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Sample records for lng import terminal

  1. Analysis of LNG import terminal release prevention systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E G

    1982-04-01

    The release prevention systems of liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal were analyzed. A series of potential release scenarios were analyzed to determine the frequency of the release events, the probability these releases are not stopped or isolated by emergency shutdown systems, the estimated release quantities, and the critical components of the system. The two plant areas identified as being most significant with respect to safety are the unloading system and the storage system. Rupture of the main transfer line and gross failure of the storage tanks are the two release scenarios of primary safety interest. Reducing the rate of failure by improved design, better maintenance and testing, or adding redundancy of the critical system components for these plant areas and release scenarios will result in improved safety. Several design alternatives which have the potential to significantly reduce the probability of a large release of LNG occurring at an import terminal are identified. These design alternatives would reduce the probability of a large release of LNG by reducing the expected number of failures which could cause a release or by reducing the magnitude of releases that do occur. All of these alternatives are technically feasible and have been used or considered for use in at least one LNG facility. A more rigorous analysis of the absolute risk of LNG import terminal operation is necessary before the benefits of these design alternatives can be determined. In addition, an economic evaluation of these alternatives must be made so the costs and benefits can be compared. It is concludd that for remotely located facilities many of these alternatives are probably not justified; however, for facilities located in highly populated areas, these alternatives deserve serious consideration.

  2. HK to Benefit from Imported LNG Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    @@ Hong Kong is expected to buy one third of the mainland's US$ 10 billion worth of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) to satisfy its growing energy demand, Mark Qiu, chief financial officer of CNOOC, said recently. He added Hong Kong will buy 1 million tons of LNG a year from the mainland's first LNG terminal in southern Guangdong Province to fuel the power plants and household consumption in the region.

  3. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ; Kamiński, Włodzimierz

    2012-01-01

    W artykule przedstawiono znaczenie problemu bezpieczeństwa terminali LNG w transporcie morskim gazu ziemnego. Wskazano szczególne wymagania jakie stwarza instalacji przesył LNG, a wynikające z jego szczególnych własności. Na tle wielopoziomowych krytycznych obszarów bezpieczeństwa stanowiących elementy składowe struktury systemu bezpieczeństwa terminali wyselekcjonowano możliwości zmniejszania ryzyka wystąpienia sytuacji awaryjnej na terminalu LNG. Zdefiniowano zadania wykonywane przez termin...

  4. CNPC Constructs Its First LNG Terminal in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) broke ground in mid-April for the construction of its first liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Dalian, a port city in northeastern Liaoning Province. This project,with a total investment of over 10 billion yuan (about $1.4 billion), consists of a wharf, a receiving facility and transportation pipelines. It is designed to receive supplies from Qatar, Australia and other overseas markets. CNPC is also building a LNG receiving facility in Rudong county of Eastern China's Jiangsu Province. Experts predicted that by 2020 China would import 10 million tons of LNG annually, stimulating the interests of oil giants to build LNG projects.

  5. LNG REGASIFICATION TERMINALS ACCESS CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR SECURITY OF EUROPEAN NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Veselić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing natural gas consumption, declining North Sea gas reserves, increased production costs and the deregulation of European gas and electricity markets have all combined to create new opportunities for LNG in Europe. In these circumstances, LNG represents an opportunity for many European countries to diversify their natural gas supply, while decreasing their dependence on Russian natural gas import at the same time. The largest exporters of LNG to Europe are Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, Trinidad & Tobago, Egypt and Oman. Spain, Great Britain and France are the largest European importers of LNG. Spain has six LNG regasification terminals, followed by four in Great Britain, three in France, two in Italy and Turkey and finally Greece and Portugal with one terminal each. New LNG regasification terminals are currently under construction in Italy, Spain, Sweden and Netherlands. In addition, more than 30 new LNG terminal projects have been proposed around Europe. Italy plans to construct as many as 10 new regasification terminals, due to the strong orientation of its national energy policy towards LNG. Many European countries are strongly considering participating in the LNG chain for the first time, namely Albania, Cyprus, Ireland, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Croatia. This paper focuses on a specific aspect of the LNG supply chain: the import facility (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. LNG terminal location still a tossup

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Lätti rajatava LNG terminali asukoht pole veel teada. 16. märtsil kohtus Poola president Bronislaw Komorowki Läti riigipea Valdis Zatlersiga ja kiitis selle projekti heaks. Venemaast energiasõltumatuse olulisusest

  7. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Deepwater...

  8. The importance of LNG for natural gas consumption in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metelska Klaudia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The World market of liquefied natural gas (LNG is growing rapidly. In 2015 LNG production exceeded 333 bcm with its predicted increase up to 450 bcm in 2019. The analysis of LNG role in natural gas import to the EU in recent years shows variability: LNG share in overall import reached 25% in 2011 and it went down to 15% in 2014. The smaller demand for natural gas including LNG in the EU can be due to, among others, a slower economic growth and a dynamic development of the use of renewable energy sources. The article shows the role of natural gas in the structure of consumption of primary energy as well as the changes in demand for natural gas in the years 2007–2014 for the main groups of end users: industry, energy production and individual households. The biggest fall in demand for natural gas has been observed in energy production sector in recent years. This publication continues to analyse the structure of natural gas supplies to the EU, with special emphasis on the directions of LNG import to the countries such as: The UK, Spain, France, Greece, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, Lithuania and The Netherlands. The significance of LNG in the balance of consumption of natural gas in these countries has been presented as well as the infrastructure connected with LNG and plans of development of regasification terminals. In the summary the most important conclusions have been drawn and a chance of the increase in significance of the role of LNG in the balance of natural gas supplies has been pointed out, which is due to the steep fall of LNG prices which has taken place in recent years.

  9. The Mooring Pattern Study for Q-Flex Type LNG Carriers Scheduled for Berthing at Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Nas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ever growing energy industry requires larger quantities of LNG to be transported by bigger ships between terminals. Every day, new kind of large vessels created by new technologies, and these are used to trade around the globe. This is the dynamic change in shipping industry. But on the other hand these new vessels need to safely berth to existing terminals which we may accept as more static part of the trade. Thus this study born by the request of Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal management to determine if it is safe to berth to the terminal by a new breed of large LNG carrier type named as Q-Flex and Q-Max. Transas Bridge Simulator NTPRO 5000 series was used in this study for extensive experiments which had been simulated by the use of hook function. During the study, every force applied to mooring hooks and dolphins by the ship lines were divided into 3 dimensions and then measured by simulation experiments. With analysis of the data, required hook and dolphins strengths were determined for the safe mooring arrangements. Upon the completion of the study Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal became the first safe berth for Q-Flex type vessels in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. And finally all experiments were confirmed with real life experience when the first Q-Flex type LNG carrier berthed to the Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal.

  10. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... application (Application), filed on October 26, 2012, by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra LNG Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported...

  11. 77 FR 43589 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG... proposed by Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P, and FLNG Liquefaction LLC... existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Quintana Island in Brazoria County, Texas....

  12. 76 FR 53440 - Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Notice of Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction... construction and operation of facilities proposed by Freeport LNG Development, LP, Freeport LNG Expansion, LP... liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Quintana Island in Brazoria County, Texas. The Project...

  13. 76 FR 58488 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported Liquefied... (Application), filed on August 8, 2011, by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States...

  14. Safety Control System of LNG Terminal%LNG站的安全控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢深

    2014-01-01

    LNG是一种环保、便于储存的优质能源。随着我国对清洁能源的需求不断上升,LNG接收站的建设已经成为我国油气和能源工业新的热点,而在任何油气工业中安全都是重点,文章以上海五号沟LNG站为例,介绍LNG站安全控制系统的设计。%LNG is a kind of energy which is environmental and easy to store. With the increase of demand for clean energy of China, more and more LNG terminal has been built up. Since the safety operation should be considered in the design process, taking shanghai Wuhaogou LNG terminal as an example, the paper introduces the safety control system design of LNG terminal.

  15. Clean sailing. LNG terminals. Maritime infrastructure for liquefied natural gas; Sauber auf See. LNG-Terminals. Maritime Infrastruktur fuer fluessiges Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-09-01

    Ports act as essential hubs in the global economy. But the rise in maritime traffic is taking a toll on the quality of air in ports and out at sea. From 2015 onwards, threshold governing harmful emissions are being tightened in a bid to clear the air. All of which is driving interest in more environmentally sound fuels. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the perfect fit, more than complying with the upcoming regulations. To enable its widespread adoption, Linde is working full steam ahead to create a network of LNG terminals in Europe. (orig.)

  16. Exergy Efficient Application of LNG Cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Van der Kooi, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is growing, which results in numerous LNG import terminals being under construction. In the interest of sustainable development, it is important to decide carefully upon which technology to apply for evaporating the LNG to natural gas. Three optio

  17. Safety in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrow, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Bergbau/Tiefbau; Niemann-Delius, C.; Okafor, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde 3

    2005-07-01

    Germany needs an LNG receiving terminal to import LNG and supplement expected future gas supply shortages. Enormous economic benefits also abound if Germany is to install an LNG receiving terminal. Jobs will be created for several hundred people. New tax revenues will be generated for state and local governments and this will further enhance the economic competitiveness of Germany. Additionally, it will provide Germany with a reliable source of clean-burning energy. Any proposed LNG receiving terminal should incorporate safety right from the start. These safety requirements will: ensure that certain public land uses, people, and structures outside the LNG facility boundaries are protected in the event of LNG fire, prevent vapour clouds associated with an LNG spill from reaching a property line that can be built upon, prevent severe burns resulting from thermal radiation, specify requirements for design, construction and use of LNG facilities and other equipments, and promote safe, secure and reliable LNG operations. The German future LNG business will not be complete without the evolution of both local and international standards that can apply to LNG operations. Currently existing European standards also appear inadequate. With an OHSAS 18001 management system integrated with other existing standards we can better control our LNG occupational health and safety risks, and improve performance in the process. Additionally, an OHSAS 18001 System will help future German LNG contractors and operators safeguard their most important assets - their employees. (orig.)

  18. ANALISIS INVESTASI PROYEK PEMBANGUNAN TERMINAL LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG DI LABUAN MARINGGAI BERDASARKAN ANALISA BEBAN MODAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebinner Sinaga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya kebutuhan akan energi gas bumi tidak terlepas dari kondisi makro ekonomi di Indonesia. Dampak yang paling besar adalah dengan semakin berkembangnya sektor industri dalam negeri terutama di wilayah Jawa Barat dan Lampung, maka kebutuhan gas di wilayah ini meningkat untuk masa mendatang.Kondisi ini oleh PGN harus disikapi dengan serius dikarenakan kemampuan supply untuk gas saat ini tidak bisa untuk memenuhi kenaikan gas di masa mendatang yaitu sekitar 44% kenaikan kebutuhan gas. Saat ini PGN untuk wilayah Jawa Barat dan Lampung hanya mampu untuk mensupply sekitar 590 MMscfd, dengan target PGN untuk sepuluh tahun mendatang yaitu 1000 MMscfd, maka terjadi defisit supply gas sekitar 410 MMscfd. Dalam mencapai target supply gas yang telah ditetapkan yaitu 1000 Mmscfd dikarenakan terbatasnya pasokan gas dari sumber gas, maka PGN akan melakukan terobosan baru dengan keluar dari konsep supplay gas konvesional yakni dengan menggunakan gas alam cair atau Liquefied Natural Gas  (LNG. Dengan konsep ini, maka pasokan gas menjadi tidak terbatas, karena dapat didatangkan dari berbagai tempat ataupun dari negara lain. Dalam mendatangkan gas alam cair ini, dibutuhkan suatu stasiun penerima gas yang biasa disebut LNG Receiving yang penempatannya dengan berbagai pertimbangan dipilih di darat (onshore. Pembangunan terminal LNG ini sangat dibutuhkan untuk meningkatkan supply gas PGN. Pembangunan terminal LNG ini diperlukan satu arahan secara economical value. Dengan menggunakan metode Nilai Sekarang Bersih (NSB, Nilai Tahunan Bersih (NTB, dan Tingkat Pengembalian Internal (IRR maka proyek Pembangunan Terminal LNG ini layak untuk dilaksanakan.

  19. Steady-state and dynamic simulation study on boil-off gas minimization and recovery strategies at LNG exporting terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurle, Yogesh

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is becoming one of the prominent clean energy sources with its abundance, high calorific value, low emission, and price. Vapors generated from LNG due to heat leak are called boil-off gas (BOG). As world-wide LNG productions are increasing fast, BOG generation and handling problems are becoming more critical. Also, due to stringent environmental regulations, flaring of BOG is not a viable option. In this study, typical Propane-and-Mixed-Refrigerant (C3-MR) process, storage facilities, and loading facilities are modeled and simulated to study BOG generation at LNG exporting terminals, including LNG processing, storage, and berth loading areas. Factors causing BOG are presented, and quantities of BOG generated due to each factor at each location are calculated under different LNG temperatures. Various strategies to minimize, recover, and reuse BOG are also studied for their feasibility and energy requirements. Rate of BOG generation during LNG loading---Jetty BOG (JBOG)---changes significantly with loading time. In this study, LNG vessel loading is simulated using dynamic process simulation software to obtain JBOG generation profile and to study JBOG recovery strategies. Also, fuel requirements for LNG plant to run steam-turbine driven compressors and gas-turbine driven compressors are calculated. Handling of JBOG generated from multiple loadings is also considered. The study would help proper handling of BOG problems in terms of minimizing flaring at LNG exporting terminals, and thus reducing waste, saving energy, and protecting surrounding environments.

  20. Kitimat LNG Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, R. [Kitimat LNG Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Kitimat LNG terminal is the first fully permitted liquefied natural gas (LNG) on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The terminal was designed to have a small environmental footprint, and has the full support of communities and First Nations groups in the area. Regulatory approvals are now in place, and site construction is planned to start in 2007. This presentation provided details of the facility's gas production and liquefaction processes, shipping, and LNG import and regasification terminals. The site was selected due to its deepwater, all-season port and the fact that the Pacific Trail Pipelines provide access to major transmission lines. The terminal will be comprised of an offshore LNG tanker berth and unloading jetty, a construction and tug berth, 2 LNG storage tanks, a separation unit, and send-out pipelines for natural gas and gas liquids. The terminal was designed for maximum LNG receiving flexibility as it can handle a wide variety of gas specifications and will be able to receive the largest possible LNG tankers. Market interest in the terminal has been considerable as investors are increasingly convinced that LNG can provide long-term supply alternatives to the North American gas market. Once operational the terminal will attract supply from the Pacific basin and the Middle East. Western Canadian gas demand is projected to grow at nearly 6 per cent through 2015. It was concluded that marine safety is crucial to the successful operation of the terminal. Details of safety plans formed after consultation with various organizations were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Kitimat LNG Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, R. [Kitimat LNG Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Kitimat LNG terminal is the first fully permitted liquefied natural gas (LNG) on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The terminal was designed to have a small environmental footprint, and has the full support of communities and First Nations groups in the area. Regulatory approvals are now in place, and site construction is planned to start in 2007. This presentation provided details of the facility's gas production and liquefaction processes, shipping, and LNG import and regasification terminals. The site was selected due to its deepwater, all-season port and the fact that the Pacific Trail Pipelines provide access to major transmission lines. The terminal will be comprised of an offshore LNG tanker berth and unloading jetty, a construction and tug berth, 2 LNG storage tanks, a separation unit, and send-out pipelines for natural gas and gas liquids. The terminal was designed for maximum LNG receiving flexibility as it can handle a wide variety of gas specifications and will be able to receive the largest possible LNG tankers. Market interest in the terminal has been considerable as investors are increasingly convinced that LNG can provide long-term supply alternatives to the North American gas market. Once operational the terminal will attract supply from the Pacific basin and the Middle East. Western Canadian gas demand is projected to grow at nearly 6 per cent through 2015. It was concluded that marine safety is crucial to the successful operation of the terminal. Details of safety plans formed after consultation with various organizations were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity Determination for Pennsylvania for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and... liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows Point LNG,...

  3. The sustainability of LNG evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Van der Kooi, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) import terminals are under construction to fulfil the growing demand for energy carriers. After storage in tanks, the LNG needs to be heated and evaporated, also called ‘regasified’, to the natural gas needed in households and industry. Several options exist for

  4. The sustainability of LNG evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Van der Kooi, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) import terminals are under construction to fulfil the growing demand for energy carriers. After storage in tanks, the LNG needs to be heated and evaporated, also called ‘regasified’, to the natural gas needed in households and industry. Several options exist for

  5. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August 16, 2010. Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563... with certain facilities located at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Elba Island,...

  6. Research on the ways of Rational Use of LNG Cold Energy--Study of LNG Cold Energy Utilization in Shanghai LNG Terminal%因地制宜积极探索LNG冷能利用合理途径--上海LNG接收站冷能利用方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严艺敏

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of LNG import in China, the cold energy utilization of LNG is attracting more and more attention. It is necessary to rational use of LNG cold energy considering of either the economical profits or environmental protection. The paper introduces the development situation and characteristics of LNG cold energy utilization over the world, highlighting the study situation of the cold energy utilization in Shanghai LNG terminal and puts forward some proposals of the LNG cold energy utilization in Shanghai LNG terminal.%随着我国进口LNG快速增长,LNG冷能利用备受关注。无论从经济效益还是环境效益考虑,都应因地制宜地研究LNG冷能利用。文章介绍分析了国内外LNG冷能利用发展状况和特点、上海LNG接收站冷能利用研究概况;重点阐述分析了上海LNG接收站基于IFV的冷能发电方案设计的基本原理和设计条件、工艺流程和物料平衡、主要设备和平面布置、运行模式和安全分析、以及冷能发电经济性和环境效益分析等,结合上海LNG接收站冷能利用研究工作进行了总结,并对推进LNG冷能利用工作提出了建议。

  7. 76 FR 73609 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 4, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California 92101, filed in Docket No. CP12- 15-000... operate a boil-off gas (BOG) liquefaction system at its LNG import terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana...

  8. Process simulation for a new conceptual design of LNG terminal coupling NGL recovery and LNG re-gasification for maximum energy savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqeet, Mohammed A.

    With the high demands of shale gas and promising development of LNG terminals, a lot of research has focused towards the process development for effective recovery of C2+ hydrocarbons (NGL). Shale gas requires a large amount of cold energy to cool down and recover the NGL; and the LNG re-gasification process requires a lot of heat energy to evaporate for NGL recovery. Thus, coupling the shale gas NGL recovery process and LNG re-gasification process, for utilizing the cold energy from LNG re-gasification process to assist NGL recovery from shale gas has significant economic benefits on both energy saving and high value product recovery. Wang et al. developed new conceptual design of such coupled process in 2013 and later Wang and Xu developed an optimal design considering uncertainties in 2014. This work deals with process simulation of both these designs and the feasibility of the process is verified. A steady state model is developed based on the plant design proposed by Wang et al. using Aspen plusRTM and then a dynamic model of the process is developed using Aspen dynamicsRTM. An effective control strategy is developed and the flexibility of the dynamic model is examined by giving disturbances in the shale gas feed. A comparison is made between the two proposed design and the prospects of the design for real plant scenario is discussed.

  9. INVESTIGATION INTO NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION METHODS, LNG TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Atakan AVCI; Muhiddin CAN; Muhsin KILIÇ

    1995-01-01

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) processes are very new in Turkey. The Government of Turkey, due to diversification of supply and balancing of seasonal load, decided to import LNG from Algeria. The first shipment in Marmara Ereğli import terminal has been carried out in the August the 3 rd, 1994. LNG after regasification will be injected into the main transmission pipeline. The share of LNG in the world natural gas trade was approixmately 22.1% in 1988. According to the forecast, LNG share will be...

  10. 75 FR 11169 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of... Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project March 1, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory... operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES...

  11. LNG terminal võib tulla ka igasse Balti riiki. Arutlused esialgu jätkuvad / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Balti peaministrid pole üksmeelel, kas ja kuhu rajada veeldatud gaasi terminal. Lepiti kokku, et kõik kolm riiki teevad vedelgaasi terminali tasuvusuuringu. Leedu kavatseb rajada oma riigi vajadusteks LNG ujuvterminali, kuid see ei välista osalemist suurema terminali projektis

  12. LNG terminal võib tulla ka igasse Balti riiki. Arutlused esialgu jätkuvad / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Balti peaministrid pole üksmeelel, kas ja kuhu rajada veeldatud gaasi terminal. Lepiti kokku, et kõik kolm riiki teevad vedelgaasi terminali tasuvusuuringu. Leedu kavatseb rajada oma riigi vajadusteks LNG ujuvterminali, kuid see ei välista osalemist suurema terminali projektis

  13. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  14. 浮式LNG接收站新建储罐冷却技术研究%Research of cooling technology for new LNG tank of floating LNG terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨; 杨公升; 张宝和; 贾砼; 孙谦

    2015-01-01

    本文针对浮式LNG接收站中LNG储罐的冷却过程,通过方案比选确定了冷却方式和冷却介质,介绍了冷却条件和注意事项,详细分析了从管线到储罐的冷却过程。针对冷却过程中出现的常规问题及非常规问题进行了分析并给出相应的解决方案。研究成果对其他浮式或常规LNG接收站中LNG储罐的冷却具有指导和借鉴意义。%The cooling mode and cooling medium are determined in this paper in terms of the cooling process of LNG tank for floating LNG terminal by comparison of different schemes.The cooling conditions and precautions are introduced along with the cooling process of pipeline to storage tank.The solutions for normal and abnormal issues are provided for reference of other LNG tanks’ operation.

  15. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompas, Tom; Che, Tuong Nhu

    2016-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG) market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM), based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India), and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events.

  16. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kompas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM, based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India, and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events.

  17. LNG Import Contract in the perspective of Associated Technical and Managerial Challenges for the Distribution Companies of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawish Bakht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy Managers and Government Office Holders in Pakistan are nowadays pondering over multiple options for the resolution of ongoing Energy crises in the country. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas import has been finalized for being the quickest remedy among all the available options. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas contract is at the verge to be implemented in Pakistan. However there are several factors that need to be addressed while implementing the project. In this paper, identification of the challenges affecting the optimized distribution of gas is presented. The sustainability of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Project depends upon the successful running of the project without facing any financial crises arising from the gas distribution losses. The motive of this paper is the identification of the factors that are risk for the sustainability and successful running of LNG Import in Pakistan on long term basis. In association it is required to identify technical and managerial challenges for the gas distribution companies in distribution of LNG. Moreover recommendations are proposed for modification in existing infrastructure and governing policies related to gas distribution companies for logical success and long term sustainability of LNG import in Pakistan.

  18. Technology qualification of an ambient pressure subsea cryogenic pipeline for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Afzal; Viteri, Martha; D' Angelo, Luis [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Prescott, Neal; Zhang, Jeff [Fluor Corporation, Irving, TX (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A project that deploys new technologies need to be confident that the technology can be implemented successfully and will perform reliably as designed. New technology is critical to industry, especially where such technology is a project enable without the existence of a backup solution, but also for projects where such technologies bring potential benefits such as technical, economic, schedule, and environmental improvements. DNV developed and has been implementing for many years a systematic, risk based technology qualification process as described in DNV RP-A203, qualification procedures for new technology. One of the major objectives of a formal technology qualification process is to ensure that risks are properly addressed. The DNV process includes several levels of technology qualification and review, starting with a statement of feasibility and concluding with a Certificate of Fitness for Service. Fluor Corporation (Fluor) has developed a new subsea cryogenic pipe-in-pipe configuration for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals. The configuration uses a highly efficient thermal nano-porous insulation in the annular space between the inner and outer pipes. This material is kept in an ambient pressure environment, which is produced through sealing by metal bulkheads. The bulkheads transfer the contraction induced axial compression load on the inner cryogenic carrier pipe to the external jacket pipe. The resulting pipeline bundle is a structural element, which addresses the thermal contraction and expansion loads without the use of expansion bellows or ultra-low thermal contraction alloys. Fluor has followed the DNV technology qualification process to achieve the defined milestones therein which culminated in DNV issuing a certificate of fitness for service. Particular focus was put on the new aspects of the design. The certificate of fitness for service for the Fluor subsea LNG pipe technology provides project management with the confidence that this

  19. INVESTIGATION INTO NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION METHODS, LNG TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan AVCI

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG processes are very new in Turkey. The Government of Turkey, due to diversification of supply and balancing of seasonal load, decided to import LNG from Algeria. The first shipment in Marmara Ereğli import terminal has been carried out in the August the 3 rd, 1994. LNG after regasification will be injected into the main transmission pipeline. The share of LNG in the world natural gas trade was approixmately 22.1% in 1988. According to the forecast, LNG share will be rapidly spreading all over the world in near future. In this paper, treatment, liquefaction, transport, storage, regasification, distribution and utilisation of LNG are examined. Particular attention has given into liquefaction of natural gas.

  20. Pressure and Vacuum Relief Devices of Storage Tank at LNG Receiving Terminal%LNG接收站储罐压力和真空泄放装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林松; 邢贵柱

    2009-01-01

    The basic technological process of LNG receiving terminal and the basic requirement for LNG storage tank are introduced. The contents of LNG storage tank pressure test are analyzed. The facili- ties for overpressure protection and negative pressure protection of LNG storage tank,the parameter set- ting and the selection considerations,key points of design and installation of pressure and vacuum relief devices are discussed.%介绍了LNG接收站的基本工艺和LNG储罐的基本要求,分析了LNG储罐压力检测内容,论述了LNG储罐超压保护和负压保护的设施、设定参数、压力和真空泄放装置的选择依据与设计安装要点.

  1. 基于灰色关联分析的LNG接收终端人因事故辨识方法%Human accidents identification method of LNG receiving terminal based on grey relational analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐涛龙; 姚安林; 曾祥国; 李又绿; 蒋宏业

    2011-01-01

    Onshore LNG receiving terminal is an important facility in offshore LNG import system. According to the growing human accidents of LNG receiving terminals in China at present, based on the HFACS analysis of accident causation model which had been used in the aviation accident investigation, the impact factors of human accidents were divided into five categories, which contain personal factors, group factors, environmental factors, supervision and organizational factors, and the human accidents identification method of LNG receiving terminal was obtained based on grey relational analysis of gray theory. Finally, the method was applied to identify the accidents happened in an LNG receiving terminal, and it was found that the main insecurity events were "the una-wareness of security" in "personal factors" by calculating the grey relational grade. This method overcomes the disadvantage due to the small sample of accident data, which has certain guiding sense to safeguard the safety operation of LNG receiving terminals.%陆岸LNG接收终端是LNG海上进口系统中的重要设施.针对我国LNG接收终端人因事故不断增多的现状,基于航空事故调查分析中的HFACS事故致因分析模型,将人因事故的影响因素归纳为个人因素、人际因素、环境因素、监督因素和组织因素五大类,结合灰色理论中的灰色关联分析,得到了LNG接收终端人因事故辨识方法.最后,运用该方法对某LNG接收终端人因事故进行辨识,通过灰关联度的计算,找出其最主要的不安全事件来自“个人因素”中的个人“安全意识不强”.此方法克服了小样本事故数据带来的弊端,对保障LNG接收终端的安全运行具有一定的指导意义.

  2. Recommended research on LNG safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  3. Federal cabinet minister from N.B joins opponents to LNG terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.

    2005-08-25

    This article addressed the debate regarding the United States' proposal to construct liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities on a pristine bay between New Brunswick and Maine. Two LNG projects are currently being promoted for Passamaquoddy Bay, and 2 more proposals are expected to be announced in the near future. However, the proponents have not yet submitted any formal applications to the Canadian government. A federal cabinet minister from New Brunswick has joined the growing opposition to the proposed project, claiming that the location on the Maine side of Passamaquoddy Bay, a large inlet off the Bay of Fundy, poses too many risks to the habitat of several endangered or at-risk species, including the North Atlantic Right Whale. The proposed sites in Maine are directly across a narrow bay where tourism and fishing are prime industries in New Brunswick. The cabinet minister claims that with over 2,000 miles of coastline on the eastern seaboard, another location can be found for the LNG facilities that would not present navigational difficulties. The Canadian federal government has the jurisdiction to stop the project by not allowing the supertankers to cross Canadian waters to enter the Bay. The waters are known for their treacherous navigation. The premier of New Brunswick has also stepped in to ensure that the governor of Maine is made aware of Canada's opposition to the project. Officials with Downeast LNG and Quoddy Bay LLC claim there would not be any safety or environmental risks associated with the LNG project.

  4. 77 FR 58373 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company... Project involving construction and operation of facilities by Trunkline LNG Company, LLC/Trunkline LNG... Trunkline plans to expand its existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Calcasieu Parish,...

  5. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  6. LNG Development Booms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Decan Hanju

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's LNG imports were 6.769 million tons from January to September in 2010, 70.95% higher than the same period of 2009.42% was from Australia and 16% from Indonesia.LNG is now becoming a major gas source in China.Meanwhile, China is evolving into an important target market for major LNG producing countries.

  7. Sinopec to Launch LNG Project in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinopec has beaten out its domestic rivals-CNOOC and CNPC to win the rights to build a liquefied national (LNG) gas terminal in East China's Shandong Province. Sinopec's move breaks CNOOC's monopoly in building LNG projects along China's coastline.

  8. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  9. 77 FR 38790 - Noble Americas Gas & Power Corp., LNG Development Company, LLC, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Americas Gas & Power Corp., LNG Development Company, LLC, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b/a Oregon LNG... Corp. authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Canada/Mexico, and to import LNG from various international sources by vessel. 3099 05/31/12 12-43-NG LNG Development Order granting blanket Company,...

  10. Cooling scenario of unloading pipeline for LNG receiving terminal%LNG接收站卸料管路冷却方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄芳; 赵世亮

    2012-01-01

    There are two kinds of common cooling modes for unloading system of LNG receiving terminal, the first is directly using the LNG on board, or using the vaporizer to cool down the unloading pipe by vaporizing LNG on ship, and the second is using low-temperature nitrogen to cool down the unloading pipeline to a certain temperature, or using the ship's LNG or directly inputting the liquid. Comparison on the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods is made, and the consumed volume of coolant and cooling time are calculated at different lengths of unloading pipe and sensible heat ratio of 60%, 50%, 40% and 30% of cool insulation pipe. Furthermore, the comparison on the economy of cooling with LNG and liquid nitrogen is carried out. Results show that liquid nitrogen is more economic than that of LNG with half of cost saving, but, the earlier stage investment in LN2 is relatively large.%目前LNG接收站卸料系统的冷却方式有两种,其一是直接采用船上的LNG,使用船上的气化器将LNG气化冷却卸料管路;其二是先使用低温氨气将卸料管路冷却至一定温度后,再采用船上的LNG冷却或直接进液.对比了两种方法的优缺点,计算了不同长度卸料管路和保冷管路显热利用率分别为60%、50%、40%、30%4种情况下,冷却消耗的冷却介质的量和冷却时间,进而比较使用LNG冷却和使用液氮冷却的经济性.结果表明:使用液氮冷却卸料管路比使用LNG冷却卸料管路更经济,费用约可节省一半,但使用液氨冷却前期投资比较大.

  11. Key Marine Techniques of Floating LNG Receiving Terminals in Tianjin%天津浮式LNG接收终端涉海关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞启秀; 张义丰; 张娜; 解鸣晓; 姚姗姗

    2016-01-01

    Based on the analysis of field data,key marine problems of China’s first floating LNG project,Tianjin floating LNG terminal project,were studied systematically with methods of mathematical model and physical model,including tidal current,sediment,waves,sea water circulating cooling discharge,etc.Results have been applied in the design and construction of wharf,breakwater,water intakes and outlets of the floating LNG receiving terminal,which savesthe cost of construction and improves navigation and parking conditions.As a key project of Tianjin,the Tianjin floating LNG pro-ject has effectively improved the energy structure of Tianjin City,which has significant social benefits.%针对我国首个浮式LNG项目——天津浮式LNG接收终端项目,在广泛收集和分析现场实测资料的基础上,综合采用潮流数学模型、泥沙数学模型、冷排放数学模型和波浪数学模型、波浪整体物理模型、波浪断面模型等多种研究手段,系统研究潮流、泥沙、波浪、循环水冷排放等涉海关键问题,为浮式 LNG 接收终端项目的防波堤、码头、取排水口布置等工程的设计和建设提供了关键技术支撑,从而为节约工程建设费用、改善通航和停泊条件等做出了贡献。作为天津市重点工程,天津浮式 LNG 项目实施后有效改善了天津市能源结构,促进了经济发展和宜居城市建设,具有显著的社会效益。

  12. Analysis of influencing factors of effective mooring for the wharf of Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal%江苏LNG接收站码头有效系泊影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 陈汝夏

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure effective mooring of LNG carriers during gas unloading operation in the wharf of Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal, avoid the cable cracking and LNG carriers' drift, ensure the safety of personnel, wharf facilities as well as LNG carriers and make sure that gas unloading operation is conducted smoothly, mooring tensions are analyzed in combination with the meteorological and oceanographic conditions, and the major factors influencing on the mooring safety of wharf in Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal are analyzed and summarized. Moreover, the critical influencing factors are presented as follows: wind force more than 6, especially at the end of gas unloading operation and in the period of high tide; spring tide, especially three hours before high tide and two hours before low tide, and resultant force of swell and current. Furthermore, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward respectively from three stages, that is, pre-arrival of LNG carriers, mooring period of LNG carriers and post-departure of LNG carriers.%结合LNG船舶系泊码头期间的气象、水文信息,分析缆绳受力情况,对影响江苏LNG接收站码头系泊安全主要因素进行了分析总结,指出了影响有效系泊的关键因素:风力超过6级、卸货作业结束前后及高潮期间;大潮汛,高潮前3h和低潮前2 h;涌浪与潮流叠加影响.分别从LNG船舶靠泊前、LNG船舶停泊过程中和LNG船舶离泊后3个阶段提出了相应的预防对策.

  13. LNG : its potential impact on North American markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, B. [Benjamin Schlesinger and Associates Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is expected to play a greater role in North American gas supplies and markets due to the decrease in conventional natural gas production in North America accompanied by an increase in demand for energy. It is expected that the overall share of the LNG gas market will rise from about 1.4 per cent in 2002 to more than 5 per cent by 2020, and potentially up to 15 per cent by that year. The construction of at least 15 new LNG receiving terminals has been proposed for location in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. In addition, El Paso has proposed a novel offshore LNG receiving concept involving offshore gas pipelines and on-board-ship regasification. As trading of LNG increases in the Atlantic, markets in eastern United States and Canada will benefit from improved gas supplies, but pricing patterns are expected to change. Basis differentials along the Atlantic coastline will probably diminish, potentially reducing the value of Sable Island gas and the pipeline system that runs north to south along the eastern coast of North America. It was noted that Middle Eastern suppliers of LNG will play an important potential role in North American markets. 19 figs.

  14. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  15. Application of BOG compressor in Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal%BOG压缩机在江苏LNG接收站的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璨

    2012-01-01

    BOG压缩机是BOG处理的核心设备,其作用是处理过量的蒸发气,维持LNG储罐内的压力稳定.江苏LNG接收站选用的活塞立式压缩机,由于采用了迷宫密封,活塞和气缸为非接触,因此工作表面没有磨损,可以选择较高的活塞速度;由于采用了卸荷阀和余隙阀控制相结合的方式,因此使得负荷可以在更大的可控范围变化.在压缩机运行过程中,压缩机在启机时发生了跳车现象,为此,结合生产实际,灵活变化压缩机的联锁值及负荷增减的时间点,对压缩机冷却水系统及压缩机的隔离吹扫进行优化,满足了工艺要求,提高了安全系数.%Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal generally adopts recondenser process to utilize the cool energy of LNG to liquefy BOG and recover BOG. BOG compressor is the key equipment in BOG treatment, which can dispose redundant gas and maintain the tank's pressure of LNG. Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal uses vertical piston compressor (Swiss Burkhardt Company). Due to the adoption of the labyrinth seal, the piston and cylinder are not contacted, so, the work surface is abrasion free, and a high piston speed is better choice. Because the unloading valve control and clearance valve control become a set of combination, the load can be kept in a wide controllable range. During running of compressor, compressor has to shut down in staring up. Referring to actual operation, the interlock value compressor and time-point of load fluctuation are changed. Optimization on the cooling water system of compressor and isolation/purging for compressor is carried out, which meets the needs of technology requirements and increases safety.

  16. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... parties opposing the authorization bear the burden of overcoming this presumption. Freeport LNG states... interest. Environmental Impact Freeport LNG states that no change to the Freeport LNG terminal on Quintana...

  17. 从LNG船舶特殊通航保障谈LNG接收站与大型港口兼容性问题%Discussion on the compatibility of LNG terminal and Big Port from the view to ensure the special navigation security of LNG carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻亚东; 谢勇

    2012-01-01

    This essay analyzes the special navigation security requirements of LNG careers, and, based on the international and domestic practice, comments that the big ports should be cautious m deciding to build new LNG terminals, in order to ensure the compatibility of LNG projects and the development of big ports.%文章通过分析LNG船舶特殊通航安全保障要求,结合国际国内现行做法,提出大型港口应谨慎确定新增LNG接收站项目的建议,旨在确保LNG项目与大型港口发展互相兼容。

  18. 75 FR 26744 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...-000] Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application May 5, 2010. On April 22, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC filed... liquefied natural gas terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Questions concerning this application may be directed to William D. Rapp, Senior Regulatory Counsel at Cameron LNG, LLC, 101 Ash Street, HQ-12, San...

  19. LNG - emergency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is pioneering within the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO is going to operate two flexible LNG terminals, located in Ceara and Rio de Janeiro. In accordance with the Corporate Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Directive - Training, Education and Awareness, PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO has prepared an action plan with the objective of ensuring the operational safety of the undertaking. Among other actions a training program for the emergency control of LNG will be inserted into the timetable. The above mentioned training program was held over a period of 20 hours, and was divided between theory and practice. In the theoretical part, the characteristics of the product, the history of accidents and the emergency response procedures were covered. In the practical part, 3000 gallons of LNG were utilized where the behavior of the product could be confirmed following a confined leak, thereby verifying the efficacy of the emergency control resources. The teaching process of the course was developed in the company through the preparation of specific procedures, emergency plans and the formation of internal instructors. (author)

  20. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens (Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    As well as summarising the possible alternatives, environmental aspects and uses of LNG, this study aims to investigate the cost involved in the import of LNG to Sweden, from well to user. In Sweden, Natural Gas is used to cover 2 % of the total energy input. The pipeline network stretches from Malmoe to Stenungsund and Gnosjoe, which means some of the most densely populated areas are covered, but there is still 1200 km of the country left, including larger cities such as Stockholm, Uppsala and Linkoeping as well as areas that host some of the most energy demanding industries, e.g. Sundsvall, Umeaa, Luleaa and Kiruna. The absence of Natural Gas typically causes these regions to rely on fuel oil, coke or coal. If these sources of energy could be replaced by Natural Gas, great environmental benefits could be achieved. Research shows that the use of Natural Gas adds 20 % less CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than oil and also mean lower emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particles, making it the better alternative from both local and global perspectives. LNG is potentially a fire and an explosion hazard, but in the last 45 years of usage, no major accidents have occurred. Major exporters of LNG are Indonesia, Quatar, Australia and Algeria. Some of the largest importers are Japan, USA, France and Spain. Japan imports nearly 100 % of their Natural Gas as LNG. The available LNG liquefaction capacity increased by 60 % between 2002 and 2007. The total import cost for LNG includes the purchase cost from the producer, the transport cost, be it sea, railroad or road transport, and the cost for the terminal which receives and stores LNG. The study of different routes, volumes and means of transport creates a picture of how the total cost varies in proportion to these parameters. In the calculation of these costs, sources from the industry or estimations of purchase prices, transport costs and terminal costs are used. The uncertainties in this study are especially high when it

  1. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens (Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    As well as summarising the possible alternatives, environmental aspects and uses of LNG, this study aims to investigate the cost involved in the import of LNG to Sweden, from well to user. In Sweden, Natural Gas is used to cover 2 % of the total energy input. The pipeline network stretches from Malmoe to Stenungsund and Gnosjoe, which means some of the most densely populated areas are covered, but there is still 1200 km of the country left, including larger cities such as Stockholm, Uppsala and Linkoeping as well as areas that host some of the most energy demanding industries, e.g. Sundsvall, Umeaa, Luleaa and Kiruna. The absence of Natural Gas typically causes these regions to rely on fuel oil, coke or coal. If these sources of energy could be replaced by Natural Gas, great environmental benefits could be achieved. Research shows that the use of Natural Gas adds 20 % less CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than oil and also mean lower emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particles, making it the better alternative from both local and global perspectives. LNG is potentially a fire and an explosion hazard, but in the last 45 years of usage, no major accidents have occurred. Major exporters of LNG are Indonesia, Quatar, Australia and Algeria. Some of the largest importers are Japan, USA, France and Spain. Japan imports nearly 100 % of their Natural Gas as LNG. The available LNG liquefaction capacity increased by 60 % between 2002 and 2007. The total import cost for LNG includes the purchase cost from the producer, the transport cost, be it sea, railroad or road transport, and the cost for the terminal which receives and stores LNG. The study of different routes, volumes and means of transport creates a picture of how the total cost varies in proportion to these parameters. In the calculation of these costs, sources from the industry or estimations of purchase prices, transport costs and terminal costs are used. The uncertainties in this study are especially high when it

  2. China's large-scale LNG project. First project ever with FEF insulation; Chinas LNG-Grossprojekt. Weltweit erstmals mit FEF (Flexibler Elastomer-Schaum) isoliert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-06-29

    The ''Shanghai Peak-Shaving Extension LNG Terminal'' is the first of its kind on China's mainland. It comprises an offshore platform with gas wells, a 400 km underwater natural gas pipeline, a LNG pumping system, a 120 km distribution pipeline grid, and a LNG control unit. It is also the first LNG terminal project world-wide with exclusively closed-cell, flexible thermal insulation of foamed elastomer (100 % caoutchouc). (orig.)

  3. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  4. Technical report on hygiene sureveillance of food and drinking water at Yantian LNG terminal%盐田口岸LNG码头食品及饮用水卫生监督技术报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方草晖; 陈玉山; 曾建芳; 陈湘新

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握盐田口岸液化天燃气(liquefied natural gas,以下简称:LNG)码头食品及饮用水监管现状,进行监管模式探索.方法 于2010年对盐田口岸LNG码头食品及饮用水开展监管工作.结果 盐田口岸LNG码头食品及饮用水从业人员全部取得《健康证明书》及卫生知识培训合格证.食品、饮用水、餐厨具、微小气候监测均未发现异常.结论 盐田检验检疫局严格监管,现有监管模式下盐田口岸LNG码头食品及饮用水卫生状况良好.%Objective To investigate the state of food and drinking water at Yantian liquefied natural gas (liquefied natu-ral gas;LNG) terminal. Methods In 2010, the food and drinking water monitoring was conducted at Yantian LNG termi-nal. Results The staff from catering enterprises got the "Health Certificate" and the health knowledge training certifi-cate. No abnormal results were found in food, drinking water, tableware, kithcenware and small climate surverillance. Conclusion Under the strict supervision of Yantian Entry - Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, the hygiene state of food and drinking water in Yantian LNG terminal is in a good conditon.

  5. 78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported... receipt of an application (Application), filed on April 19, 2013, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously...

  6. LNG project - contractual aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno Almeida

    2008-07-01

    This paper intends to provide from the legal point of view an outline of the main challenges of a LNG project in the upstream, regulatory aspects, liquefaction, financing and midstream through a basic checklist; an overview of the contractual complexity of a LNG project; some basic discussion of particular LNG contract clauses; and a comparative analysis between the classic clauses of a Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) through a gas pipeline and LNG logistic. (author)

  7. 75 FR 74029 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application November 22, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston... a redundant high pressure boil off gas compressor at its existing Sabine Pass LNG Terminal,...

  8. 77 FR 788 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 15, 2011, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (SLNG), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham... compressor unit at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal located at Elba Island, Georgia...

  9. Optimization of ESD valve logic in Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal%江苏LNG接收站ESD阀控制逻辑的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海星

    2012-01-01

    The function of ESD (emergency shutdown) block valve is introduced, and its application of in Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal is analyzed. The design requirements about the valve is described. The application of industrial software ELOP II and the logic module in common use is given. ELOP II off-line testing on the logic designed by vender is carried out at stage of instrumentation debugging in order to find its disadvantages. Results show that under no any orders conditions, the logic designed by vender will produce malfunction of ESD, resulting in unnecessary loss. The logic optimization is made with more reasonable way. ELOP II comparison on the logic around optimization is done to eliminate the shortages of logic before the optimization. It is concluded that the optimized logic can entirely meet the needs of ESD.%介绍了Emergency Shutdown(ESD)切断阀的作用,全面分析了江苏LNG接收站中ESD切断阀的应用情况.着重介绍了工艺对ESD阀门动作的设计要求,简单介绍了工业软件ELOPⅡ和常见逻辑模块的应用,并通过投产前仪表调试阶段,对厂家设计的逻辑进行ELOP Ⅱ离线测试,发现其存在的不足:在特定工况和没有工艺人员发出命令的情况下,厂家设计的逻辑会造成ESD阀门的误动作,可能导致不必要的损失.最后对该逻辑进行优化,使其更加合理科学,并通过ELOP Ⅱ软件对比优化前后的逻辑,最后得出结论:优化后的逻辑完全满足工艺的ESD阀门控制要求.

  10. Fuelling the future with LNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous

    2013-01-01

    It is important to be able to quantify risks in order to determine LNG behaviour and to ensure its containment. This facilitates comprehensive safety management. Quantitative risk assessments are necessary to enable the selection of preventive and protective measures that suit the situation. Every s

  11. Fuelling the future with LNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous

    2013-01-01

    It is important to be able to quantify risks in order to determine LNG behaviour and to ensure its containment. This facilitates comprehensive safety management. Quantitative risk assessments are necessary to enable the selection of preventive and protective measures that suit the situation. Every

  12. Brazil's insertion in the international LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) route; A insercao do Brasil na rota internacional de GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueng, Stephan de Carvalho; Bastos, Filipe Sant' Ana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the late 1990's, PETROBRAS began considering diversifying its energy sources. This included the possibility of importing LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), making it one additional source for gas supply in Brazil. There is a belief that the imported LNG is the cheapest, quickest and most efficient option in terms of infrastructure compared to other transportation, such as pipelines. This will permit an increase in gas supply, given the growing demand for this energy source in the domestic market. The current international LNG trading market is adjusting itself to the world integration, where short-term (spot) agreements prevail. These agreements have many advantages, such as: lowering fixed trading costs; the possibility to diversify suppliers; minimizing gas supply risk; and facilitating import market supply adjustment. In Brazil, the main objective to import LNG is to supply natural gas (NG) to thermal plants, supplementing the hydroelectric - gas integration of the electric system. For the accomplishment of this project, it is forecasted the construction of LNG offloading terminals, together with the construction of gas distribution networks. Therefore, LNG transportation will guarantee security in supply, permit the diversification of the NG supply source and enable the increased use of NG in the Brazilian energy grid. (author)

  13. CHINA'S LNG BUSINESS BOOMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bo

    2006-01-01

    @@ Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a low-temperature liquid mixture (-162℃) obtained by cooling and liquefaction of natural gas after deacidification and dehydration. In recent years, along with the surging global demand for energy and the drop of LNG cost, demand for LNG has been rising steadily. The primary underlying causes of that are the reduction of cost, the improvement of ship transportation and the changes in the form of trade. The tightening energy bottleneck brought by the rapid growth of China's economy might be well addressed by the active development of LNG industry, which can also help diversify the energy resources and facilitate the protection of environment.

  14. LNG: a commodity in the making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrelie, M.F

    2006-07-01

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  15. IMPACT OF UNCONVENTIONAL GAS PRODUCTION ON LNG SUPPLY AND DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Karasalihović Sedlar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of unconventional gas plays a double role in the case of liquefied natural gas (LNG industry. Technological development of gas production from unconventional resources could result in significant decrease of LNG import demand but at the same time unconventional resources also represent a potential for new sources of LNG supply. In past few years unconventional gas production in North America has increased constantly what has contributed to natural gas prices decrease and LNG imports reduction. The rise of unconventional gas production along with global recession significantly influenced LNG demand decrease in the USA. Concerning unconventional gas production rapid development, potential decrease of LNG demand in rest of the world is expected (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. 78 FR 25432 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability... Sabine Pass Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. and Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC (Sabine Pass) in the above-referenced... construction at the existing Sabine Pass LNG terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The EA assesses...

  17. 76 FR 9573 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 31, 2011, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... (Liquefaction Project) at the existing Sabine Pass LNG Terminal, located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana....

  18. 75 FR 57766 - Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations Under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC September 15, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California 92101, filed a petition to amend the authorizations issued... liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal facility located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, for the additional...

  19. Does an intraabdominally placed LNG-IUS have an adverse effect on fertility? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doris, Nadine; Shabib, Gihad; Corbett, Shannon; Leader, Arthur; Black, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This case of secondary infertility with an associated intraabdominal levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) demonstrates the importance of adequate imaging in women with a missing intrauterine contraceptive device and the possible fertility implications of an extrauterine LNG-IUS.

  20. LNG Carrier Market: The Next Main Battleground For Shipbuilding Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guang

    2012-01-01

    Last year, 51 LNG carriers were delivered in the world. From January to February this year, more than 10 LNG carriers have been deliveredglobally. Some shipowners are planning to expand LNG carrier fleet, which is a stark contrast to the look of the three main ship types which is embarrassing. As the recognized clean fuel, natural gas plays an important role in carbon politics and low carbon economy. At present, LNG powered vessel is growing vigorously. LNG fueled vessels have also emerged in Europe. Now, discussion about natural gas application on inland water transport is gradually warming up. Although there are still many technical problems to be solved about LNG powered vessel, the trend is irreversible.

  1. LNG-FPSO: Offshore LNG solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan GU; Yonglin JU

    2008-01-01

    The floating production, storage and offload-ing system for liquefied natural gas (LNG-FPSO), is a new conceptual unit and an effective and realistic way for exploitation, recovery, storage, transportation and end-use applications of marginal gas fields and offshore associated-gas resources. However, a real LNG-FPSO unit cannot be built unless some breakthroughs in many key technologies are produced. Many unique characteris-tics of LNG-FPSO, such as restricted space, platform motion, LNG sloshing in inner storage tank and offload-ing system, which have not been considered in the onshore projects, are the most rigorous factors to be taken into account during design. In this paper, the overall layout of a typical LNG-FPSO unit is reviewed; the leading liquefaction technologies and processes are compared and discussed. Taking the effects of the vessel motion and limited space into account, the applicability of the main systems and key equipments of storage, offloading and power supply, are analyzed.

  2. Small Scale LNG in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The conference has 19 presentation that addresses topics within the economic and marketing aspects, distribution and transmission, size, operation and design of LNG production units, transportation aspects, technology assessment, storage of LNG and risk and safety aspects of the use and production of LNG. Some LNG application cases are also presented.

  3. Efficacy of LNG IUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Pandey

    2016-02-01

    Results: There were 35 women who were included in this observational study. 94.28% (33/35 women had LNG IUS inserted in theatre whilst 5.7% (2/35 had in the outpatients department. There was improvement in menstrual symptoms in 80% of the patients. There was no relief in the endometriosis group. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed in 7 women who had endometriosis (20%. Conclusions: In my observational study 80% of women are satisfied with the device and had relief in their symptoms. In view of HMB's high prevalence, an optimal treatment for this kind of menstrual symptoms is very important especially in developing world set up where resources aren't easily available. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 445-447

  4. Discharging Part of LNG Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, it is important to develop LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas liquid cargo handling simulator. In this paper, the discharging part of Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator of LNG Carriers is developed by Visual Basic. The system includes 5 major forms and 3 mathematical models such as cargo pump model, the pressure and temperature model of the LNG vapour in the cargo tank and the liquid level model. The system can complete the unloading task. The system has become a preliminary model of LNG liquid cargo handlings simulator training.

  5. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakmar, Susan

    2010-09-15

    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  6. Explore policies to stimulate Bio LNG using a social cost benefit analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Borne, B.

    2015-01-01

    In the joint vision on the future energy mix LNG and bio LNG are being referred to as important opportunities for the Dutch economy to sustain heavy road transport fuels. New policies have to be developed to stimulate a transition to bio LNG in the Netherlands. The economic and societal effects of t

  7. Qatari LNG starts flowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi-Aad, Naji

    1997-02-01

    A Liquefied natural gas (LNG) project being undertaken by Qatargas (the Qatar Liquefied Gas Company) in Ras Laffan is described in this paper. The first of three planned liquefaction trains for the LNG plant has just been commissioned, with the second under construction and the third to be operational in 1999. Close cooperation with the Chiyoda contractors in Japan has ensured the success of the first part of the scheme. LNG is also to be exported back to Japan to fuel electricity generation plants. (UK)

  8. CNOOC Holds Dominant Position in China's LNG Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Increase gas project stakes from B6 Natural gas production and sales, as the new growth engine for CNOOC, will continue to be one of the company's core business priorities. Acquisitions of NWS and Gorgon equity interests in Austrialia, together with the Tangguh project in Indonesia, will supply China's pioneer LNG terminals. CNOOC's grip on China's expanding LNG infrastructure could further strengthen its dominance in the country's coastal natural gas market.

  9. Regasification of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rum Pandu Nuswantara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available LNG (Liquified Narural Gas adalah gas alam yang telah diproses untuk menghilangkan ketidakmurnian dan hidrokarbon berat dan kemudian dikondensasi menjadi cairan pada tekan atmosfer dengan mendinginkannya sekitar -160° Celcius. LNG ditransportasi menggunakan kendaraan yang dirancang khusus dan ditaruh dalam tangki yang juga dirancang khusus. LNG memiliki isi sekitar 1/600 dari gas alam pada suhu dan tekanan standar, membuatnya lebih hemat untuk ditransportasi jarak jauh di mana jalur pipa tidak ada. Ketika memindahkan gas alam dengan jalur pipa tidak memungkinkan atau tidak ekonomis, dia dapat ditransportasi oleh suatu kapal pengangkut untuk LNG. Gas alam dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar untuk pembangkit listrik PLTG dan PLTU. Dari data ESDM cadangan gas alam tersebut dapat dikatakan bahwa potensi gas alam Indonesia sangatlah besar, karena pada data tahun 2012 ditjen migas tersebut, cadangan gas alam yang masih tersimpan dan tersebar di Indonesia masih sangat besar, dengan potensial sebesar 47.35 TSCF (Trillion Square Cubic Feet. Potensi tersebut adalah total dari seluruh potensi yang tersebar di Indonesia sebesar 150.70 TSCF. Pabrik Terminal Regasifikasi LNG direncanakan dibangun pada tahun 2014 dengan target siap beroperasi pada tahun 2016. Pabrik ini berlokasi di Celukan Bawang Bali dengan terdapat 3 PLTG yang membutuhkan distribusi LNG yaitu PLTG Gilimanuk, Pemaron, dan Pesanggaran. Kapasitas pabrik ini adalah 100 MMSCFD. Pabrik ini akan memenuhi kebutuhan pembangkit listrik untuk daerah Bali. Rangkaian proses pabrik ini adalah unit Regasification. Analisa ekonomi dari pabrik ini adalah investasi sebesar 371,66 MUSD, IRR sebesar 38,6%, POT selama 2,71 tahun, BEP sebesar 49,6% dan NPV 10 tahun sebesar 1011,82 MUSD.

  10. Preconditions for the development of land-based infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av landbaserad infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna; Haraldsson, Kristina; Beijer, Ronja; Stensson, Peter (AaF Industry AB(Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The conversion potential to replace oil in the energy intensive industries and diesel in heavy transport is estimated in the study to 6.8 TWh and 10 TWh per year, respectively. Several alternative fuels compete for this conversion potential. What fuels will take market share depends on several factors such as price, availability of fuel, availability of process technology and vehicles, technology development and possible future technological advances. For liquid methane to compete a new infrastructure is required that in a cost effective manner makes it possible to distribute the liquid methane to the regions where the need is the greatest. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. The study points out three nodes, Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa, which is suitable for distribution of liquid methane to the central and northern Sweden. The three hubs are suitable for freight transfer to trucks as well as rail and shipping. A strategic nationwide network of refueling stations is also proposed, with a total of 18 new stations, in addition to the filling stations in southern and central Sweden that are already planned or in operation. Both the availability and use of liquid methane in Sweden today is limited. Liquid natural gas, LNG (liquefied natural gas), is primarily used as a backup to biogas plants, in a few industries and as supply for a few filling stations for compressed gas. The availability of LNG and also liquid biogas (LBG liquefied biogas), will increase in coming years. In 2011, two new LNG import terminals are put into operation in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad in Norway and two additional import terminals are planned in Gothenburg and Lysekil. Furthermore, two production plants for liquid biogas production have started, and four additional plants are planned, which together will produce around 0.5 TWh LBG annually

  11. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldegard, Tom [Foundation for Research in Economics and Business Administration, Bergen (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    The study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia and focuses on the European natural gas markets. The first stage provides general background information on the market structure and related topics. In the second stage this information is used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. The model is described and results from simulations are given. In the first stage facts from the history of the European natural gas market are outlined. Underlying conditions for the development of natural gas markets in Europe are addressed. The EU has been promoting trade liberalisation in the energy sector but most counties resist freer gas trade across the boarders. New infrastructure development for natural gas are either underway or planned. Some important projects are mentioned. Gas in a global perspective is discussed. The cost structure of the LNG chain is mentioned and an overview of existing LNG export capacities world-wide and major reception terminals in Europe and the USA is given. The second stage employs a scenario analysis to evaluate the economic effects of hypothetical LNG deliveries from Northern Russia. The model is developed for the analysis of West European natural gas markets and designed to allow users to create a structural system of interconnected producers and market regions. Basic assumptions for the evolution of natural gas markets till 2005 is developed and base case scenarios calculated for the years 2000 and 2005 and used as a point of reference for the alternative scenarios considered. According to the analysis the introduction of a new LNG supplier in the European gas market will inflict a substantial loss upon all the existing producers. The primary keys to this result are the assumptions made for gas demand and supply capacity. The LNG alternative will hardly be approved for purely economic reasons as long as the Russians maintain

  12. Mediterranean region`s LNG industry. Algeria and Libya to Spain, France, Italy and Turkey; Chichukai chiiki no LNG sangyo. Arujeria, Ribia kara Supein, Furansu, Itaria, Toruko e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-10

    Since LNG is used along with gas supply in mediterranean region, the amount of LNG use in that region is very small in comparison with total demand. However imported LNG for peak use during winter and use as industrial raw materials occupies very important part in Spain, France etc., and other importing countries. From this, further increase of LNG trade is expected. Information regarding operating conditions of plants and liquefaction ability, present conditions of base plant construction and its special features, history of oil/gas fields and LNG supply contracts with importing countries is provided for LNG exporting countries like Libya and Algeria in mediterranean region. Storage base`s scale (site area, tank capacity and ship logging`s load capacity) and period until operation starts are reported along with information before import for importing countries like Spain, France, Italy and Turkey. Further trend of base storage for Greece and Turkey will be surveyed here after.

  13. Research on the energy saving technology of BOG compressor of Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal%江苏LNG接收站BOG压缩机的节能降耗措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段碧君

    2012-01-01

    介绍了LNG接收站工艺流程,阐述了活塞式压缩机的工作原理与技术特点,给出了各能耗参数的计算方法,包括排气量、供气量、容积系数、排气压力与级数、压缩比、排气温度、功率、效率等.分析了LNG接收站BOG压缩机的能耗问题,确定了能耗的主要影响因素,包括进气温度、进气压力、气相介质携液率、压缩比以及驱动电机的性能.基于此,提出了节能降耗措施:降低进气温度、控制进气压力、降低气相携液率、将电机改造为变频电机、在电动机拖动系统中加装功率因数控制器、经常更换冷却水系统的冷却液.%This article introduces the process flow of LNG receiving terminal, and also elaborates the working principle and technical characteristics of piston compressors. It also gives the calculating method of the energy consumption parameters, including the exhaust gas volume, the volume coefficient, discharge pressure and progression, the compression ratio, exhaust temperature, power, efficiency, and so on. It identifies the main factors of energy consumption of LNG receiving terminal BOG compressor, including the intake air temperature, inlet pressure, compression ratio and the drive motor performance. So, the energy saving measures are as follows, that is, reducing intake air temperature, controlling the inlet pressure, reducing the gas medium carrying liquid ratio, transforming the motor to frequency conversion motor, installing power factor controllers, regularly replacing of the cooling water coolant system.

  14. Preconditions for the development of land-based infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av landbaserad infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna; Haraldsson, Kristina; Beijer, Ronja; Stensson, Peter (AaF Industry AB(Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The conversion potential to replace oil in the energy intensive industries and diesel in heavy transport is estimated in the study to 6.8 TWh and 10 TWh per year, respectively. Several alternative fuels compete for this conversion potential. What fuels will take market share depends on several factors such as price, availability of fuel, availability of process technology and vehicles, technology development and possible future technological advances. For liquid methane to compete a new infrastructure is required that in a cost effective manner makes it possible to distribute the liquid methane to the regions where the need is the greatest. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. The study points out three nodes, Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa, which is suitable for distribution of liquid methane to the central and northern Sweden. The three hubs are suitable for freight transfer to trucks as well as rail and shipping. A strategic nationwide network of refueling stations is also proposed, with a total of 18 new stations, in addition to the filling stations in southern and central Sweden that are already planned or in operation. Both the availability and use of liquid methane in Sweden today is limited. Liquid natural gas, LNG (liquefied natural gas), is primarily used as a backup to biogas plants, in a few industries and as supply for a few filling stations for compressed gas. The availability of LNG and also liquid biogas (LBG liquefied biogas), will increase in coming years. In 2011, two new LNG import terminals are put into operation in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad in Norway and two additional import terminals are planned in Gothenburg and Lysekil. Furthermore, two production plants for liquid biogas production have started, and four additional plants are planned, which together will produce around 0.5 TWh LBG annually

  15. 75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Maritime Administration TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas...) for the TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG... Natural Gas Pipeline, Williams Natural Gas Pipeline, Destin Natural Gas Pipeline, and Viosca...

  16. Chile exploits LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    Simultaneously with its exploitation of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs Chile is developing the production and selling of LNG. Chile produces a large quantity of associated gas from its reservoirs at Megallanes and processes it at the Manantiales, Cullen and Posesion plants recovering propane, butane and natural gas liguids. The stripped gas is reinjected for pressure maintenance operations. With the completion of the LNG program full use of the gas will be achieved. It will totally meet the needs of combustible liquids for the central and northern parts of the country, a volume of 2200 million cu m/yr. For its treatment natural gas is sent through gas pipelines to the LNG plant at Cabo Negro. By means of a cooling process, the gas is cooled to -160 C where it becomes a liquid and its volume is reduced by a factor of 600. It is then stored in tanks at atmospheric pressure.

  17. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. LNG annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

    1982-09-01

    This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

  19. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, Juan A; Villafañe, Diana; Casal, Joaquim

    2013-02-15

    The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire.

  20. Analysis of constraints to the introduction of LNG plants in the Brazilian electric sector; Analise dos condicionantes para a introducao de plantas a GNL no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Tatiane Moraes Pestana

    2010-03-15

    This work aims analyze the constraints to the introduction of LNG in the Brazilian energy matrix. Therefore, considers the current regulatory framework and the investments recently made by PETROBRAS to acquire LNG in the international market in order to supply power plants in the country. In order to assess the current status of the LNG plants in the electricity sector, factors are analyzed in terms of the natural gas industry and electric power industry, such as: storage, LNG contracts, operating dispatch, LNG plants pricing and operational flexibility. Despite the increase in LNG international trade and the prospect of using this product in Brazil, there are some challenges for the effective use of LNG plants by Brazilian electric sector. Some of the challenges are the need to review the methodology of calculating the cost benefit of LNG power plants. Another important challenge is to examine the use of underground storage and its influence in the operating dispatch of LNG plants. (author)

  1. China's Big-three Oil Companies Eager to Expand LNG Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Hong; Wen Jiuliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sinopec's ambitious intention BEIJING, June 23-Top Asian oil refiner Sinopec announced its intention in late-June to build a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in the southern Chinese city of Zhuhai. Sinopec is vying with CNOOC Group, which is leading a race to build a string of LNG terminals along coastal China, as the government aims to boost the country's use of cleaner gas to 8 percent of its energy mix by the end of this decade.

  2. Field experiments on high expansion (HEX) foam application for controlling LNG pool fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardin, Jaffee A; Wang, Yanjun; Willson, Mike; Mannan, M Sam

    2009-06-15

    Previous research suggests that high expansion foam with an expansion ratio of 500 to 1 is one of the best options for controlling liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire on land. However, its effectiveness heavily depends on the foam application rate, foam generator location, and the design of LNG spill containment dike. Examination of these factors is necessary to achieve the maximum benefit for applying HEX on LNG pool fires. While theoretical study of the effects of foam on LNG fires is important, the complicated phenomena involved in LNG pool fire and foam application increase the need for LNG field experimentation. Therefore, five LNG experiments were conducted at Texas A&M University's Brayton Fire Training Field. ANGUS FIRE provided Expandol solution to form 500 to 1 high expansion foam (HEX) and its latest LNG Turbex Fixed High Expansion Foam Generators. In this paper, data collected during five experiments are presented and analyzed. The effectiveness of high expansion foam for controlling LNG pool fires with various application rates at two different types of containment pits is discussed. LNG fire behaviors and the effects of dike wall height are also presented and discussed.

  3. 江苏LNG接收站卸料速度与压力损失的关系%Analysis of relationship between unloading rate and pressure loss in Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌斌

    2012-01-01

    According to the unloading data of the first eleven ships, the relationship between unloading rate and pressure loss in Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal is analyzed. Based on the relationship, the maximum unloading rate is calculated. The conclusion is that the total pressure loss △P contains the pressure loss △P1 from manifold flange to downstream of the unloading arms and the pressure drop△P2of nearly 3 000 m-long pipeline. The pressure loss △P1 includes the friction pressure loss of filter near the manifold flange, the distance piece (or expander) and the unloading arms. By fitting the curve and the calculation, the pressure loss △P1 is not influenced by the unloading rate, and almost remains unchanged. The pressure drop △P2 of nearly 3 000 m-long pipeline is related with the unloading rate with the linear formula △P2=0.026 q- 201.2. The end pressure of pipeline in the bottom of tank is a little affected, maintaining the range of 0.23~0.25 MPa. A calculation is made according to the pressure loss and pressure limit. Results show that for the 14.5×104 m3 standard LNG ship, the maximum unloading rate is at 12 100 M3/h; for the 26.7×104 m3 QMAX, ships, the maximum unloading rate is at 14 000 m3/h.%基于江苏LNG前11艘船的卸船数据,对江苏LNG卸料速度与压力损失的关系进行分析,并通过两者关系计算出江苏LNG接收站卸料的最大速度.对江苏LNG接收站卸船数据进行计算和处理,得出结论:卸船过程中,总压力损失△p主要由总管连接法兰到卸料臂后端压差和约3 000m卸料管道压降△p2构成.△p1主要包括船上连接法兰旁的过滤器摩阻△pf、短节(或变径)摩阻△pe和卸料臂摩阻△pa,通过拟合曲线和理论验证,此部分压力损失与卸料速度关系不明显,几乎保持不变.卸料管道压降△p2与卸料速度q相关,线性处理后得到△p2=0.026 q-201.2.管道末端罐底压力所受影响较小,维持在0.23~0.25 MPa范围内.根据压力

  4. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): emerging control; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): controle de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2008-07-01

    The operation to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is innovative for the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO will operate two LNG flexible terminals. In accordance with the health, safety and environmental policy - training, education and awareness action plans were formulated by TRANSPETRO to assure the operational safety for the activity. Part of this action plan includes the training of LNG spill control and fire suppression. The training was carried out in 20 hours and divided into two parts: theoretical and practice. In the practice part, 3.000 gallons of LNG were unloaded and the students could verify the behaviour of the LNG and the effectiveness of the resources available for the emergency control. The knowledge was introduced in the company to create specific procedures, local emergency plans and develop internal instructors. (author)

  5. LNG, een ontwikkeling in beweging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, M.W.; Rosmuller, N.

    2014-01-01

    Wereldwijd wordt gezocht naar alternatieven voor de huidige fossiele brandstoffen die duur en milieubelastend zijn. Eén van deze alternatieven is vloeibaar aardgas ofwel LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas). In Nederland is inmiddels een aantal tankstations voor LNG gerealiseerd, onder andere in Zwolle, Tilb

  6. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-29894] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2012 LNG Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of 2012 LNG Export Study and request for comments. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. [FE Docket No. 10-161-LNG] and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC. Lake Charles...

  7. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  8. 75 FR 353 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...; CP07-63-000] AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final General Conformity Determination for Maryland for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and... potential air quality impacts associated with the construction and operation of a liquefied natural gas...

  9. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  10. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  11. Challenges of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers in 21" Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zanne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is relatively cheap, environmentally friendlyand energetically efficient fossil fuel that is gaining in attractivenessdaily as it can be used in many sectors. As not all consumerscan be reached by pipelines the technique of transp01tingnatural gas in the liquefied form has been developed at the beginningof 20th century but it was only in 1959 that the firstoverseas transport of liquefied natural gas ( LN G occurred. Inthe fifty years of operation LNG shipping has shown immaculatesafety records. LNG tankers can be described only in superlatives;they are without any doubt the most sophisticated and·expensive ships that sail around the globe, they demand specialattention when navigating to or out of harbours and need to bemanned with the most educated and experienced crew. LNGmarket is expanding and changing; demand is surpassing theproductivity, new importing and exporting countries appear,LNG fleet is growing in capacity and number at high pace, exploitationcontracts for the ships are being modified giving theopportunity for new companies to enter( . .. . The paper givesan overview on liquefied natural gas market and the historic developmentof LNG shipping. It focuses on the recent boom inLNG shipping and emphasises questions concerning the safety,crewing and exploitation of the LNG tankers in the future.

  12. LNG to India - the role of innovation and technological development in enabling the Pipavav project; Le GNL (gaz naturel liquefie) en Inde - le role de l'innovation et du developpement technique dans l'etablissement du projet Pipavav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.A.; Haynes, D.A.; Humphreys, C.E. [BG Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom); Acton, A. [British Gas International (India)

    2000-07-01

    India offers a significant potential market for LNG. However, the difficulties in marketing LNG in the area are considerable with a limited availability of buyers prepared and able to commit to long term gas purchase contracts. This combined with the large number of competing projects makes it essential that Indian LNG projects take account of recent industry cost reduction initiatives and are designed and built to exacting and, where possible, accelerated schedules. The west coast of India provides the best markets but presents difficulties of a fundamental technical nature for LNG projects. Of particular concern are the limited availability of natural harbors with sufficient protection for LNG ships to operate during the monsoon period, the long distances to deep water from the high water line and the variable nature of local marine and seabed conditions. This poster concentrates on the design of the proposed import terminal at Pipavav in North West India to be owned and operated by Gujarat Pipavav LNG Co. It discusses the technical development work undertaken by BG Technology and BG International to enable the project to proceed with acceptable capital costs and schedule. (authors)

  13. Boil-off gas vapors are recovered by reliquefaction in LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levay, M.; Petit, P.; Paradowski, H.

    1986-02-24

    Although great care is taken to prevent heat leaks into cryogenic equipment in LNG terminals, boil-off vapors evolve from LNG stored at thermodynamic equilibrium. The quantities of boil-off vapors may be quite considerable. They account for about 1% of the total gas quantity received and sent out at the monitor-de-bretagne LNG terminal of Gaz de France. A novel process has significantly cut boil-off vapor handling costs. It is free of technical problems which would arise from local utilization of the gas and makes boil-off recovery possible under optimum conditions. In addition, the process shows an excellent degree of reliability. Boil-off vapors have a lower heating value than the stored LNG. However, since they mainly consist of methane, their economic usefulness makes vapor recovery necessary. This boil-off gas, with widely fluctuating quantities and qualities, cannot be readily used locally. The vapors must be sent out into the grid.

  14. Maritime prerequisites for development of infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Maritima foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahnstroem, Johan; Molitor, Edvard; Raggl, Karl-Johan; Sandkvist, Jim [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    This study has provided an initial picture of where the most interesting ports and areas available for future expansion of a maritime infrastructure for LNG. On the basis of supplying vessels with LNG as fuel, from a long term perspective, we recommend locating LNG terminals in or near major ports and around the big ship routes. Given the current age distribution of ships operating waters of the Baltic Sea, almost 20% of the vessels are 30-40 years old and likely to be replaced by 2015 - 2020. Thus, there is a potential for newly built ships will be equipped with LNG operation. Selected criteria s; Size of the LNG terminal and hence the need for the size of the fairway and the area of land. Proximity to traffic routes with much ship traffic. Proximity to the major port. Proximity to consumers on the land side. On the basis of selected criteria and analyzed for possible location of the terminal it can be noted that a number of Swedish ports are found suitable. For example, ports of Sundsvall, Gothenburg and Helsingborg has been identified as suitable, but with different starting point and different types and sizes of terminals possible.

  15. LNG terminalil on idaraha keeld / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjon kiirustab Balti riike LNG (vedeldatud maagaasi) terminali asukohas kokku leppima. Kolmest tingimusest, millele peab LNG terminali projekt vastama, et tekiks võimalus kandideerida EL-i toetusele

  16. Offshore Deepwater Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Ports ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    EPA received three National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit applications for wastewater discharges related to the construction and operation of deepwater LNG ports in state and federal waters of Massachusetts Bay. One was for construction-related discharges associated with the Northeast Gateway LNG deepwater port, one was for operations-related discharges associated with the Northeast Gateway LNG deepwater port, and the other was for both construction-related and operations-related discharges for the Neptune LNG deepwater port.

  17. 78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... and order (Order No. 2923) that granted Eni USA Gas Marketing authority to export a cumulative total... Application, Eni USA Gas Marketing requests blanket authorization to export LNG from the Cameron Terminal...

  18. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 plays an important role in normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Burke, Karly A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-06-10

    Gene-targeting experiments report that the homeodomain-interacting protein kinases 1 and 2, Hipk1 and Hipk2, are essential but redundant in hematopoietic development because Hipk1/Hipk2 double-deficient animals exhibit severe defects in hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis, whereas the single knockouts do not. These serine-threonine kinases phosphorylate and consequently modify the functions of several important hematopoietic transcription factors and cofactors. Here we show that Hipk2 knockdown alone plays a significant role in terminal fetal liver erythroid differentiation. Hipk1 and Hipk2 are highly induced during primary mouse fetal liver erythropoiesis. Specific knockdown of Hipk2 inhibits terminal erythroid cell proliferation (explained in part by impaired cell-cycle progression as well as increased apoptosis) and terminal enucleation as well as the accumulation of hemoglobin. Hipk2 knockdown also reduces the transcription of many genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis as well as important, erythroid-specific genes involved in hemoglobin biosynthesis, such as alpha-globin and mitoferrin 1, demonstrating that Hipk2 plays an important role in some but not all aspects of normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

  19. Demand management of city gas per season and study of estimating proper size of LNG storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.H.; Kim, S.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    LNG storage facilities are indispensable to satisfy demand throughout the year by saturating the time difference of supply and demand that appears due to seasonal factors. The necessity of storage facilities is more important in a country like Korea where LNG is not produced at all and imports are relied upon. The problem of deciding how much storage facilities to keep and in what pattern to import LNG is a question to solve in order to minimize the costs related to the construction of LNG storage facilities while not causing any problem in the supply and demand of LNG. This study analyzes how the import of LNG and the consumption pattern of LNG for power generation affect the decision on the size of storage facilities. How the shipping control, and how LNG demand for power generation affect the decision of requirement of storage facilities, and why the possibility of shipping control should be investigated in the aspect of costs is investigated. As a result of this study, I presented necessary basic data for drafting a policy by assessing the minimum requirements of storage facilities needed for balancing the supply and demand with the various shipping control and LNG consumption patterns through simulation up to the year 2010. 10 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  20. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  1. According to the LNG Accident on LNG Gasification Station Safety Management%从 LNG 事故浅谈 LNG 气化站安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗冬林

    2012-01-01

      近年来国内 LNG 发展非常快,但由于 LNG 行业在国内普及时间较短,相关的 LNG 气化站的安全管理制度还不太成熟,针对 LNG 的特性分析其事故机理,阐述安全管理预防措施,为 LNG 气化站日常安全运行管理提供借鉴

  2. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  3. LNG fuelling for mine trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melanson, B.E.; Hodgins, K.B. [Westport Innovations Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Diesel-powered mine haul trucks consume large amounts of fuel. The diesel engines provide the trucks with the flexibility to readily move material while optimizing speed and efficiency. However, the high cost for diesel fuel has prompted the need for lower-cost solutions. Since many mining regions have access to low-cost liquefied natural gas (LNG) feedstock through indigenous natural gas resources and coal mine methane, the use of LNG for mine haul trucks offers a solution to lower operating costs. In addition to reducing the reliance on petroleum resources, the use of LNG would also contribute to a reduction in noise, air pollutants, and greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation demonstrated that significant fuel cost savings can be realized in regions where LNG has cost advantage to diesel fuel. High pressure direct injection (HPDI) of natural gas in a compression ignition engine offers the high performance and efficiency characteristics of diesel engines while reducing particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and greenhouse gases. HPDI has been demonstrated in on-road Class 8 trucks since 2001 and mine haul trucks are now considered a prime target for implementing change to lower-carbon gaseous fuels. The supply of LNG fuel will be a necessary aspect of the introduction of HPDI to mining. LNG can be transported to mine sites or it can be produced on or near mining operations that have access to methane sources or pipelines. It was concluded that HPDI powered mine trucks offer a safe, economic and environmentally progressive solution for mine operators. 2 figs.

  4. N-Terminal Presequence-Independent Import of Phosphofructokinase into Hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Petr; Makki, Abhijith Radhakrishna; Zimorski, Verena; Garg, Sriram; Hampl, Vladimír; Hrdý, Ivan; Gould, Sven B; Tachezy, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial evolution entailed the origin of protein import machinery that allows nuclear-encoded proteins to be targeted to the organelle, as well as the origin of cleavable N-terminal targeting sequences (NTS) that allow efficient sorting and import of matrix proteins. In hydrogenosomes and mitosomes, reduced forms of mitochondria with reduced proteomes, NTS-independent targeting of matrix proteins is known. Here, we studied the cellular localization of two glycolytic enzymes in the anaerobic pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis: PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase (TvPPi-PFK), which is the main glycolytic PFK activity of the protist, and ATP-dependent PFK (TvATP-PFK), the function of which is less clear. TvPPi-PFK was detected predominantly in the cytosol, as expected, while all four TvATP-PFK paralogues were imported into T. vaginalis hydrogenosomes, although none of them possesses an NTS. The heterologous expression of TvATP-PFK in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed an intrinsic capability of the protein to be recognized and imported into yeast mitochondria, whereas yeast ATP-PFK resides in the cytosol. TvATP-PFK consists of only a catalytic domain, similarly to "short" bacterial enzymes, while ScATP-PFK includes an N-terminal extension, a catalytic domain, and a C-terminal regulatory domain. Expression of the catalytic domain of ScATP-PFK and short Escherichia coli ATP-PFK in T. vaginalis resulted in their partial delivery to hydrogenosomes. These results indicate that TvATP-PFK and the homologous ATP-PFKs possess internal structural targeting information that is recognized by the hydrogenosomal import machinery. From an evolutionary perspective, the predisposition of ancient ATP-PFK to be recognized and imported into hydrogenosomes might be a relict from the early phases of organelle evolution.

  5. 78 FR 38703 - LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 7, 2013, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/ b/a Oregon LNG) (Oregon LNG), 8100 NE Parkway Drive, Suite 165, Vancouver, WA 98662, filed in Docket No. CP9-6-001...

  6. Unbundling key to LNG

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    11. veebruaril Vihulas toimunud Balti ministrite nõukogu peaministrite mitteametlikul kohtumisel väitis peaminister Andrus Ansip, et Balti riikidesse mahuks vaid üks, kuid väga efektiivne veeldatud gaasi terminal

  7. PIF4 Promotes Expression of LNG1 and LNG2 to Induce Thermomorphogenic Growth in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geonhee Hwang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis plants adapt to high ambient temperature by a suite of morphological changes including elongation of hypocotyls and petioles and leaf hyponastic growth. These morphological changes are collectively called thermomorphogenesis and are believed to increase leaf cooling capacity by enhancing transpiration efficiency, thereby increasing tolerance to heat stress. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4 has been identified as a major regulator of thermomorphogenic growth. Here, we show that PIF4 promotes the expression of two homologous genes LONGIFOLIA1 (LNG1 and LONGIFOLIA2 (LNG2 that have been reported to regulate leaf morphology. ChIP-Seq analyses and ChIP assays showed that PIF4 directly binds to the promoters of both LNG1 and LNG2. The expression of LNG1 and LNG2 is induced by high temperature in wild type plants. However, the high temperature activation of LNG1 and LNG2 is compromised in the pif4 mutant, indicating that PIF4 directly regulates LNG1 and LNG2 expression in response to high ambient temperatures. We further show that the activities of LNGs support thermomorphogenic growth. The expression of auxin biosynthetic and responsive genes is decreased in the lng quadruple mutant, implying that LNGs promote thermomorphogenic growth by activating the auxin pathway. Together, our results demonstrate that LNG1 and LNG2 are directly regulated by PIF4 and are new components for the regulation of thermomorphogenesis.

  8. Report of study group 3.1 ''technological and economical developments for cost reduction of LNG facilities''; Rapport du groupe d'etude 3.1 ''developpements economiques et technologiques pour la reduction des couts dans les installations de GNL''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapallini, R.

    2000-07-01

    The design, engineering and operation of LNG base load liquefaction and re-gasification facilities is now considered a mature technology. However, process efficiency at these plants is limited by fundamental thermodynamic principles and no radical technology breakthroughs are expected in the near future. Three important aspects affecting the cost of production are the molecular weight of the gas, the amount of nitrogen in the feed and the acid gas composition. Variations in composition will also affect the design of the facilities and production rate. Previous projects have optimised economies of scale, using processes based on large industrial gas turbines, to achieve the minimum unit cost for LNG production. LNG producers have continued to focus on larger train designs to further capitalize on economies of scale as well as continued expansion of existing facilities. The latest plant designs expect the optimum integration with existing facilities to be a major factor in optimising specific capital costs. Whilst design codes and standards have not been discussed in many papers on LNG cost reduction, it is generally accepted that project specifications can significantly impact the project cost. The cost of equipment can be significantly inflated by onerous specifications with non standard requirements that vendors have trouble meeting. The possibility of developing gas projects will mainly be determined by the requirements of power generation and/or the industrial sector. As far as power generation is concerned, expansion will rely greatly on combined cycle plants. The competitiveness of LNG as regards power generation can be further improved by adopting integrated solutions. As in all other industrial projects, one of the first concerns for the investor when he envisages building an LNG liquefaction or re-gasification terminal is the selection of the site where the terminal will be located. (author)

  9. Numerical investigation of supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang-Liang; Ren, Jing-Jie; Dong, Wen-Ping; Bi, Ming-Shu

    2016-09-01

    The submerged combustion vaporizer (SCV) is indispensable general equipment for liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals. In this paper, numerical simulation was conducted to get insight into the flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical LNG on the tube-side of SCV. The SST model with enhanced wall treatment method was utilized to handle the coupled wall-to-LNG heat transfer. The thermal-physical properties of LNG under supercritical pressure were used for this study. After the validation of model and method, the effects of mass flux, outer wall temperature and inlet pressure on the heat transfer behaviors were discussed in detail. Then the non-uniformity heat transfer mechanism of supercritical LNG and effect of natural convection due to buoyancy change in the tube was discussed based on the numerical results. Moreover, different flow and heat transfer characteristics inside the bend tube sections were also analyzed. The obtained numerical results showed that the local surface heat transfer coefficient attained its peak value when the bulk LNG temperature approached the so-called pseudo-critical temperature. Higher mass flux could eliminate the heat transfer deteriorations due to the increase of turbulent diffusion. An increase of outer wall temperature had a significant influence on diminishing heat transfer ability of LNG. The maximum surface heat transfer coefficient strongly depended on inlet pressure. Bend tube sections could enhance the heat transfer due to secondary flow phenomenon. Furthermore, based on the current simulation results, a new dimensionless, semi-theoretical empirical correlation was developed for supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube. The paper provided the mechanism of heat transfer for the design of high-efficiency SCV.

  10. 美国的LNG进口政策和公众安全问题——美国政府进口LNG,采取了一系列政策措施,并认真应对LNG接收站建设遇到的公众安全问题%LNG Import Policies and Public Security Issue in United States—— United States Adopts A Series of Measures for LNG Import Policies and Cautiously Treat Public Security Issue In Connection with Construction of LNG Acceptance Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congressional Research Service; 史宇峰

    2006-01-01

    @@ 由于北美洲的天然气产量已近顶峰,通过进口液化天然气(LNG)来满足国内需求增长已成为美国现实的选择.从2001年至2005年间,随着两座闲置的LNG接收站陆续重新投用,以及20多年来第一座新建LNG接收站于2005年3月在墨西哥湾投产,美国的LNG进口量从67.4亿m3增长到了178.6亿m3(折合到气态天然气).根据美国能源信息署(EIA)预测,2025年的LNG进口量将达到1800亿m3天然气,在国内天然气消费量中所占比例将从目前的3%提高到21%.

  11. Talin contains a C-terminal calpain2 cleavage site important in focal adhesion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Bate

    Full Text Available Talin is a large (∼2540 residues dimeric adaptor protein that associates with the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules in cell-extracellular matrix junctions (focal adhesions; FAs, where it both activates integrins and couples them to the actin cytoskeleton. Calpain2-mediated cleavage of talin between the head and rod domains has previously been shown to be important in FA turnover. Here we identify an additional calpain2-cleavage site that removes the dimerisation domain from the C-terminus of the talin rod, and show that an E2492G mutation inhibits calpain cleavage at this site in vitro, and increases the steady state levels of talin1 in vivo. Expression of a GFP-tagged talin1 E2492G mutant in CHO.K1 cells inhibited FA turnover and the persistence of cell protrusion just as effectively as a L432G mutation that inhibits calpain cleavage between the talin head and rod domains. Moreover, incorporation of both mutations into a single talin molecule had an additive effect clearly demonstrating that calpain cleavage at both the N- and C-terminal regions of talin contribute to the regulation of FA dynamics. However, the N-terminal site was more sensitive to calpain cleavage suggesting that lower levels of calpain are required to liberate the talin head and rod fragments than are needed to clip off the C-terminal dimerisation domain. The talin head and rod liberated by calpain2 cleavage have recently been shown to play roles in an integrin activation cycle important in FA turnover and in FAK-dependent cell cycle progression respectively. The half-life of the talin head is tightly regulated by ubiquitination and we suggest that removal of the C-terminal dimerisation domain from the talin rod may provide a mechanism both for terminating the signalling function of the talin rod and indeed for inactivating full-length talin thereby promoting FA turnover at the rear of the cell.

  12. Rabaska Project : layout of a methane terminal : project description; Projet Rabaska : implantation d'un terminal methanier : description de projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This paper outlined the strategic motivations for the Rabaska project along with a project description and its status. Gaz Metro, Enbridge Inc., and Gaz de France are the 3 proponents of the project which involves the construction of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal facility in the St. Lawrence River near Levis, Quebec. It involves the construction of a deep water terminal to accommodate methane tankers which transport LNG. The authorization for the project must be obtained by the end of 2005 in order to meet the projected in-service date of 2008. The terminal includes a pier, a cryogenic control station for unloading the tankers, and storage tanks that will maintain the LNG at -160 degrees C. Following the regasification of LNG, natural gas would be transported via a new pipeline to an existing pipeline operated by Gazoduc TQM Inc. which serves the Quebec-Ontario corridor. The project ensures energy supplies for Quebec and significantly improves the province's energy balance while promoting the competitiveness of Quebec companies in offering a clean, reliable and economically viable energy alternative. In addition to supporting the recruitment of a local workforce, the project will lead to a newly acquired expertise in Quebec. This paper identified the route that ocean-going tankers would travel through in the St. Lawrence River and addressed environmental concerns regarding the potential sources of LNG spills and their associated hazards to fish, fish habitat and navigable waters. Concerns regarding the visual impact of the project were also addressed. 9 figs. 2 appendices.

  13. The terminal structure plays an important role in the biological activity of cecropin CMIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦非; 谢维; 董雪吟; 徐贤秀

    1999-01-01

    Antibacterial peptides have received increasing attention as a new pharmaceutical substance. But the molecular mechanism of lysis is still poorly understood. CMIV gene and mutant CMIV gene in GST fusion system were expressed. After cleaving with different cleavage reagents, the peptide with an excess of N-terminus and with an un-amidated C-terminus stopped the activity while the peptide with an excess Asn at the C-terminus had the activity level the same as natural CMIV. The results showed that the terminal structure of cecropin CMIV played an important role in its biological activity.

  14. LNG Bunkering Operations: Establish probabilistic safety distances for LNG bunkering operations.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnet, Nora Marie Lundevall

    2014-01-01

    The environmental and economical advantages of using LNG as marine fuel have been recognized by the industry. In response to increasing demand, construction of LNG bunkering infrastructure is under rapid development. Several ports are preparing to supply LNG, but uncertainties concerning the bunkering process and operational safety still exist. Recently, much work has been done to standardize LNG bunkering solutions, including a launch of an ISO guideline and a Recommended Practice (RP) by DN...

  15. LNG Bunkering Operations: Establish probabilistic safety distances for LNG bunkering operations.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The environmental and economical advantages of using LNG as marine fuel have been recognized by the industry. In response to increasing demand, construction of LNG bunkering infrastructure is under rapid development. Several ports are preparing to supply LNG, but uncertainties concerning the bunkering process and operational safety still exist. Recently, much work has been done to standardize LNG bunkering solutions, including a launch of an ISO guideline and a Recommended Practice (RP) by DN...

  16. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vílchez, Juan A. [TIPs – Trámites, Informes y Proyectos, SL, Llenguadoc 10, 08030 Barcelona (Spain); Villafañe, Diana [Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casal, Joaquim, E-mail: joaquim.casal@upc.edu [Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We proposed a new parameter: the dispersion safety factor (DSF). ► DSF is the ratio between the distance reached by the LFL and that reached by the visible cloud. ► The results for the DSF agree well with the evidence from large scale experiments. ► Two expressions have been proposed to calculate DSF as a function of H{sub R}. ► The DSF may help in indicating the danger of ignition of a LNG vapor cloud. -- Abstract: The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire.

  17. Fatigue reliability for LNG carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Taoyun; Zhang Qin; Jin Wulei; Xu Shuai

    2011-01-01

    The procedure of reliability-based fatigue analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier of membrane type under wave loads is presented. The stress responses of the hotspots in regular waves with different wave heading angles and wave lengths are evaluated by global ship finite element method (FEM). Based on the probabilistic distribution function of hotspots' short-term stress-range using spectral-based analysis, Weibull distribution is adopted and discussed for fitting the long-term probabilistic distribution of stress-range. Based on linear cumulative damage theory, fatigue damage is characterized by an S-N relationship, and limit state function is established. Structural fatigue damage behavior of several typical hotspots of LNG middle ship section is clarified and reliability analysis is performed. It is believed that the presented results and conclusions can be of use in calibration for practical design and initial fatigue safety evaluation for membrane type LNG carrier.

  18. Importance of ABA homeostasis under terminal drought stress in regulating grain filling events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Geetha; Seiler, Christiane; Wobus, Ulrich; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) at its basal level plays an important role during seed set and grain filling events. Under drought stress ABA levels were found to be significantly enhanced in the developing seed. Until now we lack an understanding of (A) ABA homeostasis in developing seeds under terminal drought and (B) the interactive role of ABA in regulating the starch biosynthesis pathway in developing grains under terminal drought. We have recently reported the possible regulation of ABA homeostasis in source (flag leaf) and sink (developing grains) tissues under post-anthesis drought stress in barley and concluded that significantly enhanced ABA levels in developing grains are due to strong activation of the ABA deconjugation pathway and fine regulation of the ABA biosynthesis-degradation pathway.1 Additionally, we provided evidence for the role of ABA in differential regulation of starch biosynthesis genes and a significant upregulation of starch degradation beta amylase genes under drought, i.e. ABA not only influences the rate of starch accumulation but also starch quality.

  19. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  20. CFD Modeling of LNG Spill: Humidity Effect on Vapor Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannissi, S. G.; Venetsanos, A. G.; Markatos, N.

    2015-09-01

    The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open- obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated using the algebraic slip model. Constant droplet diameter of three different sizes and a lognormal distribution of the droplet diameter were applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.

  1. Impact of Weather Conditions on the Construction of the Terminal - Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Stanivuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for the potential planned Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego terminals. The purpose is to identify reliability and availability of loading operations at the terminal. The harsh weather conditions, technical reliability and concurrent traffic affect LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers during approaching or loading. Probabilistic simulation method is created and Monte Carlo simulations are carried out for several cases, with varied production, number of jetties and terminal storage. The results indicate high importance of weather restrictions and are used to present a recommendation with two loading jetties and a larger volume of storage capacity.

  2. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  3. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  4. 78 FR 41047 - UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application On June 17, 2013, UGI LNG, Inc. (UGI LNG) filed a request pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act, and Part 157 of the Rules and Regulations of the Commission. UGI LNG seeks authorization to construct additional refrigeration capacity...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  6. LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-24

    Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

  7. 76 FR 2677 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project January 7, 2011. On February 2, 2011, the Office of Energy Projects staff... Southern LNG Company, LLC's (Southern) LNG Truck Loading Project. We scheduled this meeting to...

  8. Results of the evaluation and preliminary validation of a primary LNG mass flow standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Mijndert; Lucas, Peter; Kerkhof, Oswin; Mirzaei, Maria; Blom, Gerard

    2014-10-01

    LNG custody transfer measurements at large terminals have been based on ship tank level gauging for more than 50 years. Flow meter application has mainly been limited to process control in spite of the promise of simplified operations, potentially smaller uncertainties and better control over the measurements for buyers. The reason for this has been the lack of LNG flow calibration standards as well as written standards. In the framework of the EMRP1 ‘Metrology for LNG’ project, Van Swinden Laboratory (VSL) has developed a primary LNG mass flow standard. This standard is so far the only one in the world except for a liquid nitrogen flow standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The VSL standard is based on weighing and holds a Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) of 0.12% to 0.15%. This paper discusses the measurement principle, results of the uncertainty validation with LNG and the differences between water and LNG calibration results of four Coriolis mass flow meters. Most of the calibrated meters do not comply with their respective accuracy claims. Recommendations for further improvement of the measurement uncertainty will also be discussed.

  9. Brazilian liquefied natural gas terminals: from the conception to the operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renata N.R. dos; Lemos, Marcelo C. de; Silva, Marcos Jose M. da; Borges, Jorge Luiz P.; Soares, Fabio L.; Grieco, Eduardo P.; Melchior, Jose Carlos [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    To guarantee more flexibility and safety in supplying natural gas to the Brazilian market, PETROBRAS designed and constructed two liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminals. These terminals are unprecedented in the world since they are the only ones to use vessels that have been adapted to store LNG and re gasify the product onboard and to adopt the model of transferring LNG from a supply ship to a regasification vessel via cryogenic arms. Due to these different characteristics, TRANSPETRO, the PETROBRAS subsidiary in charge of operating these terminals, had to prepare itself not only to deal with a new product but also to operate terminals that have no counterparts in the world. This article gives an overview of the LNG supply chain and of the new Brazilian LNG Terminals from their conception to the preparation process to operate them. (author)

  10. Numerical simulations of LNG vapor dispersion in Brayton Fire Training Field tests with ANSYS CFX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ruifeng; Ng, Dedy; Cormier, Benjamin R; Mannan, M Sam

    2010-11-15

    Federal safety regulations require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. One tool that is being developed in industry for exclusion zone determination and LNG vapor dispersion modeling is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper uses the ANSYS CFX CFD code to model LNG vapor dispersion in the atmosphere. Discussed are important parameters that are essential inputs to the ANSYS CFX simulations, including the atmospheric conditions, LNG evaporation rate and pool area, turbulence in the source term, ground surface temperature and roughness height, and effects of obstacles. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to illustrate uncertainties in the simulation results arising from the mesh size and source term turbulence intensity. In addition, a set of medium-scale LNG spill tests were performed at the Brayton Fire Training Field to collect data for validating the ANSYS CFX prediction results. A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dense gas behavior of LNG vapor cloud, and its prediction results of downwind gas concentrations close to ground level were in approximate agreement with the test data.

  11. Using of polyamide in construction of supporting blocks of cryogenic tanks on example of LNG container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lisowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in using of cryogenic gases is increasing recently. It particularly applies to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas, which is relatively inexpensive and environmental friendly. In the liquefied form this gas is highly compressed. One cubic meter of liquefied LNG can be expanded to 660 cubic meters of normal usable gas. At the atmospheric pressure, the liquefaction temperature of LNG is under minus 160 Celsius degrees. Therefore, there is a necessity to store it in a cryogenic tank. A system of reloading port terminals is built in several UE countries, as Spain, Italy. The LNG is delivered to these terminals using the adequately equipped ships. However, there are significant problems with delivering LNG to recipients not connected to the gas network directly. Delivering of liquefied LNG to recipients using the road or rail transport is one of the simplest solutions of this problem. This kind of transport is possible only with using suitable tanks with the adequate insulation and fulfilling the transport requirements. Many scientific research centers carry out investigations on high insulating-power materials. The problem to design and build universal container for road and rail transport was taken on by Cracow University of Technology together with the company Chemet from Tarnowskie Góry. Designed cryogenic tank is a two-walledconstruction with the vacuum between them. Distance between walls is provided by system of supporting blocks made of plastic. Thispaper presents problem of heat transfer between the walls through the supporting blocks. The investigations were carried out both:numerically, using the finite element method and experimentally, using the especially designed and built laboratory test stand, whichallowed to determine heat transfer coefficient.

  12. DAMPAK LNG ACADEMY TERHADAP KESIAPAN TENAGA KERJA BARU DI BADAK LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busori Sunaryo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available LNG Academy diharapkan mampu menghasilkan individu yang memiliki kemampuan tinggi dan bisa memadukan antara pendidikan dan dunia industri. Hal ini juga mendukung program pemerintah dalam mengurangi tingkat pengangguran, terutama lulusan perguruan tinggi. Program management trainee di Badak LNG, lulusan dari LNG academy menbutuhkan waktu 6 bulan untuk melalui tahap pelatihan kerja serta pelatihan kerja khusus. Sedangkan lulusan program MT di luar LNG academy biasanya membutuhkan waktu 18 bulan untuk melalui masa training. Artinya ini akan menghemat 12 bulan. Sejak kelar perdana di kampus, siswa sudah diperkenalkan dengan lingkungan kerja pada perusahaan gas alam. Oleh karena itu, lulusan LNG academy yang bekerja di Badak LNG tidak menemukan kesulitan berarti saat beradaptasi dengan lingkungan kerja. Dalam jangka pendek mereka dapat langsung siap bekerja dan mengetahui betapa strategis dampak dari bisnis gas alam cair dalam peta pembangunan nasional.LNG Academy is able to produce individuals (output who have a considerably high link and match between education and industrial world. It also supports the governmental programs in reducing unemployment rates, especially the individuals graduated from university. It can also overcome the issue related to duration. Badak LNG Management Trainees, graduated from LNG Academy class, need only 6 months to pass the On Job Training as well as Job Specific Training. Whereas the MT graduated from outside the LNG Academy usually need 18 months in order to pass the trainings. It means that there are 12 months which can be saved (outcome.  Since the early classes in the academy, the students have been introduced to the working ecosystem of the liquid natural gas company. Therefore, LNG Academy graduates who work for Badak LNG have no significant difficulty adapting with the working ecosystem, whether it is related to the working mechanism or other working cultures. In a short duration, they can be directly working

  13. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  14. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO. The global Floating LNG (FLNG market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  15. Influence of mid-point temperature of heavy hydrocarbons separator to the liquefaction process for small LNG plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, H. A.; Indarto, A.

    2016-11-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) process production, one of the important units is heavy hydrocarbon removal unit to prevent freezing during liquefaction. For small scale of LNG plant, this unit is usually integrated with main heat exchanger. Feed is obtained from main heat exchanger then flows to separator to separate liquid from gas. The separator operating condition is called as Midpoint condition. Selecting Midpoint conditions have impact to light hydrocarbon losses, Specific Brake Horse Power (SBHP) process, and heating value of LNG. Hence understanding of selecting this condition and its effect to light hydrocarbon losses, SBHP process, and HHV of LNG will help to design more efficient LNG plant. According to study, the lower of Mid-Point temperature will result in lower SBHP, lower of light hydrocarbon losses, and increase LNG of HHV value. Meanwhile, the higher Mid-Point pressure will result in lower SBHP, higher light hydrocarbon losses, and lower LNG of HHV value. The change of Mid-Point pressures have more impact to light hydrocarbon losses than SBHP process.

  16. Progress and Prospect of LNG Cold Energy Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Ben

    2009-01-01

    @@ Values and utilization significance of LNG cold energy LNG is a cryogenic liquid mixture made from gas through purification and liquefaction at the temperature of 162℃.850 kWh/t of power may be consumed for LNG production.230kWh/t of cold energy with the temperature ranging from-162℃ to 5℃ may be released when LNG is gasified under the pressure of latm.During actual gasification operation,pumps are required to be used to increase pressure for LNG gasification and delivery,so part of LNG cold energy will be converted into pressure energy(Fig.1).

  17. Australian Eager to Enter China's LNG Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Han

    2002-01-01

    @@ Australian Trade Minister Mark Vaile made a trip to China, Japan and Republic of Korea in mid-April in an attempt to locate potential users for LNG from the northwestern continental shelf of the country.Australia has made tenacious efforts for the annual 3-million-ton LNG supply project in China's Guangdong Province. In addition, Australia also hopes to have more users in Japan and Republic of Korea.

  18. A large LNG tank technology system “CGTank®” of CNOOC and its engineering application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available LNG tanks are complex in design and building process and high in costs, so LNG tank technology is one of the most advanced ones in the field of energy, which has been monopolized by foreign companies for a long time. In order to work out LNG tank technology domestically, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC for short, the largest LNG importer in China, develops a LNG tank technology system “CGTank®” successfully in reference to the design and construction experience of domestic and foreign companies, after years of scientific research in tackling difficult problems. This system presents four traits as follows. First, a set of calculation software is developed independently by CNOOC, and the tanks in all operating conditions are calculated after 3D hologram and multi-point contact model of fluid-solid coupling effect is built up. Second, earthquake effect research and inner tank check research are improved innovatively by means of response spectrum analysis after European standards are introduced. Third, it is put forward for the first time that the stress strength discrimination standard is based on the principal stress which is obtained by means of the maximum shearing failure theory. And fourth, a large LNG full-capacity tank technology package with completely independent intellectual property right is established. The “CGTank®” system was first applied in the Tianjin LNG demonstration project, which has passed all indicator tests and is now in operation smoothly. The project is provided with the core tank design technology by CNOOC Gas and Power Group and with the EPC by CNOOC Engineering Co., Ltd. The independent LNG tank technology can be applied in a wide scope and it is favorable for impelling domestic production of LNG industry completely.

  19. Identification and characterization of functionally important elements in the multidrug resistance protein 1 COOH-terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Christopher J; Payen, Lea; Gao, Mian; Cole, Susan P C; Deeley, Roger G

    2004-12-17

    The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), transports a broad spectrum of conjugated and unconjugated compounds, including natural product chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we have investigated the importance of the COOH-terminal region of MRP1 for transport activity and basolateral plasma membrane trafficking. The COOH-terminal regions of some ABCC proteins have been implicated in protein trafficking, but the function of this region of MRP1 has not been defined. In contrast to results obtained with other ABCC proteins, we found that the COOH-proximal 30 amino acids of MRP1 can be removed without affecting trafficking to basolateral membranes. However, the truncated protein is inactive. Furthermore, removal of as few as 4 COOH-terminal amino acids profoundly decreases transport activity. Although amino acid sequence conservation of the COOH-terminal regions of ABC proteins is low, secondary structure predictions indicate that they consist of a broadly conserved helix-sheet-sheet-helix-helix structure. Consistent with a conservation of secondary and tertiary structure, MRP1 hybrids containing the COOH-terminal regions of either the homologous MRP2 or the distantly related P-glycoprotein were fully active and trafficked normally. Using mutated proteins, we have identified structural elements containing five conserved hydrophobic amino acids that are required for activity. We show that these are important for binding and hydrolysis of ATP by nucleotide binding domain 2. Based on crystal structures of several ABC proteins, we suggest that the conserved amino acids may stabilize a helical bundle formed by the COOH-terminal three helices and may contribute to interactions between the COOH-terminal region and the protein's two nucleotide binding domains.

  20. Evaluasi dan Analisis Dampak Program Corporate Social Responsibility Badak LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanes Utama

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Program CSR Badak LNG telah melibatkan masyarakat dalam proses perencanaan, pelaksanaan, sampai pada proses monitoring dan evaluasi. Hal ini tentu berdampak pada peningkatan kualitas program serta meningkatkan peran partisipasi masyarakat sebagai kelompok sasaran penerima program CSR. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengukur tingkat kepuasan masyarakat terhadap program CSR yang telah dijalankan dan mengevaluasi dampak program CSR yang telah dilakukan. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah  melalui pendekatan kajian input, output, outcome dan impact melalui analisis Indeks Kepuasan Masyarakat, Importance Performance Analysis, dan Compass Sustainability Analysis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan secara keseluruhan kepuasan masyarakat terhadap pelayanan program CSR Badak LNG menunjukkan parameter sangat baik. Tingkat kesesuaian antara kepuasan kinerja dengan tingkat kepentingan masyarakat masuk dalam kategori sangat baik. Indikator kejelasan petugas pendamping,  tanggung jawab petugas pendamping, kemampuan petugas pendamping,  kesopanan petugas pendamping, dan kepastian biaya pelayanan adalah indikator yang memiliki harapan tinggi dari masyarakat penerima manfaat, dan perusahaan memiliki kinerja yang sangat baik dalam hal tersebut. Dampak positif yang diterima dari  kegiatan CSR pada dimensi nature, wellbeing, economy, social di Kota Bontang sangat tinggi, di antaranya terjadinya peningkatan kualitas lingkungan, pemanfaatan potensi alam, peningkatan pendapatan masyarakat, pengentasan kemiskinan, peningkatan kemandirian UMKM, semakin dikenalnya kebudayaan masyarakat, dan tingginya tingkat kepuasan masyarakat terhadap kegiatan-kegiatan CSR Badak LNG. The CSR program from Badak LNG has been involving the society in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation process. It has an impact to the improvement quality program and increase peoples participation as a CSR awardee. This research aims to measure the peoples satisfactory towards CSR

  1. Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

  2. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A.; Ochoa, Sara A.; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A.; López-Villegas, Edgar O.; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  3. [Contractile Tone and Contraction as Important Physiological Properties of Terminals on the Processes of Living Neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, O S; Vasyagina, N Yu; Podol'skaya, L A

    2015-01-01

    An attempt to summarize some static morphological renderings of reversible structural alterations of nervous processes, as well as receptor and synaptic terminals, to compare them with the mechanisms of actual transformation of living neurons and to find a common kinetic characteristic for these phenomena has been made. The contractile tone and contraction of processes of living isolated neurons are reported. The dependence of the direction of retraction on the localization of the adhesion site of the isolated cell has been detected. The retraction bulb has been identified as an indicator of all contractions of motor and sensory terminals, both alive and fixed. The process of transformation of growth cones into retraction bulbs has been investigated. The presence of mechanical tension in preterminals and interneuronal contacts has been demonstrated in vitro. Similarity of the kinetics of tissue receptor sensory terminals and growth cones has been detected during in vivo experiments. The kinetics of asynaptic dendrite contraction has been compared to the well-characterized structural variability of dendritic spines. The hypothesis of a common origin of the contractile tone of all nervous elements as one of the principal nonelectrophysiological properties of a neuron has been put forward.

  4. Discrete event simulation model for external yard choice of import container terminal in a port buffer area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusgiyarto, Ferry; Sjafruddin, Ade; Frazila, Russ Bona; Suprayogi

    2017-06-01

    Increasing container traffic and land acquisition problem for terminal expansion leads to usage of external yard in a port buffer area. This condition influenced the terminal performance because a road which connects the terminal and the external yard was also used by non-container traffic. Location choice problem considered to solve this condition, but the previous research has not taken account a stochastic condition of container arrival rate and service time yet. Bi-level programming framework was used to find optimum location configuration. In the lower-level, there was a problem to construct the equation, which correlated the terminal operation and the road due to different time cycle equilibrium. Container moves from the quay to a terminal gate in a daily unit of time, meanwhile, it moves from the terminal gate to the external yard through the road in a minute unit of time. If the equation formulated in hourly unit equilibrium, it cannot catch up the container movement characteristics in the terminal. Meanwhile, if the equation formulated in daily unit equilibrium, it cannot catch up the road traffic movement characteristics in the road. This problem can be addressed using simulation model. Discrete Event Simulation Model was used to simulate import container flow processes in the container terminal and external yard. Optimum location configuration in the upper-level was the combinatorial problem, which was solved by Full Enumeration approach. The objective function of the external yard location model was to minimize user transport cost (or time) and to maximize operator benefit. Numerical experiment was run for the scenario assumption of two container handling ways, three external yards, and thirty-day simulation periods. Jakarta International Container Terminal (JICT) container characteristics data was referred for the simulation. Based on five runs which were 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 repetitions, operation one of three available external yards (external yard

  5. 75 FR 11000 - Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX AGENCY... in the Freeport LNG Basin. This security zone is needed to protect vessels, waterfront facilities... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX in...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  7. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  8. Modeling of LNG spills into trenches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavelli, Filippo; Chernovsky, Melissa K; Bullister, Edward; Kytomaa, Harri K

    2010-08-15

    A new method for the analysis of LNG spills into trenches has been developed to quantify vapor dispersion hazard distances. The model uses three steps to capture the behavior of an LNG spill into a trench. The first is to analytically calculate the evolving LNG flow, the second to calculate the vaporization rate along the trench, and the third is to calculate the dispersion of the vapors using a CFD model that has been validated for this application in the presence of complex geometries. This paper presents case studies that show the effect of wind perpendicular and parallel to the large aspect ratio trenches on vapor dispersion. The case studies also demonstrate the effect of complex terrain and obstacles such as vapor fences on vapor dispersion. The simulations show that wind direction relative to the trench has a significant effect on cloud shape, height, and maximum downwind distance. The addition of vapor fences to mitigate vapor dispersion hazards from an LNG spill into the LNG containment trench is shown to be effective.

  9. Importin α1 Mediates Yorkie Nuclear Import via an N-terminal Non-canonical Nuclear Localization Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shimin; Lu, Yi; Yin, Meng-Xin; Wang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Li, Jinhui; Wu, Wenqing; Ge, Ling; Hu, Lianxin; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Lei

    2016-04-08

    The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size by orchestrating cell proliferation and apoptosis. When the Hippo pathway was inactivated, the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie translocates into the nucleus and forms a complex with transcription factor Scalloped to promote the expression of Hippo pathway target genes. Therefore, the nuclear translocation of Yorkie is a critical step in Hippo signaling. Here, we provide evidence that the N-terminal 1-55 amino acids of Yorkie, especially Arg-15, were essential for its nuclear localization. By mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses, we found that Importin α1 can directly interact with the Yorkie N terminus and drive Yorkie into the nucleus. Further experiments show that the upstream component Hippo can inhibit Importin α1-mediated Yorkie nuclear import. Taken together, we identified a potential nuclear localization signal at the N-terminal end of Yorkie as well as a critical role for Importin α1 in Yorkie nuclear import.

  10. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein. Importance of the C-terminal unstructured tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisne, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55(Gag), reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNA(Lys) 3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity.

  11. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  12. The Influence of Chemical Composition on LNG Pool Vaporization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is used to examine the influence of chemical composition on the vaporization rate of LNG during spreading. Calculations have been performed whereby the vaporization rate of the LNG mixtures has been compared to the vaporization of pure methane under the initial conditions. The detailed results indicate that the vaporization rate LNG mixture is different to that of pure methane. LNG as the liquid mixture gets rich in ethane and isobaric latent heat increases rapidly, leading to the rate vaporization of LNG decrease in compared to pure methane.

  13. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/ LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG.

  14. LNG接收站工艺管道试压、吹扫%LNG receiving station process piping pressure test and purging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华伟; 仇德朋; 鹿晓斌; 曲顺利

    2014-01-01

    LNG receiving station process piping pressure test and purging is the final inspection of construction quality before project put into operation, to ensure that project smoothly has the vital significance. In view of the LNG clean and low temperature properties, pressure test after the pipe cleaner and dry degree is particularly important, the terminal piping pressure test use hydraulic or pneumatic according to the difference of the pressure or medium..This paper introduces the pipeline pressure test, purging process and matters needing attention, to the future of LNG receiving station test, purging process has a certain reference significance.%LNG接收站工艺管道试压、吹扫是工程投运前对施工质量的最终检验,对确保工程顺利投产具有重要的意义。鉴于LNG清洁及低温特性,试压后管道内的清洁度及干燥度显得尤为重要,目前接收站压力试验根据管道压力、介质的不同通常采用水压或气压。本文介绍了LNG工艺管道试压吹扫的方法、流程和注意事项等,对今后的LNG接收站试压、吹扫具有一定的借鉴意义。

  15. Feasibility of methods and systems for reducng LNG tanker fire hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a reduced rate. Changes in the cargo itself, including making the LNG into a gel, solidifying it, converting it to methanol, and adding flame suppressants are also evaluated. The relative effectiveness and the costs of implementing these methods in terms of increased cost of gas at the receiving terminal, are explained. The vulnerability of an LNG tanker and its crew to the thermal effects of a large pool fire caused by a collision spill is estimated and methods of protecting the crew are considered. It is shown that the protection of ship and crew so that further deterioration of a damaged ship might be ameliorated, would require the design and installation of extraordinary insulation systems and life support assistance for the crew. Methods of salvaging or disposing of cargo from a damaged and disabled ship are evaluated, and it is concluded that if the cargo cannot be transferred to another (empty) LNG tanker because of lack of availability, then the burning of the cargo at a location somewhat distant from the disabled tanker appears to be a promising approach. Finally, the likelihood of the vapors from a spill being ignited due to the frictional impact of the colliding ships was examined. It is found that the heating of metal sufficient to ignite flammable vapors would occur during a collision, but it is questionable whether flammable vapor and air will, in fact, come in contact with the hot metal surfaces.

  16. Regions within the N-terminal domain of human topoisomerase I exert important functions during strand rotation and DNA binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Rikke Frølich; Andersen, Félicie Faucon; Westergaard, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The human topoisomerase I N-terminal domain is the only part of the enzyme still not crystallized and the function of this domain remains enigmatical. In the present study, we have addressed the specific functions of individual N-terminal regions of topoisomerase I by characterizing mutants lacking...... amino acid residues 1–202 or 191–206 or having tryptophane-205 substituted by glycine in a broad variety of in vitro activity assays. As a result of these investigations we find that mutants altered in the region 191–206 distinguished themselves from the wild-type enzyme by a faster strand rotation step...... support a model according to which tryptophane-205 and possibly other residues located between position 191–206 coordinates the restriction of free strand rotation during the topoisomerization step of catalysis. Moreover, tryptophane-205 appears important for the function of the bulk part of the N...

  17. China's Potential for LNG Vehicles%China's Potential for LNG Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Recent global discoveries of massive shale gas reserves along with more innovative drilling techniques known as fracking has boosted liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplies. However, more infrastructures are necessary to utilize the increased supply.

  18. Potential effects of LNG trade shift on transfer of ballast water and biota by ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Kimberly K; Muirhead, Jim R; Minton, Mark S; Carney, Katharine J; Miller, A Whitman; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2017-02-15

    As the US natural gas surplus grows, so does the prospect of establishing new trade partnerships with buyers abroad, a process that has major consequences for global ship movement and ballast water delivery. Since US annual imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) peaked in 2004-2007, the country is rapidly transitioning from net importer to net exporter of LNG. Combining multiple datasets, we estimated changes in the associated flux of ships' ballast water to the US during 2015-2040, using existing scenarios for projected exports of domestic LNG by ships. Our analysis of the current market (2015) scenario predicts an approximate 90-fold annual increase in LNG-related ballast water discharge to the US by 2040 (42millionm(3)), with the potential to be even greater under high oil prices. We also described changes in geographic connectivity related to trade direction. These findings highlight how 21(st) century global energy markets could dramatically alter opportunities for seaborne introductions and invasions by nonnative species.

  19. Overview of the LNG world market; Panorama mundial do mercado de GNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Costa, Julia Rotstein Smith da Silva; Moreira, Tathiany Rodrigues [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The commercialization of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has been gaining great prominence worldwide and in Brazil, in recent days, due to the ever-increasing need for diversification of energy sources and for flexibilization of gas offer, in order to ensure the importing countries' supply. In this scenario, LNG has been positioning itself, around the world, as an important alternative, especially in cases where there is uncertainty concerning the fulfillment of delivery contracts, the transportation network is still incipient or inexistent, the gas pipelines operate at full capacity and the country's gas demand is met by more than one exporting source, sometimes by different transport modals. In the case of Brazil, the recent restrictions to the gas offer bring to the agenda the search for better solutions in energy policy in order to appropriately meet the totality of national demand. This article presents the current situation of the LNG market and identifies the main agents involved in its commerce, drawing attention to, in light of the originality of LNG projects in Brazil, the need for perfecting the regulation in order to boost the development of the national gas industry. (author)

  20. Values important to terminally ill African American older adults in receiving hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyunjin

    2014-01-01

    While racial disparity in the use of hospice care by older African Americans is widely acknowledged, little is known about the values that they consider as important in receiving health care services along with direct experiences with having these values respected by hospice care providers. Using individual, face-to-face interviews, data were collected directly from 28 African American hospice patients about their experiences in hospice care. Content analysis was used to identify and categorize themes from multiple readings of the qualitative data. Resulting themes included: dying at home, open communications, independent decision-making, autonomy in daily life, unwillingness to be a burden, and relationships. Through the initial assessment, value preferences can be explored and then shared with hospice team members to ensure that services are provided in such a way that their values and preferences are respected.

  1. The similarity between N-terminal targeting signals for protein import into different organelles and its evolutionary relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eKunze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The proper distribution of proteins between the cytosol and various membrane-bound compartments is crucial for the functionality of eukaryotic cells. This requires the cooperation between protein transport machineries that translocate diverse proteins from the cytosol into these compartments and targeting signal(s encoded within the primary sequence of these proteins that define their cellular destination. The mechanisms exerting protein translocation differ remarkably between the compartments, but the predominant targeting signals for mitochondria, chloroplasts and the ER share the N-terminal position, an α-helical structural element and the removal from the core protein by intraorganellar cleavage. Interestingly, similar properties have been described for the peroxisomal targeting signal type 2 mediating the import of a fraction of soluble peroxisomal proteins, whereas other peroxisomal matrix proteins encode the type 1 targeting signal residing at the extreme C-terminus. The structural similarity of N-terminal targeting signals poses a challenge to the specificity of protein transport, but allows the generation of ambiguous targeting signals that mediate dual targeting of proteins into different compartments. Dual targeting might represent an advantage for adaptation processes that involve a redistribution of proteins, because it circumvents the hierarchy of targeting signals. Thus, the co-existence of two equally functional import pathways into peroxisomes might reflect a balance between evolutionary constant and flexible transport routes.

  2. Implementation of lng as marine fuel in current vessels : Perspectives and improvements on their environmental efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre Buades, Llorenç

    2017-01-01

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as marine fuel currently appears to be an attractive, potential and technically feasible option for new building vessels to comply with air pollution regulations. Consequently, the implementation of LNG on board vessels has been conducted together with the development of LNG-fuelled engines, LNG fuel tanks, gas supply systems and LNG infrastructure. LNG-fuelled vessels are equipped principally with lean-burn gas engines or dual-fuel (DF) engines, vacuum insulated C...

  3. Logistics and supply chain effectiveness measure areas in lng companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the issues of logistics and supply chain measures in companies. It considers different management systems in the area of production, which evolved from isolated production activities to business connected systems. There are performed three case studies - three examples of systems proposed and implemented in the LNG industry: I-MAC, ICIMS and PMS. Data gained from these systems are the basis to create effectiveness measures for LNG companies and LNG supply chains.

  4. Analysis of accidental iceberg impacts with membrane tank LNG carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Myhre, Stine Aas

    2010-01-01

    The probability of ship-iceberg impacts are increasing due to increasing production and due to more transportation routes near arctic areas. The first part of this thesis is an introduction to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and the LNG carriers, particularly LNG carriers with membrane type cargo containment system.Some theory regarding the principles of Non Linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA) and ship-iceberg collision is briefly described.A detailed finite element model of the cargo tank is ...

  5. 78 FR 53739 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas and... export natural gas, to import and export liquefied natural gas and to vacate prior authority. These... ENERGY) 13-83-LNG STANDARD NATURAL GAS, INC.) 13-81-LNG CASTLETON COMMODITIES CANADA LP) 1...

  6. Effects of lng mutations on LngA expression, processing and CS21 assembly in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeus Saldaña-Ahuactzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus. This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA and minor (LngB structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologues. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy imagens to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21, and probably helps to control CS21 length. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells.

  7. A basic domain in the histone H2B N-terminal tail is important for nucleosome assembly by FACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Peng; Kyriss, McKenna N M; Hodges, Amelia J; Duan, Mingrui; Morris, Robert T; Lavine, Mark D; Topping, Traci B; Gloss, Lisa M; Wyrick, John J

    2016-11-02

    Nucleosome assembly in vivo requires assembly factors, such as histone chaperones, to bind to histones and mediate their deposition onto DNA. In yeast, the essential histone chaperone FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) functions in nucleosome assembly and H2A-H2B deposition during transcription elongation and DNA replication. Recent studies have identified candidate histone residues that mediate FACT binding to histones, but it is not known which histone residues are important for FACT to deposit histones onto DNA during nucleosome assembly. In this study, we report that the histone H2B repression (HBR) domain within the H2B N-terminal tail is important for histone deposition by FACT. Deletion of the HBR domain causes significant defects in histone occupancy in the yeast genome, particularly at HBR-repressed genes, and a pronounced increase in H2A-H2B dimers that remain bound to FACT in vivo Moreover, the HBR domain is required for purified FACT to efficiently assemble recombinant nucleosomes in vitro We propose that the interaction between the highly basic HBR domain and DNA plays an important role in stabilizing the nascent nucleosome during the process of histone H2A-H2B deposition by FACT. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Lessons learned from LNG safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    During the period from 1977 to 1989, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a liquefied gaseous fuels spill effects program under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Gas Research Institute and others. The goal of this program was to develop and validate tools that could be used to predict the effects of a large liquefied gas spill through the execution of large scale field experiments and the development of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests could not be performed. Over the course of the program, three series of LNG spill experiments were performed to study cloud formation, dispersion, combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this program, the lessons learned from 12 years of research as well as some recommendations for the future. The general conclusion from this program is that cold, dense gas related phenomena can dominate the dispersion of a large volume, high release rate spill of LNG especially under low ambient wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions, and therefore, it is necessary to include a detailed and validated description of these phenomena in computer models to adequately predict the consequences of a release. Specific conclusions include: * LNG vapor clouds are lower and wider than trace gas clouds and tend to follow the downhill slope of terrain due to dampened vertical turbulence and gravity flow within the cloud. Under low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions, a bifurcated, two lobed structure develops. * Navier-Stokes models provide the most complete description of LNG dispersion, while more highly parameterized Lagrangian models were found to be well suited to emergency response applications. * The measured heat flux from LNG vapor cloud burns exceeded levels necessary for third degree burns and were large enough to ignite most flammable materials. * RPTs are of two

  9. 围堰对LNG储罐泄漏扩散规律影响研究%Research on Influences of Dike Dam on the Law of LNG Release and Dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘隆; 孟波; 王启

    2014-01-01

    The paper used the Fluent package and based on CFD modeling technique to study the law of LNG release and dispersion,and then simulated effects of size of dike dam and tank value on shape of the LNG dense gas and range of explo-sion.It showed that the dike dam can prevent the LNG dense gas by the inside,and shorter the dike dam can prevent more LNG dense gas than the longer dike dam.The research also discovered that the influence of dike dam on larger LNG tank is clearer than that on smaller LNG tank.The research can provide scientific guidelines for site of LNG receiving terminals, establishment of emergency response plan,delimitation of exclusion zones and evaluation and claims of hazard suffered from accidence.%利用流体力学软件FLUENT对围堰存在情况下的 LNG 储罐泄漏扩散进行了数值模拟,并对不同围堰尺寸和不同储罐容积条件下泄漏扩散的气云形态变化和爆炸范围进行了对比。结果表明,围堰可以有效地阻止气云的扩散,使气云聚集在围堰内侧;随着围堰长度的减小,对 LNG 储罐泄漏扩散阻挡作用越来越明显;围堰对大型LNG储罐泄漏扩散的阻挡较小型储罐更加明显。研究结果对指导 LNG安全储运、使用及事故后果控制具有重要意义。

  10. Integrity and efficiency in LNG transfer operations with flexible hoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Twerda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The work presented contributes to the LNG supply chain by the development of a validated calculation model for corrugated flexible hoses or pipes developed for LNG Transfer. The model builds upon experience gained by TNO Technical Sciences (Fluid Dynamics) in a large number of flow tests carried out

  11. Assessing integrity and realiability of multicomposite LNG transfer hoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, G.D. van der; Putten, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Reliable transfer systems are a key element in developing floating LNG and the small scale LNG market. Multi-composite hoses may prove to be a reliable and cost effective solution for offshore, near- and on-shore applications. TNO, the Dutch contract research organization, has executed an extensive

  12. 76 FR 53425 - Pivotal LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pivotal LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 8, 2011, Pivotal LNG, Inc. (Pivotal), Ten Peachtree Place, Suite 1000, Atlanta, Georgia 30309, filed with the... transportation of natural gas as a by-product of the operation of non-jurisdictional liquefied natural gas...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  14. Chinese-Malaysia LNG Project Launched in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Fan; Yang Fu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Shanghai launched a major energy supply project in January 2007 that will transmit liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Malaysia to the east China economic hub over 25 years. Construction started on the first phase of the Shanghai LNG project, which would become operational in 2009.

  15. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel, the master shall ensure that the fuel oil fired pilot under § 154.705(c) is used when the vessel is on...

  16. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  17. 76 FR 81925 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 9, 2011, Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), filed an application pursuant to Section 3... authorization to modify the certificated LNG facilities located on Quintana Island, Texas. The filing may...

  18. 78 FR 20312 - Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Downeast LNG Project The staff of the... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Downeast LNG Project, proposed by Downeast LNG, Inc. and Downeast...

  19. LNG - Status in Denmark. Technology and potential. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2012-05-15

    The interest for LNG both on a small and a large scale is increasing worldwide. The experiences and knowledge on LNG is limited in Denmark. The Danish gas companies' Technical Management Group (TCG) has asked for a status report including a technology description and an evaluation of the potential in Denmark. A survey of primarily small-scale LNG technology is done in the report. The focus is motivated by the new areas of gas utilisation that become possible with small-scale LNG. Small-scale LNG in this study is defined as LNG stored and used at the application or in an isolated gas grid. The small-scale use of LNG has today an almost negligible share of the total LNG trade but offers interesting new applications for gas utilisation. LNG on a small scale can be used primarily as: 1) Ship fuel. 2) Truck fuel (heavy duty long distance). 3) Individual users not connected to the natural gas grid. 4) Backup for upgraded biogas to individual users and vehicle fleets. 5) Security of supply or supply enhancement of heavily loaded parts of the gas grid. 6) Small-scale storage and/or peak shaving. All but the first topics are natural uses for the current Danish gas distributors. LNG as ship fuel may engage other specialized LNG companies. The report contains a technical description of the parts in primarily small-scale LNG handling and operation. Liquefaction, transport, storage, engine technologies, gas quality and safety aspects related to LNG are covered. There seem to be two more or less separate paths for LNG in Denmark, onshore and off-shore use. These are not, apparently, sharing their experiences and knowledge. Rules and regulations are also different which may create some problems in the interface, for example ship bunkering. Further studies are suggested in the area of gas quality and engine technologies and adaptation of foreign guidelines for small-scale installations to Danish conditions. These guidelines ought to be based on international standards and

  20. The Conceptual Design Algorithm of Inland LNG Barges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łozowicka, Dorota; Kaup, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    The article concerns the problem of inland waterways transport of LNG. Its aim is to present the algorithm of conceptual design of inland barges for LNG transport, intended for exploitation on European waterways. The article describes the areas where LNG barges exist, depending on the allowable operating parameters on the waterways. It presents existing architectural and construction solutions of barges for inland LNG transport, as well as the necessary equipment, due to the nature of cargo. Then the article presents the procedure of the conceptual design of LNG barges, including navigation restrictions and functional and economic criteria. The conceptual design algorithm of LGN barges, presented in the article, allows to preliminary design calculations, on the basis of which, are obtained the main dimensions and parameters of unit, depending on the transport task and the class of inland waterways, on which the transport will be realized.

  1. Role of the C-terminal extension peptide of plastid located glutamine synthetase from Medicago truncatula: Crucial for enzyme activity and needless for protein import into the plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria João; Vale, Diogo; Cunha, Luis; Melo, Paula

    2017-02-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in plant nitrogen metabolism, is encoded by a small family of highly homologous nuclear genes that produce cytosolic (GS1) and plastidic (GS2) isoforms. Compared to GS1, GS2 proteins have two extension peptides, one at the N- and the other at the C-terminus, which show a high degree of conservation among plant species. It has long been known that the N-terminal peptide acts as a transit peptide, targeting the protein to the plastids however, the function of the C-terminal extension is still unknown. To investigate whether the C-terminal extension influences the activity of the enzyme, we produced a C-terminal truncated version of Medicago truncatula GS2a in Escherechia coli and studied its catalytic properties. The activity of the truncated protein was found to be lower than that of MtGS2a and with less affinity for glutamate. The importance of the C-terminal extension for the protein import into the chloroplast was also assessed by transient expression of fluorescently-tagged MtGS2a truncated at the C-terminus, which was correctly detected in the chloroplast. The results obtained in this work demonstrate that the C-terminal extension of M. truncatula GS2a is important for the activity of the enzyme and does not contain crucial information for the import process.

  2. A case of endometrial carcinoma in a long-term Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System (LNG 52 mg-IUS) user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melisa; Briggs, Paula

    2017-03-01

    This report describes a 50-year-old woman who presented to a community gynaecology clinic complaining of persistent heavy vaginal bleeding with an LNG 52 mg-IUS in situ. She was subsequently found to have stage 1 grade 1a endometrioid carcinoma. From the literature, we have identified five similar cases. This case highlights the possibility of endometrial carcinoma despite treatment with an LNG 52 mg-IUS and reinforces the importance of investigating women who present with unusual persistent or heavy vaginal bleeding.

  3. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  4. Research on Energy Efficiency Design Index for Sea-going LNG Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lin; Yanyun Yu; Guan Guan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers’ reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  5. LNG Changes In The Context Of The Expanding Market Of Natural Gas.

    OpenAIRE

    Karabetsou C.; Tzannatos E.S.

    2003-01-01

    In the context of the continually expanding demand of natural gas worldwide, the LNG industry is undergoing significant changes in its trade structure and shipping characteristics. The growth in LNG trade will continue and with it the growth of the LNG shipping industry. Departing from the rigid structure of the traditional LNG trade, the introduction of trade flexibility through development of short-term contracts and spot trading is altering the picture in LNG shipping. In the current work,...

  6. Natural gas supply and demand, and prospects for the LNG trade in the Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, Vinio [IHS Energy, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2004-07-01

    North America has a natural gas-hungry market, which is forecasted to demand approximately 42 Trillion Cubic Feet (TCF) in the year 2020, while consumption in the USA alone is expected to reach 33 TCF. Although Central/South America and the Caribbean consumed 3.5 TCF in 2001, that figure is expected to rise to 8.8 TCF in 2020. South America and the Caribbean (with over 5% of the world's reserves) could play an important role by supplying neighboring nations with much needed natural gas. Although the pressing need for LNG is expected to be felt after 2007, inklings of what is to come are already being seen. As an example, the USA has imported over twice as much during the first half of 2003 if compared with 2002 (201.5 and 96.9 BCF, respectively). Mexico alone has consumed 1.3 TCF in 2001 but that figure is expected to skyrocket to approximately 4 TCF by 2020, increasing its gas imports. The North American gas demand deficit could grow 15 TCF by 2020 (assuming a price of US$5 MBTU). Supplying LNG from South America and the Caribbean to North America faces several challenges. From global competition from giant projects in Asia, Africa, Australia, the Middle East and Russia, to pricing, markets, financial, and social, environmental, political and social situations, LNG exports are a challenging endeavor that could render excellent benefits but face considerable risks. (author)

  7. Trends in world LNG supply through 2030. A model-based analysis; Entwicklung des weltweiten LNG-Angebots bis 2030. Eine modellgestuetzte Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeliger, A. [Trianel European Energy Trading GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The contribution presents selected findings of the LNG supply model MAGELAN. It investigates the trends in the gas market through 2030 and the share of marine transport of LNG by tanker vessels. (orig.)

  8. Phenylalanine-24 in the N-terminal region of ammodytoxins is important for both enzymic activity and presynaptic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petan, Toni; Krizaj, Igor; Gubensek, Franc; Pungercar, Joze

    2002-01-01

    Ammodytoxins (Atxs) are group II phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) with presynaptic toxicity from venom of the snake Vipera ammodytes ammodytes. The molecular basis of their neurotoxicity, and that of similar PLA(2) toxins, is still to be explained. To address this problem, a surface-exposed aromatic residue, Phe(24), in the N-terminal region of the most potent Atx, AtxA, was replaced by other aromatic (tyrosine, tryptophan), hydrophobic (alanine) and polar uncharged (serine, asparagine) residues. The mutants were produced in the bacterial expression system, refolded in vitro and purified to homogeneity. All but the Trp(24) mutant, whose activity was similar to that of the wild type, showed a considerable decrease (40-80%) in enzymic activity on a micellar phosphatidylcholine substrate. This result indicates an important role for the aromatic side chains of phenylalanine or tryptophan, but not tyrosine, in PLA(2) activity, very likely at a stage of interfacial adsorption of the enzyme to zwitterionic aggregated substrates. The substitutions of Phe(24) also significantly decreased toxicity in mice, with the most prominent decrease, of 130-fold, observed in the case of the Asn(24) mutant. The results with the mutants show that there is no correlation between enzymic activity, lethality and binding affinity for three AtxA neuronal receptors (R180, R25 and calmodulin). Our results suggest a critical involvement of Phe(24) in the neurotoxicity of AtxA, apparently at a stage which does not involve the interaction with the known Atx-binding neuronal proteins and catalytic activity. PMID:11931665

  9. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project: a tax overview; Projeto Gas Natural Liquefeito (GNL): uma abordagem tributaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Claudia W.M.; Faria, Viviana C.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the second semester of 2008, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be introduced in the Brazilian energy matrix, it will be done through an innovator project according technical and tax points of view. Mentioned the enormous effort of adapting the federal legislation approved for this new activity which begins in the country, uncharged both the admission of the vessel as the import of the commodity in the incidence of federal taxes. The market for LNG demand simplified customs procedures in order to benefit from the dynamism that this industry offers, and in addition, a tax burden that encourages the use of a competitive and compatible with the precepts of sustainable development of the country. (author)

  10. Theoretical and computational analyses of LNG evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Palani Kumar; Jo, Yang Myung; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical and numerical analysis on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside a LNG evaporator is conducted in this work. Methane is used instead of LNG as the operating fluid. This is because; methane constitutes over 80% of natural gas. The analytical calculations are performed using simple mass and energy balance equations. The analytical calculations are made to assess the pressure and temperature variations in the steam tube. Multiphase numerical simulations are performed by solving the governing equations (basic flow equations of continuity, momentum and energy equations) in a portion of the evaporator domain consisting of a single steam pipe. The flow equations are solved along with equations of species transport. Multiphase modeling is incorporated using VOF method. Liquid methane is the primary phase. It vaporizes into the secondary phase gaseous methane. Steam is another secondary phase which flows through the heating coils. Turbulence is modeled by a two equation turbulence model. Both the theoretical and numerical predictions are seen to match well with each other. Further parametric studies are planned based on the current research.

  11. Topology of eukaryotic type II membrane proteins: importance of N-terminal positively charged residues flanking the hydrophobic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, G D; Lamb, R A

    1991-02-22

    We have tested the role of different charged residues flanking the sides of the signal/anchor (S/A) domain of a eukaryotic type II (N(cyt)C(exo)) integral membrane protein in determining its topology. The removal of positively charged residues on the N-terminal side of the S/A yields proteins with an inverted topology, while the addition of positively charged residues to only the C-terminal side has very little effect on orientation. Expression of chimeric proteins composed of domains from a type II protein (HN) and the oppositely oriented membrane protein M2 indicates that the HN N-terminal domain is sufficient to confer a type II topology and that the M2 N-terminal ectodomain can direct a type II topology when modified by adding positively charged residues. These data suggest that eukaryotic membrane protein topology is governed by the presence or absence of an N-terminal signal for retention in the cytoplasm that is composed in part of positive charges.

  12. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Published in unknown, DCP Midstream.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  13. Future of gas. LNG between feast and famine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-05-15

    Between now and 2012, a new wave of LNG (liquid natural gas) supply will wash over markets, with Qatar accounting for half the growth as six new 'mega-trains' come on stream. It will arrive just as gas demand is being hit by the economic crisis. Beyond 2012, the situation will reverse, with growth constrained by lack of new supply. The LNG industry is facing a turbulent decade.

  14. Parâmetros relevantes na determinação da velocidade terminal de frutos de café Important parameters for determination of terminal velocity of coffee fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Couto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No desenvolvimento de máquinas de separação movidas a fluxos de ar, o conhecimento da velocidade terminal de um produto e das impurezas associadas é de importância fundamental. Neste trabalho, investigou-se o comportamento dos valores da velocidade terminal de frutos de café (variedades Catuaí e Híbrido Timor em função dos parâmetros (a estádio de maturação do produto na colheita ("verde" e "cereja"; (b época de colheita; (c variedade; (d teor de umidade dos frutos e (e número de frutos contidos na amostra usada para as determinações da velocidade. A análise dos resultados mostrou que os valores das velocidades terminais foram influenciados, significativamente, pelo teor de umidade do produto, estádio de maturação dos frutos e tamanho das amostras usadas nas determinações; entretanto, a época de colheita e a variedade dos frutos não se mostraram como parâmetros importantes nas determinações da velocidade terminal do produto. Relações funcionais entre parâmetros adimensionais, usando-se análise dimensional e o teorema Pi de Buckingham, foram também obtidas e são apresentadas neste trabalho; por outro lado, essas relações fornecem estimativas razoáveis para a velocidade terminal de um fruto, em função das velocidades de flutuação determinadas, experimentalmente, para amostras com um número maior de frutos.The knowledge of the terminal velocity of a product is of fundamental importance in the development of separation machines using airflows. The behavior of the values of the terminal velocity of coffee fruits (varieties Catuaí and Hybrid Timor was investigated in this work as a function of following parameters: (a maturation level of the coffee at the harvesting ("green" and "cherry" fruits; (b harvesting time; (c variety; (d moisture content of the fruits and (e number of fruits in the sample used for the determinations of the terminal velocity. Analysis of the results showed that the values of the

  15. Mooring program of O-MAX LNG carrier%Q-MAX型LNG船舶系泊方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈汝夏; 王立国; 刘涛

    2012-01-01

    为保证LNG船舶停泊江苏LNG接收站期间的有效系泊,确保LNG船舶和接收站码头的安全和LNG卸货作业的顺利进行,运用OPTIMOOR计算机程序对舱容为26.6×104 m3的LNG船舶(Q-MAX型)右舷靠泊江苏LNG接收站码头,采用4-4-2和3-5-2两种系泊方案进行计算分析,得出了在不同环境条件下系泊缆绳所受的最大负荷、船舶的最大偏移量和码头护弦的最大变形量等计算结果.通过研究发现,这两种系泊方案均满足有效系泊的技术标准要求,是可以接受的.但在同样的外部环境条件下,3-5-2系泊方案略优于4-4-2系泊方案.%To maintain effective mooring of LNG carrier berthed at the wharf of Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal and ensure safety of carrier, terminal wharf and LNG transfer, an analysis on the starboard of Q-MAX type LNG carrier with a capacity of 266 000 m3 mooring alongside the wharf of Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal is carried out with the Optimoor Programme. Mooring program 4-4-2 and 3-5-2 are calculated, and the loadmax of mooring cable, offsetmax, of carrier and deflectionmax of wharf fender in different conditions are given. Research discovers that the both mooring programs are acceptable but to some extent, the loadmax of mooring cable in 3-5-2 mode is better than that of 4-4-2.

  16. Egypt emerges : with help from some Canadian companies, Alexandria is striving to grab a spot on the global LNG stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2006-12-15

    Two new liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants recently built in Egypt are a testimony to the country's renewed natural gas industry. This article presented details of Canadian companies who are now operating in Egypt as a result of the Egyptian government's decision to include gas as a commodity from which foreign companies could earn a profit in the late 1980s. Apache negotiated a lease on a 2.2 million acre block southwest of Giza called the Qarun Block along with a partner called Phoenix Resources Companies Inc. in 1992, and has since made significant gas discoveries. In March 2006, the company posted record gross oil and gas production of 119,500 barrels per day and 501 million cubic feet per day. Egypt currently produces 3.5 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day. Approximately half is consumed locally and the balance is liquefied for export to Europe and Asian markets. The 2 LNG plants in Egypt currently process 700 million cubic feet and 1 billion cubic feet per day respectively. Egypt's Nile Delta is emerging as a world-class hydrocarbon basin, where companies such as BP have been exploring and producing since 1992. BP is confident that Egypt's potential reserves exceed 100 trillion cubic feet and that its aggressive exploration strategy is expected to form the foundation of a significant LNG business. Calgary-based company Centurion has established a presence in Egypt and has formed a partnership with Royal Dutch/Shell Group. The company has granted Shell 2 concessions in exchange for the construction of a gas train worth $1.5 billion capable of handling 500 million cubic feet per day of gas. It was concluded that while current global prices for natural gas are still too low to make it economical to ship Egyptian LNG to North America, higher prices may mean that LNG currently being transported to Europe may eventually end up in North American LNG terminals. 9 figs.

  17. Contribution of the C-terminal tri-lysine regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase for efficient reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Keith R

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to mediating the integration process, HIV-1 integrase (IN has also been implicated in different steps during viral life cycle including reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import. Although the karyophilic property of HIV-1 IN has been well demonstrated using a variety of experimental approaches, the definition of domain(s and/or motif(s within the protein that mediate viral DNA nuclear import and its mechanism are still disputed and controversial. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses to investigate the contribution of different regions in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN to protein nuclear localization as well as their effects on virus infection. Results Our analysis showed that replacing lysine residues in two highly conserved tri-lysine regions, which are located within previously described Region C (235WKGPAKLLWKGEGAVV and sequence Q (211KELQKQITK in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN, impaired protein nuclear accumulation, while mutations for RK263,4 had no significant effect. Analysis of their effects on viral infection in a VSV-G pseudotyped RT/IN trans-complemented HIV-1 single cycle replication system revealed that all three C-terminal mutant viruses (KK215,9AA, KK240,4AE and RK263,4AA exhibited more severe defect of induction of β-Gal positive cells and luciferase activity than an IN class 1 mutant D64E in HeLa-CD4-CCR5-β-Gal cells, and in dividing as well as non-dividing C8166 T cells, suggesting that some viral defects are occurring prior to viral integration. Furthermore, by analyzing viral DNA synthesis and the nucleus-associated viral DNA level, the results clearly showed that, although all three C-terminal mutants inhibited viral reverse transcription to different extents, the KK240,4AE mutant exhibited most profound effect on this step, whereas KK215,9AA significantly impaired viral DNA nuclear import. In addition, our analysis could not detect viral DNA integration in each C-terminal

  18. LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Phani K

    2007-04-11

    Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H2O and CO2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are

  19. Alexela loodab LNG terminali rajamise õiguse endale saada / Andrus Karnau ; kommenteerinud Taavi Veskimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2011-01-01

    Alexela Grupp loodab saada Balti riikide ja Soome ühise veeldatud maagaasi ehk LNG terminali operaatoriks. Naabrite tihe konkurents gaasi pärast - neli riiki on esitanud viis Balti LNG terminali projekti. Kaart

  20. File list: DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 DNase-seq Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http://...dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Unclassified Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 DNase-seq Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http://...dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Unclassified Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Unclassified Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Unclassified Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 DNase-seq Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http://...dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  11. File list: DNS.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 DNase-seq Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http://...dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells hg19 All antigens Lung Tracheal epitheli...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells hg19 All antigens Lung Tracheal epitheli...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells hg19 All antigens Lung Tracheal epitheli...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells.bed ...

  16. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  17. Retrofitting of a liquefaction compressor for LNG; Ueberholung eines Verfluessigungsverdichters fuer LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Horst [RWE WWE NS GmbH, Nievenheim (Germany). Fluessigerdgasanlage; Hallermayer, Andreas [Hoerbiger Service Central Europe (Germany). Business Development

    2009-03-15

    RWE operates a LNG plant for peak shaving at Dormagen-Nievenheim as part of the RWE high-pressure gas supply grid. The natural gas is liquefied on site. This requires a complex liquefaction plant whose key elements are a tank, a heat exchanger, and the compressor. The plant was constructed and commissioned in 1975. After a longish standstill period, it was modernized recently, and several minor defects were repaired. The repair process is described in this contribution. It comprised damage detection and repair and was a time-consuming process. On the other hand, it illustrates that piston compressors function very reliably if regular servicing is ensured. (orig.)

  18. Sustainability in Inland Shipping: The use of LNG as Marine Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consuegra, S.C.; Paalvast, M.S.M.

    2010-01-01

    LNG has the potential to reduce echaust gas emissions from vessels. The report explains the basics of LNG: what is it, what are the technical challenges of using LNG as marine fuel, which infrastructure is needed to bunker it and what is the impact on the costs. The report concludes with some measur

  19. 76 FR 31326 - Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC (GLNG Pipeline), Colonial Brookwood Center, 569... to Margaret G. Coffman, Counsel, Gulf LNG Pipeline Company, LLC, Colonial Brookwood Center,...

  20. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... receive and transfer natural gas from purpose-build LNG regasification vessels (LNGRVs) with a total cargo tank capacity of approximately 145,000 m\\3\\. The vessels would be equipped to vaporize LNG cargo...

  1. 33 CFR 165.751 - Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: LNG mooring slip... § 165.751 Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a) Security zone. The... security zone; or (4) Actively engaged in escort, maneuvering, or support duties for an LNG tankship....

  2. 75 FR 29420 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... No. USCG-2007-27022] RIN 1625-AB13 Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements... requirements for waterfront facilities handling liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG... harmonize the Coast Guard's regulations for LNG with those established by the Federal Energy...

  3. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of 250 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of foreign sourced liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a two-year...

  4. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  5. Mini and Micro LNG for Commercialization of Small Volumes of Associated Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Tractebel Engineering

    2015-01-01

    While the LNG industry has traditionally focused primarily on development of ever increasing plant capacities, the maturity of the technology has allowed development of technologies applicable for small volumes to be competitive and potentially economically attractive. The main challenge for small scale LNG applications is therefore not technical but economic. Mini/micro LNG facilities cur...

  6. 75 FR 54025 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...-27022] RIN 1625-AB13 Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements AGENCY: Coast...) requirements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) facilities. The amendment... entitled ``Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements'' (75 FR 29420) amending...

  7. 75 FR 53688 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...] Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference August 25, 2010. Take notice that Commission... Commission, 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426. On June 7, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG) filed a tariff sheet to revise its tariff with respect to gas quality and...

  8. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Liberty Deepwater Port would receive and transfer natural gas from purpose-built LNG regasification... equipped to vaporize LNG cargo to natural gas through onboard closed loop vaporization systems and...

  9. 77 FR 70886 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final... Captain of the Port regarding the suitability of a waterway for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied... Commission FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter of Intent...

  10. 78 FR 933 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...-000 and Docket No. PF12-12-000] Cameron LNG, LLC; Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Applications Take notice that on December 7, 2012, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron LNG), 101 Ash Street, San Diego... operate new liquefaction and export facilities in Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana (Liquefaction...

  11. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Eos LNG... Eos LNG LLC (Eos), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced from... natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Eos seeks authorization to export the LNG for a 25-year term...

  12. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From..., by Barca LNG LLC (Barca), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced...) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Barca seeks authorization to export the LNG for a...

  13. 77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 4 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas (LNG),...

  14. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... application filed on March 4, 2010, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting an amendment to its blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) granted by DOE/FE on May 28,...

  15. 76 FR 77814 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed BOG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment... construction and operation of facilities by Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron LNG) in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. This... encourage them to comment on their areas of concern. Summary of the Proposed Project Cameron LNG plans to...

  16. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  17. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  18. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  19. LNG tidscertepartier : En innføring generelt og regulering av boil-off spesielt

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Johan Storm

    2005-01-01

    Oppgaven gir en innføring i langsiktige LNG tidscertepartier. Den tar for seg både hva som er særegent for denne kontraktstypen generelt, og gir en oversikt over typiske sider ved den konkrete reguleringen av et utvalg certepartier. Som et spesialemne, tar oppgaven for seg reguleringen av ansvaret for boil-off mellom partene. Dette er et fenomen som er spesielt for LNG farten. LNG certepartier tar for seg transport av LNG med skip. LNG står for Liquefied Natural Gas, eller flytende naturg...

  20. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  1. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas.... DOMINION COVE POINT LNG, LP 11-98-LNG ENERGY PLUS NATURAL GAS LLC 11-155-NG BROOKFIELD ENERGY......

  2. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas..., ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS INC 11-163-NG ALCOA INC 12-11-NG JPMORGAN LNG CO 12-15-LNG CNE......

  3. Novel human mutation and CRISPR/Cas genome-edited mice reveal the importance of C-terminal domain of MSX1 in tooth and palate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naruto, Takuya; Minegishi, Yoshiyuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Noji, Sumihare; Imoto, Issei; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-12-05

    Several mutations, located mainly in the MSX1 homeodomain, have been identified in non-syndromic tooth agenesis predominantly affecting premolars and third molars. We identified a novel frameshift mutation of the highly conserved C-terminal domain of MSX1, known as Msx homology domain 6 (MH6), in a Japanese family with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. To investigate the importance of MH6 in tooth development, Msx1 was targeted in mice with CRISPR/Cas system. Although heterozygous MH6 disruption did not alter craniofacial development, homozygous mice exhibited agenesis of lower incisors with or without cleft palate at E16.5. In addition, agenesis of the upper third molars and the lower second and third molars were observed in 4-week-old mutant mice. Although the upper second molars were present, they were abnormally small. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain of MSX1 is important for tooth and palate development, and demonstrate that that CRISPR/Cas system can be used as a tool to assess causality of human disorders in vivo and to study the importance of conserved domains in genes.

  4. 液化天然气渔船改造相关技术分析%Analysis on technology of LNG fishing vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文超; 赵新颖; 谌志新

    2014-01-01

    为降低渔船燃油能耗,减少渔船污染排放,研究了液化天然气渔船( LNG渔船)相关技术。 LNG渔船的核心技术在于双燃料发动机动力装置,围绕双燃料发动机动力装置所需空间的利用和布置是LNG渔船改造的一大难点。双燃料发动机动力装置相关配套设备科学合理的设计也是保证LNG渔船高效航行的重要因素。通过对LNG渔船船体改造、双燃料发动机动力装置改造和LNG燃料存储技术等方面进行分析,认为LNG渔船作为一种新型船舶,能有效地降低渔民燃料成本,改善船员作生活环境。%According to the spirit of our country’ s sustainable development strategy, in order to cut down the fuel consumption of fishing vessels, and to reduce fishing vessels’ pollution, trelevant technologies of LNG fishing vessel. Compared with traditional fishing vessel, there is a lot of innovation and breakthrough in technology for LNG fishing vessels. The core technology of LNG fishing vessel is dual fuel engine power plant. The use and arrangement of the space around dual fuel engine power plant is a big difficulty. The scientific and rational design of power plant’ s corollary equipment is an important factor for LNG fishing vessel’ s efficient navigation. Through analysis on LNG fishing vessel hull transformation, dual⁃fuel engine power plants renovation and LNG fuel storage technology, LNG fishing vessels, as the new type of fishing vessel can reduce fisherman’ s fuel cost and improve crew ’ s living environment. LNG fishing vessels conform to China ’ s sustainable development strategy, and it should be developed actively.

  5. Simulation of LNG Refrigerated Truck's Cold Energy Recovery System%LNG冷藏车冷量回收系统仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张哲; 田津津; 毛力; 孙冰冰

    2012-01-01

    液化天然气(LNG)在气化升温过程中会释放大量的冷量,LNG冷藏车回收并利用该冷量对车厢进行供冷,该冷藏车具有节能和环保的特点.本文介绍了LNG冷藏车的基本原理以及新型冷量回收系统的设计方案,为了研究LNG冷藏车的供冷性能,建立了仿真模型并对冷藏车冷量回收系统进行模拟计算,分析了乙二醇入口温度和流量、LNG流量、风速、系统压力对制冷量、空气出口温度的影响.计算结果显示,乙二醇流量是对系统性能具有重要影响参数之一,通过对结果分析,证明了LNG冷量回收应用于冷藏车制冷的可行性,同时为LNG冷藏车的系统设计提供了参数.研究结论对LNG冷藏车设计具有重要的参考价值.%The vaporization of LNG in the heating process releases a lot of cold energy. The cold energy was used to cool the air temperature in LNG refrigerated trucks which is energy-saving and environmental protection. The basic principles of LNG refrigerated trucks and the design of cold recovery system were described. In order to research the cooling performance of LNG refrigerated trucks, a simulation model was established. The effect of the glycol inlet temperature and flow rate, natural gas flow rate, wind speed and the system pressure on the cooling capacity and air outlet temperature were analyzed. The results show that ethylene glycol flow is an important factor on system performance and LNG cold energy recovery is suitable for the refrigerated truck. The bases for design of LNG refrigerated trucks are provided according to the analysis. The conclusion is of great significance on the design of LNG refrigerated trucks in industry.

  6. The N-terminal hybrid binding domain of RNase HI from Thermotoga maritima is important for substrate binding and Mg2+-dependent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongruja, Nujarin; You, Dong-Ju; Kanaya, Eiko; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2010-11-01

    Thermotoga maritima ribonuclease H (RNase H) I (Tma-RNase HI) contains a hybrid binding domain (HBD) at the N-terminal region. To analyze the role of this HBD, Tma-RNase HI, Tma-W22A with the single mutation at the HBD, the C-terminal RNase H domain (Tma-CD) and the N-terminal domain containing the HBD (Tma-ND) were overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Tma-RNase HI prefers Mg(2+) to Mn(2+) for activity, and specifically loses most of the Mg(2+)-dependent activity on removal of the HBD and 87% of it by the mutation at the HBD. Tma-CD lost the ability to suppress the RNase H deficiency of an E. coli rnhA mutant, indicating that the HBD is responsible for in vivo RNase H activity. The cleavage-site specificities of Tma-RNase HI are not significantly changed on removal of the HBD, regardless of the metal cofactor. Binding analyses of the proteins to the substrate using surface plasmon resonance indicate that the binding affinity of Tma-RNase HI is greatly reduced on removal of the HBD or the mutation. These results indicate that there is a correlation between Mg(2+)-dependent activity and substrate binding affinity. Tma-CD was as stable as Tma-RNase HI, indicating that the HBD is not important for stability. The HBD of Tma-RNase HI is important not only for substrate binding, but also for Mg(2+)-dependent activity, probably because the HBD affects the interaction between the substrate and enzyme at the active site, such that the scissile phosphate group of the substrate and the Mg(2+) ion are arranged ideally.

  7. A Novel Abetalipoproteinemia Missense Mutation Highlights the Importance of N-Terminal β-Barrel in Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Meghan T.; Iqbal, Jahangir; Josekutty, Joby; Soh, James; Di Leo, Enza; Özaydin, Eda; Gündüz, Mehmet; Tarugi, Patrizia; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors is limited to severe hyperlipidemias due to associated hepatosteatosis and gastrointestinal adverse effects. Comprehensive knowledge about the structure-function of MTP might help design new molecules that avoid steatosis. Characterization of mutations in MTP causing abetalipoproteinemia have revealed that the central α-helical and C-terminal β-sheet domains are important for protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) binding and lipid transfer activity. Our aim was to identify and characterize mutations in the N-terminal domain to understand its function. Methods and Results We identified a novel missense mutation (D169V) in a 4-month old Turkish male with severe signs of ABL. To study the effect of this mutation on MTP function, we created mutants via site-directed mutagenesis. Although D169V was expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum and interacted with apoB17, it was unable to bind PDI, transfer lipids, and support apoB secretion. Computational modeling suggested that D169 could form an internal salt bridge with K187 and K189. Mutagenesis of these lysines to leucines abolished PDI heterodimerization, lipid transfer, and apoB secretion, without affecting apoB17 binding. Further, mutants with preserved charges (D169E, K187R, K189R) rescued these activities. Conclusions D169V is detrimental because it disrupts an internal salt bridge leading to loss of PDI binding and lipid transfer activities; however, it does not affect apoB-binding. Thus, the N-terminal domain of MTP is also important for its lipid transfer activity. PMID:26224785

  8. Positioning of cysteine residues within the N-terminal portion of the BST-2/tetherin ectodomain is important for functional dimerization of BST-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourn, Sarah; Kao, Sandra; Du Pont, Kelly E; Andrew, Amy J; Berndsen, Christopher E; Strebel, Klaus

    2015-02-06

    BST-2/tetherin is a cellular host factor capable of restricting the release of a variety of enveloped viruses, including HIV-1. Structurally, BST-2 consists of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, an ectodomain, and a C-terminal membrane anchor. The BST-2 ectodomain encodes three cysteine residues in its N-terminal half, each of which can contribute to the formation of cysteine-linked dimers. We previously reported that any one of the three cysteine residues is sufficient to produce functional BST-2 dimers. Here we investigated the importance of cysteine positioning on the ectodomain for functional dimerization of BST-2. Starting with a cysteine-free monomeric form of BST-2, individual cysteine residues were reintroduced at various locations throughout the ectodomain. The resulting BST-2 variants were tested for expression, dimerization, surface presentation, and inhibition of HIV-1 virus release. We found significant flexibility in the positioning of cysteine residues, although the propensity to form cysteine-linked dimers generally decreased with increasing distance from the N terminus. Interestingly, all BST-2 variants, including the one lacking all three ectodomain cysteines, retained the ability to form non-covalent dimers, and all of the BST-2 variants were efficiently expressed at the cell surface. Importantly, not all BST-2 variants capable of forming cysteine-linked dimers were functional, suggesting that cysteine-linked dimerization of BST-2 is necessary but not sufficient for inhibiting virus release. Our results expose new structural constraints governing the functional dimerization of BST-2, a property essential to its role as a restriction factor tethering viruses to the host cell.

  9. Evaluation of Liquid Dynamic Loads in Slack LNG Cargo Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Absirect This report provides an evaluacion of dynimi,c sloshing loads in slack LNG cargo tanks. A comprehensive review of vcrid4ide scale model sloshing...Cycles at Transducer Location 1 for a 25% Full Tank .......................................... 69 IV-7 Integrated Nondimensional Pressure Values for...Location 14 for a 75% Full Tank ......................................................... 70 IV 12 Integrated Nondimensional Pressure Values for 200

  10. Fire performance of LNG carriers insulated with polystyrene foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Jerry; Venart, James

    2008-10-30

    Analysis of the response of a liquid-full Moss Sphere LNG tank insulated with polystyrene foam to an engulfing LNG fire indicates that current regulatory requirements for pressure relief capacity sufficient to prevent tank rupture are inadequate. The inadequacy of the current requirements stems primarily from two factors. Firstly, the area of the Moss Sphere protruding above what would be the nominal deck on a conventional carrier, which is protected only by a steel weather cover from exposure to heat from a tank-engulfing fire, is being underestimated. Secondly, aluminum foil-covered polystyrene foam insulation applied to the exterior of the LNG tank is protected above the deck only by the steel weather cover under which the insulation could begin to melt in as little as 1-3 min, and could completely liquefy in as few as 10 min. U.S. and International Regulations require that the insulations on the above-deck portion of tanks have approved fire proofing and stability under fire exposure. Polystyrene foam, as currently installed on LNG carriers, does not appear to meet these criteria. As a result of these findings, but giving no consideration to the significant potential for further damage if the polystyrene should burn, the boil-off rate is predicted to be an order-of-magnitude higher than provided for by current PRV sizing requirements.

  11. Petronas Seeks Opportunities for LNG Business in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Petronas, Malaysia's national oil and gas company, is in discussions with China's State-owned oil and gas finns for potential liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply contract opportunities, according to Datuk Abdul Rahim Hj Hashim, vice president of Petronas' gas business, who said Petronas is in "early" negotiations with CNOOC, Sinopec and PetroChina as well as coastal provincial governments.

  12. The impact of emergency release in LNG transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Webber, T.; Putte, L.J. van der; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Remans, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of experimental work and simulations of pressure surges resulting from fast closing valves and activation of an emergency release coupling (ERC) in ship-to-ship LNG transfer. The first part presents the results of an ambient water flow test with a fast closing 4-inch

  13. Report of study group 3.3 ''LNG and LPG peak shaving and satellite plants''; Rapport du groupe d'etude 3.3 ''usines d'ecretement de pointes et stations satellites GNL et GPL''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein Nagelvoort, R.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents a world-wide overview of LNG and LPG Peak Shaving and Satellite Plants, compiled by the study group 3.3 of the International Gas Union. The scope of the work of the study group includes: - LPG peak shavers (LPG + air, N{sub 2}) in gas distribution networks; - LPG peak shavers for start-up and back-up fuel for LNG terminals and power stations; - LNG peak shavers for gas distribution networks; - Small-scale liquefaction plants for distribution to satellites and dedicated consumers (e.g. power generators, chemical plants, trucking companies etc.); - LNG peak shavers as back-up for large consumers; - Alternative liquefaction technologies for LNG and LPG (e.g. refrigeration cycles, supersonic expansion, thermo-acoustic designs); - Alternative storage tank designs for LNG and LPG. The report presents an overview of current installations world-wide and considers the prospects of technological developments with respect to equipment, remote operations and safety constraints. It also includes where possible a review of capital and operating costs, regulations, and an identification of opportunities and trends. The report collates the information available to the study group at the time of the writing, which may explain some heterogeneity in the document. (author)

  14. Environmental and Economic aspects of using LNG as a fuel for shipping in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Kadijk, G.; Van Mensch, P.; Wulffers, C.; Van den Beemt, B.; Fraga, F.

    2011-03-15

    A study was conducted to investigate the environmental aspects, and to a lesser extent economic aspects, of using LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) as a fuel for different types of ships. The study was supported by the Dutch Maritime Innovation Programme (MIP) and 12 industrial stakeholders. The investigation was carried out as a case study for three different types of ships which have their base in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The three evaluated cases are: (1) a short sea ship: an 800 TEU container feeder; (2) a port ship: an 80 ton harbour tug; (3) a 110 x 11.5 m inland ship. The environmental aspects include greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions. The GHG emission comparison included three LNG chains and three diesel fuel chains (HFO (Heavy Fuel Oil), MDO/MGO (Marine Diesel Oil / Marine Gas Oil) and EN590 (automotive diesel fuel type)). In addition a limited economic analysis was done, comparing the potential fuel cost savings of LNG with the additional costs of LNG powered vessels. The LNG chains considered are: LNG from Peakshaver Rotterdam: Pipeline gas from the North Sea; LNG supplied by LNG carrier from the Middle East (Qatar); LNG from Peakshaver Rotterdam: Pipeline gas from Russia (7000 km). The last chain is not a realistic option for direct LNG supply to Rotterdam and is merely added for reference.

  15. A study of the anticipated impacts on Canada from the development of liquefied natural gas terminals on Passamaquoddy Bay : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    This study provided a qualitative assessment of the potential impacts and risks associated with the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals on the United States side of Pasamaquoddy Bay. The report included an assessment of environmental impacts, marine and navigational safety impacts, and socio-economic impacts as a result of the terminal. The report also investigated the potential impacts on coastal ecosystems and wetlands, as well as potential impacts on land-based flora and fauna. Impacts from marine traffic through Canadian waters were considered. Three worst-case risk scenarios were used as the basis for determining potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Potential effects and policy considerations associated with the construction of LNG terminals in the region were discussed. The study considered 3 project areas: the Quoddy Bay LNG project; the Downeast LNG project; and the Calais LNG project. The consequences of vapour clouds and pool fires were considered, as well as the overall hazards associated with a large LNG spill. Evaluation scenarios were considered for leaks and minor releases. Transportation and navigational issues included ship specifications, traffic movements and route analyses. Issues related to whales and hatcheries were considered. Emergency preparedness and response plans were included. An assessment of cumulative risks in the region was also provided. 182 refs., 65 tabs., 23 figs.

  16. Theoretical and experimental validation study on automotive air-conditioning based on heat pipe and LNG cold energy for LNG-fueled heavy vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Cheng, Jiang-ping; Zhang, Sheng-chang; Ge, Fang-gen

    2017-08-01

    As a clean fuel, LNG has been used in heavy vehicles widely in China. Before reaching the engine for combustion, LNG store in a high vacuum multi-layer thermal insulation tank and need to be evaporated from its cryogenic state to natural gas. During the evaporation, the available cold energy of LNG has been calculated. The concept has been proposed that the separated type heat pipe technology is employed to utilize the available cold energy for automotive air-conditioning. The experiment has been conducted to validate the proposal. It is found that it is feasible to use the separated type heat pipe to convey the cold energy from LNG to automotive air-conditioning. And the cooling capacity of the automotive air-conditioning increase with the LNG consumption and air flow rate increasing.

  17. Theoretical and experimental validation study on automotive air-conditioning based on heat pipe and LNG cold energy for LNG-fueled heavy vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Cheng, Jiang-ping; Zhang, Sheng-chang; Ge, Fang-gen

    2017-03-01

    As a clean fuel, LNG has been used in heavy vehicles widely in China. Before reaching the engine for combustion, LNG store in a high vacuum multi-layer thermal insulation tank and need to be evaporated from its cryogenic state to natural gas. During the evaporation, the available cold energy of LNG has been calculated. The concept has been proposed that the separated type heat pipe technology is employed to utilize the available cold energy for automotive air-conditioning. The experiment has been conducted to validate the proposal. It is found that it is feasible to use the separated type heat pipe to convey the cold energy from LNG to automotive air-conditioning. And the cooling capacity of the automotive air-conditioning increase with the LNG consumption and air flow rate increasing.

  18. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  19. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  20. Thermodynamic aspects of an LNG tank in fire and experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulsbosch-Dam Corina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behaviour of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG tank and the thermodynamic behaviour of its containment under extreme heat load – for instance when subjected to external fire source as might occur during an accident - are extremely important when addressing safety concerns. In a scenario where external fire is present and consequent release of LNG from pressure relief valves (PRV has occurred, escalation of the fire might occur causing difficulty for the fire response teams to approach the tank or to secure the perimeter. If the duration of the tank exposure to fire is known, the PRV opening time can be estimated based on the thermodynamic calculations. In this paper, such an accidental scenario is considered, relevant thermodynamic equations are derived and presented. Moreover, an experiment is performed with liquid nitrogen and the results are compared to the analytical ones. The analytical results match very well with the experimental observations. The resulting analytical models are suitable to be applied to other cryogenic liquids.

  1. HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTION BETWEEN FLNG VESSEL AND LNG CARRIER IN SIDE BY SIDE CONFIGURATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-hua; YANG Jian-min; HU Zhi-qiang

    2012-01-01

    The Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) is a new type of floating platform for the exploitation of stranded offshore oil/gas fields.The side by side configuration for the FLNG vessel and the LNG carrier arranged in parallel is one of the possible choices for the LNG offloading.During the offioading operations,the multiple floating bodies would have very complex responses due to their hydrodynamic interactions.In this study,numerical simulations of multiple floating bodies in close proximity in the side by side offioading configuration are carried out with the time domain coupled analysis code SIMO.Hydrodynamic interactions between the floating bodies and the mechanical coupling effects between the floating bodies and their connection systems are included in the coupled analysis model.To clarify the hydrodynamic effects of the two vessels,numerical simulations under the same environmental condition are also conducted without considering the hydrodynamic interactions,for comparison.It is shown that the hydrodynamic interactions play an important role in the low frequency motion responses of the two vessels,but have little effect on the wave frequency motion responses.In addition,the comparison results also show that the hydrodynamic interactions can affect the loads on the connection systems.

  2. LNG加气机技术浅析%Technical analysis of LNG filling machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐; 王涛

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly describes the application status of LNG filling machine,briefly introduces LNG filling machine process and its structure,then analyzes the types,advantages and disadvantages of LNG flow meter,and finally gives some advices of selecting LNG filling machine.%介绍了LNG加气机使用现状,简述了LNG加气机工艺流程及结构,分析了LNG流量计的类型及优缺点,对LNG加气机的选用提出了建议。

  3. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  4. A novel COL4A1 frameshift mutation in familial kidney disease: the importance of the C-terminal NC1 domain of type IV collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Daniel P.; Oygar, D. Deren; Lin, Fujun; Oygar, P. Derin; Khan, Nadia; Connor, Thomas M.F.; Lapsley, Marta; Maxwell, Patrick H.; Neild, Guy H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hereditary microscopic haematuria often segregates with mutations of COL4A3, COL4A4 or COL4A5 but in half of families a gene is not identified. We investigated a Cypriot family with autosomal dominant microscopic haematuria with renal failure and kidney cysts. Methods We used genome-wide linkage analysis, whole exome sequencing and cosegregation analyses. Results We identified a novel frameshift mutation, c.4611_4612insG:p.T1537fs, in exon 49 of COL4A1. This mutation predicts truncation of the protein with disruption of the C-terminal part of the NC1 domain. We confirmed its presence in 20 family members, 17 with confirmed haematuria, 5 of whom also had stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease. Eleven family members exhibited kidney cysts (55% of those with the mutation), but muscle cramps or cerebral aneurysms were not observed and serum creatine kinase was normal in all individuals tested. Conclusions Missense mutations of COL4A1 that encode the CB3 [IV] segment of the triple helical domain (exons 24 and 25) are associated with HANAC syndrome (hereditary angiopathy, nephropathy, aneurysms and cramps). Missense mutations of COL4A1 that disrupt the NC1 domain are associated with antenatal cerebral haemorrhage and porencephaly, but not kidney disease. Our findings extend the spectrum of COL4A1 mutations linked with renal disease and demonstrate that the highly conserved C-terminal part of the NC1 domain of the α1 chain of type IV collagen is important in the integrity of glomerular basement membrane in humans. PMID:27190376

  5. Domain swapping reveals that the N-terminal domain of the sensor kinase KdpD in Escherichia coli is important for signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert Marie-Luise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The KdpD/KdpE two-component system of Escherichia coli regulates expression of the kdpFABC operon encoding the high affinity K+ transport system KdpFABC. The input domain of KdpD comprises a domain that belongs to the family of universal stress proteins (Usp. It has been previously demonstrated that UspC binds to this domain, resulting in KdpD/KdpE scaffolding under salt stress. However the mechanistic significance of this domain for signaling remains unclear. Here, we employed a "domain swapping" approach to replace the KdpD-Usp domain with four homologous domains or with the six soluble Usp proteins of E. coli. Results Full response to salt stress was only achieved with a chimera that contains UspC, probably due to unaffected scaffolding of the KdpD/KdpE signaling cascade by soluble UspC. Unexpectedly, chimeras containing either UspF or UspG not only prevented kdpFABC expression under salt stress but also under K+ limiting conditions, although these hybrid proteins exhibited kinase and phosphotransferase activities in vitro. These are the first KdpD derivatives that do not respond to K+ limitation due to alterations in the N-terminal domain. Analysis of the KdpD-Usp tertiary structure revealed that this domain has a net positively charged surface, while UspF and UspG are characterized by net negative surface charges. Conclusion The Usp domain within KdpD not only functions as a binding surface for the scaffold UspC, but it is also important for KdpD signaling. We propose that KdpD sensing/signaling involves alterations of electrostatic interactions between the large N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains.

  6. Immediate versus delayed initiation of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system following medical termination of pregnancy - 1 year continuation rates: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, R; Mentula, M; Heikinheimo, O

    2017-06-26

    To assess the 1-year continuation rates and new pregnancies following immediate versus delayed insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) after medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) up to 20 weeks of gestation. A randomised controlled trial. Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 267 women requesting MTOP and planning LNG-IUS for post-MTOP contraception. Insertion of LNG-IUS occurred immediately (0-3 days) or after a delay (2-4 weeks) following MTOP. Follow-up visits were at 3 months and 1 year after MTOP. LNG-IUS use at 1 year after MTOP. Women were randomised to immediate (n = 134) or delayed (n = 133) insertion of the LNG-IUS, and 133 and 131 were analysed; 127 (95.5%) women received immediate insertion and 111 (84.7%) women had delayed insertion of the LNG-IUS (risk ratio [RR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). The verified numbers of women continuing the LNG-IUS use at 1 year were 83 (62.4%) and 52 (39.7%) (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.23-2.02). The numbers of new pregnancies were 6 (4.5%) and 16 (12.2%) (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and numbers of subsequent TOPs were 4 (3.0%) and 5 (3.8%) (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.22-2.87). Immediate insertion of the LNG-IUS following MTOP resulted in higher 1-year continuation rates compared with delayed insertion. In addition, those receiving immediate insertion demonstrated a decreased new pregnancy rate, but no difference in the numbers of another TOP. Immediate LNG-IUS insertion after MTOP results in a higher 1-year continuation compared with delayed insertion. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  8. 大型LNG储罐防火间距分析%Analysis on separation distance of large LNG tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓; 赵东风; 孟亦飞

    2013-01-01

    国内LNG接收站产业发展日益壮大,LNG储罐的规模也随之呈现大型化的趋势,其带来对周边储罐的安全问题成为关注的焦点.针对大型LNG储罐防火间距的分析,依据国际广泛接受的美国NFPA 59A-2009和欧洲EN1473-2007标准,分别采用事故后果模拟手段和危险性评估方法确定储罐防火间距,事故场景分别考虑了罐顶池火灾和卸料管线发生直径50mm孔洞泄漏火灾.在此基础之上,对事故后果模拟得到的结果进行分析,明确储罐防火间距,从而为企业对LNG储罐区进行布局设计提供参考指导.%With the growing of domestic LNG receiving terminal industry,the size of LNG storage tank also presents large-scale trend,it causes the safety problem to surrounding tanks and becomes focus of attention.Aimed at separation distance analysis of large LNG tank,the accident consequence simulation method and risk assessment method were adopted to determine container spacing according to the international widely accepted American NFPA 59A-2009 and European EN1473-2007 standards,accident scenario were considered tank roof pool fire and leakage fire by failure of 50mm diameter hole on unloading line.On this basis,the accident consequence simulation results were analyzed,and container spacing was determined,so as to provide guidance for enterprise on the layout design of LNG tank farm.

  9. 78 FR 62344 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on... LNG, L.P. (collectively referred to as Sabine Pass) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory..., construct, and operate additional liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facilities at the Sabine Pass...

  10. 77 FR 59603 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Oregon LNG Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Proposed Oregon LNG Export Project and Washington Expansion Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meetings ] LNG Development Company, LLC Docket No. PF12-18-000 and... facilities proposed by LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company (collectively referred to...

  11. 78 FR 47691 - UGI, Inc.; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Temple LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Proposed Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff of the...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade involving construction and operation of facilities by UGI, Inc. (UGI) at its Temple liquefied natural gas (LNG)...

  12. 75 FR 57269 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and... environmental impacts of the LNG Truck Loading Project involving construction and operation of facilities...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their...

  14. 77 FR 66454 - Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC (GLLC), requesting long-term, multi... liquefied natural gas (LNG), the equivalent of approximately 547.5 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural...

  15. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LNG...) filed on July 16, 2012, by LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b/a Oregon LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 9.6 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas...

  16. 76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-31518] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 11-128-LNG] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP..., by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting long- term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 7.82 million metric tons per year of domestically produced liquefied natural gas...

  17. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Magnolia Liquefied Natural Gas Project (Magnolia LNG Project) involving construction and operation of facilities by Magnolia LNG, LLC (Magnolia) in...

  18. 77 FR 59601 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental... and operation of facilities by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Dominion) in Maryland and Virginia. This... 717b, DOE would authorize the export of natural gas, including liquefied natural gas (LNG),...

  19. 75 FR 61475 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Cameron LNG Export Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues September... environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Cameron LNG Export Project...

  20. 77 FR 65546 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To... Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite... and operate certain related facilities (Modification Project) at the existing Sabine Pass LNG...

  1. HEPATIC ENDOCYTOSIS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF MANNOSE-TERMINATED ALBUMINS - WHAT IS IMPORTANT, SUGAR RECOGNITION, NET CHARGE, OR THE COMBINATION OF THESE FEATURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RW; MOLEMA, G; CHING, TL; HARMS, G; MOOLENAAR, F; HARDONK, MJ; MEIJER, DKF

    1991-01-01

    We synthesized several para-aminophenyl (pap-) mannose-terminated albumins with varying sugar density (Man7-HSA, Man22-HSA, and Man40-HSA) and compared hepatic uptake with (thio-)mannose-terminated bovine serum albumin (Man-43-AI-BSA) The rate of uptake in isolated perfused rat livers was found to b

  2. File list: InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: His.Lng.05.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. Full scale ambient water flow tests of a 10-inch emergency release coupling for LNG transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, L.J. van der; Webber, T.; Bokhorst, E. van; Revell, C.

    2016-01-01

    For LNG transfer in ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore configurations emergency release couplings (F.RC) in combination with loading arms and multi-composite hoses are applied In view of a demand for increasing transfer flow rates in offshore LNG applications a 10-inch ERC has been developed intended fo

  8. File list: ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_tumors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_tumors mm9 All antigens Lung Lung tumors SRX1528655,SRX695777...,SRX695775,SRX1528654,SRX695776,SRX1528656,SRX1528657,SRX1528659,SRX1528660,SRX1528661 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_tumors.bed ...

  9. 76 FR 40723 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference On May 27, 2011, pursuant to section 4 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Cove Point) filed...

  10. 77 FR 66830 - LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Extension of Comment Period for the Oregon LNG Export and Washington Expansion Projects This notice announces the extension of the public scoping process and comment period for the Oregon...

  11. 76 FR 78188 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... natural gas (LNG) or liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) marine traffic. It also proposes a separate process for... the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas...

  12. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_tumors [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Unc.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells hg19 Unclassified Lung Tracheal epitheli...al cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells hg19 TFs and others Lung Tracheal epithe...lial cells SRX268452,SRX268450,SRX268451 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Lng.10.SNAPC2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.10.SNAPC2.AllCell hg19 TFs and others SNAPC2 Lung SRX150106,SRX150107,SRX01...6559 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.10.SNAPC2.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Lng.05.SNAPC2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.05.SNAPC2.AllCell hg19 TFs and others SNAPC2 Lung SRX150106,SRX016559,SRX15...0107 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.05.SNAPC2.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Lng.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Lung h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Lng.50.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.50.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Lung h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.50.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Lng.05.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.05.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Lung h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.05.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 TFs and others Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SR...X213835,SRX213836,SRX213840,SRX213843,SRX213844,SRX213839 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 All antigens Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SRX2...RX213862 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 All antigens Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SRX2...RX213848 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 No description Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 No description Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Histone Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SRX213850...63,SRX213852,SRX213862,SRX213857,SRX213848 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 TFs and others Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SR...X213835,SRX213840,SRX213836,SRX213843,SRX213839,SRX213844 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 No description Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Histone Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SRX213854...58,SRX213853,SRX213863,SRX213849,SRX213862 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 TFs and others Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SR...X213843,SRX213839,SRX213835,SRX213836,SRX213840,SRX213844 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 All antigens Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SRX2...RX213848 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Histone Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SRX213854...47,SRX213852,SRX213857,SRX213862,SRX213848 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 TFs and others Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SR...X213835,SRX213840,SRX213836,SRX213839,SRX213843,SRX213844 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  1. File list: NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 No description Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Histone Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SRX213850...57,SRX213852,SRX213848,SRX213849,SRX213863 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  3. Fire suppression system of a small-scale LNG loading facility at PT Badak NGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustiarza, Farhan Hilmyawan

    2017-03-01

    LNG progressively become favorable energy to replace oil-based fuel due to lower cost and more environment-friendly. In order to support an emerging LNG demands in Kalimantan, PT Badak NGL, one of the leading LNG Company in the world, develops the land-transported LNG loading facility. This facility performs loading the LNG into a small-scale tank (ISO Tank) with 20 m3 capacities. Safety reviews over this facility were conducted. Based on these reviews, the LNG filling station requires supplemental safeguards, such as LNG spill containment and firefighting foam system besides firewater system and dry chemical system. The spill containment provides holding LNG spill within the limits of plant property, while the high expansion foam system deals to minimize the vaporization rate to prevent a fire incident. This paper mainly discusses designing of such supplemental safeguards. The requirement of the spill containment is 20 m3 (6.3 × 3.3 × 2.0) m and the foam system should be capable generating foam at least 40 m3/min.

  4. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Lung SRX0...62976,SRX143816,SRX020252 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...74812,SRX016558,SRX734236,SRX038682,SRX497257,SRX497258 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: NoD.Lng.10.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.10.NA.AllCell hg19 No description NA Lung SRX134733,ERX593132,SRX031381,SRX...81228,SRX136963,SRX017509,SRX012498,SRX017527,SRX017508,SRX710532,SRX056805 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Lng.10.NA.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Lng.50.TP53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.50.TP53.AllCell hg19 TFs and others TP53 Lung SRX208484,SRX208485,SRX208486...,SRX620747,SRX620746,SRX093319 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.50.TP53.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Lng.05.TP53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.05.TP53.AllCell hg19 TFs and others TP53 Lung SRX208485,SRX208484,SRX208486...,SRX620747,SRX620746,SRX093319 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.05.TP53.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Lng.10.TP53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.10.TP53.AllCell hg19 TFs and others TP53 Lung SRX208485,SRX208484,SRX208486...,SRX620747,SRX620746,SRX093319 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.10.TP53.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Lng.20.TP53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.20.TP53.AllCell hg19 TFs and others TP53 Lung SRX208484,SRX208485,SRX208486...,SRX620747,SRX620746,SRX093319 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.20.TP53.AllCell.bed ...

  11. An investment appraisal method to compare LNG-fueled and conventional vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Jan Eise; Buijs, Paul; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ever stricter emission regulations stimulate vessel owners to consider the adoption of alternative marine fuels, such as Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). In deciding whether to invest in LNG-fueled vessels, initial investment and operating costs are decisive factors that have not yet been fully studied

  12. File list: His.Lng.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Lung h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Lng.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell hg19 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Lung ...SRX099890 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Lng.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.HCC95 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.HCC95 hg19 All antigens Lung HCC95 SRX957904,SRX277136,SRX277138,S...RX277137 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.HCC95.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.HCC95 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.HCC95 hg19 All antigens Lung HCC95 SRX277138,SRX957904,SRX277137,S...RX277136 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.HCC95.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.HCC95 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.HCC95 hg19 All antigens Lung HCC95 SRX277138,SRX957904,SRX277136,S...RX277137 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.HCC95.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung hg19 No description Lung Lung SRX134733,SRX142123,SRX134749,S...RX263911,SRX347275,SRX190760,SRX342270,SRX157632,SRX136963,SRX213915,SRX213921 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung mm9 Histone Lung Lung SRX085435,SRX062974,SRX112926,SRX535031...,SRX535029,SRX535032,SRX535030,SRX085436,SRX062973 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung mm9 All antigens Lung Lung SRX062972,SRX143814,SRX062976,SRX1...X020252,SRX535031,SRX535029,SRX062975,SRX535032,SRX535030,SRX085436,SRX062973 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung mm9 TFs and others Lung Lung SRX062972,SRX143814,SRX529265,SR...X062975 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung mm9 TFs and others Lung Lung SRX062972,SRX143814,SRX529265,SR...X062975 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung mm9 Histone Lung Lung SRX062974,SRX085435,SRX112926,SRX062973...,SRX085436,SRX535032,SRX535031,SRX535029,SRX535030 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung hg19 No description Lung Lung SRX347275,SRX190760,SRX134733,S...RX213921,SRX142123,SRX134749,SRX157632,SRX213915,SRX263911,SRX342270,SRX136963 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung hg19 No description Lung Lung SRX134733,SRX142123,SRX134749,S...RX347275,SRX190760,SRX157632,SRX213921,SRX263911,SRX342270,SRX213915,SRX136963 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung mm9 TFs and others Lung Lung SRX062972,SRX143814,SRX529265,SR...X062975 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_tumors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_tumors mm9 Input control Lung Lung tumors SRX1528654,SRX69577...5 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_tumors.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung hg19 All antigens Lung Lung SRX134733,SRX142123,SRX134749,SRX...RX188957 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung mm9 Histone Lung Lung SRX085435,SRX062974,SRX112926,SRX535031...,SRX535029,SRX535032,SRX535030,SRX085436,SRX062973 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung mm9 All antigens Lung Lung SRX188644,SRX062972,SRX143814,SRX0...X062977,SRX085458,SRX535031,SRX535029,SRX535032,SRX535030,SRX085436,SRX062973 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung mm9 All antigens Lung Lung SRX188644,SRX085435,SRX062974,SRX1...X062977,SRX143831,SRX085458,SRX535032,SRX529266,SRX535031,SRX535029,SRX535030 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung hg19 All antigens Lung Lung SRX347275,SRX190760,SRX134733,SRX...RX136963 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung mm9 TFs and others Lung Lung SRX062972,SRX143814,SRX529265,SR...X062975 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung hg19 All antigens Lung Lung SRX134733,SRX142123,SRX134749,SRX...RX136963 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung mm9 All antigens Lung Lung SRX062974,SRX085435,SRX188644,SRX1...X535032,SRX535031,SRX143831,SRX062977,SRX529266,SRX085458,SRX535029,SRX535030 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung mm9 Histone Lung Lung SRX085435,SRX062974,SRX112926,SRX062973...,SRX085436,SRX535032,SRX535031,SRX535029,SRX535030 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  16. File list: NoD.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung hg19 No description Lung Lung SRX134733,SRX142123,SRX134749,S...RX347275,SRX190760,SRX263911,SRX136963,SRX157632,SRX213915,SRX213921,SRX342270 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_tumors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_tumors mm9 Input control Lung Lung tumors SRX695775,SRX152865...4 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_tumors.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_tumors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_tumors mm9 All antigens Lung Lung tumors SRX695777,SRX695776,...SRX1528656,SRX1528655,SRX1528654,SRX695775,SRX1528660,SRX1528659,SRX1528657,SRX1528661 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_tumors.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung hg19 All antigens Lung Lung SRX134733,SRX142123,SRX134749,SRX...RX188957 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Lng.10.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase III Lung ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Lung S...RX016555,SRX150101,SRX150102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Lung SRX... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Lung SRX... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Lng.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Lung SRX... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.SAEC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.SAEC hg19 All antigens Lung SAEC SRX190009,SRX111765,SRX189983,SRX...069210,SRX069201,SRX189982,SRX080345,SRX190097,SRX080347,SRX080442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.SAEC.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.SAEC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.SAEC hg19 All antigens Lung SAEC SRX111765,SRX069201,SRX080347,SRX...080442,SRX189982,SRX069210,SRX080345,SRX190097,SRX189983,SRX190009 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.SAEC.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.SAEC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.SAEC hg19 All antigens Lung SAEC SRX111765,SRX069210,SRX190009,SRX...069201,SRX080345,SRX080347,SRX080442,SRX189982,SRX190097,SRX189983 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.SAEC.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.SAEC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.SAEC hg19 All antigens Lung SAEC SRX111765,SRX080347,SRX080442,SRX...189982,SRX069201,SRX069210,SRX080345,SRX190097,SRX190009,SRX189983 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.SAEC.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Lng.20.DNase-Seq.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.20.DNase-Seq.AllCell hg19 DNase-seq DNase-Seq Lung SRX040403,SRX100964,SRX1...30,SRX374729,SRX189416,SRX100904 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Lng.20.DNase-Seq.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Lng.05.YAP1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.05.YAP1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others YAP1 Lung SRX757326,SRX1038945,SRX75732...5,SRX1038944,SRX1004562 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.05.YAP1.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Lng.20.YAP1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.20.YAP1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others YAP1 Lung SRX757326,SRX757325,SRX103894...5,SRX1038944,SRX1004562 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.20.YAP1.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Lng.10.YAP1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.10.YAP1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others YAP1 Lung SRX757326,SRX757325,SRX103894...5,SRX1038944,SRX1004562 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.10.YAP1.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Lng.50.YAP1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.50.YAP1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others YAP1 Lung SRX757326,SRX757325,SRX103894...5,SRX1038944,SRX1004562 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.50.YAP1.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.Lng.05.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.05.NA.AllCell hg19 No description NA Lung SRX347275,SRX190760,SRX134733,SRX...52461,SRX017511,SRX017509,SRX017526,ERX552460,SRX056805,SRX017508,SRX710532 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Lng.05.NA.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Calu-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Calu-3 hg19 All antigens Lung Calu-3 SRX761561,SRX761564,SRX761562...,SRX761563,SRX761566,SRX761565 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Calu-3.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Calu-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Calu-3 hg19 All antigens Lung Calu-3 SRX761566,SRX761561,SRX761564...,SRX761562,SRX761563,SRX761565 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Calu-3.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Calu-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Calu-3 hg19 All antigens Lung Calu-3 SRX761564,SRX761561,SRX761562...,SRX761566,SRX761565,SRX761563 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Calu-3.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Calu-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Calu-3 hg19 All antigens Lung Calu-3 SRX761566,SRX761564,SRX761562...,SRX761561,SRX761565,SRX761563 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.50.AllAg.Calu-3.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_tumors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_tumors mm9 Unclassified Lung Lung tumors SRX1528655,SRX152865...6,SRX1528657,SRX1528659,SRX1528660,SRX1528661 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_tumors.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_tumors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_tumors mm9 Unclassified Lung Lung tumors SRX1528656,SRX152865...5,SRX1528660,SRX1528659,SRX1528657,SRX1528661 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_tumors.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_tumors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_tumors mm9 Input control Lung Lung tumors SRX1528654,SRX69577...5 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_tumors.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Lng.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine crotonylation Lu...ng http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Lng.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Lung SRX0...62976,SRX143816,SRX020252 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Lng.10.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Lung SRX1...43816,SRX062976,SRX020252 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase III Lung ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Lng.20.Epitope_tags.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.20.Epitope_tags.AllCell hg19 TFs and others Epitope tags Lung SRX119639,SRX...119641,SRX119640,SRX119642,SRX119638,SRX119637 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.20.Epitope_tags.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Lng.05.H3.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.05.H3.AllCell hg19 Histone H3 Lung SRX130252,SRX130256,SRX275798,SRX620735,...SRX275799,SRX620734,SRX275793,SRX205105,SRX275792,SRX205104 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Lng.05.H3.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Lung S...RX016555,SRX150101,SRX150102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Unclassified Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 TFs and others Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Unclassified Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Unclassified Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Histone Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung SRX10...91778,SRX1091782,SRX1091785,SRX1091784,SRX1091781,SRX1091783,SRX1091780,SRX1091779 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 DNase-seq Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Histone Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung SRX10...91778,SRX1091782,SRX1091783,SRX1091779,SRX1091781,SRX1091784,SRX1091785,SRX1091780 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 TFs and others Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 DNase-seq Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  1. File list: His.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Histone Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung SRX10...91778,SRX1091782,SRX1091783,SRX1091781,SRX1091784,SRX1091779,SRX1091785,SRX1091780 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 TFs and others Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Unclassified Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 DNase-seq Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Histone Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung SRX10...91778,SRX1091782,SRX1091784,SRX1091780,SRX1091781,SRX1091785,SRX1091779,SRX1091783 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 TFs and others Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Lng.20.HIRA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.20.HIRA.AllCell hg19 TFs and others HIRA Lung SRX502812,SRX502810,SRX502808...,SRX502814 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.20.HIRA.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Lng.10.HIRA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.10.HIRA.AllCell hg19 TFs and others HIRA Lung SRX502812,SRX502814,SRX502810...,SRX502808 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.10.HIRA.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Lng.50.HIRA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.50.HIRA.AllCell hg19 TFs and others HIRA Lung SRX502812,SRX502810,SRX502808...,SRX502814 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.50.HIRA.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Lng.05.HIRA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.05.HIRA.AllCell hg19 TFs and others HIRA Lung SRX502812,SRX502814,SRX502810...,SRX502808 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.05.HIRA.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells hg19 Unclassified Lung Tracheal epitheli...al cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Lung Tracheal epithe...lial cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells hg19 TFs and others Lung Tracheal epithe...lial cells SRX268452,SRX268450,SRX268451 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Lng.10.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Lung Tracheal epithe...lial cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Lung Tracheal epithe...lial cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Lng.50.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: His.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: DNS.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Lng.20.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: His.Lng.05.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Oth.Lng.50.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Lng.10.AllAg.Tracheal_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: NoD.Lng.20.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Lng.10.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: NoD.Lng.50.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: DNS.Lng.05.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Fetal_lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: NoD.Lng.20.AllAg.Pleural_Effusion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: NoD.Lng.50.AllAg.Pleural_Effusion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: ALL.Lng.20.AllAg.Pleural_Effusion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. GTL or LNG: Which is the best way to monetize "stranded" natural gas?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Lichun; Wei Shun'an; Tan Shiyu; Zhang Hongjing

    2008-01-01

    A large portion of world's natural gas reserves are "stranded" resources, the drive to monetize these resources leads to the development of gas-to-liquids (GTL) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) technologies. LNG has the advantage of having been developed for the past 40 years and having an excellent safety record. GTL on the other hand is another option with substantial benefits, but its development stage and commercial viability are far behind LNG. This paper presents a techno-economic comparison of GTL with LNG, including technical development, plant efficiency, market potential for the products, and capital cost for the infrastructure. The aim is to give an overall view on both LNG and GTL and provide a perspective on the profitability of these two technologies.

  10. Potent inhibition of angiotensin AT1 receptor signaling by RGS8: importance of the C-terminal third exon part of its RGS domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Nishiyama, Mariko; Kimura, Sadao

    2016-10-01

    R4/B subfamily RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) proteins play roles in regulation of many GPCR-mediated responses. Multiple RGS proteins are usually expressed in a cell, and it is difficult to point out which RGS protein species are functionally important in the cell. To evaluate intrinsic potency of these RGS proteins, we compared inhibitory effects of RGS1, RGS2, RGS3, RGS4, RGS5, RGS8 and RGS16 on AT1 receptor signaling. Intracellular Ca(2+) responses to angiotensin II were markedly attenuated by transiently expressed RGS2, RGS3 and RGS8, compared to weak inhibition by RGS1, RGS4, RGS5 and RGS16. N-terminally deleted RGS2 (RGS2 domain) lost this potent inhibitory effect, whereas RGS domains of RGS3 and RGS8 showed strong inhibition similar to those of the full-length proteins. To investigate key determinants that specify the differences in potency, we constructed chimeric domains by replacing one or two of three exon parts of RGS8 domain with the corresponding part of RGS5. The chimeric RGS8 domains containing the first or the second exon part of RGS5 showed strong inhibitory effects similar to that of wild type RGS8, but the chimeric domain with the third exon part of RGS5 lost its activity. On the contrary, replacement of the third exon part of RGS5 with the corresponding residues of RGS8 increased the inhibitory effect. The role of the third exon part of RGS8 domain was further confirmed with the chimeric RGS8/RGS4 domains. These results indicate the potent inhibitory activity of RGS8 among R4/B subfamily proteins and importance of the third exon.

  11. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese Dallbauman

    2004-06-30

    During this reporting period, kickoff and planning meetings were held. Subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were defined. Efforts to address the numerical stability problems that hamper FEM3A's applicability to low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions were initiated. A detailed review of FEM3A code and its execution, required for development of an accessible user interface, was also begun. A one-day workshop on LNG safety models has been scheduled for September 2004. The goals of this project are to develop a national focal point for LNG safety research and technical dissemination and to develop the FEM3A dispersion model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacle and terrain features of realistic complexity. During this reporting period, the objectives and scope of the project and its constituent tasks were discussed at a project kickoff meeting in Morgantown. Details of the subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were further defined at a separate meeting at the University of Arkansas. Researchers at the university have begun to modify the turbulence closure model used in FEM3A to insure numerical stability during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable atmospheric conditions. The university's wind tunnel is being prepared for upcoming experimental studies. GTI has begun a detailed review of the FEM3A code and its execution that will provide guidance during development of an accessible user interface. Plans were made for a one day workshop on LNG safety models that will be held at the end of September and will provide an introduction to currently available and pending software tools.

  12. Importance of the N-Terminal Domain of the Qb-SNARE Vti1p for Different Membrane Transport Steps in the Yeast Endosomal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossing, Michael; Chidambaram, Subbulakshmi; Fischer von Mollard, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) on transport vesicles and target membranes are crucial for vesicle targeting and fusion. They form SNARE complexes, which contain four α-helical SNARE motifs contributed by three or four different SNAREs. Most SNAREs function only in a single transport step. The yeast SNARE Vti1p participates in four distinct SNARE complexes in transport from the trans Golgi network to late endosomes, in transport to the vacuole, in retrograde transport from endosomes to the trans Golgi network and in retrograde transport within the Golgi. So far, all vti1 mutants investigated had mutations within the SNARE motif. Little is known about the function of the N-terminal domain of Vti1p, which forms a three helix bundle called Habc domain. Here we generated a temperature-sensitive mutant of this domain to study the effects on different transport steps. The secondary structure of wild type and vti1-3 Habc domain was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The amino acid exchanges identified in the temperature-sensitive vti1-3 mutant caused unfolding of the Habc domain. Transport pathways were investigated by immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized proteins after pulse-chase labeling and by fluorescence microscopy of a GFP-tagged protein cycling between plasma membrane, early endosomes and Golgi. In vti1-3 cells transport to the late endosome and assembly of the late endosomal SNARE complex was blocked at 37°C. Retrograde transport to the trans Golgi network was affected while fusion with the vacuole was possible but slower. Steady state levels of SNARE complexes mediating these steps were less affected than that of the late endosomal SNARE complex. As different transport steps were affected our data demonstrate the importance of a folded Vti1p Habc domain for transport. PMID:23776654

  13. Importance of the N-terminal domain of the Qb-SNARE Vti1p for different membrane transport steps in the yeast endosomal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossing, Michael; Chidambaram, Subbulakshmi; Fischer von Mollard, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) on transport vesicles and target membranes are crucial for vesicle targeting and fusion. They form SNARE complexes, which contain four α-helical SNARE motifs contributed by three or four different SNAREs. Most SNAREs function only in a single transport step. The yeast SNARE Vti1p participates in four distinct SNARE complexes in transport from the trans Golgi network to late endosomes, in transport to the vacuole, in retrograde transport from endosomes to the trans Golgi network and in retrograde transport within the Golgi. So far, all vti1 mutants investigated had mutations within the SNARE motif. Little is known about the function of the N-terminal domain of Vti1p, which forms a three helix bundle called H(abc) domain. Here we generated a temperature-sensitive mutant of this domain to study the effects on different transport steps. The secondary structure of wild type and vti1-3 H(abc) domain was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The amino acid exchanges identified in the temperature-sensitive vti1-3 mutant caused unfolding of the H(abc) domain. Transport pathways were investigated by immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized proteins after pulse-chase labeling and by fluorescence microscopy of a GFP-tagged protein cycling between plasma membrane, early endosomes and Golgi. In vti1-3 cells transport to the late endosome and assembly of the late endosomal SNARE complex was blocked at 37°C. Retrograde transport to the trans Golgi network was affected while fusion with the vacuole was possible but slower. Steady state levels of SNARE complexes mediating these steps were less affected than that of the late endosomal SNARE complex. As different transport steps were affected our data demonstrate the importance of a folded Vti1p H(abc) domain for transport.

  14. Importance of the N-terminal domain of the Qb-SNARE Vti1p for different membrane transport steps in the yeast endosomal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gossing

    Full Text Available SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor on transport vesicles and target membranes are crucial for vesicle targeting and fusion. They form SNARE complexes, which contain four α-helical SNARE motifs contributed by three or four different SNAREs. Most SNAREs function only in a single transport step. The yeast SNARE Vti1p participates in four distinct SNARE complexes in transport from the trans Golgi network to late endosomes, in transport to the vacuole, in retrograde transport from endosomes to the trans Golgi network and in retrograde transport within the Golgi. So far, all vti1 mutants investigated had mutations within the SNARE motif. Little is known about the function of the N-terminal domain of Vti1p, which forms a three helix bundle called H(abc domain. Here we generated a temperature-sensitive mutant of this domain to study the effects on different transport steps. The secondary structure of wild type and vti1-3 H(abc domain was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The amino acid exchanges identified in the temperature-sensitive vti1-3 mutant caused unfolding of the H(abc domain. Transport pathways were investigated by immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized proteins after pulse-chase labeling and by fluorescence microscopy of a GFP-tagged protein cycling between plasma membrane, early endosomes and Golgi. In vti1-3 cells transport to the late endosome and assembly of the late endosomal SNARE complex was blocked at 37°C. Retrograde transport to the trans Golgi network was affected while fusion with the vacuole was possible but slower. Steady state levels of SNARE complexes mediating these steps were less affected than that of the late endosomal SNARE complex. As different transport steps were affected our data demonstrate the importance of a folded Vti1p H(abc domain for transport.

  15. LNG Cold Energy Utilization of Floating Storage and Regasification Unit%浮式储存再气化装置的LNG冷能利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄刘松; 宋炜; 刘涛

    2016-01-01

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will become one of the main energy sources for mankind in the 21st century. This paper systematically introduces the floating LNG receiving terminals in terms of concept, categorization, characteristics and system formation, etc., and summarizes their differences and deficiencies compared with LNG receiving terminals on land. Meanwhile, this paper also elaborates the LNG cold energy as well as its evaluation factors and utilization methods, and compares the utilization method of part of the LNG cold energy with conventional electrical consumption method. On this basis, the feasibilities of low temperature power generation, air separation, light hydrocarbon recovery, sea water desalination, liquefied CO2 and dry ice production, low temperature smashing, frozen and refrigeration, natural gas re-liquefaction, butyl rubber production, gas turbine air inlet and outlet cooling, application of offshore LNG cold energy utilization industrial park on FSRU (Floating Storage and Regasification Unit) are analyzed from aspects of initial investment, equipment size, level of commercialization, market potential, environmental protection, etc. to finally come to the conclusion that proper FSRU cold energy utilization method may include cold energy power generation, air separation, natural gas re-liquefaction, gas turbine air inlet and outlet cooling.%液化天然气(Liquefied Natural Gas, LNG)将成为人类在21世纪的主要能源之一。对浮式LNG接收终端从概念、分类、特点、系统组成等方面进行了较系统的介绍,总结了与陆地 LNG 接收站的不同特点及其不足之处。同时阐述了LNG冷能、LNG冷能的评价因素及利用方式,并将部分LNG冷能的利用方式与常规方式的电力消耗进行对比。在此基础上,从初投资、装置大小、商业化程度、市场潜力、环境保护等角度对低温发电、空气分离、轻烃回收、海水淡化、液态CO2及干冰制备、

  16. Development and industrial tests of the first LNG hydraulic turbine system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cryogenic hydraulic turbine can be used to replace the conventional J–T valve for LNG or mixed refrigerant throttling and depressurization in a natural gas liquefaction plant. This advanced technology is not only to enhance the efficiency of the liquefaction plant, but to usher a new trend in the development of global liquefaction technologies. China has over 136 liquefaction plants, but the cryogenic hydraulic turbines have not been deployed in industrial utilization. In addition, these turbines cannot be manufactured domestically. In this circumstance, through working on the key technologies for LNG hydraulic turbine process & control system development, hydraulic model optimization design, structure design and manufacturing, the first domestic cryogenic hydraulic turbine with a flow rate of 40 m3/h was developed to recover the pressure energy from the LNG of cold box. The turbine was installed in the CNOOC Zhuhai Natural Gas Liquefaction Plant for industrial tests under multiple working conditions, including start-stop, variable flow rates and variable rotation speeds. Test results show that the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine has satisfactory mechanical and operational performances at low temperatures as specified in design. In addition, the process & control system and frequency-conversion power-generation system of the turbine system are designed properly to automatically and smoothly replace the existing LNG J–T valve. As a result, the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine system can improve LNG production by an average of 2% and generate power of 8.3 kW.

  17. Emerging indications for the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Oskari; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), originally designed for long-term contraceptive use, has been on the Scandinavian market for approximately 20 years. Novel clinical indications for the LNG-IUS, derived mainly from investigator-initiated studies, are emerging. These include heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroids, endometriosis, adenomyosis, as well as endometrial hyperplasia. In both cohort and randomized studies, the LNG-IUS is effective in decreasing heavy menstrual bleeding, also in women diagnosed with uterine fibroids. In randomized studies the LNG-IUS has shown comparable clinical efficacy to GnRH analogues or progestins for the symptomatic treatment of endometriosis. Experience with LNG-IUS in adenomyosis is based on prospective cohort studies. Dysmenorrhea has been reported to decrease in all women, and uterine volume was seen to diminish in some of these studies. In the treatment of endometrial hyperplasias, including atypical hyperplasia, the LNG-IUS is equal or superior to treatment with systemic progestins. Further studies are needed to examine the full potential of the LNG-IUS in such common clinical situations.

  18. Experimental and numerical study of liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool spreading and vaporization on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswami, Nirupama; Kakosimos, Konstantinos; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Mentzer, R; Mannan, M Sam

    2017-07-15

    The investigation of pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon is an essential part of consequence analysis to determine the severity of LNG spills on water. In this study, release of LNG on water during marine operations is studied through experimental and numerical methods The study involves emulation of an LNG leak from transfer arms during side by side loading operations. The experimental part involves flow of LNG in a narrow trench filled with water and subsequent measurement of pool spreading and vaporization parameters. The numerical part involves CFD simulation using a three dimensional hybrid homogenous Eulerian multiphase solver to model the pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon. In this method, LNG is modeled as dispersed phase droplets which can interact with continuous phases - water and air through interphase models. The numerical study also employs a novel user-defined routine for capturing the LNG vaporization process. The CFD solver was capable of capturing the salient features of LNG pool spreading and vaporization phenomena. It was observed from experiment and CFD simulation that wind influenced both pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon through entrainment and convection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of chemical composition on vaporisation of LNG and LPG on unconfined water surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrado, C.; Vesovic, V. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A model is proposed for estimating the rate of vaporisation of LNG and LPG cryogen mixtures spreading on unconfined water surfaces. The model is used to examine the influence of chemical composition on the vaporisation rate of LNG and LPG during spreading. Calculations have been performed whereby the vaporisation rate of the LNG and LPG mixtures has been compared to the vaporisation of pure methane and propane, respectively, under the same initial conditions. The detailed results indicate that the vaporisation rate of LNG mixture is markedly different to that of pure methane, while the vaporisation rate of LPG mixture is similar to that of pure propane. The difference can be attributed primarily to the contributions of the direct and indirect component of the total, different, isobaric latent heat to the boiling process. For LNG, as the liquid mixture gets rich in ethane, the total, differential, isobaric latent heat increases rapidly, leading to a large decrease in the vaporisation of LNG compared to pure methane. For LPG, because of the shape of the phase envelope, only a small increase of the total latent heat and the boiling temperature is observed and consequently the change in the vaporisation is marginal. The overall results suggest that treating an LNG spill as a pure methane spill results in underestimation of the total spillage time of the order of 10-15% and in qualitatively wrong dynamics of the rate of vapour formation: thus warranting a full treatment of the thermodynamics of the mixture. (Author)

  20. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  1. Enabling a viable technique for the optimization of LNG carrier cargo operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaba, Onakoya Rasheed; Nwaoha, T. C.; Okwu, M. O.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts' judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  2. Enabling a Viable Technique for the Optimization of LNG Carrier Cargo Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onakoya Rasheed Alaba; T C Nwaoha; M O Okwu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts’ judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  3. The secondary structure of the R region of a murine leukemia virus is important for stimulation of long terminal repeat-driven gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupelli, L; Okenquist, S A; Trubetskoy, A; Lenz, J

    1998-10-01

    In addition to their role in reverse transcription, the R-region sequences of some retroviruses affect viral transcription. The first 28 nucleotides of the R region within the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the murine type C retrovirus SL3 were predicted to form a stem-loop structure. We tested whether this structure affected the transcriptional activity of the viral LTR. Mutations that altered either side of the stem and thus disrupted base pairing were generated. These decreased the level of expression of a reporter gene under the control of viral LTR sequences about 5-fold in transient expression assays and 10-fold in cells stably transformed with the LTR-reporter plasmids. We also generated a compensatory mutant in which both the ascending and descending sides of the stem were mutated such that the nucleotide sequence was different but the predicted secondary structure was maintained. Most of the activity of the wild-type SL3 element was restored in this mutant. Thus, the stem-loop structure was important for the maximum activity of the SL3 LTR. Primer extension analysis indicated that the stem-loop structure affected the levels of cytoplasmic RNA. Nuclear run-on assays indicated that deletion of the R region had a small effect on transcriptional initiation and no effect on RNA polymerase processivity. Thus, the main effect of the R-region element was on one or more steps that occurred after the template was transcribed by RNA polymerase. This finding implied that the main function of the R-region element involved RNA processing. R-region sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 or mouse mammary tumor virus could not replace the SL3 element. R-region sequences from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus partially substituted for the SL3 sequences. R-region sequences from Moloney murine leukemia virus or feline leukemia virus did function in place of the SL3 element. Thus, the R region element appears to be a general feature of the mammalian type C genus of

  4. Importance of Reelin C-terminal region in the development and maintenance of the postnatal cerebral cortex and its regulation by specific proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, Takao; Honda, Takao; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    During brain development, Reelin exerts a variety of effects in a context-dependent manner, whereas its underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We previously showed that the C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is required for efficient induction of phosphorylation of Dab1, an esse...

  5. Terminal sequence importance of de novo proteins from binary-patterned library: stable artificial proteins with 11- or 12-amino acid alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Hiromichi; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2012-06-01

    Successful approaches of de novo protein design suggest a great potential to create novel structural folds and to understand natural rules of protein folding. For these purposes, smaller and simpler de novo proteins have been developed. Here, we constructed smaller proteins by removing the terminal sequences from stable de novo vTAJ proteins and compared stabilities between mutant and original proteins. vTAJ proteins were screened from an α3β3 binary-patterned library which was designed with polar/ nonpolar periodicities of α-helix and β-sheet. vTAJ proteins have the additional terminal sequences due to the method of constructing the genetically repeated library sequences. By removing the parts of the sequences, we successfully obtained the stable smaller de novo protein mutants with fewer amino acid alphabets than the originals. However, these mutants showed the differences on ANS binding properties and stabilities against denaturant and pH change. The terminal sequences, which were designed just as flexible linkers not as secondary structure units, sufficiently affected these physicochemical details. This study showed implications for adjusting protein stabilities by designing N- and C-terminal sequences.

  6. No-driving LNG Vehicle Fuel Charge Device%无动力LNG汽车加注装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文刚; 陈杰

    2013-01-01

    In our country, the LNG filling station is used to supply the vehicle fuel, and LNG is transferred by the LNG pump. In this paper, it introduces a new no-driving LNG vehicle fuel charge device, which is based on the LNG self-vaporizing principle. This device is the solution for the difficult problem of the LNG vehicle filling for the no power area, for example the long road and mine field. It is the means for the development the new LNG vehicle charge market, and it is also used to the emergency filling for the LNG vehicle .%  目前,国内LNG加注站主要用于汽车燃料的LNG加注,常规LNG加注站采用低温泵进行LNG汽车加注。本文主要介绍一种无需LNG泵输送,利用LNG自增压原理,开发了新型的无动力LNG加注装置。新型无动力 LNG 加注装置解决了高速公路、矿场等电力供应匮乏地区的 LNG 汽车加注难题,是LNG汽车加注市场前期开拓的一种有效手段。同时,还可以用作LNG汽车的应急救援车。

  7. Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

  8. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  9. Importance of ventricular tachycardia storms not terminated by implantable cardioverter defibrillators shocks in patients with CASQ2 associated catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, Ibrahim; Khoury, Asaad; Suleiman, Mahmoud; Gepstein, Lior; Blich, Miri; Lorber, Abraham; Boulos, Monther

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the clinical and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)-related follow-up of patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) with homogenous missense mutations in CASQ2 was summarized. Patients were followed in a pediatric cardiology clinic and an ICD clinic. All patients were treated with high-dose β blockers. ICDs were recommended for patients who remained symptomatic despite medical treatment. Twenty-seven patients were followed for 1 to 15 years (median 9). Twenty patients (74%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; 13 (65%) remained symptomatic after treatment with high-dose β blockers and thus were advised to receive ICDs. Eight of these patients refused ICDs, and eventually 6 (75%) died suddenly. Four of the 5 patients who received ICDs had ventricular tachycardia storms treated but not terminated by recurrent ICD shocks. These ventricular tachycardia storms (2 episodes in 2 patients and 1 episode in 2 patient) terminated spontaneously after finishing the programmed ICD shocks, without degeneration to ventricular fibrillation. None of the patients who received ICDs died. In conclusion, patients with CASQ2-associated CPVT should be recommended to receive ICDs to prevent sudden death when medical therapy is not effective. These patients may have recurrent ventricular tachycardia storms treated but not terminated by recurrent ICD shocks, without degeneration to ventricular fibrillation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stomatal proxy record of CO2 concentrations from the last termination suggests an important role for CO2 at climate change transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Kylander, Malin E.; Blaauw, Maarten; Reimer, Paula J.

    2013-05-01

    A new stomatal proxy-based record of CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), based on Betula nana (dwarf birch) leaves from the Hässeldala Port sedimentary sequence in south-eastern Sweden, is presented. The record is of high chronological resolution and spans most of Greenland Interstadial 1 (GI-1a to 1c, Allerød pollen zone), Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1, Younger Dryas pollen zone) and the very beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal pollen zone). The record clearly demonstrates that i) [CO2] were significantly higher than usually reported for the Last Termination and ii) the overall pattern of CO2 evolution through the studied time period is fairly dynamic, with significant abrupt fluctuations in [CO2] when the climate moved from interstadial to stadial state and vice versa. A new loss-on-ignition chemical record (used here as a proxy for temperature) lends independent support to the Hässeldala Port [CO2] record. The large-amplitude fluctuations around the climate change transitions may indicate unstable climates and that “tipping-point” situations were involved in Last Termination climate evolution. The scenario presented here is in contrast to [CO2] records reconstructed from air bubbles trapped in ice, which indicate lower concentrations and a gradual, linear increase of [CO2] through time. The prevalent explanation for the main climate forcer during the Last Termination being ocean circulation patterns needs to re-examined, and a larger role for atmospheric [CO2] considered.

  11. LNG-IUS的避孕机制和治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洁霜; 庄留琪

    2001-01-01

    释放左旋18-甲基炔诺酮(LNG)的宫内节育器(IUD)简称LNG-IUD,近年来称之为LNG-IUS(levonorgestrel intrauterine system)与其他带铜IUD相比避孕效果好,能降低盆腔感染性疾病和宫外孕的发生率,哺乳期妇女可以安全使用,取出后迅速恢复正常月经周期和生育功能.LNG-IUS兼具激素和IUD的优点,并具有避孕和治疗子宫内膜异位症、子宫肌瘤、月经过多等妇科疾病和激素替代治疗功能,因而在-定程度上替代了子宫切除术.

  12. Development Status of Large-scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Tanks%大型液化天然气储罐的发展状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月; 王为民; 李明鑫; 郝晶; 曹彦青

    2013-01-01

    随着液化天然气的需求量日益增加,它的储存运输问题也得到了越来越大的重视。液化天然气储罐是储存液化天然气的一种重要设备。主要简介了液化天然气的优点,液化天然气储罐的分类,国内外现状,以及建造时可能遇到的问题,并简单总结了液化天然气储罐的发展趋势。%With the increasing of LNG demand,its storage and transportation problem has got more and more attention. The liquid natural gas storage tank is a kind of important equipment to store liquefied natural gas. In this article, advantages of liquefied natural gas were introduced as well as classification of LNG storage tanks. The common problems during building the liquid natural gas storage tank were discussed, and the development trend of LNG storage tanks was put forward.

  13. Importance of plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, epicardial adipose tissue, and carotid intima-media thicknesses in asymptomatic obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritas, Turkay; Tascilar, Emre; Abaci, Ayhan; Yozgat, Yilmaz; Dogan, Mustafa; Dundaroz, Ruşen; Hasimi, Adnan; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Lenk, M Koray; Kilic, Ayhan

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the variations of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, epicardial adipose tissue thickness, and carotid intima-media thickness in childhood obesity. The study participants consisted of 50 obese children in the study group and 20 nonobese children referred for evaluation of murmurs who proved to have an innocent murmur and were used as control subjects. All the subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination for determination of left ventricular systolic function and mass index, myocardial tissue rates, and myocardial performance index. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and carotid intima-media thickness also were measured during echocardiography. Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels were measured at the time of evaluation. The left ventricle mass index was 40.21 + or - 10.42 g/m(2) in the obese group and 34.44 + or - 4.51 g/m(2) in the control group (p > 0.05). The serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide level was 109.25 + or - 48.53 pg/ml in the study group and 51.96 + or - 22.36 pg/ml and in the control group (p = 0.001). The epicardial adipose tissue thickness was 5.57 + or - 1.45 mm in the study group and 2.98 + or - 0.41 mm in the control group (p = 0.001), and the respective carotid intima-media thicknesses were 0.079 + or - 0.019 cm and 0.049 + or - 0.012 cm (p = 0.001). The left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions showed no statistically significant correlations with N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels, carotid intima-media thickness, or epicardial adipose tissue thickness values. The results show that measurement of serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide level, carotid intima-media thickness, and epicardial adipose tissue thickness in asymptomatic obese children is not needed.

  14. Ultrasound Location of Misplaced Levonorgestrel Releasing Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) – is it easy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, Vaidyanathan; Mathew, Mariam

    2009-01-01

    The Levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is a hormone-containing device licensed for treatment of menorrhagia and contraception. Though complications such as perforation have been reported similar to other non-hormonal intrauterine devices, the diagnosis of such complications is difficult with this device because the LNG-IUD has a different ultrasound appearance compared to copper devices and these case reports are intended to emphasize this point. PMID:22303513

  15. Ultrasound Location of Misplaced Levonorgestrel Releasing Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) - is it easy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, Vaidyanathan; Mathew, Mariam

    2009-01-01

    The Levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is a hormone-containing device licensed for treatment of menorrhagia and contraception. Though complications such as perforation have been reported similar to other non-hormonal intrauterine devices, the diagnosis of such complications is difficult with this device because the LNG-IUD has a different ultrasound appearance compared to copper devices and these case reports are intended to emphasize this point.

  16. Effects of LNG-IUS on nerve growth factor and its receptors expression in patients with adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Sik; Cho, Sihyun; Lim, Kyung Jin; Jeon, Young Eun; Yang, Hyo In; Lee, Kyung Eun; Heena, Kamdar; Seo, Seok Kyo; Kim, Hye Yeon; Lee, Byung Seok

    2010-12-01

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is effective in the treatment of dysmenorrhea associated with adenomyosis. However, the mechanism of pain relief of LNG-IUS in patients with adenomyosis is unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of LNG-IUS on the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors, NGFR p75 and TrkA in patients with adenomyosis. Endometrial and myometrial tissues were prepared from 17 LNG-IUS-treated patients and 15 hormonally untreated patients who had undergone hysterectomies for adenomyosis. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies against NGF, NGFR p75, and TrkA, was performed. The expression of NGF, NGFR p75, and TrkA in endometrium and myometrium of LNG-IUS-treated patients was significantly decreased compared to those of hormonally untreated patients. Our findings may indicate that the suppression of NGF and its receptors by LNG-IUS is another possible mechanism of relieving pain in patients with adenomyosis.

  17. Southern LNG, Inc., Elba Island Terminal, Savannah Georgia Draft Air Quality Permit and PSD Preliminary Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. On the design of LNG terminal%LNG接收站的设计技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利

    2005-01-01

    中国成达工程公司是国内最早介入LNG项目设计的工程公司,到目前为止已承担了广东LNG项目、福建LNG项目、上海LNG项目、浙江LNG项目、江苏LNG项目、海南LNG项目的预可研、可研、前端工程设计(FEED)、初步设计、EPC等工作,在LNG领域积累了较为丰富的经验和技术储备。下面就LNG接收站设计中的一些主要技术问题简单介绍如下:

  19. Management of primary dysmenorrhea in young women with frameless LNG-IUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildemeersch D

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Wildemeersch,1 Sohela Jandi,2 Ansgar Pett,2 Thomas Hasskamp3 1Gynecological Outpatient Clinic and IUD Training Center, Ghent, Belgium; 2Gynecological Outpatient Clinic, Berlin, Germany; 3GynMünster, Münster, Germany Abstract: The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential advantages of intrauterine treatment with a frameless levonorgestrel (LNG-releasing intrauterine system (IUS in young women presenting with primary dysmenorrhea associated with heavy menstrual bleeding. The paper is based on clinical reports of 21 cases of primary and secondary dysmenorrhea treated with the frameless LNG-IUS. Three typical examples of young women between 16 and 20 years of age, who presented with moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhea associated with heavy menstrual bleeding, are presented as examples. Following pelvic examination, including vaginal sonography, a frameless LNG-IUS, releasing 20 µg of LNG/day, was inserted. The three patients developed amenorrhea, or scanty menstrual bleeding, and absence of pain complaints within a few months. We conclude that continuous, intrauterine progestogen delivery could be a treatment of choice of this inconvenient condition. In addition, the good experiences with the frameless LNG-IUS in other studies suggests that the frameless design may be preferred over a framed LNG-IUS, as the absence of a frame, resulting in optimal tolerance, is particularly advantageous in these women. Keywords: heavy menstrual bleeding, contraception, FibroPlant, intrauterine system

  20. Segments in the C-terminal folding domain of lipoprotein lipase important for binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and to heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Brejning, Jeanette; García, R.;

    1997-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) can mediate cellular uptake of chylomicron and VLDL remnants via binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and the endocytic alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP). Whereas it is established that the C-terminal ......Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) can mediate cellular uptake of chylomicron and VLDL remnants via binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and the endocytic alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP). Whereas it is established that the C...