WorldWideScience

Sample records for lng pipelines phase

  1. LNG transport through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfund, P; Philipps, A

    1975-01-01

    LNG pipelines could help solve some peakshaving problems if operated in conjunction with other facilities that could use the LNG cold recovered during regasification. In some areas at present, LNG is delivered by tanker and regasified near the terminal for transmission through conventional gas pipelines. In other places, utilities liquefy natural gas for easy storage for later peakshaving use. The only chance to avoid the second expensive liquefaction step would be to convey imported LNG through a suitable designed LNG pipeline. The technical problems involved in LNG pipeline construction have basically been solved in recent years, but those pipelines actually constructed have been only short ones. To be economically justified, long-distance LNG lines require additional credit, which could be obtained by selling the LNG cold recovered during regasification to industrial users located in or near the points of gas consumption. Technical details presented cover the pipe material, stress relief, steel composition, pressure enthalpy, bellows-type expansion joints, and mechanical and thermal insulation.

  2. The gas century: worldwide LNG developments may deal death blow to Alaskan pipeline dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2004-01-01

    The growing interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG), which casts doubt on the viability of the Alaska gas pipeline, and the potential impacts on Canadian gas exports to the United States are discussed. There is currently a proposal before Congress for an Alaskan LNG project, and consensus appears to be building among American energy experts and law-makers that building a multitude of LNG facilities would be more flexible and cheaper than building the proposed Alaska pipeline. As further proof of the growing popularity of LNG, U.S. industry lobbyists are said to be rapidly gaining congressional support for the idea of building eight to ten billion cubic feet per day of LNG capacity along the U. S. coast. Either development, -- LNG facilities or the Alaska pipeline -- have the potential to seriously impact Canadian natural gas exports. If the Alaska pipeline is built, the addition of five billion cubic feet per day of new gas on the market would cause gas prices to fall; if the U.S. decides to subsidize its gas industry, Canadian gas would be put at a serious disadvantage. Conversely, if the Alaskan LNG proposal were to succeed, the potential demise of the Alaska pipeline would mean the loss of about 12,000 jobs that would be created during the Canadian construction phase of the pipeline, as well as the loss of tariffs. Industry experts predict that by 2005 LNG terminals will dot the periphery of the U. S. coast line; to prepare for these eventualities, Canadian companies, such as Irving Oil, TransCanada Pipelines and EnCana are taking note, and are scrambling not to be left out of the game. As proof of the seriousness of their concern, Irving Oil is adding a Can$500 million LNG facility to its Canaport terminal on the Scotian shelf; TCPL is working to supply an LNG terminal offshore Massachusetts, and EnCana is refurbishing a Louisiana salt cavern to prepare for storage of gas delivered to the Gulf Coast

  3. Northwest Asia - gas market outlook: LNG vs. pipeline gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keun Wook Paik

    1996-01-01

    The share of natural gas in Northeast Asia's energy mix is quite low despite that the region currently dominates the world LNG trade. In the long term, the region's rapid expansion of gas demand in the coming decades looks very likely, but the LNG dominance in the region's gas market will collapse in parallel with the introduction of a long distance pipeline gas. The most likely timing of pipeline gas introduction in Northeast Asian gas market seems to be during the second half of the next decade. (Author)

  4. Economics of LNG and pipeline gas export from GC C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the economic and non-economic considerations underlying gas exports from the GC C and the Arabian Peninsula in general. It addresses four themes: policy issues, political risks, technical risks and economics. It examines the distance between the regional resource areas and the major gas markets in the Far East and Europe, and examines the implications for moving gas to those markets in liquid form or by pipeline, in terms of number of LNG vessels required, and capital costs. (Author)

  5. LNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.; Idir, N.; Hosanski, J.M.; Jonkman, H.; Pelloux-Prayer, D.; Wells, D.

    2007-01-01

    The LNG industry has entered a new step of its development, faster and more complex. The time parameter, the huge investments and the uncertainties relative to the demand growth are some of the factors that control its evolution. How the emergence of 'international price' signals will influence this activity? What supply-demand status can be foreseen from now to 2015? What role LNG would be able to play in terms of modulation management? What are the impacts of environmental constraints on LNG infrastructures? These are the different points discussed during this workshop by the five participants, specialists of the LNG questions. (J.S.)

  6. 77 FR 48145 - Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC, Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. PF12-12-000; PF12-13-000] Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC, Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Cameron Pipeline Expansion Project and Cameron LNG Liquefaction Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues,...

  7. Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline capacity : ensuring adequate pipeline infrastructure to meet incoming LNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitwham, R.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of natural gas demand in the United States and Canada was presented with reference to demand growth, tight supply versus demand, high levels of volatility, and new frontier and nonconventional supplies. Graphs illustrating natural gas demand for use in power generation, industry, commerce and the residential sector were presented. A supply forecast indicates that the decline in conventional supply will be offset by non-conventional sources. Canadian production is expected to remain flat through 2015, while imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) are expected to grow to 15 per cent by 2015. New sources are forecasted to reach 45 per cent of gas supply by 2015. The issue of rising natural gas prices and its influence on the strength of northeast markets was discussed. A profile of the northeast market was also included along with supply opportunities in the Maritimes and New England States. The critical success factors for LNG include supply availability, source country risk factors, shipping capacity, siting approvals and competition. Capital costs, operating costs, maintenance costs and reliability were listed as the factors that should be considered in pipeline expansion projects. figs

  8. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO 2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  9. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines. Phase 9. Available and/or required equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This phase of the technology assessment of liquid natural gas pipelines assembles a listing of the materials and equipment which might be used to mechanically build an LNG pipeline. It lists material and equipment which practically could be used in such a pipeline either at a present state of the art, or by adaptation in terms of materials or techniques, or after some development work. Other than that the material and equipment is proposed for use in an LNG pipeline, no new real concept of pipeline or refrigeration plant equipment is proposed. Rather the equipment has been selected so as to conform as closely as possible to established pipeline practice.

  10. Natural Gas and CO2 Price Variation: Impact on the Relative Cost-Efficiency of LNG and Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Øverland, Indra; Ulvestad, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carri...

  11. Static equilibrium analysis for pipeline protection design in Iran LNG port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, A.S.; Vakili, R. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alielahi, H. [Islamic Azad Univ., Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the protection design for an intake seawater pipeline that will be built for a liquefied natural gas (LNG) project. The limit equilibrium approach was used to estimate the geometry of the protection layer with respect to the holding capacity of the drag anchors in cohesionless soil, incorporating a more realistic 3-dimensional failure pattern in the soil as well as the force acting on the back of the fluke. The study addressed all technical and executive points related to the pipeline construction, including anchor type, ship load, geotechnical properties of the protected zone and the underlying seabed, and the procedure to calculate the geometry of the protection layer. The protection layer must account for the complexity of interactions among anchor, anchor chain, sea bed, and rock armour. This analytical method provided logical results more quickly and at a lower cost than model testing. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Capital structure in LNG infrastructures and gas pipelines projects: Empirical evidences and methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, Axel; Roussanaly, Simon; Sabathier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. - Highlights: • This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG and gas pipeline infrastructures. • Most of our results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. • Projects located in risky countries exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. • Larger projects and regasification projects also have less concentrated equity ownerships. • From a capital-budgeting viewpoint, we examine methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects

  13. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This document contains phases 7, 8, and 9 of a review on the technology assessment of long distance liquefied natural gas (LNG) pipelines. Phase 7 contains 6 papers describing novel applications for LNG pipelines. Phase 8 contains a summary of material relating to cold utilization and rural service. Phase 9 presents a listing of materials and equipment used to construct an LNG pipeline. Separate abstracts for each phase of the study have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  14. Cool-down flow-rate limits imposed by thermal stresses in LNG pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J. K.; Edeskuty, F. J.; Bartlit, J. R.

    Warm cryogenic pipelines are usually cooled to operating temperature by a small, steady flow of the liquid cryogen. If this flow rate is too high or too low, undesirable stresses will be produced. Low flow-rate limits based on avoidance of stratified two-phase flow were calculated for pipelines cooled with liquid hydrogen or nitrogen. High flow-rate limits for stainless steel and aluminum pipelines cooled by liquid hydrogen or nitrogen were determined by calculating thermal stress in thick components vs flow rate and then selecting some reasonable stress limits. The present work extends these calculations to pipelines made of AISI 304 stainless steel, 6061 aluminum, or ASTM A420 9% nickel steel cooled by liquid methane or a typical natural gas. Results indicate that aluminum and 9% nickel steel components can tolerate very high cool-down flow rates, based on not exceeding the material yield strength.

  15. Technology qualification of an ambient pressure subsea cryogenic pipeline for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Afzal; Viteri, Martha; D' Angelo, Luis [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Prescott, Neal; Zhang, Jeff [Fluor Corporation, Irving, TX (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A project that deploys new technologies need to be confident that the technology can be implemented successfully and will perform reliably as designed. New technology is critical to industry, especially where such technology is a project enable without the existence of a backup solution, but also for projects where such technologies bring potential benefits such as technical, economic, schedule, and environmental improvements. DNV developed and has been implementing for many years a systematic, risk based technology qualification process as described in DNV RP-A203, qualification procedures for new technology. One of the major objectives of a formal technology qualification process is to ensure that risks are properly addressed. The DNV process includes several levels of technology qualification and review, starting with a statement of feasibility and concluding with a Certificate of Fitness for Service. Fluor Corporation (Fluor) has developed a new subsea cryogenic pipe-in-pipe configuration for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals. The configuration uses a highly efficient thermal nano-porous insulation in the annular space between the inner and outer pipes. This material is kept in an ambient pressure environment, which is produced through sealing by metal bulkheads. The bulkheads transfer the contraction induced axial compression load on the inner cryogenic carrier pipe to the external jacket pipe. The resulting pipeline bundle is a structural element, which addresses the thermal contraction and expansion loads without the use of expansion bellows or ultra-low thermal contraction alloys. Fluor has followed the DNV technology qualification process to achieve the defined milestones therein which culminated in DNV issuing a certificate of fitness for service. Particular focus was put on the new aspects of the design. The certificate of fitness for service for the Fluor subsea LNG pipe technology provides project management with the confidence that this

  16. LNG project - contractual aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno Almeida

    2008-07-01

    This paper intends to provide from the legal point of view an outline of the main challenges of a LNG project in the upstream, regulatory aspects, liquefaction, financing and midstream through a basic checklist; an overview of the contractual complexity of a LNG project; some basic discussion of particular LNG contract clauses; and a comparative analysis between the classic clauses of a Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) through a gas pipeline and LNG logistic. (author)

  17. LANDFILL GAS CONVERSION TO LNG AND LCO{sub 2}. PHASE 1, FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1998-FEBRUARY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOK,W.J.; NEYMAN,M.; SIWAJEK,L.A.; BROWN,W.R.; VAN HAUWAERT,P.M.; CURREN,E.D.

    1998-02-25

    Process designs and economics were developed to produce LNG and liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from landfill gas (LFG) using the Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process. The patented Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process uses liquid CO{sub 2} to absorb contaminants from the LFG. The process steps are compression, drying, CO{sub 2} wash contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery, residual CO{sub 2} removal and methane liquefaction. Three flowsheets were developed using different residual CO{sub 2} removal schemes. These included physical solvent absorption (methanol), membranes and molecular sieves. The capital and operating costs of the flowsheets were very similar. The LNG production cost was around ten cents per gallon. In parallel with process flowsheet development, the business aspects of an eventual commercial project have been explored. The process was found to have significant potential commercial application. The business plan effort investigated the economics of LNG transportation, fueling, vehicle conversion, and markets. The commercial value of liquid CO{sub 2} was also investigated. This Phase 1 work, March 1998 through February 1999, was funded under Brookhaven National laboratory contract 725089 under the research program entitled ``Liquefied Natural Gas as a Heavy Vehicle Fuel.'' The Phase 2 effort will develop flowsheets for the following: (1) CO{sub 2} and pipeline gas production, with the pipeline methane being liquefied at a peak shaving site, (2) sewage digester gas as an alternate feedstock to LFG and (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling. Phase 2 will also study the modification of Acrion's process demonstration unit for the production of LNG and a market site for LNG production.

  18. New developments in LNG trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, Morten

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of international trade in liquefied natural gas. Factors and forces causing changes in the international LNG market are explored covering Japan and South East Asian markets, the rapidly growing Spanish and Italian markets, competition faced by LNG imports by pipeline gas in France and Belgium, the reopening of mothballed LNG receiving facilities in the US east coast, and markets with large LNG potential in India, China and South America. Developments in the price of LNG in Japan, Europe, and the US east coast are considered, and shipping issues, and future trends in LNG purchase arrangements and LNG pricing are discussed

  19. The impact of market changes on long-term take-or-pay export contracts for LNG and pipeline gas from Mena regions: lessons from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the contracting structures and prices of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas pipeline projects, pricing arrangements in Great Britain, the continental West European gas price adjustment formula, and pricing of LNG transport by ship. The price review introduced in Continental North West European contracts, gas liberalisation and price shocks in Great Britain, the demise of British Gas, and gas liberalisation in continental Europe are discussed. Gas suppliers and European market liberalisation are considered, and MENA (Middle East and North Africa) gas supply arrangements, European buyers, and future price adjustment methods are addressed. (uk)

  20. Long-term contracts for European gas supply - an empirical analysis of the changing nature of pipeline and LNG-contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Anne

    2005-01-01

    As the structure of the European natural gas market is evolving towards more competition and more diverse market structures than before, the nature of the long-term contracts for European natural gas supply is also undergoing change. Experience from other liberalization processes, such as in the U.S. or the UK, suggests that the importance of long-term contracts diminishes over time, but that they remain an important element of supply. In Europe long-term contracts are still considered as a firm basis for investment and financing of capital-intensive infrastructure with a high degree of asset and relationship-specificity. Literature on institutional economics also suggests that long-term contracts act as a device to overcome the ''hold-up'' problem of relationship-specific investments in infrastructure (Klein, Crawford, and Alchian, 1987; Williamson, 1975, 1985). On the other hand, Hartley and Brito (2002) show that more flexible markets also imply a lower degree of asset specificity, thus requiring less fixed contracts. This paper explores the changing nature of long-term contracts for European natural gas supply, with a particular focus on differences between contracts for pipeline gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Traditionally, Europe relied on very long-term contracts for pipeline gas (Russia, Norway, Algeria). More recently, increasing LNG supplies are contemplated as a more flexible source of natural gas: The international LNG market is becoming more flexible, LNG can be sourced from a variety of sellers, and the cost of LNG supplies and infrastructure is coming down rapidly (Jensen, 2004). Thus, the evaluation of investing in LNG infrastructure (and the so bought flexibility and possibility of arbitraging profits) may be higher than committing to fixed/predetermined flows of pipeline gas. We ask whether this is reflected in the observed contracts. The paper is based on standard contract theory (Bolton and Dewatripont, 2005). We apply a microeconomic

  1. Kitimat LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, I.; Boulton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal is a terminal development company owned by Galveston LNG, a privately owned Canadian energy development company. This presentation provided information on Kitimat LNG with particular reference to its terminal located in Bish Cove on the Douglas Channel in British Columbia. This LNG terminal is reported to be the only fully permitted regasification terminal on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The presentation addressed market fundamentals including several graphs, such as world natural gas proved reserves in 2006; LNG supplements to Canadian gas supplies; global LNG demand for 2005-2020; average annual United States LNG imports; and global LNG liquefaction projects. Other market fundamentals were described, including that Kitimat is the only other approved terminal aside from the Costa Azul terminal in Mexico; Kitimat is the only west coast LNG import terminal that connects to midwest and eastern North American markets through existing gas pipelines; LNG producers are looking for destination diversification; and markets and marketers are looking for supply diversification. The authors noted that by 2010, western Canadian gas demand will exceed Californian demand. Other topics that were discussed in the presentation included Canadian natural gas field receipts; unadjusted bitumen production outlook; oil sands gas demand; forward basis fundamentals; and the commercial drivers of the Kitimat LNG terminal. The presentation also discussed the pacific trail pipelines, a partnership between Galveston LNG and Pacific Northern Gas to develop the natural gas transmission line from Kitimat to Summit. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the benefits of Kitimat LNG terminal such as providing access to the largest natural gas markets in the world via major gas transmission lines with spare capacity. figs

  2. Kitimat LNG Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, R.

    2006-01-01

    Kitimat LNG terminal is the first fully permitted liquefied natural gas (LNG) on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The terminal was designed to have a small environmental footprint, and has the full support of communities and First Nations groups in the area. Regulatory approvals are now in place, and site construction is planned to start in 2007. This presentation provided details of the facility's gas production and liquefaction processes, shipping, and LNG import and regasification terminals. The site was selected due to its deepwater, all-season port and the fact that the Pacific Trail Pipelines provide access to major transmission lines. The terminal will be comprised of an offshore LNG tanker berth and unloading jetty, a construction and tug berth, 2 LNG storage tanks, a separation unit, and send-out pipelines for natural gas and gas liquids. The terminal was designed for maximum LNG receiving flexibility as it can handle a wide variety of gas specifications and will be able to receive the largest possible LNG tankers. Market interest in the terminal has been considerable as investors are increasingly convinced that LNG can provide long-term supply alternatives to the North American gas market. Once operational the terminal will attract supply from the Pacific basin and the Middle East. Western Canadian gas demand is projected to grow at nearly 6 per cent through 2015. It was concluded that marine safety is crucial to the successful operation of the terminal. Details of safety plans formed after consultation with various organizations were presented. refs., tabs., figs

  3. LNG - the challenge of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    LNG growth prospects - both in the Far East and Atlantic Basin - have never been better. Natural gas is responding strongly to the green momentum and to its clear competitive advantage in power generation. To meet growing demand, the major energy buyers are turning increasingly to large remote reserves of gas which often can only be delivered as LNG. But, the market will decide when and which LNG projects are developed - and the trigger will be price. LNG will compete head-on not only with low priced oil and coal but, in some markets, also with long-haul pipeline gas. This paper outlines regional demand and supply opportunities for LNG and then considers the challenges that the LNG industry must now tackle if it is to realistically expect a larger share of the world's energy market

  4. Power and LPG production with LNG import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    When used in power cogeneration, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is both energy efficient and can eliminate seawater or fuel gas consumption as well as the associated environmental impacts of conventional regasification processes. However, some liquefied natural gas (LNG) sources have heating values higher than current North American natural gas pipelines can allow for. LNG from these cannot be injected into gas pipelines without several heating control processing steps. This paper outlines two new technologies developed to address this issue. The first is a power cogeneration process using LNG as a heat sink. The second technology involves a fractionation process removing Liquid Propane Gas (LPG) components from imported LNG, thereby controlling heat value. Both technologies are applicable in grassroots installations as well as being suitable for retrofitting to existing LNG regasification for power generation and LPG production. It was concluded that power cogeneration with a mixed fluid power cycle recovered a significant portion of energy in LNG liquefaction plants. Additionally, it was also possible to fractionate high quality LPG from LNG at a low cost, with the residue being further re-condensed and re-utilized for power generation. It was also concluded that the LNG fractionation process would add flexibility to the LNG receiving terminals, allowing the import of lower quality LNG to North America, while also generating additional revenues from LPG production. 3 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  5. LNG versus pipelines: a case study applied to the actual unbalance in Northeastern natural gas market; GNL versus gasodutos: um estudo applicado ao atual desequilibrio do mercado nordestino de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechelo Neto, Carlos A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia; Sauer, Ildo L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Gas e Energia

    2005-07-01

    Against the backdrop of global oil industry trends and the specificity of the Brazilian energy sector, this study evaluates whether the option to develop a national market linked with a plan to export liquefied natural gas produced in Brazil is financially advantageous relative to the traditional pipeline alternative for the aim of satisfying the current natural gas deficit in the Northeast region. To this end, this dissertation analyses the economic conditions for Brazilian LNG in the international gas market, mainly for European and North-American gas markets. Employing a probabilistic analysis based on the Monte Carlo method and given the premises adopted and the amount of information available at the time of writing, the study concludes that, while the international LNG market has enjoyed vigorous growth in recent years, the option of using it as a strategy to develop local market is a less attractive investment choice compared with the pipeline alternative. (author)

  6. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirie, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  7. The LNG Industry - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    In 2010, global energy demand has recovered. Estimates for World Natural Gas consumption show a 7.3% increase compared with 2009 thanks to the economic rally and the cold winter conditions in Western countries. Due to the decline of indigenous productions in mature markets and to the development of new gas markets, international gas flows continued to expand, and total international gas trade increased by 10.9% compared with 2009. In this context, LNG flows recorded the largest growth with a 21% increase in 2010, the operational start-up of new liquefaction capacity in Qatar being the primary reason. By comparison, pipeline trade increased by 7%. This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2010, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2010, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - Ships delivered, 6 - Tanker distribution, 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Contracts in force in 2010, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2010, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  8. LNG; GNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 1 - 4 Avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Idir, N. [Commission de regulation de l' energie - CRE, 2 rue du Quatre-Septembre, 75084 Paris Cedex 02 (France); Hosanski, J.M. [Total, Dir. Gaz et Electricite, 2 place de la Coupole, La Defense 6, 92400 Courbevoie (France); Jonkman, H. [CEO, 4Gas, Max Euwelaan 21, 3062 MA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pelloux-Prayer, D. [Gaz de France, 75 - Paris (France); Wells, D. [Shell Global LNG (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The LNG industry has entered a new step of its development, faster and more complex. The time parameter, the huge investments and the uncertainties relative to the demand growth are some of the factors that control its evolution. How the emergence of 'international price' signals will influence this activity? What supply-demand status can be foreseen from now to 2015? What role LNG would be able to play in terms of modulation management? What are the impacts of environmental constraints on LNG infrastructures? These are the different points discussed during this workshop by the five participants, specialists of the LNG questions. (J.S.)

  9. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193...

  10. The conception of the LNG implementation in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarczynski, S.; Zola, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main issues concerning world LNG market, technical applications and the potential growth of the market have been described in the article. The conception of introducing LNG on Polish gas market assumes that a LNG terminal will be built on the Baltic Sea shore along with the infrastructure necessary to store and transmit gas to the national gas pipeline grid. (authors)

  11. LNG or not LNG?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the fact that Egypt now has excess to natural gas deposits in the Nile Basin and is keen to export, and that Turkey is keen to import gas from non-Russian sources, the solution of supplier meeting demand is fraught with political wrangling. Political unrest in the Middle East makes an overland pipeline unacceptable. Gas production companies, such as Italy's ENI and AMOCO from the USA are suggesting other routes for Egyptian gas to reach Turkey, such as a subsea pipeline or transfer by sea using tankers, after the fuels conversion to Liquefied Natural Gas. Both companies are linked closely with the exploitation of Nile Delta gas resources and the future is, as yet, unclear. (UK)

  12. Key issues considered at LNG 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years, deregulation of the gas markets throughout the world has changed the way LNG projects can be brought into realisation. Gone are the days when large consortia of buyers could aggregate demand into quantities that made an LNG project economic. Today's market is typified by buyers requesting greater flexibility in volumes, shorter contract terms and reduced exposure to take-or-pay clauses. This means that the onus is on the producer to aggregate volume to make a large project viable, and to find flexible supply options as demand increases. As a result, there is an increasing ability to source LNG from excess capacity around the world, as has been demonstrated with the extended shutdown of the Arun LNG plant in Indonesia. Although some flexibility exists for the supply of LNG, it is unlikely that a world market where LNG is freely traded will develop. LNG projects will still require long-term contracts to ensure project financing. Furthermore, the 'LNG world' will remain separated into two regions the Atlantic and Asia-Pacific basins with only small amounts of 'spot' trading occurring between them. This is primarily due to the increased shipping costs associated with the global movement of LNG, and thus the ability to compete with closer sources of LNG and pipeline gas. Australia's position and its challenges in the LNG market is analysed

  13. Distribution of gas from Canaport LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, W. [New Brunswick Dept. of Energy, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Construction of the Canaport Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project will begin in 2006. Public consultations are currently being held for the 145 km pipeline from Canaport to Bailleyville, Maine. It is expected that both the facility and the pipeline will be operational by 2008. This presentation provided details of the New Brunswick (NB) Department of Energy's (DOE) regulatory oversight of the Canaport Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project. The DOE is responsible for ensuring diversity and security of supply; economic efficiency; economic development opportunities and protection of the environment. The Canaport LNG facility will provide an additional 500 to 600 temporary jobs over a 2 to 3 year period, as well as 20 full-time jobs once the plant is operational. Tax revenues, access roads and the construction of a pipeline to Bailleyville, Maine will also have positive impacts on the NB economy. The facility will provide a secure long term supply of natural gas for the region. In order to support its energy goals, the DOE has proposed amendments to provide for the distribution of gas from the plant to NB customers. A proposed LNG franchise to allow for direct distribution of gas from the LNG plant to customers was discussed. Issues concerning the Gas Distribution Act and the New Pipeline Act of 2006 were also examined. It was concluded that public consultations are currently being held for the 145 km pipeline, and that both the facility and the pipeline are expected to be operational by 2008. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Distribution of gas from Canaport LNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.

    2006-01-01

    Construction of the Canaport Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project will begin in 2006. Public consultations are currently being held for the 145 km pipeline from Canaport to Bailleyville, Maine. It is expected that both the facility and the pipeline will be operational by 2008. This presentation provided details of the New Brunswick (NB) Department of Energy's (DOE) regulatory oversight of the Canaport Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project. The DOE is responsible for ensuring diversity and security of supply; economic efficiency; economic development opportunities and protection of the environment. The Canaport LNG facility will provide an additional 500 to 600 temporary jobs over a 2 to 3 year period, as well as 20 full-time jobs once the plant is operational. Tax revenues, access roads and the construction of a pipeline to Bailleyville, Maine will also have positive impacts on the NB economy. The facility will provide a secure long term supply of natural gas for the region. In order to support its energy goals, the DOE has proposed amendments to provide for the distribution of gas from the plant to NB customers. A proposed LNG franchise to allow for direct distribution of gas from the LNG plant to customers was discussed. Issues concerning the Gas Distribution Act and the New Pipeline Act of 2006 were also examined. It was concluded that public consultations are currently being held for the 145 km pipeline, and that both the facility and the pipeline are expected to be operational by 2008. refs., tabs., figs

  15. LNG market: future clouded by uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, J

    1979-12-01

    The emergence of a US national energy policy playing down the role of LNG, along with a growing trend toward unfavorable production and pricing policies by LNG-exporting nations, will limit international LNG trade to about 9-10.5 billion CF/day by 1985, instead of the 13.4-15 billion CF predicted previously. In the US, LNG now stands fifth in priority as a baseload supply source, following conventional Lower 48 supplies, Alaskan pipeline gas, imports from Canada and Mexico, and domestic synthetic gas. Despite this federal policy and the adjoined decision to apply incremental pricing to future LNG imports, two new projects will soon come on-stream in the US: one to receive 450 million CF/day of Algerian gas at Lake Charles, La., and another to receive 539 million CF/day from Indonesia and 431 million CF/day from Alaska at a terminal in California.

  16. Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG during saturated flow boiling in a horizontal tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

    2013-12-01

    Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG (liquefied natural gas) have been measured in a horizontal smooth tube with an inner diameter of 8 mm. The experiments were conducted at inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa with a heat flux of 8-36 kW m-2, and mass flux of 49.2-201.8 kg m-2 s-1. The effect of vapor quality, inlet pressure, heat flux and mass flux on the heat transfer characteristic are discussed. The comparisons of the experimental data with the predicted value by existing correlations are analyzed. Zou et al. (2010) correlation shows the best accuracy with 24.1% RMS deviation among them. Moreover four frictional pressure drop methods are also chosen to compare with the experimental database.

  17. The Japanese approach to financing LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Wataru

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese approach approach to financing LNG project has been what could be called a combined purchase and finance system which has been arranged mainly at the initiative of japan's Sogo Shosh (general trading companies) with the support of japanese governmental financial agencies and a purchase commitment from japanese utilities. In the QATARGAS project, despite it being the first greenfield LNG project in decade since North West Shelf Australia LNG project, financing for the LNG plant phase has been successfully arranged through Japanese financing. The structuring of the financial facilities for the QATARGAS project seems to have lessons for future development of the next generation of greenfield LNG projects. Discharge of the parties' liability, proper sharing of the risk burden and reconfirmation of the spirit of mutual understanding and trust among the parties concerned are key factors for the success of any new LNG project in the future. (Author)

  18. The LNG Industry - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    noteworthy that Europe makes up more than three quarters of these reloads, nearly all attributable to Spain and Belgium, two of the countries in Europe with sufficient firm destination supplies to sustain regular reloads. The hotly debated US LNG exports on the other hand are to be viewed as a far more important trend with profound commercial consequences, assuming that last year's pioneering FID by Cheniere will have several followers in 2013. At the time of this writing however none of the twenty or so projects somewhere 'in the pipeline' in the USA and Canada have reached this final stage yet. The commercial pricing principles will be groundbreaking if the Cheniere project is followed by other projects, eagerly awaited by many Asian importers, hoping that Henry Hub-based pricing can bring relief from crude price indexing in the future. The outlook for LNG demand remains strong, particularly in Asia and in the new markets of Latin America and the Middle East. Unless there is a rapid and sizeable restart of nuclear capacity in Japan- generally not regarded as likely- LNG markets are expected to remain tight until 2015, when a wave of new production is to come on-stream. Over the next two to three years as little as 20 million tons p.a. of new capacity ( a mere 8% addition ) are likely to start up and redirections from the Atlantic Basin of flexible cargoes would continue to balance demand In Asia. In the second part of the decade and beyond, a wave of new projects, many already under construction in Australia, as well as possibly in North America and from the promising East African discoveries should satisfy market demand growth and sustain the confidence in LNG thriving industry

  19. National Pipeline Mapping System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NPMS Public Map Viewer allows the general public to view maps of transmission pipelines, LNG plants, and breakout tanks in one selected county. Distribution and...

  20. The LNG Industry - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    destination and pricing. LNG players' quest for flexible volumes and volume risk mitigation has contributed to a multiplication of portfolio deals last year, mainly for short to medium-term durations. In parallel, the addition of flexible quantities with a lengthening of trade voyages and the entry of new players results in the need for an expansion of the LNG fleet - with 77 new orders placed in 2014 - compared to a total fleet of 421 at year-end. Meanwhile, the Ukraine-Russia crisis and the start-up of six new re-gasification terminals worldwide reminds us that LNG is an effective tool to ensure security of supply. In this regard FSRUs are continuing to expand worldwide, with 20 units on the water at the end of 2014 and several more to come in 2015. 3 FIDs have been taken in 2014, namely Cameron and Freeport in the USA and Rotan FLNG in Malaysia, for a combined capacity of about 25 mtpa. Although not formally announced at the time of this writing, Cove Point is reported to have started construction work on site. Prospects for LNG demand throughout the world remain strong, and the industry is waiting for the wave of new exports from the United States and from Australia, who will likely top the producers' list by 2020. Noteworthy is also that the dominant market share and role of Middle East producers will diminish. The structure of demand should also evolve, mainly driven by the emergence of new importers from fast growing economies in South East Asia and in India. China's appetite for gas will significantly influence the global LNG market, although several uncertainties remain concerning the price elasticity of demand, the policy changes promoting cleaner fuels and the competition of large gas pipeline projects. Finally, stricter legislation on shipping emissions starting in January 2015 in the Atlantic basin will help stimulating the development of small scale LNG, offering new opportunities of growth as well as new challenges

  1. Panel discussion: LNG's future in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Tadahiko

    1992-01-01

    The panelists convened to: (1) identify and evaluate the role which LNG is likely to play in the changing energy scene; (2) to examine the future supply and demand structure of the LNG trade; (3) to discover the key obstacles to continued growth in LNG trade; and (4) to find solutions to these problems. The panelists identified and outlined growing opportunities for LNG utilization in Asia during the next two decades. They shared the opinion that the structure of the supply and demand balance for LNG in Asia will shift during the next decade, providing considerable room for new projects. The key obstacles to continued growth in LNG trade are the lack of: long-distance transmission networks and an efficient competitive market pricing mechanism for LNG in the Asian region. The major importers in the region are keen on developing a range of new long-term supply alternatives, not simply within the Asia-Pacific region, but also from a wider perspective. These alternatives include: financing the expansion of production from existing facilities, development of new fields, and construction of long-distance pipelines

  2. LNG as vehicle fuel and the problem of supply: The Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Polonara, F.

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector represents a major item on the global balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Natural gas is considered the alternative fuel that, in the short-medium term, can best substitute conventional fuels in order to reduce their environmental impact, because it is readily available at a competitive price, using technologies already in widespread use. It can be used as compressed gas (CNG) or in the liquid phase (LNG), being the former more suitable for light vehicles, while the latter for heavy duty vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to outline the potential of LNG as vehicle fuel, showing positive and negative aspects related to its introduction and comparing the different supply options with reference to the Italian scenario, paying particular attention to the possibility of on site liquefaction. The analysis has highlighted that purchasing LNG at the regasification terminal is convenient up to a terminal distance of 2000 km from the refuelling station. The liquefaction on site, instead, asks for liquefaction efficiency higher than 70% and low natural gas price and, as liquefaction technology, the let-down plants at the pressure reduction points along the pipeline are the best option to compete with direct supply at the terminal. -- Highlights: •LNG potential as vehicles fuel is analysed. •A SWOT analysis for LNG introduction in the Italian market is presented. •An economic comparison of different supply options is performed. •Possible micro-scale liquefaction technologies are evaluated

  3. 77 FR 61826 - Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities that operators should immediately and directly notify the Public.... Background Federal regulations for gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities...

  4. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  5. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  6. Phased-array technology for automatic pipeline inspection; Phased Array-Technologie fuer automatisierte Pipeline-Inspektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, J.; Hugger, A.; Franz, J. [GE Energy, PII Pipetronix GmbH, Stutensee (Germany); Falter, S.; Oberdoerfer, Y. [GE Inspection Technology Systems, Huerth (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Pipeline inspection pigs with individual test probes are limited in their function due to the fixed arrangement of sensors on the support. In contrast, the phased-array technology enables multitasking of tests, e.g. stress and corrosion testing which formerly required two different test runs with different sensor set-ups. The angles of inclination can be adapted to the test medium, and virtual sensors can be matched in size and overlap so that, e.g., small pittings will be detected. The sensor set-up presented here enables higher test speed and improved flaw detection. The contribution describes the measuring principle, the inspection pig (UltraScan DUO), and some results of prototype measurements. [German] Pruefmolche fuer die Pipelinepruefung mit Einzelpruefkoepfen sind in ihrem Funktionsumfang aufgrund der festliegenden Anordnung der Sensoren im Sensortraeger eingeschraenkt. Die Phased-Array-Technologie gestattet die simultane Durchfuehrung verschiedener Pruefaufgaben, wie beispielsweise der Rissund der Korrosionspruefung, die vorher zwei Prueflaeufe mit verschiedenen Sensortraegern erforderten. Die Einfallswinkel koennen auf das jeweilige Medium angepasst werden, und es besteht die Moeglichkeit, virtuelle Sensoren bezueglich ihrer Groesse und der gegenseitigen Ueberlappung so anzupassen, dass beispielsweise kleine Pittings gefunden werden koennen. Die ausgefuehrte Form gestattet hoehere Pruefgeschwindigkeit und verbesserte Fehlerauffindung. In diesem Artikel werden das Messprinzip und der Inspektionsmolch (UltraScan DUO) beschrieben sowie einige Prototyp-Messergebnisse vorgestellt.

  7. World LNG outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    1999-01-01

    CEDIGAZ proposes this new survey about LNG in view of the main changes which have occurred on this market during the past few years. Several projects under construction or planned three years ago are now commissioned (Qatargas) or on the verge of starting to export this year (Trinidad LNG, RasGas, Nigeria LNG) or next years (Oman LNG). The Asian crisis, which had major impacts on both short-term demand in Asia and LNG prices, has brought about new uncertainties to the long-term prospects. At the same time, it now seems more and more certain that firstly India and then China will import LNG in the next decade. It remains to be seen at what level and when this will occur. LNG growth in Europe has now become a reality, and new potential markets, for example in South America (Brazil), are also being considered as real opportunities in the near future. Considering these 'new' trends, an updated study about LNG appeared necessary. This survey 'World LNG Outlook - 99 Edition' is organised as the previous one: a historical record since 1964 (Chapter 1) followed by a description of the infrastructures existing in 1998 (Chapter 2). The analysis continues with world trade prospects by the year 2010 (Chapters 3 to 5). Chapter 6 describes the future LNG chain and the last Chapter (7) focuses on economic matters (LNG price trends, cost reductions). The study 'World LNG Outlook - 99 Edition' offers hence a comprehensive panorama of this sector from a short and long-term point of view. (author)

  8. Potential local use of natural gas or LNG from Hammerfest LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeraas, Bengt Olav

    1999-01-01

    A base-load LNG plant is planned to be built in Norway, near by the northern most city in the world, Hammerfest. Natural gas from the Snoehvit-field will be transported by pipeline to Melkoeya, a few kilometres from Hammerfest, where the liquefaction plant is planned to be located. SINTEF Energy Research has performed a study in co-operation with the local authorities on potentials for the use of LNG and natural gas locally in the Hammerfest region. Combined power and heat production by lean-burn gas engine, low temperature freezing of high quality products by use of LNG cold and drying of fish products are some of the identified fields for the use of natural gas and LNG. The establishment of an industrial area, with fish processing industry and a central freezing storage near by Hammerfest has been suggested. The gas may be transported locally either as LNG, by tank lorry or container, or as gas in a small pipeline, depending on distance, amount and the actual use. (author)

  9. Siting considerations for LNG import terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meratla, Z. [CDS Research Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Site selection criteria for liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and terminals were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. Onshore and offshore sites were discussed. Typical public opposition issues were examined, including public concerns over safety and the environment. Low key consultation processes with local communities was advised to assess levels of interest and opposition during initial stages. It was suggested that desirable LNG sites should not be visible from local communities. Remoteness from built-up areas was advised, as well as ensuring that sites meet the requirements of future expansion and large LNG carriers. Issues concerning waterway drawbacks and exclusion zones were examined, as well as the relative merits of onshore and offshore terminals. It was noted that onshore terminals are accessible to personnel as well as outside emergency response resources, and are less susceptible to weather related downtime. In addition, onshore spills are generally impounded. Offshore LNG import terminals are visible from shorelines and susceptible to stray marine traffic and abnormal events. Siting considerations for offshore facilities include sensitive areas; shipping channels; foundation issues; shipping lane access; and offshore pipeline lengths. Issues concerning loading arms, remote flare systems, integral ballast and process equipment for offshore facilities were discussed. Membrane type storage systems and tank construction details were presented as well as details of self supporting storage systems. A comparison of gravity-based structures and floating facilities was presented. It was concluded that floating LNG facilities have well developed security procedures, passive protection and automatic intruder detection alarms. tabs., figs.

  10. LNG in eastern Canada and New England : market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the gas markets in North America and discussed the rationale for developing the liquefied natural gas (LNG) market with reference to competitive issues, challenges and global dimensions. LNG is expected to play a greater role in North American gas supplies and markets due to the decrease in conventional natural gas production in North America and the increase in demand for energy. It is expected that the overall share of the LNG gas market will increase in 2002. The construction of at least 15 new LNG receiving terminals has been proposed for location in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, with most being located along the Gulf Coast. A novel offshore LNG receiving concept involving offshore gas pipelines and on-board-ship regasification was also discussed. As trading of LNG increases in the Atlantic, markets in eastern United States and Canada will benefit from improved gas supplies. Pricing patterns are also expected to change. It was noted that the increased energy demand will enable Arctic gas supplies to enter markets. As such, Arctic gas pipelines will enter service in the next decade and Alberta's importance as a hub will grow. It was also noted that Arctic gas will not have a significant influence on reducing LNG import volumes. figs

  11. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) : production, storage and handling. 7. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, S; Jaron, K; Adragna, M; Coyle, S; Foley, C; Hawryn, S; Martin, A; McConnell, J [eds.

    2003-07-01

    This Canadian Standard on the production, storage and handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was prepared by the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas under the jurisdiction of the Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials. It establishes the necessary requirements for the design, installation and safe operation of LNG facilities. The Standard applies to the design, location, construction, operation and maintenance of facilities at any location of the liquefaction of natural gas and for the storage, vaporization, transfer, handling and truck transport of LNG. The training of personnel involved is also included as well as containers for LNG storage, including insulated vacuum systems. It includes non-mandatory guidelines for small LNG facilities but does not apply to the transportation of refrigerants, LNG by rail, marine vessel or pipeline. This latest edition contains changes in working of seismic design requirements and minor editorial changes to several clauses to bring the Standard closer to the US National Fire Protection Association's Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas Standard while maintaining Canadian regulatory requirements. The document is divided into 12 sections including: general requirements; plant site provisions; process equipment; stationary LNG storage containers; vaporization facilities; piping system and components; instrumentation and electrical services; transfer of LNG and refrigerants; fire protection, safety and security; and, operating, maintenance and personnel training. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2003. 6 tabs., 6 figs., 3 apps.

  12. Retail LNG handbook. Retail LNG and The Role of LNG Import Terminals. Report by the GIIGNL Technical Study Group on the possible role of LNG import terminals within the emerging Retail LNG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industries are changing. The influx of supply, low prices, and environmental benefits of natural gas are driving consumers to convert from other fossil fuels. Natural gas consumers on pipeline systems have the ability to benefit, but for those not connected, LNG may be the only opportunity to convert to natural gas. As this market evolves, a unique opportunity may emerge for some existing participants in the LNG market and could lead to a shift in business focus, potentially adding to or even transforming the traditional role of LNG Import Terminals. As surmised by the GIIGNL's Technical Study Group (TSG) at the outset of their endeavor, virtually every member company had historical experience with, was in the midst of expanding its services to include, or was actively engaged in the study of, Retail LNG. The market drivers, value propositions, trends and future prospects for Retail LNG that have widely been publicized were generally confirmed although in an overall more conservative outlook. As a representative body of experienced, long term LNG Import Terminal operators, GIIGNL was uniquely qualified to stress in its Handbook the importance of managing the inherent risk associated with LNG, the application of suitable codes and standards and the use of proper equipment. The study of the aspects of LNG supply and use including safety, security, staffing, equipment siting, and operations is hoped to provide an illustrative framework form which the industry can jointly move towards best practices. While Retail LNG is considered by many to be 'new' there is substantial historical experience with all aspects of the market. LNG Import Terminals, including the experience and competence of their staffing, can play a key role in not only the incubation and growth of the Retail market, but the molding and shaping of regulatory framework, applicable codes and standards and operational best practices. GIIGNL

  13. The LNG Industry - 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    First estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2005 show a rise of about 1.5 % over 2004. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for almost 21 % of the total. This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2005, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2005 by the importing countries from the exporting countries, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - 18 Ships delivered in 2005, 6 - Tanker distribution, 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Long-term and medium-term contracts in force in 2005, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2005 by the importing countries from the exporting countries, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  14. The LNG Industry - 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    First estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2004 show a rise of about 2 % over 2003. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for 21.9 % of the total. This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2004, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2005 by the importing countries from the exporting countries, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - 21 Ships delivered in 2004, 6 - Tanker distribution (at the end of 2004), 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Long-term and medium-term contracts in force in 2004, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2004 by the importing countries from the exporting countries, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  15. The LNG Industry - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    Estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2007 show a rise of about 1.6% over 2006. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for almost 24% of the total. This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2007, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2007, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - 35 Ships delivered 10 2007, 6 - Tanker distribution, 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Long-term and medium-term contracts in force in 2007, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2007 by the importing countries from the exporting countries, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  16. The LNG Industry - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    Estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2008 show a rise of about 3.4% over 2007. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for 27% of the total (excluding trade within the Former Soviet Union and United Arab Emirates). This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2008, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2008, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - Ships delivered, 6 - Tanker distribution, 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Contracts in force in 2008, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2008, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  17. The LNG Industry - 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    Estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2009 show a decrease of about 3.9% over 2008. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for 30% of the total (excluding trade within the Former Soviet Union and United Arab Emirates). This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2009, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2009, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - Ships delivered, 6 - Tanker distribution, 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Contracts in force in 2009, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2009, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  18. Pac-Rim LNG project : final project report specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    PAC-RIM LNG Inc. has submitted a proposal to the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office, to develop a liquefied natural gas project which would purchase pipeline quality natural gas from sources in northeast British Columbia and Alberta and transport it via a dedicated pipeline system to a LNG processing plant on tidewater on the Pacific coast. The project would include storage and processing facilities and a marine loading terminal. This document sets out the final project report specifications prepared by the Project Committee on the basis of input received from the public, First Nations and federal, provincial and local governments

  19. Small Scale LNG in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The conference has 19 presentation that addresses topics within the economic and marketing aspects, distribution and transmission, size, operation and design of LNG production units, transportation aspects, technology assessment, storage of LNG and risk and safety aspects of the use and production of LNG. Some LNG application cases are also presented

  20. Small Scale LNG in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The conference has 19 presentation that addresses topics within the economic and marketing aspects, distribution and transmission, size, operation and design of LNG production units, transportation aspects, technology assessment, storage of LNG and risk and safety aspects of the use and production of LNG. Some LNG application cases are also presented.

  1. Reduction of LNG FOB cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1997-01-01

    To achieve a competitive LNG price for the consumers against other energy sources, reduction of LNG FOB (Free on Board) cost i.e. LNG cost at LNG ship flange, will be the key item. It is necessary to perform a many optimization studies (or value engineering) for each stage of the LNG project. These stages are: Feasibility study; Conceptual design - FEED (Front End Engineering and Design); EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction); Operation and maintenance. Since the LNG plant forms one part of the LNG chain, starting from gas production to LNG receiving, and requires several billion US dollar of investment, the consequences of a plant shut down on the LNG chain are clear, it is, therefore, important to get high availability which will also contribute the reduction of LNG FOB cost. (au) 25 refs

  2. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ; Włodzimierz KAMIŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the out...

  3. Guidance on Biogas used to Produce CNG or LNG under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides EPA’s interpretation of biogas quality and RIN generation requirements that apply to renewable fuel production pathways involving the injection into a commercial pipeline of biogas for use in producing renewable CNG or renewable LNG.

  4. LNG : its potential impact on North American markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.

    2003-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is expected to play a greater role in North American gas supplies and markets due to the decrease in conventional natural gas production in North America accompanied by an increase in demand for energy. It is expected that the overall share of the LNG gas market will rise from about 1.4 per cent in 2002 to more than 5 per cent by 2020, and potentially up to 15 per cent by that year. The construction of at least 15 new LNG receiving terminals has been proposed for location in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. In addition, El Paso has proposed a novel offshore LNG receiving concept involving offshore gas pipelines and on-board-ship regasification. As trading of LNG increases in the Atlantic, markets in eastern United States and Canada will benefit from improved gas supplies, but pricing patterns are expected to change. Basis differentials along the Atlantic coastline will probably diminish, potentially reducing the value of Sable Island gas and the pipeline system that runs north to south along the eastern coast of North America. It was noted that Middle Eastern suppliers of LNG will play an important potential role in North American markets. 19 figs

  5. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  6. The Malaysia LNG experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammed, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the nature of the LNG trade, the essential components and characteristics of an LNG project, and relates the Malaysia LNG experience to project realization with some emphasis on the financial aspects of the project. Twelve offshore lending institutions were involved in the total project loop providing U.S. dollar equivalents of 4.0 billions with interest rates ranging from 5% to 8%. The total project was completed on schedule and within budget except for the ships which got caught in the political development of the Malaysian petroleum industry at that time

  7. LNG, the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the many obstacles producers must overcome, particularly to satisfy demand at the right time, LNG remains the pre-eminent option for ensuring the expansion of the world's gas industry. (author)

  8. Trading in LNG and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the market for natural gas from a number of viewpoints, starting with the role of natural gas in the global energy market where its 20% share of primary energy demand has been captured in the space of almost as many years. In discussion regional energy markets we cover the disparities between supply and demand which give rise to trade by pipeline, and by sea in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Both have in fact increased steadily in recent years, yet even in 1991, only 12-15% of total gas production was traded across international boundaries, whereas for oil it was closer to 40%. For the moment pipeline trade remains heavily concentrated in Europe and North America, and it is in the LNG sector where the spread of projects, both existing and planned, is more global in nature. We examine the development of LNG trades and the implications for shipping. Finally, we look at transportation costs, which are likely to be an important component in the viability of many of the natural gas export schemes now under review. There is good reason to be ''bullish'' about parts of the natural gas industry but this Report suggests that there are areas of concern which could impinge on the development of the market in the 1990s. (author)

  9. 78 FR 6402 - Pipeline Safety: Accident and Incident Notification Time Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No.... SUMMARY: Owners and operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline systems and liquefied natural gas (LNG... operators of gas and hazardous liquids pipeline systems and LNG facilities that, ``at the earliest...

  10. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the outside one, have been defined. General theses for LNG terminal safety have been formulated.

  11. LNG projects - nationally and internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graff, Oscar Fr.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation discusses various aspects of LNG projects nationally and internationally. The emphasis is on the future development of the natural gas markets, the competitiveness and economic requirements of the LNG production and transportation systems and the demands LNG projects will have to competence, technology, products and management

  12. Challenges of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers in 21" Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zanne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is relatively cheap, environmentally friendlyand energetically efficient fossil fuel that is gaining in attractivenessdaily as it can be used in many sectors. As not all consumerscan be reached by pipelines the technique of transp01tingnatural gas in the liquefied form has been developed at the beginningof 20th century but it was only in 1959 that the firstoverseas transport of liquefied natural gas ( LN G occurred. Inthe fifty years of operation LNG shipping has shown immaculatesafety records. LNG tankers can be described only in superlatives;they are without any doubt the most sophisticated and·expensive ships that sail around the globe, they demand specialattention when navigating to or out of harbours and need to bemanned with the most educated and experienced crew. LNGmarket is expanding and changing; demand is surpassing theproductivity, new importing and exporting countries appear,LNG fleet is growing in capacity and number at high pace, exploitationcontracts for the ships are being modified giving theopportunity for new companies to enter( . .. . The paper givesan overview on liquefied natural gas market and the historic developmentof LNG shipping. It focuses on the recent boom inLNG shipping and emphasises questions concerning the safety,crewing and exploitation of the LNG tankers in the future.

  13. Going global: LNG could open up gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, D.

    2004-01-01

    The probability of liquefied natural gas becoming a major source of energy in North America is discussed. Although the safety of the technology of transporting LNG was proven more than 40 years ago, there are considerable hurdles to be overcome when it comes to establishing LNG terminals. Industry insiders contend that the obstacles to finding suitable sites are primarily NIMBY (not-in-my-backyard) or BANANA (build-absolutely-nothing-anywhere-near-anyone) issues that will be overcome in time with better public information as to what the real hazards are, but the time is not yet ripe for any serious LNG development. Proposed LNG projects in Malaysia, Nigeria, Angola are reviewed, in addition to four projects in the United States, one in the Gulf of Mexico, and three along the American east coast. A Canadian project at Bear Head near Point Tupper, Nova Scotia, which has support from the business community, government and industry, and would provide the shortest distance to eastern North American markets for Atlantic basin shippers is also reviewed. LNG technological and transportation issues apart, there is also direct competition from the long-proposed Alaska pipeline which, if and when built, will provide long-term steady supply of gas for the U. S. market. Alaskan natural gas is clearly the preferred alternative to LNG at the present time

  14. Online slug detection in multi-phase transportation pipelines using electrical tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Mai, Christian; Hansen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    in the pipelines is a highly investigated topic. To eliminate the slug in an online manner real-time slug detection methods are often required. Traditionally topside pressure transmitters upstream a 3-phase separator have been used as the controlled variable. In this paper Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT...

  15. Online Slug Detection in Multi-phase Transportation Pipelines Using Electrical Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Mai, Christian; Hansen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    in the pipelines is a highly investigated topic. To eliminate the slug in an online manner real-time slug detection methods are often required. Traditionally topside pressure transmitters upstream a 3-phase separator have been used as the controlled variable. In this paper Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT...

  16. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  18. LNG - emergency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is pioneering within the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO is going to operate two flexible LNG terminals, located in Ceara and Rio de Janeiro. In accordance with the Corporate Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Directive - Training, Education and Awareness, PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO has prepared an action plan with the objective of ensuring the operational safety of the undertaking. Among other actions a training program for the emergency control of LNG will be inserted into the timetable. The above mentioned training program was held over a period of 20 hours, and was divided between theory and practice. In the theoretical part, the characteristics of the product, the history of accidents and the emergency response procedures were covered. In the practical part, 3000 gallons of LNG were utilized where the behavior of the product could be confirmed following a confined leak, thereby verifying the efficacy of the emergency control resources. The teaching process of the course was developed in the company through the preparation of specific procedures, emergency plans and the formation of internal instructors. (author)

  19. The LNG Industry - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    In 2013 the LNG markets remained extremely tight due to the demand pull from nuclear closures in Japan and South Korea and the difficulties to ramp-up production of new facilities in Angola and Algeria, bringing LNG price levels in the Far East to record highs in the first quarter. In addition to Cheniere's Sabine Pass, three new liquefaction projects received full approvals in the U.S.A. last year, confirming the country's path to become the world's third largest LNG exporter by the end of the decade. Cameron joined their ranks in early 2014 so that at the time of this writing, a total 62.5 Mt/y of capacity have been approved to export to non-FTA countries by the Department of Energy, already impacting the LNG industry, if not in physical volume then in contracting strategy. 2013 could be considered a transition year. LNG traded volumes as a whole remained at the same level as in 2012, but new trade patterns seem to emerge. The past year may have seen a slowdown in the number of FIDs, counting only one greenfield (Yamal LNG) and two expansion projects, but not in capacity increase with a respectable 29 Mt/y committed in total. Demand remained strong in Asia, mainly in China and South Korea. In Japan, imports continued to increase, although more moderately in a response to high prices and the yen devaluation, shifting the energy mix towards other sources of energy. Demand also increased in South America, strongly related to weather factors. Europe remained the swing provider to the world's LNG market. In a context of depressed local demand and with the utilization rate of the re-gasification terminals in their region at a historical low, European players continued with innovative transactions in search for business (such as re-loadings, two-port loadings, ship-to-ship transfers) while developing new markets for LNG as a transportation fuel. Three new countries joined the ranks of LNG importers in 2013: Israel, Malaysia, and Singapore. Total

  20. Novel design of LNG (liquefied natural gas) reliquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, S., E-mail: s.baek@kaist.ac.kr [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, G.; Lee, C. [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, S., E-mail: skjeong@kaist.ac.kr [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, D. [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ship/Plant System R and D Team, Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., 1, Ajoo, Koje, Kyungnam 656-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} We performed experiments with LN2 to mock up the new LNG reliquefaction process. {yields} Subcooled liquid goes to heat exchanger, heater, and phase separator. {yields} Reliquefaction occurs when vapor enters heat exchanger and verified by experiments. {yields} Reliquefaction ratio increases when subcooling degree or system pressure increases. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of novel LNG reliquefaction process where the cold exergy of subcooled LNG is utilized to recondense the vaporized light component of LNG after it is separated from the heavier component in a phase separator. The regeneration of cold exergy is especially effective as well as important in thermodynamic sense when a cryogenic process is involved. To verify the proposed idea, we performed an experimental study by facilitating liquid nitrogen apparatus to mock up the LNG reliquefaction process. Subcooled liquid nitrogen is produced for a commercial transportation container with a house-made atmospheric liquid nitrogen heat exchanger and then, having subooled degree of up to 19 K, it simulates the behavior of subcooled LNG in the lab-scale reliquefaction experiment. Recondensation of the vaporized gas is possible by using the cold exergy of subcooled liquid in a properly fabricated heat exchanger. Effect of heat exchanger performance factor and degree of subcooling on recondensation portion has been discussed in this paper. It is concluded that utilizing pressurized subcooled liquid that is obtained by liquid pump can surely reduce the pumping power of the vaporized natural gas and save the overall energy expenditure in LNG reliquefaction process.

  1. Novel design of LNG (liquefied natural gas) reliquefaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S.; Hwang, G.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.; Choi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We performed experiments with LN2 to mock up the new LNG reliquefaction process. → Subcooled liquid goes to heat exchanger, heater, and phase separator. → Reliquefaction occurs when vapor enters heat exchanger and verified by experiments. → Reliquefaction ratio increases when subcooling degree or system pressure increases. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of novel LNG reliquefaction process where the cold exergy of subcooled LNG is utilized to recondense the vaporized light component of LNG after it is separated from the heavier component in a phase separator. The regeneration of cold exergy is especially effective as well as important in thermodynamic sense when a cryogenic process is involved. To verify the proposed idea, we performed an experimental study by facilitating liquid nitrogen apparatus to mock up the LNG reliquefaction process. Subcooled liquid nitrogen is produced for a commercial transportation container with a house-made atmospheric liquid nitrogen heat exchanger and then, having subooled degree of up to 19 K, it simulates the behavior of subcooled LNG in the lab-scale reliquefaction experiment. Recondensation of the vaporized gas is possible by using the cold exergy of subcooled liquid in a properly fabricated heat exchanger. Effect of heat exchanger performance factor and degree of subcooling on recondensation portion has been discussed in this paper. It is concluded that utilizing pressurized subcooled liquid that is obtained by liquid pump can surely reduce the pumping power of the vaporized natural gas and save the overall energy expenditure in LNG reliquefaction process.

  2. Modeling the Phase Composition of Gas Condensate in Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, S. M.; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shabarov, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    Gas condensate fields demonstrate a number of thermodynamic characteristics to be considered when they are developed, as well as when gas condensate is transported and processed. A complicated phase behavior of the gas condensate system, as well as the dependence of the extracted raw materials on the phase state of the deposit other conditions being equal, is a key aspect. Therefore, when designing gas condensate lines the crucial task is to select the most appropriate methods of calculating thermophysical properties and phase equilibrium of the transported gas condensate. The paper describes a physical-mathematical model of a gas-liquid flow in the gas condensate line. It was developed based on balance equations of conservation of mass, impulse and energy of the transported medium within the framework of a quasi-1D approach. Constitutive relationships are given separately, and practical recommendations on how to apply the research results are provided as well.

  3. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  4. Pigging analysis for gas-liquid two phase flow in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, K.; Suzukawa, Y.; Furukawa, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new method to analyze transient phenomena caused by pigging in gas-liquid two-phase flow is developed. During pigging, a pipeline is divided into three sections by two moving boundaries, namely the pig and the leading edge of the liquid slug in front of the pig. The basic equations are mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. The boundary conditions at the moving boundaries are determined from the mass conservation across the boundaries, etc. A finite difference method is used to solve the equations numerically. The method described above is also capable of analyzing transient two-phase flow caused by pressure and flow rate changes. Thus the over-all analysis of transient two-phase flow in pipelines becomes possible. A series of air-water two-phase flow pigging experiments was conducted using 105.3 mm diameter and 1436.5 m long test pipeline. The agreement between the measured and the calculated results is very good

  5. LNG in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Mike; White, Nick; Le Fevre, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the content of a 402 p. study published by CEDIGAZ, the International Center for Natural Gas Information. According to this study, LNG as a fuel will capture a significant market share in the transport sector by 2035. The greatest potential is seen in road transport, were annual demand is projected to reach 96 million tons per year (mtpa) in CEDIGAZ' base scenario while demand in the marine sector could grow to an estimated 77 mtpa. The rail sector could add another 6 mtpa to global demand. However, the development of LNG as a transport fuel faces a number of challenges, and will have to go hand in hand with the development of fueling infrastructure

  6. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Phase II Final Report for January 25, 1999 - April 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W. R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L. A.

    2000-10-20

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery.

  7. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Posavec; Katarina Simon; Matija Malnar

    2010-01-01

    Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 L...

  8. The role of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, A.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role that Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) might play in the future EU gas market. LNG imports are not likely to have a place in the Netherlands soon, but they could make an important contribution to the volume and diversity of Europe's gas supplies. An important characteristic of LNG is its inherently high costs, throughout the whole chain, from the wellhead to the market. These costs are considerably higher than the costs of bringing oil to the market. Cost considerations, in combination with the rigidity of the gas market, have led to the use of long-term contracts as a basis for the business, as is the case for the long haul pipeline gas business. Costs have come down considerably and further cost reductions are 'in the pipeline'. While this does not alter the fundamentals of the business it has nonetheless helped to extend the reach of LNG. LNG from the Middle East to Europe has now become economically feasible. The high gas prices of recent years have further fuelled the expansion of the LNG business. Supported by a rapidly growing global economy at the turn of this century, many prospects are under development. The positive economic outlook has seen more speculative positioning in every segment of the LNG chain, while more vertical integration has been industry's response to market liberalisation. The more recent slowdown of the market economies has created a surplus of LNG, which is finding its way onto the markets through short-term and spot transactions. The short-term business will grow over the next few years as more LNG and shipping capacity comes on-stream. However, given underlying high costs and limited flexibility, it should be expected that new projects, currently under consideration, will only be developed on the basis of long-term contracts, thus returning to a balance between supply and demand. For these same reasons, LNG will not likely develop the same the liquidity as that of the oil market. The global

  9. The LNG industry - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The average annual growth of the world primary energy consumption has been 2.2% over the last ten years, with the highest growth rate observed for 2004 (+4.7%). In 2007, world primary energy consumption registered a 2.4% increase, still exceeding the 10-year average but less than for the four previous years. As for the previous years, the Asia Pacific region shows the most important increase in volume for 2007, rising by 5% and accounting for two-third of the global growth (China alone accounts in 2007 for more than half of this global growth, as was already the case in 2005 and 2006). Over the last ten years, the world energy consumption rose from 8920 10 6 toe in 1998 to 11099 10 6 toe in 2007, a 24.4% overall increase. For the seventh year running, coal has increased its share of the overall energy market, up to 28.6%. It should be noted that nuclear power decreased by 2%, Germany and Japan accounting for more than 90% of this decline. The growth of natural gas consumption in 2007 (+3.1%) was higher than in 2006 (+2.4%). The US accounted for nearly half of the global increase. Strong growth was also observed in China (+19.9%), representing the second largest increment to world gas consumption. Inversely, the EU consumption decreased (-1.6%) for the second year in a row. The market share for natural gas remained stable in 2007 (23.8%) compared to 2006 (23.6%)(1). Estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2008(2) show a rise of about 3.4% over 2007. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for 27% of the total (excluding trade within the Former Soviet Union and United Arab Emirates). Details are given about: LNG contracts and trade, Contracts concluded in 2008, LNG imports - Sources of imports, Quantities received in 2008, LNG tankers, Ships delivered, Tanker distribution, Liquefaction plants, Re-gasification plants, Contracts in force in 2008, Spot and short term quantities received in 2008, Sea transportation routes, Liquefaction plants, Re

  10. Lietuvos Dujos. Inspection of pipeline - Phase 2. Final report. Cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Inspection of pipeline - phase 2 included the following activities: Task 1: On-site training with CP survey equipment combined with a check of CP installations on a pipeline section. Task 2: On-site training with CP survey equipment after remedial work has been done, based on the recommendations given in the task 1 report. Task 3. Assistance to Lietuvos Dujos preparation of a CP survey report. Guidance in how results can be evaluated and main findings reported will be given. Task 4: Assistance to Lietuvos Dujos for installation of two CP stations with anodebed. This final report presents the results of task 2, 3 and 4. Only the major results of task 1 are described, thus the results of task 1 is described in details in the Interim Report, September 1996. (au)

  11. Condensation in gas transmission pipelines. Phase behavior of mixtures of hydrogen with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouten, J.A.; Michels, J.P.J. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Van der Waals-Zeeman Inst.; Rosmalen, R.J. van [Energy, Roden (Netherlands)

    2005-05-01

    Several pressure and temperature reductions occur along gas transmission lines. Since the pressure and temperature conditions of the natural gas in the pipeline are often close to the dew point curve, liquid dropout can occur. Injection of hydrogen into the natural gas will change the phase envelope and thus the liquid dropout. This condensation of the heavy hydrocarbons requires continuous operational attention and a positive effect of hydrogen may affect the decision to introduce hydrogen. In this paper we report on calculations of the amount of condensate in a natural gas and in this natural gas mixed with 16.7% hydrogen. These calculations have been performed at conditions prevailing in gas transport lines. The results will be used to discuss the difference in liquid dropout in a natural gas and in a mixture with hydrogen at pressure reduction stations, at crossings under waterways, at side-branching, and at separators in the pipelines. (author)

  12. The sustainability of LNG evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Van der Kooi, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) import terminals are under construction to fulfil the growing demand for energy carriers. After storage in tanks, the LNG needs to be heated and evaporated, also called ‘regasified’, to the natural gas needed in households and industry. Several options exist for

  13. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2012 LNG Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of 2012 LNG Export Study and request for comments. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. [FE Docket No. 10-161-LNG] and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC. Lake Charles Exports, LLC.... [FE Docket...

  14. LNG -- Technology on the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    With immense promise and many supporters, LNG as a vehicular fuel is still, a nascent industry. In about two years, an array of LNG engines should be commercially available, and infrastructure greatly expanded. These developments should reduce the present premium of LNG equipment, greatly improving industry economics. The most propitious sign for LNG-market developed lies in the natural gas industry's recently refined strategy for natural gas vehicles. The new strategy targets the right competitor--diesel, not gasoline. It also targets the right market for an emerging fuel--high-fuel-usage fleets made up of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, often driven long distances. But problems persist in critical areas of development. These problems are related to the materials handling of LNG and the refueling of vehicles. The paper discusses the studies on LNG handling procedures, its performance benefits to high-fuel use vehicles, economic incentives for its use, tax disadvantages that are being fought, and LNG competition with ''clean'' diesel fuels

  15. LNG, Competition and Security of Supply: the Role of Shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, S.; Mazzei, L.; Pontoni, F.; Sileo, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, one of the main concerns of European Union in the energetic field has been that of facilitating the safeguard of raw materials' security of supply, especially that of natural gas. Import through LNG chain, that is, through the employment of LNG tankers for gas transportation, has been identified by the European Council as one of the instruments to achieve these goals. In fact, import via LNG does not require, for the importer, such investments as to determine an indissoluble physical tie between producer and buyer, as happens for transport via pipeline (Chernyavska et al., 2002). In other words, investments in pipelines are very specific. Moreover, as they are made in order to support specific transactions, contracts usually take the form of long-term agreements with minimum off take requirements (take or pay clauses): such contracts definitely contribute to the cartelization of the market, hindering competition. Unlike investments in pipelines, those in the LNG chain present a much lower degree of specificity: in fact, even though the construction of a re gasification plant is generally tied to the stipulation of a long-term agreement (with take or pay clause), LNG chain costs have significantly decreased over time (until a few years ago) and, moreover, it is getting increasingly common that part of plant capacity is made available for spot transactions. What's more, once the contract is expired and the investment is sunk, the importer may satisfy his gas supply needs on the basis of his relative gains. As far as LNG import contractual practices are concerned, significant changes have started to take places in the last few years, both in terms of agreements' length average duration has significantly decreased and in terms of price indexation in the most developed markets LNG price is tied to gas spot price (IEA, 2006). One of the many possible advantages of transport via LNG is that liquefied gas enables European importers to widen their gas

  16. The Microstructure Evolution of Dual-Phase Pipeline Steel with Plastic Deformation at Different Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L. K.; Xu, T.; Zhang, J. M.; Wang, H. T.; Tong, M. X.; Zhu, R. H.; Zhou, G. S.

    2017-07-01

    Tensile properties of the high-deformability dual-phase ferrite-bainite X70 pipeline steel have been investigated at room temperature under the strain rates of 2.5 × 10-5, 1.25 × 10-4, 2.5 × 10-3, and 1.25 × 10-2 s-1. The microstructures at different amount of plastic deformation were examined by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Generally, the ductility of typical body-centered cubic steels is reduced when its stain rate increases. However, we observed a different ductility dependence on strain rates in the dual-phase X70 pipeline steel. The uniform elongation (UEL%) and elongation to fracture (EL%) at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1 increase about 54 and 74%, respectively, compared to those at 2.5 × 10-5 s-1. The UEL% and EL% reach to their maximum at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1. This phenomenon was explained by the observed grain structures and dislocation configurations. Whether or not the ductility can be enhanced with increasing strain rates depends on the competition between the homogenization of plastic deformation among the microconstituents (ultra-fine ferrite grains, relatively coarse ferrite grains as well as bainite) and the progress of cracks formed as a consequence of localized inconsistent plastic deformation.

  17. Fatigue properties of X80 pipeline steels with ferrite/bainite dual-phase microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zuo-peng [Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science & Technology and College of Materials Science & Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Qiao, Gui-ying [Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science & Technology and College of Materials Science & Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Key Lab of Applied Chemistry of Hebei Province and School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tang, Lei [Key Lab of Applied Chemistry of Hebei Province and School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhu, Hong-wei; Liao, Bo [Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science & Technology and College of Materials Science & Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Xiao, Fu-ren, E-mail: frxiao@ysu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science & Technology and College of Materials Science & Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-03-07

    Fatigue properties are important parameters for the safety design and security evaluation of gas transmission pipelines. In this work, the fatigue life at different stresses of full-thickness X80 pipeline steel plates with a ferrite/bainite dual-phase microstructure was investigated using a MTS servo-hydraulic universal testing machine; the fatigue crack propagation rate was examined with CT specimens by using an INSTRON 8874 testing machine. Results indicate that fatigue life increases as maximum stress decreases; as the maximum stress decreases to the maximum operating stress (440 MPa), the fatigue life is approximately 4.2×10{sup 5} cycles. The fatigue crack of the full-thickness fatigue life specimens is generated at the surface of rolled steel plates and then the crack propagates and grows inward until a fracture is formed. During fatigue crack growth, a transitional turning point appears in the curve of da/dN with ΔK in the Paris region. The transitional turning point that divides the Paris region to two stages is approximately ΔK≅30 MPa m{sup 1/2}. The change in the growth rate (da/dN) is related to the variation of the crack path and in the fracture mode because of the possible microstructural sensitivity of fatigue crack propagation behavior. This study also discussed the effect of duple phase ferrite/bainite microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and propagation.

  18. Fatigue properties of X80 pipeline steels with ferrite/bainite dual-phase microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zuo-peng; Qiao, Gui-ying; Tang, Lei; Zhu, Hong-wei; Liao, Bo; Xiao, Fu-ren

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue properties are important parameters for the safety design and security evaluation of gas transmission pipelines. In this work, the fatigue life at different stresses of full-thickness X80 pipeline steel plates with a ferrite/bainite dual-phase microstructure was investigated using a MTS servo-hydraulic universal testing machine; the fatigue crack propagation rate was examined with CT specimens by using an INSTRON 8874 testing machine. Results indicate that fatigue life increases as maximum stress decreases; as the maximum stress decreases to the maximum operating stress (440 MPa), the fatigue life is approximately 4.2×10"5 cycles. The fatigue crack of the full-thickness fatigue life specimens is generated at the surface of rolled steel plates and then the crack propagates and grows inward until a fracture is formed. During fatigue crack growth, a transitional turning point appears in the curve of da/dN with ΔK in the Paris region. The transitional turning point that divides the Paris region to two stages is approximately ΔK≅30 MPa m"1"/"2. The change in the growth rate (da/dN) is related to the variation of the crack path and in the fracture mode because of the possible microstructural sensitivity of fatigue crack propagation behavior. This study also discussed the effect of duple phase ferrite/bainite microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and propagation.

  19. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, A; Casarosa, C

    2014-01-01

    An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions

  20. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Casarosa, C.

    2014-11-01

    An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions.

  1. LNG development across Europe: Infrastructural and regulatory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, Susanna; Portatadino, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a cross-section infrastructural and regulatory analysis of the European LNG sector is presented. The LNG chain is maintained as being a good tool to enlarge the number of natural gas exporters to Europe, adding in this way to competition and to the achievement of the targets of the liberalisation process, which is a decrease in price for final customers and security of supply. The main reason for this is to be identified in the minor specificity of the regasification-plant-related investment compared with pipeline transportation. As a matter of fact, as the infrastructural analysis will show, the construction of new LNG receiving terminals is likely to bring about an increase in the number of importers fostering competition among them and shrinking their margins among the value chain. In this context, regulation is meant to play a key role in promoting investments without hindering competition. Nevertheless it is questionable whether LNG will be able to introduce competition beyond the European border (that is among producers) according to the forecasted supply and demand balance that is leading to a seller's market in the upstream sector. In this case, a huger part of the rent would go to the exporters leaving minor scope for competition down the European border. (author)

  2. LNG [liquefied natural gas]: Fueling energy demand in the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the supply and demand outlook for liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the far east, and the basic elements of an LNG supply project in Japan. Power generation is the primary market for LNG in the far east, due to a preference for energy supply diversity, large undeveloped gas resources, drastic improvements in power generation technology, and environmental advantages of natural gas. India and mainland China represent huge potential markets, and projects are under discussion to bring gas by pipeline from Iran or Qatar to both Pakistan or India. The economics of LNG plant development in Japan, including large ($4 billion for field and plant development) capital costs, long-term contracts, government involvement, and gas prices are discussed. Falling yen/dollar exchange rates have substantially bettered the Japanese economy in terms of gas prices. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Increased LNG into North America may threaten northern/Arctic gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2000, liquefied natural gas (LNG) has attracted considerable attention in response to record high price, high demand and tight supply of natural gas. LNG trade is expected to be 18 per cent of North American gas supply by 2020. The natural gas market is also affected by demand dominated by gas-fired power generation. The balance between supply and demand, combined with external factors of economic upsets and weather, has resulted in a volatile market place. LNG can currently be landed in North American at prices that compete with the average continental well head price. In January 2006, there were more than 60 competing LNG regasification projects proposed to access the North American gas market. This presentation listed the proposed facilities to import LNG and emphasized the need for a comprehensive analysis of gas development, given the degree of uncertainty regarding significant investment in gas supply, demand, pipelines and LNG projects. While only a few of the proposed projects will actually be constructed, they will more than double the existing output by 2010. The many possible changes in regional marketplace conditions were discussed with particular attention to the effects on the economic viability of natural gas developments; the impacts of LNG imports on capacities and flows in natural gas pipeline corridors; and, the influence of increased natural gas supplies on local and regional prices. It was noted that since conventional resources in Canada and the United States have reached a plateau, the next logical supply sources are Alaska, the Beaufort Sea, the Mackenzie Delta and the Arctic Islands. However, the development of northern and Arctic gas resources may be delayed if the level of LNG imports is sufficient to fill the deficiency in supply and demand. tabs., figs

  4. LNG plants in the US and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals

  5. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens [Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    As well as summarising the possible alternatives, environmental aspects and uses of LNG, this study aims to investigate the cost involved in the import of LNG to Sweden, from well to user. In Sweden, Natural Gas is used to cover 2 % of the total energy input. The pipeline network stretches from Malmoe to Stenungsund and Gnosjoe, which means some of the most densely populated areas are covered, but there is still 1200 km of the country left, including larger cities such as Stockholm, Uppsala and Linkoeping as well as areas that host some of the most energy demanding industries, e.g. Sundsvall, Umeaa, Luleaa and Kiruna. The absence of Natural Gas typically causes these regions to rely on fuel oil, coke or coal. If these sources of energy could be replaced by Natural Gas, great environmental benefits could be achieved. Research shows that the use of Natural Gas adds 20 % less CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than oil and also mean lower emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particles, making it the better alternative from both local and global perspectives. LNG is potentially a fire and an explosion hazard, but in the last 45 years of usage, no major accidents have occurred. Major exporters of LNG are Indonesia, Quatar, Australia and Algeria. Some of the largest importers are Japan, USA, France and Spain. Japan imports nearly 100 % of their Natural Gas as LNG. The available LNG liquefaction capacity increased by 60 % between 2002 and 2007. The total import cost for LNG includes the purchase cost from the producer, the transport cost, be it sea, railroad or road transport, and the cost for the terminal which receives and stores LNG. The study of different routes, volumes and means of transport creates a picture of how the total cost varies in proportion to these parameters. In the calculation of these costs, sources from the industry or estimations of purchase prices, transport costs and terminal costs are used. The uncertainties in this study are especially high when it

  6. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens (Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    As well as summarising the possible alternatives, environmental aspects and uses of LNG, this study aims to investigate the cost involved in the import of LNG to Sweden, from well to user. In Sweden, Natural Gas is used to cover 2 % of the total energy input. The pipeline network stretches from Malmoe to Stenungsund and Gnosjoe, which means some of the most densely populated areas are covered, but there is still 1200 km of the country left, including larger cities such as Stockholm, Uppsala and Linkoeping as well as areas that host some of the most energy demanding industries, e.g. Sundsvall, Umeaa, Luleaa and Kiruna. The absence of Natural Gas typically causes these regions to rely on fuel oil, coke or coal. If these sources of energy could be replaced by Natural Gas, great environmental benefits could be achieved. Research shows that the use of Natural Gas adds 20 % less CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than oil and also mean lower emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particles, making it the better alternative from both local and global perspectives. LNG is potentially a fire and an explosion hazard, but in the last 45 years of usage, no major accidents have occurred. Major exporters of LNG are Indonesia, Quatar, Australia and Algeria. Some of the largest importers are Japan, USA, France and Spain. Japan imports nearly 100 % of their Natural Gas as LNG. The available LNG liquefaction capacity increased by 60 % between 2002 and 2007. The total import cost for LNG includes the purchase cost from the producer, the transport cost, be it sea, railroad or road transport, and the cost for the terminal which receives and stores LNG. The study of different routes, volumes and means of transport creates a picture of how the total cost varies in proportion to these parameters. In the calculation of these costs, sources from the industry or estimations of purchase prices, transport costs and terminal costs are used. The uncertainties in this study are especially high when it

  7. Safety in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrow, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Bergbau/Tiefbau; Niemann-Delius, C.; Okafor, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde 3

    2005-07-01

    Germany needs an LNG receiving terminal to import LNG and supplement expected future gas supply shortages. Enormous economic benefits also abound if Germany is to install an LNG receiving terminal. Jobs will be created for several hundred people. New tax revenues will be generated for state and local governments and this will further enhance the economic competitiveness of Germany. Additionally, it will provide Germany with a reliable source of clean-burning energy. Any proposed LNG receiving terminal should incorporate safety right from the start. These safety requirements will: ensure that certain public land uses, people, and structures outside the LNG facility boundaries are protected in the event of LNG fire, prevent vapour clouds associated with an LNG spill from reaching a property line that can be built upon, prevent severe burns resulting from thermal radiation, specify requirements for design, construction and use of LNG facilities and other equipments, and promote safe, secure and reliable LNG operations. The German future LNG business will not be complete without the evolution of both local and international standards that can apply to LNG operations. Currently existing European standards also appear inadequate. With an OHSAS 18001 management system integrated with other existing standards we can better control our LNG occupational health and safety risks, and improve performance in the process. Additionally, an OHSAS 18001 System will help future German LNG contractors and operators safeguard their most important assets - their employees. (orig.)

  8. Microstructure and properties of pipeline steel with a ferrite/martensite dual-phase microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rutao; Zuo Xiurong; Hu Yueyue; Wang Zhenwei; Hu, Dingxu

    2011-01-01

    In order to satisfy the transportation of the crude oil and gas in severe environmental conditions, a ferrite/martensite dual-phase pipeline steel has been developed. After a forming process and double submerged arc welding, the microstructure of the base metal, heat affected zone and weld metal was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The pipe showed good deformability and an excellent combination of high strength and toughness, which is suitable for a pipeline subjected to the progressive and abrupt ground movement. The base metal having a ferrite/martensite dual-phase microstructure exhibited excellent mechanical properties in terms of uniform elongation of 7.5%, yield ratio of 0.78, strain hardening exponent of 0.145, an impact energy of 286 J at - 10 deg. C and a shear area of 98% at 0 deg. C in the drop weight tear test. The tensile strength and impact energy of the weld metal didn't significantly reduce, because of the intragranularly nucleated acicular ferrites microstructure, leading to high strength and toughness in weld metal. The heat affected zone contained complete quenching zone and incomplete quenching zone, which exhibited excellent low temperature toughness of 239 J at - 10 deg. C. - Research Highlights: →The pipe with ferrite/martensite microstructure shows high deformability. →The base metal of the pipe consists of ferrite and martensite. →Heat affected zone shows excellent low temperature toughness. →Weld metal mainly consists of intragranularly nucleated acicular ferrites. →Weld metal shows excellent low temperature toughness and high strength.

  9. LNG terminalil on idaraha keeld / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjon kiirustab Balti riike LNG (vedeldatud maagaasi) terminali asukohas kokku leppima. Kolmest tingimusest, millele peab LNG terminali projekt vastama, et tekiks võimalus kandideerida EL-i toetusele

  10. The research on corrosion condition and anticorrosion methods of SEP system pipelines in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Cao Feng; Wang Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    SEP system in Qinshan nuclear power plant phase II provides drinking water and firefight water for nuclear island, conventional island, inner and outer of BOP structures. Many corrosion perforations in the SEP pipeline were found during operation. This article analysis the corrosion reasons and presents some reasonable treatment and surveillance methods. (authors)

  11. An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Magdaleno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain: international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975. It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA. These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs. Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations.

  12. Theoretical and computational analyses of LNG evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Palani Kumar; Jo, Yang Myung; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical and numerical analysis on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside a LNG evaporator is conducted in this work. Methane is used instead of LNG as the operating fluid. This is because; methane constitutes over 80% of natural gas. The analytical calculations are performed using simple mass and energy balance equations. The analytical calculations are made to assess the pressure and temperature variations in the steam tube. Multiphase numerical simulations are performed by solving the governing equations (basic flow equations of continuity, momentum and energy equations) in a portion of the evaporator domain consisting of a single steam pipe. The flow equations are solved along with equations of species transport. Multiphase modeling is incorporated using VOF method. Liquid methane is the primary phase. It vaporizes into the secondary phase gaseous methane. Steam is another secondary phase which flows through the heating coils. Turbulence is modeled by a two equation turbulence model. Both the theoretical and numerical predictions are seen to match well with each other. Further parametric studies are planned based on the current research.

  13. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can...

  14. Global LNG - characteristics, clients and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Total's liquefied natural gas (LNG) holdings were described. Other topics discussed included an overview of gas consumption and internationally traded gas in 1995, a primer on the history of LNG, Japan's average import prices in 1996, Europe's border gas prices and consumption in 1995, Canada/US regional price differences in 1995 and 1996, and world gas markets and prices in 1996. The projected LNG supply and demand in Europe and Asia , especially in Japan, China and India, was also discussed. General concepts of LNG pricing, the general structure of a gas sales contract, and the different categories of LNG contracts were also reviewed. 24 figs

  15. The LNG Industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2006 show a rise of about 3% over 2005. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for 23% of the total. In 2006, the international trade in liquid form accounted for 348.4 10 6 m 3 or almost 159 10 6 t. It rose by 38.4 10 6 m 3 , or 12.4%, the highest growth rate ever recorded over the last decade. As to imports: - Japan remained by far the world's largest LNG importer with 136 10 6 m 3 , or 39% of all imports, followed by Korea with 55.3 10 6 m 3 (15.9%) and Spain with 41.6 10 6 m 3 (12.0%), markedly higher than the U.S.A. ranking fourth with 26 10 6 m 3 (7.5%). Seventeen countries were involved in LNG imports with the addition of China and Mexico in 2006. - The growth rate of European imports remained stable at 21%, above the global growth rate of 12.4%, resulting in a market share for Europe of 27.4% and demonstrating the dynamism of this region in the LNG trade. With a 12% market share in worldwide trade, Spain maintained its position as Europe's largest LNG market. - After substantial increases during the early part of this decade, the US market suffered most from the shortage in LNG production and price arbitration prompted some shippers to divert spot LNG away from the US market. Imports for the Americas as a whole still decreased by 3.2% and their global market share fell to 8.5%. - The Asian market kept on growing steadily by 11.4% with imports to the region rising from 200.6 10 6 m 3 to 223.4 10 6 m 3 or an increase of 22.8 10 6 m 3 , mainly due to the continued rise of Indian imports with a 3.9% market share, and the emergence of China on the LNG scene. Japanese imports steadily rose to 136 10 6 m 3 . Korea also enjoyed a significant growth by 13.5% to 55.3 10 6 m 3 while Taiwan's imports grew by 8.5% to 17 10 6 m 3 . As to sources of imports: Indonesia lost its leading position and Qatar became the world's largest LNG producer with 15.5% of all exports. Indonesia ranked second with 13.9%, Malaysia

  16. Comparison of simplified models in the prediction of two phase flow in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez-Carrizales, M.; Jaramillo, J. E.; Fuentes, D.

    2014-06-01

    Prediction of two phase flow in pipelines is a common task in engineering. It is a complex phenomenon and many models have been developed to find an approximate solution to the problem. Some old models, such as the Hagedorn & Brown (HB) model, have been highlighted by many authors to give very good performance. Furthermore, many modifications have been applied to this method to improve its predictions. In this work two simplified models which are based on empiricism (HB and Mukherjee and Brill, MB) are considered. One mechanistic model which is based on the physics of the phenomenon (AN) and it still needs some correlations called closure relations is also used. Moreover, a drift flux model defined in steady state that is flow pattern dependent (HK model) is implemented. The implementation of these methods was tested using published data in the scientific literature for vertical upward flows. Furthermore, a comparison of the predictive performance of the four models is done against a well from Campo Escuela Colorado. Difference among four models is smaller than difference with experimental data from the well in Campo Escuela Colorado.

  17. Application of Neuro-Wavelet Algorithm in Ultrasonic-Phased Array Nondestructive Testing of Polyethylene Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bohlouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene (PE pipelines with electrofusion (EF joining is an essential method of transportation of gas energy. EF joints are weak points for leakage and therefore, Nondestructive testing (NDT methods including ultrasonic array technology are necessary. This paper presents a practical NDT method of fusion joints of polyethylene piping using intelligent ultrasonic image processing techniques. In the proposed method, to detect the defects of electrofusion joints, the NDT is applied based on an ANN-Wavelet method as a digital image processing technique. The proposed approach includes four steps. First an ultrasonic-phased array technique is used to provide real time images of high resolution. In the second step, the images are preprocessed by digital image processing techniques for noise reduction and detection of ROI (Region of Interest. Furthermore, to make more improvement on the images, mathematical morphology techniques such as dilation and erosion are applied. In the 3rd step, a wavelet transform is used to develop a feature vector containing 3-dimensional information on various types of defects. In the final step, all the feature vectors are classified through a backpropagation-based ANN algorithm. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithms are highly reliable and also precise for NDT monitoring.

  18. PIF4 Promotes Expression of LNG1 and LNG2 to Induce Thermomorphogenic Growth in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geonhee Hwang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis plants adapt to high ambient temperature by a suite of morphological changes including elongation of hypocotyls and petioles and leaf hyponastic growth. These morphological changes are collectively called thermomorphogenesis and are believed to increase leaf cooling capacity by enhancing transpiration efficiency, thereby increasing tolerance to heat stress. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4 has been identified as a major regulator of thermomorphogenic growth. Here, we show that PIF4 promotes the expression of two homologous genes LONGIFOLIA1 (LNG1 and LONGIFOLIA2 (LNG2 that have been reported to regulate leaf morphology. ChIP-Seq analyses and ChIP assays showed that PIF4 directly binds to the promoters of both LNG1 and LNG2. The expression of LNG1 and LNG2 is induced by high temperature in wild type plants. However, the high temperature activation of LNG1 and LNG2 is compromised in the pif4 mutant, indicating that PIF4 directly regulates LNG1 and LNG2 expression in response to high ambient temperatures. We further show that the activities of LNGs support thermomorphogenic growth. The expression of auxin biosynthetic and responsive genes is decreased in the lng quadruple mutant, implying that LNGs promote thermomorphogenic growth by activating the auxin pathway. Together, our results demonstrate that LNG1 and LNG2 are directly regulated by PIF4 and are new components for the regulation of thermomorphogenesis.

  19. Short-term LNG-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom; Lund, Arne-Christian; Miltersen, Kristian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)

  20. Open Source Parallel Image Analysis and Machine Learning Pipeline, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Continuum Analytics proposes a Python-based open-source data analysis machine learning pipeline toolkit for satellite data processing, weather and climate data...

  1. Latvijas gaze. Inspection of pipeline. Interim report. Cathodic protection, phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Sloka pipeline branch was constructed in 1966-67. Between 1976 and 1985 a number of leaks were detected. The majority of leaks, from chainage appr. 22 km to appr. 29 km, were reported to be caused by stray current induced corrosion. Latvijas Gaze has expressed specific concern as to whether more corrosion defects, though not yet detected, may cause potential risks for future leaks. It was hence agreed at the project meeting in Riga on October 19, 1995, that Balslev should conduct an intensive potential and gradient survey covering appr. 10 km of pipeline up to the Sloka end. The branch is appr. 30,5 km long, and runs from a T-branch on the main pipeline Riga - Lipeija (chainage 0 km) to Sloka (chainage 30,5 km). The diameter of the pipeline is 273 mm and the thickness of the steel is 8 mm. The pipeline is running parallel to a DC-electrified railway over the last appr. 3 km. The stray current from the railway collected on the pipeline has been returned to the railway via two diode drain points. Today only one drain point is active. Stray current (or even reverse current) may be the reason for the serious corrosion defects, cf. Corrosion Report 1985 from `the Leningrade Institute`. (JT)

  2. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  3. Casting a cold eye on LNG : the real possibilities and pitfalls for Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenberger, A.T.; Crowley, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    The factors that drive the economic viability of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) project in Atlantic Canada were discussed along with its impact on the region's energy future. The proximity of Atlantic Canada to the high-priced US northeast energy market and the accessibility of its ports gives the region a competitive advantage to become North America's first mover for LNG. Three proposed LNG projects in Atlantic Canada are located in industrial areas where local support is strong. The projects represent more than $5 billion in direct investment. These include the Irving Oil/Repsol terminal at Canaport in Saint John, New Brunswick; Anadarko's terminal at Bear Head, Nova Scotia and Keltic Petrochemical's proposed integrated petrochemical plant and LNG terminal at Goldboro, Nova Scotia. The market issues that must be addressed prior to any LNG project include long-term supply contracts, market response and pipeline capacity. The issues will ultimately be decided by markets and regulatory processes. This document emphasized the significance of the first-mover advantage, and noted that those who gain an early market share will profit from higher prices, access to better customers and potential economies of scale from a well-established presence. Short-term benefits include the jobs created by the construction and operation of a terminal, and the municipal tax revenues it would generate. Long-term benefits include transportation cost savings from pipeline expansion; access to additional gas supplies; and gains for regional prosperity. The final factors in support of LNG projects in Atlantic Canada include the need to strengthen trade ties with the New England States and access to the US gas markets. refs., tabs., figs

  4. LNG trumped : the burst of enthusiasm for shale gas could put LNG on the sidelines of global gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    2010-01-01

    The growing interest in shale gas is largely due to rapid innovation in down-hole technologies such as horizontal drilling, better bit design, coil tubing, down-hole motors, geosteering, microseismic, measurement while drilling tools and more powerful fracing systems. Despite these advances in shale gas technology, price will be the deciding factor in the competition between liquefied natural gas (LNG) and shale gas. This article discussed the 3 sources of gas that are of interest to North American producers. The first is the great success of shale gas production in the United States and Canada. The second is the evolution of a global market for LNG. This development has eliminated the need for pipelines to tie stranded gas into the world's industrial markets. For example, Qatar is developing liquefaction facilities for an offshore reservoir with more than a quadrillion cubic feet of proved reserves. The gas industry's third area of interest lies in the huge conventional gas reserves in Alaska and the Northwest Territories. However, there is doubt that any proposed pipelines to deliver the resources to southern markets will be built, particularly since shale gas formations like the Montney and Horn River have great potential and are located right next to existing infrastructure. 2 figs.

  5. Dossier LNG. Liquid market move

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matla, P.

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide market for liquid natural gas is booming like never before and the end is not in sight yet. Shell is market leader among international energy companies. But where does LNG come from? And how will the fuel be used in the coming years? What role does Shell want to play in this market? These questions are addressed in a series of three articles. [nl

  6. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  7. Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark Hanley

    The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

  8. Study of Volatility of New Ship Building Prices in LNG Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bangar Raju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural gas market has been expanding in size and has attracted particular attention across the global energy market. Although most natural gas transportation is carried out through pipelines, almost one third of it is done with the help of merchant vessels, capable of carrying liquefied natural gas. These LNG carriers have a special design and thus can be treated as a separate class of global fleet. New vessels are huge capital investments by vessel owning companies and just like other vessel classes; the new shipbuilding prices for the LNG segment continue to be a key aspect in the decision making of business players. Additionally these prices can be volatile as new ship building prices fluctuate with time. This paper attempts to analyse the volatility of new ship building prices of LNG carriers. For the study, the average ship building prices for all the LNG carriers having volume carrying capacity is between 160,000 – 173,000 cbm to be delivered between 2016 – 2019 were taken into account. For the analysis, GARCH and EGARCH methods were applied on the data set. The analysis concluded that there is a great deal of volatility in the new ship building prices of LNG vessels. It was also identified that negative shocks were more persistent the positive shocks.

  9. Meeting the energy needs of the northeast : the role for LNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Put, J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation outlined the role of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in meeting the energy requirements of the northeastern regions of the United States and Canada, as seen from the perspective of TransCanada. The need for LNG to meet projected growth in natural gas demand was presented in the context of a business model for TransCanada's entry into the LNG market. A plan for the successful siting and construction of import terminals in various strategic locations in the Northeast was presented. Issues surrounding supply and demand for LNG in North America, with specific reference to the Northeastern regions, were examined. Tables of existing import terminals were presented. Forecasts of demand growth were provided as well as details of natural gas transmission and power assets. A detailed description of the Fairwinds Project included existing and proposed pipelines, site descriptions and an outline of a stakeholder engagement campaign with examples of support and opposition as well as community impacts of the project. A behavioral guideline suggested that specific commitments should be made rather than generalized promises. A list of lessons learned from the Fairwinds project was also included. The potential to land LNG in Quebec was examined, with details of the rationale behind the proposed projects, shipping distance advantages and ice management. 16 figs

  10. 77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... prohibited by U.S. law or policy. The source of the LNG will be from direct connects with the interstate... Corporation, and the indirect connects with interstate pipelines of Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company..., notices of intervention, and written comments are invited. DATES: Protests, motions to intervene or...

  11. The Evolving Role of LNG in the Gas Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, D.; Van der Linde, C.; Smeenk, T.

    2010-09-15

    The global energy scene is changing rapidly. Producing countries are tightening their grip on the development of their resources, emerging (and other) economies are taking a direct political interest in securing supplies, politics and business are increasingly integrated in international energy deals, and energy is on the political agenda of every government. Compounding this, prices of energy skyrocketed over the four years leading up to August 2008. As a result more gas resources became economical to develop, creating more supply potential than before. However, the severe crisis in international financial markets and national banking systems is now changing this outlook. Prices have come down, and this, combined with the current decline in economic activity, is likely to affect the timing of investment decisions on new pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects. The impact on national economies on energy demand, and on the relative position of gas in the energy market could be considerable. At the same time, some consuming countries are also reviewing the environmental effect of their energy policies and the security of their energy supply. Any change in these policies could affect the place of gas in the energy mix. These developments are still unfolding; it is difficult to say at this stage in what ways and to what extent the position of natural gas will change. Nevertheless, some expect further globalization of the gas business, with different market structures, more fragmented value chains, more flexibility in supplies to markets, and shorter term contracts. In this respect, LNG is regarded as the major potential game changer. Indeed the LNG business model has been changing over recent years into one of greater flexibility, promising producers higher rewards, albeit in return for higher risks. More recently the perspective of high rewards in a market hungry for supplies has changed radically, at least for the next few years. A global crisis, lower oil

  12. The Evolving Role of LNG in the Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, D.; Van der Linde, C.; Smeenk, T.

    2010-01-01

    The global energy scene is changing rapidly. Producing countries are tightening their grip on the development of their resources, emerging (and other) economies are taking a direct political interest in securing supplies, politics and business are increasingly integrated in international energy deals, and energy is on the political agenda of every government. Compounding this, prices of energy skyrocketed over the four years leading up to August 2008. As a result more gas resources became economical to develop, creating more supply potential than before. However, the severe crisis in international financial markets and national banking systems is now changing this outlook. Prices have come down, and this, combined with the current decline in economic activity, is likely to affect the timing of investment decisions on new pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects. The impact on national economies on energy demand, and on the relative position of gas in the energy market could be considerable. At the same time, some consuming countries are also reviewing the environmental effect of their energy policies and the security of their energy supply. Any change in these policies could affect the place of gas in the energy mix. These developments are still unfolding; it is difficult to say at this stage in what ways and to what extent the position of natural gas will change. Nevertheless, some expect further globalization of the gas business, with different market structures, more fragmented value chains, more flexibility in supplies to markets, and shorter term contracts. In this respect, LNG is regarded as the major potential game changer. Indeed the LNG business model has been changing over recent years into one of greater flexibility, promising producers higher rewards, albeit in return for higher risks. More recently the perspective of high rewards in a market hungry for supplies has changed radically, at least for the next few years. A global crisis, lower oil

  13. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharmoko, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field

  14. LNG links remote supplies and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avidan, A.A.; Gardner, R.E.; Nelson, D.; Borrelli, E.N.; Rethore, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable. The introduction of natural-gas use via LNG in the early years (mostly into France and Japan) has also allowed LNG to play a major role in developing gas infrastructure. Today, natural gas, often supplied as LNG, is particularly well-suited for use in the combined cycle technology used in independent power generation projects (IPPs). Today, LNG players cannot simply focus on monetizing gas resources. Instead, they must adapt their projects to meet the needs of changing markets. The impact of these changes on the LNG industry has been felt throughout the value chain from finding and producing gas, gas treatment, liquefaction, transport as a liquid, receiving terminals and regasification, and finally, to consumption by power producers, industrial users, and households. These factors have influenced the evolution of the LNG industry and have implications for the future of LNG, particularly in the context of worldwide natural gas

  15. Towards a world development of LNG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The world development of the LNG trade was the theme of the second workshop of the 7. summit of natural gas industry leaders. With the increasing development of the LNG industry, a world scale natural gas market is becoming possible and should replace the present day regional markets. This article analyzes the expected economic impacts of such a market. (J.S.)

  16. The LNG Industry in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, Jean-Yves; Demoury, Vincent; Vermeire, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The most significant event to mark the LNG trade in 2011 has been the catastrophe that hit Japan in March, in view of both its short-term effect on shifting flows and its long-term demand prospects of LNG as a source for gas-fired power generation. The role of LNG as a flexible and secure energy source as well as the prompt response to provide back-up through additional supplies and cargo diversions to compensate for the sudden loss of nuclear capacity in Japan - with sellers exercising due price restraint in view of the human tragedy - has been a credit to the industry. The increase in production capacity in 2009 and 2010, in particular from Qatar, had permitted the necessary buffer to cope much better with the demand surge than during past disruptions (such as the aftermath of the Chuetsu earthquake in late 2007). Undoubtedly, the marked shift over the last decade in the industry's prevailing business model towards global trade, destination flexibility and portfolio play has also facilitated the rapid response. As the total volume of LNG trade is very much determined by the availability of supply, 2011 has seen a growth of 9.4% over 2010, mainly as a result of the full availability of the six Qatar mega-trains over the past year. On the demand side the two traditional basins have shown a very contrasting trend: 15% higher LNG off-take in Asia (the five major markets all increasing between 37.4% and 8.9%), versus a 1.7% decrease in the Atlantic Basin. Cargo diversions and an increasing number of reloads have boosted the exports from the Atlantic Basin to Asia in 2011 to more than 14 million tons (equivalent to more than 200 large size cargoes). Remarkable is also the fast growth in new markets in Latin America and in the Middle East - albeit from a small base - with counter-seasonal but varying demand, offering attractive arbitrage opportunities to portfolio play. Not surprising then that 2011 has seen another hike in spot and short-term trade, not just in

  17. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  18. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  19. Influence of heat transfer on two-phase flow behavior in onshore oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldrich Joel Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational tools for simulation of multiphase flow in oil pipelines are of great importance for the determination of the technical feasibility of the production in oilfields. The present article presents the mathematical and numerical modeling of the oil biphasic flow in a partially submerged onshore pipeline. The biphasic behavior of the heavy oil of 13,2ºAPI is translated by the Dukler correlation. The oil’s viscosity is regarded as dependent on the temperature and on the API density of the oil by means of the Hossain correlation. The pipeline, of 3,600m and 4 inches (10.16cm in diameter, transports the oil from a collecting station to a storage center and consists of three sections. The first and third sections are above ground and are in contact with the external environment. The intermediate section is sitting on the river bed and is the critical part of the pipeline, once high heat losses are observed. The influence on the type of pipe insulation in the pressure and temperature gradients was analyzed with the aid of commercial 1D software Pipesim®. The results, of this 1D and non-isothermal problem with prescribed outlet pressure, show that the use of isolation when appropriately designed in terms of material quality and thickness is of utmost importance to maintain the heat transfer at low levels, in order to ensure the movement of fluids in long sections without compromising the system operation.

  20. Application tests of a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied natural gas (LNG is stored under low temperature and high pressure. It has to be gasified before it is used. Therefore, LNG gasification unit is essential and it is vital to the high-efficiency utilization of LNG. In this paper, a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit was developed. Adopted in this unit are some innovative technologies authorized with the national patent of invention, such as the umbrella-shape gas flow circle unit, the flue gas circulation system and the water feeding system, which help to guarantee its operation safety and increase its operation efficiency. After it was justified in lab test, the unit for industrial application was designed and manufactured and then tested to verify its design rationality. The results show that the new-type LNG rapid gasification unit meets the design requirements in the aspect of efficiency, exhaust gas loss, radiation loss and fuel gas consumption rate; at a load of 1800–2200 m3/h, its efficiency is over 95%; at a load of 1976.0 m3/h which is close to the design value of 2000 m3/h, its efficiency is 96.34% or even up to 2800 m3/h. This new-type LNG rapid gasification unit is adaptable to a large range of loads and can adapt to the rapid increase of external load. Its fuel gas consumption rate is only 1.5%, which is in the range of energy conservation. It presents the advantages of high heating efficiency, rapid startup, high gasification rate, compact structure, small land occupation and invulnerability to the environment, therefore, it is applicable to the middle and small independent regions which cannot be connected to the natural gas supply pipeline networks due to various reasons.

  1. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  2. World economic growth pushing LNG use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Clary, R.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas, especially liquefied (LNG), is in position to participate in the energy growth now being triggered by strong worldwide economic growth, increasingly open markets, and expanding international trade. Natural gas is abundant, burns cleanly, and is highly efficient in combined-cycle, gas-turbine power plants. Moreover, the comparative remoteness of much of the resource base to established and emerging markets can make LNG a compelling processing and transportation alternative. Discussed here are the resource distribution and emerging market opportunities that can make LNG attractive for monetizing natural-gas reserves

  3. First LNG deliveries from Qatar to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty five years after the discovery of the giant North Field natural gas deposit, the Qatargas company has delivered its first LNG freight to Japan in December 1996. This paper recalls the history of the company from the discovery of the offshore North Field, its valorization and development, the LNG project with the building of the Ras Laffan harbour and its condensates processing factory and the 3 offshore production platforms. Ten methane-tanker ships will be in operation in the year 2000. Qatar's LNG exports should reach 20 to 25 Mt/year in the next ten years, when all its liquefaction factory projects will be completed. (J.S.)

  4. Improved processes of light hydrocarbon separation from LNG with its cryogenic energy utilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ting; Lin Wensheng; Gu Anzhong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose two new light hydrocarbon separation processes utilizing LNG cold energy. → Both processes produce liquefied ethane and LPG with high ethane recovery rate. → CH 4 -riched gas from the high pressure process is compressed to final pressure. → Re-liquefied CH 4 -riched gas from the low pressure one is pumped to final pressure. → Both processes have good performance; the low pressure one is economically better. -- Abstract: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) often consists of some kinds of light hydrocarbons other than methane, such as ethane, propane and butane, which are of high additional value. By efficiently utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, these light hydrocarbons (C 2 + ) can be separated from LNG with low power consumption and LNG is gasified meanwhile. Two novel light hydrocarbon separation processes are proposed in this paper. The first process uses a demethanizer working at higher pressure (about 4.5 MPa). The methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer can be compressed to pipeline pressure with low power consumption. The other one uses a demethanizer working at lower pressure (about 2.4 MPa). By cascade utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, the methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer is entirely re-liquefied. Then the liquid product is pressurized to pipeline pressure by pumps instead of compressors, reducing the power consumption greatly. By both of the two processes, liquefied ethane and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, i.e. C 3 + ) at atmosphere pressure can be obtained directly, and high ethane recovery rate can be gained. On the basis of one typical feed gas composition, the effects of the ethane content and the ethane price to the economics of the light hydrocarbon separation plants are studied, and the economics are compared for these two processes. The results show that recovering light hydrocarbons from LNG can gain great profits by both of the two processes, and from the view of economics, the

  5. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldegard, Tom [Foundation for Research in Economics and Business Administration, Bergen (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    sufficient pipeline export capacity at the current cost level. This conclusion may be modified if LNG is selected as export solution for associated gas from isolated oil field developments or domestic Russian gas demand grows significantly faster than anticipated.

  6. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    1996-01-01

    sufficient pipeline export capacity at the current cost level. This conclusion may be modified if LNG is selected as export solution for associated gas from isolated oil field developments or domestic Russian gas demand grows significantly faster than anticipated

  7. LNG as a strategy to establish developing countries' gas markets: The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto Rechelo Neto, Carlos; Sauer, Ildo Luis

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate, from a Brazilian case study, if the natural gas trade can be viewed as a good opportunity for developing countries located geographically close to Western Europe and North America gas markets. Initially, the paper presents an overview of the Brazilian natural gas industry and evaluates the balance between supply and demand in each main region of Brazil. Then, it analyzes the evolution of the international gas trade, which is expected to increase rapidly (LNG particularly). Finally, the paper analyses the financial viability of the Brazilian LNG project in a context of high volatility of natural gas prices in the international market. To take this uncertainty into account, North-American natural gas prices are modelled according to the ORNSTEIN-UHLENBECK process (with EIA data over the period 1985-2003). By using an approach based on Monte-Carlo simulations and under the assumption that imports are guaranteed since the North American gas price would be higher than the breakeven of the Brazilian project, the model aims to test the hypothesis that export can promote the development of the Brazilian Northeastern gas market. LNG project is here compared to the Petrobras pipelines project, which is considered as the immediate solution for the Northeastern gas shortage. As a conclusion, this study shows that the LNG export will be vulnerable to the risks associated to the natural gas prices volatility observed on the international market

  8. Failure analysis of storage tank component in LNG regasification unit using fault tree analysis method (FTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, Cukup; Muhammad, Fajar; Saad, Aswad H.; Mariah, Riveli, Nowo

    2017-03-01

    Storage tank component is the most critical component in LNG regasification terminal. It has the risk of failure and accident which impacts to human health and environment. Risk assessment is conducted to detect and reduce the risk of failure in storage tank. The aim of this research is determining and calculating the probability of failure in regasification unit of LNG. In this case, the failure is caused by Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) and jet fire in LNG storage tank component. The failure probability can be determined by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). Besides that, the impact of heat radiation which is generated is calculated. Fault tree for BLEVE and jet fire on storage tank component has been determined and obtained with the value of failure probability for BLEVE of 5.63 × 10-19 and for jet fire of 9.57 × 10-3. The value of failure probability for jet fire is high enough and need to be reduced by customizing PID scheme of regasification LNG unit in pipeline number 1312 and unit 1. The value of failure probability after customization has been obtained of 4.22 × 10-6.

  9. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part one: Cold utilization far from the regasification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with cold recovery during LNG regasification. The applications analyzed pertain to the use in deep freezing agro food industry and in space air conditioning facilities in commercial sector (Supermarkets and Hypermarkets) of cold recovered from the regasification process. A modular LNG regasification unit is proposed having the regasification capacity of 2 BCM/year of gas and it is based on use of a Power Cycle working with Ethane, this unit allows operation of cold energy transfer, contained in LNG to be regasified, in a range of temperatures suitable for multipurpose use of cold, reducing regasification process irreversibility. Some electric energy is produced by the Power Cycle, but the purpose of the modular unit is to deliver cold suitable for industrial and commercial use in the proper temperature range utilizing Carbon dioxide as secondary fluid to transfer cold from regasification site to far end users. The subject is divided in two papers: this paper deals with facilities delivering cold released during LNG regasification and related pipeline facilities to transfer cold at far end users while the other paper pertains to analysis of end users applications. Results of a detailed thermodynamic and economic analysis demonstrate the suitability of the proposal.

  10. Overview of the LNG world market; Panorama mundial do mercado de GNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Costa, Julia Rotstein Smith da Silva; Moreira, Tathiany Rodrigues [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The commercialization of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has been gaining great prominence worldwide and in Brazil, in recent days, due to the ever-increasing need for diversification of energy sources and for flexibilization of gas offer, in order to ensure the importing countries' supply. In this scenario, LNG has been positioning itself, around the world, as an important alternative, especially in cases where there is uncertainty concerning the fulfillment of delivery contracts, the transportation network is still incipient or inexistent, the gas pipelines operate at full capacity and the country's gas demand is met by more than one exporting source, sometimes by different transport modals. In the case of Brazil, the recent restrictions to the gas offer bring to the agenda the search for better solutions in energy policy in order to appropriately meet the totality of national demand. This article presents the current situation of the LNG market and identifies the main agents involved in its commerce, drawing attention to, in light of the originality of LNG projects in Brazil, the need for perfecting the regulation in order to boost the development of the national gas industry. (author)

  11. LNG terminal location still a tossup

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Lätti rajatava LNG terminali asukoht pole veel teada. 16. märtsil kohtus Poola president Bronislaw Komorowki Läti riigipea Valdis Zatlersiga ja kiitis selle projekti heaks. Venemaast energiasõltumatuse olulisusest

  12. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  13. LNG: a commodity in the making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrelie, M.F

    2006-07-01

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  14. LNG: a commodity in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  15. LNG ventures raise economic, technical, partnership issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acord, H.K.

    1995-01-01

    The author feels that natural gas will remain a competitive energy alternative and the preferred fuel for many residential and industrial customers around the globe. The article attempts to explain where liquefied natural gas will fit into the global picture. The paper discusses the growth in the Asia-Pacific region; the complex interactions in a LNG project involving buyers, sellers, governments, financial institutions, and shipping companies; the cost of development of such projects; and the elements of a LNG venture

  16. LNG: a commodity in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Although still far being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realization of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7% year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  17. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO. The global Floating LNG (FLNG market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  18. The effects of LNG imports on the North American natural gas market and the economy of Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.H.; Kralovic, P.; McColl, D.C.; Mutysheva, D.; Stogran, M.; Ryan, P.C.; Brown, M.; Gardner, M.; Hanrahan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to a point that it condenses in a liquid state. As such, it is economical to transport over long distances in specially designed double-hulled tankers. With record high price, high demand and tight supply of natural gas, LNG has attracted considerable attention in recent years, and trade is expected to be 18 per cent of North American gas supply by 2020. Volatility in North American natural gas markets is felt strongly along the east coast, with demand dominated by gas-fired power generation. There are 5 facilities proposed to import LNG into the Maritimes and the province of Quebec. These include the Bear Head and Keltic facilities in Nova Scotia, Canaport in New Brunswick and the Rabaska and Cacouna facilities in the province of Quebec. There is a need for a comprehensive analysis of east coast gas development, given the degree of uncertainty regarding significant investment in gas supply, demand, pipelines and LNG projects. This report examined many possible changes in regional marketplace conditions with particular attention to the effects on the economic viability of natural gas developments in Atlantic Canada; the impacts of LNG imports on capacities and flows in natural gas pipeline corridors; and, the influence of increased natural gas supplies on local and regional prices. In order to examine the impact of LNG imports on the development of the natural gas industry, this report provided a 15-year natural gas flow and price simulation for Atlantic Canada, New England and the Mid-Atlantic region. It considered how LNG imports may influence the development of compressed natural gas and the impact that CNG may have on regional markets and infrastructure. It was concluded that the most direct impacts the LNG facilities will have on Atlantic Canada, other than the impacts of terminal construction, jobs and tax revenue, will be the security of supply to area residents and the availability of gas

  19. On the modelling and the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in pipeline-riser systems; Modelisation et analyse des instabilites d'ecoulements diphasiques dans les conduites petrolieres du type pipeline-riser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakarian, E.

    2000-03-10

    Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)

  20. Russian LNG: The Long Road to Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    On December 1, 2013 a law on liquefied natural gas (LNG) export liberalization came into legal force in Russia. The law grants two categories of companies other than Russia's state gas giant Gazprom and its subsidiary companies the right to export LNG: (1) users of mineral resources that have a license to construct an LNG plant or to send their gas production for liquefaction, and (2) companies that are more than 50% owned by the Russian government, for gas produced from Russian offshore fields or under production-sharing agreements. This is-without exaggeration-a historic decision for the Russian gas industry, the path to which was certainly not easy. Recent years have seen a radical change in the global economic climate, which has changed the dynamics of the European gas market (gas demand decline and Russian gas import reduction, changing pricing mechanism for a much higher share of spot indexing, European Commission anti-trust investigations against Gazprom, etc) and is increasingly pushing Russia to diversify its gas exports. However, diversifying exports through the development of LNG has proven to be not so simple. Over the past 20 years, with the exception of the Sakhalin-2 project, structured under a project-sharing agreement (PSA) rather than in the framework of national legislation, all other projects failed to come close to completion. The Kharasavey and Baltic LNG projects were abandoned in the early stages of project evaluation, while the Shtokman project progressed to the point of the operating company being created, but in the end was postponed indefinitely. The first stage of LNG development in Russia ended in failure. However, the Russian government considers the development of LNG exports to be a priority, which can be evidenced in all official policy papers. It is believed that LNG will help in achieving a set of objectives, namely: increasing the absolute volume of exports, allowing the country to enter into previously inaccessible markets

  1. Consensual decision-making model based on game theory for LNG processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Luis; Dorao, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A Decision Making (DM) approach for LNG projects based on game theory is presented. ► DM framework was tested with two different cases, using analytical models and a simple LNG process. ► The problems were solved by using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) binary coding and Nash-GA. ► Integrated models from the design and optimization of the process could result in more realistic outcome. ► The major challenge in such a framework is related to the uncertainties in the market models. - Abstract: Decision-Making (DM) in LNG projects is a quite complex process due to the number of actors, approval phases, large investments and capital return in the long time. Furthermore, due to the very high investment of a LNG project, a detailed and efficient DM process is required in order to minimize risks. In this work a Decision-Making (DM) approach for LNG projects is presented. The approach is based on a consensus algorithm to address the consensus output over a common value using cost functions within a framework based on game theory. The DM framework was tested with two different cases. The first case was used for evaluating the performance of the framework with analytical models, while the second case corresponds to a simple LNG process. The problems were solved by using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) binary coding and Nash-GA. The results of the DM framework in the LNG project indicate that considering an integrated DM model and including the markets role from the design and optimization of the process more realistic outcome could be obtained. However, the major challenge in such a framework is related to the uncertainties in the market models.

  2. Financial structure of Korea Gas Corporation's LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeongsoo Ko

    1991-01-01

    When an Indonesian LNG tanker arrived in Korea for the first time in October 1986, Korea became the seventh LNG-consuming nation in the world. The imported LNG has contributed greatly to solving pollution problems and ensuring a stable supply of energy to Korea through the diversification of energy sources. So far, the LNG supply has been confined to the Metropolitan area. The Korea Gas Corporation now plans to expand the LNG supply to cover the entire nation. This paper introduces the experience and future plan of Korea's LNG projects with a special reference to their financial structure

  3. What role for LNG in Europe? Outlook for supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.; Roze, J.

    1992-01-01

    The current development of natural gas in Europe reflects all the technical, economic, environmental or political factors that make it one of the best energy options for the future. However, the sustained expansion of its demand must cope with a decline in domestic production in most European countries, which is resulting in a sharp rise in imports. Furthermore, because of the large volumes required, traditional exporters by pipeline to European markets could progressively come up against limits in the growth of the amounts they can supply. LNG could thus play an increasing role in the European gas balance. Europe is geographically well situated in relation to potential LNG exporting countries. The abundance of the resources and the regional diversity of these countries will be an additional guarantee of the reliability of supplies. However, any new projects can be carried out only under economic conditions that are viable for the gas industry and compatible with the development of European markets

  4. Gas-liquid two-phase flow behavior in terrain-inclined pipelines for gathering transport system of wet natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Shuli

    2018-01-01

    The Volume of Fluid method and Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model were employed to predict the gas-liquid two-phase flow in a terrain-inclined pipeline with deposited liquids. The simulation was carried out in a 22.5 m terrain-inclined pipeline with a 150 mm internal diameter...... on the liquid level under the suction force which caused by the negative pressure around the elbow, and then it touched to the top of the pipe. When the liquid blocked the pipe, the pressure drop between the upstream and downstream of the elbow increased with the increase of the gas velocity. At larger gas...

  5. Electrochemical Investigation of the Corrosion of Different Microstructural Phases of X65 Pipeline Steel under Saturated Carbon Dioxide Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of metallurgy on the corrosion behaviour of separate weld zone (WZ and parent plate (PP regions of X65 pipeline steel in a solution of deionised water saturated with CO2, at two different temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C and at initial pH~4.0. In addition, a non-electrochemical immersion experiment was also performed at 80 °C in CO2, on a sample portion of X65 pipeline containing part of a weld section, together with adjacent heat affected zones (HAZ and parent material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of the separate weld and parent plate samples. This study seeks to understand the significance of the different microstructures within the different zones of the welded X65 pipe in CO2 environments on corrosion performance; with particular attention given to the formation of surface scales; and their composition/significance. The results obtained from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD measurements suggest that, post immersion, the parent plate substrate is scale free, with only features arising from ferrite (α-Fe and cementite (Fe3C apparent. In contrast, at 80 °C, GIXRD from the weld zone substrate, and weld zone/heat affected zone of the non-electrochemical sample indicates the presence of siderite (FeCO3 and chukanovite (Fe2CO3(OH2 phases. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM on this surface confirmed the presence of characteristic discrete cube-shaped crystallites of siderite together with plate-like clusters of chukanovite.

  6. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  7. LNG and LPG total involvement of Pullman Kellogg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A discussion of Pullman Kellogg activity covers a new LNG terminal in Belgium; construction of LNG 2 for Sonatrach in Algeria; an LPG recovery system in Kuwait; the Trunkline Gas Co. LNG project at Lake Charles, La.; and the Cove Point, Md., facility for Columbia Gas System Inc. and Consolidated Natural Gas Co., which will be capable of mooring two 750,000 bbl LNG tankers simultaneously.

  8. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A.; Ochoa, Sara A.; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A.; López-Villegas, Edgar O.; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  9. Pipelines from the north : a U.S. perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2003-01-01

    The United States will continue to look to Canada and Alaska for a significant part of its natural gas supply in an effort to meet its growing demand for energy. The United States depends on Canadian gas as a reliable and secure supply of energy, and is therefore examining natural gas markets and the wide range of supply opportunities. This presentation highlighted changes in cross border natural gas trade in North America and noted that 94 per cent of natural gas going to the United States from Canada is shipped via pipeline. On the liquefied natural gas (LNG) front, U.S. exports to Mexico now exceed imports, but import volumes from Trinidad and Nigeria are increasing as expected. Total import volumes in 2001 surpassed the previous year. A look at the infrastructure of LNG in the United States was also presented along with the advantages and limitations of each option. Cost comparisons were also presented. It was noted that any import or LNG project would result in unique economics. LNG projects are now cheaper because of better engineering, economies of scale and better pipeline economics. The U.S. National Energy Policy recommends that the pipeline to bring Alaskan gas to U.S. markets should be constructed as soon as possible. It was emphasized that any project to ship natural gas from Alaska to the lower 48 will need to work closely with Canada in order to be successful. 15 figs

  10. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181...

  11. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  12. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakmar, Susan

    2010-09-15

    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  13. Brazil's insertion in the international LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) route; A insercao do Brasil na rota internacional de GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueng, Stephan de Carvalho; Bastos, Filipe Sant' Ana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the late 1990's, PETROBRAS began considering diversifying its energy sources. This included the possibility of importing LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), making it one additional source for gas supply in Brazil. There is a belief that the imported LNG is the cheapest, quickest and most efficient option in terms of infrastructure compared to other transportation, such as pipelines. This will permit an increase in gas supply, given the growing demand for this energy source in the domestic market. The current international LNG trading market is adjusting itself to the world integration, where short-term (spot) agreements prevail. These agreements have many advantages, such as: lowering fixed trading costs; the possibility to diversify suppliers; minimizing gas supply risk; and facilitating import market supply adjustment. In Brazil, the main objective to import LNG is to supply natural gas (NG) to thermal plants, supplementing the hydroelectric - gas integration of the electric system. For the accomplishment of this project, it is forecasted the construction of LNG offloading terminals, together with the construction of gas distribution networks. Therefore, LNG transportation will guarantee security in supply, permit the diversification of the NG supply source and enable the increased use of NG in the Brazilian energy grid. (author)

  14. Total's LNG activities from Algeria to Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedrenne, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    In March 1995, further to an international tender, Total was awarded the leadership of the first LNG project in Yemen. On January 1997 Total announced the extension of the share-holding of the Yemen LNG Co. to include the companies with interests in the Marib area (Hunt-Exxon-Yukong). The Marib area will supply the gas to the future liquefaction plant. The ratification of these agreements confirms the role of Total as lead shareholder with 36% in the share-holding structure and guarantees gas supply from the Marib licence, operated by Hunt-Exxon. (author)

  15. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa

  16. Multi-dimensional rheology-based two-phase model for sediment transport and applications to sheet flow and pipeline scour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheng-Hsien; Low, Ying Min; Chiew, Yee-Meng

    2016-01-01

    Sediment transport is fundamentally a two-phase phenomenon involving fluid and sediments; however, many existing numerical models are one-phase approaches, which are unable to capture the complex fluid-particle and inter-particle interactions. In the last decade, two-phase models have gained traction; however, there are still many limitations in these models. For example, several existing two-phase models are confined to one-dimensional problems; in addition, the existing two-dimensional models simulate only the region outside the sand bed. This paper develops a new three-dimensional two-phase model for simulating sediment transport in the sheet flow condition, incorporating recently published rheological characteristics of sediments. The enduring-contact, inertial, and fluid viscosity effects are considered in determining sediment pressure and stresses, enabling the model to be applicable to a wide range of particle Reynolds number. A k − ε turbulence model is adopted to compute the Reynolds stresses. In addition, a novel numerical scheme is proposed, thus avoiding numerical instability caused by high sediment concentration and allowing the sediment dynamics to be computed both within and outside the sand bed. The present model is applied to two classical problems, namely, sheet flow and scour under a pipeline with favorable results. For sheet flow, the computed velocity is consistent with measured data reported in the literature. For pipeline scour, the computed scour rate beneath the pipeline agrees with previous experimental observations. However, the present model is unable to capture vortex shedding; consequently, the sediment deposition behind the pipeline is overestimated. Sensitivity analyses reveal that model parameters associated with turbulence have strong influence on the computed results.

  17. Transport diphasique de gaz et de condensat. Aspects techniques et économiques Technical and Economic Aspects of Two-Phase Pipelining of Gas and Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évacuation diphasique de la production d'un gisement de gaz à condensat présente des avantages importants, en particulier sur le plan économique. Les caractéristiques des écoulements diphasiques sont exposées, avec les conséquences principales sur la définition d'un schéma d'exploitation. Une comparaison économique est ensuite présentée, pour illustrer la réduction des investissements qui peut être apportée par l'évacuation diphasique de la production. Enfin, les recherches françaises sur les écoulements diphasiques dans les conduites pétrolières sont brièvement décrites, ainsi qu'un exemple de calcul sur une conduite de gaz à condensat en exploitation diphasique. The two-phase pipelining of a wet gas field production presents many advantages, especially from an economic point of view. The characteristics of two-phase flow are described, together with their main consequences on the operational scheme. Then an economic comparison is made to illustrate the reduction in investment costs that can by achieved with two-phase pipelining. Research in France on two-phase flow in gas and condensate pipelines is briefly described, and an example is given of the designing of a wet-gas pipeline currently being operated in the two-phase mode.

  18. Experimental data for the slug two-phase flow characteristics in horizontal pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalellah O. Mohmmed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled “Statistical assessment of experimental observation on the slug body length and slug translational velocity in a horizontal pipe” (Al-Kayiem et al., 2017 [1] which presents an experimental investigation of the slug velocity and slug body length for air-water tow phase flow in horizontal pipe. Here, in this article, the experimental set-up and the major instruments used for obtaining the computed data were explained in details. This data will be presented in the form of tables and videos.

  19. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines. Phase 8. Cold utilization and rural service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This phase of the investigation presents a summary of material relating to: (1) actual or potential applications for the very large refrigeration effects inherent in the vaporization of liquid natural gas; and (2) rural service gas supplies adjacent to the route of a trunk liquid natural gas line. A variety of concepts for cold utilization are discussed. The Canadian prospects for cold utilization include: electric power generation; oxygen production for integration with a coal gasification project; and the use of refrigeration stages in the petrochemical processing of natural gas, for example, ethane separation and processing to produce ethylene and ammonia.

  20. The economic value of LNG in the Korean manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Although LNG is an important input to industrial production for manufacturing firms, its economic value has been rarely investigated in the literature. This paper attempts to estimate the economic value of LNG in Korea's manufacturing sector by employing the concept of the value of marginal product (VMP). For this, we used data on 328 firms using LNG as an input. Two types of production functions (the Cobb–Douglas and trans-log functions) are applied. The result of the specification test indicates that the trans-log function is more appropriate for estimating the data. The output elasticity and VMP of industrial LNG are estimated to be 0.1346 and KRW 6844 (USD 6.22) per m 3 , respectively. The results have important implications for various areas of industrial LNG management. For example, any cost–benefit analysis of new projects providing industrial LNG requires information on the economic value of industrial LNG. In addition, such information is useful for the Korean government's future policies on LNG pricing. - Highlights: • We estimate the economic value of LNG in the Korean manufacturing industry. • We employ the concept of the value of marginal product (VMP). • The VMP of industrial LNG is estimated to be KRW 6844 (USD 6.22) per m 3 . • It significantly outweighs the price of industrial LNG (KRW 629.4 per m 3 )

  1. LNG imports make strong recovery in 1996; exports increase also

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    LNG imports to the US jumped in 1996 as Algerian base-load plants resumed operations following major revamps. Exports from Alaska to Japan grew by nearly 4% over 1995. Total LNG imports to the US in 1996 were 40.27 bcf compared to 17.92 bcf in 1995, an increase of 124.8%. Algeria supplied 35.32 bcf; Abu Dhabi, 4.95 bcf. About 82.3% of the imported LNG was received at Distrigas Corp.'s terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Pan National terminal in Lake Charles, LA. LNG imports during 1995 fell to such a low level not because of depressed US demand but because of limited supply. The paper discusses LNG-receiving terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports

  2. LNG's renaissance in the U.S. -- why now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    The present state and future prospects for the U.S. liquefied natural gas industry are reviewed in light of expanding opportunities for LNG export worldwide. An update on new tanker ships to transport LNG by both exporters and importers and on developments at US LNG facilities at Everett, MA, Cove Point, MD, Elba Island, GA, and at Lake Charles, LA, is provided, along with an assessment of East Coast supply sources and demand forecast. The prediction is that worldwide supply/demand for LNG will tighten, that US prices will be strong enough to support LNG, that proposed expansion of LNG liquefaction facilities in the Atlantic Basin will fill US import facilities, and that East Coast demand growth will absorb growth in LNG imports

  3. Drag reduction by polymer addition in single and two-phase gas-liquid flows in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizotto, Vanessa Cristina; Paes, Diogo Melo; Franca, Fernando de Almeida [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Petroleo. LabPetro]. E-mails: vanessa@cepetro.unicamp.br; diogopaes10@hotmail.com; Sabadini, Edvaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mails: sabadini@iqm.unicamp.br; ffranca@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    Turbulence mechanisms, as the eddies formation frequency and size, promote energy dissipation that appears as pressure drop in pipe flows. Adding minute amounts of polymers - ppm - of high molecular weight to the solution can lead to the reduction of the viscous dissipation. The formed macromolecules interact with the eddies, cause the eddies coherence breakdown, damp the energy transport and reduces the pressure drop. This phenomenon is known as the hydrodynamic drag reduction (DR, for short). Thus, for a given pipe flow rate there is decrease in pressure head, which is a desired operating strategy when transporting liquids. Studies on the hydrodynamic drag reduction in polymeric systems have been carried out in collaboration by the Chemistry Institute and the Petroleum Laboratory - LabPetro, UNICAMP. These studies have allowed microscopic approaches to the engineering scales, tackling the most usual processes - single phase flows, as well as gas-liquid two-phase flows in pipelines, which are quite common in the chemical and the petroleum industries. Tests conducted in the Chemistry Institute comprised over-the-bench experimentations made with a rotational double-gap type rheometer. These quick performed tests used small amount of polymers, and provided information on the additive concentration, the drag reduction and the solution mechanical stability along a turbulent shearing process. The results indicated that 17% is the limiting drag reduction achieved when a 2 ppm aqueous solution of polyacrylamide - PAM - was tested. These tests, besides giving preliminary estimations, are limited in terms of engineering application due to the low shearing rates applied by the viscometer. The tests performed at LabPetro comprised pressure drop measurements in actual pipe flows, both water single and air-water two-phase flows, using the previous knowledge acquired with the viscometer tests. In the former case, the Prandtl-von Karman map has been drawn to show the %DR in terms

  4. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    True, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world''s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia

  5. French Gas Association roundtable - May 27, 2013. Evolutions of the LNG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, Jean-Yves; Brunero, Francois; Cotin, Pierre; Daubonne, Jean-Francois; Deybach, Frederic; Seilhan, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The LNG industry is currently facing contrasting trends, with overall decreasing consumption in 2012 compared to the previous year, large uncertainties on gas prices - energy being regarded by European and Asian customers as costly - and however very encouraging prospects, in particular regarding LNG as a fuel. This document reports on the minutes of the French Gas Association roundtable on the subject 'Evolutions of the LNG market'. Contents: 1) LNG Market Outlook, 2) LNG in Europe, 3) LNG terminals and the evolving LNG market, 4) The road-transported LNG market, 5) LNG market trends, 6) Questions and Answers

  6. 75 FR 58014 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activity; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ..., supports pipeline safety by ensuring the proper functioning of CPM leak detection systems. Affected Public...-phase hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that use computational pipeline monitoring (CPM) leak... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...

  7. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... marketing supplies of LNG. Sempra is a customer of the Cameron Terminal. On June 22, 2012, FE issued DOE/FE... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 12-155-LNG] Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra LNG Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export...

  8. Application of the Stirling engine driven with cryogenic exergy of LNG (liquefied natural gas) for the production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczygieł, Ireneusz; Stanek, Wojciech; Szargut, Jan

    2016-01-01

    LNG (liquefied natural gas) delivered by means of sea-ships is pressurized and then regasified before its introduction to the system of pipelines. The utilization of cryogenic exergy of LNG for electricity production without combustion of any its portion is analyzed. For the conversion of LNG cryogenic exergy into electricity, the Stirling engine is proposed to be applied. The theoretical thermodynamic model of Stirling engine has been applied. This model is used to investigate the influence of pinch temperature in heat exchangers, engine compression ratio and dead volumes ratios on the thermodynamic parameters of the Stirling engine. The results of simulation represent the input data for investigations of thermodynamic performance of the proposed system. In order to evaluate the thermodynamic performance of the proposed process, an exergy analysis has been applied. The exergy efficiency and influence of design and operational parameters on exergy losses are determined for each of the proposed system configurations. The obtained results represent the background for advanced exergy-based analyses, including thermo-ecological cost. - Highlights: • Application of Stirling engine in LNG regasification. • Thermodynamic model of Stirling engine for cryogenic exergy recovery is applied. • Sensitivity analysis of operational parameters on system behaviour is applied. • Exergy analysis is conducted.

  9. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part two: Applications in an Agro Food Industry and a Hypermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the cold energy available during LNG regasification, which can be recovered and utilized both inside the LNG regasification area and at a distance, such as in deep freezing agro food industry facilities and for space conditioning in the commercial and residential sector (e.g. Supermarkets and Hypermarkets). The feasibility study of this kind of application has been carried out at DREAM, Palermo University, within the framework of a research program. The results of a feasibility study of the kind of venture proposed, starting from its conceptual design and with a thorough thermodynamic and economic analysis, demonstrated the suitability and the profitability of the applications proposed. They seem very attractive due to expected wide future exploitation of LNG regasification in the World. -- Highlights: → Proposal pertaining cold recovery during LNG regasification. → Cold utilization far from the regasification site. → Transfer of liquid/gaseous carbon dioxide pipeline. → Exergetic and economic analysis of venture pertaining applications proposed. → Results of venture economic analysis.

  10. Electric power generation and LNG evaporation with the aid of gas turbines within a closed-cycle process. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D

    1978-01-01

    LNG, after being pumped to customary pipeline pressure, has a high working potential which can be technically utilized. Thus, in a modern large-size terminal, a power potential in the order of magnitude of several hundred MW is available. In the course of rising power prices the question becomes important if this potential continues to be wasted or if conversion to electric power is economical. In the proposed process the working fluid of a gas turbine plant with a closed circuit is cooled to -140/sup 0/C with LNG before entering the compressor and heated to +720/sup 0/C before entering the turbine by means of external heat gained by burning natural gas. With a 1 million m/sup 3//h throughput of LNG in its normal state, 237 MW of electric power can be generated with 53% efficiency with this simple circuit, which can be further developed. In a combination of closed gas turbine and diesel generator, almost 289 MW of electric power can be produced per 1 million m/sup 3//h LNG with an efficiency of 60%.

  11. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  12. Calculation models for prediction of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing during ship transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miana, Mario; Hoyo, Rafael del; Rodrigalvarez, Vega; Valdes, Jose Ramon [Instituto Tecnologico de Aragon, Area de Investigacion, Desarrollo y Servicios Tecnologicos, Maria de Luna 7, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Llorens, Raul [ENAGAS SA, Direccion de Ingenieria y Tecnologia del Gas, Autovia A - 2, km. 306.4, 50012 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A group of European gas transportation companies within the European Gas Research Group launched in 2007 the 'MOLAS' Project to provide a software program for the analysis of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing process during ship transportation. This program contains two different modeling approaches: a physical algorithm and an 'intelligent' model. Both models are fed with the same input data, which is composed of the ship characteristics (BOR and capacity), voyage duration, LNG composition, temperature, pressure, and volume occupied by liquid phase at the port of origin, together with pressure at the port of destination. The results obtained are the LNG composition, temperature and liquid volume at the port of destination. Furthermore, the physical model obtains the evolution over time of such variables en route as it is based on unsteady mass balances over the system, while the i-model applies neural networks to obtain regression coefficients from historical data composed only of origin and destination measurements. This paper describes both models and validates them from previous published models and experimental data measured in ENAGAS LNG regasification plants. (author)

  13. Logistics and supply chain effectiveness measure areas in lng companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the issues of logistics and supply chain measures in companies. It considers different management systems in the area of production, which evolved from isolated production activities to business connected systems. There are performed three case studies - three examples of systems proposed and implemented in the LNG industry: I-MAC, ICIMS and PMS. Data gained from these systems are the basis to create effectiveness measures for LNG companies and LNG supply chains.

  14. LNG Industry in Europe beset by uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past five years, the liquefied natural gas industry (LNG) has metamorphosed from a specialist niche business into a mainstream source of energy supply, It is currently by far the fastest-growing source of fossil fuel and growth forecasts. However, the industry's future is beset by uncertainty, not least in Europe. Supply is tight, technical skills are hard to come by, and even future demand looks uncertain

  15. Training simulator for operations at LNG terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuta, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tetsuka, S.; Koyama, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Tokyo Gas LNG terminals are among the major energy centers of the Tokyo area, supplying 8 million customers with city gas, and also supplying fuel for thermal power generation at the neighboring thermal power plant operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. For this reason, in the event of an emergency at the terminal operators have to be able to respond quickly and accurately to restore operations and prevent secondary damage. Modern LNG terminals are highly reliable and are equipped with backup systems, and occurrences of major trouble are now almost nil. Operators therefore have to be trained to respond to emergencies using simulators, in order to heighten their emergency response capabilities. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. has long been aware of the need for simulators and has used them in training, but a new large-scale, real-time simulator has now developed in response to new training needs, applying previously accumulated expertise to create a model of an entire LNG terminal incorporating new features. The development of this new simulator has made possible training for emergencies affecting an entire terminal, and this has been very effective in raising the standards of operators. (au)

  16. Algeria's response to future LNG needs: The revamping of its LNG plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendani, A.; Rekkab, O.

    1992-01-01

    Since the beginning of the sixties, Algeria decided to participate in the international commerce of gas through its LNG. Four plants have thus been built and started in 1964, 1972, 1978 and 1981. Following the decrease in world LNG demand in the eighties, these plants built to supply 30 billion M 3 have not been operated at their full capacities. As a result, the plant equipment has suffered from this situation of partial operation (excessive shutdowns and startups). In order for SONATRACH to participate as it wishes in the expected increase in world LNG demand, two alternatives are possible to achieve this objective: Rehabilitate existing plants to enable them to operate safety and continuously to their full capacities or, build new plants. It is the first alternative that has been selected and the previous plant constructors have been selected for their renovation

  17. Design Optimization of a Low Pressure LNG Fuel Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 there were 50 liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuelled ships in operation and around 70 on order worldwide. LNG proves to emit less pollution and considering the present and future emission regulations and optimistic gas fuel prices, LNG would be a preferable option as a marine fuel. The number of LNG fuelled ships is therefore likely to increase significantly the next five to ten years. There are many ways to configure the fuel supply system. The fuel supply system consists of a tank,...

  18. Safety and environmental aspects in LNG carrier design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Takashi [Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    `Safety and Reliability` has been and will continue to be a key phr ase in marine transportation of LNG. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. has utilized its all expertise and state of art technologies to realize this objective, resulting in exceptionally successful operations of LNG carrier built by the Co. In line with growing global concern about environmental issues, we need to pay more attention to the environmental aspects of the design and construction of LNG carriers. Accordingly, in this paper, we present some topics related safety and environmental concerns which need to be taken into consideration in LNG carriers design and construction. (Author). 7 figs.

  19. Safety and environmental aspects in LNG carrier design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Yoneyama

    1997-01-01

    'Safety and Reliability' has been and will continue to be a key phr ase in marine transportation of LNG. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. has utilized its all expertise and state of art technologies to realize this objective, resulting in exceptionally successful operations of LNG carrier built by the Co. In line with growing global concern about environmental issues, we need to pay more attention to the environmental aspects of the design and construction of LNG carriers. Accordingly, in this paper, we present some topics related safety and environmental concerns which need to be taken into consideration in LNG carriers design and construction. (Author). 7 figs

  20. Is LNG the way ahead for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.; Dhellemmes, J.; Hosanski, J.M.; Goy, A.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the last 2004 meeting of the French gas association (AFG) was the liquefied natural gas (LNG) which takes a growing up share in the international gas trade. The number of liquefaction plants and re-gasification terminals have increased and liquefied natural gas tanker fleets grown to match the development of world trade. The three major French players in the LNG field are Total, which produces gas and LNG in several countries, Gaz de France (GdF) which buys in a significant quantity of LNG, and GTT which provides engineering services for shipping. To get a better inside view of the LNG question, four specialists were invited to the last AFG meeting. This paper summarizes their opinion about the following points: the world potential LNG offer and the growing up capacities (LNG development, markets, supply and demand, companies strategy), the shipping by tanker ships (membrane insulation technology, fleet uses and perspectives), convergence of LNG markets and the role of Middle-East (shipping, increase of Middle-East LNG share in the world market, major stakes for the international companies), and the constraints and opportunities of re-gasification (terminals optimization, competition for re-gasification, terminals setting up problems, technical solutions). A summary of the questions and answers with the public concludes the article. (J.S.)

  1. 77 FR 10666 - Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 199 [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0335] Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing AGENCY... operators of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities to conduct post- accident drug and alcohol tests of..., operators must drug and alcohol test each covered employee whose performance either contributed to the...

  2. The LNG industry in 2011. Press revue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    The outlook of the LNG industry in 2011 is presented as a revue of press articles: The role of LNG as a flexible and secure energy source as well as the prompt response to provide back-up through additional supplies and cargo diversions to compensate for the sudden loss of nuclear capacity in Japan - with sellers exercising due price restraint in view of the human tragedy - has been a credit to the industry. The increase in production capacity in 2009 and 2010, in particular from Qatar, had permitted the necessary buffer to cope much better with the demand surge than during past disruptions (such as the aftermath of the Chuetsu earthquake in late 2007). Undoubtedly, the marked shift over the last decade in the industry's prevailing business model towards global trade, destination flexibility and portfolio play has also facilitated the rapid response. As the total volume of LNG trade is very much determined by the availability of supply, 2011 has seen a growth of 9.4% over 2010, mainly as a result of the full availability of the six Qatar mega-trains over the past year. On the demand side the two traditional basins have shown very contrasting trends: 15% higher LNG off-take in Asia (the five major markets all increasing between 37.4% and 8.9%), versus a 1.7% decrease in the Atlantic Basin. Cargo diversions and an increasing number of reloads have boosted the exports from the Atlantic Basin to Asia in 2011 to more than 14 million tons (equivalent to more than 200 large size cargoes). Remarkable is also the fast growth in new markets in Latin America and in the Middle East - albeit from a small base - with counter-seasonal but varying demand, offering attractive arbitrage opportunities to portfolio play. Not surprising then that 2011 has seen another hike in spot and short-term trade, not just in absolute terms but also as a percentage of total trade (50% over 2010, 25.4% of total trade). The outlook for LNG is strong and its global demand prospects further

  3. Transient cavitation in pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to set up a one-dimensional mathematical model, which describes the transient flow in pipelines, taking into account the influence of cavitation and free gas. The flow will be conceived of as a three-phase flow of the liquid, its vapour and non-condensible gas. The

  4. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  5. Assessing integrity and realiability of multicomposite LNG transfer hoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, G.D. van der; Putten, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Reliable transfer systems are a key element in developing floating LNG and the small scale LNG market. Multi-composite hoses may prove to be a reliable and cost effective solution for offshore, near- and on-shore applications. TNO, the Dutch contract research organization, has executed an extensive

  6. Performance of cryogenic thermoelectric generators in LNG cold energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Hu Peng; Chen Zeshao; Jia Lei

    2005-01-01

    The cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is generally wasted when the LNG is extracted for utilization. This paper proposes cryogenic thermoelectric generators to recover this cold energy. The theoretical performance of the generator has been analyzed. An analytical method and numerical method of calculation of the optimum parameters of the generator have been demonstrated

  7. LNG - Status in Denmark. Technology and potential. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2012-05-15

    The interest for LNG both on a small and a large scale is increasing worldwide. The experiences and knowledge on LNG is limited in Denmark. The Danish gas companies' Technical Management Group (TCG) has asked for a status report including a technology description and an evaluation of the potential in Denmark. A survey of primarily small-scale LNG technology is done in the report. The focus is motivated by the new areas of gas utilisation that become possible with small-scale LNG. Small-scale LNG in this study is defined as LNG stored and used at the application or in an isolated gas grid. The small-scale use of LNG has today an almost negligible share of the total LNG trade but offers interesting new applications for gas utilisation. LNG on a small scale can be used primarily as: 1) Ship fuel. 2) Truck fuel (heavy duty long distance). 3) Individual users not connected to the natural gas grid. 4) Backup for upgraded biogas to individual users and vehicle fleets. 5) Security of supply or supply enhancement of heavily loaded parts of the gas grid. 6) Small-scale storage and/or peak shaving. All but the first topics are natural uses for the current Danish gas distributors. LNG as ship fuel may engage other specialized LNG companies. The report contains a technical description of the parts in primarily small-scale LNG handling and operation. Liquefaction, transport, storage, engine technologies, gas quality and safety aspects related to LNG are covered. There seem to be two more or less separate paths for LNG in Denmark, onshore and off-shore use. These are not, apparently, sharing their experiences and knowledge. Rules and regulations are also different which may create some problems in the interface, for example ship bunkering. Further studies are suggested in the area of gas quality and engine technologies and adaptation of foreign guidelines for small-scale installations to Danish conditions. These guidelines ought to be based on international standards and

  8. Introduction to the marine transportation of bulk LNG and the design of LNG carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J J

    1974-03-01

    The marine transportation of bulk LNG is expected to expand considerably in the near future to help supply the continuous and growing demand for energy predicted for the U.S., Japan, and Western Europe. The number of new LNG tankers required to provide for these markets is estimated to be at least 50 new 4.4 million ft/sup 3/ tankers by 1980. The standard LNG tanker size is expected to increase to 7.06 million ft/sup 3/ within 5 yr. In selecting a particular tanker system, prospective ship-owners may have to consider such factors as national and international subsidies, shipyard limitations, and the trend to build certain specialized tanker components in areas other than in the shipyard. This work separation could help reduce tanker construction cost and time--especially important when several ships are to be constructed. Containment techniques available for construction of the cargo tanks include the self-supporting and the integrated designs, with the most economical provided by systems carrying LNG as a bulk cargo slightly subcooled below its boiling temperature at near-atmospheric pressure. All designs must fulfill the requirements for maintaining the approved temperature over the entire hull structure, preventing excess heat leaks into the cargo, providing tight liquid containment of the cargo, controlling the conditions inside and outside, and providing the proper facilities for safe loading and unloading. Materials of construction range from a combination of various grades of mild steel for the hull to the highest grades of aluminum alloys and nickel steels for the tank areas. Insulation includes polyurethane foam, silicon-coated perlite, and balsa wood used with fiberglass, polyurethane foam, or mineral wool. The insulation materials and arrangement must be waterproof, fire-resistant, and suitable to withstand the forces imposed on them. Finally, the tankers must include the proper equipment for LNG handling, pumping, and boiloff control.

  9. Europe's gas imports via pipelines. Projects and safety aspects; Europas Gasimporte durch Pipelines. Projekte und Sicherheitsaspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, R.

    2008-08-15

    By the year 2030 Europe's gas imports will have risen to approximately 200 bn m{sup 3}, necessitating the installation of new pipelines and LNG terminals. The largest growth in imports is not expected from Russia but from Africa and the Near East. An analysis of projected pipelines demonstrates these regions' contribution to securing Europe's gas supply. Because they help to establish market dominance or to fend off potential competitors these pipelines also serve corporate strategies. The most reliable supply will continue to come from Norway. By contrast, gas imports via pipelines from North Africa, Russia and the Persian Gulf all carry high risks of approximately the same degree. The greatest risks are associated with gas imports from the Caspian Sea.

  10. Helium Extraction from LNG End Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Donghoi

    2014-01-01

    Helium is an invaluable element as it is widely used in industry such as cryo-genics and welding due to its unique properties. However, helium shortage is expected in near future because of increasing demand and the anxiety of sup-ply. Consequently, helium production has attracted the attention of industry. The main source of He is natural gas and extracting it from LNG end-flash is considered as the most promising way of producing crude helium. Thus, many process suppliers have proposed proc...

  11. Improvement of plant reliability in PT. Badak LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad, S.; Somantri, A.

    1997-01-01

    PT. Badak's LNG sales commitment has been steadily increasing, therefore, there has been more emphasis to improve and maintain the LNG plant reliability. From plant operation historical records, Badak LNG plant experienced a high number of LNG process train trips and down time for 1977 through 1988. The highest annual number of LNG plant trips (50 times) occurred in 1983 and the longest LNG process train down time (1259 train-hours) occurred in 1988. Since 1989, PT. Badak has been able to reduce the number of LNG process train trips and down time significantly. In 1994 the number of LNG process train trips and was 18 times and the longest LNG process train down time was 377 train-hours. This plant reliability improvement was achieved by implementing plant reliability improvement programs beginning with the design of the new facilities and continuing with the maintenance and modification of the existing facilities. To improve reliability of the existing facilities, PT. Badak has been implementing comprehensive maintenance programs, to reduce the frequency and down time of the plant, such as Preventive and Predictive Maintenance as well as procurement material improvement since PT. Badak location is in a remote area. By implementing the comprehensive reliability maintenance, PT. Badak has been able to reduce the LNG process train trips to 18 and down time to 337 train hours in 1994 with the subsequent maintenance cost reduction. The average PT. Badak plant availability from 1985 to 1995 is 94.59%. New facilities were designed according to the established PT. Badak design philosophy, master plan and specification. Design of new facilities was modified to avoid certain problems from past experience. (au)

  12. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  13. 76 FR 53440 - Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Notice of Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    .... Summary of the Planned Project Freeport plans to add natural gas liquefaction and exportation capabilities to its existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Quintana Island in Brazoria County... tank, and additional LNG vaporization and natural gas send-out facilities that were previously...

  14. 77 FR 43589 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... addition, a second ship berthing area, third LNG storage tank, and additional LNG vaporization and natural... 7.3 7.3 Appurtenant Facilities beyond Terminal Site and Pretreatment 0.1 0.1 0.2 Facility site and... issues that we think deserve attention based on a preliminary review of the planned facilities and the...

  15. A Finite-Volume approach for compressible single- and two-phase flows in flexible pipelines with fluid-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daude, F.; Galon, P.

    2018-06-01

    A Finite-Volume scheme for the numerical computations of compressible single- and two-phase flows in flexible pipelines is proposed based on an approximate Godunov-type approach. The spatial discretization is here obtained using the HLLC scheme. In addition, the numerical treatment of abrupt changes in area and network including several pipelines connected at junctions is also considered. The proposed approach is based on the integral form of the governing equations making it possible to tackle general equations of state. A coupled approach for the resolution of fluid-structure interaction of compressible fluid flowing in flexible pipes is considered. The structural problem is solved using Euler-Bernoulli beam finite elements. The present Finite-Volume method is applied to ideal gas and two-phase steam-water based on the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) in conjunction with a tabulated equation of state in order to demonstrate its ability to tackle general equations of state. The extensive application of the scheme for both shock tube and other transient flow problems demonstrates its capability to resolve such problems accurately and robustly. Finally, the proposed 1-D fluid-structure interaction model appears to be computationally efficient.

  16. Coordination of ministerial actions regarding the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel. LNG, a European component of the energy transition in road freight transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maler, Philippe; Erhardt, Jean-Bernard; Ourliac, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the third of a series dealing with the coordination of ministerial actions in favor of the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel in transports. LNG is an important potential substitute to diesel fuel in road transport and would allow significant abatement of nitrogen oxides emissions. Bio-LNG is ten times less polluting than fossil fuel LNG and thus important efforts are to be made in bio-LNG R and D. An important work has been carried out for adapting EU regulations and standards to LNG vehicles and LNG supply developments. This report presents, first, a summary of the report's recommendations and the aim of this coordination study, and, then, treats more thoroughly of the different coordination aspects: 1 - European framework of energy transition in the road freight transport (differences with maritime transport, CO 2 emissions abatement, trucks pollution and fuel quality standards, trucks technical specifications and equipment, fuel taxes in EU countries); 2 - European policy and national actions in favour of LNG development for road transport (LNG as alternate fuel, the Paris agreement, the French national energy plan); 3 - Environmental benefits of LNG in road transport (public health impacts, nitrogen oxides abatement, divergent views and expertise, LNG and CO 2 abatement measures, bio-LNG environmental evaluation; 4 - LNG development actors in road transport and the administrative coordination (professional organizations, public stakeholders, LNG topics information dissemination at the Ministry); 5 - LNG development in road transport at the worldwide, European and national scales; 6 - European regulations and standards allowing trucks LNG fueling and circulation (standard needs, users information, regulation works); 7 - Common rules to define and implement for personnel training; 8 - reflexion on LNG taxation; 9 - support policy for a road transport LNG supply chain (infrastructures, European financing, lessons learnt from maritime

  17. A basic study on underground storage of LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kang, Sun-Duck [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    In 1997, import of LNG was 11,378 thousand of about 2.3 billion US dollars. The demand of LNG(Liquefied Natural Gas) in Korea has been increased since 1987 with the rate of 20% annually. It is also estimated that this trend will be continued until 2010. Long-term estimation says that demand will increase with 9.1% and total demand of 2010 will be 23 million ton that is four times larger than that of 1994. Bases of unloading and store of LNG is necessary to complete the network of LNG distribution system to cover all of the country from import to final supply terminal at home. The construction plan of LNG bases with 49 tanks was published and is going on now at three bases, Pyungtaek, Incheon and Tongyoung. The total cost for this construction will be over 5,400 billion Won. All the LNG tanks are planned to build on the surface. The construction of LNG tanks on the surfaces is conventional but it damage the surface green area and is very vulnerable on safety, especially in Korea Peninsula with potentially unstable of military confrontation. And Korea is so small and limited in available land that it is not easy to find proper places for construction of more LNG tanks on surface. Underground LNG stores in rock will be a good alternative for tanks on surface in the view points of environmental and safety. It is also reported that it can be cheaper than that of on surfaces. It is well known that bed rocks in Korea is good to build underground structure like LNG stores. This report is basic research to seek for the possibility of LNG store construction in underground rocks. The important two questions on it is that whether it is possible technically and economically or not. The technical focus in this report is the stability of underground cavern for storage of LNG, energy conservation in operation, tightness against leakage of stored gas to surface and safety. Some statistic on LNG in Korea is given for this study with its future. (author). 25 refs., 36 tabs., 88 figs.

  18. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  19. Arctic pipeline planning design, construction, and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Utilize the most recent developments to combat challenges such as ice mechanics. The perfect companion for engineers wishing to learn state-of-the-art methods or further develop their knowledge of best practice techniques, Arctic Pipeline Planning provides a working knowledge of the technology and techniques for laying pipelines in the coldest regions of the world. Arctic Pipeline Planning provides must-have elements that can be utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction. This includes information on how to: Solve challenges in designing arctic pipelines Protect pipelines from everyday threats such as ice gouging and permafrost Maintain safety and communication for construction workers while supporting typical codes and standards Covers such issues as land survey, trenching or above ground, environmental impact of construction Provides on-site problem-solving techniques utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction Is packed with easy-to-read and under...

  20. Project financing knits parts of costly LNG supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minyard, R.J.; Strode, M.O.

    1997-01-01

    The supply and distribution infrastructure of an LNG project requires project sponsors and LNG buyers to make large, interdependent capital investments. For a grassroots project, substantial investments may be necessary for each link in the supply chain: field development; liquefaction plant and storage; ports and utilities; ships; receiving terminal and related facilities; and end-user facilities such as power stations or a gas distribution network. The huge sums required for these projects make their finance ability critical to implementation. Lenders have become increasingly comfortable with LNG as a business and now have achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with it. Raising debt financing for many future LNG projects, however, will present new and increasingly difficult challenges. The challenge of financing these projects will be formidable: political instability, economic uncertainty, and local currency volatility will have to be recognized and mitigated. Described here is the evolution of financing LNG projects, including the Rasgas LNG project financing which broke new ground in this area. The challenges that lie ahead for sponsors seeking to finance future projects selling LNG to emerging markets are also discussed. And the views of leading experts from the field of project finance, specifically solicited for this article, address major issues that must be resolved for successful financing of these projects

  1. NATpipe: an integrative pipeline for systematical discovery of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) and phase-distributed nat-siRNAs from de novo assembled transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongliang; Meng, Yijun; Zuo, Ziwei; Xue, Jie; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Nat-siRNAs (small interfering RNAs originated from natural antisense transcripts) are a class of functional small RNA (sRNA) species discovered in both plants and animals. These siRNAs are highly enriched within the annealed regions of the NAT (natural antisense transcript) pairs. To date, great research efforts have been taken for systematical identification of the NATs in various organisms. However, developing a freely available and easy-to-use program for NAT prediction is strongly demanded by researchers. Here, we proposed an integrative pipeline named NATpipe for systematical discovery of NATs from de novo assembled transcriptomes. By utilizing sRNA sequencing data, the pipeline also allowed users to search for phase-distributed nat-siRNAs within the perfectly annealed regions of the NAT pairs. Additionally, more reliable nat-siRNA loci could be identified based on degradome sequencing data. A case study on the non-model plant Dendrobium officinale was performed to illustrate the utility of NATpipe. Finally, we hope that NATpipe would be a useful tool for NAT prediction, nat-siRNA discovery, and related functional studies. NATpipe is available at www.bioinfolab.cn/NATpipe/NATpipe.zip. PMID:26858106

  2. Online estimation of wax deposition thickness in single-phase sub-sea pipelines based on acoustic chemometrics: A feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Halstensen, Maths; Arvoh, Benjamin Kaku; Amundsen, Lene; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Wax deposition in sub-sea oil producing pipelines is a concern to the oil producing companies. The deposition of wax in pipelines can cause serious economic implications if not monitored and controlled. Several researchers have developed models and investigated the deposition of wax in crude oil pipelines. As of today, there is no off the shelf instrument available for reliable online estimation of the wax depo- sition thickness in sub-sea pipelines. Acoustic chemometrics was applied to inves...

  3. The Safety Design Research of a LNG Carrier Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yi; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    LNG is the abbreviation for liquefied natural gas, which is recognized as one of the world’s clean energies. LNG is one product at natural gas that through purification and ultra-low temperature is liquefied. The liquefied natural gas is very suitable for LNG transportation by a truck. China is a big country rich in natural resources. The use of natural gas is in favor of Chinese energy structure adjustment. It has important strategic significance to improve the ecological environment and the...

  4. Industry brief letter; Oman LNG, Indo no hatsuden mukeni kyokyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    Oman LNG (OLNG), invested by Mitui Bussan, Mitsubishi Trading and Itochu Trading, concluded a supply contract of liquefied natural gas with a private power supply enterprise of India. Contract period is 20 years, and supplies 1.6 million ton LNG per year from the fourth quarter of 2001. This is the third contract case following to Korea Gas of Korea and Osaka Gas of Japan. OLNG will establish annual production 6.6 million system by the end of 1999. With this contract, almost all LNG production will be ensured to be sold by long term contracts. (translated by NEDO)

  5. LNG (liquefied natural gas): A necessary part in China's future energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wensheng; Gu, Anzhong [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Na [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an overview of the LNG industry in China, covering LNG plants, receiving terminals, transportation, and applications. Small and medium scale LNG plants with different liquefaction processes have already been built or are being built. China's first two LNG receiving terminals have been put into operation in Guangdong and Fujian, another one is being built in Shanghai, and more are being planned. China is now able to manufacture LNG road tanks and containers. The construction of the first two LNG carriers has been completed. LNG satellite stations have been built, and LNG vehicles have been manufactured. LNG related regulations and standards are being established. The prospects of LNG in China are also discussed in this paper. Interesting topics such as small-scale liquefiers, LNG cold energy utilization, coal bed methane liquefaction, LNG plant on board (FPSO - floating production, storage, and off-loading), and LNG price are introduced and analyzed. To meet the increasing demand for natural gas, China needs to build about 10 large LNG receiving terminals, and to import LNG at the level of more than 20 bcm (billion cubic metre) per year by 2020. (author)

  6. LNG (liquefied natural gas): A necessary part in China's future energy infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wensheng; Gu, Anzhong; Zhang, Na

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the LNG industry in China, covering LNG plants, receiving terminals, transportation, and applications. Small and medium scale LNG plants with different liquefaction processes have already been built or are being built. China's first two LNG receiving terminals have been put into operation in Guangdong and Fujian, another one is being built in Shanghai, and more are being planned. China is now able to manufacture LNG road tanks and containers. The construction of the first two LNG carriers has been completed. LNG satellite stations have been built, and LNG vehicles have been manufactured. LNG related regulations and standards are being established. The prospects of LNG in China are also discussed in this paper. Interesting topics such as small-scale liquefiers, LNG cold energy utilization, coal bed methane liquefaction, LNG plant on board (FPSO - floating production, storage, and off-loading), and LNG price are introduced and analyzed. To meet the increasing demand for natural gas, China needs to build about 10 large LNG receiving terminals, and to import LNG at the level of more than 20 bcm (billion cubic metre) per year by 2020. (author)

  7. Technological Innovation in the downstream gas market: Studying the economics of LNG distribution systems with a focus on Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Jarlsby, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Prospects for the market diffusion of natural gas, apart from other factors, depend strongly on the limitations set by the supply infrastructure. One of these limitations is determined by the economic viability of extending the distribution infrastructure, which can vary widely depending on the technology chosen and the prevailing local circumstances. While large-scale pipeline-based systems benefit from economies of scale, they require huge initial capital investments and may in certain cases not be economical at all, or only after excessively long payback periods, especially when end-use energy densities are low, growth in demand slow, and the topography difficult. This paper focuses on the economics of adoption and diffusion of innovative small- and medium-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) distribution systems, as compared to large pipeline-based distribution systems, with a particular focus on the situation in Norway. We address issues such as scale economies, learning effects, technological lock-in, niche market formation, and flexibility. Besides, we look at both the complementarity and competition among grid-based and LNG-based gas distribution systems. Finally, we briefly touch upon tax issues and political considerations. In Norway, the debate on natural gas extension has become controversial and politicized in recent years. On the one hand, certain stakeholders lobby for heavy, state-sponsored investment into one or more pipelines, which would bring large quantities of natural gas to industrial centers, at least some of which have struggled to maintain their market position in the past. On the other hand, there are stakeholders that have argued for the promotion of modular and more flexible small-scale LNG technology systems that could enhance competition in the gas market, and provide end-users with natural gas that would otherwise not be connected to the grid. Under present regulatory and market conditions in Norway, LNG supply to end users is

  8. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures

  9. Higher Order Numerical Methods and Use of Estimation Techniques to Improve Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Pipelines and Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorentzen, Rolf Johan

    2002-04-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop methods which can be used to improve predictions of two-phase flow (liquid and gas) in pipelines and wells. More reliable predictions are accomplished by improvements of numerical methods, and by using measured data to tune the mathematical model which describes the two-phase flow. We present a way to extend simple numerical methods to second order spatial accuracy. These methods are implemented, tested and compared with a second order Godunov-type scheme. In addition, a new (and faster) version of the Godunov-type scheme utilizing primitive (observable) variables is presented. We introduce a least squares method which is used to tune parameters embedded in the two-phase flow model. This method is tested using synthetic generated measurements. We also present an ensemble Kalman filter which is used to tune physical state variables and model parameters. This technique is tested on synthetic generated measurements, but also on several sets of full-scale experimental measurements. The thesis is divided into an introductory part, and a part consisting of four papers. The introduction serves both as a summary of the material treated in the papers, and as supplementary background material. It contains five sections, where the first gives an overview of the main topics which are addressed in the thesis. Section 2 contains a description and discussion of mathematical models for two-phase flow in pipelines. Section 3 deals with the numerical methods which are used to solve the equations arising from the two-phase flow model. The numerical scheme described in Section 3.5 is not included in the papers. This section includes results in addition to an outline of the numerical approach. Section 4 gives an introduction to estimation theory, and leads towards application of the two-phase flow model. The material in Sections 4.6 and 4.7 is not discussed in the papers, but is included in the thesis as it gives an important validation

  10. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  11. The Pacific Basin LNG trade: a return to fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, H.

    1991-01-01

    The LNG business in the Pacific Region is unique because there is no other source of energy in which seller and buyer sign contracts for 20-year periods. This long-term relationship is based on mutual buyer/seller cooperation, and mutual buyer/seller recognition of the financial and commercial challenges faced by all links in the LNG Supply Chain. However, there are now concerns that those involved in the LNG business were ignoring the fundamentals of the trade. The buyer expected the seller to absorb higher transportation costs, easing take or pay terms, more flexibility, evergreen options on uncommitted capacity, etc. On the other side, sellers expected larger baseload quantities, equitable sharing of LNG chain risks with consumers. (author)

  12. LNG peakshaving plant on the Maasvlakte, The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijl, P

    1975-06-01

    N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie presents the situation which led to its decision to construct a LNG peakshaving plant on the Maasvlakte. The discussion includes peaks in gas transport, the effect of peakshaving upon transportation costs, the selection of the peakshaving method, and the LNG peakshaving plant ultimately chosen. The liquefaction cycle uses 2 loops, the first an open loop obtainin g refrigeration from expansion of natural gas through a turboexpander, the second a closed loop using nitrogen as refrigerant.

  13. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  14. Future of gas. LNG between feast and famine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-05-15

    Between now and 2012, a new wave of LNG (liquid natural gas) supply will wash over markets, with Qatar accounting for half the growth as six new 'mega-trains' come on stream. It will arrive just as gas demand is being hit by the economic crisis. Beyond 2012, the situation will reverse, with growth constrained by lack of new supply. The LNG industry is facing a turbulent decade.

  15. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region

  16. Technical consideration of Niigata-Sendai natural gas pipeline; Niigata Sendaikan tennen gas pipeline no seko to gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, O.; Sugai, H.; Koizumi, H. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The Niigata-Sendai natural gas pipeline was constructed in 1996 by Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. to transmit indigenous gas produced off Niigata Pref. and imported gas from Indonesia in the form of LNG to Tohoku Electric Power Co.`s Sendai Thermal Power Station. It is the second longest onshore pipeline in Japan extending 251km (nominal diameter: 20in.). Kawasaki Steel participated in the construction project from the preliminary investigation and planning stage, and constructed a 97km long section, which is approximately 39% of the total length. Various new techniques were applied to secure safety and reduce cost. This paper outlines the project and some of the representative techniques adopted for the project, such as field bends cold-worked on 11m long straight pipes, work management system for constructing long-distance pipelines, coordination for the test runs and verification of the designs. 3 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Phani K.

    2007-01-01

    Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6 m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H 2 O and CO 2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are

  18. Public summaries of feasibility studies conducted for the trinidad LNG project. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The study, conducted by The M. W. Kellog Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the National Gas Company of Trinidad and Tobago. It shows the results of Project Definition Phase which was implemented as a follow-up to two previous feasibility studies which were conducted for a LNG plant in Trinidad. The objective of this report is to develop a project design basis and implementation plan plus a cost estimate. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Project Design Basis; (3) Seismic Hazard Assessment; (4) Geotechnical; and (5) Environmental Assessment.

  19. File list: DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 DNase-seq Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http://...dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  1. Repairing method for reactor primary system pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Uetake, Naoto; Hara, Teruo.

    1997-01-01

    Pipelines after decontamination of radioactive nuclides deposited on the pipelines in a nuclear power plant during operation or pipelines to replace pipelines deposited with radioactive nuclide are connected to each system of the nuclear power plant. They are heated in a gas phase containing oxygen to form an oxide film on the surface of the pipelines. The thickness of the oxide film formed in the gas phase is 1nm or greater, preferably 100nm. The concentration of oxygen in the gas phase containing oxygen must be 0.1% or greater. The heating is conducted by circulating a heated gas to the inside of the pipelines or disposing a movable heater such as a high frequency induction heater inside of the pipelines to form the oxide film. Then, redeposition of radioactive nuclide can be suppressed and since the oxide film is formed in the gas phase, a large scaled facilities are not necessary, thereby enabling to repair pipelines of reactor primary system at low cost. (N.H.)

  2. LNG trade preparations are a decade too soon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, S [Mar. Week; Faridany, E; Mitchell, P

    1979-03-01

    A discussion of papers delivered at the 6th International LNG/LPG, Gastech 78, Conference (Monte Carlo 11/7-10/78) covers an estimate by E. Faridany (Ocean Phoenix Transp. Inc.) that in 1981-85, world trade in LNG would increase by 1775 million cu ft/day (Mcfd) over the current 2720 Mcfd, but of this increment only the 460 Mcfd Panhandle project using Lake Charles, La., as a regasification terminal will be into the U.S. while all other trade will be to Europe. Of the present LNG trade, 48Vertical Bar3< goes to Japan from the Brunei (535 Mcfd, the world's largest) and Abu Dhabi projects, and only 20Vertical Bar3< goes to the U.S. Faridany's estimates of U.S. LNG imports in 1990 vary from the 8215 Mcfd ''high'' to the ''median'' forecast of 2930 Mcfd; he predicted that the proportion of incremental sources of gas supply taken up by LNG in 1990 is only 20-40Vertical Bar3< for the U.S., compared with 25Vertical Bar3< for Europe and 90Vertical Bar3< for Japan. According to P. Mitchell (Poten and Partners), world demand for LPG could rise from 9 million to 38 million tons in 1979-85.

  3. Modeling Turkey’s future LNG supply security strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efe Biresselioglu, Mehmet; Hakan Demir, Muhittin; Kandemir, Cansu

    2012-01-01

    Turkey was among those countries which decided to increase its natural gas consumption in the 1990s, due to its relative low cost and lack of impact on the environment. However, a heavy dependence on imports, from Algeria, Qatar and Nigeria, respectively, creates a threat to energy security, both in terms of source and supply diversity. Accordingly, we follow an analytical approach to identify the accuracy of our assumption, considering the current economic, political and security risk. To this end, we formulate and solve a mixed integer programming model that determines the optimal sourcing strategy for Turkey’s increasing LNG demand. This model demonstrates a number of alternative policy options for LNG supply. Furthermore, we consider that increasing the proportion of LNG in the overall gas supply will contribute to the aim of improving Turkey’s level of energy security. - Highlights: ► Turkey’s best policy option is to increase the share of LNG. ► Turkey’s main suppliers of LNG will be Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, and Trinidad and Tobago. ► Norway, Libya, and Oman contribute to the supply with rather smaller shares. ► With high risk scenario Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria and Libya will not be suppliers. ► Oman and Qatar will cover; even though they are high-cost suppliers.

  4. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  5. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August 16, 2010. Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563, Birmingham, Alabama 35202-2563, filed in the above.... Sheffield, Director--Rates and Regulatory, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C., 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501...

  6. 75 FR 53688 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RP10-829-000] Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference August 25, 2010. Take notice that Commission Staff will... Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426. On June 7, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG) filed a...

  7. Nuclear techniques and cross-correlation methods for spectral analysis in two-phase flow measurements in mineral pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Luis E.B.; Salgado, Cesar M., E-mail: brandaos@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Radiofarmacos; Sicilliano, Umberto C.C.S., E-mail: umberto.cassara@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia

    2013-07-01

    In mineral industry is common to use water to transport pellets inside pipes. In these units, the correct measurement of flow (both solid and liquid phase) is important to guarantee a safe operation. Cross correlation flow meters are devices specially suited to be used in dual-phase flow and they are based on measure the transit time due the disturbances registered between two points, in our case gamma attenuation from radioactive sources. The emphasis of this work is the application of gamma transmission and scattering technique associated with spectral analysis methods to measure the flow of solid phase in a liquid fluid in side the pipe. The detectors and the sources are out side of the tube and are positioned 10.0 cm distant one from the other. The photons of transmission/scattering gamma radiation were registered, and across-correlation method was applied to measure the flow and spectral analysis was used to study the flow profile inside the pipe. (author)

  8. Removable pipeline plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassalotti, M.; Anastasi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A removable plugging device for a pipeline, and particularly for pressure testing a steam pipeline in a boiling water reactor, wherein an inflatable annular sealing member seals off the pipeline and characterized by radially movable shoes for holding the plug in place, each shoe being pivotally mounted for self-adjusting engagement with even an out-of-round pipeline interior

  9. Pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyt, J.; Macara, C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrity; control and deviation from technical integrity; pipelines; pipeline failure assessment; pipeline integrity assessment; leak detection; emergency response. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Prospects of natural gas demand and pipeline projects in the East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the natural gas industry in East Asia was discussed. It was predicted that by 2010, the demand for natural gas could potentially reach 80 billion cubic feet per day. This represents an 8 per cent per year growth rate from a 1995 baseline. Similarly, it was predicted that by 2010, the region's natural gas supply could potentially reach 65 billion cubic feet per day which would represent 2.5 times the supply of natural gas in 1995. The additional demand will most likely be supplied from the Middle East in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), from Eastern Russia through pipelines of LNG, or from North America in the form of LNG. Some gas may also be supplied from Central Asia through pipelines. The price and cost of natural gas are major uncertainties in the future of the East Asian gas demand. Pipeline projects from Russia to China were discussed. Japan and Korea are also interested in collaborating on the feasibility study with Russia and China on a 3,400 km pipeline of 60 inch diameter from the Koviktinskoye gas field through Mongolia to Beijing, Tianjin and Korea, transporting 20 to 30 billion cubic metres of gas annually. A natural gas pipeline project transporting gas from the southern edge of the Sakhalin Island to the Tokyo area was also discussed. The project would involve construction of a 2,200 km 40-48 inch pipeline, much of it undersea, transporting 6 to 12 million tonnes of liquid natural gas, annually

  11. LNG Market: Developments in 2014 and 2015 Outlook. Enerdata Gas/LNG and Power Consulting - January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Enerdata power and gas expert held a webinar on the important developments happened in the LNG market in 2014 and provided insight on the LNG market outlook for 2015. 2015 is the year of uncertainty for the LNG industry. We will continue to experience low LNG prices driven by temporary liquefaction over capacity. The 2015 low prices environment will continue to support domestic gas price reforms in countries such as India, China, Malaysia and Indonesia. National economies of high LNG consumers such as Japan, Korea and Taiwan will benefit from low energy cost. Import terminal operators will see their utilization rates drop at concerning levels where the balance between operating cost and revenue starts to move on the red zone. Project developers will continue to delay their FID until they can see the light out of the tunnel. Those negotiating long term contracts have the big dilemma of shall it be oil-linked or not oil-linked. Never as before the importance to have a good insight of the future will differentiate losers from winners

  12. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  13. Developments in the safe design of LNG tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, N. J.; Slatter, M. D.

    The objective of this paper is to discuss how the gradual development of design concepts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage systems has helped to enhance storage safety and economy. The experience in the UK is compared with practice in other countries with similar LNG storage requirements. Emphasis is placed on the excellent record of safety and reliability exhibited by tanks with a primary metal container designed and constructed to approved standards. The work carried out to promote the development of new materials, fire protection, and monitoring systems for use in LNG storage is also summarized, and specific examples described from British Gas experience. Finally, the trends in storage tank design world-wide and options for future design concepts are discussed, bearing in mind planned legislation and design codes governing hazardous installations.

  14. Exergy recovery during LNG regasification: Electric energy production - Part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Celidonio; Dispenza, Giorgio; Rocca, Vincenzo La; Panno, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification facilities, for exergy recovery during regasification, an option could be the production of electric energy recovering the energy available as cold. In a previous paper, the authors propose an innovative process which uses a cryogenic stream of LNG during regasification as a cold source in an improved combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Considering the LNG regasification projects in progress all over the World, an appropriate design option could be based on a modular unit having a mean regasification capacity of 2 x 10 9 standard cubic meters/year. This paper deals with the results of feasibility studies, developed by the authors at DREAM in the context of a research program, on ventures based on thermodynamic and economic analysis of improved CHP cycles and related innovative technology which demonstrate the suitability of the proposal

  15. Guanabara Bay and Pecem LNG flexible metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Vinicus Roberto C.; Carvalho, Gustavo L.A.; Bruel, Edson L.; Santana, Jose P.C. de; Vidal, Lud C.C.N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This work presents to the community the metering systems installed in the Liquefied Natural (LNG) Gas Flexible Terminals of the Pecem Port and Guanabara Bay. A brief description of the Terminals facilities and its operation is firstly made to provide a background of the systems discussed. Then, the LNG custody transfer metering system, the operational control metering system, the energy balance of the LNG transferring system and the Natural Gas custody transfer metering system - that are our systems of interest - are described in detail. It is intended to use the philosophy adopted in the Guanabara Bay and Pecem Flexible Terminals design as a standard to future installations, integrated with improvements brought by the operation experience that will be obtained in those terminals. (author)

  16. Natural Gas Exploration and Supply in India and the Prospects of a Bangladesh-to-India Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Mamunur [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Energy consumption in India is growing very rapidly. India.s own existing as well as any new discoveries of natural gas revenues may meet only a fraction of its growing demand for energy. Hence, it will become more dependent on the global market for the supply of gas. But it is always difficult for different nations to reach a bilateral agreement on joint projects such as gas pipelines. India has been importing natural gas mostly in the form of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). But for the last two decades, it has shown an increasing interest in importing gas from international market by a pipeline. For example, it has planned to import natural gas from Iran, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Turkmenistan via a pipeline. But India.s best option is to purchase gas from its neighbor Bangladesh via a pipeline. Union Oil of California (Unocal), a large investor in Bangladeshi gas, has proposed to build a pipeline, to sell the gas from its Bibiyana field. A Bangladesh-India pipeline potentially offers several socio-economic benefits. But the project, however, so far has made a little progress. Political issues attached to the project. If the Bangladeshi pipeline plan fails, India will turn other alternative options to meet its gas demand. India already has entered into agreement with International consortiums for LNG purchase. Furthermore, the country is also keen on increasing its effort to develop non-conventional sources in the near future. If these alternatives become viable, India.s demand for and dependence on foreign natural gas will decrease and natural gas (of Bangladesh, for example) might lose some of its value. Keywords: Natural gas exploration and supply in India and Bangladesh, Bangladesh-to-India pipeline, Unocal, natural gas import, market, politics, LNG, non-conventional hydrocarbon sources.

  17. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  18. More LNG ship orders for GD (General Dynamics Corp. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    General Dynamics Corp. has been awarded a contract for two LNG tankers to transport LNG from Algeria to Lake Charles, La., with the U.S. Maritime Administration funding 25.5% of the $155 million cost of each vessel. The two ships are being built for Lachmar Inc., of Delaware, a partnership composed of Morgas Inc., Pantheon Inc., and Pelmar Inc., subsidiaries respectively of Moore-McCormack Bulk Transport Inc., General Dynamics Corp., and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. Upon completion in Dec. 1979 and Mar. 1980, the ships will be operated by Gastrans Inc. of Delaware, which is also a subsidiary of Moore-McCormack.

  19. China's energy and environmental quandary: is LNG the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.F.; King, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    Economic growth in China has inevitably lead to an increased energy demand to fuel industrial production, infrastructural and domestic needs. To date much of China's generating capacity has been coal-based, without flue gas desulphurisation. The serious environmental effects of such a policy are being reexamined in the light of rapid growth in demand. This paper argues that power generation by combined cycle gas turbines and fuelled by natural gas, supplied as LNG could provide a solution. Imported LNG to fuel such turbines could, it is argued, be used to generate electricity at prices competitive with imported coal and other sources of domestic gas. (UK)

  20. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Delaware limited partnership with one general partner, Freeport LNG-GP, Inc., a Delaware corporation, which...). Freeport LNG's limited partners are: (1) Freeport LNG Investments, LLLP, a Delaware limited liability limited partnership, which owns a 45% limited partnership interest in Freeport LNG; (2) Cheniere FLNG, L.P...

  1. Implementation of the HNS Convention in the LNG Industry: Singularities, Stakes, Issues and GIIGNL Proposed Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers (GIIGNL) is a non-profit organization founded in December of 1971. It is composed of 56 member companies from 18 different countries across the world and involved in the importation of Liquefied Natural Gas. The main objective of the GIIGNL is to promote the development of activities related to LNG: purchasing, importing, processing, transportation, handling, re-gasification and various uses of LNG. For this purpose, the GIIGNL is particularly involved in promoting the state-of-the art technology in the LNG industry, in communicating about the economic fundamentals of the industry, in enhancing facility operations, in diversifying contractual techniques, and in developing industry positions to be taken in international agencies. As a member of the IOPC Fund since June 2007, the GIIGNL prepared this LNG overview in order to offer a better understanding to state delegations about this specific product and its market and to contribute to the debate on the implementation of the HNS Convention. the first chapter constitutes an introduction to the LNG Industry: presentation of an LNG Chain, overview of the global LNG trade and its growth rate, type of contracts, LNG tankers and technical transportation constraints, liquefaction and re-gasification plants around the world. The second chapter focuses on some singularities of the LNG industry that differentiate LNG from other Hazardous and Noxious Substances: LNG, a clean and unique product and activity, high standards and firm regulations concerning security and maritime safety, high level of investment required for an LNG chain, DES and FOB, the fundamental Incoterms of LNG sales and purchase. The third chapter presents the HNS Convention as potentially applicable to the LNG market: a two tier compensation regime - a new perspective for the LNG industry, a potential impact on LNG sales and purchase agreements, the importance of global HNS ratification within LNG

  2. HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipeline and riser design in Guanabara Bay: challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomfimsilva, Carlos; Jorge, Joao Paulo Carrijo; Schmid, Dominique; Gomes, Rodrigo Klim [INTECSEA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, Alexander Piraja [GDK, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Worldwide shipments of plastic pipes are forecasted to increase 5.2% per year since 2008, being commonly used for water supply and sewage disposal. The HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipes have been applied recently to deliver potable water and fire fighting water for the main pier of the LNG system in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro. The system contains three sizes of pipe outside diameter, 110 mm and 160 mm for water supply, and 500 mm for the fire fighting system. The main design challenges of the pipeline system included providing on-bottom stability, a suitable installation procedure and a proper riser design. The on-bottom stability calculations, which are quite different from the conventional steel pipelines, were developed by designing concrete blocks to be assembled on the pipeline in a required spacing to assure long term stability, knowing that plastic pipes are buoyant even in flooded conditions. The installation procedure was developed considering the lay down methodology based on surface towing technique. The riser was designed to be installed together with additional steel support structure to allow the entire underwater system to have the same plastic pipe specification up to the surface. This paper presents the main challenges that were faced during the design of the HDPE pipelines for the LNG system in Guanabara Bay, addressing the solutions and recommendations adopted for the plastic underwater pipeline system.

  3. ARTIP: Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Gyanchandani, Dolly; Kulkarni, Sarang; Gupta, Neeraj; Pathak, Vineet; Pande, Arti; Joshi, Unmesh

    2018-02-01

    The Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (ARTIP) automates the entire process of flagging, calibrating, and imaging for radio-interferometric data. ARTIP starts with raw data, i.e. a measurement set and goes through multiple stages, such as flux calibration, bandpass calibration, phase calibration, and imaging to generate continuum and spectral line images. Each stage can also be run independently. The pipeline provides continuous feedback to the user through various messages, charts and logs. It is written using standard python libraries and the CASA package. The pipeline can deal with datasets with multiple spectral windows and also multiple target sources which may have arbitrary combinations of flux/bandpass/phase calibrators.

  4. Life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis of LNG as a heavy vehicle fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Brandoni, C.; Evangelista, D.; Polonara, F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the life cycle, in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of diesel and liquefied natural gas (LNG) used as fuels for heavy-duty vehicles in the European market (EU-15). A literature review revealed that the numerous studies conducted have reported different results when the authors departed from different baseline assumptions and reference scenarios. For our study, we concentrated on the European scenario and on heavy-duty road transport vehicles, given their important incidence on the global emissions of GHG. Two possible LNG procurement strategies were considered i.e. purchasing it directly from the regasification terminal (LNG-TER) or producing LNG locally (at the service station) with small-scale plants (LNG-SSL). We ascertained that the use of LNG-TER enables a 10% reduction in GHG emissions by comparison with diesel, while the emissions resulting from the LNG-SSL solution are comparable with those of diesel.

  5. Designing a decision support model for the LNG market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Steve; Dullaert, Wout

    2010-01-01

    As the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) market is supply-driven and subject to longterm contracts, both liquefaction companies and shipowners need to make strategic decisions on fleet chartering requirements. These planning decisions become ever more difficult in light of the transformations permeating

  6. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vílchez, Juan A. [TIPs – Trámites, Informes y Proyectos, SL, Llenguadoc 10, 08030 Barcelona (Spain); Villafañe, Diana [Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casal, Joaquim, E-mail: joaquim.casal@upc.edu [Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We proposed a new parameter: the dispersion safety factor (DSF). ► DSF is the ratio between the distance reached by the LFL and that reached by the visible cloud. ► The results for the DSF agree well with the evidence from large scale experiments. ► Two expressions have been proposed to calculate DSF as a function of H{sub R}. ► The DSF may help in indicating the danger of ignition of a LNG vapor cloud. -- Abstract: The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire.

  7. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vílchez, Juan A.; Villafañe, Diana; Casal, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We proposed a new parameter: the dispersion safety factor (DSF). ► DSF is the ratio between the distance reached by the LFL and that reached by the visible cloud. ► The results for the DSF agree well with the evidence from large scale experiments. ► Two expressions have been proposed to calculate DSF as a function of H R . ► The DSF may help in indicating the danger of ignition of a LNG vapor cloud. -- Abstract: The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire

  8. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

    2012-09-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  9. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R P; Wan Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani

    2012-01-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  10. 78 FR 18970 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... and control systems, and associated infrastructure); [cir] modifications and upgrades at the existing... the system. [cir] ancillary facilities associated with the pipeline. Compression and metering facilities now included as part of the project, include: [cir] a new 59,840-horsepower (hp) compressor...

  11. Study on Calculation of Liquid Level And Storage of Tanks for LNG-fueled Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Guoqing; Liu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    As the ongoing development of the application of LNG as a clean energy in waterborne transport industry, the fleet scale of LNG-fueled vessels enlarged and the safety operation has attracted more attention in the industry. Especially the accurate detection of liquid level of LNG tanks is regarded as an important issue to ensure a safe and stable operation of LNG-fueled ships and a key parameter to keep the proper functioning of marine fuel storage system, supply system and safety control system. At present, detection of LNG tank liquid level mainly adopts differential pressure detection method. Liquid level condition could be found from the liquid level reference tables. However in practice, since LNG-fueled vessels are generally not in a stationary state, liquid state within the LNG tanks will constantly change, the detection of storage of tanks only by reference to the tables will cause deviation to some extent. By analyzing the temperature under different pressure, the effects of temperature change on density and volume integration calculation, a method of calculating the liquid level and storage of LNG tanks is put forward making the calculation of liquid level and actual storage of LNG tanks more accurately and providing a more reliable basis for the calculation of energy consumption level and operation economy for LNG-fueled vessels.

  12. LNG REGASIFICATION TERMINALS ACCESS CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR SECURITY OF EUROPEAN NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Veselić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing natural gas consumption, declining North Sea gas reserves, increased production costs and the deregulation of European gas and electricity markets have all combined to create new opportunities for LNG in Europe. In these circumstances, LNG represents an opportunity for many European countries to diversify their natural gas supply, while decreasing their dependence on Russian natural gas import at the same time. The largest exporters of LNG to Europe are Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, Trinidad & Tobago, Egypt and Oman. Spain, Great Britain and France are the largest European importers of LNG. Spain has six LNG regasification terminals, followed by four in Great Britain, three in France, two in Italy and Turkey and finally Greece and Portugal with one terminal each. New LNG regasification terminals are currently under construction in Italy, Spain, Sweden and Netherlands. In addition, more than 30 new LNG terminal projects have been proposed around Europe. Italy plans to construct as many as 10 new regasification terminals, due to the strong orientation of its national energy policy towards LNG. Many European countries are strongly considering participating in the LNG chain for the first time, namely Albania, Cyprus, Ireland, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Croatia. This paper focuses on a specific aspect of the LNG supply chain: the import facility (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. The world's largest LNG producer's next market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.; Isworo Suharno; Simandjuntak, W.M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the domestic gas market in Indonesia, the world's largest liquefied natural gas producing country, is described as part of the overall impact of the country's oil and gas production. The first large scale use of natural gas in Indonesia was established in 1968 when a fertiliser plant using gas as the feedstock was built. Ultimately, through increased yields, this has enabled Indonesia to be self-sufficient in rice and an exporter of fertiliser. Problems which stand in the way of further developments include: capital, though Pertamina and PGN are perceived as attractive for foreign investment; the lack of a regulatory framework for gas; geographical constraints, among them the fact that the gas deposits are remote from the largest population concentrations; lack of infrastructure. There are nevertheless plans for expansion and the provision of an integrated gas pipeline system. Pertamina, which has responsibility for all oil and gas developments, and PGN, whose primary role has been as a manufacturer and distributor of gas, are now working together in the coordination of all gas activities. (10 figures). (UK)

  14. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets

  15. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  16. Integrating sustainable growth into export pipeline projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeniffer, Barringer; William, Lukens; Patricia, Wild

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Sustainable growth in the energy industry is rapidly expanding beyond the conceptual stage. Policies addressing the three principles of Sustainable Development are being established and strategies to execute these policies are being developed and implemented in the field. Conoco is developing a strong corporate culture around sustainable growth; and, pipeline systems play a vital role in delivering the triple bottom line results for our stake holders. This paper will highlight some of the key focal points by Conoco Inc., in each phase of pipeline project development, execution, and operation to make pipeline projects a contributor to Conoco's sustainable growth success, and shares some lessons learned

  17. Nova Gas's pipeline to Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, N.

    1996-01-01

    The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia's peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI's success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI's ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners

  18. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  19. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  20. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  1. LNG: in Asia, the demand should double by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In a well-documented study, ''Asia Gas Study'', published by the end of the first semester of 1996, the International Energy Agency (IEA) anticipated the doubling of the LNG demand from Asia, because of a more rapid growth of gas industry than for other energy industries. The regional gas trade should even triple by 2010. This study is the first from IEA about Asia and focusses on 6 key-countries: Brunei-Darussalam, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. About 7% of the worldwide natural gas reserves belong to Asia but this self-sufficiency will fall rapidly. This paper summarizes the forecasting and uncertainties of natural gas demand from Japan, South Korea, China and India by the year 2010. LNG producers such as Brunei and Australia but also Papua-New Guinea, Vietnam, Alaska and Middle East are ready to supply the Asian demand. (J.S.)

  2. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  3. Using of polyamide in construction of supporting blocks of cryogenic tanks on example of LNG container

    OpenAIRE

    E. Lisowski; W. Czyżycki; K. Łazarczyk

    2010-01-01

    Interest in using of cryogenic gases is increasing recently. It particularly applies to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), which is relatively inexpensive and environmental friendly. In the liquefied form this gas is highly compressed. One cubic meter of liquefied LNG can be expanded to 660 cubic meters of normal usable gas. At the atmospheric pressure, the liquefaction temperature of LNG is under minus 160 Celsius degrees. Therefore, there is a necessity to store it in a cryogenic tank. A system o...

  4. Investments in the LNG Value Chain: A Multistage Stochastic Optimization Model focusing on Floating Liquefaction Units

    OpenAIRE

    Røstad, Lars Dybsjord; Erichsen, Jeanette Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we have developed a strategic optimization model of investments in infrastructure in the LNG value chain. The focus is on floating LNG production units: when they are a viable solution and what value they add to the LNG value chain. First a deterministic model is presented with focus on describing the value chain, before it is expanded to a multistage stochastic model with uncertain field sizes and gas prices. The objective is to maximize expected discounted profits through op...

  5. Radiation scanning aids tower diagnosis at Arun LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naklie, M.M.; Pless, L.; Gurning, T.P.; Hyasak, M.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation scanning has been used effectively to troubleshoot the treating towers of the Arun LNG plant in Sumatra, Indonesia. The plant is one of the world's largest such facilities. The analysis was part of an investigation aimed at increasing the capacity of the treater section of the plant. Radiation scanning is a tool which, in addition to tower differential pressure and product purity, can aid in diagnosing tower performance

  6. Alternative natural gas contract and pricing structures and incentives for the LNG industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas conversion to liquefied gas (LNG) and transport by LNG tankers is one option for meeting expanding gas consumption and for gas traded internationally. This paper examines the impact of the traditional gas contract provisions of indefinite pricing, market out price ceilings, and take-or-pay requirements on the profitability of LNG projects in the context of markets characterized by price and quantity uncertainty. Simulation of experiments are used to examine and calibrate the effects of those provisions. The results provide guidance to operators, host countries and purchasers in structuring such contracts. The paper also assesses prospects of future expansion of world LNG capacity. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Pipelines 'R' us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1997-01-01

    The geopolitical background to the export of oil and gas from Kazakhstan by pipeline is explored with particular reference to the sensitivities of the USA. There are now a number of pipeline proposals which would enable Kazakhstan to get its hydrocarbons to world markets. The construction of two of these formed part of a major oil deal signed recently with China in the face of stiff competition from major US companies. The most convenient and cost effective route, connecting up with Iran's existing pipeline network to the Gulf, is unlikely to be developed given continuing US sanctions against Iran. Equally unlikely seems to be the Turkmenistan to Pakistan pipeline in the light of the political volatility of Afghanistan. US companies continue to face limits on export capacity via the existing Russian pipelines from Kazakhstan. A temporary solution could be to carry some oil in the existing pipeline from Azerbaijan to Georgia which has been upgraded and is due to become operational soon, and later in a second proposed pipeline on this route. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium, consisting of three countries and eleven international companies, is building a 1500 km pipeline from the Tergiz field to Novorossiysk on the Black Sea with a view to completion in 2000. An undersea pipeline crossing the Caspian from Azerbaijan is being promoted by Turkey. There is an international perception that within the next five years Kazakhstan could be in a position to export its oil via as many as half a dozen different routes. (UK)

  8. Evaluasi dan Analisis Dampak Program Corporate Social Responsibility Badak LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanes Utama

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Program CSR Badak LNG telah melibatkan masyarakat dalam proses perencanaan, pelaksanaan, sampai pada proses monitoring dan evaluasi. Hal ini tentu berdampak pada peningkatan kualitas program serta meningkatkan peran partisipasi masyarakat sebagai kelompok sasaran penerima program CSR. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengukur tingkat kepuasan masyarakat terhadap program CSR yang telah dijalankan dan mengevaluasi dampak program CSR yang telah dilakukan. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah  melalui pendekatan kajian input, output, outcome dan impact melalui analisis Indeks Kepuasan Masyarakat, Importance Performance Analysis, dan Compass Sustainability Analysis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan secara keseluruhan kepuasan masyarakat terhadap pelayanan program CSR Badak LNG menunjukkan parameter sangat baik. Tingkat kesesuaian antara kepuasan kinerja dengan tingkat kepentingan masyarakat masuk dalam kategori sangat baik. Indikator kejelasan petugas pendamping,  tanggung jawab petugas pendamping, kemampuan petugas pendamping,  kesopanan petugas pendamping, dan kepastian biaya pelayanan adalah indikator yang memiliki harapan tinggi dari masyarakat penerima manfaat, dan perusahaan memiliki kinerja yang sangat baik dalam hal tersebut. Dampak positif yang diterima dari  kegiatan CSR pada dimensi nature, wellbeing, economy, social di Kota Bontang sangat tinggi, di antaranya terjadinya peningkatan kualitas lingkungan, pemanfaatan potensi alam, peningkatan pendapatan masyarakat, pengentasan kemiskinan, peningkatan kemandirian UMKM, semakin dikenalnya kebudayaan masyarakat, dan tingginya tingkat kepuasan masyarakat terhadap kegiatan-kegiatan CSR Badak LNG. The CSR program from Badak LNG has been involving the society in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation process. It has an impact to the improvement quality program and increase peoples participation as a CSR awardee. This research aims to measure the peoples satisfactory towards CSR

  9. Decontamination device for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashina, Heihachi.

    1994-01-01

    Pipelines to be decontaminated are parts of pipelines contaminated with radioactive materials, and they are connected to a fluid transfer means (for example, a bladeless pump) and a ball collector by way of a connector. The fluid of a mixture of chemical decontaminating liquid and spheres is sent into pipelines to be decontaminated. The spheres are, for example, heat resistant porous hard or soft rubber spheres. The fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated are circulated by way of bypassing means. The inner surface of the pipelines is decontaminated by the circulation of the fluid. When the bypass means is closed, the fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated is sent to the ball collector, and the spheres are captured by a hopper. Further, the liquid is sent to the filtrating means to filter the chemical contaminating liquid, and sludges contained in the liquid are captured. (I.N.)

  10. Overview of slurry pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, R L

    1982-01-01

    Slurry pipelines have proven to be a technically feasible, environmentally attractive and economic method of transporting finely divided particles over long distances. A pipeline system normally consists of preparation, pipeline and utilization facilities and requires optimization of all three components taken together. A considerable amount of research work has been done to develop hydraulic design of a slurry pipeline. Equipment selection and estimation of corrosion-erosion are considered to be as important as the hydraulic design. Future applications are expected to be for the large-scale transport of coal and for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits such as iron ore and copper. Application of slurry pipelines for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits is illustrated by the Kudremukh iron concentrate slurry pipeline in India.

  11. Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongjie; Wang Zhe; Sun Jining; Zhang Lili; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO 2 pipeline for CCS application. ► We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ► We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ► We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ► We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO 2 mitigation and an optimized CO 2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO 2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO 2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO 2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO 2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO 2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO 2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO 2 /year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO 2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO 2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO 2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

  12. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  13. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... natural gas distribution construction. Natural gas distribution pipelines are subject to a unique subset... distribution pipeline construction practices. This workshop will focus solely on natural gas distribution...

  14. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  15. Rupture detection device for pipeline in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakoshi, Toshinori; Kanamori, Shigeru; Shirasawa, Hirofumi.

    1991-01-01

    A difference between each of the pressures in a plurality of pipelines disposed in a shroud a reactor container and a pressure outside of the shroud is detected, thereby enabling safety and reliable detection even for simultaneous rapture and leakage of the pipelines. That is, a difference between the pressure of a steam phase outside of the shroud and a pressure in each of a plurality of low pressure injection pipelines in an emergency core cooling system opened to the inside of the shroud in the reactor container is detected by a difference pressure detector for each of them. Then, an average value for each of the pressure difference is determined, which is compared with the difference pressure obtained from each of the detectors in a comparator. Then, if openings should be caused by rupture, leakage or the like in any of the pipelines, the pressure in that pipeline is lowered to a vicinity of an atmospheric pressure and at the vapor phase pressure at the lowest. If the pressure is compared with the average value by the comparator, a negative difference is caused. Accordingly, an alarming unit generates an alarm based on the pressure difference signal, thereby enabling to specify the failed pipeline and provide an announce of the failure. (I.S.)

  16. Exergetic Analysis, Optimization and Comparison of LNG Cold Exergy Recovery Systems for Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Dorosz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shares in the global energy market is steadily increasing. One possible application of LNG is as a fuel for transportation. Stricter air pollution regulations and emission controls have made the natural gas a promising alternative to liquid petroleum fuels, especially in the case of heavy transport. However, in most LNG-fueled vehicles, the physical exergy of LNG is destroyed in the regasification process. This paper investigates possible LNG exergy recovery systems for transportation. The analyses focus on “cold energy” recovery systems as the enthalpy of LNG, which may be used as cooling power in air conditioning or refrigeration. Moreover, four exergy recovery systems that use LNG as a low temperature heat sink to produce electric power are analyzed. This includes single-stage and two-stage direct expansion systems, an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle system, and a combined system (ORC + direct expansion. The optimization of the above-mentioned LNG power cycles and exergy analyses are also discussed, with the identification of exergy loss in all components. The analyzed systems achieved exergetic efficiencies in the range of 20 % to 36 % , which corresponds to a net work in the range of 214 to 380 kJ/kg L N G .

  17. LNG. Practice and policy. Meeting report NeVER, November 20, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhauer, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Report is given of a meeting of the Netherlands Association for Energy Legislation (NeVER), which was held November 16, 2006, in Amsterdam, on the subject of LNG. More in particular third party access to LNG-terminals and related exemption regulations in Europe and the Netherlands [nl

  18. File list: Pol.Lng.10.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Lng.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Lung SRX0...62976,SRX143816,SRX020252 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  2. Full scale ambient water flow tests of a 10-inch emergency release coupling for LNG transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, L.J. van der; Webber, T.; Bokhorst, E. van; Revell, C.

    2016-01-01

    For LNG transfer in ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore configurations emergency release couplings (F.RC) in combination with loading arms and multi-composite hoses are applied In view of a demand for increasing transfer flow rates in offshore LNG applications a 10-inch ERC has been developed intended

  3. Spot sale of uncommitted LNG from Middle East: Japan or the UK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikhalat-Jahromi, Hamed; Bell, Michael G.H.; Fontes, Dalila B.M.M.; Cochrane, Robert A.; Angeloudis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is rising as demand for it grows rapidly and steadily due to growth in energy demand, the transition to a low carbon economy and the longer distances over which natural gas is now traded. Given its importance, this work proposes an optimization model that assists to decide on when and where LNG should be delivered by coordinating tanker type, assignment and routing, inventory management, contract obligations, arbitrage and uncommitted LNG. The model maximizes the profit mainly by taking advantage of price differences between different markets. The contributions of this work are twofold. First, following the analysis of expenses and revenues, a new mixed integer programming model for LNG liquefaction and shipping is proposed from a corporate finance perspective. Furthermore, a solution approach for it is implemented and tested. Second, the model is used to derive a short term trade policy for the Middle Eastern LNG producers regarding the spot sale of their uncommitted product to Japan or to the UK, namely to: dispatch to whichever market has the higher current spot price, regardless of the variability of the transport expenses. - Highlights: •The cash-flow of an LNG producer in operational planning is examined. •An LNG inventory routing problem for EBITDA maximization is formulated. •A project in Middle East for studying the spot sale of uncommitted LNG is created. •In sale to Japan and the UK the market with the higher price should be picked.

  4. File list: InP.Lng.50.AllAg.WI-38 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: His.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. Panorama 2016 - LNG in transportation: what is its potential for the sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Louis

    2015-12-01

    With low emissions and competitive pricing, liquefied natural gas (LNG) appears to have significant advantages to emerge as an alternative or supplement to traditional fossil fuels. Although LNG has significant potential for growth over the long term, it will have to eliminate some uncertainties, especially those related to supply infrastructure. (author)

  15. File list: Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Lung S...RX016555,SRX150101,SRX150102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Lng.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Lung SRX... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: InP.Lng.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 All antigens Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SRX2...RX213848 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  7. 76 FR 77814 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed BOG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    .... Summary of the Proposed Project Cameron LNG plans to construct and operate facilities necessary to liquefy boil-off gas (BOG) at its existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana... sufficient LNG in each of the terminal's storage tanks. Currently, BOG is sent out via delivery into the...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N...

  9. Pipeline system operability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  10. Pipeline system operability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  11. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  12. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): emerging control; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): controle de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2008-07-01

    The operation to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is innovative for the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO will operate two LNG flexible terminals. In accordance with the health, safety and environmental policy - training, education and awareness action plans were formulated by TRANSPETRO to assure the operational safety for the activity. Part of this action plan includes the training of LNG spill control and fire suppression. The training was carried out in 20 hours and divided into two parts: theoretical and practice. In the practice part, 3.000 gallons of LNG were unloaded and the students could verify the behaviour of the LNG and the effectiveness of the resources available for the emergency control. The knowledge was introduced in the company to create specific procedures, local emergency plans and develop internal instructors. (author)

  13. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. [[Page...

  14. The importance of LNG for natural gas consumption in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metelska Klaudia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The World market of liquefied natural gas (LNG is growing rapidly. In 2015 LNG production exceeded 333 bcm with its predicted increase up to 450 bcm in 2019. The analysis of LNG role in natural gas import to the EU in recent years shows variability: LNG share in overall import reached 25% in 2011 and it went down to 15% in 2014. The smaller demand for natural gas including LNG in the EU can be due to, among others, a slower economic growth and a dynamic development of the use of renewable energy sources. The article shows the role of natural gas in the structure of consumption of primary energy as well as the changes in demand for natural gas in the years 2007–2014 for the main groups of end users: industry, energy production and individual households. The biggest fall in demand for natural gas has been observed in energy production sector in recent years. This publication continues to analyse the structure of natural gas supplies to the EU, with special emphasis on the directions of LNG import to the countries such as: The UK, Spain, France, Greece, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, Lithuania and The Netherlands. The significance of LNG in the balance of consumption of natural gas in these countries has been presented as well as the infrastructure connected with LNG and plans of development of regasification terminals. In the summary the most important conclusions have been drawn and a chance of the increase in significance of the role of LNG in the balance of natural gas supplies has been pointed out, which is due to the steep fall of LNG prices which has taken place in recent years.

  15. Pipeline river crossing studies; Estudos de travessias de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Marcos de Castro; Stasiak, Luciano; Silva, Alessandra de Barros e [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This work has for objective to guide the execution of study of pipelines crossings under courses of water, channels, flooded areas and reservoirs. The study seeks the minimal risks to the pipelines, be them anthropics, geotechnics, hydraulics or environmental, as in the implantation phase as of operation. It also seeks to determine which is the best constructive method for the crossing in question. (author)

  16. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0023] RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation (DOT...

  17. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0023] RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Advance notice of...

  18. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  19. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  20. High temperature pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenslade, J.G. [Colt Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada). Pipelines Dept.; Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dyck, D.W. [Stress Tech Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is impractical to transport bitumen and heavy oil by pipelines at ambient temperature unless diluents are added to reduce the viscosity. A diluted bitumen pipeline is commonly referred to as a dilbit pipeline. The diluent routinely used is natural gas condensate. Since natural gas condensate is limited in supply, it must be recovered and reused at high cost. This paper presented an alternative to the use of diluent to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen. The following two basic design issues for a hot bitumen (hotbit) pipeline were presented: (1) modelling the restart problem, and, (2) establishing the maximum practical operating temperature. The transient behaviour during restart of a high temperature pipeline carrying viscous fluids was modelled using the concept of flow capacity. Although the design conditions were hypothetical, they could be encountered in the Athabasca oilsands. It was shown that environmental disturbances occur when the fluid is cooled during shut down because the ground temperature near the pipeline rises. This can change growing conditions, even near deeply buried insulated pipelines. Axial thermal loads also constrain the design and operation of a buried pipeline as higher operating temperatures are considered. As such, strain based design provides the opportunity to design for higher operating temperature than allowable stress based design methods. Expansion loops can partially relieve the thermal stress at a given temperature. As the design temperature increase, there is a point at which above grade pipelines become attractive options, although the materials and welding procedures must be suitable for low temperature service. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  1. Application of risk assessment techniques to 'major hazard' pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, R A

    1982-12-01

    A risk analysis for a hazardous-material pipeline (carrying LPG, ammonia, or high-pressure gas) is presented. The analysis gives results in a form that will assist the decisionmaker in pipeline planning and route selection. The large inventory of hazardous materials in such pipelines means that risks exist even though the accident record of pipeline transportation compares favorably with that for competing modes of transport. Risk analysis techniques - commonly used in the civil aviation, nuclear, and process industries - can be equally well applied to pipelines and can produce results that not only give a measure of the risk but also indicate the principal sources of risk and possible areas for improvement. A number of pipeline risk analyses have demonstrated the viability of the technique and its usefulness as an aid to practical engineering in design, planning, and maintenance/repair phases.

  2. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  3. Optimization control of LNG regasification plant using Model Predictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, A.; Adicandra, F. F.

    2018-03-01

    Optimization of liquified natural gas (LNG) regasification plant is important to minimize costs, especially operational costs. Therefore, it is important to choose optimum LNG regasification plant design and maintaining the optimum operating conditions through the implementation of model predictive control (MPC). Optimal tuning parameter for MPC such as P (prediction horizon), M (control of the horizon) and T (sampling time) are achieved by using fine-tuning method. The optimal criterion for design is the minimum amount of energy used and for control is integral of square error (ISE). As a result, the optimum design is scheme 2 which is developed by Devold with an energy savings of 40%. To maintain the optimum conditions, required MPC with P, M and T as follows: tank storage pressure: 90, 2, 1; product pressure: 95, 2, 1; temperature vaporizer: 65, 2, 2; and temperature heater: 35, 6, 5, with ISE value at set point tracking respectively 0.99, 1792.78, 34.89 and 7.54, or improvement of control performance respectively 4.6%, 63.5%, 3.1% and 58.2% compared to PI controller performance. The energy savings that MPC controllers can make when there is a disturbance in temperature rise 1°C of sea water is 0.02 MW.

  4. Trouble in the pipeline?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, Darius

    2002-10-01

    The author provides a commentary on the political, economic, environmental and social problems facing the proposed 3 billion US dollars Baku-Ceyhan-Tbilisi export pipeline. The 1760 km long pipeline has been designed to carry 1 million b/d of crude oil from the Caspian Sea to Turkey's Mediterranean coast. The pipeline is being constructed by a BP-led consortium made up of Socar, Statoil, Unocal, TPAO, Eni, Itochu, Amerada Hess, TotalFinaElf and BP. (UK)

  5. Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, David W.; Cornwell, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG

  6. Evolving framework of the LNG industry: Expected growth and continuing importance of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiyama, Ichiro

    1992-01-01

    A major increase in LNG trade, expected from the 1990s onwards, is quite significant in that a new framework will be developed. These changes and developments may well prove to be some of the most notable that have ever occurred in the 30-year history of the LNG industry. All over the world, new buyers and sellers are entering the scene, while in Japan, small and medium-size businesses are switching to LNG. Transporters and LNG carriers are also expecting an increase in their numbers. We are about to see a wide-ranging diversification in terms of the geography and the size of the companies that deal with LNG. Safety continues to be the main issue in promoting the development of the LNG market. The wider the spread of LNG, the greater the need will be for further development of the systems and organizations for transferring safety technology and skills. In addition to enhancing safety, it will be necessary to seek harmony with the social environment. This paper discusses measures for the future based on the author's many years of experience, particularly in the field of receiving terminals

  7. Development and industrial tests of the first LNG hydraulic turbine system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cryogenic hydraulic turbine can be used to replace the conventional J–T valve for LNG or mixed refrigerant throttling and depressurization in a natural gas liquefaction plant. This advanced technology is not only to enhance the efficiency of the liquefaction plant, but to usher a new trend in the development of global liquefaction technologies. China has over 136 liquefaction plants, but the cryogenic hydraulic turbines have not been deployed in industrial utilization. In addition, these turbines cannot be manufactured domestically. In this circumstance, through working on the key technologies for LNG hydraulic turbine process & control system development, hydraulic model optimization design, structure design and manufacturing, the first domestic cryogenic hydraulic turbine with a flow rate of 40 m3/h was developed to recover the pressure energy from the LNG of cold box. The turbine was installed in the CNOOC Zhuhai Natural Gas Liquefaction Plant for industrial tests under multiple working conditions, including start-stop, variable flow rates and variable rotation speeds. Test results show that the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine has satisfactory mechanical and operational performances at low temperatures as specified in design. In addition, the process & control system and frequency-conversion power-generation system of the turbine system are designed properly to automatically and smoothly replace the existing LNG J–T valve. As a result, the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine system can improve LNG production by an average of 2% and generate power of 8.3 kW.

  8. Life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis of LNG as a heavy vehicle fuel in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteconi, A.; Brandoni, C.; Evangelista, D.; Polonara, F. [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Energetica, Via Brecce Bianche, 1-60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the life cycle, in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of diesel and liquefied natural gas (LNG) used as fuels for heavy-duty vehicles in the European market (EU-15). A literature review revealed that the numerous studies conducted have reported different results when the authors departed from different baseline assumptions and reference scenarios. For our study, we concentrated on the European scenario and on heavy-duty road transport vehicles, given their important incidence on the global emissions of GHG. Two possible LNG procurement strategies were considered i.e. purchasing it directly from the regasification terminal (LNG-TER) or producing LNG locally (at the service station) with small-scale plants (LNG-SSL). We ascertained that the use of LNG-TER enables a 10% reduction in GHG emissions by comparison with diesel, while the emissions resulting from the LNG-SSL solution are comparable with those of diesel. (author)

  9. Chechnya: the pipeline front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the impact of the Russian campaign against Chechnya on projects for oil and gas pipelines from the new Caspian republics, which are seeking financial support. Topics discussed include the pipeline transport of oil from Azerbaijan through Chechnya to the Black Sea, the use of oil money to finance the war, the push for non-Russian export routes, the financing of pipelines, the impact of the war on the supply of Russian and Turkmenistan gas to Turkey, the proposed construction of the Trans Caspian pipeline, the weakening of trust between Russia and its neighbours, and the potential for trans Caucasus republics to look to western backers due to the instability of the North Caucasus. (UK)

  10. The Winfrith effluent pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, G.H.

    1959-11-01

    The paper describes the preparatory work leading up to the design of the Winfrith pipeline. Details of the existing system are given and some information on the predicted safe levels of radio-active discharge. (author)

  11. Pipelines in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oude-Hengel, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Since the end of the Sixties, steam-transporting pipelines are given great attention, as pipeline components often fail, partially even long before their designed operation time is over. Thus, experts must increasingly deal with questions of pipelines and their components. Design and calculation, production and operation of pipelines are included in the discussion. Within the frame of this discussion, planners, producers, operators, and technical surveillance personnel must be able to offer a homogenous 'plan for assuring the quality of pipelines' in fossil and nuclear power plants. This book tries to make a contribution to this topic. 'Quality assuring' means efforts made for meeting the demands of quality (reliability). The book does not intend to complete with well-known manuals, as for as a complete covering of the topic is concerned. A substantial part of its sections serves to show how quality assurance of pipelines can be at least partially obtained by surveillance measures beginning with the planning, covering the production, and finally accompanying the operation. There is hardly need to mention that the sort of planning, production, and operation has an important influence on the quality. This is why another part of the sections contain process aspects from the view of the planners, producers, and operators. (orig.) [de

  12. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  13. Boil off gas (BOG) management in Spanish liquid natural gas (LNG) terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, E.; Gonzalez-Regueral, B.; Garcia-Torrent, J.; Garcia-Martinez, M.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Combustibles, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c. Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Spain is a country with six LNG terminals in operation and three more scheduled for 2011. At the same time an increasing number of LNG tanks are under construction to compensate the Spanish lack of underground storage. A method for evaluating the daily boil off generated is presented in this paper. This method is applied to evaluate the increase of BOG to be handle by LNG terminals in 2016, studying the best commercially available solution to be installed. Finally, as a solution to tackle with the BOG a cogeneration plant is suggested. This option will reduce terminal's operational costs increasing its availability. (author)

  14. Challenges in the development of market-based pipeline investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Bassenheim, G.; Mohitpour, M.; Klaudt, D.; Jenkins, A.

    2000-01-01

    The challenges, risks and uncertainties that the natural gas industry faces in developing market-based pipeline projects were discussed. Market-based pipeline investments are fundamentally different from user-driven projects. Market-based projected involve finding enough energy users and linking them with a pipeline infrastructure to viable supplies of natural gas. Each unique project is developed individually and requires a strong corporate vision and support before it can be successfully implemented. The three phases of a pipeline investment include the business development phase, the project development phase, and the implementation/operations phase. Market-based companies will need a clear vision for long-term goals and the desire to succeed. The company will have to prepare a detailed strategy and policies that clearly define geographic areas of operations, risk tolerance, availability of capital and expected project performance. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Maritime prerequisites for development of infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Maritima foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahnstroem, Johan; Molitor, Edvard; Raggl, Karl-Johan; Sandkvist, Jim [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    This study has provided an initial picture of where the most interesting ports and areas available for future expansion of a maritime infrastructure for LNG. On the basis of supplying vessels with LNG as fuel, from a long term perspective, we recommend locating LNG terminals in or near major ports and around the big ship routes. Given the current age distribution of ships operating waters of the Baltic Sea, almost 20% of the vessels are 30-40 years old and likely to be replaced by 2015 - 2020. Thus, there is a potential for newly built ships will be equipped with LNG operation. Selected criteria s; Size of the LNG terminal and hence the need for the size of the fairway and the area of land. Proximity to traffic routes with much ship traffic. Proximity to the major port. Proximity to consumers on the land side. On the basis of selected criteria and analyzed for possible location of the terminal it can be noted that a number of Swedish ports are found suitable. For example, ports of Sundsvall, Gothenburg and Helsingborg has been identified as suitable, but with different starting point and different types and sizes of terminals possible.

  16. Skaha Lake crossing, innovations in pipeline installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.L.; Bryce, P.W.; Smith, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of a 10.8 km long NPS16 (406 mm, 16 inch diameter) pipeline, across Skaha Lake, in the south Okanagan valley, British Columbia, Canada. The water crossing is part of the 32 km South Okanagan Natural Gas Pipeline Project (SONG) operated by BC Gas. The pipeline is located in a region dependent on year-round tourism. Therefore, the design and construction was influenced by sensitive environmental and land use concerns. From earlier studies, BC Gas identified surface tow or lay as preferred installation methods. The contractor, Fraser River Pile and Dredge departed from a conventional laybarge methodology after evaluating environmental data and assessing locally available equipment. The contractor proposed a surface tow with multiple surface tie-ins. This approach modification to the ''Surface Tow and Buoy Release Method'' (STBRM) used previously with success on relatively short underwater pipelines. A total of 10 pipe strings, up to 1 km long, were towed into position on the lake and tied-in using a floating platform. The joined pipeline was lowered to the lakebed by divers releasing buoys while tension was maintained from a winch barge at the free end of the pipeline. From analysis and field verified measurement the installation stresses were well below the allowable limits during all phases of construction. The entire construction, including mobilization and demobilization, lasted less than three months, and actual pipelaying less than three weeks. Installation was completed within budget and on schedule, without any environmental or safety related incidents. The SONG pipeline became operational in December 1994

  17. Qatar chooses Snam to market LNG in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Qatar has chosen Italy's Snam SpA as its European partner to sell liquefied natural gas to Europe from a $4.8 billion joint venture project involving supergiant North offshore gas field. State owned Qatar General petroleum Corp. (QGPC) and Snam signed an agreement in Doha to create a joint company owned 65% by QGPC and the remainder by Snam. Italy's state electricity monopoly, ENEL, which is seeking Qatari gas a fuel for its power plants, may later acquire part of Snam's interest in the project. The joint venture will transport and market North LNG to Europe. Exports to Europe by Snam via Italy, to begin in 1997, are expected to be 283 bcf/year at first and may climb to 459 bcf/year, depending upon demand

  18. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-01-01

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)--the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model

  19. Measurement of the filling height of transient two-phase surge flows in pipelines by means of electronics; Messung der Fuellhoehe von transienten Zweiphasenschwallstroemungen in Rohrleitungen mittels Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, B.; Rockstroh, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiemaschinen und Maschinenlabor

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the ultrasonic measurements was the determination of the time course of the level of a transient surge flow with swirl and waves in partly filled roughly horizontally laid pipelines. The running time of the ultrasonic waves from the test head to the liquid surface and back was measured for this purpose. The course of the stress was recorded digitally and was evaluated with the aid of software. Waves, swirl, turbulence of flow and introduced test bodies in the flow caused typical echoes, which had to be taken into account in the evaluation. As the test head was fitted on the outside of the pipe (clamp-on technique), the pipe wall thickness and the speed of sound in the pipe wall had to be included in the calculation of filling height by means of a correction. [Deutsch] Ziel der Ultraschallmessungen war die Bestimmung des zeitlichen Verlaufes der Fuellhoehe einer transienten, drall- und wellenbehafteten Schwallstroemung in teilgefuellten, etwa horizontal verlegten Rohrleitungen. Hierzu wurde die Laufzeit der Ultraschallwellen vom Pruefkopf zur Fluessigkeitsoberflaeche und zurueck gemessen. Die Laufzeit der Ultraschallwellen wurde auf eine quasi-analog elektrische Spannung abgebildet. Der Spannungsverlauf wurde digital aufgezeichnet und softwaregestuetzt ausgewertet. Wellen, Drall, Stroemungsturbulenzen sowie eingebrachte Pruefkoerper in der Stroemung hatten typische Echoerscheinungen zur Folge, die bei der Auswertung zu beruecksichtigen waren. Da der Pruefkopf aussen am Rohr angebracht war (clamp-on-Technik), musste die Rohrwandstaerke und die Schallgeschwindigkeit in der Rohrwandung mittels eines Korrekturgliedes in die Fuellhoehenberechnung eingezogen werden. (orig.)

  20. Waiting for the Next Train? An Assessment of the Emerging Canadian LNG Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Jordan, Louis

    2015-03-01

    In February 2015, Canada counted 22 LNG liquefaction plant projects - of which 17 are located in British Columbia - representing a total design capacity of 325 mmtpa. Canada has the potential to become a major LNG exporter but no project has received Final Investment Decision (FID) so far. Competition with US brown field projects with innovative business models have limited the commercial appeal of many Canadian projects relying on oil indexing. More recently, plummeting oil prices have put into question their profitability and lead to several postponements of FID reviews. This paper discusses the potential for Canada to export LNG, looking at the initial enthusiasm and wide support by public authorities and local communities but also at the economic challenges and commercial issues that are slowing the progress of these projects. In 2013, Canada owned 2,028 Bcm of proved natural gas reserves and in 2012, remaining marketable gas resources were estimated to exceed 30,000 Bcm, located mainly in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. In 2013, natural gas consumption grew due to higher demand from the tar sands industry and reached 90 Bcm, while marketed production rebounded slightly to 145 Bcm after 10 years of continuous decline. Net exports to the United States, the only export market for Canadian gas, kept decreasing to 55 Bcm. In the future, consumption is expected to grow at a slower rate than production and net exports to the United States to keep declining. As a consequence, LNG appears to be an ideal solution to monetize gas and to unlock these large resources. However, CEDIGAZ does not expect material LNG exports to start before 2021, but they could reach 34 mmtpa by 2035. Since the very beginning of the wave of LNG project proposals, Canadian federal and provincial authorities have appeared very supportive. At the provincial level, the government of British Columbia has multiplied initiatives to favor the emergence of a LNG industry, including by lowering

  1. Monitoring and analysis of liquid storage in LNG tank based on different support springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Sun, Jianping; Li, Ke; Wu, Zheng; Chen, Qidong; Chen, Guodong; Cao, Can

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid development of social modernization, LNG vehicles are springing up in daily life. However, it is difficult to monitor and judge the liquid storage tanks accurately and quickly. Based on this, this paper presents a new method of liquid storage monitoring, LNG tank on-line vibration monitoring system. By collecting the vibration frequency of LNG tank and tank liquid and supporting spring system, the liquid storage quality in the tank can be calculated. In this experiment, various vibration modes of the tank spring system are fully taken into account. The vibration effects of different types of support springs on the LNG tank system were investigated. The results show that the spring model has a great influence on the test results. This study provides a technical reference for the selection of suitable support springs for liquid storage monitoring.

  2. Security of pipeline facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.C. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Van Egmond, C.; Duquette, L. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This working group provided an update on provincial, federal and industry directions regarding the security of pipeline facilities. The decision to include security issues in the NEB Act was discussed as well as the Pipeline Security Management Assessment Project, which was created to establish a better understanding of existing security management programs as well as to assist the NEB in the development and implementation of security management regulations and initiatives. Amendments to the NEB were also discussed. Areas of pipeline security management assessment include physical safety management; cyber and information security management; and personnel security. Security management regulations were discussed, as well as implementation policies. Details of the Enbridge Liquids Pipelines Security Plan were examined. It was noted that the plan incorporates flexibility for operations and is integrated with Emergency Response and Crisis Management. Asset characterization and vulnerability assessments were discussed, as well as security and terrorist threats. It was noted that corporate security threat assessment and auditing are based on threat information from the United States intelligence community. It was concluded that the oil and gas industry is a leader in security in North America. The Trans Alaska Pipeline Incident was discussed as a reminder of how costly accidents can be. Issues of concern for the future included geographic and climate issues. It was concluded that limited resources are an ongoing concern, and that the regulatory environment is becoming increasingly prescriptive. Other concerns included the threat of not taking international terrorism seriously, and open media reporting of vulnerability of critical assets, including maps. tabs., figs.

  3. Water level detection pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Yukinobu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niizato, Masaru; Takagi, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    In the present invention, water levels of a feedwater heater and a drain tank in a nuclear power plant are detected at high accuracy. Detection pipeline headers connected to the upper and lower portions of a feedwater heater or a drain tank are connected with each other. The connection line is branched at appropriate two positions and an upper detection pipeline and a lower detection pipeline are connected thereto, and a gauge entrance valve is disposed to each of the detection pipelines. A diaphragm of a pressure difference generator is connected to a flange formed to the end portion. When detecting the change of water level in the feedwater heater or the drain tank as a change of pressure difference, gauge entrance valves on the exit side of the upper and lower detection pipelines are connected by a connection pipe. The gauge entrance valve is closed, a tube is connected to the lower detection pipe to inject water to the diaphragm of the pressure difference generator passing through the connection pipe thereby enabling to calibrate the pressure difference generator. The accuracy of the calibration of instruments is improved and workability thereof upon flange maintenance is also improved. (I.S.)

  4. Numerical investigation of supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang-Liang; Ren, Jing-Jie; Dong, Wen-Ping; Bi, Ming-Shu

    2016-09-01

    The submerged combustion vaporizer (SCV) is indispensable general equipment for liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals. In this paper, numerical simulation was conducted to get insight into the flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical LNG on the tube-side of SCV. The SST model with enhanced wall treatment method was utilized to handle the coupled wall-to-LNG heat transfer. The thermal-physical properties of LNG under supercritical pressure were used for this study. After the validation of model and method, the effects of mass flux, outer wall temperature and inlet pressure on the heat transfer behaviors were discussed in detail. Then the non-uniformity heat transfer mechanism of supercritical LNG and effect of natural convection due to buoyancy change in the tube was discussed based on the numerical results. Moreover, different flow and heat transfer characteristics inside the bend tube sections were also analyzed. The obtained numerical results showed that the local surface heat transfer coefficient attained its peak value when the bulk LNG temperature approached the so-called pseudo-critical temperature. Higher mass flux could eliminate the heat transfer deteriorations due to the increase of turbulent diffusion. An increase of outer wall temperature had a significant influence on diminishing heat transfer ability of LNG. The maximum surface heat transfer coefficient strongly depended on inlet pressure. Bend tube sections could enhance the heat transfer due to secondary flow phenomenon. Furthermore, based on the current simulation results, a new dimensionless, semi-theoretical empirical correlation was developed for supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube. The paper provided the mechanism of heat transfer for the design of high-efficiency SCV.

  5. Analysis of constraints to the introduction of LNG plants in the Brazilian electric sector; Analise dos condicionantes para a introducao de plantas a GNL no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Tatiane Moraes Pestana

    2010-03-15

    This work aims analyze the constraints to the introduction of LNG in the Brazilian energy matrix. Therefore, considers the current regulatory framework and the investments recently made by PETROBRAS to acquire LNG in the international market in order to supply power plants in the country. In order to assess the current status of the LNG plants in the electricity sector, factors are analyzed in terms of the natural gas industry and electric power industry, such as: storage, LNG contracts, operating dispatch, LNG plants pricing and operational flexibility. Despite the increase in LNG international trade and the prospect of using this product in Brazil, there are some challenges for the effective use of LNG plants by Brazilian electric sector. Some of the challenges are the need to review the methodology of calculating the cost benefit of LNG power plants. Another important challenge is to examine the use of underground storage and its influence in the operating dispatch of LNG plants. (author)

  6. Pipelines. Economy's veins; Pipelines. Adern der Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizlmayr, Adolf; Goestl, Stefan [ILF Beratende Ingenieure, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    According to the existing prognoses more than 1 million km of gas pipelines, oil pipelines and water pipelines are built up to the year 2030. The predominant portion is from gas pipelines. The safe continued utilization of the aging pipelines is a large challenge. In addition, the diagnostic technology, the evaluation and risk assessment have to be developed further. With the design of new oil pipelines and gas pipelines, aspects of environmental protection, the energy efficiency of transport and thus the emission reduction of carbon dioxide, the public acceptance and the market strategy of the exporters gain in importance. With the offshore pipelines one soon will exceed the present border of 2,000 m depth of water and penetrate into larger sea depths.

  7. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0100] Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines AGENCY: Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION...

  8. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under...

  9. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  10. Beyond the pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, J.; Ellis, D.; McIntosh, J.

    1979-12-01

    A study was conducted on the lives of women and their families in Fort Nelson, British Columbia, and Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, two communities which are to be affected by the proposed construction of the Alaska Highway gas pipeline. The womens' socio-economic concerns resulting from the proposed construction were examined by means of interviews with samples of women living in the two communities. Results from the study include descriptions of the communities and their basic services, community planning and housing, women's work in the home and for wages, and the perceived impact of the pipeline on such matters as employment, social services, living costs, business, housing, crime, and the overall community. Recommendations are made to improve the planning process for the pipeline to include the taking into account of womens' needs in such areas as training, health care, housing, and community services. 213 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  12. Techno-economic Analysis of Acid Gas Removal and Liquefaction for Pressurized LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Seo, Y. K.; Chang, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    This study estimated the life cycle cost (LCC) of an acid gas removal and a liquefaction processes for Pressurized LNG (PLNG) production and compared the results with the cost of normal LNG production. PLNG is pressurized LNG that is liquefied at a higher pressure and temperature than normal LNG. Due to the high temperature, the energy for liquefaction is reduced. The allowable CO2 concentration in PLNG is increased up to 3 mol% when the product pressure 25 bar. An amine process with 35 wt% of diethanolamine (DEA) aqueous solution and a nitrogen expansion cycle were selected for the acid gas removal and the liquefaction processes, respectively. Two types of CO2 concentration in the feed gas were investigated to analyze their impacts on the acid gas removal unit. When the CO2 concentration was 5 mol%, the acid gas removal unit was required for both LNG and PLNG production. However, the acid gas removal unit was not necessary in PLNG when the concentration was 0.5 mol% and the pressure was higher than 15 bar. The results showed that the LCC of PLNG was reduced by almost 35% relative to that of LNG when the PLNG pressure was higher than 15 bar.

  13. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. Clean sailing. LNG terminals. Maritime infrastructure for liquefied natural gas; Sauber auf See. LNG-Terminals. Maritime Infrastruktur fuer fluessiges Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-09-01

    Ports act as essential hubs in the global economy. But the rise in maritime traffic is taking a toll on the quality of air in ports and out at sea. From 2015 onwards, threshold governing harmful emissions are being tightened in a bid to clear the air. All of which is driving interest in more environmentally sound fuels. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the perfect fit, more than complying with the upcoming regulations. To enable its widespread adoption, Linde is working full steam ahead to create a network of LNG terminals in Europe. (orig.)

  15. Improving sustainability of maritime transport through utilization of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burel, Fabio; Taccani, Rodolfo; Zuliani, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Today, most merchant vessels use Heavy Fuel Oils (HFOs) for ship propulsion. These fuels are cost effective but they produce significant amounts of noxious emissions. In order to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is becoming an interesting option for merchant ships. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to analyse the economic upturn that can result from the use of LNG as fuel for merchant ships and to assess the effects of its utilization in terms of environmental impact. In the first part of the study, a statistical analysis of maritime traffic is carried out in order to identify which merchant ship types could most benefit from using LNG as fuel for ship propulsion. Traffic data of world ships related to the months of May 2008, 2009 and 2010 are analysed. Roll-on/Roll-off vessels (RoRo) and tanker ships spend most of their sailing time in Emission Control Areas (ECA) consequently appear to be the best candidates for LNG use. In particular, the use of LNG is most profitable for tanker ships in the range of 10,000–60,000 DWT (deadweight). In the second part of the study, operational costs and pollutant emission reduction, following LNG implementation, are calculated for a 33,000 DWT tanker ship. Results show that LNG leads to a reduction of 35% of operational costs and 25% of CO 2 emissions. The possibility of improving energy efficiency on board is analysed considering that combustion gases, produced by LNG, are cleaner, thus simplifying the introduction of exhaust gas heat recovery. Two options are considered: simple heat recovery and heat recovery to drive a turbine (ORC). The results show that it is possible to achieve a reduction in fuel consumption of up to 15%. - Highlights: • Ship propulsion accounts for a large amount of noxious emissions in costal/harbour areas. • Today price differential between fuel oil and natural gas is increasing. • The use of Liquefied Natural Gas as fuel

  16. Diagnosing in building main pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, L.G.; Gorelov, A.S.; Kurepin, B.N.; Orekhov, V.I.; Vasil' yev, G.G.; Yakovlev, Ye. I.

    1984-01-01

    General principles are examined for technical diagnosis in building main pipelines. A technique is presented for diagnosis during construction, as well as diagnosis of the technical state of the pipeline-construction machines and mechanisms. The survey materials could be used to set up construction of main pipelines.

  17. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  18. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical intensive care unit (ICU), with two patients on full ventilation and ... uncertainty around the cause of the failure and the restoration, .... soon as its level also falls below three tons. Should ... (properly checked and closed prior to each anaesthetic). ... in use at the time of the central oxygen pipeline failure at Tygerberg.

  19. Characteristics of operating pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallyamov, A K; Armenskii, E A; Gimaev, R G; Mastobaev, B N; Shammazov, A M

    1977-04-01

    The interval in pressure changes according to operational data for the Kamennyi Log--Perm oil pipeline was determined with the aid of the pattern identification method. This has made it possible to determine pressure changes in the operational process. 2 references, 1 table.

  20. Demand management of city gas per season and study of estimating proper size of LNG storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.H.; Kim, S.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    LNG storage facilities are indispensable to satisfy demand throughout the year by saturating the time difference of supply and demand that appears due to seasonal factors. The necessity of storage facilities is more important in a country like Korea where LNG is not produced at all and imports are relied upon. The problem of deciding how much storage facilities to keep and in what pattern to import LNG is a question to solve in order to minimize the costs related to the construction of LNG storage facilities while not causing any problem in the supply and demand of LNG. This study analyzes how the import of LNG and the consumption pattern of LNG for power generation affect the decision on the size of storage facilities. How the shipping control, and how LNG demand for power generation affect the decision of requirement of storage facilities, and why the possibility of shipping control should be investigated in the aspect of costs is investigated. As a result of this study, I presented necessary basic data for drafting a policy by assessing the minimum requirements of storage facilities needed for balancing the supply and demand with the various shipping control and LNG consumption patterns through simulation up to the year 2010. 10 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  1. LNG pool fire simulation for domino effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masum Jujuly, Muhammad; Rahman, Aziz; Ahmed, Salim; Khan, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire has been performed using ANSYS CFX-14. The CFD model solves the fundamental governing equations of fluid dynamics, namely, the continuity, momentum and energy equations. Several built-in sub-models are used to capture the characteristics of pool fire. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equation for turbulence and the eddy-dissipation model for non-premixed combustion are used. For thermal radiation, the Monte Carlo (MC) radiation model is used with the Magnussen soot model. The CFD results are compared with a set of experimental data for validation; the results are consistent with experimental data. CFD results show that the wind speed has significant contribution on the behavior of pool fire and its domino effects. The radiation contours are also obtained from CFD post processing, which can be applied for risk analysis. The outcome of this study will be helpful for better understanding of the domino effects of pool fire in complex geometrical settings of process industries. - Highlights: • Simulation of pool fire using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. • Integration of CFD based pool fire model with domino effect. • Application of the integrated CFD based domino effect analysis

  2. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian; Zuo, Jian; Lu, Kang-Jia; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around −8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  3. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2016-06-23

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around −8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  4. Data processing pipeline for Herschel HIFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, R. F.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Teyssier, D.; Morris, P.; Rengel, M.; McCoey, C.; Edwards, K.; Kester, D.; Lorenzani, A.; Coeur-Joly, O.; Melchior, M.; Xie, J.; Sanchez, E.; Zaal, P.; Avruch, I.; Borys, C.; Braine, J.; Comito, C.; Delforge, B.; Herpin, F.; Hoac, A.; Kwon, W.; Lord, S. D.; Marston, A.; Mueller, M.; Olberg, M.; Ossenkopf, V.; Puga, E.; Akyilmaz-Yabaci, M.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory performed over 9100 astronomical observations, almost 900 of which were calibration observations in the course of the nearly four-year Herschel mission. The data from each observation had to be converted from raw telemetry into calibrated products and were included in the Herschel Science Archive. Aims: The HIFI pipeline was designed to provide robust conversion from raw telemetry into calibrated data throughout all phases of the HIFI missions. Pre-launch laboratory testing was supported as were routine mission operations. Methods: A modular software design allowed components to be easily added, removed, amended and/or extended as the understanding of the HIFI data developed during and after mission operations. Results: The HIFI pipeline processed data from all HIFI observing modes within the Herschel automated processing environment as well as within an interactive environment. The same software can be used by the general astronomical community to reprocess any standard HIFI observation. The pipeline also recorded the consistency of processing results and provided automated quality reports. Many pipeline modules were in use since the HIFI pre-launch instrument level testing. Conclusions: Processing in steps facilitated data analysis to discover and address instrument artefacts and uncertainties. The availability of the same pipeline components from pre-launch throughout the mission made for well-understood, tested, and stable processing. A smooth transition from one phase to the next significantly enhanced processing reliability and robustness. Herschel was an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. Nova Gas`s pipeline to Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, N.

    1996-01-01

    The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia`s peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI`s success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI`s ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners.

  6. LNG shipping at 50, SIGTTO at 35 and GIIGNL at 43. A commemorative SIGTTO/GIIGNL publication 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corkhill, Mike; Harris, Syd; Clifton, Andrew; Wayne, Bill; Robin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Jointly sponsored by SIGTTO and GIIGNL, LNG Shipping at 50 is a celebration of the first half century of commercial LNG carrier and terminal operations. The publication also marks the 35. and 43. anniversaries of the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO) and the International Group of LNG Importers (GIIGNL), respectively. The two organisations and their memberships have done a sterling job of developing guidance on safe operations; promulgating industry best practice; and providing forums for the airing of concerns and discussion of topical issues. The exemplary safety record built up by the LNG shipping and terminal industry over the past five decades owes much to the central roles played by SIGTTO and GIIGNL. The LNG industry has an exceptional story to tell and LNG Shipping at 50 contributes to the telling of that story. The publication starts with a review of the early days to show how the industry developed the innovative solutions needed to ensure the safe transport of LNG by sea. The articles in this section then describe how these solutions were then continuously improved upon as more countries turned to seaborne natural gas imports to meet their energy needs. Pioneering people, ships, shipyards, containment systems, class societies and equipment suppliers are reviewed to highlight the key role they played in facilitating the safe and smooth operation of the LNG supply chain, including at the critical ship/shore interface. Safety is the No 1 priority in the LNG industry and the safety regime section of the magazine examines the cornerstones that underpin an unparalleled safety record. Quite aside from the IGC Code and the work of SIGTTO and GIIGNL, there are the contributions of class, training establishments, vetting programmes and escort tug services. LNG Shipping at 50's survey of progress to date is followed by a look at the many innovations introduced by the industry in more recent years, not least floating LNG

  7. Oman- Decisive progress for the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The soon signature of a firm contract with the Korea Gas Corporation and the perspective of an agreement with Thailand will allow the attribution of a construction contract in September 1996. The hypothesis of a third liquefaction train seems to be more and more probable. The project of Oman-India gas pipeline is not given up but only put it back to several years. (N.C.)

  8. The Global Pipeline of GM crops: an outlook for 2020

    OpenAIRE

    PARISI CLAUDIA; TILLIE PASCAL; RODRIGUEZ CEREZO Emilio

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the worldwide pipeline of genetically modified (GM) crops that are likely to be commercialized and cultivated by farmers in the short to medium term. The database presented has been built by collecting information about the status of GM crops both in the regulatory pipeline of national biotechnology agencies and in the advanced phase of development by technology providers. Particular attention will be given to the 2020 outlook of new crops and traits, with a special fo...

  9. Bears and pipeline construction in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follmann, E.H.; Hechtel, J.L. (Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, AK (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Serious problems were encountered with bears during construction of the 1274-km trans-Alaska oil pipeline between Prudhoe Bay and Valdez. This multi-billion-dollar project traversed both black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) and grizzly bear (U. arctos L.) habitat throughtout its entire length. Plans for dealing with anticipated problems with bears were often inadequate. Most (71%) problems occurred north of the Yukon River in a previously roadless wilderness where inadequate refuse disposal and widespread animal feeding created dangerous situations. Of the 192 officially reported bear problems associated with the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) (1971-1979), about 65% involved the presence of bears in camps or dumps, 13% the feeding of bears on garbage or handouts, 10% property damage or economic loss, 7% bears under and in buildings, and only 5% charges by bears. Remarkably, no bear-related injuries were reported, suggesting that bears became accustomed to people and did not regard them as a threat. Following construction of the TAPS there have been proposals for pipelines to transport natural gas from Prudhoe Bay to southern and Pacific-rim markets. Based on past experience, some animal control measures were developed during the planning phase for the authorized gas pipeline route in Alaska. Fences installed around 100-person survey camps were found to be effective in deterring bears in two traditionally troublesome areas. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Current status and future projections of LNG demand and supplies: A global prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Satish; Kwon, Hyouk-Tae; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Hyun Cho, Jae; Lim, Wonsub; Moon, Il

    2011-01-01

    An unceasing growth of gas consumption in domestic households, industry, and power plants has gradually turned natural gas into a major source of energy. Main drivers in this development are the technical and economic advantages of natural gas. It is a clean, versatile, and easily controllable fuel. On this basis, natural gas is often considered the form of energy that will be the 'bridging fuel' to a sustainable energy system, sometime after 2050. Unlike other main sources of energy, such as oil and coal, gas is not traded on an actual world market. This paper provides an overview on demand and supplies of natural gas (LNG) in the past as a function of gas prices, gas technology (gas sweetening, liquefaction, shipping and re-gasification), and gas market and how they have changed recently. It also discusses the likely developments in global LNG demand for the period to the year 2030. - Highlights: → This study provides an overview on demand and supplies of LNG in the past and future. → Outlook for LNG demand in Asia pacific region is very robust. → In past decade the shale gas production in USA has increased fivefold. → The future of European gas supply depends largely on the geopolitical environments. → Within the gas sector LNG is playing an ever increasing role in gas transportation.

  11. Optimal LNG (liquefied natural gas) regasification scheduling for import terminals with storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotter, Ian M.; Gomes, Marília Fernandes Maciel; Braga, Marcelo José; Brochmann, Bjørn; Lie, Ole Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    We describe a stochastic dynamic programming model for maximising the revenue generated by regasification of LNG (liquefied natural gas) from storage tanks at importation terminals in relation to a natural gas spot market. We present three numerical resolution strategies: a posterior optimal strategy, a rolling intrinsic strategy and a full option strategy based on a least-squares Monte Carlo algorithm. We then compare model simulation results to the observed behaviour of three LNG importation terminals in the UK for the period April 2011 to April 2012, and find that there was low correlation between the observed regasification decisions of the operators and those suggested by the three simulated strategies. However, the actions suggested by the model simulations would have generated significantly higher revenues, suggesting that the facilities might have been operated sub-optimally. A further numerical experiment shows that increasing the storage and regasification capacities of a facility can significantly increase the achievable revenue, even without altering the amount of LNG received, by allowing operators more flexibility to defer regasification. - Highlights: • We present a revenue maximisation model for LNG (liquefied natural gas) storage tanks at import terminals. • Three resolution strategies: posterior optimal, rolling intrinsic and full option. • The full option strategy is based on a least-squares Monte Carlo algorithm. • Model simulations show potential for higher revenue in three UK LNG terminals. • Numerical experiments show how storage and regasification capacities affect revenue.

  12. Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

    2011-06-01

    The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

  13. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M. Sam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect

  14. LNG Regasification Terminals: The Role of Geography and Meteorology on Technology Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randeep Agarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied natural gas (LNG projects are regulated by host countries, but policy and regulation should depend on geography and meteorology. Without considering the role of geography and meteorology, sub-optimal design choices can result, leading to energy conversion efficiency and capital investment decisions that are less than ideal. A key step in LNG is regasification, which transforms LNG back from liquid to the gaseous state and requires substantial heat input. This study investigated different LNG regasification technologies used around the world and benchmarked location and meteorology-related factors, such as seawater temperatures, ambient air temperatures, wind speeds and relative humidity. Seawater vaporizers are used for more than 95% of locations subject to water quality. Ambient air conditions are relatively better for South America, India, Spain and other Asian countries (Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand and provide a much cleaner regasification technology option for natural and forced draft systems and air-based intermediate fluid vaporizers. On a global basis, cold energy utilization currently represents <1% of the total potential, but this approach could deliver nearly 12 Gigawatt (GW per annum. Overall, climate change is expected to have a positive financial impact on the LNG regasification industry, but the improvement could be unevenly distributed.

  15. Structural response of cargo containment systems in LNG carriers under ice loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Yu, H.; Basu, R.; Lee, H.; Kwon, J.C.; Jeon, B.Y.; Kim, J.H.; Daley, C.; Kendrick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gas exploration has been extended into the Arctic region such as in the Russian Arctic area, because of the increasing demand for energy resources. As a result, shipping in ice-covered seas is also increasing. Many technical issues are involved in ensuring the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships during the transportation. This paper discussed an investigation of ship-ice interaction scenarios for possible operation routes in Arctic areas. Six scenarios were selected to study the structural response of cargo containment systems (CCS) in both membrane and spherical types of LNG ships. For selected ship-ice interaction scenarios, ice loads and loading areas in the hull structure were determined based on the energy theory. The configurations of LNG carriers were discussed and illustrated. The paper also outlined the assessment criteria and structure analysis procedures. It was concluded that the strength of the CCS of membrane-type LNG carrier and the strength of the skirt structure of spherical-type LNG carrier were strong enough under the design ice loads. 13 refs., 9 tabs., 18 figs

  16. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center - Qatar, Texas A and M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  17. Concept for a LNG Gas Handling System for a Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rachow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ships are using LNG as main engine fuel because based on the facts that LNG has no sulphur content, and its combustion process, LNG produces low NOx content compared to heavy fuel oil and marine diesel oil. LNG is not only produces low gas emission, but may have economic advantages. In the engine laboratory of maritime studies department in Warnemunde, Germany, there is a diesel engine type MAN 6L23/30 A, where the mode operation of these engine would be changed to dual fuel engine mode operation. Therefore, in this thesis, the use dual fuel engine will be compared where it will utilize natural gas and marine diesel oil and select the required components for fuel gas supply system. By conducting the process calculation, engine MAN 6L23/30 A requires the capacity natural gas of 12.908  for 5 days at full load. A concept for LNG supply system would be arranged from storage tank until engine manifold. Germanischer Lloyd and Project Guide of dual fuel engine will be used as a guidelines to develop an optimal design and arrangement which comply with the regulation.

  18. Future forecast for life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of LNG and city gas 13A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tomohito; Furukawa, Michinobu; Ishitani, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the most up-to-date data available on total greenhouse-gas emissions of a LNG fuel supply chain and life-cycle of city gas 13A based on surveys of the LNG projects delivering to Japan, which should provide useful basic-data for conducting life-cycle analyses of other product systems as well as future alternative energy systems, because of highly reliable data qualified in terms of its source and representativeness. In addition, the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 were also predicted, taking into account not only the improvement of technologies, but also the change of composition of LNG projects. As a result of this analysis, the total amount of greenhouse-gas emissions of the whole city-gas 13A chain at present was calculated to be 61.91 g-CO 2 /MJ, and the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 could be expected to decrease by about 1.1% of the current emissions

  19. LNG containment release: Comparison of NFPA-59A and 49-CFR-193

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, H.H.; Pfenning, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the potential wide area impact of an unplanned LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) release, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and later the US Department of Transportation issued standards and regulations which included specific methodologies for analyzing the consequence of an accidental LNG release. The concept of a ''design spill'' was defined in order to evaluate the consequences of an accidental LNG release, with particular attention to the influence of safety protective measures. In addition to specifying the magnitude of the unplanned release, the design spill also specified some of the parameters for estimation of the downwind LNG vapor dispersion and the extent of the radiant heat from an LNG pool fire. Since the NFPA-59A and 49-CFR-193 standards were the first in-depth regulation to address consequence analysis estimation for petroleum components, it is particularly important to consider their details in light of the recently proposed EPA 40-CFR-68 regulations [Risk Management for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention] which specifically address consequence analysis as a part of process safety management

  20. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  1. Global offshore pipeline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.; Parsons, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, two experts forecast a recovery in the offshore pipeline market followed by accelerating growth. A number of clearly definable macro trends are affecting the world offshore oil and gas industry and will be of considerable significance to the offshore pipelines industry. The authors' view is of markets that show every chance of enjoying long-term growth prospects driven by the fundamentals of a continuing increase in demand for offshore oil and gas. The offshore industry however has a highly cyclical nature, due to the impact of variations in oil and gas prices and the differing state of maturity of individual regions. Therefore those companies that are able to offer the widest range of pipe types and diameters and methods of installation across the greatest range of geographic markets are likely to prosper most. Thus, this continues to be a market best suited to those able to operate on a global scale and make a corporate commitment measured in decades

  2. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  3. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, Y.

    2005-01-01

    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  4. Pipeline Optimization Program (PLOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    the framework of the Dredging Operations Decision Support System (DODSS, https://dodss.wes.army.mil/wiki/0). PLOP compiles industry standards and...efficiency point ( BEP ). In the interest of acceptable wear rate on the pump, industrial standards dictate that the flow Figure 2. Pump class as a function of...percentage of the flow rate corresponding to the BEP . Pump Acceptability Rules. The facts for pump performance, industrial standards and pipeline and

  5. Process safety management implementation in Pertamina - Badak LNG plant; Mise en pratique de la gestion de la securite Pertamina - usine de PT Badak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsyari, M.; Sunarmo, J. [PT Badak NGL (Indonesia)

    2000-07-01

    The Badak LNG Plant is located in Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and owned by Pertamina (Indonesian Government Oil Company). The total production is about 18.00 million tones per annum of LNG. In the year 2000 the total LNG production of the Badak LNG Plant will be about 21.64 million tones per annum, produced from eight LNG Trains. These company milestones and other achievements are based on the Pertamina initiatives in 1977 to build two LNG Trains in Bontang. In order to maintain continuous supply of LNG to the buyers, Badak LNG Plant Management has established The Company Philosophy i.e. To Operate the Badak LNG Plant Safely, Reliably and Efficiently. Process Safety Management has been implemented in the Badak LNG Plant to fulfill The Company Policy. Management of Change, one of the Process Safety Management elements, is considered the most important element in the support of the Plant operations of the Badak LNG Plant. This paper will explore the Badak LNG Plant Experiences to apply Management Of Change starting with the initial implementation. The Badak LNG Plant Management Of Change is divided into three stages i.e. Evaluation/Study Stage, Safety Review Stage and Documentation Stage. These three stages are combined into a single component referred to as the 'Project Flow Of Work'. In order to ensure that the Safety Review Stage can be conducted in a timely manner to support the 'Project Flow of Work', the Badak LNG Plant has developed and established a 'Hazops Committee'. This group consists of multi disciplined members and is chaired by the Process Engineering Section Head. A high commitment and consistent application of Management Of Change has helped the Badak LNG Plant succeed to fulfill the Company Philosophy especially related to Safety. Up to the end of July 1999, the Badak LNG Plant had achieved 50 Million Working Hours without a lost time accident. (authors)

  6. Process safety management implementation in Pertamina - Badak LNG plant; Mise en pratique de la gestion de la securite Pertamina - usine de PT Badak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsyari, M; Sunarmo, J [PT Badak NGL (Indonesia)

    2000-07-01

    The Badak LNG Plant is located in Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and owned by Pertamina (Indonesian Government Oil Company). The total production is about 18.00 million tones per annum of LNG. In the year 2000 the total LNG production of the Badak LNG Plant will be about 21.64 million tones per annum, produced from eight LNG Trains. These company milestones and other achievements are based on the Pertamina initiatives in 1977 to build two LNG Trains in Bontang. In order to maintain continuous supply of LNG to the buyers, Badak LNG Plant Management has established The Company Philosophy i.e. To Operate the Badak LNG Plant Safely, Reliably and Efficiently. Process Safety Management has been implemented in the Badak LNG Plant to fulfill The Company Policy. Management of Change, one of the Process Safety Management elements, is considered the most important element in the support of the Plant operations of the Badak LNG Plant. This paper will explore the Badak LNG Plant Experiences to apply Management Of Change starting with the initial implementation. The Badak LNG Plant Management Of Change is divided into three stages i.e. Evaluation/Study Stage, Safety Review Stage and Documentation Stage. These three stages are combined into a single component referred to as the 'Project Flow Of Work'. In order to ensure that the Safety Review Stage can be conducted in a timely manner to support the 'Project Flow of Work', the Badak LNG Plant has developed and established a 'Hazops Committee'. This group consists of multi disciplined members and is chaired by the Process Engineering Section Head. A high commitment and consistent application of Management Of Change has helped the Badak LNG Plant succeed to fulfill the Company Philosophy especially related to Safety. Up to the end of July 1999, the Badak LNG Plant had achieved 50 Million Working Hours without a lost time accident. (authors)

  7. Low temperature techniques for natural gas purification and LNG production: An energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccanelli, Margaret; Langé, Stefano; Rocco, Matteo V.; Pellegrini, Laura A.; Colombo, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-temperature processes for of high CO_2 content natural gas have been modelled. • Energy and exergy analyses have been performed. • The Dual Pressure distillation scheme has the best thermodynamic performances. • There is a synergy between cryogenic natural gas purification and LNG production. - Abstract: Due to the rapid increase of the World’s primary energy demand of the last decades, low-temperature processes for the purification of natural gas streams with high carbon dioxide content has gained interest, since they allow to make profitable exploitation of low-quality gas reserves. Low temperature purification processes allow the direct production of a methane stream at high purity and at low-temperature, suitable conditions for the direct synergistic integration with natural gas cryogenic liquefaction processes, while CO_2 is obtained in liquid phase and under pressure. In this way, it can be pumped for transportation, avoiding significant compression costs as for classical CO_2 capture units (where carbon dioxide is discharged in gas phase and at atmospheric pressure), and further uses such as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) or underground storage. In this paper, the three most common natural gas low-temperature purification techniques have been modelled and their performances have been evaluated through energy and exergy analyses. Specifically, the dual pressure low-temperature distillation process, the anti-sublimation process and a hybrid configuration have been considered. It is found that the dual pressure low-temperature distillation scheme reach the highest thermodynamic performances, resulting in the best values of exergy efficiency and equivalent methane requirements with respect to the other configurations. This is mainly due to the distributed temperature profile along a distillation column, resulting in a less irreversible heat exchanging process.

  8. Pipeline network and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Nascimento, I.; Wagner, J.; Silveira, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Rio de Janeiro is one of 27 units of Brazil. It is located in the eastern portion of the Southeast and occupies an area of 43 696.054 km², being effectively the 3rd smallest state in Brazil. This state in recent years has suffered from erosion problems caused by the deployment of the network pipeline. The deployment pipeline is part of the activities related to the oil industry has caused a more intense conflict between the environment and economic activities, modifying the soil structure and distribution of surface and subsurface flows. This study aimed to analyze the erosion caused by the removal of soil for the deployment of pipeline transportation, with the consequences of the emergence of numerous gullies, landslides and silting of rivers. For the development of this study were performed bibliographic research, field work, mapping and digital preparation of the initial diagnosis of active processes and what the consequent environmental impacts. For these reasons, we conclude that the problems could be avoided or mitigated if there was a prior geological risk management. (author)

  9. A case study of the crack sizing performance of the Ultrasonic Phased Array combined crack and wall loss inspection tool on the Centennial pipeline, the defect evaluation, including the defect evaluation, field feature verification and tool performance validation (performed by Marathon Oil, DNV and GE Oil and Gas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrncir, T.; Turner, S. [Marathon Pipe Line LLC, Findley, OH (United States); Polasik, SJ [DNV Columbus, Inc, Dublin, OH 43017 (United States); Vieth, P. [BP EandP, Houston, TX (United States); Allen, D.; Lachtchouk, I.; Senf, P.; Foreman, G. [GE Oil and Gas PII Pipeline Solutions, Stutensee (Germany)], email: geoff.foreman@ge.com

    2010-07-01

    The Centennial Pipeline System is operated by Marathon Pipe Line LLC. It is 754 miles long and carries liquid products from eastern Texas to southern Illinois. Most of it was constructed in 1951 for natural gas, but it was converted in 2001 for liquid product service. GE Oil and Gas conducted an ultrasonic phased array in-line inspection (ILI) survey of this pipeline, whose primary purpose was to detect and characterize stress corrosion cracking. A dig verification was performed in 2008 to increase the level of confidence in the detection and depth-sizing capabilities of this inspection method. This paper outlines of the USCD technology and experience and describes how the ILI survey results were validated, how the ILI data analysis was improved, and the impact on managing the integrity of the line section. Results indicate that the phased array technology approached a 90% certainty predicted depth with a tolerance of 1 mm at a 95% confidence level.

  10. United States petroleum pipelines: An empirical analysis of pipeline sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, L. L.

    1980-12-01

    The undersizing theory hypothesizes that integrated oil companies have a strong economic incentive to size the petroleum pipelines they own and ship over in a way that means that some of the demand must utilize higher cost alternatives. The DOJ theory posits that excess or monopoly profits are earned due to the natural monopoly characteristics of petroleum pipelines and the existence of market power in some pipelines at either the upstream or downstream market. The theory holds that independent petroleum pipelines owned by companies not otherwise affiliated with the petroleum industry (independent pipelines) do not have these incentives and all the efficiencies of pipeline transportation are passed to the ultimate consumer. Integrated oil companies on the other hand, keep these cost efficiencies for themselves in the form of excess profits.

  11. Pipelines : moving biomass and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Moving biomass and energy through pipelines was presented. Field sourced biomass utilization for fuel was discussed in terms of competing cost factors; economies of scale; and differing fuel plant sizes. The cost versus scale in a bioenergy facility was illustrated in chart format. The transportation cost of biomass was presented as it is a major component of total biomass processing cost and is in the typical range of 25-45 per cent of total processing costs for truck transport of biomass. Issues in large scale biomass utilization, scale effects in transportation, and components of transport cost were identified. Other topics related to transportation issues included approaches to pipeline transport; cost of wood chips in pipeline transport; and distance variable cost of transporting wood chips by pipeline. Practical applications were also offered. In addition, the presentation provided and illustrated a model for an ethanol plant supplied by truck transport as well as a sample configuration for 19 truck based ethanol plants versus one large facility supplied by truck plus 18 pipelines. Last, pipeline transport of bio-oil and pipeline transport of syngas was discussed. It was concluded that pipeline transport can help in reducing congestion issues in large scale biomass utilization and that it can offer a means to achieve large plant size. Some current research at the University of Alberta on pipeline transport of raw biomass, bio-oil and hydrogen production from biomass for oil sands and pipeline transport was also presented. tabs., figs.

  12. Action of drag reduces in mono and two--phase low in pipeline; Acao de redutores de atrito em escoamentos mono bifasicos em tubulacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Diogo M.; Franca, Fernando A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Bizotto, Vanessa C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. Kelsen Valente Serra (LABPETRO); Sabadini, Edvaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The phenomenon of hydrodynamic drag reduction (DR) takes place when small amounts of polymer with high molecular weight are added to a turbulent flow. This phenomenon is very important in pumping process, mainly in petroleum industries. Studies on DR have been made using high-grade polyacrylamide (PAM) and a commercial polymer (FA920, basically composed by PAM) in water solution, both with a high molecular weight. At first, studies were developed in a double gap type rheometer using small amount of polymer. They provided information on the polymer concentration in which the maximum DR was reached, the amount of drag reduction and the solution mechanical stability along a turbulent shearing process. The results indicated a limiting 17%DR when a 2 ppm aqueous solution of high grade PAM was tested. These tests, besides giving preliminary estimations, are limited in terms of engineering application due to the low shearing rates applied by the viscometer. The tests performed at LabPetro-UNICAMP comprised of pressure drop measurements in actual pipe flows, single water and two-phase airwater flows, using the previous knowledge acquired with the viscometer tests. In the former case, the classical Moody diagram, (f vs Re) has been drawn to show the %DR in terms of the friction factor reduction for the Reynolds number in the 2x10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} range. Single phase flows attained up to 37% DR with commercial PAM (FA 920), depending on the polymer concentration. Preliminary results of DR tests performed with air-water flows, in different flow patterns - stratified-wavy and slug flows, are shown. To infer the air-water flow pattern, high speed filming was used. (author)

  13. 75 FR 57269 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-477-000] Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting September 13, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energ...

  14. 77 FR 7568 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... that is sufficient to supply domestic demand for a century, even with significant exports of LNG. FLEX... is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. The Application is filed independent of, and in addition to... application in Docket 10-161-LNG is 2.8 Bcf/d. FLEX further states that demand for liquefaction capacity has...

  15. 77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... supply domestic demand for a century, even with significant exports of LNG. Gulf Coast contends that the... is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. Gulf Coast seeks to export this LNG on its own behalf and...-going carrier, and with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. In the alternative, Gulf...

  16. File list: NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 No description Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Input control Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  18. File list: NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 No description Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  19. 76 FR 4885 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... order dated September 26, 2006 \\1\\: (1) A second marine berthing dock; (2) A third LNG storage tank; and... world.\\7\\ FLEX states that many natural gas and LNG supply contracts in European and Asian markets are... public interest. First, FLEX contends that the project will cause direct and indirect job creation...

  20. File list: His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma_cell_lines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma_cell_lines hg19 Histone Lung Lung adenocarcino...ma cell lines SRX1143596,SRX1143597,SRX1143598,SRX1143599 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma_cell_lines.bed ...

  1. Techno-economic feasibility study of a system for the transfer of refrigeration capacity from LNG regasification plants to industrial assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pineda Quijano, Diego; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Duivenvoorden, Wil; Mieog, Juriaan; van der Noortgaete, Tom; van Velpen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of cold energy during the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has gained attention in recent years due to the fast growth of the LNG trade market and the increasing importance that governments are giving to energy efficiency and sustainability. Near 200 kWh/ton of LNG are

  2. Importance of timely construction of new pipeline infrastructure to Canada and Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The results of 2 studies commissioned to quantify the economic benefits resulting from pipeline investment were presented, as well as details of the costs to Canadian residential, commercial and industrial consumers that will result from delays in the construction of new pipeline infrastructure in North America. A hypothetical $1.52 billion, 1000 km natural gas pipeline located in Alberta and British Columbia (BC) would increase Canadian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the order of $1.2 billion. Of the total, $202 million in GDP impacts would fall outside of the 2 provinces. In addition, a total of $856 million in labour income would be generated, including $130 million outside of Alberta and BC. The costs to Canadians from delays in the construction of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline, Alaska Gas Pipeline and new Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminals could be as much as $57.7 billion over the 2006-2025 period, with the impacts being felt mainly in Alberta and Ontario. Subsequent increases in the cost of gas to consumers will rise by $20.2 billion and $19.1 billion respectively, with a significant portion of the impact falling on Alberta's industrial sector. In Ontario, it was anticipated that 40 per cent of the impact will fall on residential gas consumers. The results of the studies highlighted the importance of timely regulatory reviews and approval of new pipeline infrastructure projects to ensure a competitive investment climate. It was concluded that when the impacts of reduced spending on other products because of higher gas bills are evaluated and combined with the first round results, the broad economic impact is expected to be profound. 6 tabs., 10 figs

  3. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  4. Advanced exergy-based analyses applied to a system including LNG regasification and electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morosuk, Tatiana; Tsatsaronis, George; Boyano, Alicia; Gantiva, Camilo [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) will contribute more in the future than in the past to the overall energy supply in the world. The paper discusses the application of advanced exergy-based analyses to a recently developed LNG-based cogeneration system. These analyses include advanced exergetic, advanced exergoeconomic, and advanced exergoenvironmental analyses in which thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction), costs, and environmental impacts have been split into avoidable and unavoidable parts. With the aid of these analyses, the potentials for improving the thermodynamic efficiency and for reducing the overall cost and the overall environmental impact are revealed. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate (a) the potential for generating electricity while regasifying LNG and (b) some of the capabilities associated with advanced exergy-based methods. The most important subsystems and components are identified, and suggestions for improving them are made. (orig.)

  5. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of an ammonia-water power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) as its heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangfeng; Yan, Zhequan; Wang, Man; Dai, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Due to a good behavior of ammonia-water during the two-phase heat addition process and the liquefied natural gas with great cold energy, an ammonia-water power system with LNG as its heat sink is proposed to utilize the low grade waste heat. Based on the thermodynamic mathematical models, the effects of key thermodynamic design parameters, including turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, ammonia mass fraction, pinch temperature difference and approach temperature difference in the heat recovery vapor generator, on the system performance are examined from the view of both thermodynamics and economics. To obtain the optimum performance, multi-objective optimization is conducted to find the best thermodynamic design parameters from both thermodynamic and economic aspects using NSGA-II (Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II). The exergy efficiency, total heat transfer capability and turbine size parameter are selected as three objective functions to maximize the exergy efficiency, and minimize the total heat transfer capability and turbine size parameter under the given waste heat conditions. The results show that turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, ammonia mass fraction, pinch temperature difference and approach temperature difference have significant effects on the system performance. By multi-objective optimization, the Pareto frontier solution for the ammonia-water power system is obtained. - Highlights: ► An ammonia-water power system with LNG as its heat sink is proposed. ► The effects of key parameters on the system performance are examined. ► Multi-objective optimization is conducted to obtain optimum system performance

  6. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  7. Planned and proposed pipeline regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Research and Special Programs Administration administers the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (NGPSA) and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 (HLPSA). The RSPA issues and enforces design, construction, operation and maintenance regulations for natural gas pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper discusses a number of proposed and pending safety regulations and legislative initiatives currently being considered by the RSPA and the US Congress. Some new regulations have been enacted. The next few years will see a great deal of regulatory activity regarding natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines, much of it resulting from legislative requirements. The office of Pipeline Safety is currently conducting a study to streamline its operations. This study is analyzing the office's business, social and technical operations with the goal of improving overall efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job satisfaction to meet the challenges of the future

  8. Incidental electric heating of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonninskii, A V; Sirotin, A M; Vasiliev, Y N

    1981-04-01

    VNIIgaz has improved the conventional Japanese SECT pipeline-heating system, which uses a small steel tube that contains an insulated heater/conductor and is welded to the top of the pipeline. The improved version has two insulated electric heaters - one on the top and the other on the bottom of the pipeline - located inside steel angle irons that are welded to the pipeline. A comparison of experimental results from heating a 200-ft pipeline with both systems at currents of up to 470 A clearly demonstrated the better heating efficiency of the VNIIgaz unit. The improved SECT system would be suitable for various types of pipelines, including gas lines, in the USSR's far north regions.

  9. Hydrocarbons pipeline transportation risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, A. V.; Milke, A. A.; Kvasov, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    The pipeline transportation applying risks assessment issue in the arctic conditions is addressed in the paper. Pipeline quality characteristics in the given environment has been assessed. To achieve the stated objective, the pipelines mathematical model was designed and visualized by using the software product SOLIDWORKS. When developing the mathematical model the obtained results made possible to define the pipeline optimal characteristics for designing on the Arctic sea bottom. In the course of conducting the research the pipe avalanche collapse risks were examined, internal longitudinal and circular loads acting on the pipeline were analyzed, as well as the water impact hydrodynamic force was taken into consideration. The conducted calculation can contribute to the pipeline transport further development under the harsh climate conditions of the Russian Federation Arctic shelf territory.

  10. Using of polyamide in construction of supporting blocks of cryogenic tanks on example of LNG container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lisowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in using of cryogenic gases is increasing recently. It particularly applies to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas, which is relatively inexpensive and environmental friendly. In the liquefied form this gas is highly compressed. One cubic meter of liquefied LNG can be expanded to 660 cubic meters of normal usable gas. At the atmospheric pressure, the liquefaction temperature of LNG is under minus 160 Celsius degrees. Therefore, there is a necessity to store it in a cryogenic tank. A system of reloading port terminals is built in several UE countries, as Spain, Italy. The LNG is delivered to these terminals using the adequately equipped ships. However, there are significant problems with delivering LNG to recipients not connected to the gas network directly. Delivering of liquefied LNG to recipients using the road or rail transport is one of the simplest solutions of this problem. This kind of transport is possible only with using suitable tanks with the adequate insulation and fulfilling the transport requirements. Many scientific research centers carry out investigations on high insulating-power materials. The problem to design and build universal container for road and rail transport was taken on by Cracow University of Technology together with the company Chemet from Tarnowskie Góry. Designed cryogenic tank is a two-walledconstruction with the vacuum between them. Distance between walls is provided by system of supporting blocks made of plastic. Thispaper presents problem of heat transfer between the walls through the supporting blocks. The investigations were carried out both:numerically, using the finite element method and experimentally, using the especially designed and built laboratory test stand, whichallowed to determine heat transfer coefficient.

  11. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction

  12. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Regulations to require operators of gas distribution pipelines to develop and implement integrity management...

  13. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements.'' The final rule...

  14. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory... Gas and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems. Subject: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused...

  15. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0156] Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of advisory committee...

  16. Advanced evacuation model managed through fuzzy logic during an accident in LNG terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovicj, Goran; Petelin, Stojan [Faculty for Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, Portorozh (Sierra Leone); others, and

    2014-07-01

    Evacuation of people located inside the enclosed area of an LNG terminal is a complex problem, especially considering that accidents involving LNG are potentially very hazardous. In order to create an evacuation model managed through fuzzy logic, extensive influence must be generated from safety analyses. A very important moment in the optimal functioning of an evacuation model is the creation of a database which incorporates all input indicators. The output result is the creation of a safety evacuation route which is active at the moment of the accident. (Author)

  17. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  18. Project risk perspective on using LNG, CNG, and GTL concepts to monetise offshore stranded gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Blikom, Lars Petter

    2010-09-15

    This paper discusses technology maturity and the key risks involved in establishing LNG, CNG, and GTL value chains in order to monetise offshore stranded and associated gas. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the economics of the various concepts and the impact of uncertainty. The conclusion is that LNG offers the most flexible value chain with the lowest level of risk exposure. CNG may offer better economics as long as the distance to market is fairly short. GTL must overcome significant technological challenges before becoming available for offshore use and also offers higher uncertainty in economic terms.

  19. LNG businesses evaluation: strategic positioning; Avaliacao de negocios de GNL: posicionamento estrategico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toste, Ana Cristina Leitao Goncalves; Frozza, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Given the global development of the LNG industry and the changes it has suffered along the recent years, companies must evaluate how they should better position themselves towards this business, in order to optimize resources and maximize gains. The present work discusses three fictitious cases, in an effort to delineate and understand the several issues that impact a business decision in the LNG industry. In each case, business evaluation is performed taking into consideration project economics, as well as risk and strategy issues. (author)

  20. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.210 Pipeline location. (a) Pipeline right-of-way must be selected to avoid, as...

  1. Preconditions for the development of land-based infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av landbaserad infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna; Haraldsson, Kristina; Beijer, Ronja; Stensson, Peter (AaF Industry AB(Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The conversion potential to replace oil in the energy intensive industries and diesel in heavy transport is estimated in the study to 6.8 TWh and 10 TWh per year, respectively. Several alternative fuels compete for this conversion potential. What fuels will take market share depends on several factors such as price, availability of fuel, availability of process technology and vehicles, technology development and possible future technological advances. For liquid methane to compete a new infrastructure is required that in a cost effective manner makes it possible to distribute the liquid methane to the regions where the need is the greatest. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. The study points out three nodes, Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa, which is suitable for distribution of liquid methane to the central and northern Sweden. The three hubs are suitable for freight transfer to trucks as well as rail and shipping. A strategic nationwide network of refueling stations is also proposed, with a total of 18 new stations, in addition to the filling stations in southern and central Sweden that are already planned or in operation. Both the availability and use of liquid methane in Sweden today is limited. Liquid natural gas, LNG (liquefied natural gas), is primarily used as a backup to biogas plants, in a few industries and as supply for a few filling stations for compressed gas. The availability of LNG and also liquid biogas (LBG liquefied biogas), will increase in coming years. In 2011, two new LNG import terminals are put into operation in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad in Norway and two additional import terminals are planned in Gothenburg and Lysekil. Furthermore, two production plants for liquid biogas production have started, and four additional plants are planned, which together will produce around 0.5 TWh LBG annually

  2. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  3. 76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    .... PHMSA-2011-0177] Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding AGENCY... liquid pipelines to communicate the potential for damage to pipeline facilities caused by severe flooding... pipelines in case of flooding. ADDRESSES: This document can be viewed on the Office of Pipeline Safety home...

  4. Automatic pipeline operation using Petri Nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Guilherme O. [PETROBRAS TRANSPORTE S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A pipeline operation requires several actions, attention and time from the control room operator in each of its operating phases. This article proposition is to use automation as something more than a remote control, drastically reducing the number of repetitive and routine actions needed from the operator to start and stop the system, granting more time for system supervision, decision making during critical conditions and avoiding errors caused due to the need of several actions being executed in a short period of time. To achieve these objectives the pipeline operation will be modeled as a Petri Net consisting of states, event and actions. A methodology for converting this Petri Net into a Ladder controller code will also be proposed. (author)

  5. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... noted ``when the oil pipeline industry developed the survey for its voluntary spill reporting system...) [cir] The American Public Gas Association (APGA) [cir] The Association of Oil Pipelines (AOPL) [cir... the contrary, all 50 states in the United States have a law designed to prevent excavation damage to...

  6. Lay Pipeline Abandonment Head during Some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... is very cruel to the structural integrity of the pipeline structure after ... and properties may be jeopardized should the pipeline structure be used for oil or gas transport when such ... pipelines under bending may alter the material.

  7. Pipeline Processing for VISTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. R.; Irwin, M.; Bunclark, P.

    2010-12-01

    The VISTA telescope is a 4 metre instrument which has recently been commissioned at Paranal, Chile. Equipped with an infrared camera, 16 2Kx2K Raytheon detectors and a 1.7 square degree field of view, VISTA represents a huge leap in infrared survey capability in the southern hemisphere. Pipeline processing of IR data is far more technically challenging than for optical data. IR detectors are inherently more unstable, while the sky emission is over 100 times brighter than most objects of interest, and varies in a complex spatial and temporal manner. To compensate for this, exposure times are kept short, leading to high nightly data rates. VISTA is expected to generate an average of 250 GB of data per night over the next 5-10 years, which far exceeds the current total data rate of all 8m-class telescopes. In this presentation we discuss the pipelines that have been developed to deal with IR imaging data from VISTA and discuss the primary issues involved in an end-to-end system capable of: robustly removing instrument and night sky signatures; monitoring data quality and system integrity; providing astrometric and photometric calibration; and generating photon noise-limited images and science-ready astronomical catalogues.

  8. Accuracy Limitations of Pipelined ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, P.J.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the key characteristics of the main errors which affect the performance of a switched capacitor pipelined ADC are presented and their effects on the ADC transfer characteristics demonstrated. Clear and concise relationships are developed to aid optimized design of the pipeline ADC and

  9. White paper: Preliminary assessment of LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues (Revision 1). Topical report, April-August 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powars, C.; Lucher, D.; Moyer, C.; Browning, L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of LNG as a vehicle fuel, to determine market niches, and to identify needed technology improvements. The white paper is being issued when the work is approximately 30 percent complete to preview the study direction, draw preliminary conclusions, and make initial recommendations. Interim findings relative to LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety are presented. It is important to decide if heavier hydrocarbons should be allowed in LNG vehicle fuel. Development of suitable refueling couplings and vehicle fuel supply pressure systems are recommended. Initial economics analyses considered transit buses and pickup and delivery trucks fueled via onsite liquefiers and imported LNG. Net user costs were more than (but in some cases close to) those for diesel fuel and gasoline. Lowering the cost of small-scale liquefiers would significantly improve the economics of LNG vehicles. New emissions regulations may introduce considerations beyond simple cost comparisons. LNG vehicle safety and available accident data are reviewed. Consistent codes for LNG vehicles and refueling facilities are needed

  10. Is a 125,000 M3 class ship always an optimum for LNG carriers 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grill, A.

    1992-01-01

    When making the inventory of LNG carriers built up to the present day, one can see that ships of 125 to 130,000 m 3 may be considered as a real standard. An increase of ship's size, together with a reduction of the number of ships required on a given trade, must lead to a reduction of transportation cost. It must also be possible to obtain a better correlation between available energy during voyage and propulsion needs by adjusting boil-off rate and adapting the tanks insulation coefficient. The presentation shows the possibility to significantly reduce LNG transportation cost by an optimization of the size for future ships. The study is based on a certain number of typical trades being able to be met when taking into account future foreseeable needs for LNG. The influence of parameters such as type of containment system and number of tanks, type of propulsion, influence of size restrictions, ability to deliver a given amount of LNG per year even in case of one ship temporary out of order is also considered

  11. In-situ strain monitoring in liquid containers of LNG transporting carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Cheol; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport carriers are exposed to a risk by the repeated bump in the LNG container during the vessel traveling over the wave in ocean. The liquid inside the container, especially when it was not fully contained, make a strong bump onto the insulation panel of the tank wall. The insulation panel consists of several layers of thick polyurethane foam (PUF) to maintain the LNG below the cryogenic temperature, -162°C. Due to the repeated shock on the PUF, a crack could be developed on the tank wall causing a tremendous disaster for LNG carriers. To prevent the accidental crack on the tank, a continuous monitoring of the strain imposed on the PUF is recommended. In this work, a fiber-optic Bragg grating was imbedded inside the PUF for monitoring the strain parallel to the impact direction. The optical fiber sensor with a small diameter of 125 μm was suitable to be inserted in the PUF through a small hole drilled after the PUF was cured. In-situ monitoring of the strain producing the change of Bragg reflection wavelength, a high speed wavelength interrogation method was employed by using an arrayed waveguide grating. By dropping a heavy mass on the PUF, we measured the strain imposed on the insulation panel.

  12. 77 FR 788 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... a new 2,500 horsepower electric- driven compressor unit at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal... referenced docket pursuant to section 3(a) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 153 of the Federal Energy... to allow boil-off gas generated naturally within its storage tanks to be delivered to the downstream...

  13. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout and...

  14. Creating an LNG Ready Worker: British Columbia's Blueprint for Extraction Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Since 2011, the government of British Columbia (BC) has focused on building the Canadian province's economy through the development of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) sector. In service of this endeavour, the government launched the "Skills for Jobs Blueprint," which attempts to more clearly align BC's education system with resource…

  15. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... states that when natural gas supplies are in balance with domestic demand, LNG will be imported and used... prohibited by U.S. law or policy, over a two-year period commencing on the date of the authorization. The... Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000...

  16. A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaojun; Che Defu

    2009-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia-water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component and thermodynamic analyses are conducted. The results show that the proposed combined cycle has good performance, with net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency of 33% and 48%, respectively, for a typical operating condition. The power output is equal to 1.25 MWh per kg of ammonia-water mixture. About 0.2 MW of electrical power for operating sea water pumps can be saved. Parametric analyses are performed for the proposed combined cycle to evaluate the effects of key factors on the performance of the proposed combined cycle through simulation calculations. Results show that a maximum net electrical efficiency can be obtained as the inlet pressure of ammonia turbine increases and the peak value increases as the ammonia mass fraction increases. Exergy efficiency goes up with the increased ammonia turbine inlet pressure. With the ammonia mass fraction increases, the net electrical efficiency increases, whereas exergy efficiency decreases. For increasing LNG turbine inlet pressure or heat source temperature, there is also a peak of net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency. With the increase of LNG gas turbine outlet pressure, exergy efficiency increases while net electrical efficiency drops

  17. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... announce they have received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the...

  18. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port facility that would be located approximately 16.2...

  19. A NEW METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING THE KNOCK RESISTANCE OF LNG FUELS USED IN THE TRANSPORTATION MARKET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco

    2014-01-01

    To ensure that the engines to be used in LNG-fueled vehicles are matched with the expected variations in fuel composition, the knock resistance of the fuel must be determined unambiguously. Rather than rely on empirical methods using gas mixtures and “standard” engines traditionally employed for

  20. Recent developments in pipeline welding practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen chapters are included: overview of pipeline welding systems and quality assurance, CRC automatic welding system, H.C. Price Co. automatic welding system, semi-automatic MIG-welding process, partial penetration welding of steel pipes for gas distribution, construction procedures and quality control in offshore pipeline construction, welding in repair and maintenance of gas transmission pipelines, British Gas studies of welding on pressurized gas transmission pipelines, hot tapping pipelines, underwater welding for offshore pipelines and associated equipment, radial friction welding, material composition vs weld properties, review of NDT of pipeline welds, and safety assurance in pipeline construction. A bibliography of approximately 150 references is included, arranged according to subject and year.

  1. GRI testing facility available for pipeline inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to help improve detection and characterization of defects that may occur in pipelines, the Gas Research Institute has announced the completion of the first phase of a testing facility for the evaluation of new and existing pipeline inspection technologies. GRI is a private, not-for-profit membership organization based in Chicago. The first phase of the facility consists of a pull rig which includes four 300-foot lengths of pipe with diameters of 12, 24, 30, and 36 inches. NDE inspection devices can be pulled through these pipe segments by a winch at speeds up to 25 miles per hour

  2. Developing safe and reliable LNG supply chains in teh new global environment: experience and lessons from six continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ernst; Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Dweck, Jacob; Mareino, Vince; Eriksen, Remi

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of risk management in the context of specific recent experiences in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) business. The paper notes the overall success of the LNG business in ensuring safety and reliability, and highlights the opportunities and dangers of recent business growth. Risks are organised by theme, with focuses on politics and regulation, safety and security, environmental impact, public perception, technological innovation, cost and time management, competence and quality of assets, and harsh climates. Developers and other stakeholders are encouraged to draw lessons from these experiences when attempting to model the interplay of social, commercial and technical factors in LNG project development. (auth)

  3. Third party access to LNG terminals. GIIGNL - Commercial Study Group Topic 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    This report has been elaborated in the context of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group (CSG) activities, which include as one of its topics the 'Third Party Access to LNG terminals' (Topic 8), led by Enagas. The 2010 edition is the third update to the report presented during the meeting of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2007. - Section 1 includes a review of the regulatory TPA regimes of LNG terminals in operation in Europe. The existing regime in each country, or for each terminal, is reviewed following a number of subsections. Each subsection follows the same structure in order to better understand the different arrangements and facilitate comparisons. - Section 2 shows data on effective usage and TPA access to each LNG terminal since 2000. Three main data are shown where available: number of cargoes delivered, volumes unloaded / sent-out, and the part of these cargoes/volumes that correspond to third parties. - Section 3 includes a tariff comparison for TPA to LNG terminals in Europe, taking into account the terms and conditions in force as of July 2010. - A description of the regulatory situation in the US in Sections 4. Access conditions to the three terminals under regulated TPA have been included for the first time: Lake Charles, Cove Point and Elba Island. An overview of Mexico and Canada is also reported. - An overview of the regulatory situation in Japan is provided in Section 5. The information required for the elaboration of this report has been collected from official web sites (LNG operators, regulatory authorities and industry associations), public reports and industry and statistical data Enagas deems to be reliable. For the adoption of certain hypothesis in Section 3 Enagas has also relied in information directly provided by operators

  4. Desain Rantai Pasok Gas Alam Cair (LNG untuk Kebutuhan Pembangkit Listrik di Indonesia Bagian Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Arya Satya Dharma Putra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara yang memiliki gas alam yang melimpah, namun kurangnya kesadaran masyarakat Indonesia untuk memanfaatkan gas tersebut untuk kebutuhan listrik di Indonesia yang sekarang sedang dalam krisis terutama di Indonesia Timur. Salah satu penyebab krisis tenaga listrik yang terjadi di Indonesia adalah tingginya nilai harga bahan bakar minyak, dimana High Speed Diesel Oil merupakan bahan bakar utama bagi pembangkit listrik di Indonesia. Gas alam cair atau Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG dapat menjadi solusi alternatif bahan bakar bagi pembangkit listrik di Indonesia.Studi kali ini bertujuan untuk pemanfaatan gas alam cair (LNG untuk kebutuhan pembangkit listrik di Indonesia Timur dengan menentukan pola distribusi LNG dengan menggunakan Blok Masela sebagai sumber LNG dan menggunakan kapal untuk mendistribusikannya. Terdapat 39 pembangkit yang tersebar di 4 pulau yaitu Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, dan Papua. Kapal yang digunakan untuk mendistribusikan terdapat 5 kapal dengan ukuran 2500 m3, 7500 m3, 10000 m3, 19500 m3, 23000 m3. Untuk mendapatkan rute distribusi, studi ini menggunakan metode Linear Programing dan dalam Vehicle Routing Problem. Hasil optimasi pada distribusi ini adalah rute dan kapal yang optimal / terbaik dengan biaya ekonomi yang minimal.Dari hasil penelitian ini pembangkit akan dibagi menjadi 5 cluster dimana terdapat 5 rute yang terpilih dengan menggunakan 6 kapal yaitu 5 kapal ukuran 2500 m3 dan 1 kapal dengan ukuran 7500m3. Biaya total yang diperlukan dalam mendistribusikan LNG sebesar US$ 111,863,119.15 untuk Opex dan US$ 283,967,000.00 untuk Capex. Hasil dari kajian ekonomi menunjukan bahwa margin penjualan yang terpilih adalah antara US$ 3.5 sampai US$ 3.9 dengan payback period selama 6.8 – 4.7 tahun tahun dari waktu operasi 20 tahun.

  5. Federal cabinet minister from N.B joins opponents to LNG terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.

    2005-08-25

    This article addressed the debate regarding the United States' proposal to construct liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities on a pristine bay between New Brunswick and Maine. Two LNG projects are currently being promoted for Passamaquoddy Bay, and 2 more proposals are expected to be announced in the near future. However, the proponents have not yet submitted any formal applications to the Canadian government. A federal cabinet minister from New Brunswick has joined the growing opposition to the proposed project, claiming that the location on the Maine side of Passamaquoddy Bay, a large inlet off the Bay of Fundy, poses too many risks to the habitat of several endangered or at-risk species, including the North Atlantic Right Whale. The proposed sites in Maine are directly across a narrow bay where tourism and fishing are prime industries in New Brunswick. The cabinet minister claims that with over 2,000 miles of coastline on the eastern seaboard, another location can be found for the LNG facilities that would not present navigational difficulties. The Canadian federal government has the jurisdiction to stop the project by not allowing the supertankers to cross Canadian waters to enter the Bay. The waters are known for their treacherous navigation. The premier of New Brunswick has also stepped in to ensure that the governor of Maine is made aware of Canada's opposition to the project. Officials with Downeast LNG and Quoddy Bay LLC claim there would not be any safety or environmental risks associated with the LNG project.

  6. H_2 production by the steam reforming of excess boil off gas on LNG vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Ignacio Arias; Gómez, Manuel Romero; Gómez, Javier Romero; López-González, Luis M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • BOG excess in LNG vessels is burned in the GCU without energy use. • The gas management plants need to be improved to increase efficiency. • BOG excess in LNG vessels is used for H_2 production by steam reforming. • The availability of different fuels increases the versatility of the ship. - Abstract: The gas management system onboard LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) vessels is crucial, since the exploitation of the BOG (Boil Off Gas) produced is of utmost importance for the overall efficiency of the plant. At present, LNG ships with no reliquefaction plant consume the BOG generated in the engines, and the excess is burned in the GCU (Gas Combustion Unit) without any energy use. The need to improve the gas management system, therefore, is evident. This paper proposes hydrogen production through a steam reforming plant, using the excess BOG as raw material and thus avoiding it being burned in the GCU. To test the feasibility of integrating the plant, an actual study of the gas management process on an LNG vessel with 4SDF (4 Stroke Dual Fuel) propulsion and with no reliquefaction plant was conducted, along with a thermodynamic simulation of the reforming plant. With the proposed gas management system, the vessel disposes of different fuels, including H_2, a clean fuel with zero ozone-depleting emissions. The availability of H_2 on board in areas with strict anti-pollution regulations, such as ECAs (Emission Control Area), means that the vessel may be navigated without using fossil fuels which generate CO_2 and SO_X emissions. Moreover, while at port, Cold Ironing is avoided, which entails high costs. Thus it is demonstrated that the installation of a reforming plant is both energetically viable and provides greater versatility to the ship.

  7. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  8. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  9. The Leaking Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Inge; Højgaard, Lis

    2002-01-01

    negotiations of cultural prescriptions of gendered subjectivity and identities, organizational understandings and procedures embedded in specific university cultures, traditional of different science disciplines, and the systemic logic and political rationale of the education and research system....... these positions, and one that maintains that a closer look at the statistics does not support this optimism because women’s percentage in recruitment positions is not increasing as the pool of potential female researchers increases, or to put it metaphorically, “the pipeline is leaking women all along” (Alper...... it identifies and describes a Danish verion of ‘the leaky pipeline’ from analyses of the ratios of women in science from high school through tenured positions. Finally it illustrates the cultural mechanisms at play in this process, based on the results of three studies. The first two analyze the educational...

  10. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst.

  11. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  12. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  13. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  14. Pipeline technology. Petroleum oil - long-distance pipelines. Pipelinetechnik. Mineraloelfernleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krass, W; Kittel, A; Uhde, A

    1979-01-01

    All questions and concerns of pipeline technique are dealt with in detail. Some chapters can be applied for petroleum pipelines only or partly, for example the importance of petroleum pipelines, projecting, calculation, and operation. The sections of pipes and formings, laying, rights of way, and corrosion protection, accessories and remote effect technique, however, are of general interest, for example also for gas pipelines. In the chapter on working material, a very good summary of today's pipe working material including the thermomechanically treated steels is given. Besides methods of improving the toughness, the problems of the corrosion caused by strain cracking and the ways of avoiding it are pointed out. The pipe producing methods and, in the end of the chapter, the tests in the factory are explained. The section of laying deals with the laying methods being applied for years in pipeline construction, a big part referring to welding methods and tests. Active and passive corrosion protection are explained with all details. In addition to the solidity calculation presented with special regard to concerns of petroleum pipelines, theoretical fundaments and calculation methods for pressure are dealt with. Beside general questions of pumps, accessories, and drives, there is a section dealing with measurement and control techniques. Furthermore, remote effect and transmission techniques and news systems are explained in detail. Here, problems are referred to which are applicable not only to the operation of mineral oil pipelines. The book is completed by indications as to pipeline operation emphasizing general operation control, maintenance, repair methods and damage and their elimination. The last chapter contains a collection of the legal fundaments and the technical rules.

  15. Fishing intensity around the BBL pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Wageningen Marine Research was requested by ACRB B.V. to investigate the fishing activities around the BBL pipeline. This gas pipeline crosses the southern North Sea from Balgzand (near Den Helder) in the Netherlands to Bacton in the UK (230km). This pipeline is abbreviated as the BBL pipeline. Part

  16. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  17. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... National Environmental Policy Act requirements had bee satisfied fully. See e.g. Trunkline LNG Company, LLC... the United States will not rise to the levels observed in other parts of the world.\\15\\ TLNG Export...

  18. Refloating stranded gas. Floating LNG-factory to become the largest ship on the world seas; Gestrand gas vlot trekken. Drijvende LNG-fabriek wordt grootste schip op wereldzeeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, P.

    2010-09-15

    Great effort is currently put in the upcoming construction of a gigantic floating LNG plant that will be deployed by Shell. The enormous vessel will be used for the production of gas fields that are so far away from the coast that it is uneconomical to bring the gas to land by means of gas pipes, where it is converted into liquid natural gas (LNG). According to recent plans the first floating LNG plant will be used at the Prelude gas field northwest of Australia. [Dutch] Momenteel wordt hard gewerkt aan de aanstaande bouw van een gigantisch drijvende LNG-fabriek die door Shell ingezet gaat worden. Het enorme vaartuig wordt gebruikt voor de productie van gasvelden die zo ver uit de kust liggen dat het oneconomisch is om het gas met pijpleidingen aan land te brengen om het daar om te zetten in vloeibaar aardgas, LNG. Volgens de huidige plannen wordt de eerste drijvende LNG-fabriek gebruikt voor het Prelude gasveld ten noord-westen van Australie.

  19. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts... Register (75 FR 72878) titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  20. Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

  1. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  2. Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeheim, C.

    1991-08-01

    Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

  3. Economic evaluation: wood stave pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rook, M.E.

    The spray of leakage from the wood stave water supply pipeline serving the New England Power Company's (NEPCO) Searsburg hydroelectric development had caused this facility to be dubbed ''The Searsburg Car Wash.'' In July, 1982, excessive leakage from this pipeline prompted NEPCO to perform a technical inspection which would inform the company's decision to replace, repair, or abandon the pipeline. The inspection indicated that a combination of interrelated factors has led to rapid deterioration. The feasibility study, which included a benefit -cost analysis of a times replacement with a continued repair program weighed annually by a risk factor representing the probability of pipeline failure during the replacement period, determined that direct replacement was most advantageous. 4 figures, 1 figures.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel power plant with LNG (liquefied natural gas) cold exergy exploitation and CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gómez, Manuel; Romero Gómez, Javier; López-González, Luis M.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    The LNG (liquefied natural gas) regasification process is a source of cold exergy that is suitable to be recovered to improve the efficiency of thermal power plants. In this paper, an innovative power plant with LNG (liquefied natural gas) exergy utilisation and the capture of CO_2 proceeding from the flue gases is presented. It is characterised by the recovery of LNG cold exergy in a closed Brayton cycle and through direct expansion in an expander coupled to an electrical generator. Moreover, this novel power plant configuration allows CO_2 capture, through an oxy-fuel combustion system and a Rankine cycle that operates with the flue gases themselves and in quasi-critical conditions. The greatest advantage of this plant is that all the recoverable LNG exergy is used to increase the efficiency of the CBC (closed Brayton cycle) and in direct expansion whereas, in other power cycles found in literature that associate LNG regasification and CO_2 capture, part of the LNG exergy is used for condensing flue gas CO_2 for its subsequent capture. As a result, a high efficiency power plant is achieved, exceeding 65%, with almost zero greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • LNG cold exergy can be recovered to improve the efficiency of power plants. • High efficiency power plant with almost zero greenhouse gas emissions. • CO_2 capture through an oxy-fuel combustion system and a Rankine cycle. • Sensitivity analysis of key parameters to evaluate the effect on the efficiency. • The exergy available in the LNG represents 34.79% of the fuel exergy.

  5. Pipeline robots with elastic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matuliauskas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article constructions of the pipeline robots with elastic elements are reviewed and the scheme of new original construction is presented. The mathematical models of a robot with one-dimensional vibration exciter with two degrees of freedom were developed and the equations of movement were formed and written. The mathematical model of the pipeline robot with circular elements is formed and its motion equations are presented.

  6. Optimal valve location in long oil pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoriev, A.; Grigorieva, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    We address the valve location problem, one of the basic problems in design of long oil pipelines. Whenever a pipeline is depressurized, the shutoff valves block the oil flow and seal the damaged part of the pipeline. Thus, the quantity of oil possibly contaminating the area around the pipeline is determined by the volume of the damaged section of the pipeline between two consecutive valves. Then, ecologic damage can be quantified by the amount of leaked oil and the environmental characteristi...

  7. Pipeline for Contraceptive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blithe, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    The high rates of unplanned pregnancy reflect unmet need for effective contraceptive methods for women, especially for individuals with health risks such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions that may contraindicate use of an estrogen-containing product. Improvements in safety, user convenience, acceptability and availability of products remain important goals of the contraceptive development program. Another important goal is to minimize the impact of the products on the environment. Development of new methods for male contraception has the potential to address many of these issues with regard to safety for women who have contraindications to effective contraceptive methods but want to protect against pregnancy. It also will address a huge unmet need for men who want to control their fertility. Products under development for men would not introduce eco-toxic hormones in the waste water. Investment in contraceptive research to identify new products for women has been limited in the pharmaceutical industry relative to investment in drug development for other indications. Pharmaceutical R&D for male contraception was active in the 1990’s but was abandoned over a decade ago. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has supported a contraceptive development program since 1969. Through a variety of programs including research grants and contracts, NICHD has developed a pipeline of new targets/products for male and female contraception. A number of lead candidates are under evaluation in the NICHD Contraceptive Clinical Trials Network (CCTN) (1–3). PMID:27523300

  8. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kompas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM, based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India, and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events.

  9. The influence of the technologically advanced evacuation models on the risk analyses during accidents in LNG terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovicj, Goran; Petelin, Stojan [Faculty for Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, Portorozh (Sierra Leone); others, and

    2014-07-01

    The evacuation of people located in different safety zones of an LNG terminal is a complex problem considering that the accidents involving LNG are very hazardous and post the biggest threat to the safety of the people located near the LNG leakage. The safety risk criteria define the parameters which one LNG terminal should meet in terms of safety. Those criteria also contain an evacuation as an evasive action with the objective to mitigate the influence of the LNG accident on the people at risk. Till date, not a lot of attention has been paid to technologically advanced evacuations intended for LNG terminals. Creating the technologically advanced evacuation influences directly on the decrease of the probability of fatalities P{sub f,i}, thus influencing the calculation of the individual risk as well as the societal risk which results in the positioning of the F-N curve in the acceptable part of the ALARP zone. With this paper, we aim to present the difference between the safety analyses in cases when conservative data for P{sub f,i} is being used while calculating the risk, and in cases when real data for P{sub f,i} is been used. (Author)

  10. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  11. Solving an unpiggable pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, James R. [GE Oil and Gas, PII Pipeline Solutions, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom); Kern, Michael [National Grid, New Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Technically, any pipeline can be retrofitted to enable in line inspection. Sensibly however, the expense of excavations and construction of permanent facilities have been, in many cases, exceedingly prohibitive. Even where traditional modifications are feasible from engineering perspectives, flow interruption may not be an option - either because they are critical supply lines or because the associated lost revenues could be nearly insurmountable. Savvy pipeline integrity managers know the safety issue that is at stake over the long term. They are also well aware of the accuracy benefits that high-quality in-line inspection data offer over potentially supply disruptive alternatives such as hydrostatic testing. To complicate matters further, many operators, particularly in the US, now face regulatory pressure to assess the integrity of their yet-uninspected pipelines located in highly populated areas. This paper describes an important project National Grid undertook that made use of a unique pipeline access method that did not require permanent installation of expensive facilities required for in line inspection of a pipeline previously considered 'unpiggable'. Since the pipeline was located in an urban area, flow disruption had to be minimized. This paper will define the project background, its challenges, outcomes and lessons learned for the future. (author)

  12. 76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR 191... Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Issuance of... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) published a final rule on November 26, 2010...

  13. 75 FR 45591 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Technical Pipeline Safety Advisory Committee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Committee Meetings AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION... safety standards, risk assessments, and safety policies for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous...

  14. 77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ...: Threat Prevention --Working Group 2: Leak Detection/Mitigation & Storage --Working Group 3: Anomaly... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0146] Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public...

  15. Thermodynamic aspects of an LNG tank in fire and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsbosch-Dam, Corina; Atli-Veltin, Bilim; Kamperveen, Jerry; Velthuis, Han; Reinders, Johan; Spruijt, Mark; Vredeveldt, Lex

    Mechanical behaviour of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tank and the thermodynamic behaviour of its containment under extreme heat load - for instance when subjected to external fire source as might occur during an accident - are extremely important when addressing safety concerns. In a scenario where external fire is present and consequent release of LNG from pressure relief valves (PRV) has occurred, escalation of the fire might occur causing difficulty for the fire response teams to approach the tank or to secure the perimeter. If the duration of the tank exposure to fire is known, the PRV opening time can be estimated based on the thermodynamic calculations. In this paper, such an accidental scenario is considered, relevant thermodynamic equations are derived and presented. Moreover, an experiment is performed with liquid nitrogen and the results are compared to the analytical ones. The analytical results match very well with the experimental observations. The resulting analytical models are suitable to be applied to other cryogenic liquids.

  16. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project: a tax overview; Projeto Gas Natural Liquefeito (GNL): uma abordagem tributaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Claudia W.M.; Faria, Viviana C.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the second semester of 2008, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be introduced in the Brazilian energy matrix, it will be done through an innovator project according technical and tax points of view. Mentioned the enormous effort of adapting the federal legislation approved for this new activity which begins in the country, uncharged both the admission of the vessel as the import of the commodity in the incidence of federal taxes. The market for LNG demand simplified customs procedures in order to benefit from the dynamism that this industry offers, and in addition, a tax burden that encourages the use of a competitive and compatible with the precepts of sustainable development of the country. (author)

  17. Financing of LNG projects in developing countries and the role of the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitsky, M.; Nore, P.

    1992-01-01

    The future quantities of capital required by the LNG industry will be very large. However, the continued rapid development of the industry is justified by the economic and environmental benefits of increased natural gas use. It is likely that the World Bank will continue to play a modest absolute role in supplying capital to the industry. The Bank can, however, play a crucial role in assisting governments in formulating appropriate energy policies and project development strategies and thereby creating the right policy and financial climate. The Bank can also provide a relatively modest amount of financial backing to projects, which nonetheless can help to generate larger volumes of finance from other sources. In the long run, LNG projects which are well structured and which operate within an appropriate policy environment should succeed in attracting financing even in today's more competitive environment

  18. Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunpeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the four papers in the special issues on ‘Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia’. The papers examine lessons and experience from European hub development, other commodity, the Japanese history on developing of futures markets and inter-fuel substitution in East Asia. The papers finds that liquid futures market is the key to formulate benchmark prices while a well-developed spot market is the foundation; political will and strong leadership are required to overcome the power of incumbents and to restructure the gas market that impede the the development of competitive markets; and East Asia needs to develop its indigenous gas or LNG trading hubs even in low oil prices period and its developing market allows easier changes in new contracts than in existing ones. This hub development requires governments to go through tough domestic market reforms, including liberalization and cooperation with each other and with gas exporters.

  19. Gathering pipeline methane emissions in Fayetteville shale pipelines and scoping guidelines for future pipeline measurement campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Zimmerle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gathering pipelines, which transport gas from well pads to downstream processing, are a sector of the natural gas supply chain for which little measured methane emissions data are available. This study performed leak detection and measurement on 96 km of gathering pipeline and the associated 56 pigging facilities and 39 block valves. The study found one underground leak accounting for 83% (4.0 kg CH4/hr of total measured emissions. Methane emissions for the 4684 km of gathering pipeline in the study area were estimated at 402 kg CH4/hr [95 to 1065 kg CH4/hr, 95% CI], or 1% [0.2% to 2.6%] of all methane emissions measured during a prior aircraft study of the same area. Emissions estimated by this study fall within the uncertainty range of emissions estimated using emission factors from EPA’s 2015 Greenhouse Inventory and study activity estimates. While EPA’s current inventory is based upon emission factors from distribution mains measured in the 1990s, this study indicates that using emission factors from more recent distribution studies could significantly underestimate emissions from gathering pipelines. To guide broader studies of pipeline emissions, we also estimate the fraction of the pipeline length within a basin that must be measured to constrain uncertainty of pipeline emissions estimates to within 1% of total basin emissions. The study provides both substantial insight into the mix of emission sources and guidance for future gathering pipeline studies, but since measurements were made in a single basin, the results are not sufficiently representative to provide methane emission factors at the regional or national level.

  20. Upgrading Algeria-Italy trans-Mediterranean natural gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, G.

    1992-01-01

    The first trans-Mediterranean pipeline system, which went into service in 1983, had to be doubled in capacity in order to meet increased European demand for Algerian natural gas. After a brief review of the contractual, planning and construction history of the first pipeline, this paper discusses the strategies taken which led to the decision to double the line's capacity. Descriptions are then given of the different construction phases realized in Tunisia, the Sicilian Channel and Italian mainland. Focus is on construction schedules, problems and solutions. The report comes complete with details of project financing, organizing, materials supply programs, innovative technology applications, design philosophy and construction techniques