. We found that in T2DM patients, rs1111875 but not the rs7923837 in HHEX gene was associated with the occurrence of CRC (p= 0.006). for rs1111875, TC/CC patients had an increased risk of CRC (p=0.019, OR=1.592, 95%CI=1.046-2.423). Moreover, our results also indicated that the two variants of HEEX gene could be risk factors for CRC in general population, independent on T2DM (pCRC was observed in TC or TC/CC than CC individuals (pCRC risk was observed in AG, GG, and AG/GG than AA individuals (pCRC susceptibility. Risk effects and the functional impact of these polymorphisms need further validation.

  18. Fault isolation through no-overhead link level CRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.

    2007-04-24

    A fault isolation technique for checking the accuracy of data packets transmitted between nodes of a parallel processor. An independent crc is kept of all data sent from one processor to another, and received from one processor to another. At the end of each checkpoint, the crcs are compared. If they do not match, there was an error. The crcs may be cleared and restarted at each checkpoint. In the preferred embodiment, the basic functionality is to calculate a CRC of all packet data that has been successfully transmitted across a given link. This CRC is done on both ends of the link, thereby allowing an independent check on all data believed to have been correctly transmitted. Preferably, all links have this CRC coverage, and the CRC used in this link level check is different from that used in the packet transfer protocol. This independent check, if successfully passed, virtually eliminates the possibility that any data errors were missed during the previous transfer period.

  19. Attitudes towards colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening tests among elderly Malay patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Al-Kubaisy, Waqar; Yap, Bee W; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Osman, Muhamed T

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in Malaysia, where data are limited regarding knowledge and barriers in regard to CRC and screening tests. The aim of the study was to assess these parameters among Malaysians. The questionnaires were distributed in the Umra Private Hospital in Selangor. The questionnaire had four parts and covered social-demographic questions, respondent knowledge about CRC and colorectal tests, attitude towards CRC and respondentaction regarding CRC. More than half of Malay participants (total n=187) were female (57.2%) and 36.9% of them were working as professionals. The majority of the participants (93.6%) never had a CRC screening test. The study found that only 10.2% of the study participants did not consider that their chances of getting CRC were high. A high percentage of the participants (43.3%) believed that they would have good chance of survival if the cancer would be found early. About one third of the respondents did not want to do screening because of fear of cancer, and concerns of embarrassment during the procedure adversely affected attitude to CRC screening as well. Age, gender, income, family history of CRC, vegetable intake and physical activity were found to be significant determinants of knowledge on CRC. The major barriers identified towards CRC screening identified in our study were fear of pain and embarrassment. The findings have implications for understanding of similarities and differences in attitude to CRC amongst elderly patients in other cultural/ geographic regions.

  20. Expressions of IGF-1, ERK, GLUT4, IRS-1 in metabolic syndrome complicated with colorectal cancer and their associations with the clinical characteristics of CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianxia; Liu, Xiaoyi; Chi, Jingwei; Che, Kui; Feng, Yan; Zhao, Shihua; Wang, Zhongchao; Wang, Yangang

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological data have revealed that colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is increased in patients with Metabolic syndrome. To explore the expressions of IGF-1, ERK, GLUT4, IRS-1 in MS patients with CRC and their associations with the clinical characteristics of CRC. We investigated the expressions of IGF-1, ERK, GLUT4 and IRS-1 in greater omental adipose tissues of 168 MS patients with/without CRC, 85 CRC patients without MS and 98 healthy controls by RT-PCR, and analyzed the relationships between their expressions and clinical characteristics of CRC. The expression levels of IGF-1 and ERK in MS patients with/without CRC were higher while the expression levels of GLUT4 were lower compared with CRC patients without MS and healthy controls (PCRC were higher while expression levels of GLUT4 were lower compared to MS patients without CRC (PCRC, including tumor size, distant metastasis and advanced stages (III/IV) (PCRC.

  1. CRC-cards for Product Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    2003-01-01

    , transportation, service and decommissioning. A main challenge when building product models is to collect and document the product related data, information and knowledge in a structured way. CRC cards are index cards (or computerized versions of these) which are used to record proposed classes, the behavior......This paper describes the CRC (class, responsibility, collaboration) modelling process for building product models. A product model is normally represented in an IT system which contains data, information and knowledge on industrial products and their life cycle properties e.g. manufacturing...... of the classes, their responsibilities, and their relationship to other classes (collaboration). CRC modelling gives an effective, low-tech method for domain-experts, programmers and users to work closely together to identify, structure, understand and document a product model. CRC cards were originally...

  2. Profiles of circulating inflammatory cytokines in colorectal cancer (CRC), high cancer risk conditions, and health are distinct. Possible implications for CRC screening and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystek-Korpacka, Malgorzata; Diakowska, Dorota; Kapturkiewicz, Bartosz; Bębenek, Marek; Gamian, Andrzej

    2013-08-28

    Alternate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and surveillance strategies are needed to pre-select candidates for invasive methods. We compared systemic inflammatory profiles in CRC (n=99), health (n=98), high CRC-risk conditions (n=48) and overt inflammation (n=69) by multiplexed analysis of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, FGF-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α, TNF-α, VEGF-A, and PDGF-B and CEA. Cytokines corresponded with CRC advancement. FGF2, GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-6, MIP-1α, PDGF-BB, TNF-α, and VEGF-A were higher than in controls already in stage I CRC with FGF2, IL1-β, and MIP-1α higher than in high CRC-risk individuals as well. Cytokine panels devised to differentiate early CRC from controls, adenomas, or inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD) had good accuracy but only IBD panel had promising specificity at 95% sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do recent epidemiologic observations impact who and how we should screen for CRC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortniker, Ethan; Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is recommended to begin at age 50 for those patients with no significant family history of CRC. However, even within this group of average-risk patients, there is data to suggest that there may be variation in CRC risk. These observations suggest that perhaps CRC screening should be tailored to target those patients at higher risk for earlier or more invasive screening as compared to those individuals at lower risk. The strategy of how to identify those higher-risk patients may not be straightforward. One method might be to use single risk factors such as smoking or elevated BMI as has been suggested in the recent American College of Gastroenterology CRC screening guidelines. Another paradigm involves the use of models which incorporate several risk factors to stratify patients by risk. This article will highlight recent large studies that examine recognized CRC risk factors as well as review recently developed CRC risk models. There will also be a discussion of the application of these factors and models in an effort to make CRC screening more efficient.

  4. Potential role of TRIM3 as a novel tumour suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Mei-Yu; Cao, Hai-Long; He, Na-Na; Xu, Meng-Que; Dong, Wen-Xiao; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Bang-Mao; Zhou, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Recent cancer genome-sequencing efforts and complementary functional studies have led to the identification of a collection of candidate 'driver' genes involved in CRC tumorigenesis. Tripartite motif (TRIM3) is recently identified as a tumour suppressor in glioblastoma but this tumour-suppressive function has not been investigated in CRC. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TRIM3 as a tumour suppressor in CRC development by manipulating the expression of TRIM3 in two authentic CRC cell lines, HCT116 and DLD1, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, colony formation, scratch wound healing, soft agar, and invasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour-suppressive properties of TRIM3. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated knockdown of TRIM3 conferred growth advantage in CRC cells. In contrast, overexpression of TRIM3 affected cell survival, cell migration, anchorage independent growth and invasive potential in CRC cells. In addition, TRIM3 was found to be down-regulated in human colon cancer tissues compared with matched normal colon tissues. Overexpression of TRIM3 significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that TRIM3 can regulate p53 protein level through its stabilisation. TRIM3 functions as a tumour suppressor in CRC progression. This tumour-suppressive function is exerted partially through regulation of p53 protein. Therefore, this protein may represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of CRC.

  5. The Crc/CrcZ-CrcY global regulatory system helps the integration of gluconeogenic and glycolytic metabolism in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; Nogales, Juan; Rojo, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    In metabolically versatile bacteria, carbon catabolite repression (CCR) facilitates the preferential assimilation of the most efficient carbon sources, improving growth rates and fitness. In Pseudomonas putida, the Crc and Hfq proteins and the CrcZ and CrcY small RNAs, which are believed to antagonize Crc/Hfq, are key players in CCR. Unlike that seen in other bacterial species, succinate and glucose elicit weak CCR in this bacterium. In the present work, metabolic, transcriptomic and constraint-based metabolic flux analyses were combined to clarify whether P. putida prefers succinate or glucose, and to identify the role of the Crc protein in the metabolism of these compounds. When provided simultaneously, succinate was consumed faster than glucose, although both compounds were metabolized. CrcZ and CrcY levels were lower when both substrates were present than when only one was provided, suggesting a role for Crc in coordinating metabolism of these compounds. Flux distribution analysis suggested that, when both substrates are present, Crc works to organize a metabolism in which carbon compounds flow in opposite directions: from glucose to pyruvate, and from succinate to pyruvate. Thus, our results support that Crc not only favours the assimilation of preferred compounds, but balances carbon fluxes, optimizing metabolism and growth. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Assessment of Jordanian Patient's Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Preferences towards CRC Screening: Are Jordanians Ready to Embrace CRC Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Suha; Barakat, Husam; Muliira, Joshua Kanaabi; Bashaireh, Ibrahim; Batiha, Abdul-Moni'm

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC is increasingly becoming a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in Jordan. However the population's level of awareness about CRC, CRC screening test preferences and willingness to embrace screening are not known. The aim of this study was to assess the level of CRC awareness and screening preferences among Jordanian patients. A survey assessing the CRC knowledge levels was distributed among patients attending outpatient gastroenterology clinics in public hospitals throughout Jordan. A total of 800 surveys were distributed and of these 713 (89.1%) were returned. Only 22% of the participants correctly judged CRC among the choices provided as the commonest cause of cancer related deaths. The majority of participants (68.3%) underestimated their risk for CRC. Only 26.8% correctly judged their life time risk while 5% overestimated their risk. Two thirds of participants (66%) were willing to pay 500 Jordanian Dinars (equivalent to 706 US$) in order to get a prompt colonoscopy if recommended by their physician, while 25.5% reported that they would rather wait for 6 months in order to get a free colonoscopy. Although the participants tended to underestimate their risk for CRC, they were mostly aware of CRC as a major cause of mortality and were willing to embrace the concept of CRC screening and bear the related financial costs. These findings about CRC awareness and propensity for screening provide a good foundation as the Jordanian health system moves forward with initiatives to promote CRC screening and prevention.

  7. Structure analysis of the global metabolic regulator Crc from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Zhang, Heng; Gao, Zeng-Qiang; Xu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Quan-Sheng; Dong, Yu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The global metabolic regulator catabolite repression control (Crc) has recently been found to modulate the susceptibility to antibiotics and virulence in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and been suggested as a nonlethal target for novel antimicrobials. In P. aeruginosa, Crc couples with the CA motifs from the small RNA CrcZ to form a post-transcriptional regulator system and is removed from the 5'-end of the target mRNAs. In this study, we first reported the crystal structure of Crc from P. aeruginosa refined to 2.20 Å. The structure showed that it consists of two halves with similar overall topology and there are 11 β strands surrounded by 13 helices, forming a four-layered α/β-sandwich. The circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that it is thermostable in solution and shares similar characteristics to that in crystal. Comprehensive structural analysis and comparison with the homologies of Crc showed high similarity with several known nucleases and consequently may be classified into a member exodeoxyribonuclease III. However, it shows distinct substrate specificity (RNA as the preferred substrate) compared to these DNA endonucleases. Structural comparisons also revealed potential RNA recognition and binding region mainly consisting of five flexible loops. Our structure study provided the basis for the future application of Crc as a target to develop new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Is Influenced by the Catabolite Repression Control Protein Crc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Suma; Butcher, Bronwyn G; Liu, Yingyu; D'Amico, Katherine; Coster, Matthew; Filiatrault, Melanie J

    2017-04-01

    Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse plant species and is widely used as a model system in the study of effector function and the molecular basis of plant diseases. Although the relationship between bacterial metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and virulence has attracted increasing attention in bacterial pathology, it is largely unexplored in P. syringae. The Crc (catabolite repression control) protein is a putative RNA-binding protein that regulates carbon metabolism as well as a number of other factors in the pseudomonads. Here, we show that deletion of crc increased bacterial swarming motility and biofilm formation. The crc mutant showed reduced growth and symptoms in Arabidopsis and tomato when compared with the wild-type strain. We have evidence that the crc mutant shows delayed hypersensitive response (HR) when infiltrated into Nicotiana benthamiana and tobacco. Interestingly, the crc mutant was more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that, in planta, the mutant may be sensitive to reactive oxygen species generated during pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Indeed, HR was further delayed when PTI-induced tissues were challenged with the crc mutant. The crc mutant did not elicit an altered PTI response in plants compared with the wild-type strain. We conclude that Crc plays an important role in growth and survival during infection.

  9. More comprehensive discussion of CRC screening associated with higher screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosen, David M; Feldstein, Adrianne C; Perrin, Nancy A; Rosales, A Gabriella; Smith, David H; Liles, Elizabeth G; Schneider, Jennifer L; Meyers, Ronald E; Elston-Lafata, Jennifer

    2013-04-01

    Examine association of comprehensiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening discussion by primary care physicians (PCPs) with completion of CRC screening. Observational study in Kaiser Permanente Northwest, a group-model health maintenance organization. A total of 883 participants overdue for CRC screening received an automated telephone call (ATC) between April and June 2009 encouraging CRC screening. Between January and March 2010, participants completed a survey on PCPs' discussion of CRC screening and patient beliefs regarding screening. receipt of CRC screening (assessed by electronic medical record [EMR], 9 months after ATC). Primary independent variable: comprehensiveness of CRC screening discussion by PCPs (7-item scale). Secondary independent variables: perceived benefits of screening (4-item scale assessing respondents' agreement with benefits of timely screening) and primary care utilization (EMR; 9 months after ATC). The independent association of variables with CRC screening was assessed with logistic regression. Average scores for comprehensiveness of CRC discussion and perceived benefits were 0.4 (range 0-1) and 4.0 (range 1-5), respectively. A total of 28.2% (n = 249) completed screening, 84% of whom had survey assessments after their screening date. Of screeners, 95.2% completed the fecal immunochemical test. More comprehensive discussion of CRC screening was associated with increased screening (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-2.21). Higher perceived benefits (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.13-1.90) and 1 or more PCP visits (OR = 5.82, 95% CI = 3.87-8.74) were also associated with increased screening. More comprehensive discussion of CRC screening was independently associated with increased CRC screening. Primary care utilization was even more strongly associated with CRC screening, irrespective of discussion of CRC screening.

  10. The Impact of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in Mississippi, and the need for Mississippi to Eliminate its CRC Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhé, Roy J

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), while highly preventable and highly treatable, is a major public health problem in Mississippi. This article reviews solutions to this problem, beginning with the relationship between modifiable behavioral risk factors and CRC incidence. It then describes the impact of CRC screening on national downward trends in CRC incidence and mortality and summarizes recent data on the burden of CRC in Mississippi. While other states have created Comprehensive Colorectal Cancer Control Programs in an organized effort to manage this public health problem, Mississippi has not. Responding to Mississippi's situation, the 70x2020 Colorectal Cancer Screening Initiative arose as an unconventional approach to increase CRC screening rates throughout the state. This article concludes by considering the current limits of CRC treatment success and proposes that improved clinical outcomes should result from research to translate recently-identified colorectal cancer subtype information into novel clinical paradigms for the treatment of early-stage colorectal cancer.

  11. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Salinomycin on Cell Survival, Colony Growth, Migration, and Invasion of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 and LNM35: Involvement of NAG-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Arafat

    Full Text Available A major challenge for oncologists and pharmacologists is to develop more potent and less toxic drugs that will decrease the tumor growth and improve the survival of lung cancer patients. Salinomycin is a polyether antibiotic used to kill gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria, protozoans such as plasmodium falciparum, and the parasites responsible for the poultry disease coccidiosis. This old agent is now a serious anti-cancer drug candidate that selectively inhibits the growth of cancer stem cells. We investigated the impact of salinomycin on survival, colony growth, migration and invasion of the differentiated human non-small cell lung cancer lines LNM35 and A549. Salinomycin caused concentration- and time-dependent reduction in viability of LNM35 and A549 cells through a caspase 3/7-associated cell death pathway. Similarly, salinomycin (2.5-5 µM for 7 days significantly decreased the growth of LNM35 and A549 colonies in soft agar. Metastasis is the main cause of death related to lung cancer. In this context, salinomycin induced a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration and invasion. We also demonstrated for the first time that salinomycin induced a marked increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein NAG-1 leading to the inhibition of lung cancer cell invasion but not cell survival. These findings identify salinomycin as a promising novel therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  13. Influence of the Crc regulator on the hierarchical use of carbon sources from a complete medium in Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; Behrends, Volker; Williams, Huw D; Bundy, Jacob G; Rojo, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    The Crc protein, together with the Hfq protein, participates in catabolite repression in pseudomonads, helping to coordinate metabolism. Little is known about how Crc affects the hierarchy of metabolite assimilation from complex mixtures. Using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we carried out comprehensive metabolite profiling of culture supernatants (metabolic footprinting) over the course of growth of both Pseudomonas putida and P. aeruginosa, and compared the wild-type strains with deletion mutants for crc. A complex metabolite consumption hierarchy was observed, which was broadly similar between the two species, although with some important differences, for example in sugar utilization. The order of metabolite utilization changed upon inactivation of the crc gene, but even in the Crc-null strains some compounds were completely consumed before late metabolites were taken up. This suggests the presence of additional regulatory elements that determine the time and order of consumption of compounds. Unexpectedly, the loss of Crc led both species to excrete acetate and pyruvate as a result of unbalanced growth during exponential phase, compounds that were later consumed in stationary phase. This loss of carbon during growth helps to explain the contribution of the Crc/Hfq regulatory system to evolutionary fitness of pseudomonads. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Status of the Olympus experiment at CRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David V.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the Olympus Propagation Experiment of the Communications Research Centre in Ottawa, Canada, is briefly summarized. Path attenuation measurements at multiple frequencies correlated with concurrent dual polarized radar data provide a unique method to investigate propagation effects. An experiment of this type is being implemented by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) on the grounds of the National Research Council of Canada in Ottawa. Beacon receivers monitor signals from the Olympus satellite at 12.5, 19.77, and 29.66 GHz at a path elevation angle of 14.2 deg. Sky noise radiometers operating near the same frequencies and pointed along the same path provide additional propagation information. A colocated dual-polarized 9.6-GHz radar probes the precipitation state on the path, permitting identification of precipitation regimes that cause the observed impairments. The Olympus experiment configuration is displayed pictorially. Information on path propagation phenomena can be deduced by correlating the radar, beacon, and sky noise data. Melting layer effects and propagation losses for higher time percentages are prime interests. Data collected by Diversitel Communications during equipment verification tests are presented.

  15. A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical deduction. The recursive formula is applicable to any number of bits processed in parallel and any series of generator polynomial. According to the formula, we present the parallel circuit of CRC calculation and implement it with VHDL on FPGA. The results verify the accuracy and effectiveness of this method.

  16. High Rab27A expression indicates favorable prognosis in CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chuanbing; Yang, Xiaojun; Ni, Yijiang; Hou, Ning; Xu, Li; Zhan, Feng; Zhu, Huijun; Xiong, Lin; Chen, Pingsheng

    2015-06-13

    Rab27A is a peculiar member in Rab family and has been suggested to play essential roles in the development of human cancers. However, the association between Rab27A expression and clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been elucidated yet. One-step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test with 18 fresh-frozen CRC samples and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis in 112 CRC cases were executed to evaluate the relationship between Rab27A expression and the clinicopathological features of CRC. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for 112 CRC patients. The results specified that the expression levels of Rab27A mRNA and protein were significantly higher in CRC tissues than that in matched non-cancerous tissues, in both qPCR test (p = 0.029) and IHC analysis (p = 0.020). The IHC data indicated that the Rab27A protein expression in CRC was statistically correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.022) and TNM stage (p = 0.026). Cox multi-factor analysis and Kaplan-Meier method suggested Rab27A protein expression (p = 0.012) and tumor differentiation (p = 0.004) were significantly associated with the overall survival of CRC patients. The data indicated the differentiate expression of Rab27A in CRC tissues and matched non-cancerous tissues. Rab27A may be used as a valuable prognostic biomarker for CRC patients.

  17. System applications CRC -Biomass + Coal; Aplicaciones Sistema CRC-Biomasa+Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Main object of Phase I of the project is to analyse the technical-economic feasibility of the combined use of biomass and coal for power generation in the Spanish region of Andalusia, by means of new medium-size independent power plants or using biomass as supplementary fuel in existing large coal power plants, including: -Analysis and classification of biomass and coal resources in the region -Technical-economic study of conventional alternatives using the steam cycle -Analysis of efficiency improvement provided by advanced Rankine-cycle technologies, like the SMR cycle -Analysis of alternatives based on parallel combined cycles using gas turbines, including advanced solutions, like the EAPI and CRC-EAPI systems. -Description and evaluation of different biomass drying systems. -Description and evaluation of the three main biomass gasification systems currently under development: atmospheric direct, atmospheric indirect and pressurized. Main objects of Phase II of the project are to analyse a specific application of the EAPI system to a real cogeneration plant project and to analyse the application of the CRC2 system to a commercial supercritical power plant, including technical-economic study of both applications. (Author)

  18. Observations on Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 3041 September 2016 Observations on Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding David Wasserman Approved for public release. SSC...described in [2, 3]. In FY15 and FY16 we used cyclic redundancy check (CRC)-aided polar list decoding [4]. Section 2 describes the basics of polar coding ...and gives details of the encoders and decoders we used. In the course of our research, we performed simulations of polar codes in hundreds of cases

  19. Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 2087 August 2015 Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding David Wasserman Approved...list decoding . RESULTS Our simulation results show that polar coding can produce results very similar to the FEC used in the Digital Video...standard. RECOMMENDATIONS In any application for which the DVB-S2 FEC is considered, polar coding with CRC-aided list decod - ing with N = 65536

  20. Diagnostic value of fecal tumor M2-pyruvate kinase for CRC screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Liu, Jianjun; Xue, Huiping; Huang, Gang

    2012-10-15

    The measurement of fecal tumor M2-pyruvate kinase (PKM2), overexpressed in tumor cells, has been proposed as a novel tool for detecting colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the sensitivity and specificity of this test varied among studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of fecal PKM2 for CRC and to evaluate its utility in the CRC screening. It was compared to guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or immunological fecal occult blood test (iFOBT). Through comprehensive literature search, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Summary estimates for sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using the bivariate random effect model. The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve was also undertaken. The overall sensitivity and specificity of fecal PKM2 for detecting CRC were 79% (95% CI = 75-83%) and 81% (95% CI = 73-87%), respectively. The summary positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 74% (95% CI = 56-87%) and 86% (95% CI = 79-91%), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 16 (95% CI = 10-26). In head-to-head comparison, the diagnostic odds ratio of PKM2 and gFOBT for CRC were 10.167 (95% CI = 5.992-17.250) and 6.557 (95% CI = 3.467-12.403), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio of PKM2 and iFOBT for CRC were 9.542 (95% CI = 5.893-15.452) and 67.248 (95% CI = 16.194-279.26), respectively. The fecal PKM2 test was a diagnostic tool with moderate sensitivity and specificity for detecting CRC. Its diagnostic efficiency was similar to that of gFOBT. Because of its relatively low specificity and positive predict value, fecal PKM2 was not recommended used alone as a screening tool for CRC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  1. Mucin Expression in Colorectal Cancer (CRC): Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niv, Yaron; Rokkas, Theodore

    2018-05-18

    A body of evidence has suggested that mucins play an important role in adhesion, invasion, and cancer metastasis. However, this evidence is scarce and sometimes confusing. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available studies to better define the role of mucins in the behavior of colorectal cancer (CRC). Medical literature was searched through November 30, 2017, using suitable keywords. Pooled estimates, that is, odd ratios (ORs), were obtained using fixed or random-effects models, as appropriate. Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated with the Cochran Q test and I values, whereas the likelihood of publication bias was assessed by constructing funnel plots. Their symmetry was estimated by the Begg and Mazumdar adjusted rank correlation test and by the Egger regression test. A total of 2234 CRC patients were included in 12 studies, eligible for meta-analysis. There was a significant difference concerning total mucin expression between CRC patients and controls [pooled ORs (95% confidence interval)=8.156 (2.624-25.354), test for overall effect Z=3.627, PCRC, that is advanced stage versus localized disease [ORs (95% confidence interval)=2.724 (1.211-6.127), Z= 2.423, P=0.015], as opposed to MUC2 and MUC4. MUC1 is overexpressed in CRC tissue comparing with healthy mucosa, and may have a role in the neoplastic transformation and metastatic process. MUC2 has probably no role in carcinogenesis.

  2. Increased risk for CRC in diabetic patients with the nonrisk allele of SNPs at 8q24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Shinya; Mimori, Koshi; Yamamoto, Ken; Inoue, Hiroshi; Imoto, Seiya; Kawano, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Rui; Sato, Tetsuya; Toh, Hiroyuki; Iinuma, Hisae; Maeda, Toyoki; Ishii, Hideshi; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Watanabe, Masahiko; Tanaka, Jun-ichi; Kudo, Shin-ei; Sugihara, Ken-ichi; Hase, Kazuo; Mochizuki, Hidetaka; Kusunoki, Masato; Yamada, Kazutaka; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Moriya, Yoshihiro; Barnard, Graham F; Miyano, Satoru; Mori, Masaki

    2012-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) oncogenesis was considered to be determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Specific interacting factors that influence CRC morbidity have yet to be fully investigated. A multi-institutional collaborative study with 1511 CRC patients and 2098 control subjects was used to compare the odds ratios for the occurrence of polymorphisms at 11 known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). TaqMan PCR and questionnaires were used to evaluate the effects of environmental exposures. Variants of rs6983267 on 8q24 were the most significant markers of risk for CRC (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.27, P = 0.0015). Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM), a higher body mass index at age 20, and meat consumption were environmental risk factors, whereas a tuna-rich diet and vitamin intake were protective factors. The cohort of rs6983267 SNP major (T) allele at 8q24 and DM had a 1.66-fold higher risk ratio than the cohort of major allele patients without DM. We confirmed that interactions between the genetic background and environmental factors are associated with increased risk for CRC. There is a robust risk of the minor G allele at the 8q24 rs6983267 SNP; however, a major T allele SNP could more clearly reveal a correlation with CRC specifically when DM is present.

  3. Effect of Crc and Hfq proteins on the transcription, processing, and stability of the Pseudomonas putida CrcZ sRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arranz, Sofía; Sánchez-Hevia, Dione; Rojo, Fernando; Moreno, Renata

    2016-12-01

    In Pseudomonas putida, the Hfq and Crc proteins regulate the expression of many genes in response to nutritional and environmental cues, by binding to mRNAs that bear specific target motifs and inhibiting their translation. The effect of these two proteins is antagonized by the CrcZ and CrcY small RNAs (sRNAs), the levels of which vary greatly according to growth conditions. The crcZ and crcY genes are transcribed from promoters PcrcZ and PcrcY, respectively, a process that relies on the CbrB transcriptional activator and the RpoN σ factor. Here we show that crcZ can also be transcribed from the promoter of the immediate upstream gene, cbrB, a weak constitutive promoter. The cbrB-crcZ transcript was processed to render a sRNA very similar in size to the CrcZ produced from promoter PcrcZ The processed sRNA, termed CrcZ*, was able to antagonize Hfq/Crc because, when provided in trans, it relieved the deregulated Hfq/Crc-dependent hyperrepressing phenotype of a ΔcrcZΔcrcY strain. CrcZ* may help in attaining basal levels of CrcZ/CrcZ* that are sufficient to protect the cell from an excessive Hfq/Crc-dependent repression. Since a functional sRNA can be produced from PcrcZ, an inducible strong promoter, or by cleavage of the cbrB-crcZ mRNA, crcZ can be considered a 3'-untranslated region of the cbrB-crcZ mRNA. In the absence of Hfq, the processed form of CrcZ was not observed. In addition, we show that Crc and Hfq increase CrcZ stability, which supports the idea that these proteins can form a complex with CrcZ and protect it from degradation by RNases. © 2016 Hernández-Arranz et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  4. Expression of the MAP kinase phosphatase DUSP4 is associated with microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer (CRC) and causes increased cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröschl, Benedikt; Bettstetter, Marcus; Giedl, Christian; Woenckhaus, Matthias; Edmonston, Tina; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Dietmaier, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    DUSP4 (MKP-2), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP) family and potential tumor suppressor, negatively regulates the MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) ERK, p38 and JNK. MAPKs play a crucial role in cancer development and progression. Previously, using microarray analyses we found a conspicuously frequent overexpression of DUSP4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) with high frequent microsatellite instability (MSI-H) compared to microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC. Here we studied DUSP4 expression on mRNA level in 38 CRC (19 MSI-H and 19 MSS) compared to matched normal tissue as well as in CRC cell lines by RT-qPCR. DUSP4 was overexpressed in all 19 MSI-H tumors and in 14 MSS tumors. Median expression levels in MSI-H tumors were significantly higher than in MSS-tumors (p CRC cell lines showed 6.8-fold higher DUSP4 mRNA levels than MSS cell lines. DUSP4 expression was not regulated by promoter methylation since no methylation was found by quantitative methylation analysis of DUSP4 promoter in CRC cell lines neither in tumor samples. Furthermore, no DUSP4 mutation was found on genomic DNA level in four CRC cell lines. DUSP4 overexpression in CRC cell lines through DUSP4 transfection caused upregulated expression of MAPK targets CDC25A, CCND1, EGR1, FOS, MYC and CDKN1A in HCT116 as well as downregulation of mismatch repair gene MSH2 in SW480. Furthermore, DUSP4 overexpression led to increased proliferation in CRC cell lines. Our findings suggest that DUSP4 acts as an important regulator of cell growth within the MAPK pathway and causes enhanced cell growth in MSI-H CRC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  5. Colorectal cancer diagnosis in 2012: A new focus for CRC prevention--more serration, less inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    East, James E.; Dekker, Evelien

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of colorectal cancer (CRC) risks has been rebalanced in 2012. The 'serrated pathway' to CRC, exemplified by serrated polyposis syndrome, emphasizes the importance of serrated lesions. The dogma that patients with IBD are at high risk of CRC, however, might be overstated; optimizing CRC

  6. NR2F2 inhibits Smad7 expression and promotes TGF-β-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CRC via transactivation of miR-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Nie, Lei; Wu, Lei; Liu, Qiufang; Guo, Xueyan

    2017-03-25

    Metastasis is one of the most decisive factors influencing CRC patient prognosis and current studies suggest that a molecular mechanism known as EMT broadly regulates cancer metastasis. NR2F2 is a key molecule in the development of CRC, but the roles and underlying mechanisms of NR2F2 in TGF-β induced EMT in CRC remain largely unknown. In the current study, we were interested to examine the role of NR2F2 in the TGF-β-induced EMT in CRC. Here, we found NR2F2 was upregulated in CRC cells and promotes TGF-β-induced EMT in CRC. Using comparative miRNA profiling TGF-β pre-treated CRC cells in which NR2F2 had been knocked down with that of control cells, we identified miR-21 as a commonly downregulated miRNA in HT29 cells treated with TGF-β and NR2F2 siRNA, and its downregulation inhibiting migration and invasion of CRC cells. Moreover, we found NR2F2 could transcriptional activated miR-21 expression by binding to miR-21 promoter in HT29 by ChIP and luciferase assay. In the last, our data demonstrated that Smad7 was the direct target of miR-21 in CRC cells. Thus, NR2F2 could promote TGF-β-induced EMT and inhibit Smad7 expression via transactivation of miR-21, and NR2F2 may be a new common therapeutic target for CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening: Collaboration between a Primary Care Clinic and Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beverly B; Fuller, Sharon; Anderson, Melissa L; Mahoney, Christine; Mendy, Peter; Powell, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Multiple randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that mailed fecal testing programs are effective in increasing colorectal cancer screening participation. However, few healthcare organization in the US have Implemented such programs. Stakeholders from one clinic in an integrated healthcare system in Washington State initiated collaboration with researchers with expertise in CRC screening, aiming to increase screening rates at their clinic. Age-eligible individuals who were overdue for CRC screening and had previously completed a fecal test were randomized to receive mailed fecal immunochemical test kits (FIT) at the start of the project (Early) or 6 months later (Late). Outcomes included comparing FIT completion at 6 months by randomization group, and overall CRC screening rates at 12 months. We also assessed implementation facilitators and challenges. Overall 2,421 FIT tests were mailed at a cost of $10,739. At 6 months, FIT completion was significantly higher among the Early compared to the Late group (62% vs.47%, p CRC screening rate was 75.1% at baseline and 78.0% 12 months later. Key constructs associated with successful program implementation included strong stakeholder involvement, use of evidence-based strategies, simplicity, and low cost. Challenges included lack of a plan for maintaining the program. Collaboration between clinic stakeholders and researchers led to a successful project that rapidly increased CRC screening rates. However, institutional normalization of the program would be required to maintain it.

  8. CRC Credential Attainment by State Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpster, Anna M.; Byers, Katherine L.; Harris, LaKeisha L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 137 state vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors' perceptions of the value of having the Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC) credential. While almost 53% of this sample included persons who were certified, the majority who were not indicated that the two major reasons for not currently having this designation were: (a)…

  9. Aberrant gene methylation in non-neoplastic mucosa as a predictive marker of ulcerative colitis-associated CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Marco; Scarpa, Melania; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Erroi, Francesca; Kotsafti, Andromachi; Basato, Silvia; Brun, Paola; D'Incà, Renata; Rugge, Massimo; Angriman, Imerio; Castoro, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND PROMOTER: hypermethylation plays a major role in cancer through transcriptional silencing of critical genes. The aim of our study is to evaluate the methylation status of these genes in the colonic mucosa without dysplasia or adenocarcinoma at the different steps of sporadic and UC-related carcinogenesis and to investigate the possible role of genomic methylation as a marker of CRC. The expression of Dnmts 1 and 3A was significantly increased in UC-related carcinogenesis compared to non inflammatory colorectal carcinogenesis. In non-neoplastic colonic mucosa, the number of methylated genes resulted significantly higher in patients with CRC and in those with UC-related CRC compared to the HC and UC patients and patients with dysplastic lesion of the colon. The number of methylated genes in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa predicted the presence of CRC with good accuracy either in non inflammatory and inflammatory related CRC. Colonic mucosal samples were collected from healthy subjects (HC) (n = 30) and from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 29), UC and dysplasia (n = 14), UC and cancer (n = 10), dysplastic adenoma (n = 14), and colon adenocarcinoma (n = 10). DNA methyltransferases-1, -3a, -3b, mRNA expression were quantified by real time qRT-PCR. The methylation status of CDH13, APC, MLH1, MGMT1 and RUNX3 gene promoters was assessed by methylation-specific PCR. Methylation status of APC, CDH13, MGMT, MLH1 and RUNX3 in the non-neoplastic mucosa may be used as a marker of CRC: these preliminary results could allow for the adjustment of a patient's surveillance interval and to select UC patients who should undergo intensive surveillance.

  10. MicroRNA-466 (miR-466) functions as a tumor suppressor and prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Feng; Ying, Youhua; Pan, Haihua; Zhao, Wei; Li, Hongchen; Zhan, Xiaoli

    2018-01-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have an important role in the regulation of tumor development and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the clinical and prognostic value as well as biological function of miR-466 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumor and adjacent healthy tissues were obtained from 100 patients diagnosed with CRC. miR-466 expression was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). mRNA and protein levels of cyclin D1, apoptosis regulator BAX (BAX), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, in SW-620 CRC cells transfected with miR-466 mimics or negative control miRNA. Effects of miR-466 on SW-620 cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis, and invasion were investigated using CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and Transwell assay, respectively. miR-466 expression was significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared to matched adjacent non-tumor tissues. Low expression of miR-466 was significantly correlated with the tumor size, Tumor Node Metastasis stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis. The overall survival of CRC patients with low miR-466 expression was significantly shorter compared to high-miR-466 expression group (log-rank test: p = 0.0103). Multivariate analysis revealed that low miR-466 expression was associated with poor prognosis in CRC patients. The ectopic expression of miR-466 suppressed cell proliferation and migration/invasion, as well as induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in SW-620 cells. Moreover, the ectopic expression of miR-466 decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and MMP-2, but increased BAX expression in SW-620 cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that miR-466 functions as a suppressor miRNA in CRC and may be used as a prognostic factor in these patients.

  11. Family history assessment for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk analysis - comparison of diagram- and questionnaire-based web interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Seo, Steven Bohwan; Holt, Alec; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2015-11-18

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high incidence, especially in New Zealand. The reasons for this are unknown. While most cancers develop sporadically, a positive family history, determined by the number and age at diagnosis of affected first and second degree relatives with CRC is one of the major factors, which may increase an individual's lifetime risk. Before a patient can be enrolled in a surveillance program a detailed assessment and documentation of the family history is important but time consuming and often inaccurate. The documentation is usually paper-based. Our aim was therefore to develop and validate the usability and efficacy of a web-based family history assessment tool for CRC suitable for the general population. The tool was also to calculate the risk and make a recommendation for surveillance. Two versions of an electronic assessment tool, diagram-based and questionnaire-based, were developed with the risk analysis and recommendations for surveillance based on the New Zealand Guidelines Group recommendations. Accuracy of our tool was tested prior to the study by comparing risk calculations based on family history by experienced gastroenterologists with the electronic assessment. The general public, visiting a local science fair were asked to use and comment on the usability of the two interfaces. Ninety people assessed and commented on the two interfaces. Both interfaces were effective in assessing the risk to develop CRC through their familial history for CRC. However, the questionnaire-based interface performed with significantly better satisfaction (p = 0.001) than the diagram-based interface. There was no difference in efficacy though. We conclude that a web-based questionnaire tool can assist in the accurate documentation and analysis of the family history relevant to determine the individual risk of CRC based on local guidelines. The calculator is now implemented and assessable through the web-page of a local charity for colorectal cancer

  12. 29 CFR 37.84 - What happens if CRC does not have jurisdiction over a complaint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What happens if CRC does not have jurisdiction over a complaint? 37.84 Section 37.84 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE... Procedures § 37.84 What happens if CRC does not have jurisdiction over a complaint? If CRC does not have...

  13. 12 CFR 617.7310 - What is the review process of the CRC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the review process of the CRC? 617.7310... on Applications; Review of Credit Decisions § 617.7310 What is the review process of the CRC? (a) How will an applicant or borrower know when the CRC will consider the review request? The qualified lender...

  14. 29 CFR 37.38 - What information must grant applicants and recipients provide to CRC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide to CRC? 37.38 Section 37.38 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE... information must grant applicants and recipients provide to CRC? In addition to the information which must be collected, maintained, and, upon request, submitted to CRC under § 37.37: (a) Each grant applicant and...

  15. 29 CFR 37.88 - Who may contact CRC about a complaint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Who may contact CRC about a complaint? 37.88 Section 37.88... PROVISIONS OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT OF 1998 (WIA) Compliance Procedures § 37.88 Who may contact CRC... contact CRC for information about the complaint. The Director will determine what information, if any...

  16. The "Interval Walking in Colorectal Cancer" (I-WALK-CRC) study: Design, methods and recruitment results of a randomized controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banck-Petersen, Anna; Olsen, Cecilie K; Djurhuus, Sissal S; Herrstedt, Anita; Thorsen-Streit, Sarah; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Østerlind, Kell; Osterkamp, Jens; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Vistisen, Kirsten; Mosgaard, Camilla S; Pedersen, Bente K; Højman, Pernille; Christensen, Jesper F

    2018-03-01

    Low physical activity level is associated with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). To increase physical activity, technology-based platforms are emerging and provide intriguing opportunities to prescribe and monitor active lifestyle interventions. The "Interval Walking in Colorectal Cancer"(I-WALK-CRC) study explores the feasibility and efficacy a home-based interval-walking intervention delivered by a smart-phone application in order to improve cardio-metabolic health profile among CRC survivors. The aim of the present report is to describe the design, methods and recruitment results of the I-WALK-CRC study.Methods/Results: The I-WALK-CRC study is a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a home-based interval walking intervention compared to a waiting-list control group for physiological and patient-reported outcomes. Patients who had completed surgery for local stage disease and patients who had completed surgery and any adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced stage disease were eligible for inclusion. Between October 1st , 2015, and February 1st , 2017, 136 inquiries were recorded; 83 patients were eligible for enrollment, and 42 patients accepted participation. Age and employment status were associated with participation, as participants were significantly younger (60.5 vs 70.8 years, P CRC survivors was feasible but we aim to better the recruitment rate in future studies. Further, the study clearly favored younger participants. The I-WALK-CRC study will provide important information regarding feasibility and efficacy of a home-based walking exercise program in CRC survivors.

  17. miR-133b down-regulates ABCC1 and enhances the sensitivity of CRC to anti-tumor drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Li, Daojiang; Gong, Ni; Wu, Hao; Su, Chen; Xie, Canbin; Xiang, Hong; Lin, Changwei; Li, Xiaorong

    2017-08-08

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main cause of failed chemotherapy treatments. Therefore, preventing MDR is pivotal in treating colorectal cancer (CRC). In a previous study miR-133b was shown to be a tumor suppressor. Additionally, in CRC cells transfected with miR-133b, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily C member 1(ABCC1) was shown to be significantly down regulated. Whether miR-133b also enhances the chemosensitivity of drugs used to treat CRC by targeting ABCC1 is still unclear. Here, we utilized flow cytometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to identify the ability of miR-133b to reserve MDR in CRC. We then used a dual-luciferase reporter assay to validate that miR-133b targets ABCC1. Further in vivo experiments were designed to validate the method in which miR-133b reversed MDR in CRC cells. The results demonstrated that the level of miR-133b was down-regulated and the expression of ABCC1 was up-regulated in drug-resistant CRC cells compared to non-drug-resistant CRC cells. The restoration of miR-133b expression in CRC drug-resistant cells in vitro resulted in reduced IC50s to chemotherapeutic drugs, significantly induced G1 accumulation, inhibited growth and promoted necrosis in combination with either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or vincristine (VCR), and decreased the expression of ABCC1. The dual-luciferase assay demonstrated that miR-133b directly targets ABCC1. The combination of agomiRNA-133b with chemotherapeutic drugs in vivo inhibited tumor growth induced by CRC drug-resistant cells. A xenograft from the in vivo model resulted in up-regulated levels of miR-133b and down-regulated levels of ABCC1. Therefore, miR-133b enhances the chemosensitivity of CRC cells to anti-tumor drugs by directly down-regulating ABCC1. This discovery provides a therapeutic strategy in which miR-133b is used as a potential sensitizer for drug-resistant CRC.

  18. CD133 expression is not selective for tumor initiating or radioresistant cell populations in the CRC line HCT-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Claudia; Dietrich, Antje; Wondrak, Marit; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.; Grade, Marian; Ried, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of certain subpopulations of cancer cells with stem-cell like characteristics that might be responsible for treatment resistance and recurrence of disease is still challenging and under quite controversial discussion. In most studies, surrogate cell surface antigens such as the 92-110 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein CD133 (human Prominin-1) were labeled to isolate particular small cancer cell populations for studying their tumorigenic potential. In colorectal carcinomas (CRC) for example, a small CD133 positive (CD133 + ) cell population has recently been described to be enriched for tumor-initiating/cancer stem cells (TIC/CSC) as compared to the CD133 negative (CD133) population. Furthermore, it was documented that the CD133 + subpopulation could exclusively be maintained in culture as spheres under serum-free conditions. Addition of serum resulted in cell differentiation, growth in 2-D and downregulation of CD133 expression. This would imply that established colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines that have been grown under adherent, serum-supplemented conditions for years should be devoid of CD133 + cells and TIC/CSC, respectively, which seems contradictory to the finding that many CRC lines produce tumors in nude mice models. In order to gain insight into this paradox, we studied the expression of CD133 in numerous established CRC lines under standard culture conditions and chose one particular cell line based on its expression pattern to study the behavior of CD133 + / CD133 - subpopulations

  19. Randomized controlled dissemination study of community-to-clinic navigation to promote CRC screening: Study design and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Linda; Szalacha, Laura; Herman, Patricia; Gonzalez, Julie; Menon, Usha

    2017-02-01

    Regular screening facilitates early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and reduction of CRC morbidity and mortality. Screening rates for minorities and low-income populations remain suboptimal. Provider referral for CRC screening is one of the strongest predictors of adherence, but referrals are unlikely among those who have no clinic home (common among poor and minority populations). This group randomized controlled study will test the effectiveness of an evidence based tailored messaging intervention in a community-to-clinic navigation context compared to no navigation. Multicultural, underinsured individuals from community sites will be randomized (by site) to receive CRC screening education only, or education plus navigation. In Phase I, those randomized to education plus navigation will be guided to make a clinic appointment to receive a provider referral for CRC screening. Patients attending clinic appointments will continue to receive navigation until screened (Phase II) regardless of initial arm assignment. We hypothesize that those receiving education plus navigation will be more likely to attend clinic appointments (H1) and show higher rates of screening (H2) compared to those receiving education only. Phase I group assignment will be used as a control variable in analysis of screening follow-through in Phase II. Costs per screening achieved will be evaluated for each condition and the RE-AIM framework will be used to examine dissemination results. The novelty of our study design is the translational dissemination model that will allow us to assess the real-world application of an efficacious intervention previously tested in a randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Performance Analysis of CRC Codes for Systematic and Nonsystematic Polar Codes with List Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Murata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Successive cancellation list (SCL decoding of polar codes is an effective approach that can significantly outperform the original successive cancellation (SC decoding, provided that proper cyclic redundancy-check (CRC codes are employed at the stage of candidate selection. Previous studies on CRC-assisted polar codes mostly focus on improvement of the decoding algorithms as well as their implementation, and little attention has been paid to the CRC code structure itself. For the CRC-concatenated polar codes with CRC code as their outer code, the use of longer CRC code leads to reduction of information rate, whereas the use of shorter CRC code may reduce the error detection probability, thus degrading the frame error rate (FER performance. Therefore, CRC codes of proper length should be employed in order to optimize the FER performance for a given signal-to-noise ratio (SNR per information bit. In this paper, we investigate the effect of CRC codes on the FER performance of polar codes with list decoding in terms of the CRC code length as well as its generator polynomials. Both the original nonsystematic and systematic polar codes are considered, and we also demonstrate that different behaviors of CRC codes should be observed depending on whether the inner polar code is systematic or not.

  1. Mining, Validation, and Clinical Significance of Colorectal Cancer (CRC)-Associated lncRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangwei; Hu, Yingying; Zhang, Liang; Hu, Changyuan; Guo, Gangqiang; Mao, Chenchen; Xu, Jianfeng; Ye, Sisi; Huang, Guanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Guo, Aizhen; Shen, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest tumours, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. The involvement of differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in CRC tumorigenesis makes them suitable tumour biomarkers. Here, we screened 150 cases of CRC and 85 cases of paracancerous tissues in the GEO database for differentially expressed lncRNAs. The levels of lncRNA candidates in 84 CRC and paracancerous tissue samples were validated by qRT-PCR and their clinical significance was analyzed. We identified 15 lncRNAs with differential expression in CRC tumours; among them, AK098081 was significantly up-regulated, whereas AK025209, BC040303, BC037331, AK026659, and CR749831 were down-regulated in CRC. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve for the six lncRNAs was 0.914. High expression of AK098081 and low expression of BC040303, CR749831, and BC037331 indicated poor CRC differentiation. CRC patients with lymph node metastasis had lower expression of BC037331. In addition, the group with high AK098081 expression presented significantly lower overall survival and disease-free survival rates than the low-expression group, confirming AK098081 as an independent risk factor for CRC patients. In conclusion, we have identified multiple CRC-associated lncRNAs from microarray expression profiles that can serve as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC.

  2. Pre-45s rRNA promotes colon cancer and is associated with poor survival of CRC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, H; Lam, K C; Dong, Y; Zhang, X; Lee, C K; Zhang, J; Ng, S C; Ng, S S M; Zheng, S; Chen, Y; Fang, J; Yu, J

    2017-11-02

    One characteristic of cancer cells is the abnormally high rate of cell metabolism to sustain their enhanced proliferation. However, the behind mechanism of this phenomenon is still elusive. Here we find that enhanced precursor 45s ribosomal RNA (pre-45s rRNA) is one of the core mechanisms in promoting the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Pre-45s rRNA expression is significantly higher in primary CRC tumor tissues samples and cancer cell lines compared with the non-tumorous colon tissues, and is associated with tumor sizes. Knockdown of pre-45s rRNA inhibits G1/S cell-cycle transition by stabilizing p53 through inducing murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and ribosomal protein L11 (RpL11) interaction. In addition, we revealed that high rate of cancer cell metabolism triggers the passive release of calcium ion from endoplasmic reticulum to the cytoplasm. The elevated calcium ion in the cytoplasm activates the signaling cascade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) and ribosomal S6K (CaMKII-S6K-UBF). The activated UBF promotes the transcription of rDNA, which therefore increases pre-45s rRNA. Disruption of CaMKII-S6K-UBF axis by either RNAi or pharmaceutical approaches leads to reduction of pre-45s rRNA expression, which subsequently suppresses cell proliferation in colon cancer cells by causing cell-cycle arrest. Knockdown of APC activates CaMKII-S6K-UBF cascade and thus enhances pre-45s rRNA expression. Moreover, the high expression level of pre-45s rRNA is associated with poor survival of CRC patients in two independent cohorts. Our study identifies a novel mechanism in CRC pathogenesis mediated by pre-45s rRNA and a prognostic factor of pre-45s rRNA in CRC patients.

  3. CRC-113 gene expression signature for predicting prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Nam; Choi, Tae Gyu; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Jo, Yong Hwa; Shahid, Muhammad; Akter, Salima; Aryal, Saurav Nath; Yoo, Ji Youn; Ahn, Yong-Joo; Cho, Kyoung Min; Lee, Ju-Seog; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Ha, Joohun; Kim, Sung Soo

    2015-10-13

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of global cancer mortality. Recent studies have proposed several gene signatures to predict CRC prognosis, but none of those have proven reliable for predicting prognosis in clinical practice yet due to poor reproducibility and molecular heterogeneity. Here, we have established a prognostic signature of 113 probe sets (CRC-113) that include potential biomarkers and reflect the biological and clinical characteristics. Robustness and accuracy were significantly validated in external data sets from 19 centers in five countries. In multivariate analysis, CRC-113 gene signature showed a stronger prognostic value for survival and disease recurrence in CRC patients than current clinicopathological risk factors and molecular alterations. We also demonstrated that the CRC-113 gene signature reflected both genetic and epigenetic molecular heterogeneity in CRC patients. Furthermore, incorporation of the CRC-113 gene signature into a clinical context and molecular markers further refined the selection of the CRC patients who might benefit from postoperative chemotherapy. Conclusively, CRC-113 gene signature provides new possibilities for improving prognostic models and personalized therapeutic strategies.

  4. 12 CFR 617.7305 - What is a CRC and who are the members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a CRC and who are the members? 617.7305... on Applications; Review of Credit Decisions § 617.7305 What is a CRC and who are the members? The... decisions made by a qualified lender. The CRC may only review adverse credit decisions at the request of the...

  5. The CRC orthologue from Pisum sativum shows conserved functions in carpel morphogenesis and vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourquin, Chloé; Primo, Amparo; Martínez-Fernández, Irene; Huet-Trujillo, Estefanía; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    CRABS CLAW (CRC) is a member of the YABBY family of transcription factors involved in carpel morphogenesis, floral determinacy and nectary specification in arabidopsis. CRC orthologues have been functionally characterized across angiosperms, revealing additional roles in leaf vascular development and carpel identity specification in Poaceae. These studies support an ancestral role of CRC orthologues in carpel development, while roles in vascular development and nectary specification appear to be derived. This study aimed to expand research on CRC functional conservation to the legume family in order to better understand the evolutionary history of CRC orthologues in angiosperms. CRC orthologues from Pisum sativum and Medicago truncatula were identified. RNA in situ hybridization experiments determined the corresponding expression patterns throughout flower development. The phenotypic effects of reduced CRC activity were investigated in P. sativum using virus-induced gene silencing. CRC orthologues from P. sativum and M. truncatula showed similar expression patterns, mainly restricted to carpels and nectaries. However, these expression patterns differed from those of other core eudicots, most importantly in a lack of abaxial expression in the carpel and in atypical expression associated with the medial vein of the ovary. CRC downregulation in pea caused defects in carpel fusion and style/stigma development, both typically associated with CRC function in eudicots, but also affected vascular development in the carpel. The data support the conserved roles of CRC orthologues in carpel fusion, style/stigma development and nectary development. In addition, an intriguing new aspect of CRC function in legumes was the unexpected role in vascular development, which could be shared by other species from widely diverged clades within the angiosperms, suggesting that this role could be ancestral rather than derived, as so far generally accepted. © The Author 2014. Published by

  6. Melanoma Patients with Unknown Primary Site or Nodal Recurrence after Initial Diagnosis Have a Favourable Survival Compared to Those with Synchronous Lymph Node Metastasis and Primary Tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Weide, Benjamin; Faller, Christine; Els?sser, Margrit; B?ttner, Petra; Pflugfelder, Annette; Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Bauer, J?rgen; Meier, Friedegund; Garbe, Claus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A direct comparison of prognosis between patients with regional lymph node metastases (LNM) detected synchronously with the primary melanoma (primary LNM), patients who developed their first LNM subsequently (secondary LNM) and those with initial LNM in melanoma with unknown primary site (MUP) is missing thus far. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Survival of 498 patients was calculated from the time point of the first macroscopic LNM using Kaplan Meier and multivariate Cox hazard regression ...

  7. Deletions at SLC18A1 increased the risk of CRC and lower SLC18A1 expression associated with poor CRC outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Li, Zhenli; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhou, Dan; Tang, Shunli; Yin, Xiaoyang; Xu, Fangying; Li, Hui; Zhou, Yuan; Zhu, Tao; Deng, Hong; Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Qiong; Wang, Jing; Yin, Wei; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2017-10-26

    Copy number variations (CNVs) contribute to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a two-stage association study to identify CNV risk loci for CRC. We performed a gene-based rare CNV study on 694 sporadic CRC and 1641 controls using Illumina Human-OmniExpress-12v1.0 BeadChips, and further replicated in 934 CRC cases and 2680 controls for risk CNVs by using TaqMan Copy Number Assay. Tumor buddings, cancer cells in the center of primary tumor and normal intestinal epithelial cells were captured using laser capture microdissection (LCM) and were assayed using AffymetrixGeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. In addition, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus data were assessed for the effects of risk CNVs. We found that germline deletions affecting the last six exons of SLC18A1 significantly associated with CRC with a combined P value of 6.4 × 10-5 by a two-stage analysis. Both in TCGA CRC RNA seq dataset and GDS4382, SLC18A1 was significantly down regulated in CRC tissues than in paired normal tissues (N = 32 and 17 pairs, P = 0.004 and 0.009, respectively). In LCM samples, similar observations were obtained that the expression levels of SLC18A1 in the tumor buddings, cancer cells in the center of primary tumor, and stroma of both tumor budding and cancer cells were lower than normal intestinal epithelial and stromal cells (fold change = 0.17-0.62, 0.12-0.57 and 0.37-0.68, respectively). In summary, the germline deletions at SLC18A1 contributed to the development of CRC. The role of SLC18A1 required further exploration. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The performance of the SEPT9 gene methylation assay and a comparison with other CRC screening tests: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lele; Jia, Jia; Peng, Xiumei; Xiao, Wenhua; Li, Yuemin

    2017-06-08

    The SEPT9 gene methylation assay is the first FDA-approved blood assay for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Fecal immunochemical test (FIT), FIT-DNA test and CEA assay are also in vitro diagnostic (IVD) tests used in CRC screening. This meta-analysis aims to review the SEPT9 assay performance and compare it with other IVD CRC screening tests. By searching the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBMdisc and CJFD database, 25 out of 180 studies were identified to report the SEPT9 assay performance. 2613 CRC cases and 6030 controls were included, and sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate its performance at various algorithms. 1/3 algorithm exhibited the best sensitivity while 2/3 and 1/1 algorithm exhibited the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. The performance of the blood SEPT9 assay is superior to that of the serum protein markers and the FIT test in symptomatic population, while appeared to be less potent than FIT and FIT-DNA tests in asymptomatic population. In conclusion, 1/3 algorithm is recommended for CRC screening, and 2/3 or 1/1 algorithms are suitable for early detection for diagnostic purpose. The SEPT9 assay exhibited better performance in symptomatic population than in asymptomatic population.

  9. A shift from distal to proximal neoplasia in the colon: a decade of polyps and CRC in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panzone Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years a trend towards proximalization of colorectal carcinomas (CRC has been reported. This study aims to evaluate the distribution of CRC and adenomatous polyps (ADP to establish the presence of proximalization and to assess the potential predictors. Methods We retrieved histology reports of colonic specimens excised during colonoscopy, considering the exams performed between 1997 and 2006 at Cuneo Hospital, Italy. We compared the proportion of proximal lesions in the period 1997-2001 and in the period 2002-2006. Results Neoplastic lesions were detected in 3087 people. Proximal CRC moved from 25.9% (1997-2001 to 30.0% (2002-2006. Adjusting for sex and age, the difference was not significant (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 0,95-1,58. The proximal ADP proportion increased from 19.2% (1997-2001 to 26.0% (2002-2006 (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.17-1.89. The corresponding figures for advanced proximal ADP were 6.6% and 9.5% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.02-2.17. Adjusting for gender, age, diagnostic period, symptoms and number of polyps the prevalence of proximal advanced ADP was increased among people ≥ 70 years compared to those aged 55-69 years (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.032.16. The main predictor of proximal advanced neoplasia was the number of polyps detected per exam (> 1 polyp versus 1 polyp: considering all ADP: OR 2.16; 95% CI: 1.59-2.93; considering advanced ADP OR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.08-2.46. Adjusting for these factors, the difference between the two periods was no longer significant. Conclusions CRC do not proximalize while a trend towards a proximal shift in adenomas was observed among people ≥ 70 years.

  10. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa catabolite repression control protein Crc is devoid of RNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevic, Tetyana; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The Crc protein has been shown to mediate catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas, leading to a preferential assimilation of carbon sources. It has been suggested that Crc acts as a translational repressor of mRNAs, encoding functions involved in uptake and breakdown of different carbon sources. Moreover, the regulatory RNA CrcZ, the level of which is increased in the presence of less preferred carbon sources, was suggested to bind to and sequester Crc, resulting in a relief of catabolite repression. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Crc, a member of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease family, at 1.8 Å. Although Crc displays high sequence similarity with its orthologs, there are amino acid alterations in the area corresponding to the active site in AP proteins. Unlike typical AP endonuclease family proteins, Crc has a reduced overall positive charge and the conserved positively charged amino-acid residues of the DNA-binding surface of AP proteins are partially substituted by negatively charged, polar and hydrophobic residues. Crc protein purified to homogeneity from P. aeruginosa did neither display DNase activity, nor did it bind to previously identified RNA substrates. Rather, the RNA chaperone Hfq was identified as a contaminant in His-tagged Crc preparations purified by one step Ni-affinity chromatography from Escherichia coli, and was shown to account for the RNA binding activity observed with the His-Crc preparations. Taken together, these data challenge a role of Crc as a direct translational repressor in carbon catabolite repression in P. aeruginosa.

  11. Detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) by urinary volatile organic compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; McFarlane, Michael J; Ryan-Fisher, Courtenay; Westenbrink, Erik; Hodges, Phoebe; Hodges, Paula; Thomas, Matthew G; Chambers, Samantha; O'Connell, Nicola; Bailey, Catherine; Harmston, Christopher; Nwokolo, Chuka U; Bardhan, Karna D; Covington, James A

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer related death in Europe and the USA. There is no universally accepted effective non-invasive screening test for CRC. Guaiac based faecal occult blood (gFOB) testing has largely been superseded by Faecal Immunochemical testing (FIT), but sensitivity still remains poor. The uptake of population based FOBt testing in the UK is also low at around 50%. The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) signature(s) for many cancer subtypes is receiving increasing interest using a variety of gas phase analytical instruments. One such example is FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometer). FAIMS is able to identify Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) patients by analysing shifts in VOCs patterns in both urine and faeces. This study extends this concept to determine whether CRC patients can be identified through non-invasive analysis of urine, using FAIMS. 133 patients were recruited; 83 CRC patients and 50 healthy controls. Urine was collected at the time of CRC diagnosis and headspace analysis undertaken using a FAIMS instrument (Owlstone, Lonestar, UK). Data was processed using Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) after feature extraction from the raw data. FAIMS analyses demonstrated that the VOC profiles of CRC patients were tightly clustered and could be distinguished from healthy controls. Sensitivity and specificity for CRC detection with FAIMS were 88% and 60% respectively. This study suggests that VOC signatures emanating from urine can be detected in patients with CRC using ion mobility spectroscopy technology (FAIMS) with potential as a novel screening tool.

  12. Instantaneous Kinematics Analysis via Screw-Theory of a Novel 3-CRC Parallel Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein de la Torre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mobility and kinematics analysis of a novel parallel mechanism that is composed by one base, one platform and three identical limbs with CRC joints. The paper obtains closed-form solutions to the direct and inverse kinematics problems, and determines the mobility of the mechanism and instantaneous kinematics by applying screw theory. The obtained results show that this parallel robot is part of the family 2R1T, since the platform shows 3 DOF, i.e.: one translation perpendicular to the base and two rotations about skew axes. In order to calculate the direct instantaneous kinematics, this paper introduces the vector mh, which is part of the joint velocity vector that multiplies the overall inverse Jacobian matrix. This paper compares the results between simulations and numerical examples using Mathematica and SolidWorks in order to prove the accuracy of the analytical results.

  13. Probiotics in colorectal cancer (CRC) with emphasis on mechanisms of action and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahouli, Imen; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Prakash, Satya

    2013-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer. Diverse therapies such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiation have shown beneficial effects, but are limited because of their safety and toxicity. Probiotic formulations have shown great promise in CRC as preventive and early stage therapeutics. This review highlights the importance of a balanced intestinal microbiota and summarizes the recent developments in probiotics for treating CRC. Specifically, this report describes evidence of the role of probiotics in modulating the microbiota, in improving the physico-chemical conditions of the gut and in reducing oxidative stress. It also discusses the mechanisms of probiotics in inhibiting tumour progression, in producing anticancer compounds and in modulating the host immune response. Even though some of these effects were observed in several clinical trials, when probiotic formulations were used as a supplement to CRC therapies, the application of probiotics as biotherapeutics against CRC still needs further investigation.

  14. CRC-cards to support development and maintenance of product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new definition of special Class, Responsibility and Collaboration (CRC) cards to be used for the development and maintenance of Product Configuration Systems (PCSs). CRC cards were introduced as an informal and user-friendly technique for teaching object-oriented modelling...... and maintenance of PCSs. This procedure has since been applied in several configuration projects and further developed at the Centre for Product Modelling (CPM) at the Technical University of Denmark. However, the investigations of two companies that applies CRC cards to document the knowledge base of their PCSs...

  15. 12 CFR 617.7315 - What records must the qualified lender maintain on behalf of the CRC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on behalf of the CRC? 617.7315 Section 617.7315 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM... must the qualified lender maintain on behalf of the CRC? A qualified lender must maintain a complete file of all requests for CRC reviews, including participation in state mediation programs, the minutes...

  16. Long noncoding RNA lnc-sox5 modulates CRC tumorigenesis by unbalancing tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaiming; Zhao, Zhenxian; Liu, Kuanzhi; Zhang, Jian; Li, Guanghua; Wang, Liang

    2017-07-03

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been recently regarded as systemic regulators in multiple biologic processes including tumorigenesis. In this study, we observed the expression of lncRNA lnc-sox5 was significantly increased in colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite the CRC cell growth, cell cycle and cell apoptosis was not affected by lnc-sox5 knock-down, lnc-sox5 knock-down suppressed CRC cell migration and invasion. In addition, xenograft animal model suggested that lnc-sox5 knock-down significantly suppressed the CRC tumorigenesis. Our results also showed that the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) was significantly reduced by lnc-sox5 knock-down and therefore modulated the infiltration and cytotoxicity of CD3 + CD8 + T cells. Taken together, these results suggested that lnc-sox5 unbalances tumor microenvironment to regulate colorectal cancer progression.

  17. Detection of colorectal cancer (CRC by urinary volatile organic compound analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh P Arasaradnam

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer related death in Europe and the USA. There is no universally accepted effective non-invasive screening test for CRC. Guaiac based faecal occult blood (gFOB testing has largely been superseded by Faecal Immunochemical testing (FIT, but sensitivity still remains poor. The uptake of population based FOBt testing in the UK is also low at around 50%. The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs signature(s for many cancer subtypes is receiving increasing interest using a variety of gas phase analytical instruments. One such example is FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometer. FAIMS is able to identify Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD patients by analysing shifts in VOCs patterns in both urine and faeces. This study extends this concept to determine whether CRC patients can be identified through non-invasive analysis of urine, using FAIMS. 133 patients were recruited; 83 CRC patients and 50 healthy controls. Urine was collected at the time of CRC diagnosis and headspace analysis undertaken using a FAIMS instrument (Owlstone, Lonestar, UK. Data was processed using Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA after feature extraction from the raw data. FAIMS analyses demonstrated that the VOC profiles of CRC patients were tightly clustered and could be distinguished from healthy controls. Sensitivity and specificity for CRC detection with FAIMS were 88% and 60% respectively. This study suggests that VOC signatures emanating from urine can be detected in patients with CRC using ion mobility spectroscopy technology (FAIMS with potential as a novel screening tool.

  18. Expression Analysis of Previously Verified Fecal and Plasma Dow-regulated MicroRNAs (miR-4478, 1295-3p, 142-3p and 26a-5p), in FFPE Tissue Samples of CRC Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Reza; Rezasoltani, Sama; Hashemi, Javad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Tahmasebifar, Arash; Arefian, Ehsan; Mobarra, Naser; Asadi, Jahanbakhsh; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Knuutila, Sakari; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis of this neoplasm is critical and may reduce patients' mortality. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules whose expression pattern can be altered in various diseases such as CRC. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of miR-142-3p, miR-26a-5p (their reduced expression in plasma samples of CRC patients was previously confirmed), miR-4478 and miR-1295-3p (their reduced expression in stool samples of CRC patients was previously confirmed) in tissue samples of CRC patients in comparison to healthy subjects. To achieve this purpose, total RNA including small RNA was extracted from 53 CRC and 35 normal subjects' Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples using the miRNeasy FFPE Mini Kit. The expression levels of these four selected miRNAs were measured using quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). We found that the expression levels of miR-4478 and miR-1295b-3p (two previously down-regulated fecal miRNAs) were significantly decreased in FFPE samples of CRC patients compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, no significant differences were seen in expression levels of miR-142-3p and miR-26a-5p (two previously down-regulated circulating miRNAs) in FFPE samples between these two groups. Regarding current findings, it may be concluded that to diagnose CRC patients based on the miRNAs approach, stool samples are more likely preferable to plasma samples; nevertheless, additional studies with more samples are needed to confirm the results.

  19. A Risk Prediction Model for Sporadic CRC Based on Routine Lab Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursi, Ben; Mamtani, Ronac; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Haynes, Kevin; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Current risk scores for colorectal cancer (CRC) are based on demographic and behavioral factors and have limited predictive values. To develop a novel risk prediction model for sporadic CRC using clinical and laboratory data in electronic medical records. We conducted a nested case-control study in a UK primary care database. Cases included those with a diagnostic code of CRC, aged 50-85. Each case was matched with four controls using incidence density sampling. CRC predictors were examined using univariate conditional logistic regression. Variables with p value CRC prediction models which included age, sex, height, obesity, ever smoking, alcohol dependence, and previous screening colonoscopy had an AUC of 0.58 (0.57-0.59) with poor goodness of fit. A laboratory-based model including hematocrit, MCV, lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) had an AUC of 0.76 (0.76-0.77) and a McFadden's R2 of 0.21 with a NRI of 47.6 %. A combined model including sex, hemoglobin, MCV, white blood cells, platelets, NLR, and oral hypoglycemic use had an AUC of 0.80 (0.79-0.81) with a McFadden's R2 of 0.27 and a NRI of 60.7 %. Similar results were shown in an internal validation set. A laboratory-based risk model had good predictive power for sporadic CRC risk.

  20. KRAS polymorphisms are associated with survival of CRC in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qiong; Wei, Hui Lian; Huang, Juan; Zhou, Tie Jun; Chai, Li; Yang, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    rs12245, rs12587, rs9266, rs1137282, rs61764370, and rs712 of KRAS oncogene are characterized in the 3'UTR. The study highlights the important role of these polymorphisms playing in the susceptibility, oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy sensitivity, progression, and prognosis of CRC. Improved multiplex ligation detection reaction (iMLDR) technique is used for genotyping. An unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the association of certain polymorphism and CRC risk. The Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression model were used to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms on survival analysis. Results demonstrated that TT genotype and T allele of rs712 were associated with the increased risk of CRC; the patients with GG genotype and G allele of rs61764370 had a shorter survival and a higher risk of relapse or metastasis of CRC. Our studies supported the conclusions that rs61764370 and rs712 polymorphisms of the KRAS are functional and it may play an important role in the development of CRC and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy efficiency and prognosis of CRC.

  1. Cross-regulation by CrcZ RNA controls anoxic biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusic, Petra; Tata, Muralidhar; Wolfinger, Michael T.; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Häussler, Susanne; Bläsi, Udo

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) can thrive in anaerobic biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we show that CrcZ is the most abundant PA14 RNA bound to the global regulator Hfq in anoxic biofilms grown in cystic fibrosis sputum medium. Hfq was crucial for anoxic biofilm formation. This observation complied with an RNAseq based transcriptome analysis and follow up studies that implicated Hfq in regulation of a central step preceding denitrification. CrcZ is known to act as a decoy that sequesters Hfq during relief of carbon catabolite repression, which in turn alleviates Hfq-mediated translational repression of catabolic genes. We therefore inferred that CrcZ indirectly impacts on biofilm formation by competing for Hfq. This hypothesis was supported by the findings that over-production of CrcZ mirrored the biofilm phenotype of the hfq deletion mutant, and that deletion of the crcZ gene augmented biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first example where competition for Hfq by CrcZ cross-regulates an Hfq-dependent physiological process unrelated to carbon metabolism.

  2. Anti-VEGF agents in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC: are they all alike?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif MW

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Wasif Saif GI Oncology Program, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds and neutralizes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, a key player in the angiogenesis pathway. Despite benefits of bevacizumab in cancer therapy, it is clear that the VEGF pathway is complex, involving multiple isoforms, receptors, and alternative ligands such as VEGF-B, and placental growth factor, which could enable escape from VEGF-A-targeted angiogenesis inhibition. Recently developed therapies have targeted other ligands in the VEGF pathway (eg, aflibercept, known as ziv-aflibercept in the United States, VEGF receptors (eg, ramucirumab, and their tyrosine kinase signaling (ie, tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The goal of the current review was to identify comparative preclinical data for the currently available VEGF-targeted therapies. Sources were compiled using PubMed searches (2007 to 2012, using search terms including, but not limited to: “bevacizumab,” “aflibercept,” “ramucirumab,” and “IMC-18F1.” Two preclinical studies were identified that compared bevacizumab and the newer agent, aflibercept. These studies identified some important differences in binding and pharmacodynamic activity, although the potential clinical relevance of these findings is not known. Newer antiangiogenesis therapies should help further expand treatment options for colorectal and other cancers. Comparative preclinical data on these agents is currently lacking. Keywords: aflibercept, antiangiogenesis, metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF

  3. Concentration of circulating miRNA-containing particles in serum enhances miRNA detection and reflects CRC tissue-related deregulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSharawy, Abdou; Röder, Christian; Becker, Thomas; Habermann, Jens K; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Kalthoff, Holger

    2016-11-15

    The emerging potential of miRNAs as biomarkers for cancer detection demands parallel evaluation of strategies for reliable identification of disease-related signatures from easily accessible and pertinent body compartments. Here, we addressed whether efficient concentration of circulating miRNA-carrying particles is a rationale for miRNA biomarker discovery. We systematically compared miRNA signatures in 93 RNA preparations from three serum entities (whole serum, particle-concentrated, and particle-depleted fractions) and corresponding tissue samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) as a model disease. Significant differences between whole sera and particle-concentrated serum fractions of CRC patients emerged for 45 of 742 tested miRNAs. Twenty-eight of these 45 miRNAs were differentially expressed between particle-concentrated serum fractions of metastatic CRC- and healthy individuals. Over half of these candidates (15 of 28) showed deregulations only in concentrated serum fractions, but not in whole sera, compared to the respective controls.Our results also provided evidence of a consistent downregulation of miR-486 and miR-92a, and further showed a possible "strand-specific" deregulation of extracellular miRNAs in CRC. More importantly, most of the identified miRNAs in the enriched sera reflected the patterns of the corresponding tumor tissues and showed links to cancer-related inflammation. Further investigation of seven serum pools revealed a subset of potential extracellular miRNA candidates to be implicated in both neoplastic and inflammatory bowel disease.Our findings demonstrate that enrichment and sensitive detection of miRNA carriers is a promising approach to detect CRC-related pathological changes in liquid biopsies, and has potential for clinical diagnostics.

  4. ZEB1 Mediates Drug Resistance and EMT in p300-Deficient CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Darina; Bordonaro, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the hypothesis that ZEB1-Wnt-p300 signaling integrates epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The HDACi butyrate, derived from dietary fiber, has been linked to CRC prevention, and other HDACis have been proposed as therapeutic agents against CRC. We have previously discussed that resistance to butyrate likely contributes to colonic carcinogenesis, and we have demonstrated that butyrate resistance leads to cross-resistance to cancer therapeutic HDACis. Deregulated Wnt signaling is the major initiating event in most CRC cases. One mechanism whereby butyrate and other HDACis exert their anti-CRC effects is via Wnt signaling hyperactivation, which promotes CRC cell apoptosis. The histone acetylases (HATs) CBP and p300 are mediators of Wnt transcriptional activity, and play divergent roles in the downstream consequences of Wnt signaling. CBP-mediated Wnt signaling is associated with cell proliferation and stem cell maintenance; whereas, p300-mediated Wnt activity is associated with differentiation. We have found that CBP and p300 differentially affect the ability of butyrate to influence Wnt signaling, apoptosis, and proliferation. ZEB 1 is a Wnt signaling-targeted gene, whose product is a transcription factor expressed at the invasive front of carcinomas where it promotes malignant progression and EMT. ZEB1 is typically a transcriptional repressor; however, when associated with p300, ZEB1 enhances transcription. These changes in ZEB1 activity likely affect the cancer cell phenotype. ZEB1 has been shown to promote resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, and expression of ZEB1 is upregulated in butyrate-resistant CRC cells that lack p300 expression. Since the expression of ZEB1 correlates with poor outcomes in cancer, ZEB represents a relevant therapeutic target. Here we propose that targeting the signaling network established by ZEB1, Wnt signaling, and p300

  5. The CRC 20 years: An overview of some of the major achievements and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doek, Jaap E

    2009-11-01

    On 20 November 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). It entered into force on 2 September 1990 and has by now been ratified by 193 States, making the most universally ratified human rights treaty. This overview will present and discuss the impact of this treaty both at the international and the national level, an overview which necessarily has to be limited to some of the developments as a result of the implementation of the CRC. The first part of this paper will be devoted to the impact the CRC had and still has on the setting and development of the international agenda for the promotion and protection of the rights and welfare of children. Special attention will given to developments, achievements, and remaining challenges at the international level with regard to protection of children in armed conflict; prevention and the protection of children from sexual exploitation; and from all forms of violence. This will include some information on the impact of these international developments and actions at the national level, for example, in the area of legislation. The second part will focus on the impact at the national level. Given the wide scope of the CRC this part will be limited to some of the General Measures of Implementation (law reform, national programmes, and independent monitoring) and the General Principles (non-discrimination, best interest, right to be heard) of the CRC. This will be based on reports of States on the implementation of the CRC submitted to the CRC Committee and the Concluding Observations of this Committee and on a number of studies. The conclusion will provide remarks on poverty as one of the major remaining challenges for the implementation of children's rights.

  6. Recruiting community health centers into pragmatic research: Findings from STOP CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; Retecki, Sally; Schneider, Jennifer; Taplin, Stephen H; Burdick, Tim; Green, Beverly B

    2016-04-01

    Challenges of recruiting participants into pragmatic trials, particularly at the level of the health system, remain largely unexplored. As part of Strategies and Opportunities to STOP Colon Cancer in Priority Populations (STOP CRC), we recruited eight separate community health centers (consisting of 26 individual safety net clinics) into a large comparative effectiveness pragmatic study to evaluate methods of raising the rates of colorectal cancer screening. In partnership with STOP CRC's advisory board, we defined criteria to identify eligible health centers and applied these criteria to a list of health centers in Washington, Oregon, and California affiliated with Oregon Community Health Information Network, a 16-state practice-based research network of federally sponsored health centers. Project staff contacted centers that met eligibility criteria and arranged in-person meetings of key study investigators with health center leadership teams. We used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to thematically analyze the content of discussions during these meetings to identify major facilitators of and barriers to health center participation. From an initial list of 41 health centers, 11 met the initial inclusion criteria. Of these, leaders at three centers declined and at eight centers (26 clinic sites) agreed to participate (73%). Participating and nonparticipating health centers were similar with respect to clinic size, percent Hispanic patients, and percent uninsured patients. Participating health centers had higher proportions of Medicaid patients and higher baseline colorectal cancer screening rates. Common facilitators of participation were perception by center leadership that the project was an opportunity to increase colorectal cancer screening rates and to use electronic health record tools for population management. Barriers to participation were concerns of center leaders about ability to provide fecal testing to and assure follow-up of

  7. Genetic variants in IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway and the risk of CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwei; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 and the downstream Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway have previously been reported to be important in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), and several studies have shown the relationship between the polymorphisms of related genes in this pathway with the risk of CRC. However, the findings of these related studies are inconsistent. Moreover, there has no systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between genetic variants in IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway and CRC susceptibility. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between polymorphisms in IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway genes and CRC risk. Eighteen eligible studies with a total of 13,795 CRC cases and 18,043 controls were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases for the period up to September 15, 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the strength of the association. Our results indicated that IL-6 genetic variants in allele additive model (OR = 1.05, 95 % CI = 1.00, 1.09) and JAK2 genetic variants (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI = 1.15, 1.65) in genotype recessive model were significantly associated with CRC risk. Moreover, the pooled data revealed that IL-6 rs1800795 polymorphism significantly increased the risk of CRC in allele additive model in Europe (OR = 1.07, 95 % CI = 1.01, 1.14). In conclusion, the present findings indicate that IL-6 and JAK2 genetic variants are associated with the increased risk of CRC while STAT3 genetic variants not. We need more well-designed clinical studies covering more countries and population to definitively establish the association between genetic variants in IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway and CRC susceptibility.

  8. Co-expression analysis identifies CRC and AP1 the regulator of Arabidopsis fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xinxin; Yin, Linlin; Xue, Hongwei

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) play crucial rules in signal transduction and plant development, however, the regulation of FA metabolism is still poorly understood. To study the relevant regulatory network, fifty-eight FA biosynthesis genes including de novo synthases, desaturases and elongases were selected as "guide genes" to construct the co-expression network. Calculation of the correlation between all Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) genes with each guide gene by Arabidopsis co-expression dating mining tools (ACT) identifies 797 candidate FA-correlated genes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of these co-expressed genes showed they are tightly correlated to photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, and function in many processes. Interestingly, 63 transcription factors (TFs) were identified as candidate FA biosynthesis regulators and 8 TF families are enriched. Two TF genes, CRC and AP1, both correlating with 8 FA guide genes, were further characterized. Analyses of the ap1 and crc mutant showed the altered total FA composition of mature seeds. The contents of palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid are decreased, whereas that of oleic acid is increased in ap1 and crc seeds, which is consistent with the qRT-PCR analysis revealing the suppressed expression of the corresponding guide genes. In addition, yeast one-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that CRC can bind to the promoter regions of KCS7 and KCS15, indicating that CRC may directly regulate FA biosynthesis. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Therapeutic value of EGFR inhibition in CRC and NSCLC: 15 years of clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Teresa; Napolitano, Stefania; Della Corte, Carminia Maria; Martini, Giulia; Martinelli, Erika; Morgillo, Floriana; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a key role in tumour evolution, proliferation and immune evasion, and is one of the most important targets for biological therapy, especially for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). In the past 15 years, several EGFR antagonists have been approved for the treatment of NSCLC and metastatic CRC (mCRC). To optimise the use of anti-EGFR agents in clinical practice, various clinical and molecular biomarkers have been investigated, thus moving their indication from unselected to selected populations. Nowadays, anti-EGFR drugs represent a gold-standard therapy for metastatic NSCLC harbouring EGFR activating mutation and for RAS wild-type mCRC. Their clinical efficacy is limited by the presence of intrinsic resistance or the onset of acquired resistance. In this review, we provide an overview of the antitumour activity of EGFR inhibitors in NSCLC and CRC and of mechanisms of resistance, focusing on the development of a personalised approach through 15 years of preclinical and clinical research.

  10. IRRIGATION PRACTICES IN LONG-TERM SURVIVORS OF COLORECTAL CANCER (CRC) WITH COLOSTOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Marcia; McMullen, Carmit K.; Altschuler, Andrea; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Krouse, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Creation of a colostomy in colorectal (CRC) cancer patients results in a loss of control over bowel evacuation. The only way to re-establish some control is through irrigation, a procedure that involves instilling fluid into the bowel to allow for gas and fecal output. This article reports on irrigation practices of participants in a large, multi-site, multi-investigator study of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in long term CRC survivors. Questions about irrigation practices were iden...

  11. Influence of the Hfq and Crc global regulators on the control of iron homeostasis in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hevia, Dione L; Yuste, Luis; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2018-04-30

    Metabolically versatile bacteria use catabolite repression control to select their preferred carbon sources, thus optimizing carbon metabolism. In pseudomonads, this occurs through the combined action of the proteins Hfq and Crc, which form stable tripartite complexes at target mRNAs, inhibiting their translation. The activity of Hfq/Crc is antagonised by small RNAs of the CrcZ family, the amounts of which vary according to carbon availability. The present work examines the role of Pseudomonas putida Hfq protein under conditions of low-level catabolite repression, in which Crc protein would have a minor role since it is sequestered by CrcZ/CrcY. The results suggest that, under these conditions, Hfq remains operative and plays an important role in iron homeostasis. In this scenario, Crc appears to participate indirectly by helping CrcZ/CrcY to control the amount of free Hfq in the cell. Iron homeostasis in pseudomonads relies on regulatory elements such as the Fur protein, the PrrF1-F2 sRNAs, and several extracytoplasmic sigma factors. Our results show that the absence of Hfq is paralleled by a reduction in PrrF1-F2 small RNAs. Hfq thus provides a regulatory link between iron and carbon metabolism, coordinating the iron supply to meet the needs of the enzymes operational under particular nutritional regimes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Interplay between the catabolite repression control protein Crc, Hfq and RNA in Hfq-dependent translational regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Wulf, Alexander; Campagne, Sébastien; Pei, Xue-Yuan; Wolfinger, Michael T; Forlani, Giada; Prindl, Konstantin; Abdou, Laetitia; Resch, Armin; Allain, Frederic H-T; Luisi, Ben F; Urlaub, Henning; Bläsi, Udo

    2018-02-16

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa the RNA chaperone Hfq and the catabolite repression control protein (Crc) act as post-transcriptional regulators during carbon catabolite repression (CCR). In this regard Crc is required for full-fledged Hfq-mediated translational repression of catabolic genes. RNAseq based transcriptome analyses revealed a significant overlap between the Crc and Hfq regulons, which in conjunction with genetic data supported a concerted action of both proteins. Biochemical and biophysical approaches further suggest that Crc and Hfq form an assembly in the presence of RNAs containing A-rich motifs, and that Crc interacts with both, Hfq and RNA. Through these interactions, Crc enhances the stability of Hfq/Crc/RNA complexes, which can explain its facilitating role in Hfq-mediated translational repression. Hence, these studies revealed for the first time insights into how an interacting protein can modulate Hfq function. Moreover, Crc is shown to interfere with binding of a regulatory RNA to Hfq, which bears implications for riboregulation. These results are discussed in terms of a working model, wherein Crc prioritizes the function of Hfq toward utilization of favored carbon sources.

  13. Predicting Outcome and Therapy Response in mCRC Patients Using an Indirect Method for CTCs Detection by a Multigene Expression Panel: A Multicentric Prospective Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vidal Insua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths. Early detection of tumor relapse is crucial for determining the most appropriate therapeutic management. In clinical practice, computed tomography (CT is routinely used, but small tumor changes are difficult to visualize, and reliable blood-based prognostic and monitoring biomarkers are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to prospectively validate a gene expression panel (composed of GAPDH, VIL1, CLU, TIMP1, TLN1, LOXL3 and ZEB2 for detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs as prognostic and predictive tool in blood samples from 94 metastatic CRC (mCRC patients. Patients with higher gene panel expression before treatment had a reduced progression-free survival (PFS and overall-survival (OS rates compared with patients with low expression (p = 0.003 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively. Patients with increased expression of CTCs markers during treatment presented PFS and OS times of 8.95 and 11.74 months, respectively, compared with 14.41 and 24.7 for patients presenting decreased expression (PFS; p = 0.020; OS; p ≤ 0.001. Patients classified as non-responders by CTCs with treatment, but classified as responders by CT scan, showed significantly shorter survival times (PFS: 8.53 vs. 11.70; OS: 10.37 vs. 24.13; months. In conclusion, our CTCs detection panel demonstrated efficacy for early treatment response assessment in mCRC patients, and with increased reliability compared to CT scan.

  14. Finite element analysis and experimental verification of Polymer reinforced CRC improved for close-in detonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin; Georgakis, Christos; Stang, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Compact Reinforced Composite, CRC, is a high-strength cement-based composite that holds an enormous flexural and energy-absorbing capacity due to the close-spaced high strength steel reinforcement and a high-strength cement-based fiber DSP matrix. The material has been used in various constructions...

  15. Structural stability, electronic, mechanical and superconducting properties of CrC and MoC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, M.; Sudha Priyanga, G. [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N College, Madurai 625019, Tamilnadu (India); Rajeswarapalanichamy, R., E-mail: rrpalanichamy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N College, Madurai 625019, Tamilnadu (India); Iyakutti, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Chennai 603203, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-02-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical and superconducting properties of chromium carbide (CrC) and molybdenum carbide (MoC) are investigated using first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The computed ground state properties like equilibrium lattice constants and cell volume are in good agreement with available theoretical and experimental data. A pressure induced structural phase transition from tungsten carbide phase (WC) to zinc blende phase (ZB) and then zinc blende phase (ZB) to nickel arsenide phase (NiAs) are observed in both chromium and molybdenum carbides. Electronic structure reveals that these carbides are metallic at ambient condition. All the calculated elastic constants obey the Born–Huang stability criteria, suggesting that they are mechanically stable at normal and high pressure. The super conducting transition temperatures for CrC and MoC in WC phase are found to be 31.12 K and 17.14 K respectively at normal pressure. - Highlights: • Electronic and mechanical properties of CrC and MoC are investigated. • Pressure induced structural phase transition is predicted at high pressure. • Electronic structure reveals that these materials exhibit metallic behaviour. • Debye temperature values are computed for CrC and MoC. • Superconducting transition temperature values are computed.

  16. Aberrant methylation of GCNT2 is tightly related to lymph node metastasis of primary CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazunori; Yamashita, Keishi; Sawaki, Hiromichi; Waraya, Mina; Katoh, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Nobukazu; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Nishimiya, Hiroshi; Ema, Akira; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    Glycoprotein expression profile is dramatically altered in human cancers; however, specific glycogenes have not been fully identified. A comprehensive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for glycogenes (CRPS-G) identified several outstanding glycogenes. GCNT2 was of particular interest after GCNT2 expression and epigenetics were rigorously investigated in primary colorectal cancer (CRC). The highlights of this work can be summarized as follows: (i) Expression of GCNT2 was remarkably suppressed. (ii) Silenced expression of GCNT2 was reactivated by combined demethylating agents. (iii) Promoter DNA methylation of GCNT2 was silenced in CRC cell lines and tissues. Hypomethylation of GCNT2 variant 2 is tightly associated with lymph node metastasis in primary CRC. (iv) GCNT2 methylation level in the normal tissues also showed a close association with that in the tumor tissues and reflected lymph node metastasis. We identified aberrant expression of GCNT2, which can be explained by promoter DNA hypermethylation. Hypomethylation of the GCNT2 variant 2 reflected lymph node metastasis of CRC in the tumor and normal tissues. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to CRC Screening among Latino Adults in Pennsylvania: ACCN Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Wray, Linda A.; Parrott, Roxanne; Aumiller, Betsy; Kluhsman, Brenda; Renderos, Carlos; Dignan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe knowledge of and barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by sex and geography among Latino adults in Pennsylvania. Methods: Eighty-two Latinos greater than 50 years old engaged in one of 8 focus groups. Focus groups consisted of 4 components. Focus group data were audiotaped, transcribed, and grouped into thematic…

  18. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  19. How does the serrated polyp pathway alter CRC screening and surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahi, Charles J

    2015-03-01

    Screening and surveillance for colorectal cancer (CRC) reduces mortality through the detection of early-stage adenocarcinoma, and more importantly the detection and removal of premalignant polyps. While adenomas have historically been considered the most common and screening-relevant precursor lesions, there is accumulating evidence showing that the serrated pathway is an important contributor to CRC, and a disproportionate contributor to interval or postcolonoscopy CRC, particularly in the proximal colon. The serrated pathway is characterized by mutations in the BRAF gene, high levels of methylation of promoter CpG islands (CIMP-high), and the sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is the most important precursor lesion. The study of serrated polyps has been complicated by evolving nomenclature, substantial variation among pathologists in the identification of SSA/Ps, high variability in endoscopic detection rates, and uncertainty regarding the relation to synchronous and metachronous colonic neoplasia. This paper presents an overview of the serrated polyp pathway and discusses its clinical implications including its impact on CRC screening.

  20. The CRC 20 Years: An Overview of Some of the Major Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doek, Jaap E.

    2009-01-01

    On 20 November 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). It entered into force on 2 September 1990 and has by now been ratified by 193 States, making the most universally ratified human rights treaty. This overview will present and discuss the impact of this treaty both at the…

  1. Performance of continuously reinforced concrete pavements volume 5 : maintenance and repair of CRC pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This report is one of a series of reports prepared as part of a recent study sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) aimed at updating the state-of-the-art of the design, construction, maintenance, and rehabiilitation of CRC pavements....

  2. Whole Gene Capture Analysis of 15 CRC Susceptibility Genes in Suspected Lynch Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anne M L; Geilenkirchen, Marije A; van Wezel, Tom; Jagmohan-Changur, Shantie C; Ruano, Dina; van der Klift, Heleen M; van den Akker, Brendy E W M; Laros, Jeroen F J; van Galen, Michiel; Wagner, Anja; Letteboer, Tom G W; Gómez-García, Encarna B; Tops, Carli M J; Vasen, Hans F; Devilee, Peter; Hes, Frederik J; Morreau, Hans; Wijnen, Juul T

    2016-01-01

    Lynch Syndrome (LS) is caused by pathogenic germline variants in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. However, up to 60% of MMR-deficient colorectal cancer cases are categorized as suspected Lynch Syndrome (sLS) because no pathogenic MMR germline variant can be identified, which leads to difficulties in clinical management. We therefore analyzed the genomic regions of 15 CRC susceptibility genes in leukocyte DNA of 34 unrelated sLS patients and 11 patients with MLH1 hypermethylated tumors with a clear family history. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the entire non-repetitive genomic sequence, including intronic and regulatory sequences, of 15 CRC susceptibility genes. In addition, tumor DNA from 28 sLS patients was analyzed for somatic MMR variants. Of 1979 germline variants found in the leukocyte DNA of 34 sLS patients, one was a pathogenic variant (MLH1 c.1667+1delG). Leukocyte DNA of 11 patients with MLH1 hypermethylated tumors was negative for pathogenic germline variants in the tested CRC susceptibility genes and for germline MLH1 hypermethylation. Somatic DNA analysis of 28 sLS tumors identified eight (29%) cases with two pathogenic somatic variants, one with a VUS predicted to pathogenic and LOH, and nine cases (32%) with one pathogenic somatic variant (n = 8) or one VUS predicted to be pathogenic (n = 1). This is the first study in sLS patients to include the entire genomic sequence of CRC susceptibility genes. An underlying somatic or germline MMR gene defect was identified in ten of 34 sLS patients (29%). In the remaining sLS patients, the underlying genetic defect explaining the MMRdeficiency in their tumors might be found outside the genomic regions harboring the MMR and other known CRC susceptibility genes.

  3. Perioperative FOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab for initially unresectable advanced colorectal cancer (NAVIGATE-CRC-01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Fujimoto, Yoshiya; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Shinozaki, Eiji; Akiyoshi, Takashi; Nagayama, Satoshi; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Oya, Masatoshi; Ueno, Masashi; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative chemotherapy combined with surgery for liver metastases is considered an active strategy in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its impact on initially unresectable, previously untreated advanced CRC, regardless of concurrent metastases, remains to be clarified. A Phase II study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of perioperative FOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab for initially unresectable advanced CRC. Patients with previously untreated advanced colon or rectal cancer initially diagnosed as unresectable advanced CRC (TNM stage IIIb, IIIc, or IV) but potentially resectable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were studied. Preoperatively, patients received six cycles of NAC (five cycles of neoadjuvant FOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab followed by one cycle of FOLFOX4 alone). The interval between the last dose of bevacizumab and surgery was at least 5 weeks. Six cycles of adjuvant FOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab were given after surgery. The completion rate of NAC and feasibility of curative surgery were the primary endpoints. An interim analysis was performed at the end of NAC in the 12th patient to assess the completion rate of NAC. The median follow-up time was 56 months. The characteristics of the patients were as follows: sex, eight males and four females; tumor location, sigmoid colon in three, ascending colon in one, and rectum (above the peritoneal reflection) in eight; stage, III in eight and IV in four (liver or lymph nodes). All patients completed six cycles of NAC. There were no treatment-related severe adverse events or deaths. An objective response to NAC was achieved in nine patients (75%), and no disease progression was observed. Eleven patients underwent curative tumor resection, including metastatic lesions. In December 2012, this Phase II study was terminated because of slow registration. Perioperative FOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab is well tolerated and has a promising response rate leading to curative surgery, which offers a survival

  4. Colorectal cancer (CRC) monitoring by 6-monthly 18FDG-PET/CT: an open-label multicentre randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, I; Itti, E; Luciani, A; Baumgaertner, I; Layese, R; André, T; Ducreux, M; Gornet, J-M; Goujon, G; Aparicio, T; Taieb, J; Bachet, J-B; Hemery, F; Retbi, A; Mons, M; Flicoteaux, R; Rhein, B; Baron, S; Cherrak, I; Rufat, P; Le Corvoisier, P; de'Angelis, N; Natella, P-A; Maoulida, H; Tournigand, C; Durand Zaleski, I; Bastuji-Garin, S

    2018-04-01

    [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18FDG-PET/CT) has high sensitivity for detecting recurrences of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our objective was to determine whether adding routine 6-monthly 18FDG-PET/CT to our usual monitoring strategy improved patient outcomes and to assess the effect on costs. In this open-label multicentre trial, patients in remission of CRC (stage II perforated, stage III, or stage IV) after curative surgery were randomly assigned (1 : 1) to usual monitoring alone (3-monthly physical and tumour marker assays, 6-monthly liver ultrasound and chest radiograph, and 6-monthly whole-body computed tomography) or with 6-monthly 18FDG-PET/CT, for 3 years. A multidisciplinary committee reviewed each patient's data every 3 months and classified the recurrence status as yes/no/doubtful. Recurrences were treated with curative surgery alone if feasible and with chemotherapy otherwise. The primary end point was treatment failure defined as unresectable recurrence or death. Relative risks were estimated, and survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox models. Direct costs were compared. Of the 239 enrolled patients, 120 were in the intervention arm and 119 in the control arm. The failure rate was 29.2% (31 unresectable recurrences and 4 deaths) in the intervention group and 23.7% (27 unresectable recurrences and 1 death) in the control group (relative risk = 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.88; P = 0.34). The multivariate analysis also showed no significant difference (hazards ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-2.19; P = 0.27). Median time to diagnosis of unresectable recurrence (months) was significantly shorter in the intervention group [7 (3-20) versus 14.3 (7.3-27), P = 0.016]. Mean cost/patient was higher in the intervention group (18 192 ± 27 679 € versus 11 131 ± 13  €, P CRC. The control group had very close follow

  5. Self reported awareness of child maltreatment among school professionals in Saudi Arabia: impact of CRC ratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah S; AlEissa, Majid A; Noor, Ismail K; Almuneef, Maha A

    2011-12-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying those in danger or at risk. The objective of this study is to identify school professional's awareness of child maltreatment and the existing national policies and procedures to examine the extent of efforts made in Saudi Arabia and to activate the roles of schools and school professionals in protecting children from violence and implementation of Article 19 of the CRC. This was a cross-sectional study, where school professionals from randomly selected schools throughout the country were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 3,777 school professionals participated in the study. Fifty-five percent of professionals had at least 10 years of work experience. A low-level of awareness of child maltreatment was found in about 1/3 of school professionals. Only 1.9% of school professionals had ever attended any sort of specific training on child maltreatment, though 69.3% of those who had not, were willing to attend future training. With regards to awareness of CRC Article 19 or policies and procedures addressing child maltreatment, only 22% reported being aware of it. The majority of school professionals in Saudi Arabia have a low-intermediate level of awareness of child maltreatment, ratification of CRC, and related national policies and procedures, yet most are willing to attend training programs on this subject matter. Efforts need to be made in the country to fill this gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Precision Medicine for CRC Patients in the Veteran Population: State-of-the-Art, Challenges and Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Shyam S; Batra, Surinder K; Bharadwaj, Srinivas; Bouvet, Michael; Cosman, Bard; Goel, Ajay; Jogunoori, Wilma; Kelley, Michael J; Mishra, Lopa; Mishra, Bibhuti; Mohapatra, Subhra; Patel, Bhaumik; Pisegna, Joseph R; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Rao, Shuyun; Roy, Hemant; Scheuner, Maren; Singh, Satish; Vidyarthi, Gitanjali; White, Jon

    2018-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for ~9% of all cancers in the Veteran population, a fact which has focused a great deal of the attention of the VA's research and development efforts. A field-based meeting of CRC experts was convened to discuss both challenges and opportunities in precision medicine for CRC. This group, designated as the VA Colorectal Cancer Cell-genomics Consortium (VA4C), discussed advances in CRC biology, biomarkers, and imaging for early detection and prevention. There was also a discussion of precision treatment involving fluorescence-guided surgery, targeted chemotherapies and immunotherapies, and personalized cancer treatment approaches. The overarching goal was to identify modalities that might ultimately lead to personalized cancer diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the findings of this VA field-based meeting, in which much of the current knowledge on CRC prescreening and treatment was discussed. It was concluded that there is a need and an opportunity to identify new targets for both the prevention of CRC and the development of effective therapies for advanced disease. Also, developing methods integrating genomic testing with tumoroid-based clinical drug response might lead to more accurate diagnosis and prognostication and more effective personalized treatment of CRC.

  7. Low Complexity List Decoding for Polar Codes with Multiple CRC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwan Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Polar codes are the first family of error correcting codes that provably achieve the capacity of symmetric binary-input discrete memoryless channels with low complexity. Since the development of polar codes, there have been many studies to improve their finite-length performance. As a result, polar codes are now adopted as a channel code for the control channel of 5G new radio of the 3rd generation partnership project. However, the decoder implementation is one of the big practical problems and low complexity decoding has been studied. This paper addresses a low complexity successive cancellation list decoding for polar codes utilizing multiple cyclic redundancy check (CRC codes. While some research uses multiple CRC codes to reduce memory and time complexity, we consider the operational complexity of decoding, and reduce it by optimizing CRC positions in combination with a modified decoding operation. Resultingly, the proposed scheme obtains not only complexity reduction from early stopping of decoding, but also additional reduction from the reduced number of decoding paths.

  8. Experience with S-1 in older Caucasian patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine Braendegaard; Zubcevic, Kanita; Qvortrup, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An aging population will increase the number of older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, there is limited knowledge about treatment in older patients as they are under-represented in clinical trials. The oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 is associated with a lower rate...... of adverse events than capecitabine and may therefore be a suitable drug for elderly. However, data on the use of S-1 in Caucasian mCRC patients are lacking/scarce. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present study we evaluated safety and the efficacy of S-1 alone or in combination with oxaliplatin (SOx......) or irinotecan (IRIS) in older mCRC patients. Patients who received at least one cycle of S-1 (first-line therapy), SOx (mainly first-line therapy) or IRIS (second-line therapy) were included. RESULTS: From June 2012 to December 2014, 71 older patients received ≥1 cycle of either S-1 (n = 9), SOx (n = 44...

  9. Improving diagnosis, prognosis and prediction by using biomarkers in CRC patients (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolouzakis, Taxiarchis Konstantinos; Vassilopoulou, Loukia; Fragkiadaki, Persefoni; Mariolis Sapsakos, Theodoros; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Tsiaoussis, John

    2018-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers. In fact, it is placed in the third place among the most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and in the second one for the most diagnosed cancer in women, following breast cancer. Moreover, its high mortality rates classifies it among the leading causes of cancer‑related death worldwide. Thus, in order to help clinicians to optimize their practice, it is crucial to introduce more effective tools that will improve not only early diagnosis, but also prediction of the most likely progression of the disease and response to chemotherapy. In that way, they will be able to decrease both morbidity and mortality of their patients. In accordance with that, colon cancer research has described numerous biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and predictive purposes that either alone or as part of a panel would help improve patient's clinical management. This review aims to describe the most accepted biomarkers among those proposed for use in CRC divided based on the clinical specimen that is examined (tissue, faeces or blood) along with their restrictions. Lastly, new insight in CRC monitoring will be discussed presenting promising emerging biomarkers (telomerase activity, telomere length and micronuclei frequency).

  10. Assessing Religious Orientations: Replication and Validation of the Commitment-Reflectivity Circumplex (CRC Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Isaak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Commitment-Reflectivity Circumplex (CRC model is a structural model of religious orientation that was designed to help organize and clarify measurement of foundational aspect of religiousness. The current study successfully replicated the CRC model using multidimensional scaling, and further evaluated the reliability, structure, and validity of their measures in both a university student sample (Study 1 and a nationally representative sample (Study 2. All 10 subscales of the Circumplex Religious Orientation Inventory (CROI demonstrated good reliability across both samples. A two-week test-retest of the CROI showed that the subscales are stable over time. A confirmatory factor analysis of the CROI in the representative adult sample demonstrated good model fit. Finally, the CROI’s validity was examined in relation to the Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Quest measures. Overall, the CROI appears to clarify much of the ambiguity inherent in the established scales by breaking down what were very broad orientations into very specific suborientations. The results suggest that the CRC model is applicable for diverse populations of adults. In addition, the CROI appears to be construct valid with good structural and psychometric properties across all 10 subscales.

  11. Novel targets of the CbrAB/Crc carbon catabolite control system revealed by transcript abundance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Valentini, Martina; Wenner, Nicolas; Haichar, Feth el Zahar; Haas, Dieter; Lapouge, Karine

    2012-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to utilize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen compounds, allowing it to grow in vastly different environments. The uptake and catabolism of growth substrates are organized hierarchically by a mechanism termed catabolite repression control (Crc) whereby the Crc protein establishes translational repression of target mRNAs at CA (catabolite activity) motifs present in target mRNAs near ribosome binding sites. Poor carbon sources lead to activation of the CbrAB two-component system, which induces transcription of the small RNA (sRNA) CrcZ. This sRNA relieves Crc-mediated repression of target mRNAs. In this study, we have identified novel targets of the CbrAB/Crc system in P. aeruginosa using transcriptome analysis in combination with a search for CA motifs. We characterized four target genes involved in the uptake and utilization of less preferred carbon sources: estA (secreted esterase), acsA (acetyl-CoA synthetase), bkdR (regulator of branched-chain amino acid catabolism) and aroP2 (aromatic amino acid uptake protein). Evidence for regulation by CbrAB, CrcZ and Crc was obtained in vivo using appropriate reporter fusions, in which mutation of the CA motif resulted in loss of catabolite repression. CbrB and CrcZ were important for growth of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum medium, suggesting that the CbrAB/Crc system may act as an important regulator during chronic infection of the CF lung.

  12. Association between hMLH1 hypermethylation and JC virus (JCV) infection in human colorectal cancer (CRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkin, Alex; Niv, Yaron

    2011-04-01

    Incorporation of viral DNA may interfere with the normal sequence of human DNA bases on the genetic level or cause secondary epigenetic changes such as gene promoter methylation or histone acetylation. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the USA. Chromosomal instability (CIN) was established as the key mechanism in cancer development. Later, it was found that CRC results not only from the progressive accumulation of genetic alterations but also from epigenetic changes. JC virus (JCV) is a candidate etiologic factor in sporadic CRC. It may act by stabilizing β-catenin, facilitating its entrance to the cell nucleus, initialing proliferation and cancer development. Diploid CRC cell lines transfected with JCV-containing plasmids developed CIN. This result provides direct experimental evidence for the ability of JCV T-Ag to induce CIN in the genome of colonic epithelial cells. The association of CRC hMLH1 methylation and tumor positivity for JCV was recently documented. JC virus T-Ag DNA sequences were found in 77% of CRCs and are associated with promoter methylation of multiple genes. hMLH1 was methylated in 25 out of 80 CRC patients positive for T-Ag (31%) in comparison with only one out of 11 T-Ag negative cases (9%). Thus, JCV can mediate both CIN and aberrant methylation in CRC. Like other viruses, chronic infection with JCV may induce CRC by different mechanisms which should be further investigated. Thus, gene promoter methylation induced by JCV may be an important process in CRC and the polyp-carcinoma sequence.

  13. The New UN CRC General Comment 13: "The Right of the Child to Freedom from All Forms of Violence"--Changing How the World Conceptualizes Child Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svevo-Cianci, Kimberly A.; Herczog, Maria; Krappmann, Lothar; Cook, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child established CRC General Comment 13 (April 2011) to address today's unabating high rates of violence against children globally despite CRC advances. GC13 provides clear interpretations and stronger detail to supplement the legal language of CRC Article 19, intended to establish protection of children from…

  14. G9a stimulates CRC growth by inducing p53 Lys373 dimethylation-dependent activation of Plk1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yafang; Shen, Yanyan; He, Pengxing; Ding, Jian; Chen, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: G9a is genetically deregulated in various tumor types and is important for cell proliferation; however, the mechanism underlying G9a-induced carcinogenesis, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC), is unclear. Here, we investigated if G9a exerts oncogenic effects in CRC by increasing polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) expression. Thus, we further characterized the detailed molecular mechanisms. Methods: The role of Plk1 in G9a aberrant CRC was determined by performing different in vitro and in vivo assays, including assessment of cell growth by performing cell viability assay and assessment of signaling transduction profiles by performing immunoblotting, in the cases of pharmacological inhibition or short RNA interference-mediated suppression of G9a. Detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of G9a on Plk1 expression were determined by performing point mutation analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, and luciferase reporter assay. Correlation between G9a and Plk1 expression was determined by analyzing clinical samples of patients with CRC by performing immunohistochemistry. Results: Our study is the first to report a significant positive correlation between G9a and Plk1 levels in 89 clinical samples of patients with CRC. Moreover, G9a depletion decreased Plk1 expression and suppressed CRC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo , thus confirming the significant correlation between G9a and Plk1 levels. Further, we observed that G9a-induced Plk1 regulation depended on p53 inhibition. G9a dimethylated p53 at lysine 373, which in turn increased Plk1 expression and promoted CRC cell growth. Conclusions: These results indicate that G9a-induced and p53-dependent epigenetic programing stimulates the growth of colon cancer, which also suggests that G9a inhibitors that restore p53 activity are promising therapeutic agents for treating colon cancer, especially for CRC expressing wild-type p53.

  15. The β-catenin E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH-1 is regulated by CSN5/JAB1 in CRC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpertz, Sandra; Hennes, Thomas; Asare, Yaw; Vervoorts, Jörg; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Schütz, Anke K

    2014-09-01

    COP9 signalosome subunit 5 (CSN5) plays a decisive role in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and apoptosis via promoting protein degradation, gene transcription, and nuclear export. CSN5 regulates cullin-RING-E3 ligase (CRL) activity through its deNEDDylase function. It is overexpressed in several tumor entities, but its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is aberrant in most CRC cells, resulting in increased levels of oncogenic β-catenin and thus tumor progression. Under physiological conditions, β-catenin levels are tightly regulated by continuous proteasomal degradation. We recently showed that knockdown of CSN5 in model and CRC cells results in decreased (phospho)-β-catenin levels. Reduced β-catenin levels were associated with an attenuated proliferation rate of different CRC cell types after CSN5 knockdown. The canonical Wnt pathway involves degradation of β-catenin by a β-TrCP1-containing E3 ligase, but is mostly non-functional in CRC cells. We thus hypothesized that alternative β-catenin degradation mediated by SIAH-1 (seven in absentia homolog-1), is responsible for the effect of CSN5 on β-catenin signaling in CRC cells. We found that SIAH-1 plays an essential role in β-catenin degradation in HCT116 CRC cells and that CSN5 affects β-catenin target gene expression in these cells. Of note, CSN5 affected SIAH-1 mRNA and SIAH-1 protein levels. Moreover, β-catenin and SIAH-1 form protein complexes with CSN5 in HCT116 cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that CSN5 promotes SIAH-1 degradation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and that this is associated with its deNEDDylase activity. In conclusion, we have identified a CSN5/β-catenin/SIAH-1 interaction network that might control β-catenin degradation in CRC cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. MEG3 is a prognostic factor for CRC and promotes chemosensitivity by enhancing oxaliplatin-induced cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Shang, Jian; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Shi; Peng, Yanan; Zhou, Zhou; Pan, Huaqing; Wang, Xiaobing; Chen, Lipng; Zhao, Qiu

    2017-09-01

    A major reason for the failure of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment is the occurrence of chemoresistance to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Recently, studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in drug resistance. Using HiSeq sequencing methods, we identified that lncRNAs show differential expression levels in oxaliplatin-resistant (OxR) and non-resistant CRC patients. RT-qPCR was then performed in tissues and serum samples, and lncRNA MEG3 was verified to be downregulated in non-responding patients and to have considerable discriminating potential to identify responding patients from non-responding patients. Moreover, decreased serum MEG3 expression was associated with poor chemoresponse and low survival rate in CRC patients receiving oxaliplatin treatment. Subsequently, OxR cell lines were established, and MEG3 was significantly downregulated in HT29 OxR and SW480 OxR cells. In addition, overexpression of MEG3 with pMEG3 reversed oxaliplatin resistance in both CRC cell lines. Flow cytometric apoptosis analysis indicated that MEG3 promoted CRC cell apoptosis. More importantly, MEG3 enhanced oxaliplatin‑induced cell cytotoxicity in CRC. In conclusion, our integrated approach demonstrated that decreased expression of lncRNA MEG3 in CRC confers potent poor therapeutic efficacy, and that MEG3 promotes chemosensitivity by enhancing oxaliplatin-induced cell apoptosis. Thus, overexpression of MEG3 may be a future direction by which to develop a novel therapeutic strategy to overcome oxaliplatin resistance of CRC patients.

  17. Combination of preoperative NLR, PLR and CEA could increase the diagnostic efficacy for I-III stage CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Xin; Yang, Lin; He, Bang-Shun; Pan, Yu-Qin; Ying, Hou-Qun; Sun, Hui-Ling; Lin, Kang; Hu, Xiu-Xiu; Xu, Tao; Wang, Shu-Kui

    2017-09-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of CRC. The members of inflammatory biomarkers, preoperative NLR and PLR, have been proved by numerous studies to be promising prognostic biomarkers for CRC. However, the diagnostic value of the two biomarkers in CRC remains unknown, and no study reported the combined diagnostic efficacy of NLR, PLR and CEA. Five hundred and fifty-nine patients with I-III stage CRC undergoing surgical resection and 559 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this retrospective study. NLR and PLR were calculated from preoperative peripheral blood cell count detected using white blood cell five classification by Sysmex XT-1800i Automated Hematology System and serum CEA were measured by electrochemiluminescence by ELECSYS 2010. The diagnostic performance of NLR, PLR and CEA for CRC was evaluated by ROC curve. Levels of NLR and PLR in the cases were significantly higher than them in the healthy controls. ROC curves comparison analyses showed that the diagnostic efficacy of NLR (AUC=.755, 95%CI=.728-.780) alone for CRC was significantly higher than PLR (AUC=.723, 95%CI=.696-.749, P=.037) and CEA (AUC=.690, 95%CI=.662-.717, P=.002) alone. In addition, the diagnostic efficacy of the combination of NLR, PLR and CEA(AUC=.831, 95%CI=.807-.852)for CRC was not only significantly higher than NLR alone but also higher than any combinations of the two of these three biomarkers (PCRC diagnostic biomarker, even for early stage CRC, and the combination of NLR, PLR and CEA could significantly improve the diagnostic efficacy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. DEAD-box helicase 27 promotes colorectal cancer growth and metastasis and predicts poor survival in CRC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jieting; Chen, Huarong; Wong, Chi-Chun; Liu, Dabin; Li, Tong; Wang, Xiaohong; Ji, Jiafu; Sung, Joseph Jy; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Yu, Jun

    2018-03-14

    Copy number alterations (CNAs) are crucial for colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In this study, DEAD box polypeptide 27 (DDX27) was identified to be highly amplified in both TCGA CRC (474/615) and primary CRC (47/103), which was positively correlated with its mRNA overexpression. High DDX27 mRNA (N = 199) and protein expression (N = 260) predicted poor survival in CRC patients. Ectopic expression of DDX27 increased CRC cells proliferation, migration and invasion, but suppressed apoptosis. Conversely, silencing of DDX27 exerted opposite effects in vitro and significantly inhibited murine xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Up-regulation of DDX27 enhanced and prolonged TNF-α-mediated NF-κB signaling. Nucleophosmin (NPM1) was identified as a binding partner of DDX27. DDX27 increased nuclear NPM1 and NF-κB-p65 interaction to enhance DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Silencing NPM1 abrogated DDX27-activating NF-κB signaling and its tumor-promoting function. Together, DDX27 is overexpressed and plays a pivotal oncogenic role in CRC.

  19. RGC32 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating the Smad/Sip1 signaling pathway in CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Sheng-Nan; Zhu, Hui-Fang; Hu, Zhi-Yan; Zhong, Yan; Gu, Chuan-Sha; Chen, Shi-You; Liu, Teng-Fei; Li, Zu-Guo

    2017-05-04

    Response gene to complement 32 (RGC32) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple genes involved in cell growth, viability and tissue-specific differentiation. However, the role of RGC32 in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully elucidated. Here, we showed that the expression of RGC32 was significantly up-regulated in human CRC tissues versus adjacent normal tissues. RGC32 expression was significantly correlated with invasive and aggressive characteristics of tumor cells, as well as poor survival of CRC patients. We also demonstrated that RGC32 overexpression promoted proliferation, migration and tumorigenic growth of human CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, RGC32 facilitated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CRC via the Smad/Sip1 signaling pathway, as shown by decreasing E-cadherin expression and increasing vimentin expression. In conclusion, our findings suggested that overexpression of RGC32 facilitates EMT of CRC cells by activating Smad/Sip1 signaling.

  20. The global regulator Crc plays a multifaceted role in modulation of type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi-Hu; Zhang, Xi-Fen; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2013-02-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells that subvert normal host cell functions to the benefit of the pathogen, and results in serious infections. T3SS in P. aeruginosa is controlled by a complex system of regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways. In this study, we described that Crc, an RNA-binding protein, exerts a positive impact on T3SS in P. aeruginosa, as evidenced by promoter activity assays of several key T3SS genes, transcriptomics, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting in crc mutant. We further demonstrated that the regulatory function of Crc on the T3SS was mediated through the T3SS master regulator ExsA and linked to the Cbr/Crc signaling system. Expression profiling of the crc mutant revealed a downregulation of flagship T3SS genes as well as 16 other genes known to regulate T3SS gene expression in P. aeruginosa. On the basis of these data, we proposed that Crc may exert multifaceted control on the T3SS through various pathways, which may serve to fine-tune this virulence mechanism in response to environmental changes and nutrient sources. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  1. Evaluating the impact of an educational intervention to increase CRC screening rates in the African American community: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Errol J; DuHamel, Katherine; Jandorf, Lina

    2010-10-01

    Despite the acknowledged importance of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and its proven prognostic benefit, African American men and women simultaneously possess the highest rates of CRC-related incidence and mortality (Swan et al. in Cancer 97(6):1528-1540, 2003) and lowest screening rates in the United States (Polite et al. in Med Clin N Am 89(4):771-793, 2005). Effective, targeted interventions that promote CRC screening for this community are therefore critical. The current study evaluated the impact of a print-based educational intervention on screening behavior and associated patient-based factors, including cancer-related knowledge, fatalism, worry, and decisional balance (pros-cons). One hundred and eighteen individuals (mean age = 56.08, SD = 5.58) who had not undergone screening were recruited from two health clinics in New York City. Each participant received educational print materials regarding the need for screening, the process of undergoing screening, and the benefits of regular CRC screening. One in four individuals had undergone post-intervention screening at a three-month follow-up. Whereas all participants reported a decrease in cancer-related worry (p benefits and barriers of screening may be critical in the decision to undergo CRC screening. Future interventions to increase CRC-screening rates for this community may be improved by focusing on these patient-based factors.

  2. The safety and efficacy of microwave ablation for the treatment of CRC pulmonary metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gui; Shi, Liangrong; Qiang, Weiguang; Wu, Jun; Ji, Mei; Lu, Qicheng; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Bin; Jiang, Jingting; Wu, Changping

    2017-11-16

    Microwave ablation (MWA) is a recently developed thermal ablation technique that has been used for the treatment of different types of tumours. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of CT-guided percutaneous MWA for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) pulmonary metastases. From June 2010 to June 2015, 48 unresectable lesions in 32 patients with CRC pulmonary metastases were subjected to CT-guided MWA. Imaging follow-up was with contrast-enhanced CT and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. Oncologic imaging showed that 42 (87.5%) of the 48 lesions in the 32 patients were completely ablated. Needle track metastatic seeding was not found, and no patient deaths occurred within 30 d after ablation. The mean hospital stay was 3 d (range, 2-7 d). Pneumothorax was the most frequent complication and occurred in 6 (12.5%) of the 48 lesions. The median survival time was 31 months (95% CI: 15.4-46.6). The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 79.5%, 63.1% and 44.4%, respectively. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that tumour size, disease-free interval (DFI) and number of tumours were significantly related to the overall survival time (p = .007, p = .022 and p = .030, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that tumour size was an independent prognostic factor for survival (p = .017). CT-guided percutaneous MWA is a safe and effective minimally invasive method for treating CRC pulmonary metastases.

  3. BRAFV600E mutation analysis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC in daily clinical practice: correlations with clinical characteristics, and its impact on patients' outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharenia Saridaki

    Full Text Available To prospectively evaluate the usefulness of the BRAFV600E mutation detection in daily clinical practice in patients with metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC.504 mCRC patients treated with systemic chemotherapy ± biologics were analyzed.A statistically significant higher incidence of the BRAF mutation was observed in patients with ECOG-PS 2 (p=0.001, multiple metastatic sites (p=0.002,> 65 years old (p=0.004, primary tumors located in the colon (p<0.001, high-grade tumors (p=0.001 and in those with mucinous features (p=0.037. Patients with BRAFV600E mutated tumors had a statistically significantly reduced progression-free survival (PFS compared to wild-type (wt ones (4.1 and 11.6 months, respectively; p<0.001 and overall survival (OS (14.0 vs. 34.6 months, respectively; p<0.001. In the multivariate analysis the BRAFV600E mutation emerged as an independent factor associated with reduced PFS (HR: 4.1, 95% CI 2.7-6.2; p<0.001 and OS (HR: 5.9, 95% CI 3.7-9.5; p<0.001. Among the 273 patients treated with salvage cetuximab or panitumumab, the BRAFV600E mutation was correlated with reduced PFS (2.2 vs. 6.0 months; p<0.0001 and OS (4.3 vs. 17.4 months; p<0.0001.The presence of BRAFV600E-mutation in mCRC characterizes a subgroup of patients with distinct biologic, clinical and pathological features and is associated with very poor patients' prognosis.

  4. IRRIGATION PRACTICES IN LONG-TERM SURVIVORS OF COLORECTAL CANCER (CRC) WITH COLOSTOMIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marcia; McMullen, Carmit K.; Altschuler, Andrea; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Krouse, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Creation of a colostomy in colorectal (CRC) cancer patients results in a loss of control over bowel evacuation. The only way to re-establish some control is through irrigation, a procedure that involves instilling fluid into the bowel to allow for gas and fecal output. This article reports on irrigation practices of participants in a large, multi-site, multi-investigator study of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in long term CRC survivors. Questions about irrigation practices were identified in open-ended questions within a large HR-QOL survey and in focus groups of men and women with high and low HR-QOL. Descriptive data on survivors were combined with content analysis of irrigation knowledge and practices. Patient education and use of irrigation in the United States has decreased over the years, with no clear identification of why this change in practice has occurred. Those respondents who used irrigation had their surgery longer ago, and spent more time in colostomy care than those that did not irrigate. Reasons for the decrease in colostomy irrigation are unreported and present priorities for needed research. PMID:23022935

  5. The translational repressor Crc controls the Pseudomonas putida benzoate and alkane catabolic pathways using a multi-tier regulation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arranz, Sofía; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Metabolically versatile bacteria usually perceive aromatic compounds and hydrocarbons as non-preferred carbon sources, and their assimilation is inhibited if more preferable substrates are available. This is achieved via catabolite repression. In Pseudomonas putida, the expression of the genes allowing the assimilation of benzoate and n-alkanes is strongly inhibited by catabolite repression, a process controlled by the translational repressor Crc. Crc binds to and inhibits the translation of benR and alkS mRNAs, which encode the transcriptional activators that induce the expression of the benzoate and alkane degradation genes respectively. However, sequences similar to those recognized by Crc in benR and alkS mRNAs exist as well in the translation initiation regions of the mRNA of several structural genes of the benzoate and alkane pathways, which suggests that Crc may also regulate their translation. The present results show that some of these sites are functional, and that Crc inhibits the induction of both pathways by limiting not only the translation of their transcriptional activators, but also that of genes coding for the first enzyme in each pathway. Crc may also inhibit the translation of a gene involved in benzoate uptake. This multi-tier approach probably ensures the rapid regulation of pathway genes, minimizing the assimilation of non-preferred substrates when better options are available. A survey of possible Crc sites in the mRNAs of genes associated with other catabolic pathways suggested that targeting substrate uptake, pathway induction and/or pathway enzymes may be a common strategy to control the assimilation of non-preferred compounds. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. NSC30049 inhibits Chk1 pathway in 5-FU-resistant CRC bulk and stem cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Satya; Jaiswal, Aruna S; Sharma, Ritika; Nawab, Akbar; Duckworth, Lizette Vila; Law, Brian K; Zajac-Kaye, Maria; George, Thomas J; Sharma, Jay; Sharma, Arun K; Hromas, Robert A

    2017-08-22

    The 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment induces DNA damage and stalling of DNA replication forks. These stalled replication forks then collapse to form one sided double-strand breaks, leading to apoptosis. However, colorectal cancer (CRC) stem cells rapidly repair the stalled/collapsed replication forks and overcome treatment effects. Recent evidence suggests a critical role of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) in preventing the replicative stress. Therefore, Chk1 kinase has been a target for developing mono or combination therapeutic agents. In the present study, we have identified a novel orphan molecule NSC30049 (NSC49L) that is effective alone, and in combination potentiates 5-FU-mediated growth inhibition of CRC heterogeneous bulk and FOLFOX-resistant cell lines in culture with minimal effect on normal colonic epithelial cells. It also inhibits the sphere forming activity of CRC stem cells, and decreases the expression levels of mRNAs of CRC stem cell marker genes. Results showed that NSC49L induces 5-FU-mediated S-phase cell cycle arrest due to increased load of DNA damage and increased γ-H2AX staining as a mechanism of cytotoxicity. The pharmacokinetic analysis showed a higher bioavailability of this compound, however, with a short plasma half-life. The drug is highly tolerated by animals with no pathological aberrations. Furthermore, NSC49L showed very potent activity in a HDTX model of CRC stem cell tumors either alone or in combination with 5-FU. Thus, NSC49L as a single agent or combined with 5-FU can be developed as a therapeutic agent by targeting the Chk1 pathway in 5-FU-resistant CRC heterogeneous bulk and CRC stem cell populations.

  7. Survivin -31 G/C polymorphism might contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linhua; Hu, Yi; Deng, Zhongmin; Li, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Published data has shown inconsistent findings about the association of survivin -31 G/C polymorphism with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). This meta-analysis quantitatively assesses the results from published studies to provide a more precise estimate of the association between survivin -31 G/C polymorphism as a possible predictor of the risk of CRC. We conducted a literature search in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Stata 12 software was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on the available data from each article. Six studies including 1840 cases with CRC and 1804 controls were included in this study. Survivin -31 G/C polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.53-2.07; I(2) = 0%). In the race subgroup analysis, both Asians (OR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.44-2.05; I(2) = 0%) and Caucasians (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.46-2.55; I(2) = 0%) with survivin -31 G/C polymorphism had increased CRC risk. In the subgroup analysis according to site of CRC, survivin -31 G/C polymorphism was not associated with colon cancer risk (OR = 2.02; 95% CI, 0.79-5.22; I(2) = 82%). However, this polymorphism was significantly associated with rectum cancer risk (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.42-2.74; I(2) = 0%). In the subgroup analysis by clinical stage, both early stage (I+II) and advanced stage (III+IV) were associated with survivin -31 G/C polymorphism (OR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.20-2.16; I(2) = 0% and OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.70-3.13; I(2) = 0%, respectively). In the subgroup analysis by smoke status, both smokers and non-smokers with survivin -31 G/C polymorphism showed increased CRC risk (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01-2.13; I(2) = 60% and OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.28-2.30; I(2) = 0%, respectively). In the subgroup analysis by drink status, both drinkers and non-drinkers with survivin -31 G/C polymorphism showed increased CRC risk (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.06-2.37; I(2) = 8% and OR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1

  8. The Crc protein inhibits the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas putida under balanced carbon/nitrogen growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; de la Peña, Fernando; Prieto, María Axiliadora; Rojo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida synthesizes polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as storage compounds. PHA synthesis is more active when the carbon source is in excess and the nitrogen source is limiting, but can also occur at a lower rate under balanced carbon/nitrogen ratios. This work shows that PHA synthesis is controlled by the Crc global regulator, a protein that optimizes carbon metabolism by inhibiting the expression of genes involved in the use of non-preferred carbon sources. Crc acts post-transcriptionally. The mRNAs of target genes contain characteristic catabolite activity (CA) motifs near the ribosome binding site. Sequences resembling CA motifs can be predicted for the phaC1 gene, which codes for a PHA polymerase, and for phaI and phaF, which encode proteins associated to PHA granules. Our results show that Crc inhibits the translation of phaC1 mRNA, but not that of phaI or phaF, reducing the amount of PHA accumulated in the cell. Crc inhibited PHA synthesis during exponential growth in media containing a balanced carbon/nitrogen ratio. No inhibition was seen when the carbon/nitrogen ratio was imbalanced. This extends the role of Crc beyond that of controlling the hierarchical utilization of carbon sources and provides a link between PHA synthesis and the global regulatory networks controlling carbon flow. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Backbone and stereospecific (13)C methyl Ile (δ1), Leu and Val side-chain chemical shift assignments of Crc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakhi; Sahu, Bhubanananda; Ray, Malay K; Deshmukh, Mandar V

    2015-04-01

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) allows bacteria to selectively assimilate a preferred compound among a mixture of several potential carbon sources, thus boosting growth and economizing the cost of adaptability to variable nutrients in the environment. The RNA-binding catabolite repression control (Crc) protein acts as a global post-transcriptional regulator of CCR in Pseudomonas species. Crc triggers repression by inhibiting the expression of genes involved in transport and catabolism of non-preferred substrates, thus indirectly favoring assimilation of preferred one. We report here a nearly complete backbone and stereospecific (13)C methyl side-chain chemical shift assignments of Ile (δ1), Leu and Val of Crc (~ 31 kDa) from Pseudomonas syringae Lz4W.

  10. Polarization Property Measurement of the Long Undulator Radiation Using Cr/C Multilayer Polarization Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibe, Masahito; Mukai, Mikihito; Shoji, Yoshihiko; Kimura, Hiroaki

    2004-01-01

    A rotating analyzer ellipsometry (RAE) system was developed with Cr/C multilayers that function as polarization elements for photon energy range of 110 - 280 eV. Polarization properties of a planar undulator change axisymmetrically in off-axial manner, and the second harmonic is more remarkable for the change. By using the RAE system, the polarization property of the second harmonic radiation from the NewSUBARU long undulator at the energy of 180 eV was examined. The degree of linear polarization of the on-axis radiation was over 0.996. The spatial distribution of the polarization azimuth was measured and was in fair agreement with the theoretical calculation. A peculiar behavior of the polarization property near the radiation peak of the second harmonic was observed by changing the height of the undulator gap

  11. Protein kinase C zeta suppresses low- or high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC) phenotypes by interphase centrosome anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevi, Ravi Kiran; Javadi, Arman; McClements, Jane; Vohhodina, Jekaterina; Savage, Kienan; Loughrey, Maurice Bernard; Evergren, Emma; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2018-04-01

    Histological grading provides prognostic stratification of colorectal cancer (CRC) by scoring heterogeneous phenotypes. Features of aggressiveness include aberrant mitotic spindle configurations, chromosomal breakage, and bizarre multicellular morphology, but pathobiology is poorly understood. Protein kinase C zeta (PKCz) controls mitotic spindle dynamics, chromosome segregation, and multicellular patterns, but its role in CRC phenotype evolution remains unclear. Here, we show that PKCz couples genome segregation to multicellular morphology through control of interphase centrosome anchoring. PKCz regulates interdependent processes that control centrosome positioning. Among these, interaction between the cytoskeletal linker protein ezrin and its binding partner NHERF1 promotes the formation of a localized cue for anchoring interphase centrosomes to the cell cortex. Perturbation of these phenomena induced different outcomes in cells with single or extra centrosomes. Defective anchoring of a single centrosome promoted bipolar spindle misorientation, multi-lumen formation, and aberrant epithelial stratification. Collectively, these disturbances induce cribriform multicellular morphology that is typical of some categories of low-grade CRC. By contrast, defective anchoring of extra centrosomes promoted multipolar spindle formation, chromosomal instability (CIN), disruption of glandular morphology, and cell outgrowth across the extracellular matrix interface characteristic of aggressive, high-grade CRC. Because PKCz enhances apical NHERF1 intensity in 3D epithelial cultures, we used an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay of apical NHERF1 intensity as an indirect readout of PKCz activity in translational studies. We show that apical NHERF1 IHC intensity is inversely associated with multipolar spindle frequency and high-grade morphology in formalin-fixed human CRC samples. To conclude, defective PKCz control of interphase centrosome anchoring may underlie distinct categories of

  12. Multicenter retrospective analysis of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J; Tran, B; Ensor, J; Gibbs, P; Wong, H L; Wong, S F; Vilar, E; Tie, J; Broaddus, R; Kopetz, S; Desai, J; Overman, M J

    2014-05-01

    The microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) phenotype, present in 15% of early colorectal cancer (CRC), confers good prognosis. MSI-H metastatic CRC is rare and its impact on outcomes is unknown. We describe survival outcomes and the impact of chemotherapy, metastatectomy, and BRAF V600E mutation status in the largest reported cohort of MSI-H metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). A retrospective review of 55 MSI-H metastatic CRC patients from two institutions, Royal Melbourne Hospital (Australia) and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States), was conducted. Statistical analyses utilized Kaplan-Meier method, Log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards models. Median age was 67 years (20-90), 58% had poor differentiation, and 45% had stage IV disease at presentation. Median overall survival (OS) from metastatic disease was 15.4 months. Thirteen patients underwent R0/R1 metastatectomies, with median OS from metastatectomy 33.8 months. Thirty-one patients received first-line systemic chemotherapy for metastatic disease with median OS from the start of chemotherapy 11.5 months. No statistically significant difference in progression-free survival or OS was seen between fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, or irinotecan based chemotherapy. BRAF V600E mutation was present in 14 of 47 patients (30%). BRAF V600E patients demonstrated significantly worse median OS; 10.1 versus 17.3 months, P = 0.03. In multivariate analyses, BRAF V600E mutants had worse OS (HR 4.04; P = 0.005), while patients undergoing metastatectomy (HR 0.11; P = CRC do not appear to have improved outcomes. BRAF V600E mutation is a poor prognostic factor in MSI-H metastatic CRC.

  13. Disease severity does not affect the interval between IBD diagnosis and the development of CRC: results from two large, Dutch case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooiweer, Erik; Baars, Judith E; Lutgens, Maurice W M D; Vleggaar, Frank; van Oijen, Martijn; Siersema, Peter D; Kuipers, Ernst J; van der Woude, C Janneke; Oldenburg, Bas

    2012-05-01

    The increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well established. The incidence of IBD-related CRC however, differs markedly between cohorts from referral centers and population-based studies. In the present study we aimed to identify characteristics potentially explaining these differences in two cohorts of patients with IBD-related CRC. PALGA, a nationwide pathology network and registry in The Netherlands, was used to search for patients with IBD-associated CRC between 1990 and 2006. Patients from 7 referral hospitals and 78 general hospitals were included. Demographic and disease specific parameters were collected retrospectively using patient charts. A total of 281 patients with IBD-associated CRC were identified. Patients from referral hospitals had a lower median age at IBD diagnosis (26 years vs. 28 years (p=0.02)), while having more IBD-relapses before CRC diagnosis than patients from general hospitals (3.8 vs. 1.5 (pCRC was diagnosed at a younger age (47 years vs. 51 years (p=0.01)). However, the median interval between IBD diagnosis and diagnosis of CRC was similar in both cohorts (19 years in referral hospitals vs. 17 years in general hospitals (p=0.13)). IBD patients diagnosed with CRC treated in referral hospitals in The Netherlands are younger at both the diagnosis of IBD and CRC than IBD patients with CRC treated in general hospitals. Although patients from referral centers appeared to have a more severe course of IBD, the interval between IBD and CRC diagnosis was similar. Copyright © 2011 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  15. The Crc and Hfq proteins of Pseudomonas putida cooperate in catabolite repression and formation of ribonucleic acid complexes with specific target motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Renata; Hernández-Arranz, Sofía; La Rosa, Ruggero; Yuste, Luis; Madhushani, Anjana; Shingler, Victoria; Rojo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Crc protein is a global regulator that has a key role in catabolite repression and optimization of metabolism in Pseudomonads. Crc inhibits gene expression post-transcriptionally, preventing translation of mRNAs bearing an AAnAAnAA motif [the catabolite activity (CA) motif] close to the translation start site. Although Crc was initially believed to bind RNA by itself, this idea was recently challenged by results suggesting that a protein co-purifying with Crc, presumably the Hfq protein, could account for the detected RNA-binding activity. Hfq is an abundant protein that has a central role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Herein, we show that the Pseudomonas putida Hfq protein can recognize the CA motifs of RNAs through its distal face and that Crc facilitates formation of a more stable complex at these targets. Crc was unable to bind RNA in the absence of Hfq. However, pull-down assays showed that Crc and Hfq can form a co-complex with RNA containing a CA motif in vitro. Inactivation of the hfq or the crc gene impaired catabolite repression to a similar extent. We propose that Crc and Hfq cooperate in catabolite repression, probably through forming a stable co-complex with RNAs containing CA motifs to result in inhibition of translation initiation. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. DcR3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition through activation of the TGF-β3/SMAD signaling pathway in CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhu, Hui-Fang; Liu, Ding-Li; Hu, Zhi-Yan; Li, Sheng-Nan; Kan, He-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Zu-Guo

    2016-11-22

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a novel member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, was recently reported to be associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the role of DcR3 in human colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that DcR3 expression was significantly higher in human colorectal cancer tissues than in paired normal tissues, and that DcR3 expression was strongly correlated with tumor invasion, lymph node metastases and poor prognoses. Moreover, DcR3 overexpression significantly enhanced CRC cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Conversely, DcR3 knockdown significantly repressed CRC cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and DcR3 deficiency also attenuated CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Functionally, DcR3 was essential for TGF-β3/SMAD-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells. Importantly, cooperation between DcR3 and TGF-β3/SMAD-EMT signaling-related protein expression was correlated with survival and survival time in CRC patients. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that DcR3 may be a prognostic biomarker for CRC and that this receptor facilitates CRC development and metastasis by participating in TGF-β3/SMAD-mediated EMT of CRC cells.

  17. The role of RCAS1 as a biomarker in diagnosing CRC and monitoring tumor recurrence and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su-xia; Wang, Jing; Wang, Li-juan; Jin, Gui-hua; Ying, Xia; He, Chen-chen; Guo, Xi-jing; Zhang, Jian-ying; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Qing

    2014-06-01

    Receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1) plays an important role in tumor progression by helping tumor cell to escape from host immunological surveillance or modifying the characteristics of connective tissue around. RCAS1 may appropriately reflect the development and prognosis of tumor. In the study, we sought to identify the clinical significance of RCAS1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis and tumor recurrence monitoring. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) with tissue array slides was preformed to analyze RCAS1 protein expression in CRC, colorectal polyps, and normal colon tissues. RCAS1 levels in colorectal cancer were significantly higher than those in colorectal polyps and normal colon tissues (PCRC are significantly higher than in healthy controls and polyps (PCRC was 82.1 %, which was higher than carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Especially in CEA-negative cases, the sensitivity of RCAS1 was 88.2 %. Finally, CRC patients who were followed up showed a serum RCAS1 level which significantly decreased after surgery (PCRC diagnosis but also useful for monitoring tumor recurrence. RCAS1 might be a supplementary serological marker for CRC.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) Pro12Ala polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shao, Yan; Tang, Shenhua; Cheng, Xianyong; Lian, Haifeng; Qin, Chengyong

    2015-01-01

    The association between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) Pro12Ala polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and CRC risk. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. A total of 17 case-control studies with 12635 and 15803 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism was associated with CRC risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.94, P = 0.003, I(2) = 35%). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association was found among Caucasians (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96, P = 0.007, I(2) = 38%) but not among Asians (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.51-1.12, P = 0.17, I(2) = 28%). In the subgroup analysis by CRC site, a significant association was found among colon cancer (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-0.98, P = 0.03, I(2) = 16%) but not among rectal cancer (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.57-1.21, P = 0.34, I(2) = 63%). The sensitivity analysis did not influence the result by omitting low-quality studies (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.93, P = 0.006, I(2) = 51%). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism was significant associated with CRC risk.

  19. 29 CFR 37.64 - What procedures must the Director follow when CRC has completed a post-approval compliance review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What procedures must the Director follow when CRC has completed a post-approval compliance review? 37.64 Section 37.64 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor... (WIA) Compliance Procedures § 37.64 What procedures must the Director follow when CRC has completed a...

  20. Quantitative proteomic analysis of paired colorectal cancer and non-tumorigenic tissues reveals signature proteins and perturbed pathways involved in CRC progression and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Manveen K; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Kim, Hoguen; Park, Cheol Keun; Baker, Mark S; Packer, Nicolle H; Paik, Young-Ki; Hancock, William S; Fanayan, Susan

    2015-08-03

    Modern proteomics has proven instrumental in our understanding of the molecular deregulations associated with the development and progression of cancer. Herein, we profile membrane-enriched proteome of tumor and adjacent normal tissues from eight CRC patients using label-free nanoLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomics and advanced pathway analysis. Of the 948 identified proteins, 184 proteins were differentially expressed (P1.5) between the tumor and non-tumor tissue (69 up-regulated and 115 down-regulated in tumor tissues). The CRC tumor and non-tumor tissues clustered tightly in separate groups using hierarchical cluster analysis of the differentially expressed proteins, indicating a strong CRC-association of this proteome subset. Specifically, cancer associated proteins such as FN1, TNC, DEFA1, ITGB2, MLEC, CDH17, EZR and pathways including actin cytoskeleton and RhoGDI signaling were deregulated. Stage-specific proteome signatures were identified including up-regulated ribosomal proteins and down-regulated annexin proteins in early stage CRC. Finally, EGFR(+) CRC tissues showed an EGFR-dependent down-regulation of cell adhesion molecules, relative to EGFR(-) tissues. Taken together, this study provides a detailed map of the altered proteome and associated protein pathways in CRC, which enhances our mechanistic understanding of CRC biology and opens avenues for a knowledge-driven search for candidate CRC protein markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative proteomics unravels that the post-transcriptional regulator Crc modulates the generation of vesicles and secreted virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reales-Calderón, Jose Antonio; Corona, Fernando; Monteoliva, Lucía; Gil, Concha; Martínez, Jose Luis

    2015-09-08

    Recent research indicates that the post-transcriptional regulator Crc modulates susceptibility to antibiotics and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Several P. aeruginosa virulence factors are secreted or engulfed in vesicles. To decipher the Crc modulation of P. aeruginosa virulence, we constructed a crc deficient mutant and measure the proteome associated extracellular vesicles and the vesicle-free secretome using iTRAQ. Fifty vesicle-associated proteins were more abundant and 14 less abundant in the crc-defective strain, whereas 37 were more abundant and 17 less abundant in the vesicle-free secretome. Among them, virulence determinants, such as ToxA, protease IV, azurin, chitin-binding protein, PlcB and Hcp1, were less abundant in the crc-defective mutant. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that some of the observed changes were post-transcriptional and, thus, could be attributed to a direct Crc regulatory role; whereas, for other differentially secreted proteins, the regulatory role was likely indirect. We also observed that the crc mutant presented an impaired vesicle-associated secretion of quorum sensing signal molecules and less cytotoxicity than its wild-type strain. Our results offer new insights into the mechanisms by which Crc regulates P. aeruginosa virulence, through the modulation of vesicle formation and secretion of both virulence determinants and quorum sensing signals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: HUPO 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Segmental distribution of some common molecular markers for colorectal cancer (CRC): influencing factors and potential implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiorgis, Petros Christakis

    2016-05-01

    Proximal and distal colorectal cancers (CRCs) are regarded as distinct disease entities, evolving through different genetic pathways and showing multiple clinicopathological and molecular differences. Segmental distribution of some common markers (e.g., KRAS, EGFR, Ki-67, Bcl-2, COX-2) is clinically important, potentially affecting their prognostic or predictive value. However, this distribution is influenced by a variety of factors such as the anatomical overlap of tumorigenic molecular events, associations of some markers with other clinicopathological features (stage and/or grade), and wide methodological variability in markers' assessment. All these factors represent principal influences followed by intratumoral heterogeneity and geographic variation in the frequency of detection of particular markers, whereas the role of other potential influences (e.g., pre-adjuvant treatment, interaction between markers) remains rather unclear. Better understanding and elucidation of the various influences may provide a more accurate picture of the segmental distribution of molecular markers in CRC, potentially allowing the application of a novel patient stratification for treatment, based on particular molecular profiles in combination with tumor location.

  3. A genetic variant in Rassf1a predicts outcome in mCRC patients treated with cetuximab plus chemotherapy: results from FIRE-3 and JACCRO 05 and 06 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebio, A; Stintzing, S; Heinemann, V; Sunakawa, Y; Zhang, W; Ichikawa, W; Tsuji, A; Takahashi, T; Parek, A; Yang, D; Cao, S; Ning, Y; Stremitzer, S; Matsusaka, S; Okazaki, S; Barzi, A; Berger, M D; Lenz, H-J

    2018-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. The Hippo regulator Rassf1a is also involved in the Ras signaling cascade. In this work, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms within Hippo components and their association with outcome in CRC patients treated with cetuximab. Two cohorts treated with cetuximab plus chemotherapy were evaluated (198 RAS wild-type (WT) patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI plus Cetuximab within the FIRE-3 trial and 67 Ras WT patients treated either with first-line mFOLFOX6 or SOX plus Cetuximab). In these two populations, Rassf1a rs2236947 was associated with overall survival (OS), as patients with a CC genotype had significantly longer OS compared with those with CA or AA genotypes. This association was stronger in patients with left-side CRC (hazard ratio (HR): 1.79 (1.01-3.14); P=0.044 and HR: 2.83 (1.14-7.03); P=0.025, for Fire 3 and JACCRO cohorts, respectively). Rassf1a rs2236947 is a promising biomarker for patients treated with cetuximab plus chemotherapy.

  4. Computational prediction of the Crc regulon identifies genus-wide and species-specific targets of catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Gara Fergal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catabolite repression control (CRC is an important global control system in Pseudomonas that fine tunes metabolism in order optimise growth and metabolism in a range of different environments. The mechanism of CRC in Pseudomonas spp. centres on the binding of a protein, Crc, to an A-rich motif on the 5' end of an mRNA resulting in translational down-regulation of target genes. Despite the identification of several Crc targets in Pseudomonas spp. the Crc regulon has remained largely unexplored. Results In order to predict direct targets of Crc, we used a bioinformatics approach based on detection of A-rich motifs near the initiation of translation of all protein-encoding genes in twelve fully sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. As expected, our data predict that genes related to the utilisation of less preferred nutrients, such as some carbohydrates, nitrogen sources and aromatic carbon compounds are targets of Crc. A general trend in this analysis is that the regulation of transporters is conserved across species whereas regulation of specific enzymatic steps or transcriptional activators are often conserved only within a species. Interestingly, some nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs such as HU and IHF are predicted to be regulated by Crc. This finding indicates a possible role of Crc in indirect control over a subset of genes that depend on the DNA bending properties of NAPs for expression or repression. Finally, some virulence traits such as alginate and rhamnolipid production also appear to be regulated by Crc, which links nutritional status cues with the regulation of virulence traits. Conclusions Catabolite repression control regulates a broad spectrum of genes in Pseudomonas. Some targets are genus-wide and are typically related to central metabolism, whereas other targets are species-specific, or even unique to particular strains. Further study of these novel targets will enhance our understanding of how Pseudomonas

  5. Computational prediction of the Crc regulon identifies genus-wide and species-specific targets of catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Patrick; Barret, Matthieu; O'Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P

    2010-11-25

    Catabolite repression control (CRC) is an important global control system in Pseudomonas that fine tunes metabolism in order optimise growth and metabolism in a range of different environments. The mechanism of CRC in Pseudomonas spp. centres on the binding of a protein, Crc, to an A-rich motif on the 5' end of an mRNA resulting in translational down-regulation of target genes. Despite the identification of several Crc targets in Pseudomonas spp. the Crc regulon has remained largely unexplored. In order to predict direct targets of Crc, we used a bioinformatics approach based on detection of A-rich motifs near the initiation of translation of all protein-encoding genes in twelve fully sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. As expected, our data predict that genes related to the utilisation of less preferred nutrients, such as some carbohydrates, nitrogen sources and aromatic carbon compounds are targets of Crc. A general trend in this analysis is that the regulation of transporters is conserved across species whereas regulation of specific enzymatic steps or transcriptional activators are often conserved only within a species. Interestingly, some nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) such as HU and IHF are predicted to be regulated by Crc. This finding indicates a possible role of Crc in indirect control over a subset of genes that depend on the DNA bending properties of NAPs for expression or repression. Finally, some virulence traits such as alginate and rhamnolipid production also appear to be regulated by Crc, which links nutritional status cues with the regulation of virulence traits. Catabolite repression control regulates a broad spectrum of genes in Pseudomonas. Some targets are genus-wide and are typically related to central metabolism, whereas other targets are species-specific, or even unique to particular strains. Further study of these novel targets will enhance our understanding of how Pseudomonas bacteria integrate nutritional status cues with the regulation

  6. Conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRC) methodology does not allow the in vitro expansion of patient-derived primary and metastatic lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Giovanni; Salvati, Valentina; Giordani, Ilenia; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Quacquarini, Denise; Duranti, Enrico; De Nicola, Francesca; Pallocca, Matteo; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Falchi, Mario; Pallini, Roberto; De Maria, Ruggero; Eramo, Adriana

    2018-07-01

    Availability of tumor and non-tumor patient-derived models would promote the development of more effective therapeutics for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRC) methodology demonstrated exceptional potential for the expansion of epithelial cells from patient tissues. However, the possibility to expand patient-derived lung cancer cells using CRC protocols is controversial. Here, we used CRC approach to expand cells from non-tumoral and tumor biopsies of patients with primary or metastatic NSCLC as well as pulmonary metastases of colorectal or breast cancers. CRC cultures were obtained from both tumor and non-malignant tissues with extraordinary high efficiency. Tumor cells were tracked in vitro through tumorigenicity assay, monitoring of tumor-specific genetic alterations and marker expression. Cultures were composed of EpCAM+ lung epithelial cells lacking tumorigenic potential. NSCLC biopsies-derived cultures rapidly lost patient-specific genetic mutations or tumor antigens. Similarly, pulmonary metastases of colon or breast cancer generated CRC cultures of lung epithelial cells. All CRC cultures examined displayed epithelial lung stem cell phenotype and function. In contrast, brain metastatic lung cancer biopsies failed to generate CRC cultures. In conclusion, patient-derived primary and metastatic lung cancer cells were negatively selected under CRC conditions, limiting the expansion to non-malignant lung epithelial stem cells from either tumor or non-tumor tissue sources. Thus, CRC approach cannot be applied for direct therapeutic testing of patient lung tumor cells, as the tumor-derived CRC cultures are composed of (non-tumoral) airway basal cells. © 2018 UICC.

  7. Computational prediction of the Crc regulon identifies genus-wide and species-specific targets of catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas bacteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, Patrick

    2010-11-25

    Abstract Background Catabolite repression control (CRC) is an important global control system in Pseudomonas that fine tunes metabolism in order optimise growth and metabolism in a range of different environments. The mechanism of CRC in Pseudomonas spp. centres on the binding of a protein, Crc, to an A-rich motif on the 5\\' end of an mRNA resulting in translational down-regulation of target genes. Despite the identification of several Crc targets in Pseudomonas spp. the Crc regulon has remained largely unexplored. Results In order to predict direct targets of Crc, we used a bioinformatics approach based on detection of A-rich motifs near the initiation of translation of all protein-encoding genes in twelve fully sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. As expected, our data predict that genes related to the utilisation of less preferred nutrients, such as some carbohydrates, nitrogen sources and aromatic carbon compounds are targets of Crc. A general trend in this analysis is that the regulation of transporters is conserved across species whereas regulation of specific enzymatic steps or transcriptional activators are often conserved only within a species. Interestingly, some nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) such as HU and IHF are predicted to be regulated by Crc. This finding indicates a possible role of Crc in indirect control over a subset of genes that depend on the DNA bending properties of NAPs for expression or repression. Finally, some virulence traits such as alginate and rhamnolipid production also appear to be regulated by Crc, which links nutritional status cues with the regulation of virulence traits. Conclusions Catabolite repression control regulates a broad spectrum of genes in Pseudomonas. Some targets are genus-wide and are typically related to central metabolism, whereas other targets are species-specific, or even unique to particular strains. Further study of these novel targets will enhance our understanding of how Pseudomonas bacteria integrate

  8. Quality control of the NPL-CRC secondary standard system used for activimeters calibration at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil;Ccontrole de qualidade do sistema padrao secundario NPL-CRC utilizado na calibracao de ativimetros no IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Elaine W.; Potiens, Maria da P.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a quality control program to be applied at the NPL-CRC activimeter secondary standard system, used as reference to comparison in tests made with the work tertiary standard activimeter, Capintec basic CRC{sup R}-15BT, both belonging to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The repeatability, reproducibility and the precision tests were performed using a sealed check source of {sup 133}Ba, from Amersham. It was made 70 series of 10 measurements to each activimeter, totaling 1400 measurements. Considering the variation limit of 5% to precision and reproducibility tests in the nuclear medicine services, recommended by the Brazilian standard CNEN-NN-3.05, the results observed in the behavior of the IPEN activimeter were satisfactory. (author)

  9. Artificial intelligence may help in predicting the need for additional surgery after endoscopic resection of T1 colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimasa, Katsuro; Kudo, Shin-Ei; Mori, Yuichi; Misawa, Masashi; Matsudaira, Shingo; Kouyama, Yuta; Baba, Toshiyuki; Hidaka, Eiji; Wakamura, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Takemasa; Kudo, Toyoki; Ishigaki, Tomoyuki; Yagawa, Yusuke; Nakamura, Hiroki; Takeda, Kenichi; Haji, Amyn; Hamatani, Shigeharu; Mori, Kensaku; Ishida, Fumio; Miyachi, Hideyuki

    2018-03-01

     Decisions concerning additional surgery after endoscopic resection of T1 colorectal cancer (CRC) are difficult because preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis (LNM) is problematic. We investigated whether artificial intelligence can predict LNM presence, thus minimizing the need for additional surgery.  Data on 690 consecutive patients with T1 CRCs that were surgically resected in 2001 - 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. We divided patients into two groups according to date: data from 590 patients were used for machine learning for the artificial intelligence model, and the remaining 100 patients were included for model validation. The artificial intelligence model analyzed 45 clinicopathological factors and then predicted positivity or negativity for LNM. Operative specimens were used as the gold standard for the presence of LNM. The artificial intelligence model was validated by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for predicting LNM, and comparing these data with those of the American, European, and Japanese guidelines.  Sensitivity was 100 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 72 % to 100 %) in all models. Specificity of the artificial intelligence model and the American, European, and Japanese guidelines was 66 % (95 %CI 56 % to 76 %), 44 % (95 %CI 34 % to 55 %), 0 % (95 %CI 0 % to 3 %), and 0 % (95 %CI 0 % to 3 %), respectively; and accuracy was 69 % (95 %CI 59 % to 78 %), 49 % (95 %CI 39 % to 59 %), 9 % (95 %CI 4 % to 16 %), and 9 % (95 %CI 4 % - 16 %), respectively. The rates of unnecessary additional surgery attributable to misdiagnosing LNM-negative patients as having LNM were: 77 % (95 %CI 62 % to 89 %) for the artificial intelligence model, and 85 % (95 %CI 73 % to 93 %; P  artificial intelligence significantly reduced unnecessary additional surgery after endoscopic resection of T1 CRC without missing LNM positivity. © Georg

  10. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-30

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  11. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  12. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies

  13. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  14. Quality control of the NPL-CRC secondary standard system used for activimeters calibration at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Elaine W.; Potiens, Maria da P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a quality control program to be applied at the NPL-CRC activimeter secondary standard system, used as reference to comparison in tests made with the work tertiary standard activimeter, Capintec basic CRC R -15BT, both belonging to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The repeatability, reproducibility and the precision tests were performed using a sealed check source of 133 Ba, from Amersham. It was made 70 series of 10 measurements to each activimeter, totaling 1400 measurements. Considering the variation limit of 5% to precision and reproducibility tests in the nuclear medicine services, recommended by the Brazilian standard CNEN-NN-3.05, the results observed in the behavior of the IPEN activimeter were satisfactory. (author)

  15. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  16. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  17. High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Mingwu; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Huang, Qiushi [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Zhanshan, E-mail: wangzs@tongji.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); She, Rui; Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Hongchang [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    X-ray reflection near 45° via multilayer mirrors can be used for astronomical polarization measurements. A Cr/C multilayer mirror (designed for X-ray polarimetry at 250 eV), with a period thickness of 3.86 nm and a bi-layer number of 100, was fabricated using direct current magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8 keV and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the multilayer structure. Different models were introduced to fit the hard X-ray reflectivity curve, which indicates that the layer thickness of two materials slightly drifts from the bottom to the top of the stack. Both the chromium and carbon layers are amorphous with asymmetric interfaces, while the Cr-on-C interface is slightly wider. Based on the good quality of the multilayer structure, a high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV at a grazing incidence angle of 40.7°. The fabricated Cr/C multilayer mirror exhibits high reflectivity and polarization levels in the energy region of 240 eV–260 eV. - Highlights: • We fabricated Cr/C multilayer with 3.8 nm d-spacing. • X-ray reflectometry was used to determine the exact structure of Cr/C multilayer. • A high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV. • Both Cr and C were found to be amorphous with slightly asymmetric interfaces. • A 4-layer model was used to fit and explain the results.

  18. The Crc protein participates in down-regulation of the Lon gene to promote rhamnolipid production and rhl quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nana; Ding, Shuting; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Xue; Xia, Yongjie; Di, Hongxia; Cao, Qiao; Deng, Xin; Wu, Min; Wong, Catherine C L; Tian, Xiao-Xu; Yang, Cai-Guang; Zhao, Jing; Lan, Lefu

    2015-05-01

    Rhamnolipid acts as a virulence factor during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Here, we show that deletion of the catabolite repression control (crc) gene in P. aeruginosa leads to a rhamnolipid-negative phenotype. This effect is mediated by the down-regulation of rhl quorum sensing (QS). We discover that a disruption of the gene encoding the Lon protease entirely offsets the effect of crc deletion on the production of both rhamnolipid and rhl QS signal C4-HSL. Crc is unable to bind lon mRNA in vitro in the absence of the RNA chaperon Hfq, while Crc contributes to Hfq-mediated repression of the lon gene expression at a posttranscriptional level. Deletion of crc, which results in up-regulation of lon, significantly reduces the in vivo stability and abundance of the RhlI protein that synthesizes C4-HSL, causing the attenuation of rhl QS. Lon is also capable of degrading the RhlI protein in vitro. In addition, constitutive expression of rhlI suppresses the defects of the crc deletion mutant in rhamnolipid, C4-HSL and virulence on lettuce leaves. This study therefore uncovers a novel posttranscriptional regulatory cascade, Crc-Hfq/Lon/RhlI, for the regulation of rhamnolipid production and rhl QS in P. aeruginosa. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Crc global regulator inhibits the Pseudomonas putida pWW0 toluene/xylene assimilation pathway by repressing the translation of regulatory and structural genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Renata; Fonseca, Pilar; Rojo, Fernando

    2010-08-06

    In Pseudomonas putida, the expression of the pWW0 plasmid genes for the toluene/xylene assimilation pathway (the TOL pathway) is subject to complex regulation in response to environmental and physiological signals. This includes strong inhibition via catabolite repression, elicited by the carbon sources that the cells prefer to hydrocarbons. The Crc protein, a global regulator that controls carbon flow in pseudomonads, has an important role in this inhibition. Crc is a translational repressor that regulates the TOL genes, but how it does this has remained unknown. This study reports that Crc binds to sites located at the translation initiation regions of the mRNAs coding for XylR and XylS, two specific transcription activators of the TOL genes. Unexpectedly, eight additional Crc binding sites were found overlapping the translation initiation sites of genes coding for several enzymes of the pathway, all encoded within two polycistronic mRNAs. Evidence is provided supporting the idea that these sites are functional. This implies that Crc can differentially modulate the expression of particular genes within polycistronic mRNAs. It is proposed that Crc controls TOL genes in two ways. First, Crc inhibits the translation of the XylR and XylS regulators, thereby reducing the transcription of all TOL pathway genes. Second, Crc inhibits the translation of specific structural genes of the pathway, acting mainly on proteins involved in the first steps of toluene assimilation. This ensures a rapid inhibitory response that reduces the expression of the toluene/xylene degradation proteins when preferred carbon sources become available.

  20. Pickled meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC): a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Josh; Roebothan, Barbara; Buehler, Sharon; Sun, Zhuoyu; Cotterchio, Michelle; Younghusband, Ban; Dicks, Elizabeth; Mclaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S; Wang, Peizhong Peter

    2010-09-01

    Although a large body of epidemiological research suggests that red meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer, little is known regarding how such an association varies across populations and types of red meat. The objective of this study was to assess whether an association exists between the intakes of total red meat and pickled red meat and the risk of colorectal cancer in study subjects residing in Newfoundland and Labrador. This case-control study of 1,204 residents of Newfoundland and Labrador was part of a larger study on colorectal cancer. Personal history food frequency questionnaires were used to collect retrospective data from 518 individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 686 controls. Intakes were ranked and divided into tertiles. Logistic regression was used to examine the possible association between meat intakes and colorectal cancer diagnosis while controlling for possible confounding factors. A positive, but non-statistically significant, association between total red meat intake and CRC was observed in this study. Pickled red meat consumption was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of CRC (men, OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.37-3.15; women, OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.45-4.32), the odds ratios increasing with each tertile of consumption, suggesting a dose-response effect. Intake of pickled red meat appears to increase the risk of colorectal cancer in Newfoundland and Labrador.

  1. The KRAS Strip Assay for detection of KRAS mutation in Egyptian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC): A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Kader, Y.; Safwat, E.; Kassem, H.A.; Kassem, N.M.; Emera, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream factors KRAS and BRAF are mutated in several types of cancer, affecting the clinical response to EGFR inhibitors. Mutations in the EGFR kinase domain predict sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefltinib and erlotinib in lung adenocarcinoma, while activating point mutations in KRAS and BRAF confer resistance to the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab in colorectal cancer. The development of new generation methods for systematic mutation screening of these genes will allow more appropriate therapeutic choices. Purpose: Detection of KRAS mutation in Egyptian colorectal cancer (CRC) patients by the KRAS Strip Assay. Methods: Examination of 20 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is done to detect KRAS mutations by KRAS Strip Assay. For the Strip Assay, a mutant-enriched PCR was followed by hybridization to KRAS-specific probes bound to a nitrocellulose strip. Results: Among 20 patients, KRAS mutations were identified in 80% of patients by the KRAS Strip Assay. Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that KRAS Strip Assay is an alternative to protocols currently in use for KRAS mutation detection

  2. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of CrC (X(3)Σ(-)) and CrCCH (X̃ (6)Σ(+)): Examining the chromium-carbon bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, J; Ziurys, L M

    2016-05-14

    Pure rotational spectroscopy of the CrC (X(3)Σ(-)) and CrCCH (X̃ (6)Σ(+)) radicals has been conducted using millimeter/sub-millimeter direct absorption methods in the frequency range 225-585 GHz. These species were created in an AC discharge of Cr(CO)6 and either methane or acetylene, diluted in argon. Spectra of the CrCCD were also recorded for the first time using deuterated acetylene as the carbon precursor. Seven rotational transitions of CrC were measured, each consisting of three widely spaced, fine structure components, arising from spin-spin and spin-rotation interactions. Eleven rotational transitions were recorded for CrCCH and five for CrCCD; each transition in these cases was composed of a distinct fine structure sextet. These measurements confirm the respective (3)Σ(-) and (6)Σ(+) ground electronic states of these radicals, as indicated from optical studies. The data were analyzed using a Hund's case (b) Hamiltonian, and rotational, spin-spin, and spin-rotation constants have been accurately determined for all three species. The spectroscopic parameters for CrC were significantly revised from previous optical work, while those for CrCCH are in excellent agreement; completely new constants were established for CrCCD. The chromium-carbon bond length for CrC was calculated to be 1.631 Å, while that in CrCCH was found to be rCr-C = 1.993 Å - significantly longer. This result suggests that a single Cr-C bond is present in CrCCH, preserving the acetylenic structure of the ligand, while a triple bond exists in CrC. Analysis of the spin constants suggests that CrC has a nearby excited (1)Σ(+) state lying ∼16 900 cm(-1) higher in energy, and CrCCH has a (6)Π excited state with E ∼ 4800 cm(-1).

  3. Why Wait Until Our Community Gets Cancer?: Exploring CRC Screening Barriers and Facilitators in the Spanish-Speaking Community in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Christa E; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Laping, Jane L; Perreras, Lexie; Reuland, Daniel S; Cubillos, Laura; Pignone, Michael P; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death among Hispanics in the United States. Despite the benefits of CRC screening, many Hispanics are not being screened. Using a combined methodology of focus groups and discrete choice experiment (DCE) surveys, the objectives for this research were as follows: (1) to improve understanding of preferences regarding potential CRC screening program characteristics, and (2) to improve understanding of the barriers and facilitators around CRC screening with the Hispanic, immigrant community in North Carolina. Four gender-stratified focus groups were conducted and DCE surveys were administered to 38 Spanish-speaking individuals across four counties in North Carolina. In-depth content analysis was used to examine the focus group data; descriptive analyses and mean attribute importance scores for cost of screening and follow-up care, travel time, and test options were calculated from DCE data. Data analyses showed that this population has a strong interest in CRC screening but experience barriers such as lack of access to resources, cost uncertainty, and stigma. Some of these barriers are unique to their cultural experiences in the United States, such as an expressed lack of tailored CRC information. Based on the DCE, cost variables were more important than testing options or travel time. This study suggests that Hispanics may have a general awareness of and interest in CRC screening, but multiple barriers prevent them from getting screened. Special attention should be given to designing culturally and linguistically appropriate programs to improve access to healthcare resources, insurance, and associated costs among Hispanics.

  4. Viability study for application of combined reheater cycle (CRC) to fluidized bed combustion plants; Estudio de Viabilidad para la Aplicacion del Ciclo de Recalentamiento Combinado (CRC) a Plantas de Combustion de Lecho Fuido Atmosferico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Basically, the project try to analyze the application viability of a first reheating in steam cycles of little power plants, useful mainly for biomass and wastes, in our case with coal blends; and a second reheating of the steam in conventional and fluidized bed combustion plants. Using in both cases the thermic energy of the exhaust gases from one gas turbine. The advantages of the CRC cycle are: (1) Reduction of the moisture in the turbine, increasing the energy efficiency and blade protection. (2) To take advantage of the waste gas energy from the gas turbine in optimum way. (3) Great operation flexibility under good efficiency results. In general, the system can use the synergy between gas, coal and waste energies with the highest global efficiency. (Author)

  5. Imposition of Antidumping Duty (BAMD Towards China’s Cold Rolled Coil/Sheet (CRC/S Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Pratiwi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Steel industry is a strategic sector in the economy of a country. Steel industry in Indonesia has not been able to fulfill their domestic demand that is still necessary to import steel product. However, many of these imported products are sold at dumping prices, especially those from china giving rise to unfair trade. One of trade remedy measures as a result of unfair trade remedies can recover trough the imposition of antidumping duty. In 2013, Indonesia imposes antidumping duty for Cold Rolled Coil/Sheet (CRC/S from China and other countries. Imposition of antidumping duty will be analyzed descriptively with the antidumping agreement conformity. While, it cannot be denied that political factors also determine imposition of antidumping duty. It is need to use analytical theory of justice in order to enforce fair-trade

  6. Assessment of the cardiac safety between cetuximab and panitumumab as single therapy in Chinese chemotherapy-refractory mCRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xue-Miao; Chen, Hao; Li, Qing; Song, Yiling; Zhang, Shuping; Xu, Xiao-Shuan; Xu, Yiwei; Chen, Shulin

    2018-01-01

    The cardiac safety of cetuximab and panitumumab, particularly as single agents, has not been investigated extensively. This trial was designed to specifically evaluate the cardiac safety of cetuximab and panitumumab as single therapy in Chinese chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Sixty-one patients received cetuximab at an initial dose of 400 mg/m 2 intravenously over 120 minutes on day 1 (week 1), followed by a maintenance dose of 250 mg/m 2 intravenously over 60 minutes on day 1 of each 7-day cycle. Forty-three patients received panitumumab at a dose of 6 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days. Routine laboratory tests and electrocardiogram (ECG) were performed at baseline, during therapy and after the treatment (4th and 10th months). The incidence of elevation of troponin I ultra (TNI Ultra), abnormal ECGs, cardiac events and noncardiac adverse events (AEs) were recorded and analyzed. The incidence of elevation of TNI Ultra between the two groups had no significance ( p =0.681), and TNI Ultra+ was observed more frequently in patients with metastases to more than three organs and they received fourth or above lines of chemotherapy. The most frequent abnormal ECG manifestations were nonspecific ST changes and QTc prolongation in the two groups. At 10 months after treatment, most of the abnormal ECG manifestations were reversed. The most common cardiac AEs of cetuximab and panitumumab included palpitations, dyspnea, chest pain and arrhythmias requiring treatment. Most of the events were mild and transient. The incidence of cardiac AEs had no significant difference between the two groups. Rash was still the most common noncardiac AE in both groups. Cetuximab and panitumumab showed favorable cardiac safety as single agents for Chinese chemotherapy-refractory mCRC patients. But monitoring for cardiac AEs is still necessary throughout the entire treatment process.

  7. Hsa-miR-875-5p exerts tumor suppressor function through down-regulation of EGFR in colorectal carcinoma (CRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiening; Cai, Xun; Li, Qi; Xue, Peng; Chen, Zhixiao; Dong, Xiao; Xue, Ying

    2016-07-05

    Hsa-miRNA-875-5p (miR-875-5p) has recently been discovered to have anticancer efficacy in different organs. However, the role of miR-875-5p on colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is still ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-875-5p on the development of CRC. The results indicated that miR-875-5p was significantly down-regulated in primary tumor tissues and very low levels were found in CRC cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-875-5p in CRC cell lines significantly suppressed cell growth as evidenced by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and BrdU staining, through inhibition of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, CDK4 and up-regulation of p57(Kip2) and p21(Waf1/Cip1). In addition, miR-875-5p induced apoptosis, as indicated by concomitantly with up-regulation of key apoptosis protein cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl2. Moreover, miR-875-5p inhibited cellular migration and invasiveness through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene EGFR was revealed to be a putative target of miR-875-5p, which was inversely correlated with miR-875-5p expression in CRC. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-875-5p played a pivotal role on CRC through inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic EGFR.

  8. Comparative study of various grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinoma and their value in predicting lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Jamadar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The histopathological parameters that could help in predicting lymph node metastases (LNM are keratinization, nuclear pleomorphism (NP, and the pattern of invasion (POI when assessed at the invasive front. When the whole tumor was considered, histopathological parameters like NP and POI were significant in predicting LNM.

  9. Genomic profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Yoshioka

    Full Text Available We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs, and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs. Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.

  10. Proteomic profiling of a mouse model of acute intestinal Apc deletion leads to identification of potential novel biomarkers of human colorectal cancer (CRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudi, Abeer; Song, Fei; Reed, Karen R; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Meniel, Valerie S; Watson, Alastair J M; Pritchard, D Mark; Clarke, Alan R; Jenkins, John R

    2013-10-25

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Accurate non-invasive screening for CRC would greatly enhance a population's health. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene mutations commonly occur in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, leading to Wnt signalling pathway activation. Acute conditional transgenic deletion of Apc in murine intestinal epithelium (AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl)) causes phenotypic changes similar to those found during colorectal tumourigenesis. This study comprised a proteomic analysis of murine small intestinal epithelial cells following acute Apc deletion to identify proteins that show altered expression during human colorectal carcinogenesis, thus identifying proteins that may prove clinically useful as blood/serum biomarkers of colorectal neoplasia. Eighty-one proteins showed significantly increased expression following iTRAQ analysis, and validation of nine of these by Ingenuity Pathaway Analysis showed they could be detected in blood or serum. Expression was assessed in AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl) small intestinal epithelium by immunohistochemistry, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR; increased nucelolin concentrations were also detected in the serum of AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl) and Apc(Min)(/)(+) mice by ELISA. Six proteins; heat shock 60kDa protein 1, Nucleolin, Prohibitin, Cytokeratin 18, Ribosomal protein L6 and DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 5,were selected for further investigation. Increased expression of 4 of these was confirmed in human CRC by qPCR. In conclusion, several novel candidate biomarkers have been identified from analysis of transgenic mice in which the Apc gene was deleted in the intestinal epithelium that also showed increased expression in human CRC. Some of these warrant further investigation as potential serum-based biomarkers of human CRC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changed adipocytokine concentrations in colorectal tumor patients and morbidly obese patients compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillenbrand Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Adipose tissue dysfunction accompanied with alterations in the release of adipocytokines has been proposed to contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of several adipose tissue expressed hormones in colorectal cancer patients (CRC and morbidly obese (MO patients and to compare these concentrations to clinicopathological parameters. Methods Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, leptin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-1 alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha were determined in 67 patients operated on for CRC (31 rectal cancers, 36 colon cancers, 37 patients operated on for morbid obesity and 60 healthy blood donors (BD. Results Compared to BD, leptin concentrations were lowered in CRC patients whereas those of MO patients were elevated. Adiponectin concentrations were only lowered in MO patients. Concentrations of MCP-1, PAI-1, and IL-1 alpha were elevated in both CRC and MO patients, while resistin and TNF-alpha were similarly expressed in MO and CRC patients compared to BD. Resistin concentrations positively correlated with tumor staging (p Conclusions The results suggest that both MO and CRC have low-grade inflammation as part of their etiology.

  12. Changed adipocytokine concentrations in colorectal tumor patients and morbidly obese patients compared to healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbrand, Andreas; Fassler, Juliane; Huber, Nadine; Xu, Pengfei; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Templin, Markus; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Wolf, Anna Maria; Knippschild, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Adipose tissue dysfunction accompanied with alterations in the release of adipocytokines has been proposed to contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of several adipose tissue expressed hormones in colorectal cancer patients (CRC) and morbidly obese (MO) patients and to compare these concentrations to clinicopathological parameters. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, leptin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in 67 patients operated on for CRC (31 rectal cancers, 36 colon cancers), 37 patients operated on for morbid obesity and 60 healthy blood donors (BD). Compared to BD, leptin concentrations were lowered in CRC patients whereas those of MO patients were elevated. Adiponectin concentrations were only lowered in MO patients. Concentrations of MCP-1, PAI-1, and IL-1 alpha were elevated in both CRC and MO patients, while resistin and TNF-alpha were similarly expressed in MO and CRC patients compared to BD. Resistin concentrations positively correlated with tumor staging (p<0.002) and grading (p=0.015) of rectal tumor patients. The results suggest that both MO and CRC have low-grade inflammation as part of their etiology

  13. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Zhou, Na; Teng, Fei; Zou, Caiyan; Xue, Ying; Yang, Manqing; Song, Huaidong; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT). The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend trend = 0.004) and had higher blood pressure (≥120 [systolic blood pressure]/80 mmHg [diastolic blood pressure]; P for trend = 0.028) than those who were younger and had lower blood pressure (P for trend >0.05). HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  14. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The American Diabetes Association (ADA recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  15. CRC handbook of radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, K.N.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents Development of Radiobiology. A Review. Basic Cell Biology. Physics of Radiation Biology. Cellular Radiation Damage. Modifications of Cellular Radiation Damage. Repair of Radiation Damage. Molecular Radiation Biology. Radiation Syndromes and their Modifications. Radiation Damage of Skin and Mucous Membrane. Radiation Damage of Nervous Tissue. Radiation Damage of Reproductive Organs. Radiation Damage of Other Organ Systems. Radiation Immunology. Background, Medical and Commercial Sources. Radiation Injuries to Human Fetuses. Radiation-Induced Genetic Damage. Radiation Carcinogenesis: Tissue Culture Model. Radiation Carcinogenesis: Animal Model. Radiation Carcinogenesis: Human Model. Radiation Carcinogenesis: Secondary Neoplasms. After Therapy of Tumors. Other Late Effects: Aging, Cataract, Aplastic Anemia. Maximum Permissible Dose (MPD). Radiation Response of Human Tumor. Radioisotopes in Biology and Medicine

  16. The catabolite repression control protein Crc plays a role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lianbo; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Gao, Qingguo

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria form complex surface-attached biofilm communities in nature. Biofilm cells differentiate into subpopulations which display tolerance towards antimicrobial agents. However, the signal transduction pathways regulating subpopulation differentiation in biofilms are largely unelucidated. In t....... In the present study, we show that the catabolite repression control protein Crc regulates the metabolic state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in biofilms, and plays an important role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in P. aeruginosa biofilms....

  17. Deterministic Role of CEA and MSI Status in Predicting Outcome of CRC Patients: a Perspective Study Amongst Hospital Attending Eastern Indian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyel, Banerjee; Priyabrata, Das; Rittwika, Bhattacharya; Swati, Dasgupta; Soma, Mukhopadhyay; Jayasri, Basak; Ashis, Mukhopadhyay

    2017-12-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an important deterministic factor in predicting colorectal carcinoma (CRC) progression. It is also evident that microsatellite instability (MSI) which results in a hypermutable phenotype of genomic DNA is common in CRC. Owing to the scarcity of reports from India, our aim of this study was to understand the clinicopathological correlations of CEA status with surgery and chemotherapy, correlate the same with socio-demographic status of the patients, determine the MSI status amongst them and understand the prognostic implications of CEA and MSI as CRC progression marker amongst patients. The serum CEA level was estimated by chemiluminescence assay (CLIA). Serum liver enzyme assay was carried out following the manufacturer's instructions using auto-analysers (E. Merck and Sera mol. Health Care, India). MSI analysis was carried out by PCR-SSCP. From our study, most frequently detected colorectal cancer was in 40-49 years age group (25.26%) with 61.05% male and 38.95% females. CEA showed a significant association with higher TNM staging, tumour size, smoking habit and MSI status ( p   0.05). After surgery and chemotherapy, CEA and WBCs were decreased significantly ( p   0.05). Overall, microsatellite instability was observed in approximately 40% of the populations. From our study, it was also evident that for both, MSI and abnormal CEA level predicted poor prognosis for the patient (by using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis; p  = 0.04). Thus, CEA and initial MSI status can be used as prognostic markers of CRC.

  18. Effect of CRC::etr1-1 transgene expression on ethylene production, sex expression, fruit set and fruit ripening in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzenberg, Jessica A; Beaudry, Randy M; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene is a key factor regulating sex expression in cucurbits. Commercial melons (Cucumis melo L.) are typically andromonoecious, producing male and bisexual flowers. Our prior greenhouse studies of transgenic melon plants expressing the dominant negative ethylene perception mutant gene, etr1-1, under control of the carpel- and nectary-primordia targeted CRAB'S CLAW (CRC) promoter showed increased number and earlier appearance of carpel-bearing flowers. To further investigate this phenomenon which could be potentially useful for earlier fruit production, we observed CRC::etr1-1 plants in the field for sex expression, fruit set, fruit development, and ripening. CRC::etr1-1 melon plants showed increased number of carpel-bearing open flowers on the main stem and earlier onset by 7-10 nodes. Additional phenotypes observed in the greenhouse and field were conversion of approximately 50% of bisexual buds to female, and elongated ovaries and fruits. Earlier and greater fruit set occurred on the transgenic plants. However, CRC::etr1-1 plants had greater abscission of young fruit, and smaller fruit, so that final yield (kg/plot) was equivalent to wild type. Earlier fruit set in line M5 was accompanied by earlier appearance of ripe fruit. Fruit from line M15 frequently did not exhibit external ripening processes of rind color change and abscission, but when cut open, the majority showed a ripe or overripe interior accompanied by elevated internal ethylene. The non-ripening external phenotype in M15 fruit corresponded with elevated etr1-1 transgene expression in the exocarp. These results provide insight into the role of ethylene perception in carpel-bearing flower production, fruit set, and ripening.

  19. Multiple Hfq-Crc target sites are required to impose catabolite repression on (methyl)phenol metabolism in Pseudomonas putida CF600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirebrand, Lisa; Madhushani, Anjana W K; Irie, Yasuhiko; Shingler, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    The dmp-system encoded on the IncP-2 pVI150 plasmid of Pseudomonas putida CF600 confers the ability to assimilate (methyl)phenols. Regulation of the dmp-genes is subject to sophisticated control, which includes global regulatory input to subvert expression of the pathway in the presence of preferred carbon sources. Previously we have shown that in P. putida, translational inhibition exerted by the carbon repression control protein Crc operates hand-in-hand with the RNA chaperon protein Hfq to reduce translation of the DmpR regulator of the Dmp-pathway. Here, we show that Crc and Hfq co-target four additional sites to form riboprotein complexes within the proximity of the translational initiation sites of genes encoding the first two steps of the Dmp-pathway to mediate two-layered control in the face of selection of preferred substrates. Furthermore, we present evidence that Crc plays a hitherto unsuspected role in maintaining the pVI150 plasmid within a bacterial population, which has implications for (methyl)phenol degradation and a wide variety of other physiological processes encoded by the IncP-2 group of Pseudomonas-specific mega-plasmids. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Combination epigenetic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with subcutaneous 5-azacitidine and entinostat: a phase 2 consortium/stand up 2 cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Nilofer S; El-Khoueiry, Anthony; Yin, Jun; Oberg, Ann L; Flynn, Patrick; Adkins, Douglas; Sharma, Anup; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Brown, Thomas; Medvari, Prakriti; Jones, Peter A; Easwaran, Hariharan; Kamel, Ihab; Bahary, Nathan; Kim, George; Picus, Joel; Pitot, Henry C; Erlichman, Charles; Donehower, Ross; Shen, Hui; Laird, Peter W; Piekarz, Richard; Baylin, Stephen; Ahuja, Nita

    2017-05-23

    Therapy with demethylating agent 5-azacitidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat shows synergistic re-expression of tumor-suppressor genes and growth inhibition in colorectal (CRC) cell lines and in vivo studies. We conducted a phase II, multi-institutional study of the combination in metastatic CRC patients. Subcutaneous azacitidine was administered at 40 mg/m2 days 1-5 and 8-10 and entinostat was given 7 mg orally on days 3 and 10. An interim analysis indicated toxicity crossed the pre-specified safety boundary but was secondary to disease. A 2nd cohort with added eligibility restrictions was accrued: prior therapies were limited to no more than 2 or 3 (KRAS-mutated and KRAS-wildtype cancers, respectively) and <30% of liver involvement. The primary endpoint was RECIST response. Serial biopsies were performed at baseline and after 2 cycles of therapy. Forty-seven patients were enrolled (24:Cohort 1, 23:Cohort 2). Patients were heavily pre-treated (median prior therapies 4: Cohort 1 and 2.5: cohort 2). No responses were observed. Median progression-free survival was 1.9 months; overall survival was 5.6 and 8.3 months in Cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Toxicity was tolerable and as expected. Unsupervised cluster analysis of serial tumor biopsies suggested greater DNA demethylation in patients with PFS above the median. In this first trial of CRC patients with combination epigenetic therapy, we show tolerable therapy without significant clinical activity as determined by RECIST responses. Reversal of hypermethylation was seen in a subset of patients and correlated with improved PFS.

  1. Combination epigenetic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with subcutaneous 5-azacitidine and entinostat: a phase 2 consortium/stand Up 2 cancer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Nilofer S.; el-Khoueiry, Anthony; Yin, Jun; Oberg, Ann L.; Flynn, Patrick; Adkins, Douglas; Sharma, Anup; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Brown, Thomas; Medvari, Prakriti; Jones, Peter A.; Easwaran, Hariharan; Kamel, Ihab; Bahary, Nathan; Kim, George; Picus, Joel; Pitot, Henry C.; Erlichman, Charles; Donehower, Ross; Shen, Hui; Laird, Peter W.; Piekarz, Richard; Baylin, Stephen; Ahuja, Nita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Therapy with demethylating agent 5-azacitidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat shows synergistic re-expression of tumor-suppressor genes and growth inhibition in colorectal (CRC) cell lines and in vivo studies. Experimental Design We conducted a phase II, multi-institutional study of the combination in metastatic CRC patients. Subcutaneous azacitidine was administered at 40 mg/m2 days 1-5 and 8-10 and entinostat was given 7 mg orally on days 3 and 10. An interim analysis indicated toxicity crossed the pre-specified safety boundary but was secondary to disease. A 2nd cohort with added eligibility restrictions was accrued: prior therapies were limited to no more than 2 or 3 (KRAS-mutated and KRAS-wildtype cancers, respectively) and <30% of liver involvement. The primary endpoint was RECIST response. Serial biopsies were performed at baseline and after 2 cycles of therapy. Results Forty-seven patients were enrolled (24:Cohort 1, 23:Cohort 2). Patients were heavily pre-treated (median prior therapies 4: Cohort 1 and 2.5: cohort 2). No responses were observed. Median progression-free survival was 1.9 months; overall survival was 5.6 and 8.3 months in Cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Toxicity was tolerable and as expected. Unsupervised cluster analysis of serial tumor biopsies suggested greater DNA demethylation in patients with PFS above the median. Conclusion In this first trial of CRC patients with combination epigenetic therapy, we show tolerable therapy without significant clinical activity as determined by RECIST responses. Reversal of hypermethylation was seen in a subset of patients and correlated with improved PFS. PMID:28186961

  2. HLA-G 3'UTR Polymorphisms Impact the Prognosis of Stage II-III CRC Patients in Fluoropyrimidine-Based Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garziera, Marica; Bidoli, Ettore; Cecchin, Erika; Mini, Enrico; Nobili, Stefania; Lonardi, Sara; Buonadonna, Angela; Errante, Domenico; Pella, Nicoletta; D'Andrea, Mario; De Marchi, Francesco; De Paoli, Antonino; Zanusso, Chiara; De Mattia, Elena; Tassi, Renato; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    An important hallmark of CRC is the evasion of immune surveillance. HLA-G is a negative regulator of host's immune response. Overexpression of HLA-G protein in primary tumour CRC tissues has already been associated to worse prognosis; however a definition of the role of immunogenetic host background is still lacking. Germline polymorphisms in the 3'UTR region of HLA-G influence the magnitude of the protein by modulating HLA-G mRNA stability. Soluble HLA-G has been associated to 3'UTR +2960 Ins/Ins and +3035 C/T (lower levels) and +3187 G/G (high levels) genotypes. HLA-G 3'UTR SNPs have never been explored in CRC outcome. The purpose of this study was to investigate if common HLA-G 3'UTR polymorphisms have an impact on DFS and OS of 253 stage II-III CRC patients, after primary surgery and ADJ-CT based on FL. The 3'UTR was sequenced and SNPs were analyzed for their association with survival by Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox models; results underwent internal validation using a resampling method (bootstrap analysis). In a multivariate analysis, we estimated an association with improved DFS in Ins allele (Ins/Del +Ins/Ins) carriers (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.93, P = 0.023) and in patients with +3035 C/T genotype (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-0.99, P = 0.045). The +3187 G/G mutated carriers (G/G vs A/A+A/G) were associated to a worst prognosis in both DFS (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.19-5.05, P = 0.015) and OS (HR 2.71, 95% CI 1.16-6.63, P = 0.022). Our study shows a prognostic and independent role of 3 HLA-G 3'UTR SNPs, +2960 14-bp INDEL, +3035 C>T, and +3187 A>G.

  3. Precision and accuracy control of dose calibrator: CAPINTEC CRC 12 in laboratory for radiopharmacy of Nuclear Medicine Institute of Sucre, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huanca Sardinas, E; Castro Sacci, O; Torrez Cabero, M; Vasquez Ibanez, M.R; Zambrana Zelada, AJ.

    2013-01-01

    The dose calibrator is one of the indispensable tools in radiopharmacy laboratories of a nuclear medicine department also is mandated to provide accurate readings. A very high doses produce unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient or a very low dose, prolong the acquisition time of the studies affecting the quality of the image. In the present work we did a retrospective analysis of the results of quality checks performed at precision accuracy of the Gauge CRC12 CAPINTEC dose calibrator over a period of 16 years, using sealed certified sources with low power, medium and high: Ba 133 , Cs 137 , Co 60 and Co 57 . The results showed that the lowest standard deviation value was 0.17 for Ba133, relative to Co 57 of 2.97 in the control of accuracy. Accuracy over control values were also lower standard deviation for Ba 133 1.00, relative to Co 57 10.06. Being stated that the CRC12 CAPINTEC activimeter reliability is acceptable during the reporting period and under the conditions indicated. Therefore, we continue to make these quality control procedures and the professional must feel confident that the measurements obtained with it are reliable

  4. Precision and accuracy control of dose calibrator: CAPINTEC CRC 12 in laboratory for radiopharmacy of Nuclear Medicine Institute of Sucre, Bolivia; Control de precision y exactitud del calibrador de dosis: CAPINTEC CRC 12 del Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia del Instituto de Medicina Nuclear Sucre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huanca Sardinas, E; Castro Sacci, O; Torrez Cabero, M; Vasquez Ibanez, M.R; Zambrana Zelada, AJ., E-mail: nuclear_sre@entelnet.bo, E-mail: ehuancasardinas@hotmail.com, E-mail: marcetorrez@hotmail.com, E-mail: maritavas@yahoo.es, E-mail: alfzambrana@gmail.com [Universidad Mayor Real y Pontifica de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, Sucre (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Radiofarmacia - Instituto de Medicina Nuclear de Sucre. Hospital Santa Barbara

    2013-11-01

    The dose calibrator is one of the indispensable tools in radiopharmacy laboratories of a nuclear medicine department also is mandated to provide accurate readings. A very high doses produce unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient or a very low dose, prolong the acquisition time of the studies affecting the quality of the image. In the present work we did a retrospective analysis of the results of quality checks performed at precision accuracy of the Gauge CRC12 CAPINTEC dose calibrator over a period of 16 years, using sealed certified sources with low power, medium and high: Ba{sup 133} , Cs{sup 137} , Co{sup 60} and Co{sup 57}. The results showed that the lowest standard deviation value was 0.17 for Ba133, relative to Co{sup 57} of 2.97 in the control of accuracy. Accuracy over control values were also lower standard deviation for Ba{sup 133} 1.00, relative to Co{sup 57} 10.06. Being stated that the CRC12 CAPINTEC activimeter reliability is acceptable during the reporting period and under the conditions indicated. Therefore, we continue to make these quality control procedures and the professional must feel confident that the measurements obtained with it are reliable.

  5. Glucose uptake in Azotobacter vinelandii occurs through a GluP transporter that is under the control of the CbrA/CbrB and Hfq-Crc systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Rocha, Elva; Moreno, Renata; Hernández-Ortíz, Armando; Fragoso-Jiménez, Juan Carlos; Muriel-Millán, Luis Felipe; Guzmán, Josefina; Espín, Guadalupe; Rojo, Fernando; Núñez, Cinthia

    2017-04-12

    Azotobacter vinelandii, a strict aerobic, nitrogen fixing bacterium in the Pseudomonadaceae family, exhibits a preferential use of acetate over glucose as a carbon source. In this study, we show that GluP (Avin04150), annotated as an H + -coupled glucose-galactose symporter, is the glucose transporter in A. vinelandii. This protein, which is widely distributed in bacteria and archaea, is uncommon in Pseudomonas species. We found that expression of gluP was under catabolite repression control thorugh the CbrA/CbrB and Crc/Hfq regulatory systems, which were functionally conserved between A. vinelandii and Pseudomonas species. While the histidine kinase CbrA was essential for glucose utilization, over-expression of the Crc protein arrested cell growth when glucose was the sole carbon source. Crc and Hfq proteins from either A. vinelandii or P. putida could form a stable complex with an RNA A-rich Hfq-binding motif present in the leader region of gluP mRNA. Moreover, in P. putida, the gluP A-rich Hfq-binding motif was functional and promoted translational inhibition of a lacZ reporter gene. The fact that gluP is not widely distributed in the Pseudomonas genus but is under control of the CbrA/CbrB and Crc/Hfq systems demonstrates the relevance of these systems in regulating metabolism in the Pseudomonadaceae family.

  6. The utility of lymph node mapping sonogram and thyroglobulin surveillance in post thyroidectomy papillary thyroid cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Chowdhury F; Zaman, Jessica A; Simon, Mitchell; Davidov, Tomer; Trooskin, Stanley Z

    2014-12-01

    The American Thyroid Association recommends lymph node mapping (LNM) ultrasonography 6-12 months after thyroidectomy for patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The yield of LNM over thyroglobulin (TG) screening is not well defined. We sought to investigate this relationship. Post thyroidectomy LNM was performed on 163 patients with PTC. LNM was considered positive based on these criteria: Loss of fatty hilum (LOFH), microcalcifications, hypervascularity, architectural distortion, or short axis (>8 mm). Serum TG levels were compared to LNM and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Sixty-nine patients had suspicious LNM (42%) and 17 had PTC on FNA (25%). There were 135 suspicious lymph nodes described with malignant nodes found in 6 of 65 patients (9%) with LOFH, 13 of 18 patients (76%) with microcalcifications, 11 of 12 patients (92%) with hypervascularity, 16 of 28 patients (52%) with architectural distortion, and 4 of 7 patients (52%) with enlarged size on FNA. The positive predictive value of LNM was 0.34, increasing to 0.66 when LOFH was excluded. Among 152 patients with documented TG data, LNM identified cervical nodal metastasis in 4 patients with TG < 0.5 pg/mL (anti-TG antibody negative, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressed). Of the 15 patients with positive anti-TG antibody, 3 with recurrence were found on LNM. LNM can detect recurrent PTC when TG level is undetectable, and LOFH is a low-yield sonographic characteristic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Poisson's ratio model derived from P- and S-wave reflection seismic data at the CO2CRC Otway Project pilot site, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilecke, Thies; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Tanner, David C.; Ziesch, Jennifer; Research Group Protect

    2014-05-01

    Compressional wave (P-wave) reflection seismic field measurements are a standard tool for subsurface exploration. 2-D seismic measurements are often used for overview measurements, but also as near-surface supplement to fill gaps that often exist in 3-D seismic data sets. Such supplementing 2-D measurements are typically simple with respect to field layout. This is an opportunity for the use of shear waves (S-waves). Within the last years, S-waves have become more and more important. One reason is that P- and S-waves are differently sensitive to fluids and pore fill so that the additional S-wave information can be used to enhance lithological studies. Another reason is that S-waves have the advantage of higher spatial resolution. Within the same signal bandwidth they typically have about half the wavelength of P-waves. In near-surface unconsolidated sediments they can even enhance the structural resolution by one order of magnitude. We make use of these capabilities within the PROTECT project. In addition to already existing 2-D P-wave data, we carried out a near surface 2-D S-wave field survey at the CO2CRC Otway Project pilot site, close to Warrnambool, Australia in November 2013. The combined analysis of P-wave and S-wave data is used to construct a Poisson's Ratio 2-D model down to roughly 600 m depth. The Poisson's ratio values along a 1 km long profile at the site are surprisingly high, ranging from 0.47 in the carbonate-dominated near surface to 0.4 at depth. In the literature, average lab measurements of 0.22 for unfissured carbonates and 0.37 for fissured examples have been reported. The high values that we found may indicate areas of rather unconsolidated or fractured material, or enhanced fluid contents, and will be subject of further studies. This work is integrated in a larger workflow towards prediction of CO2 leakage and monitoring strategies for subsurface storage in general. Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored in part by the Australian

  8. MiR-608, pre-miR-124-1 and pre-miR26a-1 polymorphisms modify susceptibility and recurrence-free survival in surgically resected CRC individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hou-Qun; Peng, Hong-Xin; He, Bang-Shun; Pan, Yu-Qin; Wang, Feng; Sun, Hui-Ling; Liu, Xian; Chen, Jie; Lin, Kang; Wang, Shu-Kui

    2016-11-15

    Genetic variation within microRNA (miRNA) may result in its abnormal folding or aberrant expression, contributing to colorectal turmorigenesis and metastasis. However, the association of six polymorphisms (miR-608 rs4919510, miR-499a rs3746444, miR-146a rs2910164, pre-miR-143 rs41291957, pre-miR-124-1 rs531564 and pre-miR-26a-1 rs7372209) with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, therapeutic response and survival remains unclear. A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the association in 1358 0-III stage resected CRC patients and 1079 healthy controls using Sequenom's MassARRAY platform. The results showed that rs4919510 was significantly associated with a decreased susceptibility to CRC in co-dominant, allele and recessive genetic models, and the protective role of rs4919510 allele G and genotype GG was more pronounced among stage 0-II cases; significant association between rs531564 and poor RFS was observed in cases undergoing adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy in co-dominant, allele and dominant models; moreover, there was a positive association between rs7372209 and recurrence-free survival in stage II cases in co-dominant and over-dominant models; additionally, a cumulative effect of rs531564 and rs7372209 at-risk genotypes with hazard ratio at 1.30 and 1.95 for one and two at-risk genotypes was examined in stage II cases, respectively. Our findings indicated that rs4919510 allele G and genotype GG were protective factors for 0-II stage CRC, rs7372209 and rs531564 could decrease RFS in II stage individuals and resected CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemo-radiology.

  9. E2F1 promote the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer by activating the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zejun [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China); Gong, Chaoju [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China); Liu, Hong [Zhejiang Normal University – Jinhua People' s Hospital Joint Center for Biomedical Research, Jinhua, Zhejiang, 321004 (China); Zhang, Xiaomin; Mei, Lingming [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China); Song, Mintao [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, 100005 (China); Qiu, Lanlan; Luo, Shuchai; Zhu, Zhihua; Zhang, Ronghui; Gu, Hongqian [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China); Chen, Xiang, E-mail: sychenxiang@126.com [Sanmen People' s Hospital of Zhejiang, Sanmen, Zhejiang, 317100 (China)

    2015-08-21

    As the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, the high expression of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (RRM2) induces cancer and contributes to tumor growth and invasion. In several colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, we found that the expression levels of RRM2 were closely related to the transcription factor E2F1. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis. Ectopic overexpression of E2F1 promoted RRM2 transactivation while knockdown of E2F1 reduced the levels of RRM2 mRNA and protein. To further investigate the roles of RRM2 which was activated by E2F1 in CRC, CCK-8 assay and EdU incorporation assay were performed. Overexpression of E2F1 promoted cell proliferation in CRC cells, which was blocked by RRM2 knockdown attenuation. In the migration and invasion tests, overexpression of E2F1 enhanced the migration and invasion of CRC cells which was abrogated by silencing RRM2. Besides, overexpression of RRM2 reversed the effects of E2F1 knockdown partially in CRC cells. Examination of clinical CRC specimens demonstrated that both RRM2 and E2F1 were elevated in most cancer tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Further analysis showed that the protein expression levels of E2F1 and RRM2 were parallel with each other and positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), TNM stage and distant metastasis. Consistently, the patients with low E2F1 and RRM2 levels have a better prognosis than those with high levels. Therefore, we suggest that E2F1 can promote CRC proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis by regulating RRM2 transactivation. Understanding the role of E2F1 in activating RRM2 transcription will help to explain the relationship between E2F1 and RRM2 in CRC and provide a novel predictive marker for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. - Highlights: • E2F1 promotes RRM2 transactivation in CRC cells. • E2F1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells by activating RRM2. • E2F1 promotes the migration and

  10. A comparative study of faecal occult blood kits in a colorectal cancer screening program in a cohort of healthy construction workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shuhaibar, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing. We evaluated uptake rates and outcomes of faecal immunochemical test (FIT) and Guaiac test (gFOBT) kits as part of a two-step CRC screening. METHODS: A 3-year CRC screening program for a defined population of construction workers was conducted. Those satisfying the inclusion criteria were provided with gFOBT or FIT kits. Individuals testing positive were invited for a colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 909 faecal testing kits were distributed. Age range was 53-60 years. Compliance rate was higher for FIT (58.3%) as compared to gFOBT (46.7%) (p = 0.0006). FIT detected adenomatous polyps and CRC in 37.5 and 25%, respectively, whereas; gFOBT detected 23.5 and 18%. Colonoscopies were normal in 53 and 25% tested positive by gFOBT and FIT, respectively (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The FIT was more cost-effective when compared with gFOBT with higher return rate, sensitivity and specificity. A comparative study of faecal occult blood kits in a CRC screening program in a healthy cohort of construction workers.

  11. Microsatellite instability typing in serum and tissue of patients with colorectal cancer: comparing real time PCR with hybridization probe and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, P; Rismanchi, M; Alizadeh Naeeni, M; Mirab Samiee, S; Paryan, M; Alipour, A; Honardar, Z; Kavousipour, S; Naghibalhossaini, F; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Monabati, A; Hosseni, S V; Shamsdin, S A

    2014-05-01

    Allelic variation of BAT-25 (a 25-repeat quasimonomorphic poly T) and BAT-26 (a 26-repeat quasimonomorphic polyA) loci as two mononucleotide microsatellite markers, were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) compared with Real-Time PCR using hybridization probes. BAT-26 and BAT-25 markers were used to determine an appropriate screening technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose microsatellite instability (MSI) status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). One of the pathways in colorectal tumor genesis is microsatellite instability (MSI+). MSI is detected in about 15% of all CRCs; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features compared with microsatellite stable tumors. Due to the high percentage of MSI+ CRC in Iran, screening of this type of CRC is imperative. Two markers were analyzed in tissues and sera of 44 normal volunteers and tumor and matched normal mucosal tissues as well as sera of 44 patients with sporadic CRC. The sensitivity and specificity of BAT-26 with real time PCR method (Hybridization probe) were 100% in comparison with sequencing method as the gold standard, while HPLC had a lower sensitivity and specificity. According to HPLC data, BAT-26 was more sensitive than BAT-25 in identifying MSI tumors. Therefore, MSI typing using the BAT-26 hybridization probe method compared to HPLC could be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing MSI in CRC tumors but not in serum circulating DNAs.

  12. Comparative DEMS study on the electrochemical oxidation of carbon blacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Sean James; Arenz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Publication year: 2012 Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 217 Sean J. Ashton, Matthias Arenz The intention of the study presented here is to compare the electrochemical oxidation tendencies of a pristine Ketjen Black EC300 high surface area (HSA) carbon black, and four graphitised counterparts...... heat-treated between 2100 and 3200 °C, such as those typically used as corrosion resistant carbon (CRC) supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. A methodology combining cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) is used, which allows......; however, CRC samples graphitised =2800 °C did not exhibit this same behaviour. Highlights ¿ We quantitatively determine electrooxidation of carbon support materials. ¿ We can distinguish between the total and partial electrooxidation. ¿ Non or mildly heat treated carbon forms passivating layer. ¿ Heat...

  13. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-09-04

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC.

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Regorafenib With 2/1 Schedule for Patients ≥ 75 Years With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC) After Failure of 2 Lines of Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrioli, Roberto; Chirra, Martina; Messuti, Luciana; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Savelli, Vinno; Martellucci, Ignazio; Francini, Edoardo

    2018-02-21

    In the CORRECT (patients with metastatic COloRectal Cancer treated with REgorafenib or plaCebo after failure of standard Therapy) trial, regorafenib was proven to extend survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that progressed after all available therapies. Grade 3 to 4 toxicity occurred in 54% of patients, and data on the activity and tolerability of regorafenib in elderly patients were scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an alternative schedule, 2-week-on treatment and 1 week-off (2/1 schedule), of regorafenib for elderly patients with mCRC. Patients ≥ 75 years with mCRC who progressed after oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy received regorafenib on a 2/1 schedule. Potentially frail subjects were identified by G8 screening tool and excluded. The 2-month disease-control rate was the primary endpoint, and the secondary endpoints included safety, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and objective response rate. Between February 2014 and May 2017, 23 patients with mCRC were recruited at our institution. No partial or complete responses were observed, and the stable disease and disease-control rate were 52.2%. The median PFS was 4.8 months (95% confidence interval, 3.8-6.3 months), and the median OS was 8.9 months (95% confidence interval, 6.9-10.6 months). Adverse events were uncommon, and the most frequent grade 3 toxicity adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction (9%) and fatigue (9%). Toxicity-related dose reductions and discontinuations occurred in 5 and 2 patients, respectively. Regorafenib administered with a modified 2/1 schedule to patients who were aged ≥ 75 years and non-frail with treatment-refractory mCRC seems to be tolerable and achieve encouraging results in terms of PFS and OS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. EFECTO DEL CONTENIDO DE CARBONO SOBRE LA RESISTENCIA AL DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DE CrC DEPOSITADOS POR PULVERIZACIÓN CATÓDICA MAGNETRÓN EFEITO DO CONTEÚDO DE CARBONO SOBRE A RESISTÊNCIA AO DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE RECOBRIMENTOS DE CrC DEPOSITADOS POR PULVERIZAÇÃO CATÓDICA MAGNETRÃO EFFECT OF THE CARBON CONTENT IN ABRASIVE WEAR RESISTANCE OF CrC COATINGS DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryory Astrid Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los recubrimientos de carburo de cromo sobre acero son un buen candidato para aplicaciones de conformado y moldes de inyección. La alta resistencia mecánica, resistencia química y estabilidad a alta temperatura de la fase Cr3C2 pueden ser compatibles con el intenso desgaste abrasivo y la corrosión en tales operaciones de fabricación. En este trabajo se depositaron recubrimientos de CrC por pulverización catódica magnetrón RF, los cuales mostraron contenidos de carbono entre el 25 % y el 58 % por análisis EDS. Los valores de dureza de estos recubrimientos fueron entre 15 y 24 GPa; los más duros de las muestras tuvieron contenido de carbono en el rango de 39-53 %. El desgaste abrasivo de los recubrimientos se evaluó utilizando un equipo de disco abrasivo con polvo de diamante. El volumen de las huellas de abrasión se midió con las imágenes obtenidas en el microscopio interferométrico y además se corroboró con el cálculo del volumen geométrico basado en secciones medidas con el perfilómetro. El comportamiento al desgaste abrasivo mostró una marcada dependencia con el contenido de carbono. El desgaste abrasivo más bajo se obtuvo para los recubrimientos con el más alto contenido de carbono.Os recobrimentos de carburo de cromo sobre aço são um bom candidato para aplicações de conformado e moldes de injeção. A alta resistência mecânica, resistência química e estabilidade em alta temperatura da fase Cr3C2 podem ser compatíveis com o intenso desgaste abrasivo e a corrosão em tais operações de fabricação. Neste trabalho depositaram-se recobrimentos de CrC por pulverização catódica magnetrão RF, os quais mostraram conteúdos de carbono entre 25 % e 58 % por análise EDS. Os valores de dureza destes recobrimentos foram entre 15 e 24 GPa; os mais duros das mostras tiveram conteúdo de carbono na faixa de 39-53 %. O desgaste abrasivo dos recobrimentos avaliou-se utilizando uma equipe de disco abrasivo com pó de

  16. The transcriptome of corona radiata cells from individual MII oocytes that after ICSI developed to embryos selected for transfer: PCOS women compared to healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissing, Marie Louise; Sonne, Si Brask; Westergaard, David

    2014-01-01

    . It is controversial whether PCOS associate with diminished oocyte quality. The purpose of this study was to compare individual human CRC samples between PCOS patients and controls. All patients were stimulated by the long gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist protocol. The CRC samples originated from...... no individual genes with significant differential expression between PCOS and controls, but gene set enrichment analysis identified several cell cycle- and DNA replication pathways overexpressed in PCOS CRCs (FDR ... were selected for qRT-PCR validation in ten PCOS and ten control CRC samples. qRT-PCR confirmed significant up-regulation in PCOS CRCs of cell cycle progression genes HIST1H4C (FC = 2.7), UBE2C (FC = 2.6) and cell cycle related transcription factor E2F4 (FC = 2.5). The overexpression of cell cycle...

  17. New insights into frequency and contents of fear of cancer progression/recurrence (FOP/FCR) in outpatients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) receiving oral capecitabine: a pilot study at a comprehensive cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Jochen; Berberich, Sara; Lanvers, Elena; Sanning, Maria; Steimer, Ann-Kathrin; Kunzmann, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Fear of cancer progression/recurrence (FOP/FCR) is considered one of the most prevalent sources of distress in cancer survivors and associated with lower quality of life and functional impairment. Detailed measures of FOP/FCR are needed because little is known about the knowledge of FOP/FCR, its associations with the patient-doctor relationship, and the rate of adequate therapy. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancer entities, and oral capecitabine is widely prescribed as treatment. Therefore, we initiated a pilot study to expand the literature on FOP/FCR in CRC outpatients receiving capecitabine and to generate hypotheses for future investigations. This study included 58 patients treated at a comprehensive cancer center. FOP/FCR was assessed with the Fear of Progression Questionnaire (FOP-Q-SF). Satisfaction with the relationships with doctors was assessed with the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire-9 (PRDQ-9). Levels of side effects were rated by the patients on a visual analog scale. Clinical data were extracted from the charts. A total of 19 out of 58 patients (36%) suffered from FOP/FCR according to our assessment. Levels of FOP/FCR seemed to be mostly moderate to high. Only four out of the 19 distressed patients (21%) were treated accordingly. Typical side effects of oncological treatment were associated with higher FOP/FCR. Satisfaction with doctor-patient relationships was not associated with FOP/FCR. Regarding single items of FOP/FCR, three out of the five most prevalent fears were associated with close relatives. FOP/FCR occurred frequently in more than one in three patients, but was mostly untreated in this sample of consecutive outpatients with CRC receiving oral capecitabine. In detail, most fears were related to family and friends. In addition to an unmet need of patients, our data indicate sources of distress not considered thus far. If replicated in larger studies, results may help to inform intervention development and

  18. State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics (LNM, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arousian Arshak

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current state-of-the-art methods of measuring pH levels that are based on polymer materials. These include polymer-coated fibre optic sensors, devices with electrodes modified with pH-sensitive polymers, fluorescent pH indicators, potentiometric pH sensors as well as sensors that use combinatory approach for ion concentration monitoring.

  19. Retrospective Comparative Study of the Effects of Dendritic Cell Vaccine and Cytokine-Induced Killer Cell Immunotherapy with that of Chemotherapy Alone and in Combination for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This retrospective study determined the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH skin test and safety of dendritic cell (DC vaccine and cytokine-induced killer (CIK cell immunotherapy and the survival compared to chemotherapy in 239 colorectal cancer (CRC patients. Methods. DTH and safety of the immunotherapy were recorded. The overall survival (OS and disease free survival curves were compared according to the immunotherapy and/or chemotherapy received with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results. Of the 70 patients who received immunotherapy, 62.86% had a positive DTH skin test, 38.57% developed fever, 47.14% developed insomnia, 38.57% developed anorexia, 4.29% developed joint soreness, and 11.43% developed skin rash. For 204 resectable CRC patients, median survival time (MST (198.00 days was significantly longer in patients with immunotherapy plus chemotherapy than with chemotherapy alone (106.00 days (P=0.02. For 35 patients with unresectable or postsurgery relapsed CRC and who were confirmed to be dead, no statistical difference was observed in the MST between the patients treated with immunotherapy and with chemotherapy (P=0.41. MST in the patients treated with chemotherapy plus immunotherapy was 154 days longer than that of patients treated with chemotherapy alone (P=0.41. Conclusions. DC vaccination and CIK immunotherapy did not cause severe adverse effects, induce immune response against CRC, and prolong OS.

  20. Lay health educators and print materials for the promotion of colorectal cancer screening among Korean Americans: A randomized comparative effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Angela M; Nguyen, Tung T; Stewart, Susan; Sung, Min J; Gildengorin, Ginny; Tsoh, Janice Y; Tong, Elisa K; Lo, Penny; Cuaresma, Charlene; Sy, Angela; Lam, Hy; Wong, Ching; Jeong, Matthew; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

    2017-07-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among Korean American men and women. Although CRC screening is effective in reducing the burden of this disease, studies have shown that Korean Americans have low screening rates. The authors conducted a 2-arm cluster randomized controlled trial comparing a brochure (print) with a brochure and lay health educator (LHE) outreach (print + LHE) in increasing CRC screening rates among Korean American individuals. Self-administered written surveys at baseline and at 6 months assessed knowledge of CRC and its screening, ever screening, and being up to date with screening. A total of 28 LHEs recruited 348 participants aged 50 to 75 years from their social networks. Significant percentages of participants reported not having health insurance (29.3%) or a usual source of care (35.6%). At 6 months postintervention, the print + LHE participants had a greater increase in knowledge compared with those in the print arm (P = .0013). In multivariable analyses, both groups had significant increases in ever screening (print plus LHE: odds ratio [OR], 1.60 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.26-2.03] and print: OR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.10-1.82]) and being up to date with screening (print plus LHE: OR, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.23-2.16] and print: OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.04-1.89]). However, these increases did not differ significantly between the study arms. Having insurance and having seen a provider within the past year were found to be positively associated with screening. Compared with a brochure, LHE outreach yielded greater increases in knowledge but resulted in similar increases in CRC screening in a Korean American population with barriers to health care access. More work is needed to appropriately address logistical and system barriers in this community. Cancer 2017;123:2705-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  1. Ultra-trace determination of Strontium-90 in environmental soil samples from Qatar by collision/reaction cell-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Meer, S. H.; Amr, M. A. [Central Laboratories Unit, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Helal, A.I. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Al-Kinani, A.T. [Minstery of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2013-07-01

    Because of the very low level of {sup 90}Sr in the environmental soil samples and its determination by beta counting may take several weeks, we developed a procedure for ultra-trace determination of {sup 90}Sr using collision reaction cell-inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS/MS, Agilent 8800). Soil samples were dried at 105 deg. C and then heated in a furnace at 550 deg. C to remove any organics present. 500 g of each soil samples were aliquoted into 2000 ml glass beakers. Each Soils samples were soaked in 2 ppm Sr solution carrier to allow determination of chemical yield. The solid to liquid ratio was 1:1. Finally the soil samples were dried at 105 deg. C. Five hundred milliliters concentrated nitric acid and 250 ml hydrochloric acid volumes were added on 500 g soil samples. The samples were digested on hot plate at 80 deg. C to prevent spraying with continuous manual mixing. The leachate solution was separated. The solids were rinsed with 500 ml deionized water, warmed on a hot plate and the leachate plus previous leachate were filtered and the total volume was reduced to 500 ml by evaporation. Final leachate volume was transferred to a centrifuge tubes. The centrifuge tubes were centrifuged at 3,500 rpm for 10 min. The leachate was transferred to a 1 L beaker and heated on a hot plate to evaporate the leachate to dryness. The reside was re-dissolved in 100 ml of 2% HNO{sub 3} and reduced by evaporation to 10 mL. The solution was measured directly by CRC-ICP-MS/MS by setting the first quadruple analyzer to m/z 90 and introducing oxygen gas into the reaction cell for elimination isobar interference from zirconium-90. The method was validated by measurements of standard reference materials and applied on environmental soil samples. The overall time requirement for the measurement of strontium-90 by CRC-ICP-MS/MS is 2 days, significantly shorter than any radioanalytical protocol currently available. (authors)

  2. Cegep Graduates with Disabilities: College Exit (CRC) Scores of Graduates Registered for Disability Related Services Compared to Non-Registered Graduates and Graduates without Disabilities. Final Report Presented to PAREA, Spring 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Shirley; Fichten, Catherine; Havel, Alice

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine the relative competitiveness in gaining access to university of graduates with and without disabilities, and to determine whether the ease with which graduates experienced aspects of their college environment was related to their college exit scores. We found that graduates who responded to surveys, whether…

  3. Exploring and comparing the experience and coping behaviour of men and women with colorectal cancer after chemotherapy treatment: a qualitative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Eilis; Prue, Gillian; Parahoo, Kader; McIlfatrick, Sonja; McKenna, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher incidence and mortality rates for nearly all cancers. They are less likely than women to utilise cancer information services and other social support services. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the experience and coping behaviour of men and women after treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted involving 38 individuals (24 men and 14 women) with CRC. Data were generated using semi-structured interviews at four time points over an 18-month period, post-diagnosis. Interviews focused on participant's experience of CRC and on how gender affected their coping. This paper reports the findings of interviews 3 and 4 which examined the participant's experience after chemotherapy. Three themes emerged from the interviews ('new normal', living with uncertainty and support needs). Many men and women reacted similarly; however, there was some variation evident between and within sexes. The main difference was with regard to the long-term physical side effects of the illness. Many women admitted to still experiencing side effects, whereas many men indicated that they had no problems. These men engaged in practices that aligned with their gender identity and view of masculinity. It must be noted that some men and women were still experiencing an impact. Recovery from the physical and psychological effects of CRC does not occur simultaneously. Healthcare professionals should be aware that not all men (or women) conform to the social stereotypes of masculinity (or femininity). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Surgery for diverticular disease results in a higher hernia rate compared to colorectal cancer: a population-based study from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, E S; Robertson, D I; Whitehead, M; Xu, J; Hall, S F

    2017-11-16

    Incisional hernias are a well described complication of abdominal surgery. Previous studies identified malignancy and diverticular disease as risk factors. We compared incisional hernia rates between colon resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) and diverticular disease (DD). We performed a retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study. Provincial databases were linked through the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. These databases include all patients registered under the universal Ontario Health Insurance Plan. Patients aged 18-105 undergoing open colon resection, without ostomy formation between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2009, were included. We excluded those with previous surgery, hernia, obstruction, and perforation. The primary outcomes were surgery for hernia repair, or diagnosis of hernia in clinic. We identified 4660 cases of DD. These were matched 2:1 by age and gender to 8933 patients with CRC for a total of 13,593. At 5 years, incisional hernias occurred in 8.3% of patients in the CRC cohort, versus 13.1% of those undergoing surgery for DD. After adjusting for important confounders (comorbidity score, wound infection, age, diabetes, prednisone and chemotherapy), hernias were still more likely in patients with DD [HR 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.43-1.76, P < 0.001]. The only significant covariate was wound infection (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.43-1.87, P < 0.001). Our study found that incisional hernias occur more commonly in patients with DD than CRC.

  5. Endoscopic detection rate of sessile serrated lesions in Lynch syndrome patients is comparable to an age- and gender-matched control population: case-control study with expert pathology review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Sahin, Husna; Hazewinkel, Yark; Koens, Lianne; van den Berg, Jose G.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    Carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome involves fast progression of adenomas to colorectal cancer (CRC) due to microsatellite instability. The role of sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) and the serrated neoplasia pathway in these patients is unknown. The aim of this matched case-control study was to compare

  6. Evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer patients using real-time CT navigated ultrasonography: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dae Kwon; Choi, Yoon Jung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Kook, Shin Ho; Park, Hee Jin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of real-time neck computed tomography (CT)-guided ultrasonography (US) in detecting cervical neck lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We retrospectively reviewed data from 176 patients (mean age, 43 years; range, 23 to 74 years) with surgically confirmed PTC who underwent preoperative US, neck CT, and neck CTguided US. We then compared the sensitivities and diagnostic accuracies of each of the three above modalities in detecting cervical LNM. Preoperative US showed 17.3% sensitivity and 58.5% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM compared with 64.3% sensitivity and 89.2% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral neck LNM. Neck CT showed 23.5% sensitivity and 55.7% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM and 71.4% sensitivity with 90.9% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral neck LNM. CT-guided US exhibited 37.0% sensitivity and 63.1% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM compared with 92.9% sensitivity and 96.0% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral LNM. CT-guided US showed higher diagnostic accuracy with superior sensitivity in detecting central and lateral LNM than did US (P<0.001, P=0.011) and CT (P=0.026, P=0.063). Neck CT-guided US is a more accurate technique with higher sensitivity for detecting cervical LNM than either US or CT alone. Therefore, our data indicate that neck CT-guided US is an especially useful technique in preoperative examinations.

  7. CT presentations of colorectal cancer with chronic schistosomiasis: A comparative study with pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhangwei976@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Wang, Pei-Jun, E-mail: peijunwang_tongji@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Shen, Xing, E-mail: shenxing1997@163.com [Department of Radiology, Traditional Chinese Hospital, No. 189, Chaoyangxi Road, Kun Shan 215300, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Guo-liang, E-mail: glwang1960@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Zhao, Xiao-hu, E-mail: tiger1968@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Seema, S.F., E-mail: saaaamaaaa@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Zheng, Shao-qiang, E-mail: shaoqiangzh@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Li, Ming-hua, E-mail: minghuali@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To clarify pathological basis of computed tomography (CT) presentations of colorectal cancer (CRC) with schistosomiasis for the purpose of improving the accuracy of CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the condition. Materials and methods: 130 patients (87 male and 43 female; age range 49-86 years, mean 71.1) were selected whose diagnoses were pathologically confirmed as CRC with schistosomiasis. All the patients underwent abdominal plain CT and contrast enhanced scanning. The location, morphology, size, calcification features and enhancement modalities (patterns) were evaluated and compared with the pathological findings by two radiologists in a blind way. Results: CT showed that in 130 patients, the tumors occurred in the large intestine, among which 109 (83.9%) were solitary and 21 (16.1%) were multifocal. The intestinal wall was irregularly thickened in 123 patients, with soft tissue masses in 7 patients. Linear, spotty and small patchy calcifications were seen in 104 (80.0%) patients, with unclear margins in 96 patients. The tumors were markedly unevenly enhanced in 92 patients. Pathological examination revealed adenocarcinoma in 114 patients and in 104 patients, calcified Shistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) ova inside the tumors, 15 patients were mucinous adenocarcinoma, and one patient was that of adenosquamous carcinoma. Conclusion: Irregular thickening of the intestinal wall, soft tissue masses, multiple S. japonicum ova calcifications inside the tumor with obscured margins and multiple intestinal masses in some patients are important CT features of CRC with schistosomiasis.

  8. Comparing solutions to the expectancy-value muddle in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Sullivan, B; McGee, H; Keegan, O

    2008-11-01

    The authors of the Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Planned Behaviour (TPB) recommended a method for statistically analysing the relationship between the indirect belief-based measures and the direct measures of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). However, there is a growing awareness that this yields statistically uninterpretable results. This study's objective was to compare two solutions to what has been called the 'expectancy-value muddle'. These solutions were (i) optimal scoring of modal beliefs and (ii) individual beliefs without multiplicative composites. Cross-sectional data were collected by telephone interview. Participants were 110 first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC), who were offered CRC screening in the study hospital (83% response rate). Participants were asked to rate the TPB constructs in relation to attending for CRC screening. There was no significant difference in the correlation between behavioural beliefs and attitude for rescaled modal and individual beliefs. This was also the case for control beliefs and PBC. By contrast, there was a large correlation between rescaled modal normative beliefs and subjective norm, whereas individual normative beliefs did not correlate with subjective norm. Using individual beliefs without multiplicative composites allows for a fairly unproblematic interpretation of the relationship between the indirect and direct TPB constructs (French & Hankins, 2003). Therefore, it is recommended that future studies consider using individual measures of behavioural and control beliefs without multiplicative composites and examine a different way of measuring individual normative beliefs without multiplicative composites to that used in this study.

  9. Bulk Kosterlitz-Thouless Type Molecular Superconductor β″-(BEDT-TTF)2[(H2O)(NH4)2Cr(C2O4)3]·18-crown-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lee; Lopez, Jordan R; Akutsu, Hiroki; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; Imajo, Shusaku

    2017-11-20

    A new molecular superconductor, β″-(BEDT-TTF) 2 [(H 2 O)(NH 4 ) 2 Cr(C 2 O 4 ) 3 ]·18-crown-6, has been synthesized from the organic donor molecule BEDT-TTF with the anion Cr(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- . The crystal structure consists of conducting organic layers of BEDT-TTF molecules which adopt the β″ packing motif (layer A), layers of NH 4 + and Λ-Cr(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- (layer B), layers of (H 2 O)(NH 4 )18-crown-6 (layer C), and layers of NH 4 + and Δ-Cr(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- (layer D) which produce a superstructure with a repeating pattern of ABCDABCDA. As a result of this packing arrangement, this is the 2D superconductor with the widest gap between conducting layers where only a single donor packing motif is present (β″). Superconducting critical temperatures at ambient pressure observed by electrical transport and magnetic measurements are 4.0-4.9 and 2.5 K, respectively. The strong 2D nature of this system, the broad transition to T zero at 1.8K, and the transition of α of V ∝ I α from 1 to 3 on I-V curves strongly suggest that the superconducting transition is very close to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. The magnetic field dependence of the superconducting critical temperature parallel to the conducting plane gives an upper critical field μ 0 H c2∥ > 8 T, which is over the calculated Pauli-Clogston limit for this material.

  10. Fluxos informacionais para o monitoramento da Convenção dos Direitos da Criança: a atuação da rede NGO Group for CRCInformation follow and the monitoring process of the convention on the rights of child by NGO Group for CRC network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guiomar da Cunha Frota

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa que investiga uma rede social internacional denominada NGO Group for CRC. A rede é composta por cerca de noventa organizações não governamentais e foi criada para monitorar a implementação da Convenção dos Direitos da Criança (CRC. A CRC é o principal documento jurídico relativo aos direitos da criança, tendo sido aprovada pela totalidade dos países pertencentes à ONU, com exceção dos EUA. Pretende-se especificamente analisar o fluxo informacional que se estabelece em meio à rede, seus membros e as organizações que a ela se associam. As questões investigadas são as seguintes: 1 Em que medida o fluxo informacional torna-se parte intrínseca da estrutura em rede? 2 Como os fluxos informacionais se configuram e de que modo são apropriados e veiculados pela rede NGO Group for CRC no curso do monitoramento da implementação da Convenção dos Direitos da Criança?This paper presents the research results about the social network NGO Group for CRC which is an articulation of non governmental organizations related to children's rights. This paper analyzes the information flow inside the network, among its members and among the network organizations. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC was approved in 1989 by the General Assembly of the United Nations, being ratified in its totality by the countries members, with the exception of the United States of America. The investigated questions are: 1 How is the role of the information flow in the network structure? 2 How is the information flow configured to support the implementation monitoring process of the Convention on the Rights of the Child?

  11. Defining the incidence and clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, Emily Z; Chiang, Yi-Ju; Voss, Rachel K; Cormier, Janice N; Torres, Keila E; Hunt, Kelly K; Feig, Barry W; Roland, Christina L

    2018-01-01

    The incidence and clinical significance of lymph node metastasis (LNM, N1) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is unclear. Recent studies have focused on extremity/trunk STS (ETSTS). We sought to define the subgroup of patients with LNM at sarcoma diagnosis across all disease sites and histologies. We identified and categorized 89,870 STS patients from the National Cancer Data Base (1998-2012) by nodal stage. Pathologically confirmed LNM (pN1) were identified in 1404 patients; 1750 had clinically suspicious but not pathologically confirmed LNM (cN1). Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier method. Of 3154 patients (3.5%) with pN1 or cN1 LNM at presentation, 1310 had synchronous distant metastasis (M1). LNM affected a small proportion of patients (5.8% head/neck, 5.3% intrathoracic, 5.1% intra-abdominal, 2.0% ETSTS). Angiosarcoma (6%), epithelioid (13%), clear cell (16%), and small cell sarcoma (19%) had the highest incidence of LNM, although liposarcoma, fibrous histiocytoma, and leiomyosarcoma accounted for the greatest number of LNM patients. For pN1M0 disease, median overall survival (OS) was 28.2 months, varying by histology. Among patients with pN1M0 STS, angiosarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and fibrous histiocytoma were associated with worse median OS (19.4, 23.8, 27.1, and 29.3 months) compared to epithelioid sarcoma and liposarcoma (49.6 and 56.0 months, p < 0.001). Despite clinical suspicion, pathologic LN evaluation in STS is inconsistently performed. LNM occurs across anatomic disease sites and is unevenly distributed across histologies. Although M1 disease portends poor prognosis regardless of LN status, LNM predicts worse OS in a histology-dependent manner in M0 disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Review of colorectal cancer and its metastases in rodent models: comparative aspects with those in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, M; Thorup, I; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common cancer forms developing in industrialized countries, and its incidence appears to be rising. Studies of human population groups provide insufficient information about carcinogenesis, pathogenesis, and treatment of CRC...

  13. Hospital Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Compare has information about the quality of care at over 4,000 Medicare-certified hospitals across the country. You can use Hospital Compare to find...

  14. A randomized phase II study of immunization with dendritic cells modified with poxvectors encoding CEA and MUC1 compared with the same poxvectors plus GM-CSF for resected metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael A; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Marshall, John L; Garrett, Christopher; Chang, David Z; Aklilu, Mebea; Crocenzi, Todd S; Cole, David J; Dessureault, Sophie; Hobeika, Amy C; Osada, Takuya; Onaitis, Mark; Clary, Bryan M; Hsu, David; Devi, Gayathri R; Bulusu, Anuradha; Annechiarico, Robert P; Chadaram, Vijaya; Clay, Timothy M; Lyerly, H Kim

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether 1 of 2 vaccines based on dendritic cells (DCs) and poxvectors encoding CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and MUC1 (PANVAC) would lengthen survival in patients with resected metastases of colorectal cancer (CRC). Recurrences after complete resections of metastatic CRC remain frequent. Immune responses to CRC are associated with fewer recurrences, suggesting a role for cancer vaccines as adjuvant therapy. Both DCs and poxvectors are potent stimulators of immune responses against cancer antigens. Patients, disease-free after CRC metastasectomy and perioperative chemotherapy (n = 74), were randomized to injections of autologous DCs modified with PANVAC (DC/PANVAC) or PANVAC with per injection GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Endpoints were recurrence-free survival overall survival, and rate of CEA-specific immune responses. Clinical outcome was compared with that of an unvaccinated, contemporary group of patients who had undergone CRC metastasectomy, received similar perioperative therapy, and would have otherwise been eligible for the study. Recurrence-free survival at 2 years was similar (47% and 55% for DC/PANVAC and PANVAC/GM-CSF, respectively) (χ P = 0.48). At a median follow-up of 35.7 months, there were 2 of 37 deaths in the DC/PANVAC arm and 5 of 37 deaths in the PANVAC/GM-CSF arm. The rate and magnitude of T-cell responses against CEA was statistically similar between study arms. As a group, vaccinated patients had superior survival compared with the contemporary unvaccinated group. Both DC and poxvector vaccines have similar activity. Survival was longer for vaccinated patients than for a contemporary unvaccinated group, suggesting that a randomized trial of poxvector vaccinations compared with standard follow-up after metastasectomy is warranted. (NCT00103142).

  15. Control judicial de la regulación económica en clave de los actos administrativos proferidos por la Comisión de Regulación de Comunicaciones (CRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Perdomo Villamil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de los procesos de liberalización y los nuevos regímenes económicos a nivel constitucional, la regulación económica se posicionó como una de las principales actividades de intervención estatal sobre la economía. Esta se concibe como un instrumento técnico, neutral e independiente, diseñado para resolver las fallas del mercado y armonizar objetivos económicos y no económicos, generalmente contrapuestos. Por tanto, la cabida del control judicial es muy cuestionada, evidenciándose choques entre la garantía de acceso a la justicia de los particulares y la competencia técnica de los reguladores. Así, se efectúa un análisis material de los actos proferidos por las autoridades de regulación en clave de la extensión del principio de legalidad, y basado en las funciones asignadas a la CRC según la Ley 1341 de 2009, con el propósito de determinar los marcos, límites y alcances del control judicial.

  16. Physician Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Physician Compare, which meets Affordable Care Act of 2010 requirements, helps you search for and select physicians and other healthcare professionals enrolled in...

  17. CRC Test Ever - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the ever had colorectal cancer test, a person 50 years of age or older must have reported having at least one colorectal endoscopy (sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy) in his/her life or at least one home-based FOBT within the past two years by the time of interview.

  18. CRC Handbook of Medical Physics, vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggener, R.G.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Shalek, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this work, the care and testing of measurement and diagnostic instruments are described in detail. Difficulties encountered with therapeutic and diagnostic calibrations are explored and solutions are suggested. VOLUME III Physics Teaching for Radiologic Technologists, Physics Teaching for Diagnostic Radiology Residents, Physics Teaching for Nuclear Medicine Residents, Physics Teaching for Radiotherapy Residents, Degree Programs in Medical Physics, Radiobiology Teaching, Non-Degree Medical Physics Training and American Board of Radiology Certifications, Radioactivity and Production of Medical Isotopes, Practical Medical Physics Consulting, Radiologic Terminology, Nuclear Medicine Imaging Techniques, Description of Radiotherapy Procedures, Medical Applications of Ultrasonography and Thermography, Glossary of Medical and Anatomical Terms Used in Medical Physics, Equipment List for Medical Physics and Acquisition Priority. Bibliography of Reference Materials. Index

  19. Comparative Genomics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 8. Comparative Genomics - A Powerful New Tool in Biology. Anand K Bachhawat. General Article Volume 11 Issue 8 August 2006 pp 22-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Comparative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    that are typically explained from the supply-side variables, the comparative advantage of the exporting countries. A simple model is proposed and tested. The results render strong support for the relevance of supply-side factors such as natural endowments, technology, and infrastructure in explaining international...

  1. Comparative perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IT

    Ideology, policy and implementation: Comparative perspectives from two ... how both political as well as particular language ideologies play a major role in influencing and ..... attitudes as a field of research, many scholars still draw on the concept of .... The data for this study were collected through the use of questionnaires ...

  2. Efecto de la presión de C2H2 sobre las propiedades tribológicas y mecánicas de recubrimientos de CrC depositados por evaporación por arco catódico (EAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryory Astrid Gómez Botero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron recubrimientos monocapa de CrC por evaporación por arco catódico (EAC. Se investigaron las propiedades tribológicas de los recubrimientos mediante pruebas de deslizamiento en seco usando un tribómetro de bola sobre disco. Las propiedades mecánicas se estudiaron por nanoindentación dinámica. Los valores de los coeficientes de fricción de los recubrimientos monocapa de CrC mostraron buena correlación con el contenido de carbono de estos recubrimientos, presentando el más bajo coeficiente de fricción el recubrimiento con el mayor contenido de carbono. Después de las pruebas de fricción, tanto los recubrimientos como las esferas de acero usadas como contracuerpos presentaron partículas de desgaste de color marrón que sugieren la presencia de productos de reacciones triboquímicas. Las mejores propiedades mecánicas fueron obtenidas para los recubrimientos CrC con el más bajo contenido de carbono.

  3. Video Comparator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Video Comparator is a comparative gage that uses electronic images from two sources, a standard and an unknown. Two matched video cameras are used to obtain the electronic images. The video signals are mixed and displayed on a single video receiver (CRT). The video system is manufactured by ITP of Chatsworth, CA and is a Tele-Microscope II, Model 148. One of the cameras is mounted on a toolmaker's microscope stand and produces a 250X image of a cast. The other camera is mounted on a stand and produces an image of a 250X template. The two video images are mixed in a control box provided by ITP and displayed on a CRT. The template or the cast can be moved to align the desired features. Vertical reference lines are provided on the CRT, and a feature on the cast can be aligned with a line on the CRT screen. The stage containing the casts can be moved using a Boeckleler micrometer equipped with a digital readout, and a second feature aligned with the reference line and the distance moved obtained from the digital display

  4. Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in Endometrial Cancer Using Serum CA125 Combined with Immunohistochemical Markers PR and Ki67, and a Comparison with Other Prediction Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyi Yang

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the value of immunohistochemical markers and serum CA125 in predicting the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM in women with endometrial cancer and to identify a low-risk group of LNM. The medical records of 370 patients with endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical staging in the Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were collected and retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemical markers were screened. A model using serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125 level, the immunohistochemical markers progesterone receptor (PR and Ki67 was created for prediction of LNM. A predicted probability of 4% among these patients was defined as low risk. The developed model was externally validated in 200 patients from Shanghai Cancer Center. The efficiency of the model was compared with three other reported prediction models. Patients with serum CA125 50% and Ki67 < 40% in cancer lesion were defined as low risk for LNM. The model showed good discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82. The model classified 61.9% (229/370 of patients as being at low risk for LNM. Among these 229 patients, 6 patients (2.6% had LNM and the negative predictive value was 97.4% (223/229. The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 84.6% and 67.4% respectively. In the validation cohort, the model classified 59.5% (119/200 of patients as low-risk, 3 out of these 119 patients (2.5% has LNM. Our model showed a predictive power similar to those of two previously reported prediction models. The prediction model using serum CA125 and the immunohistochemical markers PR and Ki67 is useful to predict patients with a low risk of LNM and has the potential to provide valuable guidance to clinicians in the treatment of patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer.

  5. Significance and prognostic value of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis in Chinese rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Li, Jing-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2016-02-28

    To determine the significance of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese rectal cancer patients, after those with known hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were excluded. A cohort of 469 patients, who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathological diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma, were recruited. They included 231 patients with LNM (49.3%) and 238 patients without LNM. Follow-up for these patients was taken through to December 31, 2012. The baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration was (median/inter-quartile range) 2.30/1.60-3.42 μmol/L. Univariate analysis showed that compared with patients without LNM, the patients with LNM had an increased level of direct bilirubin (2.50/1.70-3.42 vs 2.10/1.40-3.42, P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis showed that direct bilirubin was independently associated with LNM (OR = 1.602; 95%CI: 1.098-2.338, P = 0.015). Moreover, we found that: (1) serum direct bilirubin differs between male and female patients; a higher concentration was associated with poor tumor classification; (2) as the baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration increased, the percentage of patients with LNM increased; and (3) serum direct bilirubin was associated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients and higher values indicated poor prognosis. Higher serum direct bilirubin concentration was associated with the increased risk of LNM and poor prognosis in our rectal cancers.

  6. Differential RNA-seq analysis comparing APC-defective and APC-restored SW480 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren E; Love, Christopher G; Sieber, Oliver M; Faux, Maree C; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene is mutated in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC) Brannon et al. (2014) [1]. APC is a large multifunctional protein that regulates many biological functions including Wnt signalling (through the regulation of beta-catenin stability) Reya and Clevers (2005) [2], cell migration Kroboth et al. (2007), Sansom et al. (2004) [3], [4], mitosis Kaplan et al. (2001) [5], cell adhesion Faux et al. (2004), Carothers et al. (2001) [6], [7] and differentiation Sansom et al. (2004) [4]. Although the role of APC in CRC is often described as the deregulation of Wnt signalling, its other biological functions suggest that there are other factors at play that contribute to the onset of adenomas and the progression of CRC upon the truncation of APC. To identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated as a consequence of loss of function of APC, we compared the gene expression profiles of the APC mutated human CRC cell line SW480 following reintroduction of wild-type APC (SW480 + APC) or empty control vector (SW480 + vector control) Faux et al. (2004) . Here we describe the RNA-seq data derived for three biological replicates of parental SW480, SW480 + vector control and SW480 + APC cells, and present the bioinformatics pipeline used to test for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 1735 genes showed significant differential expression when APC was restored and were enriched for genes associated with cell polarity, Wnt signalling and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. There was additional enrichment for genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix junctions, angiogenesis, axon morphogenesis and cell movement. The raw and analysed RNA-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE76307. This dataset is useful for further investigations of the impact of APC mutation on the properties of colorectal cancer cells.

  7. Comparative economic evaluation of data from the ACRIN National CT Colonography Trial with three cancer intervention and surveillance modeling network microsimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanness, David J; Knudsen, Amy B; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Rutter, Carolyn M; Gareen, Ilana F; Herman, Benjamin A; Kuntz, Karen M; Zauber, Ann G; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Feuer, Eric J; Chen, Mei-Hsiu; Johnson, C Daniel

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of computed tomographic (CT) colonography for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in average-risk asymptomatic subjects in the United States aged 50 years. Enrollees in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network National CT Colonography Trial provided informed consent, and approval was obtained from the institutional review board at each site. CT colonography performance estimates from the trial were incorporated into three Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network CRC microsimulations. Simulated survival and lifetime costs for screening 50-year-old subjects in the United States with CT colonography every 5 or 10 years were compared with those for guideline-concordant screening with colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy plus either sensitive unrehydrated fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) or fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and no screening. Perfect and reduced screening adherence scenarios were considered. Incremental cost-effectiveness and net health benefits were estimated from the U.S. health care sector perspective, assuming a 3% discount rate. CT colonography at 5- and 10-year screening intervals was more costly and less effective than FOBT plus flexible sigmoidoscopy in all three models in both 100% and 50% adherence scenarios. Colonoscopy also was more costly and less effective than FOBT plus flexible sigmoidoscopy, except in the CRC-SPIN model assuming 100% adherence (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: $26,300 per life-year gained). CT colonography at 5- and 10-year screening intervals and colonoscopy were net beneficial compared with no screening in all model scenarios. The 5-year screening interval was net beneficial over the 10-year interval except in the MISCAN model when assuming 100% adherence and willingness to pay $50,000 per life-year gained. All three models predict CT colonography to be more costly and less effective than non-CT colonographic screening but net beneficial compared with no

  8. Human rights of children with intellectual disabilities: comparing self-ratings and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huus, K; Granlund, M; Bornman, J; Lygnegård, F

    2015-11-01

    A child rights-based approach to research articulates well with Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and highlights the importance and value of including children's own views about aspects that concern them. The aim of this study is to compare children with intellectual disability's own ratings (as self-raters) to those of their primary caregivers (as proxy raters) regarding human rights of children. The study also aims to establish whether there is an inter-rater agreement between the self-raters and proxy raters concerning Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This study is nested in a larger study examining the human rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa. In total, 162 children with intellectual disability from 11 schools across three provinces and their primary caregivers participated by answering parts of a Children's Rights Questionnaire (CRQ) developed by the researchers based on the United Nation's CRC. We compared the answers for six questions in the questionnaire that were addressed to self-raters (children) and proxy raters (primary caregivers) in the same way. Questions regarding basic needs, such as access to clean water or whether the child had food to eat at home, were answered similarly by self-raters and proxy raters. Larger differences were found when self-raters and proxy raters were asked about whether the child had things or friends to play with at home. Socio-economic variables seemed to affect whether self-raters and proxy raters answered similarly. The results underscore the importance of promoting children's rights to express themselves by considering the opinions of both the children as self-raters and their primary caregivers as proxy raters - not only the latter. The results indicate that it is especially important to include children's own voices when more complex needs are surveyed. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings could be affected by socio-economic circumstances.

  9. Can ratio of the biggest tumor diameter to total tumor diameter be a new parameter in the differential diagnosis of agressive and favorable multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Abbas Ali; Özdemir, Didem; Çuhacı, Neslihan; Başer, Hüsniye; Dirikoç, Ahmet; Aydın, Cevdet; Yazgan, Aylin Kılıç; Ersoy, Reyhan; Çakır, Bekir

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the usefulness of a new parameter -ratio of the biggest tumor diameter to total tumor diameter- for the differentiation of agressive and favorable papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC). The diameter of the biggest tumor focus was taken as the primary tumor diameter. Total tumor diameter was calculated as the sum of the maximal diameter of each lesion. Ratio of primary tumor diameter to total tumor diameter was defined as tumor diameter ratio (TDR). Positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of TDR to predict capsular invasion, extrathyroidal extension (ETE) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) were determined. Mean TDR was significantly lower in multifocal PTMC patients with capsular invasion, ETE, lymphovascular invasion and LNM compared to patients without these features. The sensitivities of TDR for the detection of LNM, ETE and capsular invasion were 100%, 100% and 94.2%, respectively. Specificity of TDR was 86.2% for LNM, 88% for ETE and 94.7% for capsular invasion. Best cut off values of TDR that can predict capsular invasion, ETE and LNM in multifocal PTMC were 0.62, 0.57 and 0.56, respectively. Multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with capsular invasion, ETE and LNM had significantly lower mean TDR when compared to ones without these features. Decreased TDR was associated with capsular invasion, ETE and LNM in patients with multifocal PTMC and PTC. This new parameter might be particularly helpful for the detection of aggressive behavior in multifocal PTMCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Individual fluorouracil dose adjustment in FOLFOX based on pharmacokinetic follow-up compared with conventional body-area-surface dosing: a phase II, proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitain, Olivier; Asevoaia, Andreaa; Boisdron-Celle, Michele; Poirier, Anne-Lise; Morel, Alain; Gamelin, Erick

    2012-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacokinetically (PK) guided fluorouracil (5-FU) dose adjustment vs. standard body-surface-area (BSA) dosing in a FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin) regimen in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A total of 118 patients with mCRC were administered individually determined PK-adjusted 5-FU in first-line FOLFOX chemotherapy. The comparison arm consisted of 39 patients, and these patients were also treated with FOLFOX with 5-FU by BSA. For the PK-adjusted arm 5-FU was monitored during infusion, and the dose for the next cycle was based on a dose-adjustment chart to achieve a therapeutic area under curve range (5-FU(ODPM Protocol)). The objective response rate was 69.7% in the PK-adjusted arm, and median overall survival and median progression-free survival were 28 and 16 months, respectively. In the traditional patients who received BSA dosage, objective response rate was 46%, and overall survival and progression-free survival were 22 and 10 months, respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicity was 1.7% for diarrhea, 0.8% for mucositis, and 18% for neutropenia in the dose-monitored group; they were 12%, 15%, and 25%, respectively, in the BSA group. Efficacy and tolerability of PK-adjusted FOLFOX dosing was much higher than traditional BSA dosing in agreement with previous reports for 5-FU monotherapy PK-adjusted dosing. Analysis of these results suggests that PK-guided 5-FU therapy offers added value to combination therapy for mCRC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Subset Analysis of a Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Magnifying Chromoendoscopy with Endoscopic Ultrasonography for Stage Diagnosis of Early Stage Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomonori; Shimura, Takaya; Ebi, Masahide; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Nishiwaki, Hirotaka; Mizushima, Takashi; Asukai, Koki; Togawa, Shozo; Takahashi, Satoru; Joh, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Our recent prospective study found equivalent accuracy of magnifying chromoendoscopy (MC) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for diagnosing the invasion depth of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, whether these tools show diagnostic differences in categories such as tumor size and morphology remains unclear. Hence, we conducted detailed subset analysis of the prospective data. In this multicenter, prospective, comparative trial, a total of 70 patients with early, flat CRC were enrolled from February 2011 to December 2012, and the results of 66 lesions were finally analyzed. Patients were randomly allocated to primary MC followed by EUS or to primary EUS followed by MC. Diagnoses of invasion depth by each tool were divided into intramucosal to slight submucosal invasion (invasion depth final pathological diagnosis by an independent pathologist blinded to clinical data. To standardize diagnoses among examiners, this trial was started after achievement of a mean κ value of ≥0.6 which was calculated from the average of κ values between each pair of participating endoscopists. Both MC and EUS showed similar diagnostic outcomes, with no significant differences in prediction of invasion depth in subset analyses according to tumor size, location, and morphology. Lesions that were consistently diagnosed as Tis/T1-SMS or ≥T1-SMD with both tools revealed accuracy of 76-78%. Accuracy was low in borderline lesions with irregular pit pattern in MC and distorted findings of the third layer in EUS (MC, 58.5%; EUS, 50.0%). MC and EUS showed the same limited accuracy for predicting invasion depth in all categories of early CRC. Since the irregular pit pattern in MC, distorted findings to the third layer in EUS and inconsistent diagnosis between both tools were associated with low accuracy, further refinements or even novel methods are still needed for such lesions. University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry UMIN 000005085.

  12. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location at...

  13. Medullary colonic carcinoma with microsatellite instability has lower survival compared with conventional colonic adenocarcinoma with microsatellite instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Gómez-Álvarez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal medullary carcinoma (MC is a rare subtype of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (PDA with unclear prognostic significance. Microsatellite instable (MSI colorectal carcinomas have demonstrated better prognosis in clinical stage II. Aim: To analyze the survival and clinicopathological characteristics of MCs versus PDAs with MSI in clinical stage III. Material and methods: We studied 22 cases of PDAs with MSI versus 10 MCs. Results : Of the 10 MCs, 7 patients were men; the mean age was 57.8 ±5.6 years. The mean tumor size was 9.6 ±4.1 cm, and the primary site was the right colon in 9; 7 patients showed lymph node metastases (LNM and lymphovascular invasion (LVI. Of the 22 PDA cases, 12 (54.5% were women with a mean age of 75 ±16.1 years. The mean tumor size was 6.4 ±3.2 cm. Twelve (54.5% presented in the right colon, 21 (95.5% showed LNM and 7 (31.8% LVI. Follow-up was 32 ±8 months, with a 5-year overall survival of 42.9% for MCs and 76.6% for PDAs (p = 0.048. Univariate analysis found local recurrence (p = 0.001 and medullary subtype (p = 0.043 associated with lower survival. Conclusions : Medullary carcinomas were of greater tumor size and associated with more LVI and worse survival versus PDAs with MSI in stage III.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of 8,4'-dideshydroxy-leinamycin revealing new insights into the structure-activity relationship of the anticancer natural product leinamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Ma, Ming; Ge, Hui-Ming; Yang, Chunying; Cleveland, John; Shen, Ben

    2015-11-01

    Leinamycin (LNM, 1) is a novel antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140 and features an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety that is spiro-fused to a thiazole-containing 18-membered lactam ring. The 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety of LNM is essential for its antitumor activity via an episulfonium ion-mediated DNA alkylation upon reductive activation in the presence of cellular thiols. We recently isolated leinamycin E1 (LNM E1, 2) from an engineered strain S. atroolivaceus SB3033, which lacks the 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety. Here we report the chemical synthesis of 8,4'-dideshydroxy-LNM (5) from 2 and determination of the cytotoxicity of 5 against selected cancer cell lines in comparison with 1; 5 exhibits comparable activity as 1 with the EC50 values between 8.21 and 275 nM. This work reveals new insight into the structure-activity relationship of LNM and highlights the synergy between metabolic pathway engineering and medicinal chemistry for natural product drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  16. Dialysis Facility Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Dialysis Facility Compare helps you find detailed information about Medicare-certified dialysis facilities. You can compare the services and the quality of care that...

  17. Approaching comparative company law

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  18. Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Sporadic CRC and Hereditary Nonpolyosis Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Sun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Extent neuroendocrine differentiation can be encountered in many human neoplasm derived from different organs and systems using immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural techniques. The tumor cells' behaviors resemble those of neurons and neuroendocrine cells. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation reputedly appears to be associated with a poorer prognosis than the adenocarcinoma counterparts in sporadic human neoplasm. In this review the neuroendocrine carcinoma and the adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation of colon and rectum both in sporadic colorectal carcinoma and the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, the relationship of neuroendocrine differentiation and some possible molecular pathways in tumorogenesis of colorectal cancer will be discussed. Possible treatment strategy will also be addressed.

  19. Sarcocystis in Biology of Foodborne Parasites CRC Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    People can contract infections by consuming beef infected with Sarcocystis hominis or pork infected with Sarcocystis suihominis. Proper cooking can eliminate this foodborne risk of infection. Here, the biology of such parasites is thoroughly reviewed, focusing on the epidemiology, diagnosis, treat...

  20. AC/CRC adjacent lane surfacing : construction report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Asphaltic Concrete (AC) and Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) are common roadway materials used in Oregon. In a recent construction project -- Poverty Flats/Mecham Section -- the Oregon State Highway Division (OSHD) designed, as part of the project, a "...

  1. Education in the Australian CRC for renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, P. [Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy, Perth, WA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The sudden surge of growth which has occurred in the renewable energy industry over the past five years has caught educators napping. Utilities and industry are finding it difficult to recruit staff who are qualified to design and maintain renewable energy systems. The Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy (ACRE), established in July 1996, is committed to addressing the social and environmental issues raised by global warming by developing and commercializing high quality renewable energy systems. A crucial part of this mission is to provide educational services to support this new technology and to build public confidence in renewable energy systems. The Education Program of ACRE will provide a range of education, training and information about renewable energy systems and greenhouse issues. This paper describes the approach and objectives of the Education Program and the outcomes it hopes to achieve. (author). 5 refs.

  2. CRC handbook of methods for oxygen radical research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwald, Robert A

    1985-01-01

    .... This volume is divided into five sections. Section I deals with preparative methodology for isolation and purification of the components of the oxy radical experimental systems used most frequently, including all the three forms of SOD...

  3. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  4. Text File Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  5. Hospital Compare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These are the official datasets used on the Medicare.gov Hospital Compare Website provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These data allow you to...

  6. Towards Comparative Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Merete Storgaard

    Globalization is the imitation and adaptation of knowledgesolutions or innovations, as they are diffused from one country to another” (Peter Jarvis 2007) Conducting comparative, educational research of school leadership that effects student achievement in an international perspective is of scient......Globalization is the imitation and adaptation of knowledgesolutions or innovations, as they are diffused from one country to another” (Peter Jarvis 2007) Conducting comparative, educational research of school leadership that effects student achievement in an international perspective...... is of scientific value in qualifying the international and national knowledgebase on effective school leadership. In a methodological perspective comparative analysis in an international setting creates specifically a scientific demand of comparability and a theory based leadership - framework to guide...... the empirical, qualitative research of effective leadership....

  7. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a comparative study of demonstrative forms in three K wa languages, ... relative distance from the deictic centre, such as English this and that, here and there. ... Mostly, the referents of demonstratives are 'activated' or at least.

  8. Home Health Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Home Health Compare has information about the quality of care provided by Medicare-certified home health agencies throughout the nation. Medicare-certified means the...

  9. Nursing Home Compare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These are the official datasets used on the Medicare.gov Nursing Home Compare Website provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These data allow...

  10. Hospital Compare - Archived Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Compare is a consumer-oriented website that provides information on how well hospitals provide recommended care to their patients. This information can help...

  11. Home Health Compare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These are the official datasets used on the Medicare.gov Home Health Compare Website provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These data allow you...

  12. Nursing Home Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data that is used by the Nursing Home Compare tool can be downloaded for public use. This functionality is primarily used by health policy researchers and the...

  13. Comparative Climatic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Comparative Climatic Data is a publication containing data tables of meteorological elements; the publication outlines the climatic conditions at major weather...

  14. Dialysis Facility Compare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These are the official datasets used on the Medicare.gov Dialysis Facility Compare Website provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These data...

  15. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  16. Comparing chess strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kacz, Kristián

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an overview of approaches in computer chess. It designs and implements a chess engine for multiplayer network chess program ChessNet. Within the engine implements several search algorithms like Negamax, Alpha-beta, Negascout and points to their weaknesses. Adds a possibility to the ChessNet environment to compare chess engines. Compares implemented algorithms in terms of time complexity. Shows several factors wich we have to take into consideration during th...

  17. Competitive versus comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    2002-01-01

    I explore the interactions between comparative, competitive and absolute advantage in a two-country model of oligopoly in general equilibrium. Comparative advantage always determines the direction of trade, but both competitive and absolute advantage affect resource allocation, trade patterns and trade volumes. Competitive advantage in the sense of more home firms drives foreign firms out of marginal sectors but also makes some marginal home sectors uncompetitive. Absolute advantage in the se...

  18. Comparative approaches to gentrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martin; Smith, Darren P

    2018-01-01

    The epistemologies and politics of comparative research are prominently debated within urban studies, with ‘comparative urbanism’ emerging as a contemporary lexicon of urban studies. The study of urban gentrification has, after some delay, come to engage with these debates, which can be seen to pose a major challenge to the very concept of gentrification. To date, similar debates or developments have not unfolded within the study of rural gentrification. This article seeks to address some of the challenges posed to gentrification studies through an examination of strategies of comparison and how they might be employed within a comparative study of rural gentrification. Drawing on Tilly (Big structures Large Processes Huge Comparisons. New York: Russell Sage), examples of four ‘strategies of comparison’ are identified within studies of urban and rural gentrification, before the paper explores how ‘geographies of the concept’ and ‘geographies of the phenomenon’ of rural gentrification in the United Kingdom, United States and France may be investigated using Latour’s (Pandora’s Hope. London: Harvard University Press) notion of ‘circulatory sociologies of translation’. The aim of our comparative discussion is to open up dialogues on the challenges of comparative studies that employ conceptions of gentrification and also to promote reflections of the metrocentricity of recent discussions of comparative research. PMID:29657708

  19. Subset Analysis of a Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Magnifying Chromoendoscopy with Endoscopic Ultrasonography for Stage Diagnosis of Early Stage Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Yamada

    Full Text Available Our recent prospective study found equivalent accuracy of magnifying chromoendoscopy (MC and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS for diagnosing the invasion depth of colorectal cancer (CRC; however, whether these tools show diagnostic differences in categories such as tumor size and morphology remains unclear. Hence, we conducted detailed subset analysis of the prospective data.In this multicenter, prospective, comparative trial, a total of 70 patients with early, flat CRC were enrolled from February 2011 to December 2012, and the results of 66 lesions were finally analyzed. Patients were randomly allocated to primary MC followed by EUS or to primary EUS followed by MC. Diagnoses of invasion depth by each tool were divided into intramucosal to slight submucosal invasion (invasion depth <1000 μm and deep submucosal invasion (invasion depth ≥1000 μm, and then compared with the final pathological diagnosis by an independent pathologist blinded to clinical data. To standardize diagnoses among examiners, this trial was started after achievement of a mean κ value of ≥0.6 which was calculated from the average of κ values between each pair of participating endoscopists.Both MC and EUS showed similar diagnostic outcomes, with no significant differences in prediction of invasion depth in subset analyses according to tumor size, location, and morphology. Lesions that were consistently diagnosed as Tis/T1-SMS or ≥T1-SMD with both tools revealed accuracy of 76-78%. Accuracy was low in borderline lesions with irregular pit pattern in MC and distorted findings of the third layer in EUS (MC, 58.5%; EUS, 50.0%.MC and EUS showed the same limited accuracy for predicting invasion depth in all categories of early CRC. Since the irregular pit pattern in MC, distorted findings to the third layer in EUS and inconsistent diagnosis between both tools were associated with low accuracy, further refinements or even novel methods are still needed for such lesions

  20. Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone in previously untreated advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botrel, Tobias Engel Ayer; Clark, Luciana Gontijo de Oliveira; Paladini, Luciano; Clark, Otávio Augusto C.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of neoplasm-related death in the United States. Several studies analyzed the efficacy of bevacizumab combined with different chemotherapy regimens consisting on drugs such as 5-FU, capecitabine, irinotecan and oxaliplatin. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab versus chemotherapy alone in patients with previously untreated advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Several databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CENTRAL. The primary endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival. Data extracted from the studies were combined by using hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). The final analysis included 9 trials comprising 3,914 patients. Patients who received the combined treatment (chemotherapy + bevacizumab) had higher response rates (RR = 0.89; 95 % CI: 0.82 to 0.96; p = 0.003) with heterogeneity, higher progression-free survival (HR = 0.69; 95 % CI: 0.63 to 0.75; p < 0.00001) and also higher overall survival rates (HR = 0.87; 95 % CI: 0.80 to 0.95; p = 0.002) with moderate heterogeneity. Regarding adverse events and severe toxicities (grade ≥ 3), the group receiving the combined therapy had higher rates of hypertension (RR = 3.56 95 % CI: 2.58 to 4.92; p < 0.00001), proteinuria (RR = 1.89; 95 % CI: 1.26 to 2.84; p = 0.002), gastrointestinal perforation (RR = 3.63; 95 % CI: 1.31 to 10.09; p = 0.01), any thromboembolic events (RR = 1.44; 95 % CI: 1.20 to 1.73; p = 0.0001), and bleeding (RR = 1.81; 95 % CI: 1.22 to 2.67; p = 0.003). The combination of chemotherapy with bevacizumab increased the response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival of patients with mCRC without prior chemotherapy. The results of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were comparatively higher

  1. Long non-coding RNA FBXL19-AS1 plays oncogenic role in colorectal cancer by sponging miR-203

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Bo; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Shaorong; Peng, Wei; Huang, Xin'en; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of the progression of human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The study of genome-wide lncRNA expression patterns in metastatic CRC could provide novel mechanism underlying CRC carcinogenesis. In here, we determined the lncRNA expression profiles correlating to CRC with or without lymph node metastasis (LNM) based on microarray analysis. We found that 2439 lncRNAs and 1654 mRNAs were differentially expressed in metastatic CRC relative to primary CRC. Among these dysregulated lncRNAs, FBXL19-AS1 was the most significantly upregulated lncRNA in metastatic tumors. Functionally, knockdown of FBXL19-AS1 played tumor-suppressive effects by inhibiting cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Overexpression of FBXL19-AS1 was markedly correlated with TNM stage and LNM in CRC. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that miR-203 was potentially targeted by FBXL19-AS1, which was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that miR-203 expression was negatively related to FBXL19-AS1 in tumor tissues. Finally, miR-203 inhibition abrogated the effect of FBXL19-AS1 knockdown on the proliferation and invasion of LoVo cells. Our results reveal the cancer-promoting effect of FBXL19-AS1, acting as a molecular sponge in negatively modulating miR-203, which might provide a new insight for understanding of CRC development. - Highlights: • LncRNA expression signature was different between metastatic and primary tumors. • Knockdown of FBXL19-AS1 inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. • Knockdown of FBXL19-AS1 inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. • FBXL19-AS1 was upregulated in CRC tissues and related with lymph node metastasis. • FBXL19-AS1, acting as a molecular sponge in negatively regulating miR-203.

  2. Comparing Political Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide....... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...

  3. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    importance of particularized experiences and multiple ineequality agendas). These developments shape the way citizenship is both practiced and analysed. Mapping neat citizenship modles onto distinct nation-states and evaluating these in relation to formal equality is no longer an adequate approach....... Comparative citizenship analyses need to be considered in relation to multipleinequalities and their intersections and to multiple governance and trans-national organisinf. This, in turn, suggests that comparative citizenship analysis needs to consider new spaces in which struggles for equal citizenship occur...

  4. Comparative Nivkh Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    This dictionary undertakes to reconstruct the lexis and morphology of the Nivkh proto-language by marshaling and organizing all the data available in published form on the contemporary dialects. It builds upon a considerable body of descriptive and comparative work carried out by scholars who have...... World is a subject of continuing interest to both linguists and anthropologists. The dictionary does not address this question directly. Reconstructing the proto-language is an essential step, however, to any further comparative work – in particular to sorting out the relationship between Nivkh...

  5. Comparing chemical reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardelli, Luca; Tribastone, Mirco; Tschaikowski, Max

    2017-01-01

    We study chemical reaction networks (CRNs) as a kernel model of concurrency provided with semantics based on ordinary differential equations. We investigate the problem of comparing two CRNs, i.e., to decide whether the solutions of a source and of a target CRN can be matched for an appropriate...... choice of initial conditions. Using a categorical framework, we extend and unify model-comparison approaches based on dynamical (semantic) and structural (syntactic) properties of CRNs. Then, we provide an algorithm to compare CRNs, running linearly in time with respect to the cardinality of all possible...... comparisons. Finally, using a prototype implementation, CAGE, we apply our results to biological models from the literature....

  6. Comparative Contract Law & Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovac, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work is a search for deeper understanding of established differences and similarities among compared legal systems. The application of economically inspired optimal model rule as a uniform term of comparison provides additional insights into some of the most often discussed legal issues. The

  7. Comparing East and West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razeto, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the archaeological and literary evidence for marketplaces and urban forms connected to the manufacturing of bricks and metalworking in the capital cities of the contemporary empires of Rome and Han China (ca. 200 BC-200 AD). The comparative analysis of the physical aspects...... was involved in the social and political processes that characterized the production of space in ancient cities....

  8. Ebolavirus comparative genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Se-Ran; Leuze, Michael R.; Nookaew, Intawat

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented for this virus. To examine the dynamics of this genome, we compare more than 100 currently available ebolavirus genomes to each other and to other viral genomes. Based on oligomer frequency analysis, the family Filoviridae forms...

  9. Comparing contracting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    . Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  10. Dermatologia comparativa Comparative Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiram Larangeira de Almeida Jr

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Demonstra-se o quadro exuberante dos angiofibromas faciais em paciente do sexo masculino, de 32 anos, com esclerose tuberosa, os quais podem ser comparados com amoras.The impressive facial angiofibromas, from a 32 year-old male paciente, with the classical features of tuberous sclerosis, were compared with mulberries.

  11. Comparative cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundage, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book is designed to compare all major cardiac imaging techniques. All major imaging techniques - including conventional angiography, digital angiography, echocardiography and Doppler imaging, conventional radioisotope techniques, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging - are covered in this text as they apply to the major cardiovascular disorders. There is brief coverage of positron emission tomography and an extensive presentation of ultrafast computed tomography

  12. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  13. Comparative Genomics of Eukaryotes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, V. van

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing comparative genomics methods in eukaryotes, with an emphasis on applications for gene function prediction and regulatory element detection. In the past, methods have been developed to predict functional associations between gene pairs in prokaryotes. The challenge

  14. Comparative International Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, Arndt; Noorderhaven, Niels; Koen, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The use of comparisons to explain, analyze and understand social and economic phenomena is recognized as a valuable social science tool. This textbook deals with the differences in management and organization between nations and their effects on multinational enterprises. In comparing management

  15. Comparative Political Communication Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kenski, K.; Jamieson, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of comparative political communication research (CPCR). CPCR is a growing field since there is wide acknowledgement that many questions are not answered satisfactorily with single case studies. The chapter explains why political communication researchers should care

  16. Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimation of fat-free mass in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle, Stine Skov; Tang Møllehave, Line; Kadkhoda, Zahra Taheri

    2016-01-01

    during the course of their treatments. Objective: To examine relationships between single cross-sectional thighs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skeletal muscle mass (SM) as reference and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) in patients with colorectal cancer...... undergoing chemotherapy. Design: In an observational, prospective study we examine the relationships between single cross-sectional thighs MRI (T1-weighted (1.5 T) SM compared to FFM BIA (8-electrodes multi-frequency Tanita MC780MA)) and FFM skin-fold thickness (ST) (4-points (Harpenden, Skinfold Caliper......)) and SM equation for non-obese persons from Lee et al. 2000 (L2000) (based on age, height, weight, sex and race). FFM and SM (kg) were calculated based on either area (MRI) or weight. Results: 18 CRC patients (10 males and 8 females) with mean (SD) age 67 yr (6) were measured at baseline, and 13 were...

  17. Comparative and Translatorly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosen Guercio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available World literature’s natural home is comparative literature, a discipline born from and shaped by, as Vilashini Cooppan elegantly puts it, “scholarly engagements with the categories of migration, exile, diaspora, and globalization” (15. However, world literature has frequently been framed as a problem for the discipline, in large part because of its dependence on the ever-vexing and still mistrusted specter of translation. In light of the long-standing anxiety toward both world literature and translation, I propose here that comparatists do ourselves a terrible disservice if we do not urgently take up the questions raised by this disciplinary tension. Translation – in all of its attendant struggles with ethics, aesthetics, appropriation, authority – is not the problem, but, rather, should be understood as a key critical lens for comparative and world literature.In order to establish academia’s frustration with this subject, one need look no further than the “Three Reports to the America Comparative Literature Association on ‘Professional Standards’” (dating from 1965, 1975, and 1993, which return repeatedly to the problem of reading translated literature, circling around it with intense ambivalence. The moral of their story seems to be that translated texts are integral to comparative literature at the same time that they threaten its existence by undermining disciplinary exclusivity in foreign language expertise and by shining a sort of spotlight on all that literature which comparative literature may sometimes “condone” (as one of the reports puts it but to which it does not often actively attend. Even Goethe had Western European languages and literatures firmly in mind when he coined the term, “Weltliteratur.” Translations can’t help but point up the limits of the “four [likely European] languages” proposed as minimal standards for graduate students by the Green and Bernheimer reports, and on the strength of

  18. Comparing apples and pears?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waite, Sue; Bølling, Mads; Bentsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Using a conceptual model focused on purposes, aims, content, pedagogy, outcomes, and barriers, we review and interpret literature on two forms of outdoor learning: Forest Schools in England and udeskole in Denmark. We examine pedagogical principles within a comparative analytical framework and co...... to pedagogical principles are necessary to ensure better alignment of purpose and practice to elicit specific outcomes and enable comparison between different types.......Using a conceptual model focused on purposes, aims, content, pedagogy, outcomes, and barriers, we review and interpret literature on two forms of outdoor learning: Forest Schools in England and udeskole in Denmark. We examine pedagogical principles within a comparative analytical framework...... and consider how adopted pedagogies reflect and refract the culture in which they are embedded. Despite different national educational and cultural contexts, English Forest Schools and Danish udeskole share several commonalities within a naturalistic/progressive pedagogical tradition; differences appear...

  19. On comparative inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    of self‐reflexivity and self-questioning in the Greek polis gave also rise to the genuine interest in the institutions of the cultural ‘other’. Impartiality in the study of the others’ institutions started in Greece and it was closely associated with the signification that physis (nature) should......The paper explores the origins of comparative studies, which as it argues are located in Ancient Greece. Greece is not only the place where the school was born, but it is also there where the interest in and inquiry of the institutions of other societies, including education, emerged. The rise...... to know better their own society through comparison. Cross-cultural examination in this regard informed further the Greeks’ self-reflexivity. By going through a set of historical sources and contemporary literature, the paper will elaborate on the emergence of cross-cultural and comparative inquiry...

  20. Banking: shop and compare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors.

  1. Josephson comparator switching time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Quentin P; Miller, Donald L; Przybysz, John X [Northrop Grumman, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Comparator performance can be characterized in terms of both sensitivity and decision time. Delta-sigma analogue-to-digital converters are tolerant of sensitivity errors but require short decision time due to feedback. We have analysed the Josephson comparator using the numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation, which describes the time evolution of the ensemble probability distribution. At balance, the result is essentially independent of temperature in the range 5-20 K. There is a very small probability, 1 x 10{sup -14}, that the decision time will be longer than seven single-flux-quantum pulse widths, defined as Phi{sub 0}/(I{sub c}R{sub n}). For junctions with a critical current density of 4.5 kA, this decision time is only 20 ps. Decision time error probability decreases rapidly with lengthening time interval, at a rate of two orders of magnitude per pulse width. We conclude that Josephson comparator performance is quite favourable for analogue-to-digital converter applications.

  2. Universal Versus Targeted Screening for Lynch Syndrome: Comparing Ascertainment and Costs Based on Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Mujde Z; Fernandez, Luca P; Ng, Hank K; McKinnon, Wendy C; Heald, Brandie; Koliba, Christopher J; Greenblatt, Marc S

    2016-10-01

    Strategies to screen colorectal cancers (CRCs) for Lynch syndrome are evolving rapidly; the optimal strategy remains uncertain. We compared targeted versus universal screening of CRCs for Lynch syndrome. In 2010-2011, we employed targeted screening (age Lynch syndrome and estimated the 5-year costs of preventing CRC by colonoscopy screening, using a system dynamics model. Using targeted screening, 51/175 (29 %) cancers fit criteria and were tested by immunohistochemistry; 15/51 (29 %, or 8.6 % of all CRCs) showed suspicious loss of ≥1 mismatch repair protein. Germline mismatch repair gene mutations were found in 4/4 cases sequenced (11 suspected cases did not have germline testing). Using universal screening, 17/292 (5.8 %) screened cancers had abnormal immunohistochemistry suspicious for Lynch syndrome. Germline mismatch repair mutations were found in only 3/10 cases sequenced (7 suspected cases did not have germline testing). The mean cost to identify Lynch syndrome probands was ~$23,333/case for targeted screening and ~$175,916/case for universal screening at our institution. Estimated costs to identify and screen probands and relatives were: targeted, $9798/case and universal, $38,452/case. In real-world Lynch syndrome management, incomplete clinical follow-up was the major barrier to do genetic testing. Targeted screening costs 2- to 7.5-fold less than universal and rarely misses Lynch syndrome cases. Future changes in testing costs will likely change the optimal algorithm.

  3. Comparative risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the risks of various energy systems are discussed considering severe accidents analysis, particularly the probabilistic safety analysis, and probabilistic safety criteria, and the applications of these criteria and analysis. The comparative risk analysis has demonstrated that the largest source of risk in every society is from daily small accidents. Nevertheless, we have to be more concerned about severe accidents. The comparative risk analysis of five different energy systems (coal, oil, gas, LWR and STEC (Solar)) for the public has shown that the main sources of risks are coal and oil. The latest comparative risk study of various energy has been conducted in the USA and has revealed that the number of victims from coal is 42 as many than victims from nuclear. A study for severe accidents from hydro-dams in United States has estimated the probability of dam failures at 1 in 10,000 years and the number of victims between 11,000 and 260,000. The average occupational risk from coal is one fatal accident in 1,000 workers/year. The probabilistic safety analysis is a method that can be used to assess nuclear energy risks, and to analyze the severe accidents, and to model all possible accident sequences and consequences. The 'Fault tree' analysis is used to know the probability of failure of the different systems at each point of accident sequences and to calculate the probability of risks. After calculating the probability of failure, the criteria for judging the numerical results have to be developed, that is the quantitative and qualitative goals. To achieve these goals, several systems have been devised by various countries members of AIEA. The probabilistic safety ana-lysis method has been developed by establishing a computer program permit-ting to know different categories of safety related information. 19 tabs. (author)

  4. Comparative pharmacognosy of Pashanbhed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pashanbhed is a commercially available diuretic and lithotropic drug, used to treat renal problems. It is a controversial name as it is assigned to various plants such as Bergenia ligulata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Coleus aromaticus and Rotula aquatica. Objective: To perform the comparative preliminary phytochemical screening, diuretic activity, and thin layer chromatography (TLC finger printing profile of three plants (B. ligulata, C. aromaticus, and K. pinnata, most commonly used as Pashanbhed. Materials and Methods: Diuretic potential of methanolic extract (ME of three plants were evaluated at two dose levels (500 and 1,000 mg/kg p.o., using normal Wistar rats (Lipschitz method. Furosemide (20 mg/kg p.o. was used as a standard drug. The effect on urine output and electrolyte changes were measured for 24 h and compared. All MEs were screened preliminarily for their constituents and their TLC finger printing profiles were prepared. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni′s multiple comparison test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The MEs of all three plants have shown diuresis in normal rats. However, in intercomparison of the ME C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o. produced more significant diuresis (P < 0.05 and electrolyte excretion compared to other test groups, the effect was at par with furosemide. The ME of these plants showed presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, etc. Conclusion: The ME of C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o. has showed highest diuretic action (4.2 among the tested extracts. This suggests the use of C. aromaticus leaves as "Pashanbhed"; the most effective diuretic drug.

  5. Comparative pharmacognosy of Pashanbhed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Poonam; Gauttam, Vinod; Kalia, Ajudhia N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pashanbhed is a commercially available diuretic and lithotropic drug, used to treat renal problems. It is a controversial name as it is assigned to various plants such as Bergenia ligulata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Coleus aromaticus and Rotula aquatica. Objective: To perform the comparative preliminary phytochemical screening, diuretic activity, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) finger printing profile of three plants (B. ligulata, C. aromaticus, and K. pinnata), most commonly used as Pashanbhed. Materials and Methods: Diuretic potential of methanolic extract (ME) of three plants were evaluated at two dose levels (500 and 1,000 mg/kg p.o.), using normal Wistar rats (Lipschitz method). Furosemide (20 mg/kg p.o.) was used as a standard drug. The effect on urine output and electrolyte changes were measured for 24 h and compared. All MEs were screened preliminarily for their constituents and their TLC finger printing profiles were prepared. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The MEs of all three plants have shown diuresis in normal rats. However, in intercomparison of the ME C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o.) produced more significant diuresis (P < 0.05) and electrolyte excretion compared to other test groups, the effect was at par with furosemide. The ME of these plants showed presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, etc. Conclusion: The ME of C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o.) has showed highest diuretic action (4.2) among the tested extracts. This suggests the use of C. aromaticus leaves as “Pashanbhed”; the most effective diuretic drug. PMID:24948861

  6. Comparative Genome Viewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molineris, I.; Sales, G.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of information about genomes, both in the form of complete sequences and annotations, has been exponentially increasing in the last few years. As a result there is the need for tools providing a graphical representation of such information that should be comprehensive and intuitive. Visual representation is especially important in the comparative genomics field since it should provide a combined view of data belonging to different genomes. We believe that existing tools are limited in this respect as they focus on a single genome at a time (conservation histograms) or compress alignment representation to a single dimension. We have therefore developed a web-based tool called Comparative Genome Viewer (Cgv): it integrates a bidimensional representation of alignments between two regions, both at small and big scales, with the richness of annotations present in other genome browsers. We give access to our system through a web-based interface that provides the user with an interactive representation that can be updated in real time using the mouse to move from region to region and to zoom in on interesting details.

  7. Comparative Studies for What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guedes de Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ISCPES stands for International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sports and it is going to celebrate its 40th anniversary in 2018. Since the beginning (Israel 1978 the main goals of the Society were established under a worldwide mind set considering five continents and no discrimination of any kind. The founders wanted to compare Physical Education and Sports across the world, searching for the best practices deserving consideration and applied on the purpose of improving citizen quality of life. The mission still stands for “Compare to learn and improve”. As all the organizations lasting for 39 years, ISCPES experienced several vicissitudes, usually correlated with world economic cycles, social and sports changes, which are in ISS journal articles - International Sport Studies. ISS journal is Scopus indexed, aiming to improve its quality (under evaluation to reach more qualified students, experts, professionals and researchers; doing so it will raise its indexation, which we know it is nowadays a more difficult task. First, because there are more journals trying to compete on this academic fierce competitive market; secondly, because the basic requirements are getting more and more hard to gather in the publishing environment around Physical Education and Sports issues. However, we can promise this will be one of our main strategic goals. Another goal I would like to address on this Editorial is the language issue. We have this second strategic goal, which is to reach most of languages spoken in different continents; besides the English language, we will reach Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries. For that reason, we already defined that all the abstracts in English will be translated into Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese words so people can find them on any search browser. That will expand the demand for our journal and articles, increasing the number of potential readers. Of course this opportunity, given by

  8. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    The paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  9. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun. 11 references.

  10. Comparing new anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, James M

    2012-12-01

    For years, the pharmaceutical industry has been trying to find a safe and effective drug to replace warfarin. Although warfarin is an effective anticoagulant, its pharmacology, adverse effects, and risk profiles dictate that patients taking this medication must be monitored judiciously. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved two drugs for commercial use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban, that will compete directly with warfarin for use in specific indications. Because of direct marketing to patients, physicians are being asked to comment on these new medications. This brief review illustrates the data available for the two new drugs when compared to warfarin for the specified indications. For some patients, these drugs may be highly beneficial and offer an excellent alternative to warfarin. For others, warfarin may still be the preferred drug.

  11. Comparative RNA genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backofen, Rolf; Gorodkin, Jan; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades it has become clear that RNA is much more than just a boring intermediate in protein expression. Ancient RNAs still appear in the core information metabolism and comprise a surprisingly large component in bacterial gene regulation. A common theme with these types of mostly...... small RNAs is their reliance of conserved secondary structures. Large scale sequencing projects, on the other hand, have profoundly changed our understanding of eukaryotic genomes. Pervasively transcribed, they give rise to a plethora of large and evolutionarily extremely flexible noncoding RNAs...... that exert a vastly diverse array of molecule functions. In this chapter we provide a—necessarily incomplete—overview of the current state of comparative analysis of noncoding RNAs, emphasizing computational approaches as a means to gain a global picture of the modern RNA world....

  12. Manipulator comparative testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance

  13. Comparative Failure in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney Glaser, PhD, Hon Phd

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A perennial problem for some scientists is their feeling of comparative failure as scientists. This problem becomes clearer if we consider two major sources of this feeling that are inherent in the vary nature of scientific work. (i In science, strong emphasis is placed on the achievement of recognition; (ii the typical basic scientist works in a community filled with “great men” who have made important and decisive discoveries in their respective fields; they are the acknowledge guiding lights. These esteemed scientists, who have attained honors beyond the reach of most of their colleagues, tend to become models for those who have been trained by them or who have worked under them. As Eiduson has put it in her recent psychological study of basic research scientists “Scientists: are idols-oriented.”

  14. Comparative Failure in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A perennial problem for some scientists is their feeling of comparative failure as scientists. This problem becomes clearer if we consider two major sources of this feeling that are inherent in the vary nature of scientific work. (i In science, strong emphasis is placed on the achievement of recognition; (ii the typical basic scientist works in a community filled with “great men” who have made important and decisive discoveries in their respective fields; they are the acknowledge guiding lights. These esteemed scientists, who have attained honors beyond the reach of most of their colleagues, tend to become models for those who have been trained by them or who have worked under them. As Eiduson has put it in her recent psychological study of basic research scientists “Scientists: are idols-oriented.”

  15. Comparability of prostate trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P

    1993-01-01

    The present overview of advanced prostate cancer required the identification of randomized clinical trials studying the question of maximal androgen blockade versus the classic castration therapy. The heterogeneity of the trials concerned the type of castration (surgical or chemical) and the type...... of antiandrogen (flutamide, Anandron, or cyproterone acetate) added to castration. This paper reviews the different types of heterogeneity that might exist among trials that are involved in the overview: study design, randomization procedure, treatment evaluation, statistical evaluation, and data maturity....... In order to overcome these various types of heterogeneity and to compare like with like, the treatment comparison should be stratified a posteriori by question (i.e., type of castration or type of anti-androgen studied) and by study. In this way, one may draw valid conclusions. Of course, those trials...

  16. Prognostic value of BRAF and KRAS mutation status in stage II and III microsatellite instable colon cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cuba, E. M. V.; Snaebjornsson, P.; Heideman, D. A. M.; van Grieken, N. C. T.; Bosch, L. J. W.; Fijneman, R. J. A.; Belt, E.; Bril, H.; Stockmann, H. B. A. C.; Hooijberg, E.; Punt, C. J. A.; Koopman, M.; Nagtegaal, I. D.; Coupé, V. H. M.; Carvalho, B.; Meijer, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) has been associated with favourable survival in early stage colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC. The BRAF V600E mutation has been associated with worse survival in MSS CRC. This mutation occurs in 40% of MSI CRC and it is unclear

  17. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  18. Comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G

    2005-01-01

    Altering DNA copy number is one of the many ways that gene expression and function may be modified. Some variations are found among normal individuals ( 14, 35, 103 ), others occur in the course of normal processes in some species ( 33 ), and still others participate in causing various disease states. For example, many defects in human development are due to gains and losses of chromosomes and chromosomal segments that occur prior to or shortly after fertilization, whereas DNA dosage alterations that occur in somatic cells are frequent contributors to cancer. Detecting these aberrations, and interpreting them within the context of broader knowledge, facilitates identification of critical genes and pathways involved in biological processes and diseases, and provides clinically relevant information. Over the past several years array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has demonstrated its value for analyzing DNA copy number variations. In this review we discuss the state of the art of array CGH and its applications in medical genetics and cancer, emphasizing general concepts rather than specific results.

  19. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  20. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  1. Ebolavirus comparative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Se-Ran; Leuze, Michael R.; Nookaew, Intawat; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Land, Miriam; Zhang, Qian; Wanchai, Visanu; Chai, Juanjuan; Nielsen, Morten; Trolle, Thomas; Lund, Ole; Buzard, Gregory S.; Pedersen, Thomas D.; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Ussery, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented for this virus. To examine the dynamics of this genome, we compare more than 100 currently available ebolavirus genomes to each other and to other viral genomes. Based on oligomer frequency analysis, the family Filoviridae forms a distinct group from all other sequenced viral genomes. All filovirus genomes sequenced to date encode proteins with similar functions and gene order, although there is considerable divergence in sequences between the three genera Ebolavirus, Cuevavirus and Marburgvirus within the family Filoviridae. Whereas all ebolavirus genomes are quite similar (multiple sequences of the same strain are often identical), variation is most common in the intergenic regions and within specific areas of the genes encoding the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase (L). We predict regions that could contain epitope-binding sites, which might be good vaccine targets. This information, combined with glycosylation sites and experimentally determined epitopes, can identify the most promising regions for the development of therapeutic strategies. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan). PMID:26175035

  2. Comparative Healthcare: Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Mohammed Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the third in this series of ‘comparative healthcare’ medical practitioners explore the approach to diabetes inBangaldesh and Australia respectively. The social and medical consequences of this chronic conditionare highlighted through the approach to patients at various stages of the disease from two nationalperspectives. An astonishing 7% of the 153 million people are reported to have diabetes in Bangladesh. Manyremain undiagnosed. Delays in diagnosis or management of diabetes have life limiting consequences for thosewho can ill afford private health care in the poorer nation. Screening and early intervention appear to bedenied to many in the developing country. The context is very different with Australians very fortunate to havea coordinated primary health care sector. The outlook for Bangladeshis with uncontrolled diabetes or withtreatable sequela would be unacceptable in Australia. At every stage in the disease trajectory the doctorsemphasise the importance of life style modification, a particular challenge in affluent Australia with its growingincidence of life style related pre morbid conditions in an increasingly sedentary population. A corner stone ofthe support of people with diabetes is the role of nurses and allied health professionals. With a fundedcommitment to multidisciplinary care in the community people with diabetes in Australia have access tosupport closer to home whereas those in Bangladesh remain heavily dependent on specialist, hospital basedservices. One can only speculate how Bangladesh will cope as its population ages and there are an everincreasing proportion of people who require urgent and expensive medical interventions. At the very leastthere is a strong case for greater investment in primary care especially to limit the economic consequences ofdiabetes and other chronic conditions. Finally as in other articles in this series we would like to emphasise that,the views expressed are those of the authors and do

  3. Non-comparative and comparative advertising in oligopolistic markets

    OpenAIRE

    Alipranti, Maria; Mitrokostas, Evangelos; Petrakis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We study firms' advertising strategies in an oligopolistic market in which both non-comparative and comparative advertising are present. We show that in equilibrium firms mix over the two types of advertising, with the intensity of comparative advertising exceeding that of non-comparative advertising; moreover, that the intensity of comparative increases relatively to non-comparative advertising as market competition intensifies. Interestingly, the use of comparative advertising may lead to h...

  4. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stage is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of martian (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of Mars contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (i) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (about 4.55 b.y.); (ii) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (iii) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle. The easiest way to explain the ages and diverse isotopic compositions of martian basalts is to postulate that Mars had an early magma ocean. Cumulates of this magma ocean were later remelted to form the SNC meteorite suite and some of these melts assimilated crustal materials enriched in incompatible elements. The REE pattern of the crust assimilated by these SNC magmas was LREE enriched. If this pattern is typical of the crust as a whole, the martian crust is probably similar in composition to melts generated by small degrees of partial melting (about 5%) of a primitive source. Higher degrees of partial melting would cause the crustal LREE pattern to be essentially flat. In the context of a magma ocean model, where large degrees of partial melting presumably prevailed, the crust would have to be dominated by late-stage, LREE-enriched residual liquids. Regardless of the exact physical setting, Nd and W isotopic evidence indicates that martian geochemical reservoirs must have formed early and that they have not been efficiently remixed since. The important point is that in both the Moon and Mars we see evidence of a magma ocean phase and that we recognize it as such. Several lines of theoretical inference point to an early Earth that was also hot

  5. Randomized controlled trial of storytelling compared to a personal risk tool intervention on colorectal cancer screening in low-income patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Linda K; McClain, Darya; Roe, Denise J; Hector, Richard D; Lopez, Ana Maria; Sillanpaa, Brian; Gonzalez, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Screening rates for colorectal cancer (CRC) lag for low-income, minority populations, contributing to poorer survival rates. A model of storytelling as culture-centric health promotion was tested for promoting CRC screening. A two-group parallel randomized controlled trial. Primary care, safety-net clinics. Low-income patients due for CRC screening, ages 50 to 75 years, speaking English or Spanish. Patients were exposed to either a video created from personal stories composited into a drama about "Papa" receiving CRC screening, or an instrument estimating level of personal cancer risk. Patients received a health care provider referral for CRC screening and were followed up for 3 months to document adherence. Behavioral factors related to the narrative model (identification and engagement) and theory of planned behavior. Main effects of the interventions on screening were tested, controlling for attrition factors, and demographic factor associations were assessed. Path analysis with model variables was used to test the direct effects and multiple mediator models. Main effects on CRC screening (roughly half stool-based tests, half colonoscopy) did not indicate significant differences (37% and 42% screened for storytelling and risk-based messages, respectively; n = 539; 33.6% male; 62% Hispanic). Factors positively associated with CRC screening included being female, Hispanic, married or living with a partner, speaking Spanish, having a primary care provider, lower income, and no health insurance. Engagement, working through positive attitudes toward the behavior, predicted CRC screening. A storytelling and a personalized risk-tool intervention achieved similar levels of screening among unscreened/underscreened, low-income patients. Factors usually associated with lower rates of screening (e.g., no insurance, being Hispanic) were related to more adherence. Both interventions' engagement factor facilitated positive attitudes about CRC screening associated with behavior

  6. Endoscopic detection rate of sessile serrated lesions in Lynch syndrome patients is comparable with an age- and gender-matched control population: case-control study with expert pathology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Jasper L A; Sahin, Husna; Hazewinkel, Yark; Koens, Lianne; van den Berg, Jose G; van Leerdam, Monique E; Dekker, Evelien

    2018-05-01

    Carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome involves fast progression of adenomas to colorectal cancer (CRC) because of microsatellite instability. The role of sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) and the serrated neoplasia pathway in these patients is unknown. The aim of this matched case-control study was to compare endoscopic detection rates and distribution of SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients with a matched control population. We collected data of Lynch syndrome patients with a proven germline mutation who underwent colonoscopy between January 2011 and April 2016 in 2 tertiary referral hospitals. Control subjects undergoing elective colonoscopy from 2011 and onward for symptoms or surveillance were selected from a prospectively collected database. Patients were matched 1:1 for age, gender, and index versus surveillance colonoscopy. An expert pathology review of serrated polyps was performed. The primary outcomes included the detection rates and distribution of SSLs. We identified 321 patients with Lynch syndrome who underwent at least 1 colonoscopy. Of these, 223 Lynch syndrome patients (mean age, 49.3; 59% women; index colonoscopy, 56%) were matched to 223 control subjects. SSLs were detected in 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 4.8-11.9) of colonoscopies performed in Lynch syndrome patients and in 6.7% (95% confidence interval, 4.1-10.8) of control subjects (P = .86). None of the detected SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients contained dysplasia. The detection rate of SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients undergoing colonoscopy is comparable with a matched population. These findings suggest that the role of the serrated neoplasia pathway in CRC development in Lynch syndrome seems to be comparable with that in the general population. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative law as method and the method of comparative law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.C.; Adams, M.; Heirbaut, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses both the justificatory role of comparative law within legal research (comparative law as method) and the method of comparative law itself. In this connection two questions will be answered: 1. Is comparative law a method, or a set of methods, for legal research? 2. Does

  8. Predictors of Lymph Node Metastasis and Prognosis in pT1 Colorectal Cancer Patients with Signet-Ring Cell and Mucinous Adenocarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Rong Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The local excision of early colorectal cancer is limited by the presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM. Signet-ring cell carcinomas (SRC and mucinous adenocarcinomas (MAC are two relatively infrequent histological subtypes. However, little is known about the predictors of LNM and prognosis to support the feasibility of local excision in early-stage SRC and MAC. Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Database were used to identify all patients with pT1 adenocarcinomas, including conventional adenocarcinoma (AC, MAC, and SRC. The prevalence of LNM was assessed, and the long-term survival rate in the above three types of colorectal cancer was calculated. Results: SRC accounted for 0.3% and MAC accounted for 4.4% of the entire cohort of colorectal adenocarcinomas. Compared to AC, MRC and SRC were more often located in the proximal colon, and exhibited a higher grade. The incidence of LNM in AC, MAC, and SRC was 10.6%, 17.2%, and 33.3% for colon cancers and 14.8%, 25.9%, and 46.2% for rectal cancers, respectively. In patients with lymph nodes resected no less than 12, incidence of LNM in AC, MRC, and SRC was 12%, 21%, and 44% for colon tumors and 17%, 30%, and 14% for rectal tumors, respectively. Although, colon patients MAC showed an entirely worse survival rate than AC, rectum patients MAC showed a similar prognosis to AC. We found that in patients with rectal tumors, SRC had a worse 3 and 5-year prognosis than AC. However, for colon cancers, the prognosis of SRC was similar to that of AC. Histology was not found to be an independent prognostic factor in multivariate survival analysis. Conclusions: MAC and SRC are two distinct subtypes of colorectal cancer that require special attention despite their relatively rare prevalence. pT1 patients with SRC of the rectum and patients with MAC of the colon have higher incidences of LNM, and with these adverse outcomes, local excision is not recommended. AlthoughMAC of the

  9. Discovery of the leinamycin family of natural products by mining actinobacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guohui; Xu, Zhengren; Guo, Zhikai; Hindra; Ma, Ming; Yang, Dong; Zhou, Hao; Gansemans, Yannick; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Jiang, Yi; Cheng, Jinhua; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Suh, Joo-Won; Duan, Yanwen; Shen, Ben

    2017-12-26

    Nature's ability to generate diverse natural products from simple building blocks has inspired combinatorial biosynthesis. The knowledge-based approach to combinatorial biosynthesis has allowed the production of designer analogs by rational metabolic pathway engineering. While successful, structural alterations are limited, with designer analogs often produced in compromised titers. The discovery-based approach to combinatorial biosynthesis complements the knowledge-based approach by exploring the vast combinatorial biosynthesis repertoire found in Nature. Here we showcase the discovery-based approach to combinatorial biosynthesis by targeting the domain of unknown function and cysteine lyase domain (DUF-SH) didomain, specific for sulfur incorporation from the leinamycin (LNM) biosynthetic machinery, to discover the LNM family of natural products. By mining bacterial genomes from public databases and the actinomycetes strain collection at The Scripps Research Institute, we discovered 49 potential producers that could be grouped into 18 distinct clades based on phylogenetic analysis of the DUF-SH didomains. Further analysis of the representative genomes from each of the clades identified 28 lnm -type gene clusters. Structural diversities encoded by the LNM-type biosynthetic machineries were predicted based on bioinformatics and confirmed by in vitro characterization of selected adenylation proteins and isolation and structural elucidation of the guangnanmycins and weishanmycins. These findings demonstrate the power of the discovery-based approach to combinatorial biosynthesis for natural product discovery and structural diversity and highlight Nature's rich biosynthetic repertoire. Comparative analysis of the LNM-type biosynthetic machineries provides outstanding opportunities to dissect Nature's biosynthetic strategies and apply these findings to combinatorial biosynthesis for natural product discovery and structural diversity.

  10. Improved survival for rectal cancer compared to colon cancer: the four cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Pamela; Hall, Claire; Davidson, Callum; Dixon, Liane; Dobbs, Bruce; Robinson, Bridget; Frizelle, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. This study was undertaken to evaluate survival outcomes and changes of disease outcomes of CRC patients over the last decades. A retrospective analysis of CRC patients in Christchurch was performed in four patient cohorts at 5 yearly intervals; 1993-94, 1998-99, 2004-05 and 2009. Data on cancer location, stage, surgical and oncological treatment and survival were collected. Univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed. There were 1391 patients (355, 317, 419 and 300 per cohort), 1037 colon and 354 rectal cancers, respectively. For colon cancer, right-sided cancers appeared more common in later cohorts (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in the number of permanent stomas for colon cancer patients (P = 0.001). There was an analogous trend for rectal cancers (P = 0.075). More CRC patients with stage IV disease were treated surgically (P = 0.001) and colon cancer stages I and II tended to have increased survival if operated by a colorectal surgeon (P = 0.06). Oncology referrals have increased remarkably (P = 0.001). Overall 56% of patients were alive at 5 years however rectal cancer patients had significantly better 5-year survival than those with colon cancer (P rectal cancer patients have a better 5-year survival than colon cancer patients. The improved survival with early stage colon cancers operated on by specialist colorectal surgeons needs further exploration. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Compared With Radiofrequency Ablation for Inoperable Colorectal Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hayeon, E-mail: kimh2@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Gill, Beant; Beriwal, Sushil; Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Roberts, Mark S. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Smith, Kenneth J. [Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine whether stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a cost-effective therapy compared with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for patients with unresectable colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a Markov model and 1-month cycle over a lifetime horizon. Transition probabilities, quality of life utilities, and costs associated with SBRT and RFA were captured in the model on the basis of a comprehensive literature review and Medicare reimbursements in 2014. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, with effectiveness measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To account for model uncertainty, 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Strategies were evaluated with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results: In base case analysis, treatment costs for 3 fractions of SBRT and 1 RFA procedure were $13,000 and $4397, respectively. Median survival was assumed the same for both strategies (25 months). The SBRT costs $8202 more than RFA while gaining 0.05 QALYs, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $164,660 per QALY gained. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation of median survival from both treatments. Stereotactic body radiation therapy was economically reasonable if better survival was presumed (>1 month gain) or if used for large tumors (>4 cm). Conclusions: If equal survival is assumed, SBRT is not cost-effective compared with RFA for inoperable colorectal liver metastases. However, if better local control leads to small survival gains with SBRT, this strategy becomes cost-effective. Ideally, these results should be confirmed with prospective comparative data.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Compared With Radiofrequency Ablation for Inoperable Colorectal Liver Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hayeon; Gill, Beant; Beriwal, Sushil; Huq, M. Saiful; Roberts, Mark S.; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine whether stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a cost-effective therapy compared with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for patients with unresectable colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a Markov model and 1-month cycle over a lifetime horizon. Transition probabilities, quality of life utilities, and costs associated with SBRT and RFA were captured in the model on the basis of a comprehensive literature review and Medicare reimbursements in 2014. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, with effectiveness measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To account for model uncertainty, 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Strategies were evaluated with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results: In base case analysis, treatment costs for 3 fractions of SBRT and 1 RFA procedure were $13,000 and $4397, respectively. Median survival was assumed the same for both strategies (25 months). The SBRT costs $8202 more than RFA while gaining 0.05 QALYs, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $164,660 per QALY gained. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation of median survival from both treatments. Stereotactic body radiation therapy was economically reasonable if better survival was presumed (>1 month gain) or if used for large tumors (>4 cm). Conclusions: If equal survival is assumed, SBRT is not cost-effective compared with RFA for inoperable colorectal liver metastases. However, if better local control leads to small survival gains with SBRT, this strategy becomes cost-effective. Ideally, these results should be confirmed with prospective comparative data.

  13. Right $P$-comparable semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Halimi, Nazer. H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of right waist and right comparizer ideals for semigroups. In particular, we study the ideal theory of semigroups containing right waists and right comparizer ideals. We also study those properties of right cones that can be carried over to right $P$-comparable semigroups. We give sufficient and necessary conditions on the set of nilpotent elements of a semigroup to be an ideal. We provide several equivalent characterizations for a right ideal being a rig...

  14. Comparative Education Histories: A Postscript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Comparative education is two centuries old. Many mainstream historical narratives claim that the field began with the iconic opus of Marc-Antoine Jullien de Paris (1817). This article offers to re-theorise the histories of comparative education. It suggests casting a far-sighted and panoramic look at the field's origins. An underlying assumption…

  15. Comparable Worth Theory and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin; Lowe, Rosemary Hays

    1989-01-01

    Provides different perspectives on comparable worth issues. Covers the following topics: (1) competing explanations for the wage gap; (2) indirect approaches to wage equity; (3) the need for a direct approach to wage equity; (4) job evaluation; (5) application of comparable worth principles to compensation systems; and (6) strategies for adopting…

  16. Comparing word and face recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Ro Julia; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    included, as a control, which makes designing experiments all the more challenging. Three main strategies have been used to overcome this problem, each of which has limitations: 1) Compare performances on typical tests of the three stimulus types (e.g., a Face Memory Test, an Object recognition test...... this framework to classify tests and experiments aiming to compare processing across these categories, it becomes apparent that core differences in characteristics (visual and semantic) between the stimuli make the problem of designing comparable tests an insoluble conundrum. By analyzing the experimental...

  17. Differences in diagnostic activity in general practice and findings for individuals invited to the danish screening programme for colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Andersen, Berit; Laurberg, Søren; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Olesen, Frede; Vedsted, Peter

    2018-06-22

    To investigate the diagnostic activity in general practice and the cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in individuals invited to the Danish national screening programme for CRC. A historical population-based cohort study. The Danish CRC screening programme and general practice. The 376,198 individuals invited to the Danish CRC screening programme from 1 March to 31 December 2014. The diagnostic activity (consultations and haemoglobin measures) in general practice in the year preceding the screening invitation and the cumulated incidence of CRC in the year following the screening invitation. Screening participants had significantly higher diagnostic activity than non-participants. Individuals with a positive faecal immunochemical test (FIT) had higher diagnostic activity compared to individuals with a negative FIT, and a small increase in the months leading up to the invitation. Individuals with a screen-detected CRC had lower diagnostic activity than individuals with no CRC. In total, 308 (25.3%) of CRCs diagnosed in the invited population were diagnosed outside the screening programme. Non-participants with CRC more often had low socio-economic status, high comorbidity and stage IV CRC than participants with CRC. There was a tendency that participants and those with a positive FIT had a higher diagnostic activity the year before the screening. This was not seen for those with CRC detected through screening. CRC must still be diagnosed in general practice in the invited population and non-participants are of special interest as they have higher risk of late stage CRC. Key Points Current awareness:Individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) in screening may be symptomatic and CRC may still occur outside screening in the invited population. Most important points:The majority of individuals with CRC in screening cannot be expected to be diagnosed on symptomatic presentation in general practice GPs have to be aware that CRC still occurs outside screening in

  18. Comparing neutrino and antineutrino scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The charged current interaction is considered. The present situation with respect to the indications of new physics at high energies, especially in the context of what can be learned by comparing neutrino with antineutrino production is reviewed

  19. Ethnography and comparative housing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.

    2011-01-01

    Housing systems across advanced societies are typically compared in terms of quantitative measures of aggregate variables, with little regard for local complexity, diversity and cultural contingency. This paper seeks, through the exploration of ethnographic techniques, to reflect on both the

  20. Physician Compare National Downloadable File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician Compare National Downloadable File is organized at the individual eligible professional level; each line is unique at the professional/enrollment...

  1. CompareTests-R package

    Science.gov (United States)

    CompareTests is an R package to estimate agreement and diagnostic accuracy statistics for two diagnostic tests when one is conducted on only a subsample of specimens. A standard test is observed on all specimens.

  2. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  3. Comparative Methodology and Postmodern Relativism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert

    1997-09-01

    The author addresses the problems of conducting comparative studies in education if one adopts a viewpoint of postmodern relativism. While acknowledging the value of postmodernist thought in opening up a new understanding of the educational process, he finds that postmodernism raises difficulties when one attempts to deal with the differences and interactions between cultures. He rejects the extremes of both relativism and universalism and argues that comparative studies should be based on a balance between the two.

  4. Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Christian Keuschnigg

    2009-01-01

    Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

  5. Cloud computing for comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivovarov Rimma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large comparative genomics studies and tools are becoming increasingly more compute-expensive as the number of available genome sequences continues to rise. The capacity and cost of local computing infrastructures are likely to become prohibitive with the increase, especially as the breadth of questions continues to rise. Alternative computing architectures, in particular cloud computing environments, may help alleviate this increasing pressure and enable fast, large-scale, and cost-effective comparative genomics strategies going forward. To test this, we redesigned a typical comparative genomics algorithm, the reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD, to run within Amazon's Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2. We then employed the RSD-cloud for ortholog calculations across a wide selection of fully sequenced genomes. Results We ran more than 300,000 RSD-cloud processes within the EC2. These jobs were farmed simultaneously to 100 high capacity compute nodes using the Amazon Web Service Elastic Map Reduce and included a wide mix of large and small genomes. The total computation time took just under 70 hours and cost a total of $6,302 USD. Conclusions The effort to transform existing comparative genomics algorithms from local compute infrastructures is not trivial. However, the speed and flexibility of cloud computing environments provides a substantial boost with manageable cost. The procedure designed to transform the RSD algorithm into a cloud-ready application is readily adaptable to similar comparative genomics problems.

  6. Cloud computing for comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dennis P; Kudtarkar, Parul; Fusaro, Vincent A; Pivovarov, Rimma; Patil, Prasad; Tonellato, Peter J

    2010-05-18

    Large comparative genomics studies and tools are becoming increasingly more compute-expensive as the number of available genome sequences continues to rise. The capacity and cost of local computing infrastructures are likely to become prohibitive with the increase, especially as the breadth of questions continues to rise. Alternative computing architectures, in particular cloud computing environments, may help alleviate this increasing pressure and enable fast, large-scale, and cost-effective comparative genomics strategies going forward. To test this, we redesigned a typical comparative genomics algorithm, the reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD), to run within Amazon's Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2). We then employed the RSD-cloud for ortholog calculations across a wide selection of fully sequenced genomes. We ran more than 300,000 RSD-cloud processes within the EC2. These jobs were farmed simultaneously to 100 high capacity compute nodes using the Amazon Web Service Elastic Map Reduce and included a wide mix of large and small genomes. The total computation time took just under 70 hours and cost a total of $6,302 USD. The effort to transform existing comparative genomics algorithms from local compute infrastructures is not trivial. However, the speed and flexibility of cloud computing environments provides a substantial boost with manageable cost. The procedure designed to transform the RSD algorithm into a cloud-ready application is readily adaptable to similar comparative genomics problems.

  7. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  8. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Pisanko, Zh.Yi.

    2005-01-01

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  9. BOOK REVIEW: The Current Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersons, Oskars

    1989-01-01

    This 120-page book is a concise, yet comprehensive, clearly-written and well-illustrated monograph that covers the subject matter from basic principles through design, construction and calibration details to the principal applications. The book will be useful, as a primer, to the uninitiated and, as a reference book to the practitioner involved with transformer-type ratio devices. The length of the book and the style of presentation will not overburden any informed reader. The described techniques and the cited references are primarily from the work at the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Any omissions, however, are not serious with respect to coverage of the subject matter, since most of the development work has been done at NRC. The role of transformers and transformer-like devices for establishing accurate voltage and current ratios has been recognized for over half a century. Transformer techniques were much explored and developed in the fifties and sixties for accuracy levels suitable for standards laboratories. Three-winding voltage transformers were developed for scaling of impedances in connection with the calculable Thompson Lampard capacitor; three-winding current transformers or current comparators were initially explored for the calibration of current transformers and later for specialized impedance measurements. Extensive development of the current comparator and its applications has been and is still being conducted at the NRC by a team that was started and, until his retirement, led by N L Kusters. The team is now led by W J M Moore. He and P N Miljanic, the authors of this book, have had the principal roles in the development of the current comparator. It is fortunate for the field of metrology that considerabe resources and a talented group of researchers were available to do this development along with mechanisms that were available to transfer this technology to a private sector instrument manufacturer and, thus, disseminate it world wide

  10. Comparative study Beamnrc VS Pinnacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Reyes, J. C.; Macias Jaen, J.; Jimenez Ortega, E.

    2013-01-01

    Has been developed in JAVA a software application called JJGAMMA, capable of manipulating the environment BEAMNRC and Pinnacle output formats 3 , comfortable, fast and accurately. As particular application you can use to compare dose distributions (plans for treatments, checking fields for modeling and clinical accelerators Commissioner) using, as objective criteria, function or Gamma index. (Author)

  11. Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.

  12. The Economics of Comparable Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Mark R.

    This document concludes that the basic difficulty with comparable worth is that it is an ill-conceived solution to a serious problem and that alternative policies, such as equal employment opportunity legislation or application of antitrust laws, provide means of addressing employment discrimination that are both more effective and less likely to…

  13. Countries compared on public performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jedid-Jah Jonker

    2012-01-01

    How well is the public sector performing? Are citizens being well served? This report compares the performance of nine public services in 28 developed countries over the period 1995-2009. Four sectors - education, health care, social safety and housing - are studied in some detail, while the

  14. Job Satisfaction in Fisheries Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollnac, Richard; Bavinck, Maarten; Monnereau, Iris

    2012-01-01

    This article draws comparative lessons from seven job satisfaction studies on marine capture fishing that were recently carried out in nine countries and three geographical regions--Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. The seven studies made use of an identical job satisfaction assessment tool and present information on a selection of metiers mainly…

  15. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936

  16. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  17. Teaching Strategy: Comparing Rights Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Engages students in comparing the rights proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) with those present in the United States Bill of Rights and other constitutional amendments. Challenges the students to explore reasons for the presence or absence of certain rights and to reflect on the role of the government. (CMK)

  18. Comparative dermatology: acquired digital fibrokeratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz da

    2008-01-01

    Demonstra-se quadro característico de fibroqueratoma digital adquirido em trabalhadora rural de 42 anos de idade, que se compara a corno de rinoceronte.It is presented a case of a 42 year-old white female farmer with the classical feature of acquired digital fibrokeratoma, which is compared to rhinoceros horn.

  19. Comparing Candidate Hospital Report Cards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, T.L.; Rivenburgh, R.D.; Scovel, J.C.; White, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    We present graphical and analytical methods that focus on multivariate outlier detection applied to the hospital report cards data. No two methods agree which hospitals are unusually good or bad, so we also present ways to compare the agreement between two methods. We identify factors that have a significant impact on the scoring.

  20. COGNATE: comparative gene annotation characterizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver

    2017-07-17

    The comparison of gene and genome structures across species has the potential to reveal major trends of genome evolution. However, such a comparative approach is currently hampered by a lack of standardization (e.g., Elliott TA, Gregory TR, Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 370:20140331, 2015). For example, testing the hypothesis that the total amount of coding sequences is a reliable measure of potential proteome diversity (Wang M, Kurland CG, Caetano-Anollés G, PNAS 108:11954, 2011) requires the application of standardized definitions of coding sequence and genes to create both comparable and comprehensive data sets and corresponding summary statistics. However, such standard definitions either do not exist or are not consistently applied. These circumstances call for a standard at the descriptive level using a minimum of parameters as well as an undeviating use of standardized terms, and for software that infers the required data under these strict definitions. The acquisition of a comprehensive, descriptive, and standardized set of parameters and summary statistics for genome publications and further analyses can thus greatly benefit from the availability of an easy to use standard tool. We developed a new open-source command-line tool, COGNATE (Comparative Gene Annotation Characterizer), which uses a given genome assembly and its annotation of protein-coding genes for a detailed description of the respective gene and genome structure parameters. Additionally, we revised the standard definitions of gene and genome structures and provide the definitions used by COGNATE as a working draft suggestion for further reference. Complete parameter lists and summary statistics are inferred using this set of definitions to allow down-stream analyses and to provide an overview of the genome and gene repertoire characteristics. COGNATE is written in Perl and freely available at the ZFMK homepage ( https://www.zfmk.de/en/COGNATE ) and on github ( https

  1. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  2. Comparative Genomics in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, Martin; Sammeth, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Genomes can be compared at different levels of divergence, either between species or within species. Within species genomes can be compared between different subpopulations, such as human subpopulations from different continents. Investigating the genomic differences between different human subpopulations is important when studying complex diseases that are affected by many genetic variants, as the variants involved can differ between populations. The 1000 Genomes Project collected genome-scale variation data for 2504 human individuals from 26 different populations, enabling a systematic comparison of variation between human subpopulations. In this chapter, we present step-by-step a basic protocol for the identification of population-specific variants employing the 1000 Genomes data. These variants are subsequently further investigated for those that affect the proteome or RNA splice sites, to investigate potentially biologically relevant differences between the populations.

  3. Enhancer Identification through Comparative Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Bristow, James; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-10-01

    With the availability of genomic sequence from numerousvertebrates, a paradigm shift has occurred in the identification ofdistant-acting gene regulatory elements. In contrast to traditionalgene-centric studies in which investigators randomly scanned genomicfragments that flank genes of interest in functional assays, the modernapproach begins electronically with publicly available comparativesequence datasets that provide investigators with prioritized lists ofputative functional sequences based on their evolutionary conservation.However, although a large number of tools and resources are nowavailable, application of comparative genomic approaches remains far fromtrivial. In particular, it requires users to dynamically consider thespecies and methods for comparison depending on the specific biologicalquestion under investigation. While there is currently no single generalrule to this end, it is clear that when applied appropriately,comparative genomic approaches exponentially increase our power ingenerating biological hypotheses for subsequent experimentaltesting.

  4. Introduction to SamplerCompare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine B. Thompson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SamplerCompare is an R package for comparing the performance of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC samplers. It samples from a collection of distributions with a collection of MCMC methods over a range of tuning parameters. Then, using log density evaluations per uncorrelated observation as a figure of merit, it generates a grid of plots showing the results of the simulation. It comes with a collection of predefined distributions and samplers and provides R and C interfaces for defining additional ones. It also provides the means to import simulation data generated by external systems. This document provides background on the package and demonstrates the basics of running simulations, visualizing results, and defining distributions and samplers in R.

  5. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  6. Detecting selection needs comparative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Hubisz, Melissa J.

    2005-01-01

    Positive selection at the molecular level is usually indicated by an increase in the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) in comparative data. However, Plotkin et al. 1 describe a new method for detecting positive selection based on a single nucleotide sequence. We show here...... that this method is particularly sensitive to assumptions regarding the underlying mutational processes and does not provide a reliable way to identify positive selection....

  7. School bullying - A comparative approach -

    OpenAIRE

    Kosevaliska, Olga; Buzarovska - Lazetik, Gordana; Nanev, Lazar

    2014-01-01

    The modest purpose of this paper is to elaborate the phenomenon of school bullying and to try to give an answer to questions that remain open over time because of the seriousness of this issue. A child is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly over time to aggressive behavior that intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort through physical contact, verbal attacks, fighting or psychological manipulation. Besides finding the proper definition of bullying, we’ll give a comparative a...

  8. Comparative optimism about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term outcomes of patients with lymph node metastasis treated with radical prostatectomy without adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touijer, Karim A; Mazzola, Clarisse R; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2014-01-01

    The presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) at radical prostatectomy (RP) is associated with poor outcome, and optimal treatment remains undefined. An understanding of the natural history of node-positive prostate cancer (PCa) and identifying prognostic factors is needed. To assess outcomes for patients with LNM treated with RP and lymph node dissection (LND) alone. We analyzed data from a consecutive cohort of 369 men with LNM treated at a single institution from 1988 to 2010. RP and extended LND. Our primary aim was to model overall survival, PCa-specific survival, metastasis-free progression, and freedom from biochemical recurrence (BCR). We used univariate Cox proportional hazard regression models for survival outcomes. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used for freedom from metastasis and freedom from BCR, with prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesical invasion, surgical margin status, and number of positive nodes as predictors. Sixty-four patients with LNM died, 37 from disease. Seventy patients developed metastasis, and 201 experienced BCR. The predicted 10-yr overall survival and cancer-specific survival were 60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49-69) and 72% (95% CI, 61-80), respectively. The 10-yr probability of freedom from distant metastasis and freedom from BCR were 65% (95% CI, 56-73) and 28% (95% CI, 21-36), respectively. Higher pathologic Gleason score (>7 compared with ≤ 7; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.23; 95% CI, 1.64-3.04; p < 0.0001) and three or more positive lymph nodes (HR: 2.61; 95% CI, 1.81-3.76; p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with increased risk of BCR on multivariable analysis. The retrospective nature and single-center source of data are study limitations. A considerable subset of men with LNM remained free of disease 10 yr after RP and extended LND alone. Patients with pathologic Gleason score <8 and low nodal metastatic burden represent a favorable group. Our data

  10. A Meta-Analysis of the Short- and Long-Term Results of Randomized Controlled Trials That Compared Laparoscopy-Assisted and Conventional Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ohtani, Yutaka Tamamori, Yuichi Arimoto, Yukio Nishiguchi, Kiyoshi Maeda, Kosei Hirakawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCRS and conventional open surgery (OCRS for colorectal cancer (CRC.Methods: We searched relevant papers published between January 1990 and May 2011. We analyzed the outcomes of each type of surgery over the short- and long-term periods.Results: In the short-term period, we found no significant differences in overall perioperative complications and anastomotic leakage between LCRS and OCRS groups. We found no significant differences in overall, distant, local and wound-site recurrence, overall mortality, 3 and 5 year disease-free survival rate, and cancer-related mortality between the 2 groups.Conclusions: LCRS has the benefits of reducing intraoperative blood loss, earlier resumption of oral intake, and shorter duration of hospital stay in the short-term. The long-term outcomes of LCRS seem to be similar to those of OCRS.

  11. Phytozome Comparative Plant Genomics Portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstein, David; Batra, Sajeev; Carlson, Joseph; Hayes, Richard; Phillips, Jeremy; Shu, Shengqiang; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    The Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Institute is a genomics user facility supporting DOE mission science in the areas of Bioenergy, Carbon Cycling, and Biogeochemistry. The Plant Program at the JGI applies genomic, analytical, computational and informatics platforms and methods to: 1. Understand and accelerate the improvement (domestication) of bioenergy crops 2. Characterize and moderate plant response to climate change 3. Use comparative genomics to identify constrained elements and infer gene function 4. Build high quality genomic resource platforms of JGI Plant Flagship genomes for functional and experimental work 5. Expand functional genomic resources for Plant Flagship genomes

  12. Building and using comparable corpora

    CERN Document Server

    Sharoff, Serge; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Fung, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The 1990s saw a paradigm change in the use of corpus-driven methods in NLP. In the field of multilingual NLP (such as machine translation and terminology mining) this implied the use of parallel corpora. However, parallel resources are relatively scarce: many more texts are produced daily by native speakers of any given language than translated. This situation resulted in a natural drive towards the use of comparable corpora, i.e. non-parallel texts in the same domain or genre. Nevertheless, this research direction has not produced a single authoritative source suitable for researchers and stu

  13. Body mass in comparative primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J; Jungers, W L

    1997-06-01

    Data are presented on adult body mass for 230 of 249 primate species, based on a review of the literature and previously unpublished data. The issues involved in collecting data on adult body mass are discussed, including the definition of adults, the effects of habitat and pregnancy, the strategy for pooling data on single species from multiple studies, and use of an appropriate number of significant figures. An analysis of variability in body mass indicates that the coefficient of variation for body mass increases with increasing species mean mass. Evaluation of several previous body mass reviews reveals a number of shortcomings with data that have been used often in comparative studies.

  14. Comparing India and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Balagangadhara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, I have been pursuing an unorthodox way of studying cultural differences, focusing mainly on the Indian and the western cultures. Because I believe that one can answer questions about the circumscription of the words ‘Indian’ and ‘western’ cultures satisfactorily (Balangangadhara, 1994, I will assume their intelligibility in what follows. In this paper, I want to raise a rather intriguing problem about comparing these two cultures. I shall do that without looking at other approaches to the issue and in the form of an argument. In order to come to the point quickly, let me make use of Said’s 'Orientalism.'

  15. Forest ownership in comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üstüner Birben

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and sustainable use of forest resources depend on various factors. However, one of the most emphasized and discussed topics among these factors is forest ownership. Comparative law is an important way of analyzing and understanding legal systems of different countries, and identifying different aspects of the current legal systems. This study tries to analyze forest ownership with regard to comparative law. France for the Continental-European legal system, Great Britain for the Anglo-Saxon legal system, and Russia Federation for the Socialist legal system are taken respectively as a base. Thus, how right to ownership is evaluated in different legal systems and what are the main features of that are indicated. As a result, private forest ownership is common in the Continental-European legal system and Anglo-Saxon legal system while state ownership is common in the Socialist legal system. Prevalence of private forest ownership in the Continental-European and the Anglo-Saxon legal systems is also closely related to the previous use rights transferred into right to ownership. In addition, it is concluded regarding the historical process that many changes occurred on forest ownership types without considering differences in legal systems.

  16. Comparing Civilian Support for Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srobana Bhattacharya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is an extreme form of political violence, that is inherently abhorrent in nature. Yet, it continues to attain enough support to continue and survive. The recent proliferation of Islamic State and its ever increasing domestic and international civilian support base urges immediate attention to this question. While most research holds that provision of public goods by terrorist groups is the primary cause for high levels of civilian support, I argue that, terrorist groups are more interested in resource extraction rather than resource provision. Additionally, these studies pay scant attention to existing resource structure, especially territorial and political control to explain terrorist-civilian interaction. This paper emphasizes the bi-directional nature of this interaction – a. perception of civilians by the terrorist group and b. terrorist group’s perception of the civilians. To analyze levels of civilian support for terrorism, I compare fifteen terrorist groups using qualitative comparative analysis and show how territory, political competition, ethnicity, target selection and organizational structure combine to explain conditions that lead terrorist groups to include or exclude civilian population for support. Based on the variance in support networks of terrorist groups, counter-terrorism policies should also differ. High civilian support indicates the need to use non-military methods to decrease the appeal of terrorist groups. However, terrorist groups with more diffused and multiple support structures need more collaborative and coercive measures to intercept all the possible links to the main group.

  17. Comparative transcriptomics in the Triticeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley and particularly wheat are two grass species of immense agricultural importance. In spite of polyploidization events within the latter, studies have shown that genotypically and phenotypically these species are very closely related and, indeed, fertile hybrids can be created by interbreeding. The advent of two genome-scale Affymetrix GeneChips now allows studies of the comparison of their transcriptomes. Results We have used the Wheat GeneChip to create a "gene expression atlas" for the wheat transcriptome (cv. Chinese Spring. For this, we chose mRNA from a range of tissues and developmental stages closely mirroring a comparable study carried out for barley (cv. Morex using the Barley1 GeneChip. This, together with large-scale clustering of the probesets from the two GeneChips into "homologous groups", has allowed us to perform a genomic-scale comparative study of expression patterns in these two species. We explore the influence of the polyploidy of wheat on the results obtained with the Wheat GeneChip and quantify the correlation between conservation in gene sequence and gene expression in wheat and barley. In addition, we show how the conservation of expression patterns can be used to elucidate, probeset by probeset, the reliability of the Wheat GeneChip. Conclusion While there are many differences in expression on the level of individual genes and tissues, we demonstrate that the wheat and barley transcriptomes appear highly correlated. This finding is significant not only because given small evolutionary distance between the two species it is widely expected, but also because it demonstrates that it is possible to use the two GeneChips for comparative studies. This is the case even though their probeset composition reflects rather different design principles as well as, of course, the present incomplete knowledge of the gene content of the two species. We also show that, in general, the Wheat GeneChip is not able

  18. Ensembl 2002: accommodating comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, M; Andrews, D; Barker, D; Bevan, P; Cameron, G; Chen, Y; Clark, L; Cox, T; Cuff, J; Curwen, V; Down, T; Durbin, R; Eyras, E; Gilbert, J; Hammond, M; Hubbard, T; Kasprzyk, A; Keefe, D; Lehvaslaiho, H; Iyer, V; Melsopp, C; Mongin, E; Pettett, R; Potter, S; Rust, A; Schmidt, E; Searle, S; Slater, G; Smith, J; Spooner, W; Stabenau, A; Stalker, J; Stupka, E; Ureta-Vidal, A; Vastrik, I; Birney, E

    2003-01-01

    The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organise biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive source of stable automatic annotation of human, mouse and other genome sequences, available as either an interactive web site or as flat files. Ensembl also integrates manually annotated gene structures from external sources where available. As well as being one of the leading sources of genome annotation, Ensembl is an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements. These range from sequence analysis to data storage and visualisation and installations exist around the world in both companies and at academic sites. With both human and mouse genome sequences available and more vertebrate sequences to follow, many of the recent developments in Ensembl have focusing on developing automatic comparative genome analysis and visualisation.

  19. Challenges in Comparative Oral Epic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Miles Foley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Originally written in 2001 and subsequently published in China, this collaborative essay explores five questions central to comparative oral epic with regard to Mongolian, South Slavic, ancient Greek, and Old English traditions: “What is a poem in oral epic tradition?” “What is a typical scene or theme in oral epic tradition?” “What is a poetic line in oral epic tradition?” “What is a formula in an oral epic tradition?” “What is the register in oral epic poetry?” Now available for the first time in English, this essay reflects a foundational stage of what has become a productive and long-term collaboration between the Center for Studies in Oral Tradition and the Institute of Ethnic Literature of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  20. Lupus nephritis management guidelines compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Suzanne; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bertsias, George K; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Gordon, Caroline; Lightstone, Liz; Tesar, Vladimir; Jayne, David R

    2016-06-01

    In the past years, many (randomized) trials have been performed comparing the treatment strategies for lupus nephritis. In 2012, these data were incorporated in six different guidelines for treating lupus nephritis. These guidelines are European, American and internationally based, with one separate guideline for children. They offer information on different aspects of the management of lupus nephritis including induction and maintenance treatment of the different histological classes, adjunctive treatment, monitoring of the patient, definitions of response and relapse, indications for (repeat) renal biopsy, and additional challenges such as the presence of vascular complications, the pregnant SLE patient, treatment in children and adolescents and considerations about end-stage renal disease and transplantation. In this review, we summarize the guidelines, determine the common ground between them, highlight the differences and discuss recent literature. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing Methods for Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeser, Karin; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2018-01-01

    of the left ventricular outflow tract. METHODS: The primary aim was a systematic comparison of CO with Doppler-derived 3D TEE and CO by thermodilution in a broad population of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A subanalysis was performed comparing cross-sectional area by TEE with cardiac computed...... tomography (CT) angiography. Sixty-two patients, scheduled for elective heart surgery, were included; 1 was subsequently excluded for logistic reasons. Inclusion criteria were coronary artery bypass surgery (N = 42) and aortic valve replacement (N = 19). Exclusion criteria were chronic atrial fibrillation......, left ventricular ejection fraction below 0.40 and intracardiac shunts. Nineteen randomly selected patients had a cardiac CT the day before surgery. All images were stored for blinded post hoc analyses, and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between measurement methods, defined as the bias...

  2. Becoming fit for transnational comparability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John Benedicto; Ulf, Olsson; Kenneth, Petersson

    2018-01-01

    . Consequently, Danish teacher education discourse has emerged from a distinctly national vocational seminary tradition, into a modernized university college discourse that increasingly fits the transnational templates of comparability, albeit at a slower pace than her Swedish neighbor. It is often difficult...... of modern nations, if they are to succeed in “an increasingly competitive global race among knowledge economies.” In the case of the Bologna Process, the transformative effects are often rather direct. More often, however, effects touch upon national educational agendas in indirect ways, in terms......This chapter traces how national teacher education policy discourse in Denmark and Sweden is being transformed by opaque, albeit often inclusive, processes in transnational policy forums, such as the Bologna Process, OECD, and EU. This is facilitated by “soft law” surrounding the imagined needs...

  3. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  4. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  5. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  6. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions

  7. SUVmax of 18FDG PET/CT as a predictor of high-risk endometrial cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie Leisby; Loft, Annika; Fisker, Rune Vincents

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate SUVmax in the assessment of endometrial cancer preoperatively with particular focus on myometrial invasion (MI), cervical invasion (CI), FIGO stage, risk-stratification and lymph node metastases (LNM). METHODS: A total of 268 women with endometrial cancer or atypical...... endometrial hyperplasia underwent FDG PET/CT imaging before surgical treatment. SUVmax of the primary tumour was compared with histological prognostic factors. RESULTS: SUVmax was significantly higher in patients with high FIGO stages (p...

  8. Expanding Comparative Literature into Comparative Sciences Clusters with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By using Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, the expansions of comparative literature include: comparative social sciences clusters, comparative natural sciences clusters, comparative interdisciplinary sciences clusters, and so on. Among them, comparative social sciences clusters include: comparative literature, comparative history, comparative philosophy, and so on; comparative natural sciences clusters include: comparative mathematics, comparative physics, comparative chemistry, comparative medicine, comparative biology, and so on.

  9. Clinical and Radiological Discrimination of Solitary Pulmonary Lesions in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaki, Yoichi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Nakazawa, Seshiru; Obayashi, Kai; Azuma, Yoko; Iijima, Misaki; Kosaka, Takayuki; Yajima, Toshiki; Ogawa, Hiroomi; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Arai, Motohiro; Mogi, Akira; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    The lung is one of the most common organs of metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC), and we have encountered lung cancer patients with a history of CRC. There have been few studies regarding methods used to discriminate between primary lung cancer (PLC) and pulmonary metastasis from CRC (PM-CRC) based only on preoperative findings. We retrospectively investigated predictive factors discriminating between these lesions in patients with a history of CRC. Between 2006 and 2015, 117 patients with a history of CRC (44 patients with 47 PLC and 73 patients with 102 PM-CRC) underwent subsequent or concurrent resection of pulmonary lesions. We compared the clinical and radiological characteristics of 100 patients with solitary lesions (43 PLC and 57 PM-CRC). Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we examined predictive factors for discrimination of these two lesions. All tumors with findings of ground-glass opacity (GGO) were PLC (n = 19). In a multivariate analysis of 81 radiologically solid tumors, two factors were found to be significant independent predictors of PLC: a history of stage I CRC and presence of pleural indentation. All tumors in 26 patients with either GGO or both a stage I CRC history and pleural indentation were PLC, while most tumors in patients without all three factors were PM-CRC (43/44; 97.7%). The presence or absence of GGO, pathological CRC stage, and pleural indentation could be useful factors to distinguish between PLC and PM-CRC.

  10. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species

  11. Sex work: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  12. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  13. Sonourethrography compared to retrograde urethrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Chang, Nam Sik; Park, Cheong Hee; Rhee, Byung Chul; Kong, Jae Chul; Park, Jong Yoon

    1989-01-01

    A total of 15 patients with suspected urethral stricture or fistula underwent conventional retrograde urethrography and following sonourethrography with saline infusion or voiding against Eschmann penile clamp, in Gyeongsang and Chungnam National University Hospital from July, 1989 to June, 1989. The sonographic findings were as diagnostic as the roentgen findings in 12 patients. When the length of the strictures assessed by each imaging modality was compared to measurement at open urothroplasty of 2 patients, sonourethrography was consistently more accurate. Urethroscopy was done in all cases. Sonourethrography using distension technique of the urethra enabled classification of the degree of spongiofibrosis, thus provided the guidance of direct vision internal urethrotomy in 9 patients. In 2 patients, the sonourethrogram identified periurethral tumor and urethral polyp which were not definitely analysed on the retrograde urethrogram. In the patient of posttraumatic postoperative urethrorectal fistula, residual fistuous tract was seen on both examinations. In 1 patient of stricture with severe periurethral scar, urethral stricture recurred after graft. No patient reported significant discomfort during the sonourethrogram. The sonourethrogram provided valuable, dynamic. 3 dimensional information about the luminal and extraluminal anatomy and pathology of the anterior urethra. The new method of sonourethrogram allows for the appropriate decision to be made easier for optimal treatment of urethal stricture, etc, and can be used as a follow up study

  14. The comparison of thrombocytosis and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as potential prognostic markers in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Krzystanek, Marcin; Josa, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the preoperative platelet count and the platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) of different stages and with hepatic metastasis of CRC (mCRC) and to compare these factors as potential prognostic markers. Clinicopathologi...

  15. Comparative pathogenomics of Clostridium tetani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Cohen

    Full Text Available Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum produce two of the most potent neurotoxins known, tetanus neurotoxin and botulinum neurotoxin, respectively. Extensive biochemical and genetic investigation has been devoted to identifying and characterizing various C. botulinum strains. Less effort has been focused on studying C. tetani likely because recently sequenced strains of C. tetani show much less genetic diversity than C. botulinum strains and because widespread vaccination efforts have reduced the public health threat from tetanus. Our aim was to acquire genomic data on the U.S. vaccine strain of C. tetani to better understand its genetic relationship to previously published genomic data from European vaccine strains. We performed high throughput genomic sequence analysis on two wild-type and two vaccine C. tetani strains. Comparative genomic analysis was performed using these and previously published genomic data for seven other C. tetani strains. Our analysis focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and four distinct constituents of the mobile genome (mobilome: a hypervariable flagellar glycosylation island region, five conserved bacteriophage insertion regions, variations in three CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-Cas (CRISPR-associated systems, and a single plasmid. Intact type IA and IB CRISPR/Cas systems were within 10 of 11 strains. A type IIIA CRISPR/Cas system was present in two strains. Phage infection histories derived from CRISPR-Cas sequences indicate C. tetani encounters phages common among commensal gut bacteria and soil-borne organisms consistent with C. tetani distribution in nature. All vaccine strains form a clade distinct from currently sequenced wild type strains when considering variations in these mobile elements. SNP, flagellar glycosylation island, prophage content and CRISPR/Cas phylogenic histories provide tentative evidence suggesting vaccine and wild type strains share a

  16. Comparing records with related chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Albert, Paul; Kearney, Rebecca; Staff, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to integrate ice, terrestrial and marine records, it is necessary to deal with records on different timescales. These timescales can be grouped into those that use a common fundamental chronometer (such as Uranium-Thorium dating or Radiocarbon) and can also be related to one another where we have chronological tie points such as tephra horizons. More generally we can, through a number of different methodologies, derive relationships between different timescales. A good example of this is the use of cosmogenic isotope production, specifically 10Be and 14C to relate the calibrated radiocarbon timescale to that of the Greenland ice cores. The relationships between different timescales can be mathematically expressed in terms of time-transfer functions. This formalism allows any related record to be considered against any linked timescale with an appropriate associated uncertainty. The prototype INTIMATE chronological database allows records to be viewed and compared in this way and this is now being further developed, both to include a wider range of records and also to provide better connectivity to other databases and chronological tools. These developments will also include new ways to use tephra tie-points to constrain the relationship between timescales directly, without needing to remodel each associated timescale. The database as it stands allows data for particular timeframes to be recalled and plotted against any timescale, or exported in spreadsheet format. New functionality will be added to allow users to work with their own data in a private space and then to publish it when it has been through the peer-review publication process. In order to make the data easier to use for other further analysis and plotting, and with data from other sources, the database will also act as a server to deliver data in a JSON format. The aim of this work is to make the comparison of integrated data much easier for researchers and to ensure that good practice in

  17. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    to a future volume. Our authors have taken on the task to look at climate on the terrestrial planets in the broadest sense possible — by comparing the atmospheric processes at work on the four terrestrial bodies, Earth, Venus, Mars, and Titan (Titan is included because it hosts many of the common processes), and on terrestrial planets around other stars. These processes include the interactions of shortwave and thermal radiation with the atmosphere, condensation and vaporization of volatiles, atmospheric dynamics, chemistry and aerosol formation, and the role of the surface and interior in the long-term evolution of climate. Chapters herein compare the scientific questions, analysis methods, numerical models, and spacecraft remote sensing experiments of Earth and the other terrestrial planets, emphasizing the underlying commonality of physical processes. We look to the future by identifying objectives for ongoing research and new missions. Through these pages we challenge practicing planetary scientists, and most importantly new students of any age, to find pathways and synergies for advancing the field. In Part I, Foundations, we introduce the fundamental physics of climate on terrestrial planets. Starting with the best studied planet by far, Earth, the first chapters discuss what is known and what is not known about the atmospheres and climates of the terrestrial planets of the solar system and beyond. In Part II, Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Dynamics, we focus on the processes that govern atmospheric motion and the role that general circulation models play in our current understanding. In Part III, Clouds and Hazes, we provide an in-depth look at the many effects of clouds and aerosols on planetary climate. Although this is a vigorous area of research in the Earth sciences, and very strongly influences climate modeling, the important role that aerosols and clouds play in the climate of all planets is not yet well constrained. This section is intended to

  18. Comparative pathogenomics of Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan E; Wang, Rong; Shen, Rong-Fong; Wu, Wells W; Keller, James E

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum produce two of the most potent neurotoxins known, tetanus neurotoxin and botulinum neurotoxin, respectively. Extensive biochemical and genetic investigation has been devoted to identifying and characterizing various C. botulinum strains. Less effort has been focused on studying C. tetani likely because recently sequenced strains of C. tetani show much less genetic diversity than C. botulinum strains and because widespread vaccination efforts have reduced the public health threat from tetanus. Our aim was to acquire genomic data on the U.S. vaccine strain of C. tetani to better understand its genetic relationship to previously published genomic data from European vaccine strains. We performed high throughput genomic sequence analysis on two wild-type and two vaccine C. tetani strains. Comparative genomic analysis was performed using these and previously published genomic data for seven other C. tetani strains. Our analysis focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and four distinct constituents of the mobile genome (mobilome): a hypervariable flagellar glycosylation island region, five conserved bacteriophage insertion regions, variations in three CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems, and a single plasmid. Intact type IA and IB CRISPR/Cas systems were within 10 of 11 strains. A type IIIA CRISPR/Cas system was present in two strains. Phage infection histories derived from CRISPR-Cas sequences indicate C. tetani encounters phages common among commensal gut bacteria and soil-borne organisms consistent with C. tetani distribution in nature. All vaccine strains form a clade distinct from currently sequenced wild type strains when considering variations in these mobile elements. SNP, flagellar glycosylation island, prophage content and CRISPR/Cas phylogenic histories provide tentative evidence suggesting vaccine and wild type strains share a common ancestor.

  19. Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  20. Comparing recent uranium supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, N.; Gufler, K.

    2014-01-01

    For more than one decade – even after the Fukushima accidents - an increase in global nuclear energy generation capacity is widely expected. At the same time a variety of uranium supply scenarios were published by industry, academics or international organizations, drawing different pictures of future uranium supply. They were created with the background of a uranium market facing several challenges. First an excursion in the uranium market price, in 2007, then reduced nuclear growth expectations after 2011, at least in non-Asian countries, also implying considerable changes to the supply side. For this publication a meta-study was carried out identifying, evaluating and comparing different recent scenarios on the availability of uranium. While there are some differences in the frame conditions (e.g. the expected uranium demand, the time fame, the considered mining projects,..), there are also notable similarities in these scenarios. This concerns long lead times for mine openings as well as the dependence on large mining projects (e.g. Olympic Dam, Cigar Lake). Generally, a decline in production in about 10 years is assumed, and thus the necessity of the timely development of mining projects is pointed out. In addition the omission of uranium from Russian nuclear weapons and the chances of keeping the changes in secondary supplies in balance with primary production have been widely discussed. Here, the production growth in Kazakhstan but also the role of the current market situation are central aspects. As another aspect the possible contribution from unconventional resources is of interest, particularly against the background of rising production costs for conventional resources. Finally, it shall be reflected how well older scenarios were able to map the reality and which trends could or could not be anticipated. It is relevant to identify which aspects in the development of mining capacities are essential for security of supply, and can therefore be regarded

  1. Striatal Dopamine Depletion Patterns and Early Non-Motor Burden in Parkinsons Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Chung

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that Parkinson patients with more non-motor symptoms have a different pattern of striatal dopamine depletion, particularly in areas other than the sensorimotor striatum, compared to those with fewer non-motor symptoms.We conducted a prospective survey of the degree of non-motor symptoms (using the Korean version of the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale; K-NMSS in 151 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease who had undergone a dopamine transporter PET scan as an initial diagnostic procedure. We classified the patients into two groups; high non-motor patients (HNM-PD; K-NMSS score ≥ 41 and low non-motor patients (LNM-PD.Patients in the HNM-PD group (n = 71 were older, had longer symptom duration, exhibited more severe motor deficits, and had been prescribed higher levodopa-equivalent doses at follow-up than those in the LNM-PD group. However, dopamine transporter binding to the striatal sub-regions and inter-sub-regional binding ratios were comparable between the two groups. A general linear model showed that the HNM-PD group had significantly more severe motor deficits than the LNM-PD group after controlling for age, gender, symptom duration, and dopamine transporter binding to the sensorimotor striatum.This study demonstrated that the pattern of striatal dopamine depletion does not contribute to early non-motor burden in Parkinson's disease. Our results suggest that LNM-PD patients may have a more benign course of motor symptom progression than HNM-PD patients.

  2. Clinicopathological analysis of prognostic factors in colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Jurescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Prediction of prognosis is vital for therapy options in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC. We aimed to identify some prognostic factors that could ensure a more adequate prediction of CRC patients’ outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a study on a group of 253 CRC patients in the County Hospital ofTimișoara. The following variable parameters: age, gender, histological type, depth of tumor invasion (pT, histological grade (G, lymph node metastasis (LNM, lympho-vascular invasion (LVI were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS The incidence of CRC increased with age. Gender distribution was evidenced as follows: 159 (63% were male patients and 94 (37% were female patients. 234 (92% cases were conventional adenocarcinomas (ADK nM, 19 (8% were mucinous adenocarcinomas (ADK M. 1% of cases were pT1 stage, 9% pT2, 58% pT3 and 32% pT4 stage. 5% of the tumors were G1, 95% G2, G3, G4. In pT1&pT2 stages only 4% presented LVI, while in pT3&pT4 LVI was significantly higher, 42% of the examined cases. Only two cases from pT1&pT2 tumors showed LNM vs. 55% (127 cases of pT3&pT4 stages. CONCLUSIONS Tumor stage remains the most important prognostic predictor of clinical outcome for these patients. Pathologic assessment of various clinicopathological factors plays n essential role in patient management. Graphical abstract: Infiltrative aspects of colorectal carcinoma REFERENCES 1. Corman ML. Carcinoma of the Colon. In: Corman ML, editors. Colon and Rectal Surgery. 5-th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams nad Wilkins. 2005. p. 767-920. 2. Bresalier R. Malignant neoplasms of the large intestine. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Sleisenger MH (Editors. Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease (Pathology, Diagnosis, Management. Philadelphia, London,New York: Saunders. 2002. p. 2215-2263. 3. Schneider N, Langner C. Prognostic stratification of colorectal cancer patients: current perspectives. Cancer Management and Research. 2014;6:291- 300.

  3. Factors influencing choice of chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Luigi; Vakiarou, Foteini; Zoratto, Federica; Bianchi, Loredana; Papa, Anselmo; Basso, Enrico; Verrico, Monica; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Evangelista, Salvatore; Rinaldi, Guilia; Perrone-Congedi, Francesca; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Stati, Valeria; Caruso, Davide; Prete, Alessandra; Tomao, Silverio

    2013-01-01

    Management of metastatic colorectal cancer requires a multimodal approach and must be performed by an experienced, multidisciplinary expert team. The optimal choice of the individual treatment modality, according to disease localization and extent, tumor biology, and patient clinical characteristics, will be one that can maintain quality of life and long-term survival, and even cure selected patients. This review is an overview of the different therapeutic approaches available in metastatic colorectal cancer, for the purpose of defining personalized therapeutic algorithms according to tumor biology and patient clinical features

  4. Factors influencing choice of chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Rossi, Foteini Vakiarou, Federica Zoratto, Loredana Bianchi, Anselmo Papa, Enrico Basso, Monica Verrico, Giuseppe Lo Russo, Salvatore Evangelista, Guilia Rinaldi, Francesca Perrone-Congedi, Gian Paolo Spinelli, Valeria Stati, Davide Caruso, Alessandra Prete, Silverio TomaoDepartment of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Oncology Unit, ICOT, Latina, ItalyAbstract: Management of metastatic colorectal cancer requires a multimodal approach and must be performed by an experienced, multidisciplinary expert team. The optimal choice of the individual treatment modality, according to disease localization and extent, tumor biology, and patient clinical characteristics, will be one that can maintain quality of life and long-term survival, and even cure selected patients. This review is an overview of the different therapeutic approaches available in metastatic colorectal cancer, for the purpose of defining personalized therapeutic algorithms according to tumor biology and patient clinical features.Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer, patient clinical features, tumor biology, multidisciplinary approach

  5. OVARIAN DYSGERMINOMAS: TREATMENT EXPERIENCE OF THE N.N.BLOKHIN CRC RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Streltzova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective review of treatment results of 35 patients with dysgerminomas in the Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Gynecology, N.N.Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center (NNBRCRC between 1990 and 2006.Primary surgery was carried out in all patients. Twenty patients (57% underwent fertility-sparing surgery. Postoperative systemic chemotherapy was administered to 28 (80% women: аmong them 23 received platinum-based chemotherapy, 5 were treated with non- platinum combinations.At a median follow-up of 75 months the disease-free survival was 71,4% and the overall survival was 97,1%. Our data confirmed that prog- nosis of dysgerminomas is excellent if managed with standard treatment initially, this is possible, as a rule, only in specialized cancer centers.

  6. 1984 CRC (Coordinating Research Council, Inc.) Octane Number Requirement Rating Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Richard J . Tither Mobil Oil Corporation Sam D. Vallas Amoco Oil Company Douglas A. Voss Chevron Research Company Andy Vukovic Shell Canada Dave G...Instrumentation, * Preparation a Test Fuels: Procurement of Fuels and Cans, and Coordina- tion of On-Site Handling e Data Handling and Analysis j 2 nI |S 0- B-2 V...Doug McCorkell Union Oil Company of California James D. Merritt Amoco Oil Company Michael J . Mlotkowski Mobil Oil Corporation John Pandosh Sun Tech

  7. Finite element analysis of Polymer reinforced CRC columns under close-in detonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Composite, PCRC, is a Fiber reinforced Densified Small Particle system, FDSP, combined with a high strength longitudinal flexural rebar arrangement laced together with polymer lacing to avoid shock initiated disintegration of the structural element under blast...... load. Experimental and numerical results of two PCRC columns subjected to close-in detonation are presented in this paper. Additionally, a LS-DYNA material model suitable for predicting the response of Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Concrete improved for close-in detonation and a description...

  8. Randomized phase III study of panitumumab with fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) compared with FOLFIRI alone as second-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marc; Price, Timothy Jay; Cervantes, Andrés; Sobrero, Alberto F.; Ducreux, Michel; Hotko, Yevhen; André, Thierry; Chan, Emily; Lordick, Florian; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Strickland, Andrew H.; Wilson, Gregory; Ciuleanu, Tudor-Eliade; Roman, Laslo; van Cutsem, Eric; Tzekova, Valentina; Collins, Simon; Oliner, Kelly S.; Rong, Alan; Gansert, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Panitumumab is a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody that improves progression-free survival (PFS) in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of panitumumab plus fluorouracil, leucovorin, and

  9. Randomized study comparing full dose monotherapy (S-1 followed by irinotecan) and reduced dose combination therapy (S-1/oxaliplatin followed by S-1/irinotecan) as initial therapy for older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine Braendegaard; Österlund, Pia; Berglund, Åke

    2017-01-01

    to select which older patients should receive therapy. Methods: The NORDIC 9 trial is a Nordic multicenter randomized phase II study comparing full dose monotherapy (S-1 30 mg/m2 twice daily days 1-14 every 3 weeks, followed by second line irinotecan 250-350 mg/m2 iv day 1 every 3 weeks or 180-250 mg/m2 iv...... day 1 every 2 weeks) with reduced dose combination therapy (S-1 20 mg/m2 days 1-14 + oxaliplatin 100 mg/m2 iv day 1 every 3 weeks, followed by second line S-1 20 mg/m2 days 1-14 + irinotecan 180 mg/m2 day 1 every 3 week) for older patients (≥70 years) with mCRC who are not candidates for full...... chance for tailored treatment strategies in these patients. Trial registration: EU Clinical Trial Register, EudraCT no. 2014-000394-39. Registered 05 May 2014....

  10. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  11. Colorectal Cancer, Socioeconomic Distribution and Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Counties in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaamel M Nuhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC ranks second for all cancer related deaths among men and women together and third for either sex when considered separately. Disparities exist in CRC incidence and mortality between rural and urban counties in the USA. This study sought to explore socioeconomic and behavioral factors that may partly explain these observed differences.Methods: Using educational and income levels as measures of socioeconomic status (SES, and average alcohol consumption and smoking frequency as behavioral factors, data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program for analysis were coupled.Results: Results showed statistically significant inequalities for CRC incidence (t = 2.678, p = 0.010 and mortality (t = 2.567, p = 0.013, as well as socioeconomic (i.e., poverty; t = 5.644, p < 0.001 and behavioral (i.e., smoking; t = 2.885, p = 0.006 factors between selected rural and urban counties. Regression analysis for colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates at the rural, urban, and national levels yielded relative impacts of smoking frequency, alcohol consumption, and educational level.Conclusions: Health policies aimed at reducing disparities between rural and urban populations in the USA must therefore adequately address SES and behavioral factors.Key words: colorectal cancer, rural health, social determinants of health, health behavior 

  12. Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Young Adults: A Study From the South Australian Population-Based Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatandoust, Sina; Price, Timothy J; Ullah, Shahid; Roy, Amitesh C; Beeke, Carole; Young, Joanne P; Townsend, Amanda; Padbury, Robert; Roder, David; Karapetis, Christos S

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy. There is growing evidence that CRC incidence is increasing in the younger population. There is controversy surrounding the prognosis of young patients with CRC. In this study we reviewed Australian patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) who were younger than 40 years of age at the time of diagnosis of metastatic disease. To our knowledge this is the first study to focus on this age group with mCRC. This was a retrospective study using data from the South Australian Metastatic Colorectal Cancer database. We compared patient and disease characteristics, management approaches, and outcomes for age groups Young-onset mCRC patients, when defined as aged younger than 40 years, have equivalent survival compared with their older counterparts. This is despite differences in disease characteristics and management approach between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weber, Durkheim, and the comparative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsis, R E

    1977-10-01

    This essay compares and contrasts the means by which Durkheim and Weber dealt with methodological issues peculiar to the comparative study of societies, what Smelser has called "the problem of sociocultural variability and complexity." More specifically, it examines how Weber and Durkheim chose appropriate comparative units for their empirical studies. The approaches that Weber and Durkheim brought to theproblem of cross-cultural comparison have critical implications for more current procedures used in the comparative study of contemporary and historical societies.

  14. The Method of Adaptive Comparative Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive Comparative Judgement (ACJ) is a modification of Thurstone's method of comparative judgement that exploits the power of adaptivity, but in scoring rather than testing. Professional judgement by teachers replaces the marking of tests; a judge is asked to compare the work of two students and simply to decide which of them is the better.…

  15. 10 CFR 5.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparable facilities. 5.410 Section 5.410 Energy NUCLEAR... Prohibited § 5.410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall be comparable to...

  16. 32 CFR 196.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comparable facilities. 196.410 Section 196.410....410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall be comparable to such...

  17. 36 CFR 1211.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comparable facilities. 1211... § 1211.410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall be comparable to...

  18. Multi-headed comparatives in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marques

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at offering a global picture of the subtype of comparative constructions known as ‘multi-headed comparatives’ (from the fact that they exhibit more than one comparative operator in semantic interdependence. As a prerequisite to the fulfilment of his goal, an attempt will be made to clarify the scope of the notion ‘comparative construction’ and to draw a general typology of such constructions. The boundaries of the notion ‘comparative construction’ are defined by contrasting a “genuine” class of comparative constructions with others that hold some syntactic or semantic resemblance to them. Different typologies will be taken into consideration. As for multi-headed comparatives, even though different examples of these constructions have been identified in the scarce literature on the matter, the discussion on their syntactic patterns and meaning is still embryonic. This paper suggests that the expressive power of these comparatives, which seem to provide a particular strategy of information compression, is higher than has been assumed. Four sub-kinds of multi-headed comparatives are identified, based on meaning differences, namely: multi-headed comparatives with a distributive reading, multi-headed comparatives with a cumulative reading, multi-headed comparatives with a comparison of ‘ratios’ reading, and multi-headed comparatives with a comparison of differences reading. While resorting to some classic English examples, the object language will predominantly be Portuguese.

  19. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...

  20. 27 CFR 4.65 - Comparative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.65 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative adverstising shall not be disparaging of a competitor's product. (b...

  1. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...

  2. Mature Results of a Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing 5-Flourouracil with Leucovorin to 5-Flourouracil with Levamisole as Adjuvant Therapy of Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer- The Israel Cooperative Oncology Group (ICOG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Figer, Aviram Nissan, Adi Shani, Riva Borovick, Mariana Stiener, Mario Baras, Herbert R. Freund, Aaron Sulkes, Alexander Stojadinovic, Tamar Peretz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survival benefit with adjuvant therapy was shown in patients with Stage III colorectal cancer (CRC. This study evaluates long-term (10-year outcome in patients with CRC randomly assigned to adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin (5FU+LV or 5-FU/Levamisole (5FU+LEV.Methods: Between 1990 and 1995, 398 patients with curatively resected Stage II-III CRC were randomly assigned to adjuvant 5FU+LV or 5FU+LEV for 12 months.Results: No difference was evident in 10-year relapse-free or overall survival between study groups. Grade III toxicity was similar between groups; however, neurotoxicity was significantly greater with 5FU+LEV (p=0.02 and gastrointestinal toxicity with 5FU+LV (p=0.03. Female patients treated with 5FU+LEV had improved overall survival.Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment of CRC is still based on leucovorin modulated fluorouracil. The long-term follow-up results of this trial indicate that the adjuvant treatment of Stage II-III CRC with 5FU+LV or 5FU+LEV is equally effective. The finding of improved survival in female subjects treated with 5FU+LEV warrants further study to determine if Levamisole is a better modulator of 5-FU than Leucovorin in this patient subset.

  3. Unsupervised Analysis of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Data from Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Reveals Equivalence with Molecular Classification and Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arriba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether chromosomal instability (CIN is associated with tumor phenotypes and/or with global genomic status based on MSI (microsatellite instability and CIMP (CpG island methylator phenotype in early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC. METHODS: Taking as a starting point our previous work in which tumors from 60 EOCRC cases (≤45 years at the time of diagnosis were analyzed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, in the present study we performed an unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of those aCGH data in order to unveil possible associations between the CIN profile and the clinical features of the tumors. In addition, we evaluated the MSI and the CIMP statuses of the samples with the aim of investigating a possible relationship between copy number alterations (CNAs and the MSI/CIMP condition in EOCRC. RESULTS: Based on the similarity of the CNAs detected, the unsupervised analysis stratified samples into two main clusters (A, B and four secondary clusters (A1, A2, B3, B4. The different subgroups showed a certain correspondence with the molecular classification of colorectal cancer (CRC, which enabled us to outline an algorithm to categorize tumors according to their CIMP status. Interestingly, each subcluster showed some distinctive clinicopathological features. But more interestingly, the CIN of each subcluster mainly affected particular chromosomes, allowing us to define chromosomal regions more specifically affected depending on the CIMP/MSI status of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may provide a basis for a new form of classifying EOCRC according to the genomic status of the tumors.

  4. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.; Knudsen, Amy B.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the US. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival. Methods We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate CRC incidence and mortality rates in blacks aged 50 years and older from 1975 to 2007 assuming they had: 1) the same trends in screening rates as whites instead of observed screening rates (incidence and mortality); and 2) the same trends in stage-specific relative CRC survival rates as whites instead of observed (mortality only); and 3) a combination of both. The racial disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates attributable to differences in screening and/or stage-specific relative CRC survival were then calculated by comparing rates from these scenarios to the observed black rates. Results Differences in screening account for 42% of disparity in CRC incidence and 19% of disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. 36% of the disparity in CRC mortality could be attributed to differences in stage-specific relative CRC survival. Together screening and survival explained a little over 50% of the disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. Conclusion Differences in screening and relative CRC survival are responsible for a considerable proportion of the observed disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites. Impact Enabling blacks to achieve equal access to care as whites could substantially reduce the racial disparities in CRC burden. PMID:22514249

  5. Comparative education and the ?new? sociologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusz, Andrew R.; Parks-Trusz, Sandra L.

    1981-12-01

    The authors examine the impact of the `new' sociologies on comparative education by reviewing five comparative readers published during the past twenty years. While the `new' sociologies have had considerable impact within sociology and the sociology of education, minimal impact is found within comparative education. The authors further show that while critical new sociologies such as Marxism, neo-Marxism, and Critical theory have had some penetration into comparative education, use of the interpretative sociologies such as symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, and semiotics has generally been absent. The authors conclude by suggesting that a synthesis of the critical and interpretative modes would prove fruitful for further work in comparative education. The five texts are: Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.), Education, Economy and Society (1961); Eckstein and Noah (eds.), Scientific Investigations in Comparative Education (1969); Beck, Perspectives on World Education (1970); Karabel and Halsey (eds.), Power and Ideology in Education (1977); and Altbach and Kelly (eds.), Education and Colonialism (1978).

  6. Comparing the use of evidence and culture in targeted colorectal cancer communication for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vetta L Sanders; Kalesan, Bindu; Wells, Anjanette; Williams, Sha-Lai; Caito, Nicole M

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the effects (affective reactions, cognitive reactions and processing, perceived benefits and barriers and intent to screen) of targeted peripheral+evidential (PE) and peripheral+evidential+socio-cultural (PE+SC) colorectal cancer communications. This study was a two-arm randomized control study of cancer communication effects on affective, cognitive processing, and behavioral outcomes over a 22-week intervention. There were 771 African American participants, 45-75 years, participating in the baseline survey related to CRC screening. Three follow-up interviews that assessed intervention effects on affective response to the publications, cognitive processing, and intent to obtain CRC screening were completed. There were no statistically significant differences between PE and PE+SC intervention groups for affect, cognitive processing or intent to screen. However, there were significant interactions effects on outcome variables. The advantages and disadvantages of PE+SC targeted cancer communications and implications of sex differences are considered. While there do not appear to be significant differences in behavioral outcomes when using PE and PE+SC strategies, there appear to be subtle differences in affective and cognitive processing outcomes related to medical suspicion and ethnic identity, particularly as it relates to gender. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparability Effects of Mandatory IFRS Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Cascino; Joachim Gassen

    2012-01-01

    The mandatory adoption of IFRS by many countries worldwide fuels the expectation that financial accounting information might become more comparable across countries. This expectation is opposed to an alternative view that stresses the importance of incentives in shaping accounting information. We provide early evidence on this debate by investigating the effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on the comparability of financial accounting information around the world. Using two comparability proxie...

  8. Comparative qualitative research in Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Fatigante, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to provide an approach that allows to study the interplay of culture and psychological human functioning in comparative study designs. Starting out with a brief overview of how qualitative, cultural, and comparative research is addressed in the field of psychology we...... will take a Cultural Psychology approach to suggest that the unit of analysis for comparative research needs to be situated social interaction. We will then suggest an integrative approach that allows us to study social interaction both on a micro- and on a macro-level by combining discourse analysis...... some criteria of validity that particularly apply to the field of comparative research in Cultural Psychology....

  9. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  10. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Comparative, proximate composition, antioxidant vitamins, honey. INTRODUCTION ... solution of inverted sugars and complex mixture of other saccharides ... enzymatic browning in apple slices and grape juice. (Khan, 1985).

  11. CENPI is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and regulates cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Na; Li, Rongxin; Shi, Wenhao; He, Cui

    2018-06-21

    Centromere protein I (CENPI),an important member of centromere protein family, has been suggest to serve as a oncogene in breast cancer, but the clinical significance and biological function of CENPI in colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. In our results, we found CENPI was overexpressed in CRC tissues and cells, and associated with clinical stage, tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and differentiation in CRC patients. However, there was no significant association between CENPI protein expression and overall survival time in colon cancer patients and rectal cancer patients through analyzing TCGA survival data. Moreover, CENPI mRNA and protein were increased in metastatic lymph nodes compared with primary CRC tissues. Down-regulation of CENPI expression suppresses CRC cell migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition process. In conclusion, CENPI is overexpressed in CRC and functions as oncogene in modulating CRC cell migration, invasion and EMT process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Patients' satisfaction with healthcare: comparing general practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients' satisfaction with healthcare: comparing general practice services in a tertiary and primary healthcare settings. ... Nigerian Health Journal ... This research compared the level of patients' satisfaction with general practice care delivered at physicians-manned General Outpatient clinics at tertiary and primary health ...

  13. 6 CFR 17.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparable facilities. 17.410 Section 17.410... the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such...

  14. 18 CFR 1317.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparable facilities... facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall be comparable to such facilities provided...

  15. 34 CFR 106.33 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comparable facilities. 106.33 Section 106.33 Education... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.33 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but...

  16. 45 CFR 618.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comparable facilities. 618.410 Section 618.410... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but...

  17. 13 CFR 113.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparable facilities. 113.410... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but...

  18. 28 CFR 54.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comparable facilities. 54.410 Section 54... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities...

  19. 31 CFR 28.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comparable facilities. 28.410 Section... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such...

  20. 10 CFR 1042.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparable facilities. 1042.410 Section 1042.410 Energy... Activities Prohibited § 1042.410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall...

  1. 14 CFR 1253.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparable facilities. 1253.410 Section... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but...

  2. 44 CFR 19.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comparable facilities. 19.410... Activities Prohibited § 19.410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall...

  3. Defining, Measuring, and Comparing Organisational Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Peter T.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2004-01-01

    La littérature portant sur la culture des organisations souffre d’un manque manifeste d’enquêtes extensives débouchant sur des études comparatives. Afin de rendre plus comparables les cultures organisationnelles, nous proposons une définition et une série de dimensions. La culture organisationnelle

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  5. Ethnic Dilemmas in Comparative Perspective: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James H. Jr.; Oliver, Melvin L.

    1988-01-01

    The papers which comprise this volume were produced by a group of these nationally known scholars who are engaged in research on comparative aspects of ethnicity and ethnic group behavior. Organized around a series of themes which run through the extant comparative ethnicity literature and which reflect the expertise and current research foci of the conference presenters, the volume i...

  6. Suretyship in Serbian and comparative legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has compared the institute of suretyship in Serbian law and other comparative legal systems, both continental and common-law. With the development of economy, these instruments of creditor's protection in the contractual relationship have gained full promotion. The analysis of the similarities and differences in the treatment of suretyship implies a relationship between the European legal systems.

  7. Comparative Validation of Building Simulation Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    The scope of this subtask is to perform a comparative validation of the building simulation software for the buildings with the double skin façade. The outline of the results in the comparative validation identifies the areas where is no correspondence achieved, i.e. calculation of the air flow r...... is that the comparative validation can be regarded as the main argument to continue the validation of the building simulation software for the buildings with the double skin façade with the empirical validation test cases.......The scope of this subtask is to perform a comparative validation of the building simulation software for the buildings with the double skin façade. The outline of the results in the comparative validation identifies the areas where is no correspondence achieved, i.e. calculation of the air flow...

  8. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in patients with multiple serrated polyps: a cross-sectional case series from genetics clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Buchanan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with multiple serrated polyps are at an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Recent reports have linked cigarette smoking with the subset of CRC that develops from serrated polyps. The aim of this work therefore was to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of CRC in high-risk genetics clinic patients presenting with multiple serrated polyps.We identified 151 Caucasian individuals with multiple serrated polyps including at least 5 outside the rectum, and classified patients into non-smokers, current or former smokers at the time of initial diagnosis of polyposis. Cases were individuals with multiple serrated polyps who presented with CRC. Controls were individuals with multiple serrated polyps and no CRC. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate associations between smoking and CRC with adjustment for age at first presentation, sex and co-existing traditional adenomas, a feature that has been consistently linked with CRC risk in patients with multiple serrated polyps. CRC was present in 56 (37% individuals at presentation. Patients with at least one adenoma were 4 times more likely to present with CRC compared with patients without adenomas (OR = 4.09; 95%CI 1.27 to 13.14; P = 0.02. For females, the odds of CRC decreased by 90% in current smokers as compared to never smokers (OR = 0.10; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.47; P = 0.004 after adjusting for age and adenomas. For males, there was no relationship between current smoking and CRC. There was no statistical evidence of an association between former smoking and CRC for both sexes.A decreased odds for CRC was identified in females with multiple serrated polyps who currently smoke, independent of age and the presence of a traditional adenoma. Investigations into the biological basis for these observations could lead to non-smoking-related therapies being developed to decrease the risk of CRC and colectomy in these patients.

  9. The geometric structures, vibrational frequencies and redox properties of the actinyl coordination complexes ([AnO2(L)n](m); An = U, Pu, Np; L = H2O, Cl-, CO3(2-), CH3CO2(-), OH-) in aqueous solution, studied by density functional theory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jonathan P; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Vincent, Mark A; Hillier, Ian H

    2009-08-14

    The geometric and electronic structures of the aqua, chloro, acetato, hydroxo and carbonato complexes of U, Np and Pu in both their (VI) and (V) oxidation states, and in an aqueous environment, have been studied using density functional theory methods. We have obtained micro-solvated structures derived from molecular dynamics simulations and included the bulk solvent using a continuum model. We find that two different hydrogen bonding patterns involving the axial actinyl oxygen atoms are sometimes possible, and may give rise to different An-O bond lengths and vibrational frequencies. These alternative structures are reflected in the experimental An-O bond lengths of the aqua and carbonato complexes. The variation of the redox potential of the uranyl complexes with the different ligands has been studied using both BP86 and B3LYP functionals. The relative values for the four uranium complexes having anionic ligands are in surprisingly good agreement with experiment, although the absolute values are in error by approximately 1 eV. The absolute error for the aqua species is much less, leading to an incorrect order of the redox potentials of the aqua and chloro species.

  10. Comparative Political Economy and International Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afonso, A.; Devitt, C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature connecting comparative political economy and international migration in advanced industrialized countries with a focus on the relationship between labour migration, labour markets and welfare institutions. Immigration flows and policies are

  11. Comparative evaluation of the sperm characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    J. Physiol. Sci. 29(June 2014) 055 –061 www.njps.com.ng. Comparative evaluation of the ... Summary: Cuscuta australis (C. australis) seed and stem are commonly used as .... 0.05, Values with different superscripts are significantly different.

  12. MANAGEMENT AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATASET ENSEMBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk [Senior Director, Scientific Computing

    2010-05-17

    The primary Phase I technical objective was to develop a prototype that demonstrates the functionality of all components required for an end-to-end meta-data management and comparative visualization system.

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME TECHNIQUES IN THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    25, No. 1, March 2006. Ayotamuno, Kogbara and Agunwamba 15. COMPARATIVE .... Option 0, was the Control (no treatment employed) ..... induce an enormous proliferation of microbial ... oxygen and nutrients imposed the greatest limitation ...

  14. Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2008-01-01

    The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)

  15. Comparative growth performance of different Australian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative growth performance of different Australian provenances and local land ... and Ubiri in the West Usambara Mountains (WUM), North East Tanzania. ... with local land races for subsequent management as seed production stands.

  16. ecco: An error correcting comparator theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2018-03-08

    Building on the work of Ralph Miller and coworkers (Miller and Matzel, 1988; Denniston et al., 2001; Stout and Miller, 2007), I propose a new formalization of the comparator hypothesis that seeks to overcome some shortcomings of existing formalizations. The new model, dubbed ecco for "Error-Correcting COmparisons," retains the comparator process and the learning of CS-CS associations based on contingency. ecco assumes, however, that learning of CS-US associations is driven by total error correction, as first introduced by Rescorla and Wagner (1972). I explore ecco's behavior in acquisition, compound conditioning, blocking, backward blocking, and unovershadowing. In these paradigms, ecco appears capable of avoiding the problems of current comparator models, such as the inability to solve some discriminations and some paradoxical effects of stimulus salience. At the same time, ecco exhibits the retrospective revaluation phenomena that are characteristic of comparator theory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    example, the contribution from vegetable products fell by 7%, and that from textiles .... 43 -‐ Furskins and artificial fur, manufactures thereof ... example, while Tanzania has comparative advantage in raw hides and skins (see Figure 6), it.

  18. Comparative sequence analyses of genome and transcriptome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-12-04

    Dec 4, 2015 ... 2011), unique vocal communication. (Payne 2003; Nair et al. ... induction of apoptosis when compared to human cells. In this study, we have .... based on calculated Pearson correlation and displayed based on centroid of the ...

  19. comparative evaluation of pressure distribution between horizontal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper presents comparative analysis between the pressure behavior of ... Green and source function were used to evaluate the performance of horizontal well and ..... Superscript. ' derivative. D = dimensionless. h = horizontal. = change.

  20. A Python Library for Historical Comparative Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Moran , Steven; List , Johann-Mattis

    2012-01-01

    Awarded best paper award; International audience; In this talk we will discuss a European Research Council funded collaborative effort to build a Python library for undertaking academic research in historical-comparative linguistics. Our aim of implementing quantitative methods, specifically in Python, is to transform historical-comparative linguistics from a primarily handcrafted scientific scholarly endeavor, performed by individual researchers, into a quantitative and collaborative field o...

  1. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference ...

  2. Mandatory IFRS adoption and accounting comparability

    OpenAIRE

    Cascino, Stefano; Gassen, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The adoption of IFRS by many countries worldwide fuels the expectation that financial accounting might become more comparable across countries. This expectation is opposed to an alternative view that stresses the importance of incentives in shaping accounting information. We provide early evidence on this debate by investigating the effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on the comparability of financial accounting information around the world. Our results suggest that while mandatory adoption of...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Competitive Strategy Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Maina A. S. Waweru

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research findings on Competitive Strategy Implementation which compared the levels of strategy implementation achieved by different generic strategy groups, comprising firms inclined towards low cost leadership, differentiation or dual strategic advantage. The study sought to determine the preferences for use of implementation armaments and compared how such armaments related to the level of implementation achieved. Respondents comprised 71 top executives from 59 companies...

  4. Comparative Theology as Liberal and Confessional Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus von Stosch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For most European scholars, the scope of Comparative Theology is not very clear. They see big differences between the notion of Comparative Theology among its protagonists, e.g., between Keith Ward or Robert Neville and Francis Clooney or James Fredericks. That is why I will try to define a certain understanding of Comparative Theology which can be defended in accordance with strong European theological traditions. I want to show that Comparative Theology can be understood as one of the best fruits of liberal theology and of a Wittgensteinian interpretation of transcendental philosophy—and that it opens new perspectives for confessional theology. The current development of Islamic theology in Germany is especially challenging for Comparative Theology and the best opportunity to develop it into a project undertaken by scholars of different religions and different intellectual traditions. I will argue that Comparative Theology is not a new discipline within the old disciplines of theology, but that it can give new perspectives to all theological disciplines and thoroughly change their character.

  5. Share Valuation Using the Comparative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Marková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative method is one of the methods of assessment of equity securities in theory and practice. The practical application of the comparative method is arranged in MS Decree No. 492/2004 Coll. on the establishment of the universal value of property and in Act No. 431/2002 Coll. on accounting, as amended by later regulations. According to this method, internal (general, real value is derived from information on specific prices or values of shares of similar companies. The comparative method can be applied without serious problems only provided that the differences between the companies are small; otherwise, its use has been problematic. To find a comparable public limited company on a mature capital market, where the number of traded comparable companies is high, is not a problem. It is very difficult for a small market such as Slovakia’s stock market. This paper discusses the application of comparative methods to the non-standard Slovak capital market.

  6. Comparative Medicine: An Inclusive Crossover Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, James; Horvath, Tamas L

    2017-09-01

    Comparative Medicine is typically defined as a discipline which relates and leverages the biological similarities and differences among animal species to better understand the mechanism of human and animal disease. It has also been defined as a field of study concentrating on similarities and differences between human and veterinary medicine and is increasingly associated with animal models of human disease, including the critical role veterinarians, animal resource centers, and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees play in facilitating and ensuring humane and reproducible laboratory animal care and use. To this end, comparative medicine plays a pivotal role in reduction, refinement, and replacement in animals in biomedical research. On many levels, comparative medicine facilitates the translation of basic science knowledge into clinical applications; applying comparative medicine concepts throughout the translation process is critical for success. In addition to the supportive role of comparative medicine in the research enterprise, its role as a distinct and independent scientific discipline should not be lost. Although comparative medicine's research "niche" is not one particular discipline or disease process, rather, it is the investigative mindset that seeks to reveal common threads that weave different pathophysiologic processes into translatable approaches and outcomes using various models.

  7. What Do We Compare When We Compare Religions? Philosophical Remarks on the Psychology of Studying Comparative Religion Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The issue of comparison is a vexing one in religious and theological studies, not least for teachers of comparative religion in study abroad settings. We try to make familiar ideas fresh and strange, in settings where students may find it hard not to take "fresh" and "strange" as signs of existential threat. The author explores…

  8. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system and on the......On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...... and on the inorganic catalyst surface of an acidic electrolysis cell, the thermochemical features of the catalysts can be directly compared. We suggest a simple test for a thermochemically optimal catalyst. We show that, although both the RuO2 surface and the Mn cluster in photo system II are quite close to optimal...

  9. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  10. The comparative method as a breaching experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    Comparative studies have remained an exception in qualitative reception and audience studies (Jensen, 1998b), although recent years have witnessed ambitious projects (e.g. Barker & Mathijs, 2008) and increased cross-national research collaborations. This paper will present the design...... of an empirical comparative study of the cultural, cognitive and linguistic determinants of news comprehension and a discussion of the challenges, issues and benefits found in engaging with a comparative methodology in the context of reception and discourse analyses. The research project on which this paper...... is based sought to understand the processes by which mediated discourse such as news is comprehended by its audience (Mathieu, 2009). The empirical study consisted in a cross-cultural comparison of the reading processes between Danes and Canadians over a set of news texts from both countries...

  11. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  12. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  13. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...... of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate...

  14. Comparative diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Hood, A.F.; Lampros, J.

    2011-01-01

    studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of virtual slides compared to traditional glass slides. Methods: Ten Nordic dermatopathologists and pathologists were given a randomized combination of 20 virtual and glass slides and asked to identify the diagnoses. They were then asked to give...... their impressions about the virtual images. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups using Fisher's exact test were performed. Objective: To compare the diagnostic ability of dermatopathologists and pathologists in two image formats: the traditional (glass) microscopic slides, and whole mount digitized...... of virtual or glass slides did not affect the percentage of questions answered correctly. Seven of nine participants completing the questionnaire, felt virtual microscopy is useful for both learning and testing. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the participants' diagnostic ability using...

  15. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  16. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  17. Sequencing and comparing whole mitochondrial genomes ofanimals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Macey, J. Robert; Medina, Monica

    2005-04-22

    Comparing complete animal mitochondrial genome sequences is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. Not only are they much more informative than shorter sequences of individual genes for inferring evolutionary relatedness, but these data also provide sets of genome-level characters, such as the relative arrangements of genes, that can be especially powerful. We describe here the protocols commonly used for physically isolating mtDNA, for amplifying these by PCR or RCA, for cloning,sequencing, assembly, validation, and gene annotation, and for comparing both sequences and gene arrangements. On several topics, we offer general observations based on our experiences to date with determining and comparing complete mtDNA sequences.

  18. Social acceptance of comparative optimism and realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhabet, I; Verlhiac, J F

    2011-10-01

    Studies of optimism and realism (the accuracy of people's outlook on the future) seek to understand the respective effects of these elements on social approbation. Two experiments examined how comparative optimism (vs. pessimism) and realism (vs. unrealism) interacted to influence the targets' social acceptance based on their perceptions about the future. The results showed that realism, or accuracy of prediction, increased the positive social effects of a comparatively optimistic outlook on the future. In contrast, targets who exhibited comparative pessimism were more socially acceptable when their predictions were unrealistic rather than realistic. This phenomenon was examined by also considering the polarity of the events about which judgments were expressed. These results contribute to the body of research about the relationship between optimism and pessimism and the relationship between optimism and realism.

  19. A comparative study of various advanced fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, H.; Tomita, Y.; Nomura, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of comparing the merits and demerits of various advanced fuel cycles, parametric studies of operation conditions are examined. The effects of nuclear elastic collisions and synchrotron radiation are taken into account. It is found that the high-#betta# Catalyzed DD fuel cycle with the transmutation of fusion-produced tritium into helium-3 is most feasible from the point of view of neutron production and tritium handling. The D-D fuel cycles seem to be less attractive compared to the Catalyzed DD. The p- 11 B and p- 6 Li fusion plasmas hardly attain the plasma Q value relevant to reactors. (author)

  20. Mathematics education and comparative historical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner RODRIGUES VALENTE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its aims: to characterize the area of research «history of mathematics education» and to defend the idea that mathematics education has constituted a privileged research theme within the field of comparative historical studies. To achieve these aims, the text includes references to a review of the literature concerning comparative studies, the analysis of two fundamental moments focused on attempts to internationalize the mathematics curriculum, both of which occurred during the 20th century, and, to end, a case study emanating from an international cooperation between researchers in Brazil and Portugal.

  1. A Comparative of business process modelling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Waworuntu, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this era, there is a lot of business process modeling techniques. This article is the research about differences of business process modeling techniques. For each technique will explain about the definition and the structure. This paper presents a comparative analysis of some popular business process modelling techniques. The comparative framework is based on 2 criteria: notation and how it works when implemented in Somerleyton Animal Park. Each technique will end with the advantages and disadvantages. The final conclusion will give recommend of business process modeling techniques that easy to use and serve the basis for evaluating further modelling techniques.

  2. Comparative analysis of Carnaval II Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Bastos, W. dos

    1981-01-01

    The Carnaval II cross sections library from the french fast reactor calculation system is evaluated in two ways: 1 0 ) a comparative analysis of the calculations system for fast reactors at IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear) using a 'benchmark' model is done; 2 0 ) a comparative analysis in relation to the french system itself is also done, using calculations realized with two versions of the french library: the SETR-II and the CARNAVAL IV, the first one being anterior and the second one posterior to the Carnaval II version, the one used by IEN. (Author) [pt

  3. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  4. Audit of the introduction of CT colonography for detection of colorectal carcinoma in a non-academic environment and its implications for the national bowel cancer screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.; Atchley, J.; Higginson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To compare the sensitivity of double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) with computed tomography colonography (CTC) to determine whether CTC is superior for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) locally, and to compare the results to those of a national barium enema audit. Materials and methods: All patients undergoing diagnostic DCBE or CTC between January 2003 and December 2005 were identified from the picture archiving communication system (PACS). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CRC were identified from the local cancer registry. Patients who were not diagnosed as having CRC on imaging were assumed true negatives if they were not listed in the cancer registry by December 2007, giving a minimum of 2 years follow-up. DCBE and CTC reports of all patients with CRC were analysed, and cancer detection was considered to have occurred (positive test result) if the report stated the definite presence of CRC or possible CRC requiring further investigation. Results: 2520 DCBEs and 604 CTCs were included. Twenty-one of 33 patients with CRC were detected using DCBE (incidence 1.31%, sensitivity 63.7%). Thirty-two of 33 patients with CRC were -detected using CTC (incidence 5.46%, sensitivity 97.7%). Conclusion: CTC is more sensitive for the detection of CRC, and its introduction in a district general hospital is justified. However, there has been a consequent decline in DCBE sensitivity, which, if reflected nationally, suggests CTC is the preferential screening test for CRC

  5. Audit of the introduction of CT colonography for detection of colorectal carcinoma in a non-academic environment and its implications for the national bowel cancer screening programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [Department of Radiology, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Southwick Hill Road, Cosham, Portsmouth PO3 6AD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Susan.Thomas@porthosp.nhs.uk; Atchley, J.; Higginson, A. [Department of Radiology, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Southwick Hill Road, Cosham, Portsmouth PO3 6AD (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Aim: To compare the sensitivity of double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) with computed tomography colonography (CTC) to determine whether CTC is superior for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) locally, and to compare the results to those of a national barium enema audit. Materials and methods: All patients undergoing diagnostic DCBE or CTC between January 2003 and December 2005 were identified from the picture archiving communication system (PACS). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CRC were identified from the local cancer registry. Patients who were not diagnosed as having CRC on imaging were assumed true negatives if they were not listed in the cancer registry by December 2007, giving a minimum of 2 years follow-up. DCBE and CTC reports of all patients with CRC were analysed, and cancer detection was considered to have occurred (positive test result) if the report stated the definite presence of CRC or possible CRC requiring further investigation. Results: 2520 DCBEs and 604 CTCs were included. Twenty-one of 33 patients with CRC were detected using DCBE (incidence 1.31%, sensitivity 63.7%). Thirty-two of 33 patients with CRC were -detected using CTC (incidence 5.46%, sensitivity 97.7%). Conclusion: CTC is more sensitive for the detection of CRC, and its introduction in a district general hospital is justified. However, there has been a consequent decline in DCBE sensitivity, which, if reflected nationally, suggests CTC is the preferential screening test for CRC.

  6. Randomized phase III clinical trial comparing the combination of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) with the combination of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (modified FOLFOX6) as adjuvant therapy in patients with operated high-risk stage II or stage III colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectasides, Dimitrios; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Papaxoinis, George; Gourgioti, Georgia; Makatsoris, Thomas; Raptou, Georgia; Vrettou, Eleni; Sgouros, Joseph; Samantas, Epaminontas; Basdanis, George; Papakostas, Pavlos; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Kalofonos, Haralambos P.; Scopa, Chrisoula D.; Pentheroudakis, George; Fountzilas, George

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to compare two active adjuvant chemotherapy regimens in patients with early stage colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients were assigned to oxaliplatin, leucovorin and 5-FU for 12 cycles (group A, FOLFOX6) or oxaliplatin and capecitabine for eight cycles (group B, CAPOX). Primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). Tumors were classified as mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) or deficient (dMMR) according to MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression. KRAS exon two and BRAF V600E mutational status were also assessed. Between 2005 and 2008, 441 patients were enrolled, with 408 patients being eligible. After a median follow-up of 74.7 months, 3-year DFS was 79.8 % (95 % CI 76.5–83.4) in the FOLFOX group and 79.5 % (95 % CI 75.9–83.1) in the CAPOX group (p = 0.78). Three-year OS was 87.2 % (95 % CI 84.1-91.1) in the FOLFOX and 86.9 % (95 % CI 83.4–89.9) in the CAPOX group (p = 0.84). Among 306 available tumors, 11.0 % were dMMR, 34.0 % KRAS mutant and 4.9 % BRAF mutant. Multivariate analysis showed that primary site in the left colon, earlier TNM stage and the presence of anemia at diagnosis were associated with better DFS and overall survival (OS), while grade one–two tumors were associated with better OS. Finally, a statistically significant interaction was detected between the primary site and MMR status (p = 0.010), while KRAS mutated tumors were associated with shorter DFS. However, the sample was too small for safe conclusions. No significant differences were observed in the efficacy of FOLFOX versus CAPOX as adjuvant treatment in high-risk stage II or stage III CRC patients, but definitive conclusions cannot be drawn because of the small sample size

  7. Comparative sonographic evaluation of the anteroposterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-21

    Sep 21, 2015 ... also significantly smaller in the Type 1 diabetics compared to Type 2 (P ... the duodenal loop and splenic hilum over a length of ... have demonstrated a decrease in beta cell mass.[4] ... also becomes resistant to insulin, thereby causing the blood ... DM poses a devastating negative economic impact and.

  8. Comparative study of bioethanol production from sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more ...

  9. Comparable indicators of inequality across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, B.; Marx, I.; Salverda, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the key issue for the GINI project of how best to approach the measurement of income inequality and wage inequality to enhance comparability across different studies. It focuses fi rst on income inequality, dealing with the defi nition of income, the income recipient unit, and the

  10. Comparative Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina ... Both plant infusions inhibited viability and cell growth of SW480 and SW620 cells. .... 100 g of dry extract, from a gallic acid calibration curve [9]. ..... antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of colon.

  11. Comparative Studies on Some Physicochemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial and nutritional processes have increased the demands for oil and this in turn has led to the search for oils from different types of seeds. It is in this vein that baobab seed oil was extracted, analyzed and some of it physicochemical properties compared with those of vegetable, peanut and palm oils. The percentage ...

  12. Comparative Economic Analysis of Beekeeping Using Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Tabora and Katavi regions in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania. The overall objective of the study was to undertake a comparative economic analysis of beekeeping using improved or traditional beehives. Data were collected from 198 beekeepers that were randomly selected from a sampling ...

  13. A comparative study of fingerprint thinning algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, NP

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available are compared in terms of the quality of the skeletons they produce (i.e. connectivity and spurious branches) as well as the time complexity associated with each algorithm. Results show that faster algorithms have difficulty preserving connectivity. Zhang...

  14. Demographic development in ASEAN: a comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, A N; Pardoko, H; Lim, L L; Hongladorom, C

    1981-01-01

    A comparative overview of recent demographic developments in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is presented. Countries discussed include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Separate consideration is given to mortality; fertility; and migration, spatial distribution, and employment. A final section is concerned with emerging issues and directions for population policy.

  15. Comparative analysis of technical efficiencies between compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the level of technical efficiency in the compound and non compound farms in Imo state. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 food crop farmers from two out of the three agricultural zones in Imo state. Using the Chow (1960) analysis of covariance technique ...

  16. Comparative Efficacy Of Topical Ciprofloxacin On Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ciprofloxacinis often considered drug of first choice in the treatment of bacterial keratitis.Most of the ocular infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study set to compare the efficacy of ciprofloxacin on these two microorganisms in vitro. The “agar well diffusion” and the 10-fold ...

  17. On the measurement of comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, A.R.; Oosterhaven, J.

    This paper shows-that the standard measure of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), ranging from 0 to infinity, has problematic properties. Due to its multiplicative specification, it has a moving mean larger than its expected value of 1, while its distribution strongly depends on the number of

  18. On the measurement of comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Alex R.

    2001-01-01

    This article shows that the distribution of the standard measure of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), which runs from 0 to 8, has problematic properties. Due to its multiplicative specification, it has a moving mean without a useful interpretation, while its distribution depends on the number of

  19. Comparative morphology on leaves of Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, M.-S.; Yang, Y.-P.; Sheue, C.-R.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative anatomical study on the leaves of nine out of 29 species of the genus Daphniphyllum was performed to seek support for the present infrageneric classification. Daphniphyllum is composed of two sections, Lunata (with one subsection Lunata) and Daphniphyllum (with two subsections,

  20. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewalle Vincent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.

  1. Wellness Model of Supervision: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Balkin, Richard S.; Oliver, Marvarene; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of the Wellness Model of Supervision (WELMS; Lenz & Smith, 2010) with alternative supervision models for developing wellness constructs, total personal wellness, and helping skills among counselors-in-training. Participants were 32 master's-level counseling students completing their…

  2. Comparing early design methods for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis - Thiescheffer, R.J.W.; Bekker, M.M.; Eggen, J.H.; Robertson, J.; Skov, M.B.; Bekker, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a study which compares the outcome of two early design methods for children: brainstorming and prototyping. The hypothesis is that children will uncover more design ideas when prototyping than when brainstorming, because prototyping requires the use of a wider range of

  3. Papers from the International Conference on Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on different specific themes and four poster sessions gener- ally coordinated with each day's themes. The following nine papers are a representative sample of both plenary and review papers presented. Comparative animal physiology and biochemistry are areas of study largely concerned with the ways in which diverse.

  4. China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    in China, see Banister, Bloom, and Rosenberg (2010). 13 For a discussion of inequality in India, see Bardhan (2003). population trends in China and...WorkingPapers/2010/PGDA_WP_53.pdf 132 China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment Bardhan , Pranab, “Crouching Tiger, Lumbering Elephant: A China-India

  5. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C; Tümmler, B

    2010-01-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole...... weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment....

  6. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  7. The downstream industry compared to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-01-01

    J.L. Schilansky introduces here the difficult question of the downstream industry compared to market in recalling the recent structural changes (behaviour of customers, behaviour of the USA- and China-governments), the increase of the European and French regulations, the climatic change and the conjectural impact of the crisis on the refining industry. (O.M.)

  8. Comparative assessment of university chemistry undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the structure of undergraduate chemistry curricula of universities in the southwest of Nigeria with a view to establishing the relative proportion of the different areas of chemistry each curriculum accommodates. It is a qualitative research, involving content analysis with a partial quantitative analysis ...

  9. Comparative evaluation on some available Newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease vaccines from three different countries were compared in terms of the level of protection conferred on domestic chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) following routine vaccinations. One hundred and fifty day old chicks were acquired and divided into three groups, with each group of fifty chickens ...

  10. Comparative Education in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, William W.

    2010-01-01

    In this previously unpublished essay, William W. Brickman complicates the traditional conception of the historical foundations of comparative education--that is, the role of Marc-Antoine Julian as a "father figure." The article examines influences on Julian (by Cesar-Auguste Basset's influential publications, for example) and discusses…

  11. Comparative Approaches to Genetic Discrimination: Chasing Shadows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Feze, Ida Ngueng; Song, Lingqiao; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2017-05-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is one of the most pervasive issues associated with genetic research and its large-scale implementation. An increasing number of countries have adopted public policies to address this issue. Our research presents a worldwide comparative review and typology of these approaches. We conclude with suggestions for public policy development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  13. A comparative assessment of commonly employed staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following an increase in the number of reports of Cryptosporidium infections and the problems encountered in detecting these organisms in faecal smears, a comparative assessment of a modification of the Sheather's flotation technique and other commonly employed staining procedures proved the modified Sheather's ...

  14. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF Acorus calamus POWDER AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of the powder of a natural plant product (Acorus calamus L.) and two synthetic insecticides (i.e. Pirimiphos methyl and Rotenone) was compared in the laboratory for the control Sitophilus oryzea (L), Rhizopertha dominica (F) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in stored wheat grains. Seven concentrations of the ...

  15. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  16. Comparative antitrypanosomal screening of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro and in vivo activities of methanolic extracts of defatted leaves and stems of Khaya senegalensis and Moringa oleifera on Trypanosoma brucei brucei were investigated and compared. The in vitro assessment involved incubating the parasite (in triplicate) in the presence of various extract concentrations in a ...

  17. 45 CFR 86.33 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.33 Comparable facilities. A recipient... the other sex. (Secs. 901, 902, Education Amendments of 1972, 86 Stat. 373, 374) ...

  18. Comparative risks in the energy scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    Studies comparing the risks in different energy systems are discussed, and the usefulness of the quantified risk assessment to the decision maker is outlined. Information is presented on (a) risks from fuel extraction, processing and fabrication (for coal, oil and nuclear); (b) annual risk per unit output (coal, oil and nuclear); (c) major events (nuclear, coal, oil and chemical). (U.K.)

  19. Comparing classifiers for pronunciation error detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, H.; Truong, K.; Wet, F. de; Cucchiarini, C.

    2007-01-01

    Providing feedback on pronunciation errors in computer assisted language learning systems requires that pronunciation errors be detected automatically. In the present study we compare four types of classifiers that can be used for this purpose: two acoustic-phonetic classifiers (one of which employs

  20. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.