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Sample records for llama antibody potently

  1. A Single-Domain Llama Antibody Potently Inhibits the Enzymatic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxin by Binding to the Non-Catalytic [alpha]-Exosite Binding Region

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    Dong, Jianbo; Thompson, Aaron A.; Fan, Yongfeng; Lou, Jianlong; Conrad, Fraser; Ho, Mengfei; Pires-Alves, Melissa; Wilson, Brenda A.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Marks, James D. (UIUC); (Scripps); (UCSF)

    2010-08-13

    Ingestion or inhalation of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) results in botulism, a severe and frequently fatal disease. Current treatments rely on antitoxins, which, while effective, cannot reverse symptoms once BoNT has entered the neuron. For treatments that can reverse intoxication, interest has focused on developing inhibitors of the enzymatic BoNT light chain (BoNT Lc). Such inhibitors typically mimic substrate and bind in or around the substrate cleavage pocket. To explore the full range of binding sites for serotype A light chain (BoNT/A Lc) inhibitors, we created a library of non-immune llama single-domain VHH (camelid heavy-chain variable region derived from heavy-chain-only antibody) antibodies displayed on the surface of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Library selection on BoNT/A Lc yielded 15 yeast-displayed VHH with equilibrium dissociation constants (K{sub d}) from 230 to 0.03 nM measured by flow cytometry. Eight of 15 VHH inhibited the cleavage of substrate SNAP25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25,000 Da) by BoNT/A Lc. The most potent VHH (Aa1) had a solution K{sub d} for BoNT/A Lc of 1.47 x 10{sup -10} M and an IC{sub 50} (50% inhibitory concentration) of 4.7 x 10{sup -10} M and was resistant to heat denaturation and reducing conditions. To understand the mechanism by which Aa1 inhibited catalysis, we solved the X-ray crystal structure of the BoNT/A Lc-Aa1 VHH complex at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals that the Aa1 VHH binds in the {alpha}-exosite of the BoNT/A Lc, far from the active site for catalysis. The study validates the utility of non-immune llama VHH libraries as a source of enzyme inhibitors and identifies the BoNT/A Lc {alpha}-exosite as a target for inhibitor development.

  2. Llama-Derived Single Domain Antibodies Specific for Abrus Agglutinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ellen R.; Anderson, George P.; Zabetakis, Dan; Walper, Scott; Liu, Jinny L.; Bernstein, Rachael; Calm, Alena; Carney, James P.; O’Brien, Thomas W.; Walker, Jennifer L.; Garber, Eric A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Llama derived single domain antibodies (sdAb), the recombinantly expressed variable heavy domains from the unique heavy-chain only antibodies of camelids, were isolated from a library derived from llamas immunized with a commercial abrin toxoid preparation. Abrin is a potent toxin similar to ricin in structure, sequence and mechanism of action. The selected sdAb were evaluated for their ability to bind to commercial abrin as well as abrax (a recombinant abrin A-chain), purified abrin fractions, Abrus agglutinin (a protein related to abrin but with lower toxicity), ricin, and unrelated proteins. Isolated sdAb were also evaluated for their ability to refold after heat denaturation and ability to be used in sandwich assays as both capture and reporter elements. The best binders were specific for the Abrus agglutinin, showing minimal binding to purified abrin fractions or unrelated proteins. These binders had sub nM affinities and regained most of their secondary structure after heating to 95 °C. They functioned well in sandwich assays. Through gel analysis and the behavior of anti-abrin monoclonal antibodies, we determined that the commercial toxoid preparation used for the original immunizations contained a high percentage of Abrus agglutinin, explaining the selection of Abrus agglutinin binders. Used in conjunction with anti-abrin monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, these reagents can fill a role to discriminate between the highly toxic abrin and the related, but much less toxic, Abrus agglutinin and distinguish between different crude preparations. PMID:22174977

  3. Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Laura E; Rutten, Lucy; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Ian; Granger, Luke; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Dekkers, Gillian; Strokappe, Nika M; Seaman, Michael S; Koh, Willie; Grippo, Vanina; Kliche, Alexander; Verrips, Theo; Kellam, Paul; Fassati, Ariberto; Weiss, Robin A

    2014-12-01

    To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH) identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols.

  4. Using llama derived single domain antibodies to target botulinum neurotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Marla D.; Anderson, George P.; Bernstein, Rachael D.; Liu, Jinny L.; Goldman, Ellen R.

    2010-04-01

    Llama serum contains both conventional IgG as well as unique forms of antibody that contain only heavy chains where antigen binding is mediated through a single variable domain. These variable domains can be expressed recombinantly and are referred to as single domain antibodies (sdAb). SdAb are among the smallest known naturally derived antigen binding fragments, possess good solubility, thermal stability, and can refold after heat and chemical denaturation. Llamas were immunized with either BoNT A or B toxoid and phage display libraries prepared. Single domain antibodies (sdAb) that were able to detect botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A and B were selected from their respective libraries. Here, the binders obtained by panning the BoNT B library on either BoNT B toxoid or BoNT B complex toxoid coated plates or BoNT B toxin coupled microspheres are described. Using these panning methods, we selected for binders that showed specificity for BoNT B. Phage displayed binders were screened, moved to a protein expression vector and soluble sdAb was produced. Using a Luminex flow cytometer binders were evaluated in direct binding assays. We have exploited the unique properties of sdAb and used them as biological recognition elements in immuno-based sensors that can detect BoNT B.

  5. Neutralisation of HIV-1 cell-cell spread by human and llama antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Laura E; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Blanchetot, Christophe; de Haard, Hans; Verrips, Theo; Rutten, Lucy; Weiss, Robin A; Jolly, Clare

    2014-10-02

    Direct cell-cell spread of HIV-1 is a very efficient mode of viral dissemination, with increasing evidence suggesting that it may pose a considerable challenge to controlling viral replication in vivo. Much current vaccine research involves the study of broadly neutralising antibodies (bNabs) that arise during natural infection with the aims of eliciting such antibodies by vaccination or incorporating them into novel therapeutics. However, whether cell-cell spread of HIV-1 can be effectively targeted by bNabs remains unclear, and there is much interest in identifying antibodies capable of efficiently neutralising virus transmitted by cell-cell contact. In this study we have tested a panel of bNAbs for inhibition of cell-cell spread, including some not previously evaluated for inhibition of this mode of HIV-1 transmission. We found that three CD4 binding site antibodies, one from an immunised llama (J3) and two isolated from HIV-1-positive patients (VRC01 and HJ16) neutralised cell-cell spread between T cells, while antibodies specific for glycan moieties (2G12, PG9, PG16) and the MPER (2F5) displayed variable efficacy. Notably, while J3 displayed a high level of potency during cell-cell spread we found that the small size of the llama heavy chain-only variable region (VHH) J3 is not required for efficient neutralisation since recombinant J3 containing a full-length human heavy chain Fc domain was significantly more potent. J3 and J3-Fc also neutralised cell-cell spread of HIV-1 from primary macrophages to CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, while bNabs display variable efficacy at preventing cell-cell spread of HIV-1, we find that some CD4 binding site antibodies can inhibit this mode of HIV-1 dissemination and identify the recently described llama antibody J3 as a particularly potent inhibitor. Effective neutralisation of cell-cell spread between physiologically relevant cell types by J3 and J3-Fc supports the development of VHH J3 nanobodies for therapeutic or

  6. Improved production and function of llama heavy chain antibody fragments by molecular evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der R.H.; Geus, de B.; Frenken, G.J.; Peters, H.; Verrips, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve production level of llama heavy chain antibody fragments (V (HH)) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae while retaining functional characteristics. For this purpose, the DNA shuffling technique was used on llama V (HH) fragments specific for the azo-dye reactive red-6. In

  7. Induced refolding of a temperature denatured llama heavy-chain antibody fragment by its antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, E.; Vliet, C. van; Perez, J.M.J.; Vriend, G.; Darbon, H.; Ferrat, G.; Cambillau, C.; Frenken, L.G.J.; Verrips, T.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study we have shown that llama VHH antibody fragments are able to bind their antigen after a heat shock of 90°C, in contrast to the murine monoclonal antibodies. However, the molecular mechanism by which antibody:antigen interaction occurs under these extreme conditions remains

  8. Isolation of llama antibody fragments for prevention of dandruff by phage display in shampoo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, E.; Vaart, M. van der; Lutje Hulsik, D.; Vriend, G.; Haard, H. de; Spinelli, S.; Cambillau, C.; Frenken, L.; Verrips, T.

    As part of research exploring the feasibility of using antibody fragments to inhibit the growth of organisms implicated in dandruff, we isolated antibody fragments that bind to a cell surface protein of Malassezia furfur in the presence of shampoo. We found that phage display of llama

  9. Improved functional immobilization of llama single-domain antibody fragments to polystyrene surfaces using small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Fijten, H.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of different fusion domains on the functional immobilization of three llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) after passive adsorption to polystyrene in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Three VHHs produced without any fusion domain were efficiently adsorbed to

  10. Expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Gouka, R.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Verrips, C.T.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    We report the expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori. Fragments encoding VHHs were cloned in a suitable Aspergillus expression vector and transformants secreting VHH fragments were analysed for integrated gene copy-numbers, mRNA

  11. Stimulation of chymosin secretion by simultaneous expression with chymosin-binding llama single-domain antibody fragments in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Smits, C.B.; Geus, de B.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effect of coexpression of chymosin and chymosin-binding llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) on the secretion of chymosin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. A VHH expression library containing chymosin-specific VHHs was obtained by immunization of a llama and coexpressed with

  12. A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for a 16 kDa heat shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, Anke K.; de Ronde, Hans; Noteboom, Linda; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Roelse, Margriet; Srivastava, Saurabh K.; Haasnoot, Willem; Jongsma, Maarten A.; Kolk, Arend; Zuilhof, Han; Beekwilder, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.

  13. Stability of llama heavy chain antibody fragments under extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Camelids have next to their normal antibodies, a unique subset of antibodies lacking light chains. The resulting single binding domain, VHH, of these heavy chain antibodies consequently have unique properties. A high stability is one of these properties, which was investigated in this thesis. The

  14. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus specific antibodies in naturally exposed Israeli llamas, alpacas and camels

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    Dan David

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, no human MERS-CoV infections have been reported from Israel. Evidence for the circulation of MERS-CoV in dromedaries has been reported from almost all the countries of the Middle East, except Israel. Therefore, we aimed to analyze MERS-CoV infection in Israeli camelids, sampled between 2012 and 2017. A total of 411 camels, 102 alpacas and 19 llamas' sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to MERS-CoV. Our findings indicate a lower MERS-CoV seropositivity among Israeli dromedaries than in the surrounding countries, and for the first time naturally infected llamas were identified. In addition, nasal swabs of 661 camels, alpacas and lamas, obtained from January 2015 to December 2017, were tested for the presence of MERS-CoV RNA. All nasal swabs were negative, indicating no evidence for MERS-CoV active circulation in these camelids during that time period. Keywords: MERS coronavirus, Antibodies, Israel, Dromedary camels, Llamas, Alpacas

  15. Bivalent Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments against Tumor Necrosis Factor Have Picomolar Potencies due to Intramolecular Interactions

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    Els Beirnaert

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a cytokine involved in inflammatory pathologies, can be inhibited by antibodies or trap molecules. Herein, llama-derived variable heavy-chain domains of heavy-chain antibody (VHH, also called Nanobodies™ were generated for the engineering of bivalent constructs, which antagonize the binding of TNF to its receptors with picomolar potencies. Three monomeric VHHs (VHH#1, VHH#2, and VHH#3 were characterized in detail and found to bind TNF with sub-nanomolar affinities. The crystal structures of the TNF–VHH complexes demonstrate that VHH#1 and VHH#2 share the same epitope, at the center of the interaction area of TNF with its TNFRs, while VHH#3 binds to a different, but partially overlapping epitope. These structures rationalize our results obtained with bivalent constructs in which two VHHs were coupled via linkers of different lengths. Contrary to conventional antibodies, these bivalent Nanobody™ constructs can bind to a single trimeric TNF, thus binding with avidity and blocking two of the three receptor binding sites in the cytokine. The different mode of binding to antigen and the engineering into bivalent constructs supports the design of highly potent VHH-based therapeutic entities.

  16. A novel llama antibody targeting Fn14 exhibits anti-metastatic activity in vivo.

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    Trebing, Johannes; Lang, Isabell; Chopra, Martin; Salzmann, Steffen; Moshir, Mahan; Silence, Karen; Riedel, Simone S; Siegmund, Daniela; Beilhack, Andreas; Otto, Christoph; Wajant, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-inducible 14 (Fn14), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is typically low in healthy adult organisms, but strong Fn14 expression is induced in tissue injury and tissue remodeling. High Fn14 expression is also observed in solid tumors, which is why this receptor is under consideration as a therapeutic target in oncology. Here, we describe various novel mouse-human cross-reactive llama-derived recombinant Fn14-specific antibodies (5B6, 18D1, 4G5) harboring the human IgG1 Fc domain. In contrast to recombinant variants of the established Fn14-specific antibodies PDL192 and P4A8, all three llama-derived antibodies efficiently bound to the W42A and R56P mutants of human Fn14. 18D1 and 4G5, but not 5B6, efficiently blocked TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis(TWEA K) binding at low concentrations (0.2–2 μg/ml). Oligomerization and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding converted all antibodies into strong Fn14 agonists. Variants of 18D1 with enhanced and reduced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity were further analyzed in vivo with respect to their effect on metastasis. In a xenogeneic model using human colon carcinoma cancer cells, both antibody variants were effective in reducing metastasis to the liver. In contrast, only the 18D1 variant with enhanced ADCC activity, but not its ADCC-defective counterpart, suppressed lung metastasis in the RE NCA model. In sum, this suggests that Fn14 targeting might primarily act by triggering of antibody effector functions, but also by blockade of TWEA K-Fn14 interaction in some cases

  17. Prolonged in vivo residence times of llama single-domain antibody fragments in pigs by binding to porcine immunoglobulins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Solt, van C.B.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Setten, van M.C.

    2005-01-01

    The therapeutic parenteral application of llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) is hampered by their small size, resulting in a fast elimination from the body. Here we describe a method to increase the serum half-life of VHHs in pigs by fusion to another VHH binding to porcine immunoglobulin

  18. Passive immunization of guinea-pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Solt, van C.B.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Keulen, van L.; Rosalia, R.A.; Weerdmeester, K.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Eble, P.L.; Dekker, A.

    2007-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that occasionally causes outbreaks in Europe. There is a need for therapies that provide rapid protection against FMD in outbreak situations. We aim to provide such rapid protection by passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody

  19. A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for a 16 kDa heat shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Anke K Trilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb recognition were raised in Alpaca, and, by phage display, recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH binding to M. tuberculosis antigens were isolated. Two phage display selection strategies were followed: one direct selection using semi-purified protein antigen, and a depletion strategy with lysates, aiming to avoid cross-reaction to other mycobacteria. Both panning methods selected a set of binders with widely differing complementarity determining regions. Selected recombinant VHHs were produced in E. coli and shown to bind immobilized lysate in direct Enzymelinked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA tests and soluble antigen by surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis. All tested VHHs were specific for tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and exclusively recognized an immunodominant 16 kDa heat shock protein (hsp. The highest affinity VHH had a dissociation constant (KD of 4 × 10(-10 M. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for 16 kDa heat shock protein of M. tuberculosis is available. This protein is highly stable and abundant in M. tuberculosis. The VHH that detect this protein are applied in a robust SPR sensor for identification of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria.

  20. Isolation of Panels of Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments Binding All Nine Neuraminidase Subtypes of Influenza A Virus

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    Guus Koch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza A virus comprises sixteen hemagglutinin (HA and nine neuraminidase (NA subtypes (N1–N9. To isolate llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs against all N subtypes, four llamas were immunized with mixtures of influenza viruses. Selections using influenza virus yielded predominantly VHHs binding to the highly immunogenic HA and nucleoprotein. However, selection using enzymatically active recombinant NA (rNA protein enabled us to isolate NA binding VHHs. Some isolated VHHs cross-reacted to other N subtypes. These were subsequently used for the capture of N subtypes that could not be produced as recombinant protein (rN6 or were enzymatically inactive (rN1, rN5 in phage display selection, yielding novel VHHs. In total we isolated 188 NA binding VHHs, 64 of which were expressed in yeast. Most VHHs specifically recognize a single N subtype, but some VHHs cross-react with other N-subtypes. At least one VHH bound to all N subtypes, except N4, identifying a conserved antigenic site. Thus, this work (1 describes methods for isolating NA binding VHHs, (2 illustrates the suitability of llama immunization with multiple antigens for retrieving many binders against different antigens and (3 describes 64 novel NA binding VHHs, including a broadly reactive VHH, which can be used in various assays for influenza virus subtyping, detection or serology.

  1. Llama Single Domain Antibodies Specific for the 7 Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotypes as Heptaplex Immunoreagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, M. Thelma; Garza, John A.; Hayhurst, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background There are currently 7 known serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) classified upon non-cross reactivity of neutralizing immunoglobulins. Non-neutralizing immunoglobulins, however, can exhibit cross-reactivities between 2 or more serotypes, particularly mosaic forms, which can hamper the development of highly specific immunoassays, especially if based on polyclonal antisera. Here we employ facile recombinant antibody technology to subtractively select ligands to each of the 7 BoNT serotypes, resulting in populations with very high specificity for their intended serotype. Methods and Findings A single llama was immunized with a cocktail of 7 BoNT toxoids to generate a phage display library of single domain antibodies (sdAb, VHH or nanobodies) which were selected on live toxins. Resulting sdAb were capable of detecting both toxin and toxin complex with the best combinations able to detect 100s-10s of pg per 50 µL sample in a liquid bead array. The most sensitive sdAb were combined in a heptaplex assay to identify each of the BoNT serotypes in buffer and milk and to a lesser extent in carrot juice, orange juice and cola. Several anti-A(1) sdAb recognized A2 complex, showing that subtype cross-reactivity within a serotype was evident. Many of our sdAb could act as both captor and tracer for several toxin and toxin complexes suggesting sdAb can be used as architectural probes to indicate BoNT oligomerisation. Six of 14 anti-A clones exhibited inhibition of SNAP-25 cleavage in the neuro-2A assay indicating some sdAb had toxin neutralizing capabilities. Many sdAb were also shown to be refoldable after exposure to high temperatures in contrast to polyclonal antisera, as monitored by circular dichroism. Conclusions Our panel of molecularly flexible antibodies should not only serve as a good starting point for ruggedizing assays and inhibitors, but enable the intricate architectures of BoNT toxins and complexes to be probed more extensively. PMID:20098614

  2. Llama VHH antibody fragments against GFAP: better diffusion in fixed tissues than classical monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchini, Claire; Pecorari, Frederic; Bourgeois, Jean-Pierre; Duyckaerts, Charles; Rougeon, François; Lafaye, Pierre

    2009-11-01

    Camelids produce antibodies made of homodimeric heavy chains, and the antigen-binding region being composed of a single domain called VHH. These VHHs are much smaller than complete IgG. They are also more thermostable and more soluble in water; they should, therefore, diffuse more readily in the tissues. VHHs, expressed in bacteria, are easier to produce than conventional monoclonal antibodies. Because of these special characteristics, these antibody fragments could have interesting developments in immunohistochemistry and in the development of biomarkers. To test the possibility of their use in immunohistochemistry (IHC), we selected the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a well-known marker of astrocytes. One alpaca (Lama pacos) was immunized against GFAP. Lymphocytes were isolated; the DNA was extracted; the VHH-coding sequences were selectively amplified. Three VHHs with a high affinity for GFAP and their corresponding mRNA were selected by ribosome display. Large quantities of the recombinant VHHs coupled with different tags were harvested from transfected bacteria. One of them was shown to immunolabel strongly and specifically to GFAP of human astrocytes in tissue sections. The quality of the IHC was comparable or, in some aspects, superior to the quality obtained with conventional IgG. The VHH was shown to diffuse on a longer distance than conventional monoclonal antibodies in fixed cortical tissue: a property that may be useful in immunolabeling of thick sections.

  3. Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies.

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    Moonens, Kristof; Van den Broeck, Imke; Okello, Emmanuel; Pardon, Els; De Kerpel, Maia; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2015-02-24

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets express F4 fimbriae to mediate attachment towards host receptors. Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. Here we present the structures of these inhibiting VHHs in complex with the major adhesive subunit FaeG. A conserved surface, distant from the lactose binding pocket, is targeted by these VHHs, highlighting the possibility of targeting epitopes on single-domain adhesins that are non-involved in receptor binding.

  4. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody, and equine standard and a human tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aba, M.A.; Forsberg, M.

    1995-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca LH was developed using a human I 125 LH tracer from a commercial kit, equine LH diluted in human LH free serum as standard, and amonoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. A 60-min delay in the addition of the tracer and overnight incubation gave a sensitivity of 0.8 μ3g L -1 . The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 37% at 1 μg L -1 , declined to 15% at 4 μg L -1 and was below 6% for concentrations up to 32 μg L -1 . The inter-assay coefficients of variation for 3 control samples were 20% (2.8 μg L -1 ), 16% (7.1 μg L -1 ) and 9.8% (19 μg L -1 ). In an attempt to increase sensitivity, all tubes were preincubated for 4 h at room temperature before adding the tracer, and the sample volume was increased from 50 μL to 100 μL (in the standard curve the increased volume was compensated for by human LH free serum). With this protocol, the assay sensitivity was 0,5 μg L -1 . The assay was validated clinically and demonstrated increased concentrations of LH after mating in llamas and alpacas. Furthermore, the assay was used to monitor LH responses to a single dose of GnRH in llamas (adult males and females at different ages). (au) 9 refs

  5. Passive immunization of pigs with bispecific llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease and porcine immunoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Dekker, A.; Eble, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that occasionally causes outbreaks in Europe. We aim to develop an immunotherapy that confers rapid protection against FMD in outbreak situations. For this purpose, we previously isolated llama single-domain antibody

  6. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: Llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (V-HH) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Roelofs, M.S.; Dries, van den N.; Goosen, T.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase gene (arp) was genetically fused to either the 5'- or 3'-terminal ends of the gene encoding llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment V-HH R9, resulting in the fusion expression cassettes ARP-R9 or R9-ARP. Aspergillus awamori transformants were obtained which

  7. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: Llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (VHH) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Roelofs, M.S.; Dries, N. van den; Goosen, T.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase gene (arp) was genetically fused to either the 5′- or 3′-terminal ends of the gene encoding llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment VHH R9, resulting in the fusion expression cassettes ARP-R9 or R9-ARP. Aspergillus awamori transformants were obtained which

  8. Activity modulation of microbial enzymes by llama (Lama glama) heavy-chain polyclonal antibodies during in vivo immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Weill, F S; Paz, M L; Cela, E M; González Maglio, D H; Leoni, J

    2012-03-01

    Since they were first described in 1993, it was found that recombinant variable fragments (rVHHs) of heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) from Camelidae have unusual biophysical properties, as well as a special ability to interact with epitopes that are cryptic for conventional Abs. It has been assumed that in vivo raised polyclonal HCAbs (pHCAbs) should behave in a similar manner than rVHHs; however, this assumption has not been tested sufficiently. Furthermore, our own preliminary work on a single serum sample from a llama immunized with a β-lactamase, has suggested that pHCAbs have no special ability to down-modulate catalytic activity. In this work, we further explored the interaction of pHCAbs from four llamas raised against two microbial enzymes and analyzed it within a short and a long immunization plan. The relative contribution of pHCAbs to serum titer was found to be low compared with that of the most abundant conventional subisotype (IgG(1)), during the whole immunization schedule. Furthermore, pHCAbs not only failed to inhibit the enzymes, but also activated one of them. Altogether, these results suggest that raising high titer inhibitory HCAbs is not a straightforward strategy - neither as a biotechnological strategy nor in the biological context of an immune response against infection - as raising inhibitory rVHHs.

  9. Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Correia, Ana C P; Sancho-Serra, Maria Del Carmen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2016-01-01

    Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications.

  10. In Vivo Neutralization of α-Cobratoxin with High-Affinity Llama Single-Domain Antibodies (VHHs) and a VHH-Fc Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gabrielle; Meyers, Ashley J.; McLean, Michael D.; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, Mehdi; MacKenzie, Roger; Hall, J. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Small recombinant antibody fragments (e.g. scFvs and VHHs), which are highly tissue permeable, are being investigated for antivenom production as conventional antivenoms consisting of IgG or F(ab’)2 antibody fragments do not effectively neutralize venom toxins located in deep tissues. However, antivenoms composed entirely of small antibody fragments may have poor therapeutic efficacy due to their short serum half-lives. To increase serum persistence and maintain tissue penetration, we prepared low and high molecular mass antivenom antibodies. Four llama VHHs were isolated from an immune VHH-displayed phage library and were shown to have high affinity, in the low nM range, for α-cobratoxin (α–Cbtx), the most lethal component of Naja kaouthia venom. Subsequently, our highest affinity VHH (C2) was fused to a human Fc fragment to create a VHH2-Fc antibody that would offer prolonged serum persistence. After in planta (Nicotiana benthamiana) expression and purification, we show that our VHH2-Fc antibody retained high affinity binding to α–Cbtx. Mouse α–Cbtx challenge studies showed that our highest affinity VHHs (C2 and C20) and the VHH2-Fc antibody effectively neutralized lethality induced by α–Cbtx at an antibody:toxin molar ratio as low as ca. 0.75×:1. Further research towards the development of an antivenom therapeutic involving these anti-α-Cbtx VHHs and VHH2-Fc antibody molecules should involve testing them as a combination, to determine whether they maintain tissue penetration capability and low immunogenicity, and whether they exhibit improved serum persistence and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23894495

  11. Effective Inhibition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Function by Highly Specific Llama-Derived Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Wagner, Koen; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Rutten, Lucy; Zimberlin, Cheryl; Dolk, Edward; Verrips, C Theo; Medema, Jan Paul; Spits, Hergen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2015-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have important but distinct roles in tissue homeostasis and disease, including carcinogenesis and tumor progression. A large number of BMP inhibitors are available to study BMP function; however, as most of these antagonists are promiscuous, evaluating specific effects of individual BMPs is not feasible. Because the oncogenic role of the different BMPs varies for each neoplasm, highly selective BMP inhibitors are required. Here, we describe the generation of three types of llama-derived heavy chain variable domains (VHH) that selectively bind to either BMP4, to BMP2 and 4, or to BMP2, 4, 5, and 6. These generated VHHs have high affinity to their targets and are able to inhibit BMP signaling. Epitope binning and docking modeling have shed light into the basis for their BMP specificity. As opposed to the wide structural reach of natural inhibitors, these small molecules target the grooves and pockets of BMPs involved in receptor binding. In organoid experiments, specific inhibition of BMP4 does not affect the activation of normal stem cells. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of cancer-derived BMP4 noncanonical signals results in an increase of chemosensitivity in a colorectal cancer cell line. Therefore, because of their high specificity and low off-target effects, these VHHs could represent a therapeutic alternative for BMP4(+) malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. High production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) fused to various reader proteins by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Ishida, Hiroki; Hata, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    Llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) fused to four different reader proteins was produced and secreted in culture medium by Aspergillus oryzae. These fusion proteins consisted of N-terminal reader proteins, VHH, and a C-terminal his-tag sequence which facilitated purification using one-step his-tag affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis of the deglycosylated purified fusion proteins confirmed that the molecular weight of each corresponded to the expected sum of VHH and the respective reader proteins. The apparent high molecular weight reader protein glucoamylase (GlaB) was found to be suitable for efficient VHH production. The GlaB-VHH-His protein bound its antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and was detectable by a new ELISA-based method using a coupled assay with glucoamylase, glucose oxidase, peroxidase, maltose, and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as substrates. Addition of potassium phosphate to the culture medium induced secretion of 0.61 mg GlaB-VHH-His protein/ml culture medium in 5 days.

  13. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozzi, Alberto; Eleni, Claudia; Polici, Nicola; D’Alterio, Gianlorenzo; Carletti, Fabrizio; Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Di Caro, Antonino; Autorino, Gian Luca; Amaddeo, Demetrio

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. PMID:21801638

  14. Llama Antibody Fragments Recognizing Various Epitopes of the CD4bs Neutralize a Broad Range of HIV-1 Subtypes A, B and C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa-Chapman, Marlèn; Gorlani, Andrea; Forsman Quigley, Anna; Hulsik, David Lutje; Chen, Lei; Weiss, Robin; de Haard, Hans; Verrips, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Many of the neutralising antibodies, isolated to date, display limited activities against the globally most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes A and C. Therefore, those subtypes are considered to be an important target for antibody-based therapy. Variable domains of llama heavy chain antibodies (VHH) have some superior properties compared with classical antibodies. Therefore we describe the application of trimeric forms of envelope proteins (Env), derived from HIV-1 of subtype A and B/C, for a prolonged immunization of two llamas. A panel of VHH, which interfere with CD4 binding to HIV-1 Env were selected with use of panning. The results of binding and competition assays to various Env, including a variant with a stabilized CD4-binding state (gp120Ds2), cross-competition experiments, maturation analysis and neutralisation assays, enabled us to classify the selected VHH into three groups. The VHH of group I were efficient mainly against viruses of subtype A, C and B′/C. The VHH of group II resemble the broadly neutralising antibody (bnmAb) b12, neutralizing mainly subtype B and C viruses, however some had a broader neutralisation profile. A representative of the third group, 2E7, had an even higher neutralization breadth, neutralizing 21 out of the 26 tested strains belonging to the A, A/G, B, B/C and C subtypes. To evaluate the contribution of certain amino acids to the potency of the VHH a small set of the mutants were constructed. Surprisingly this yielded one mutant with slightly improved neutralisation potency against 92UG37.A9 (subtype A) and 96ZM651.02 (subtype C). These findings and the well-known stability of VHH indicate the potential application of these VHH as anti-HIV-1 microbicides. PMID:22438910

  15. Legomedicine-A Versatile Chemo-Enzymatic Approach for the Preparation of Targeted Dual-Labeled Llama Antibody-Nanoparticle Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lith, Sanne A M; van Duijnhoven, Sander M J; Navis, Anna C; Leenders, William P J; Dolk, Edward; Wennink, Jos W H; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; van Hest, Jan C M

    2017-02-15

    Conjugation of llama single domain antibody fragments (Variable Heavy chain domains of Heavy chain antibodies, VHHs) to diagnostic or therapeutic nanoparticles, peptides, proteins, or drugs offers many opportunities for optimized targeted cancer treatment. Currently, mostly nonspecific conjugation strategies or genetic fusions are used that may compromise VHH functionality. In this paper we present a versatile modular approach for bioorthogonal VHH modification and conjugation. First, sortase A mediated transPEGylation is used for introduction of a chemical click moiety. The resulting clickable VHHs are then used for conjugation to other groups employing the Cu + -independent strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloadition (SPAAC) reaction. Using this approach, tail-to-tail bispecific VHHs and VHH-targeted nanoparticles are generated without affecting VHH functionality. Furthermore, this approach allows the bioconjugation of multiple moieties to VHHs for simple and convenient production of VHH-based theranostics.

  16. LLAMA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Giménez de Castro, G.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Larrarte, J. J.; Lepine, J.; Morras, R.; Viramonte, J.

    2014-10-01

    The project LLAMA, acronym of Long Latin American Millimetre Array is very briefly described in this paper. This project is a joint scientific and technological undertaking of Argentina and Brazil on the basis of an equal investment share, whose mail goal is both to install and to operate an observing facility capable of exploring the Universe at millimetre and sub/millimetre wavelengths. This facility will be erected in the argentinean province of Salta, in a site located at 4830m above sea level.

  17. Efficient heterologous expression and secretion in Aspergillus oryzae of a llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment V(HH) against EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Aoki, Jun-ichi; Tabuchi, Soichiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-10-01

    We have constructed a filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae that secretes a llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (V(HH)) that binds specifically to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a culture medium. A major improvement in yield was achieved by fusing the V(HH) with a Taka-amylase A signal sequence (sTAA) and a segment of 28 amino acids from the N-terminal region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (N28). The yields of secreted, immunologically active anti-EGFR V(HH) reached 73.8 mg/1 in a Sakaguchi flask. The V(HH) fragments were released from the sTAA or N28 proteins by an indigenous A. oryzae protease during cultivation. The purified recombinant V(HH) fragment was specifically recognized and could bind to the EGFR with a high affinity.

  18. Recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments (VHH to rotavirus VP6 protect neonatal gnotobiotic piglets against human rotavirus-induced diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina G Vega

    Full Text Available Group A Rotavirus (RVA is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children. The aims of the present study were to determine the neutralizing activity of VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH nanoAbs against different RVA strains in vitro and to evaluate the ability of G6P[1] VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH to protect against human rotavirus in gnotobiotic (Gn piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] rotavirus. Supplementation of the daily milk diet with 3B2 VHH clone produced using a baculovirus vector expression system (final ELISA antibody -Ab- titer of 4096; virus neutralization -VN- titer of 256 for 9 days conferred full protection against rotavirus associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. The administration of comparable levels of porcine IgG Abs only protected 4 out of 6 of the animals from human RVA diarrhea but significantly reduced virus shedding. In contrast, G6P[1]-VP6 rotavirus-specific IgY Abs purified from eggs of hyperimmunized hens failed to protect piglets against human RVA-induced diarrhea or virus shedding when administering similar quantities of Abs. The oral administration of VHH nanoAb neither interfered with the host's isotype profiles of the Ab secreting cell responses to rotavirus, nor induced detectable host Ab responses to the treatment in serum or intestinal contents. This study shows that the oral administration of rotavirus VP6-VHH nanoAb is a broadly reactive and effective treatment against rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal pigs. Our findings highlight the potential value of a broad neutralizing VP6-specific VHH nanoAb as a treatment that can complement or be used as an alternative to the current strain-specific RVA vaccines. Nanobodies could also be scaled-up to develop pediatric medication or functional food like infant milk formulas that might help treat RVA diarrhea.

  19. Recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments (VHH) to rotavirus VP6 protect neonatal gnotobiotic piglets against human rotavirus-induced diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Celina G; Bok, Marina; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Nuñez, Carmen; Alvarado, Carmen; Lasa, Rodrigo; Escribano, José M; Garaicoechea, Lorena L; Fernandez, Fernando; Bok, Karin; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Saif, Linda J; Parreño, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children. The aims of the present study were to determine the neutralizing activity of VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH nanoAbs) against different RVA strains in vitro and to evaluate the ability of G6P[1] VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH) to protect against human rotavirus in gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] rotavirus. Supplementation of the daily milk diet with 3B2 VHH clone produced using a baculovirus vector expression system (final ELISA antibody -Ab- titer of 4096; virus neutralization -VN- titer of 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against rotavirus associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. The administration of comparable levels of porcine IgG Abs only protected 4 out of 6 of the animals from human RVA diarrhea but significantly reduced virus shedding. In contrast, G6P[1]-VP6 rotavirus-specific IgY Abs purified from eggs of hyperimmunized hens failed to protect piglets against human RVA-induced diarrhea or virus shedding when administering similar quantities of Abs. The oral administration of VHH nanoAb neither interfered with the host's isotype profiles of the Ab secreting cell responses to rotavirus, nor induced detectable host Ab responses to the treatment in serum or intestinal contents. This study shows that the oral administration of rotavirus VP6-VHH nanoAb is a broadly reactive and effective treatment against rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal pigs. Our findings highlight the potential value of a broad neutralizing VP6-specific VHH nanoAb as a treatment that can complement or be used as an alternative to the current strain-specific RVA vaccines. Nanobodies could also be scaled-up to develop pediatric medication or functional food like infant milk formulas that might help treat RVA diarrhea.

  20. The Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Variable Region of Llama Heavy Chain-Only Antibody JM4 Efficiently Blocks both Cell-Free and T Cell-T Cell Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Wang, Weiming; Matz, Julie; Ye, Chaobaihui; Bracq, Lucie; Delon, Jerome; Kimata, Jason T; Chen, Zhiwei; Benichou, Serge; Zhou, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The variable regions (VHHs) of two heavy chain-only antibodies, JM2 and JM4, from llamas that have been immunized with a trimeric gp140 bound to a CD4 mimic have been recently isolated (here referred to as VHH JM2 and VHH JM4, respectively). JM2 binds the CD4-binding site of gp120 and neutralizes HIV-1 strains from subtypes B, C, and G. JM4 binds gp120 and neutralizes HIV-1 strains from subtypes A, B, C, A/E, and G in a CD4-dependent manner. In the present study, we constructed glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored VHH JM2 and JM4 along with an E4 control and transduced them into human CD4 + cell lines and primary CD4 T cells. We report that by genetically linking the VHHs with a GPI attachment signal, VHHs are targeted to the lipid rafts of the plasma membranes. Expression of GPI-VHH JM4, but not GPI-VHH E4 and JM2, on the surface of transduced TZM.bl cells potently neutralizes multiple subtypes of HIV-1 isolates, including tier 2 or 3 strains, transmitted founders, quasispecies, and soluble single domain antibody (sdAb) JM4-resistant viruses. Moreover, transduction of CEMss-CCR5 cells with GPI-VHH JM4, but not with GPI-VHH E4, confers resistance to both cell-free and T cell-T cell transmission of HIV-1 and HIV-1 envelope-mediated fusion. Finally, GPI-VHH JM4-transduced human primary CD4 T cells efficiently resist both cell-free and T cell-T cell transmission of HIV-1. Thus, we conclude that VHH JM4, when targeted to the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane, efficiently neutralizes HIV-1 infection via both cell-free and T cell-T cell transmission. Our findings should have important implications for GPI-anchored antibody-based therapy against HIV-1. Lipid rafts are specialized dynamic microdomains of the plasma membrane and have been shown to be gateways for HIV-1 budding as well as entry into T cells and macrophages. In nature, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins localize in the lipid rafts. In the present study, we developed GPI

  1. In vitro neutralisation of rotavirus infection by two broadly specific recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Aladin (Farah); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra); J. Bouma (Janneke); S. Bezemer (Sandra); P. Hermans (Pim); D. Wolvers (Danielle); K. Bellamy (Kate); L.G.J. Frenken (Leon); J. Gray (Jim); M. Iturriza-Gómara (Miren)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRotavirus is the main cause of viral gastroenteritis in young children. Therefore, the development of inexpensive antiviral products for the prevention and/or treatment of rotavirus disease remains a priority. Previously we have shown that a recombinant monovalent antibody fragment

  2. A Single Domain–Based Anti-Her2 Antibody Has Potent Antitumor Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is overexpressed in approximately 20% to 30% of breast cancers and various other types of cancers, which plays a vital role in the cancer progression. Monoclonal antibodies targeting Her2 are now used in the clinic to treat Her2 overexpression cancer patients. However, relapse or resistance is frequent with the current therapies. To generate a new treatment avenue against Her2, we immunized and selected a specific anti-Her2 single domain antibody C3 for further studies. The C3-Fc antibody drove antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against Her2-positive tumor cells in vitro and resulted in potent antitumor growth in vivo. These data suggest that the C3-Fc antibody may provide an alternative avenue for Her2-positive cancer therapy.

  3. Epitope structure and binding affinity of single chain llama anti-β-amyloid antibodies revealed by proteolytic excision affinity-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschiv, Gabriela; Vincke, Cécile; Czaplewska, Paulina; Manea, Marilena; Muyldermans, Serge; Przybylski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ß-Amyloid (Aß) immunotherapy has become a promising strategy for reducing the level of Aß in brain. New immunological approaches have been recently proposed for rapid, early diagnosis, and molecular treatment of neurodegenerative diseases related to Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The combination of proteolytic epitope excision and extraction and mass spectrometry using digestion with various proteases has been shown to be an efficient tool for the identification and molecular characterization of antigenic determinants. Here, we report the identification of the Aβ epitope recognized by the variable domain of single chain llama anti-Aβ-antibodies, termed Aβ-nanobodies, that have been discovered in the blood of camelids and found to be promising candidates for immunotherapy of AD. The epitope recognized by two Aβ-specific nanobodies was identified by proteolytic epitope extraction- and excision-mass spectrometry using a series of proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, GluC-protease, and LysC-protease). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--mass spectrometric analysis of the affinity--elution fraction provided the epitope, Aβ(17-28), in the mid- to carboxy-terminal domain of Aβ, which has been shown to exert an Aß-fibril inhibiting effect. Affinity studies of the synthetic epitope confirmed that the Aβ(17-28) peptide is the minimal fragment that binds to the nanobodies. The interactions between the nanobodies and full length Aβ(1-40) or Aβ-peptides containing or lacking the epitope sequence were further characterized by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and bioaffinity analysis. Determinations of binding affinities between the Aβ-nanobodies and Aβ(1-40) and the Aβ(17-28) epitope provided K(D) values of approximately 150 and 700 nmol, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of the epitope may be highly useful for future studies of Aβ-aggregation (oligomerization and fibril formation) and for designing new aggregation inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley

  4. A novel bispecific antibody, S-Fab, induces potent cancer cell killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; He, Ping; Zhou, Changhua; Jing, Li; Dong, Bin; Chen, Siqi; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yawei; Miao, Ji; Wang, Zhong; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies that engage immune cells to kill cancer cells have been actively studied in cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we present a novel bispecific format, S-Fab, fabricated by linking a single-domain anti-carcinoembryonic antigen VHH to a conventional anti-CD3 Fab. In contrast to most bispecific antibodies, the S-Fab bispecific antibody can be efficiently expressed and purified from bacteria. The purified S-Fab is stable in serum and is able to recruit T cells to drive potent cancer cell killing. In xenograft models, the S-Fab antibody suppresses tumor growth in the presence of human immune cells. Our study suggested that the bispecific S-Fab format can be applied to a wide range of immunotherapies.

  5. A sensitive progesterone enzyme immunoassay for cow, goat and llama plasma using a monoclonal antibody and Danazol (17-α-2,4-pregnadien-20-yno (2,3-D) isoxazol-17-ol) as a displacing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aba, M.A.; Carlsson, M.A.; Karlsson, A.; Forsberg, M.

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive progesterone enzyme immunoassay was developed for cow, goat and llama plasma using a monoclonal antibody and Danazol (17-α-2,4-pregnadien-20-yno (2,3-d) isoxazol-17-ol) as a displacing agent. The microtitration plates were first coated with progesterone 3 (o-carboxy-methyl) oxine: BSA conjugate. The immune reaction was performed by incubating overnight a mixture of 50 μL of plasma and 100 μL of first antibody. After washing, 100 μL of the second antibody (horse radish peroxidase conjugated anti-mouse IgG) were added. The plates were incubated for 1 hour and washed. Immediately the substrate solution was added and finally the reaction stopped and optical density measured. This assay allows accurate determination of progesterone in plasma from several species with good specificity, precision and accuracy, and is suitable for the rapid assessment of luteal function and reproductive status in both clinical and research situations. (author)

  6. Guinea pig complement potently measures vibriocidal activity of human antibodies in response to cholera vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Whun; Jeong, Soyoung; Ahn, Ki Bum; Yang, Jae Seung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The vibriocidal assay using guinea pig complement is widely used for the evaluation of immune responses to cholera vaccines in human clinical trials. However, it is unclear why guinea pig complement has been used over human complement in the measurement of vibriocidal activity of human sera and there have not been comparison studies for the use of guinea pig complement over those from other species. Therefore, we comparatively investigated the effects of complements derived from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and sheep on vibriocidal activity. Complements from guinea pig, rabbit, and human showed concentration-dependent vibriocidal activity in the presence of quality control serum antibodies. Of these complements, guinea pig complement was the most sensitive and effective over a wide concentration range. When the vibriocidal activity of complements was measured in the absence of serum antibodies, human, sheep, and guinea pig complements showed vibriocidal activity up to 40-fold, 20-fold, and 1-fold dilution, respectively. For human pre- and post-vaccination sera, the most potent vibriocidal activity was observed when guinea pig complement was used. In addition, the highest fold-increases between pre- and post- vaccinated sera were obtained with guinea pig complement. Furthermore, human complement contained a higher amount of V. cholerae- and its lipopolysaccharide-specific antibodies than guinea pig complement. Collectively, these results suggest that guinea pig complements are suitable for vibriocidal assays due to their high sensitivity and effectiveness to human sera.

  7. The Llama Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzel, Candy; Stuglik, Jan

    2003-01-01

    At a suburban Indiana elementary school, the Project Approach serves as the basis of the curriculum in all Kindergarten classrooms. The four classes of 5- and 6-year-old children at this school chose to study llamas. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides teachers' reflections on the…

  8. A Three Monoclonal Antibody Combination Potently Neutralizes Multiple Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype E Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Consuelo; Razai, Ali; Geren, Isin N; Lou, Jianlong; Conrad, Fraser; Wen, Wei-Hua; Farr-Jones, Shauna; Smith, Theresa J; Brown, Jennifer L; Skerry, Janet C; Smith, Leonard A; Marks, James D

    2018-03-01

    Human botulism is most commonly caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B, and E. For this work, we sought to develop a human monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based antitoxin capable of binding and neutralizing multiple subtypes of BoNT/E. Libraries of yeast-displayed single chain Fv (scFv) antibodies were created from the heavy and light chain variable region genes of humans immunized with pentavalent-toxoid- and BoNT/E-binding scFv isolated by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). A total of 10 scFv were isolated that bound one or more BoNT/E subtypes with nanomolar-level equilibrium dissociation constants (K D ). By diversifying the V-regions of the lead mAbs and selecting for cross-reactivity, we generated three scFv that bound all four BoNT/E subtypes tested at three non-overlapping epitopes. The scFvs were converted to IgG that had K D values for the different BoNT/E subtypes ranging from 9.7 nM to 2.28 pM. An equimolar combination of the three mAbs was able to potently neutralize BoNT/E1, BoNT/E3, and BoNT/E4 in a mouse neutralization assay. The mAbs have potential utility as therapeutics and as diagnostics capable of recognizing multiple BoNT/E subtypes. A derivative of the three-antibody combination (NTM-1633) is in pre-clinical development with an investigational new drug (IND) application filing expected in 2018.

  9. A Three Monoclonal Antibody Combination Potently Neutralizes Multiple Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype E Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Garcia-Rodriguez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Human botulism is most commonly caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT serotypes A, B, and E. For this work, we sought to develop a human monoclonal antibody (mAb-based antitoxin capable of binding and neutralizing multiple subtypes of BoNT/E. Libraries of yeast-displayed single chain Fv (scFv antibodies were created from the heavy and light chain variable region genes of humans immunized with pentavalent-toxoid- and BoNT/E-binding scFv isolated by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS. A total of 10 scFv were isolated that bound one or more BoNT/E subtypes with nanomolar-level equilibrium dissociation constants (KD. By diversifying the V-regions of the lead mAbs and selecting for cross-reactivity, we generated three scFv that bound all four BoNT/E subtypes tested at three non-overlapping epitopes. The scFvs were converted to IgG that had KD values for the different BoNT/E subtypes ranging from 9.7 nM to 2.28 pM. An equimolar combination of the three mAbs was able to potently neutralize BoNT/E1, BoNT/E3, and BoNT/E4 in a mouse neutralization assay. The mAbs have potential utility as therapeutics and as diagnostics capable of recognizing multiple BoNT/E subtypes. A derivative of the three-antibody combination (NTM-1633 is in pre-clinical development with an investigational new drug (IND application filing expected in 2018.

  10. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical.

  11. Llama immunization with full-length VAR2CSA generates cross-reactive and inhibitory single-domain antibodies against the DBL1X domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Gangnard, Stéphane; Vidal, Marta; Vuchelen, Anneleen; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Chan, Sherwin; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Ramboarina, Stephanie; Chêne, Arnaud; Gamain, Benoît

    2014-12-09

    VAR2CSA stands today as the leading vaccine candidate aiming to protect future pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas against the severe clinical outcomes of pregnancy associated malaria (PAM). The rational design of an efficient VAR2CSA-based vaccine relies on a profound understanding of the molecular interactions associated with P. falciparum infected erythrocyte sequestration in the placenta. Following immunization of a llama with the full-length VAR2CSA recombinant protein, we have expressed and characterized a panel of 19 nanobodies able to recognize the recombinant VAR2CSA as well as the surface of erythrocytes infected with parasites originating from different parts of the world. Domain mapping revealed that a large majority of nanobodies targeted DBL1X whereas a few of them were directed towards DBL4ε, DBL5ε and DBL6ε. One nanobody targeting the DBL1X was able to recognize the native VAR2CSA protein of the three parasite lines tested. Furthermore, four nanobodies targeting DBL1X reproducibly inhibited CSA adhesion of erythrocytes infected with the homologous NF54-CSA parasite strain, providing evidences that DBL1X domain is part or close to the CSA binding site. These nanobodies could serve as useful tools to identify conserved epitopes shared between different variants and to characterize the interactions between VAR2CSA and CSA.

  12. A single-domain antibody-linked Fab bispecific antibody Her2-S-Fab has potent cytotoxicity against Her2-expressing tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aifen; Xing, Jieyu; Li, Li; Zhou, Changhua; Dong, Bin; He, Ping; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Her2, which is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer, is one of the most studied tumor-associated antigens for cancer therapy. Anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, has achieved significant clinical benefits in metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we describe a novel bispecific antibody Her2-S-Fab targeting Her2 by linking a single domain anti-CD16 VHH to the trastuzumab Fab. The Her2-S-Fab antibody can be efficiently expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and drive potent cancer cell killing in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. In xenograft model, the Her2-S-Fab suppresses tumor growth in the presence of human immune cells. Our results suggest that the bispecific Her2-S-Fab may provide a valid alternative to Her2 positive cancer therapy.

  13. Use of flow cytometry to identify monoclonal antibodies that recognize conserved epitopes on orthologous leukocyte differentiation antigens in goats, llamas, and rabbits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davis, W. C.; Drbal, Karel; El-Aziz, A.; Mosaad, A.E.; Elbagory, A.R.M.; TIbary, A.; Barrington, G.M.; Park, Y.H.; Hamilton, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 119, 1-2 (2007), s. 123-130 ISSN 0165-2427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : flow cytometry * monoclonal antibodies * leukocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2007

  14. Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41-gp120 interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Pancera, Marie; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Tong, Tommy; Feng, Yu; Imamichi, Hiromi; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Laub, Leo; Sliepen, Kwinten; van Gils, Marit J.; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Derking, Ronald; Klasse, Per-Johan; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Alam, Munir; Pugach, Pavel; Haynes, Barton F.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Binley, James M.; Ward, Andrew B.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark [NIH

    2015-10-15

    The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies is providing important insights into the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in ref. 1). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific monoclonal antibody, termed 35O22, which binds a novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) <50 μg ml-1. The median IC50 of neutralized viruses was 0.033 μg ml-1, among the most potent thus far described. 35O22 did not bind monomeric forms of Env tested, but did bind the trimeric BG505 SOSIP.664. Mutagenesis and a reconstruction by negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab in complex with trimer revealed that it bound to a conserved epitope, which stretched across gp120 and gp41. The specificity of 35O22 represents a novel site of vulnerability on HIV Env, which serum analysis indicates to be commonly elicited by natural infection. Binding to this new site of vulnerability may thus be an important complement to current monoclonal-antibody-based approaches to immunotherapies, prophylaxis and vaccine design.

  15. An Exopolysaccharide-Deficient Mutant of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Efficiently Displays a Protective Llama Antibody Fragment against Rotavirus on Its Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Beatriz; Krogh-Andersen, Kasper; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Martínez, Noelia; Günaydın, Gökçe; Lin, Yin; Martín, M Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2015-09-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, where it causes a high number of deaths among infants. Two vaccines are available, being highly effective in developed countries although markedly less efficient in developing countries. As a complementary treatment to the vaccines, a Lactobacillus strain producing an anti-rotavirus antibody fragment in the gastrointestinal tract could potentially be used. In order to develop such an alternative therapy, the effectiveness of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to produce and display a VHH antibody fragment (referred to as anti-rotavirus protein 1 [ARP1]) on the surface was investigated. L. rhamnosus GG is one of the best-characterized probiotic bacteria and has intrinsic antirotavirus activity. Among four L. rhamnosus GG strains [GG (CMC), GG (ATCC 53103), GG (NCC 3003), and GG (UT)] originating from different sources, only GG (UT) was able to display ARP1 on the bacterial surface. The genomic analysis of strain GG (UT) showed that the genes welE and welF of the EPS cluster are inactivated, which causes a defect in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, allowing efficient display of ARP1 on its surface. Finally, GG (UT) seemed to confer a level of protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea similar to that of wild-type GG (NCC 3003) in a mouse pup model, indicating that the EPS may not be involved in the intrinsic antirotavirus activity. Most important, GG (EM233), a derivative of GG (UT) producing ARP1, was significantly more protective than the control strain L. casei BL23. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Characterization of SGN-CD123A, A Potent CD123-Directed Antibody-Drug Conjugate for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu; Sutherland, May Kung; Yu, Changpu; Walter, Roland B; Westendorf, Lori; Valliere-Douglass, John; Pan, Lucy; Cronkite, Ashley; Sussman, Django; Klussman, Kerry; Ulrich, Michelle; Anderson, Martha E; Stone, Ivan J; Zeng, Weiping; Jonas, Mechthild; Lewis, Timothy S; Goswami, Maitrayee; Wang, Sa A; Senter, Peter D; Law, Che-Leung; Feldman, Eric J; Benjamin, Dennis R

    2018-02-01

    Treatment choices for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients resistant to conventional chemotherapies are limited and novel therapeutic agents are needed. IL3 receptor alpha (IL3Rα, or CD123) is expressed on the majority of AML blasts, and there is evidence that its expression is increased on leukemic relative to normal hematopoietic stem cells, which makes it an attractive target for antibody-based therapy. Here, we report the generation and preclinical characterization of SGN-CD123A, an antibody-drug conjugate using the pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer (PBD) linker and a humanized CD123 antibody with engineered cysteines for site-specific conjugation. Mechanistically, SGN-CD123A induces activation of DNA damage response pathways, cell-cycle changes, and apoptosis in AML cells. In vitro , SGN-CD123A-mediated potent cytotoxicity of 11/12 CD123 + AML cell lines and 20/23 primary samples from AML patients, including those with unfavorable cytogenetic profiles or FLT3 mutations. In vivo , SGN-CD123A treatment led to AML eradication in a disseminated disease model, remission in a subcutaneous xenograft model, and significant growth delay in a multidrug resistance xenograft model. Moreover, SGN-CD123A also resulted in durable complete remission of a patient-derived xenograft AML model. When combined with a FLT3 inhibitor quizartinib, SGN-CD123A enhanced the activity of quizartinib against two FLT3-mutated xenograft models. Overall, these data demonstrate that SGN-CD123A is a potent antileukemic agent, supporting an ongoing trial to evaluate its safety and efficacy in AML patients (NCT02848248). Mol Cancer Ther; 17(2); 554-64. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Potent inhibition of drug-resistant HIV protease variants by monoclonal antibodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoňová, Vanda; Král, Vlastimil; Sieglová, Irena; Brynda, Jiří; Fábry, Milan; Hořejší, Magdalena; Kožíšek, Milan; Grantz Šašková, Klára; Konvalinka, Jan; Sedláček, Juraj; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2008), s. 275-277 ISSN 0166-3542 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : HIV protease * drug resistance * Inhibiting antibody Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.613, year: 2008

  18. A potent human neutralizing antibody Fc-dependently reduces established HBV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; He, Wenhui; Liu, Ximing; Zheng, Sanduo; Qi, Yonghe; Li, Huiyu; Mao, Fengfeng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Yinyan; Pan, Lijing; Du, Kaixin; Ye, Keqiong; Li, Wenhui; Sui, Jianhua

    2017-09-26

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem. Currently-available therapies are ineffective in curing chronic HBV infection. HBV and its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV) infect hepatocytes via binding of the preS1 domain of its large envelope protein to sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). Here, we developed novel human monoclonal antibodies that block the engagement of preS1 with NTCP and neutralize HBV and HDV with high potency. One antibody, 2H5-A14, functions at picomolar level and exhibited neutralization-activity-mediated prophylactic effects. It also acts therapeutically by eliciting antibody-Fc-dependent immunological effector functions that impose durable suppression of viral infection in HBV-infected mice, resulting in reductions in the levels of the small envelope antigen and viral DNA, with no emergence of escape mutants. Our results illustrate a novel antibody-Fc-dependent approach for HBV treatment and suggest 2H5-A14 as a novel clinical candidate for HBV prevention and treatment of chronic HBV infection.

  19. Structural and Functional Characterization of Anti-A33 Antibodies Reveal a Potent Cross-Species Orthopoxviruses Neutralizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Matho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus A33 is an extracellular enveloped virus (EEV-specific type II membrane glycoprotein that is essential for efficient EEV formation and long-range viral spread within the host. A33 is a target for neutralizing antibody responses against EEV. In this study, we produced seven murine anti-A33 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs by immunizing mice with live VACV, followed by boosting with the soluble A33 homodimeric ectodomain. Five A33 specific MAbs were capable of neutralizing EEV in the presence of complement. All MAbs bind to conformational epitopes on A33 but not to linear peptides. To identify the epitopes, we have adetermined the crystal structures of three representative neutralizing MAbs in complex with A33. We have further determined the binding kinetics for each of the three antibodies to wild-type A33, as well as to engineered A33 that contained single alanine substitutions within the epitopes of the three crystallized antibodies. While the Fab of both MAbs A2C7 and A20G2 binds to a single A33 subunit, the Fab from MAb A27D7 binds to both A33 subunits simultaneously. A27D7 binding is resistant to single alanine substitutions within the A33 epitope. A27D7 also demonstrated high-affinity binding with recombinant A33 protein that mimics other orthopoxvirus strains in the A27D7 epitope, such as ectromelia, monkeypox, and cowpox virus, suggesting that A27D7 is a potent cross-neutralizer. Finally, we confirmed that A27D7 protects mice against a lethal challenge with ectromelia virus.

  20. A Potent Virus-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cell Response to Acute Enterovirus 71 Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuan-Ying Arthur; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Yang, Shuan; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) remains a leading pathogen for acute infectious diseases in children, especially in Asia. The cellular basis for establishing a virus-specific antibody response to acute EV71 infections is unclear in children. We studied the magnitude of virus-specific antibody-secreting B cells (ASCs) and its relationship with serological response, clinical parameters, and virological parameters among children with laboratory-confirmed EV71 infection. A potent EV71 genogroup B- and virus-specific ASC response was detected in the first week of illness among genotype B5 EV71-infected children. The cross-reactive EV71-specific ASC response to genogroup C viral antigens composed about 10% of the response. The EV71-specific ASC response in children aged ≥3 years produced immunoglobulin G predominantly, but immunoglobulin M was predominant in younger children. Proliferation marker was expressed by the majority of circulating ASCs in the acute phase of EV71 infection. Virus-specific ASC responses significantly correlated with throat viral load, fever duration, and serological genogroup-specific neutralization titer. The presence of a virus-specific ASC response serves an early cellular marker of an EV71-specific antibody response. Further detailed study of EV71-specific ASCs at the monoclonal level is crucial to delineate the specificity and function of antibody immunity in children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Coccidioidomycosis in the llama: case report and epidemiologic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, S; Pappagianis, D

    1982-12-01

    An 8-year-old nongravid female llama with a 1-month history of progressive posterior paresis was referred because of suspected degenerative myelopathy secondary to copper deficiency or plant poisoning. Neurologic examination revealed loss of conscious proprioception and slightly depressed bilateral patellar reflexes. Electromyographic examination of hindlimb flexors and extensors did not elicit evidence of lower motor neuron disease. Possible fragmentation and mottling of the 10th thoracic vertebral body were noted radiographically. Results of a lumbar CSF tap, complete blood count, and fecal flotation were not diagnostic. In the face of poor prognosis, the llama was euthanatized. Postmortem and histologic evaluation revealed, in addition to disseminated visceral granulomas, an extradural pyogranulomatous mass compressing the cord laterally at the level of T-10. Large numbers of Coccidioides immitis were dispersed throughout the granulomas. Complement fixing antibody tests in 11 other herd members showed evidence of C immitis infection in three.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii infection in llama (Llama glama): acute visceral disseminated lesions, diagnosis, and development of tissue cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Newell, T K; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Stevens, E L

    2014-06-01

    Clinical toxoplasmosis has been reported in many species of warm-blooded animals but is rare in camelids. Here we report acute fatal systemic toxoplasmosis involving heart, thyroid gland, stomach, intestine, diaphragm, kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver of a 13-mo-old llama (Llama glama). Many Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were associated with tissue necrosis in multiple organs. Death was attributed to severe myocarditis. Ulcers associated with numerous tachyzoites were present in the C3 compartment of the stomach. Tissue cyst development was followed using bradyzoite-specific T. gondii antibodies. Individual intracellular, and groups of 2 or more, bradyzoites were identified in hepatocytes, biliary epithelium, myocardiocytes, lung, diaphragm, thyroid gland, spleen, and stomach. Lesions in the brain were a few microglial nodules and very early tissue cysts containing 1-3 bradyzoites. These observations suggest that the animal had acquired toxoplasmosis recently. Diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by reaction with T. gondii -specific polyclonal rabbit serum but not with antibodies to the related protozoan Neospora caninum . Genetic typing using the DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded myocardium of llama and 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers revealed a type II allele at the SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1 L358, and Apico loci; therefore, this isolate belongs to the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1, which is most common in North America and Europe.

  3. Potent neutralization of VEGF biological activities with a fully human antibody Fab fragment directed against VEGF receptor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, H.-Q.; Hu, Kun; Jimenez, Xenia; Navarro, Elizabeth; Zhang, Haifan; Lu Dan; Ludwig, Dale L.; Balderes, Paul; Zhu Zhenping

    2006-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors, especially receptor 2 (VEGFR2, or kinase insert domain-containing receptor, KDR), play a critical role in angiogenesis under both physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer and angiogenic retinopathies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To this end, inhibition of angiogenesis with antagonists to either VEGF or KDR has yielded significant therapeutic efficacy both in preclinical studies in animal models and in clinical trials in patients with cancer and AMD. We previously reported the identification of a high affinity, fully human anti-KDR antibody fragment, 1121B Fab, through a highly stringent affinity maturation process with a Fab originally isolated from a naive human antibody phage display library. In this study, we demonstrate that 1121B Fab is able to strongly block KDR/VEGF interaction, resulting in potent inhibition of an array of biological activities of VEGF, including activation of the receptor and its signaling pathway, intracellular calcium mobilization, and migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. Taken together, our data lend strong support to the further development of 1121B Fab fragment as an anti-angiogenesis agent in both cancer and angiogenic retinopathies

  4. Synergistic anti-tumor therapy by a comb-like multifunctional antibody nanoarray with exceptionally potent activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huafei; Sun, Yun; Chen, Di; Zhao, He; Zhao, Mengxin; Zhu, Xiandi; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fulei; Wei, Huafeng; Li, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneously blocking multiple mediators offers new hope for the treatment of complex diseases. However, the curative potential of current combination therapy by chronological administration of separate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or multi-specific mAbs is still moderate due to inconvenient manipulation, low cooperative effectors, poor pharmacokinetics and insufficient tumor accumulation. Here, we describe a facile strategy that arms distinct mAbs with cooperative effectors onto a long chain to form a multicomponent comb-like nano mAb. Unlike dissociative parental mAbs, the multifunctional mAb nanoarray (PL-RB) constructed from type I/II anti-CD20 mAbs shows good pharmacokinetics. This PL-RB simultaneously targets distinct epitopes on a single antigen (Ag) and neighboring Ags on different lymphocytes. This unique intra- and intercellular Ag cross-linking endows the multifunctional mAb nanoarray with potent apoptosis activity. The exceptional apoptosis, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) that are synchronously evoked by the nano PL-RB are further synergistically promoted via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR), which resulted in high intratumor accumulation and excellent anti-lymphoma efficiency.

  5. Identifying Monoclonal Antibodies that Potently Inhibit MERS-CoV | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), first isolated in September 2012, infects cells lining the human airway, causing severe flu-like symptoms that, in some cases, lead to death. As of July 2, 2014, 824 confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection, including at least 286 related deaths, have been reported to the World Health Organization. While there are currently no effective therapies against the virus, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) may be a promising candidate. Having previously developed MAbs against other viruses, including the related severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus or SARS-CoV, Dimiter Dimitrov, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Experimental Immunology (LEI), and his colleagues decided to pan a library of antigen binding fragments (Fab) for activity against MERS-CoV.

  6. Characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from llama and alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Anderson, David; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Narayanan, Sanjeev K

    2013-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium, is an opportunistic animal and human pathogen that causes a variety of infections termed necrobacillosis. There are 2 subspecies of F. necrophorum (subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme) that differ morphologically and biochemically and in virulence. Leukotoxin, a secreted protein, is considered to be the major virulence factor. In camelids, F. necrophorum causes a variety of infections, generally involving the lips, tongue, pharynx, interdigital spaces, foot pad, larynx, mandible, or maxillary bones. The objective of the current study was to characterize the presumptive Fusobacterium isolates from a variety of necrotic infections in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and determine whether the strains possess leukotoxin activities. A total of 7 isolates from alpaca and 2 isolates from llama were characterized. Based on growth characteristics in broth culture, and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analyses, all 9 isolates belonged to subsp. necrophorum and possessed the putative hemagglutinin gene. Western blot analysis with antileukotoxin antibodies raised in rabbit showed the presence of leukotoxin protein in the culture supernatant of all isolates. Furthermore, flow cytometry of the culture supernatants demonstrated cytotoxicity to bovine and alpaca polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The extent of cytotoxicity to either alpaca or bovine PMNs differed among camelid strains. The cytotoxicity of many of the camelid strains was higher (P llama and alpaca are similar to bovine isolates, and leukotoxin may be a major virulence factor.

  7. Multivalent peptidic linker enables identification of preferred sites of conjugation for a potent thialanstatin antibody drug conjugate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujiet Puthenveetil

    Full Text Available Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs are no longer an unknown entity in the field of cancer therapy with the success of marketed ADCs like ADCETRIS and KADCYLA and numerous others advancing through clinical trials. The pursuit of novel cytotoxic payloads beyond the mictotubule inhibitors and DNA damaging agents has led us to the recent discovery of an mRNA splicing inhibitor, thailanstatin, as a potent ADC payload. In our previous work, we observed that the potency of this payload was uniquely tied to the method of conjugation, with lysine conjugates showing much superior potency as compared to cysteine conjugates. However, the ADC field is rapidly shifting towards site-specific ADCs due to their advantages in manufacturability, characterization and safety. In this work we report the identification of a highly efficacious site-specific thailanstatin ADC. The site of conjugation played a critical role on both the in vitro and in vivo potency of these ADCs. During the course of this study, we developed a novel methodology of loading a single site with multiple payloads using an in situ generated multi-drug carrying peptidic linker that allowed us to rapidly screen for optimal conjugation sites. Using this methodology, we were able to identify a double-cysteine mutant ADC delivering four-loaded thailanstatin that was very efficacious in a gastric cancer xenograft model at 3mg/kg and was also shown to be efficacious against T-DM1 resistant and MDR1 overexpressing tumor cell lines.

  8. Multivalent peptidic linker enables identification of preferred sites of conjugation for a potent thialanstatin antibody drug conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenveetil, Sujiet; He, Haiyin; Loganzo, Frank; Musto, Sylvia; Teske, Jesse; Green, Michael; Tan, Xingzhi; Hosselet, Christine; Lucas, Judy; Tumey, L Nathan; Sapra, Puja; Subramanyam, Chakrapani; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Graziani, Edmund I

    2017-01-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are no longer an unknown entity in the field of cancer therapy with the success of marketed ADCs like ADCETRIS and KADCYLA and numerous others advancing through clinical trials. The pursuit of novel cytotoxic payloads beyond the mictotubule inhibitors and DNA damaging agents has led us to the recent discovery of an mRNA splicing inhibitor, thailanstatin, as a potent ADC payload. In our previous work, we observed that the potency of this payload was uniquely tied to the method of conjugation, with lysine conjugates showing much superior potency as compared to cysteine conjugates. However, the ADC field is rapidly shifting towards site-specific ADCs due to their advantages in manufacturability, characterization and safety. In this work we report the identification of a highly efficacious site-specific thailanstatin ADC. The site of conjugation played a critical role on both the in vitro and in vivo potency of these ADCs. During the course of this study, we developed a novel methodology of loading a single site with multiple payloads using an in situ generated multi-drug carrying peptidic linker that allowed us to rapidly screen for optimal conjugation sites. Using this methodology, we were able to identify a double-cysteine mutant ADC delivering four-loaded thailanstatin that was very efficacious in a gastric cancer xenograft model at 3mg/kg and was also shown to be efficacious against T-DM1 resistant and MDR1 overexpressing tumor cell lines.

  9. Replicating Rather than Nonreplicating Adenovirus-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Recombinant Vaccines Are Better at Eliciting Potent Cellular Immunity and Priming High-Titer Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Liqun Rejean; Gómez-Román, Victor Raúl; Davis-Warren, Alberta; Montefiori, David C.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Venzon, David; Zhao, Jun; Kan, Elaine; Rowell, Thomas J.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Srivastava, Indresh; Barnett, Susan W.; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge in combating the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is the development of vaccines capable of inducing potent, persistent cellular immunity and broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses to HIV type 1 (HIV-1). We report here the results of a preclinical trial using the chimpanzee model to investigate a combination vaccine strategy involving sequential priming immunizations with different serotypes of adenovirus (Ad)/HIV-1MNenv/rev recombinants and boosting wit...

  10. Reproduction in llamas and alpacas: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C L; Peter, A T; Pugh, D G

    1994-02-02

    In this review we attempt to compile and summarize the diverse and often contradictory material presented on the reproduction of llamas and alpacas (hereafter referred to as lamoids). Lamoids have recently gained international popularity, and theriogenologists are often asked to intervene in clinical management of reproductive problems of these animals. We therefore present a discussion of the reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior of llamas as well as the follicular dynamics as observed with ultrasonography. The nonsurgical embryo transfer procedure and the nutrient requirements of llamas are also discussed.

  11. Unilateral nephrectomy in a juvenile llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoogmoed, L.; Snyder, J.R.; Roberts, G.; Harmon, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and surgical management of a llama with an ectopic ureter. Nine-month-old female llama. The diagnostic evaluation included the use of computed tomography and an excretory ureterogram to confirm and identify the location of the ectopic ureter. Surgical management involved a unilateral nephrectomy. Computed tomography is a valuable asset to diagnose the presence and terminal location of an ectopic ureter in llamas, and nephrectomy appears to be a viable procedure to resolve the subsequent urinary incontinence

  12. An Ehrlichia strain from a llama (Lama glama) and Llama-associated ticks (Ixodes pacificus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlough, J E; Madigan, J E; Turoff, D R; Clover, J R; Shelly, S M; Dumler, J S

    1997-01-01

    An ehrlichia was identified in the blood of a diseased llama (lama glama). Sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene showed the ehrlichia to be closely related to members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup. The agent was also found in a pool of ticks (Ixodes pacificus) collected at the llama site. PMID:9157118

  13. Structure and function of broadly reactive antibody PG16 reveal an H3 subdomain that mediates potent neutralization of HIV-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejchal, Robert; Walker, Laura M.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Phogat, Sanjay K.; Koff, Wayne C.; Poignard, Pascal; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps); (IAVI)

    2010-11-15

    Development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 will likely require elicitation of broad and potent neutralizing antibodies against the trimeric surface envelope glycoprotein (Env). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) PG9 and PG16 neutralize {approx}80% of HIV-1 isolates across all clades with extraordinary potency and target novel epitopes preferentially expressed on Env trimers. As these neutralization properties are ideal for a vaccine-elicited antibody response to HIV-1, their structural basis was investigated. The crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of PG16 at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution revealed its unusually long, 28-residue, complementarity determining region (CDR) H3 forms a unique, stable subdomain that towers above the antibody surface. A 7-residue 'specificity loop' on the 'hammerhead' subdomain was identified that, when transplanted from PG16 to PG9 and vice versa, accounted for differences in the fine specificity and neutralization of these two mAbs. The PG16 electron density maps also revealed that a CDR H3 tyrosine was sulfated, which was confirmed for both PG9 (doubly) and PG16 (singly) by mass spectral analysis. We further showed that tyrosine sulfation plays a role in binding and neutralization. An N-linked glycan modification is observed in the variable light chain, but not required for antigen recognition. Further, the crystal structure of the PG9 light chain at 3.0 {angstrom} facilitated homology modeling to support the presence of these unusual features in PG9. Thus, PG9 and PG16 use unique structural features to mediate potent neutralization of HIV-1 that may be of utility in antibody engineering and for high-affinity recognition of a variety of therapeutic targets.

  14. Receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein induces highly potent neutralizing antibodies: implication for developing subunit vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yuxian; Zhou Yusen; Liu Shuwen; Kou Zhihua; Li Wenhui; Farzan, Michael; Jiang Shibo

    2004-01-01

    The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV), a type I transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, consists of S1 and S2 domains responsible for virus binding and fusion, respectively. The S1 contains a receptor-binding domain (RBD) that can specifically bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor on target cells. Here we show that a recombinant fusion protein (designated RBD-Fc) containing 193-amino acid RBD (residues 318-510) and a human IgG1 Fc fragment can induce highly potent antibody responses in the immunized rabbits. The antibodies recognized RBD on S1 domain and completely inhibited SARS-CoV infection at a serum dilution of 1:10,240. Rabbit antisera effectively blocked binding of S1, which contains RBD, to ACE2. This suggests that RBD can induce highly potent neutralizing antibody responses and has potential to be developed as an effective and safe subunit vaccine for prevention of SARS

  15. Llama nanoantibodies with therapeutic potential against human norovirus diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaicoechea, Lorena; Aguilar, Andrea; Parra, Gabriel I; Bok, Marina; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Canziani, Gabriela; Green, Kim Y; Bok, Karin; Parreño, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis.

  16. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  17. Potent neutralization of influenza A virus by a single-domain antibody blocking M2 ion channel protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Wei

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus poses serious health threat to humans. Neutralizing antibodies against the highly conserved M2 ion channel is thought to offer broad protection against influenza A viruses. Here, we screened synthetic Camel single-domain antibody (VHH libraries against native M2 ion channel protein. One of the isolated VHHs, M2-7A, specifically bound to M2-expressed cell membrane as well as influenza A virion, inhibited replication of both amantadine-sensitive and resistant influenza A viruses in vitro, and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, M2-7A showed blocking activity for proton influx through M2 ion channel. These pieces of evidence collectively demonstrate for the first time that a neutralizing antibody against M2 with broad specificity is achievable, and M2-7A may have potential for cross protection against a number of variants and subtypes of influenza A viruses.

  18. Reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis in endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Basic concepts of ovarian follicular dynamics, endocrine events associated with induction of ovulation, corpus luteum formation, pregnancy, parturition, postpartum interval, puberty, and sexual behavior on the female are reviewed. Pathologic conditions of the reproductive process are also reviewed.

  19. Replicating rather than nonreplicating adenovirus-human immunodeficiency virus recombinant vaccines are better at eliciting potent cellular immunity and priming high-titer antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Liqun Rejean; Gómez-Román, Victor Raúl; Davis-Warren, Alberta; Montefiori, David C; Kalyanaraman, V S; Venzon, David; Zhao, Jun; Kan, Elaine; Rowell, Thomas J; Murthy, Krishna K; Srivastava, Indresh; Barnett, Susan W; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2005-08-01

    A major challenge in combating the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is the development of vaccines capable of inducing potent, persistent cellular immunity and broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses to HIV type 1 (HIV-1). We report here the results of a preclinical trial using the chimpanzee model to investigate a combination vaccine strategy involving sequential priming immunizations with different serotypes of adenovirus (Ad)/HIV-1(MN)env/rev recombinants and boosting with an HIV envelope subunit protein, oligomeric HIV(SF162) gp140deltaV2. The immunogenicities of replicating and nonreplicating Ad/HIV-1(MN)env/rev recombinants were compared. Replicating Ad/HIV recombinants were better at eliciting HIV-specific cellular immune responses and better at priming humoral immunity against HIV than nonreplicating Ad-HIV recombinants carrying the same gene insert. Enhanced cellular immunity was manifested by a greater frequency of HIV envelope-specific gamma interferon-secreting peripheral blood lymphocytes and better priming of T-cell proliferative responses. Enhanced humoral immunity was seen in higher anti-envelope binding and neutralizing antibody titers and better induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. More animals primed with replicating Ad recombinants mounted neutralizing antibodies against heterologous R5 viruses after one or two booster immunizations with the mismatched oligomeric HIV-1(SF162) gp140deltaV2 protein. These results support continued development of the replicating Ad-HIV recombinant vaccine approach and suggest that the use of replicating vectors for other vaccines may prove fruitful.

  20. Synthesis of hapten and preparation of specific polyclonal antibody with high affinity for lenalidomide, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwish Ibrahim A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide (LND, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM, a specific antibody was required for the development of a sensitive immunoassay system for the accurate determination of LND in plasma. Results In this study, a hapten of LND (N-glutaryl-LND was synthesized by introducing the glutaryl moiety, as a spacer, into the primary aromatic amine site of the LND molecular structure. The structure of the hapten (G-LND was confirmed by mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C spectrometric techniques. G-LND was coupled to each of bovine serum albumin (BSA and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH proteins by ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. LND-KLH conjugate was used as an immunogen. Four female 2-3 months old New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with an emulsion of LND-KLH with Freund`s adjuvant. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using LND-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and affinity to LND was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on protein A column. The specificity of the purified antibody for LND was evaluated by indirect competitive ELISA using dexamethasone as a competitor as it is used with LND in a combination therapy. Conclusions The high affinity of the antibody (IC50 = 10 ng/mL will be useful in the development of an immunoassay system for the determination of plasma LND concentrations. Current research is going to optimize the assay conditions and validate the procedures for the routine application in clinical laboratories.

  1. Synthesis of hapten and preparation of specific polyclonal antibody with high affinity for lenalidomide, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Ibrahim A; Alzoman, Nourh Z; Abuhejail, Reem M; El-Samani, Tilal E

    2012-10-26

    For therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide (LND), the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), a specific antibody was required for the development of a sensitive immunoassay system for the accurate determination of LND in plasma. In this study, a hapten of LND (N-glutaryl-LND) was synthesized by introducing the glutaryl moiety, as a spacer, into the primary aromatic amine site of the LND molecular structure. The structure of the hapten (G-LND) was confirmed by mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C spectrometric techniques. G-LND was coupled to each of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) proteins by ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. LND-KLH conjugate was used as an immunogen. Four female 2-3 months old New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with an emulsion of LND-KLH with Freund`s adjuvant. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using LND-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and affinity to LND was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on protein A column. The specificity of the purified antibody for LND was evaluated by indirect competitive ELISA using dexamethasone as a competitor as it is used with LND in a combination therapy. The high affinity of the antibody (IC50 = 10 ng/mL) will be useful in the development of an immunoassay system for the determination of plasma LND concentrations. Current research is going to optimize the assay conditions and validate the procedures for the routine application in clinical laboratories.

  2. Crystal structure of the Hendra virus attachment G glycoprotein bound to a potent cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    Full Text Available The henipaviruses, represented by Hendra (HeV and Nipah (NiV viruses are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses with uniquely broad host tropisms responsible for repeated outbreaks in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection and lack of licensed antiviral therapies make the henipaviruses a potential biological threat to humans and livestock. Henipavirus entry is initiated by the attachment of the G envelope glycoprotein to host cell membrane receptors. Previously, henipavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (hmAb have been isolated using the HeV-G glycoprotein and a human naïve antibody library. One cross-reactive and receptor-blocking hmAb (m102.4 was recently demonstrated to be an effective post-exposure therapy in two animal models of NiV and HeV infection, has been used in several people on a compassionate use basis, and is currently in development for use in humans. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of HeV-G with m102.3, an m102.4 derivative, and describe NiV and HeV escape mutants. This structure provides detailed insight into the mechanism of HeV and NiV neutralization by m102.4, and serves as a blueprint for further optimization of m102.4 as a therapeutic agent and for the development of entry inhibitors and vaccines.

  3. Inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine delivered to rat skin via high density microprojection array elicits potent neutralising antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, David A; Pearson, Frances E; Fernando, Germain J P; Agyei-Yeboah, Christiana; Owens, Nick S; Corrie, Simon R; Crichton, Michael L; Wei, Jonathan C J; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Young, Paul R; Kendall, Mark A F

    2016-02-25

    Polio eradication is progressing rapidly, and the live attenuated Sabin strains in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are being removed sequentially, starting with type 2 in April 2016. For risk mitigation, countries are introducing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine vaccination programs. After April 2016, monovalent type 2 OPV will be available for type 2 outbreak control. Because the current IPV is not suitable for house-to-house vaccination campaigns (the intramuscular injections require health professionals), we developed a high-density microprojection array, the Nanopatch, delivered monovalent type 2 IPV (IPV2) vaccine to the skin. To assess the immunogenicity of the Nanopatch, we performed a dose-matched study in rats, comparing the immunogenicity of IPV2 delivered by intramuscular injection or Nanopatch immunisation. A single dose of 0.2 D-antigen units of IPV2 elicited protective levels of poliovirus antibodies in 100% of animals. However, animals receiving IPV2 by IM required at least 3 immunisations to reach the same neutralising antibody titres. This level of dose reduction (1/40th of a full dose) is unprecedented for poliovirus vaccine delivery. The ease of administration coupled with the dose reduction observed in this study points to the Nanopatch as a potential tool for facilitating inexpensive IPV for mass vaccination campaigns.

  4. Immunodeficiency syndrome in a 3-year-old llama.

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasankar, M

    1999-01-01

    An adult, castrated male llama was presented for evaluation of a chronic respiratory problem. Complete blood analyses indicated a leukopenia and hypoproteinemia. Radial immunodiffusion, bone marrow core, and lymph node biopsies supported a tentative diagnosis of juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome. This diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem findings.

  5. Structural definition of a potent macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein with adjuvant activity for antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N

    1996-10-01

    Incubation of human vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), with a mixture of immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase, efficiently generated a potent macrophage activating factor, a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase, and isolation of the intermediates with immobilized lectins, revealed that either sequence of hydrolysis of Gc glycoprotein by these glycosidases yields the macrophage-activating factor, implying that Gc protein carries a trisaccharide composed of N-acetylgalactosamine and dibranched galactose and sialic acid termini. A 3 hr incubation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with picomolar amounts of the enzymatically generated macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) resulted in a greatly enhanced phagocytic activity. Administration of a minute amount (10-50 pg/mouse) of GcMAF resulted in a seven- to nine-fold enhanced phagocytic activity of macrophages. Injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) along with GcMAF into mice produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available llama Lama glama Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Lama_glama_L.png Lama_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glam...a&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NS ...

  7. Orientation of llama antibodies strongly increases sensitivity of biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, A.K.; Hesselink, T.; Houwelingen, van A.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Jongsma, M.A.; Schoffelen, S.; Hest, van J.C.M.; Zuilhof, J.T.; Beekwilder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of biosensors depends on theorientation of bio-receptors on the sensor surface.The objective of this study was to organize bio-receptors on surfaces in a way that their analyte binding site is exposed to the analyte solution. VHH proteins recognizing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

  8. Orientation of llama antibodies strongly increases sensitivity of biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, Anke K; Hesselink, Thamara; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Cordewener, Jan H G; Jongsma, Maarten A; Schoffelen, Sanne; van Hest, Jan C M; Zuilhof, Han; Beekwilder, Jules

    2014-10-15

    Sensitivity of biosensors depends on the orientation of bio-receptors on the sensor surface. The objective of this study was to organize bio-receptors on surfaces in a way that their analyte binding site is exposed to the analyte solution. VHH proteins recognizing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were used for making biosensors, and azides were introduced in the VHH to function as bioorthogonal reactive groups. The importance of the orientation of bio-receptors was addressed by comparing sensors with randomly oriented VHH (with multiple exposed azide groups) to sensors with uniformly oriented VHH (with only a single azide group). A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip exposing cyclooctyne was reacted to azide functionalized VHH domains, using click chemistry. Comparison between randomly and uniformly oriented bio-receptors showed up to 800-fold increase in biosensor sensitivity. This technique may increase the containment of infectious diseases such as FMDV as its strongly enhanced sensitivity may facilitate early diagnostics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cutaneous angiomatosis in a llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, M M; Malta, M C C; Ocarino, N M; França, S A; Serakides, R

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous angiomatosis was diagnosed in an adult female llama (Lama glama). Lesions were raised or plaque-like, erythematous, firm to soft in consistency and were observed on the face and skin of the axillary, abdominal, perineal and inguinal regions. The lesions were not painful or pruritic. Microscopical examination revealed an irregular parakeratotic lamellar hyperkeratosis associated with diffuse proliferation of arterioles and venules in the superficial dermis. Immunohistochemical analysis determined that the cells forming these vessels and perivascular cells expressed factor VIII-related antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31 and smooth-muscle alpha-actin. These studies confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous angiomatosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy adult llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rosanne M; Bird, Karyn E; Kutzler, Michelle A

    2009-03-01

    Limited information exists regarding hemostasis in camelids despite the importance of platelet function testing in the accurate identification of platelet disorders. As further importation of llamas to North America is restricted, variability in breeding stock will continue to decrease, potentially leading to an increase in heritable bleeding disorders. The objective of this study was to measure platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy llamas and provide baseline data to which abnormal platelet function may be compared in the future. Blood samples were collected from 39 healthy adult llamas, citrated, and centrifuged to produce platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Within 4 hours of the blood draw, 20 microL of each agonist reagent were added to 180 microL of PRP. Final concentrations of agonists were 2 x 10(-5) M ADP, 0.19 mg collagen/mL PRP, 1 x 10(-4) M epinephrine, and 500 microg arachidonic acid/mL PRP. Llama platelets were most responsive to ADP and collagen, with a maximum percent aggregation (mean+/-SD) of 71.3+/-18.6% and 55.8+/-19% and aggregation rates of 9.5+/-3.9 and 6.7+/-3.7 cm/min, respectively. Llama platelet aggregation in response to epinephrine and arachidonic acid was minimal to absent. This study is the first of its kind to establish baseline values for platelet aggregation in healthy adult llamas.

  11. Repeated embryo collection and interspecies transfer in alpacas and llamas during non-breeding season

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco J; Tollig S; Von Walter AW; Pezo D; Velez V

    2015-01-01

    Sexual behavior evaluation was evaluated, collecting and interspecies embryo transfer inter species in llamas and alpacas during non-breeding season, 10 and 10 donor alpacas llamas, alpacas and 20 receiving 20 llamas, 5 alpacas and 5 llamas males were used. Sexual behavior by libido in males and acceptance of female to male in the presence of a dominant follicle was evaluated, the collection of embryos simple ovulation by non-surgical technique was performed and the fresh embryos are transfer...

  12. Characterization of a Novel Humanized Anti-CD20 Antibody with Potent Anti-Tumor Activity against Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rituximab, a mouse Fab and human Fc chimeric antibody, has been widely used to treat Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. However, only 48% of patients respond to the treatment and complete response rate is below 10%. Also, immunogenicity was reported in 17-20% patients receiving the treatment, making it unsuitable for long term diseases such as autoimmune disorders. It has been a hot research field to “humanize” rituximab toward improved efficacy and reduced immunogenicity. Methods: In this study, an advanced antibody humanization technology was applied to the sequence of the anti-CD20 antibody 2B8, its sequence of which was based on the original murine monoclonal antibody of rituximab in Roche. The complementarity-determining regions (CDRs of the humanized antibodies were further optimized through computer-aided molecular dock. Results: Five novel humanized anti-CD20 antibodies 1-5(1635, 1534, 3637, 1634 and 1536 were generated and their immunogenicity was significantly decreased when compared to rituximab. The novel humanized anti-CD20 antibodies 1-5 retained the binding activity of their murine counterpart, as demonstrated by the fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis (FACS. When compared to rituximab, the humanized antibodies still have the similar properties on both complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC. Furthermore, its anti-tumor efficacy in xenograft model is comparable to that of rituximab. Conclusion: The humanized anti-CD20 antibodies 1-5 have lower immunogenicity than rituximab. And at the same time, they still retain the anti-tumor effect both in vitro and vivo.

  13. Metabolic changes and induction of hepatic lipidosis during feed restriction in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, S J; Cebra, C K; Van Saun, R J; Smith, B B; Mattoon, J S

    2001-07-01

    To determine whether feed restriction induces hepatic lipidosis (HL) in llamas and to evaluate the metabolic changes that develop during feed restriction. 8 healthy adult female llamas. Llamas were fed grass hay at a rate of 0.25% of their body weight per day for 13 to 28 days. Llamas were monitored by use of clinical observation, serum biochemical analyses, and ultrasound-guided liver biopsies. All 8 llamas lost weight and mobilized fat. Five llamas developed HL, including 4 that were nursing crias. During the period of feed restriction, mean serum concentration of bile acids and activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly higher in llamas that developed HL, compared with llamas that did not. Mean insulin-to-cortisol concentration ratios were lower in llamas with HL before and up to 7 days of feed restriction, compared with those that did not develop HL. HL in llamas may be induced by severe feed restriction, particularly in the face of increased energy demand. Llamas with weight loss attributable to inadequate dietary intake may develop biochemical evidence of hepatopathy and HL. Increases in serum concentration of bile acids and activities of GGT, AST, and SDH may indicate the development of HL in llamas and identify affected animals for aggressive therapeutic intervention.

  14. Computed tomography of the llama head: technique and normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathcock, J.T.; Pugh, D.G.; Cartee, R.E.; Hammond, L.

    1996-01-01

    Computed tomography was performed on the head of 6 normal adult llamas. The animals were under general anesthesia and positioned in dorsal recumbency on the scanning table. The area scanned was from the external occipital protuberance to the rostral portion of the nasal passage, and the images are presented in both a bone window and a soft tissue window to allow evaluation and identification of the anatomy of the head. Computed tomography of the llama head can be accomplished by most computed tomography scanners utilizing a technique similar to that used in small animals with minor modification of the scanning table

  15. Construction of a llama bacterial artificial chromosome library with approximately 9-fold genome equivalent coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airmet, K W; Hinckley, J D; Tree, L T; Moss, M; Blumell, S; Ulicny, K; Gustafson, A K; Weed, M; Theodosis, R; Lehnardt, M; Genho, J; Stevens, M R; Kooyman, D L

    2012-01-01

    The Ilama is an important agricultural livestock in much of South America. The llama is increasing in popularity in the United States as a companion animal. Little work has been done to improve llama production using modern technology. A paucity of information is available regarding the llama genome. We report the construction of a llama bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of about 196,224 clones in the vector pECBAC1. Using flow cytometry and bovine, human, mouse, and chicken as controls, we determined the llama genome size to be 2.4 × 10⁹ bp. The average insert size of the library is 137.8 kb corresponding to approximately 9-fold genome coverage. Further studies are needed to further characterize the library and llama genome. We anticipate that this new library will help facilitate future genomic studies in the llama.

  16. Development and Characterization of a Humanized Anti-HER2 Antibody HuA21 with Potent Anti-Tumor Properties in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruilin Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is one of the most studied tumor-associated antigens for cancer immunotherapy. An engineered anti-HER-2 chimeric A21 antibody (chA21 is a chimeric antibody targeted to subdomain I of the HER2 extracellular domain. Here, we report the anti-tumor activity of the novel engineered monoclonal antibody humanized chA21 (HuA21 that targets HER2 on the basis of chA21, and we describe the underlying mechanisms. Our results reveal that HuA21 markedly inhibits the proliferation and migration of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and causes enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity potency against HER2-overexpressing tumor cells. In particular, HuA21, but not trastuzumab (Tra, markedly suppresses growth and enhances the internalization of the antibody in Tra-resistant BT-474 breast cancer cells. These characteristics are highly associated with the intrinsic ability of HuA21 to down-regulate HER2 activation and inhibit the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt signaling pathways. Furthermore, the combination of HuA21 with Tra synergistically enhances the anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo and inhibits HER2 activation and the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Altogether, our results suggest that HuA21 may represent a unique anti-HER2 antibody with potential as a therapeutic candidate alone or in combination with other anti-HER2 reagents in cancer therapy.

  17. Generalized Tuberculosis in Llamas (Lama glama) Due to Mycobacterium microti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oevermann, A.; Pfyffer, G. E.; Zanolari, P.; Meylan, M.; Robert, N.

    2004-01-01

    Necropsy of two llamas revealed numerous caseous nodules containing abundant acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in various organs. The AFB were identified by spoligotyping as Mycobacterium microti, vole type. Infection caused by M. microti should be considered in the differential diagnosis of debilitating diseases in New World camelids. PMID:15071059

  18. Peritonitis in a llama caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, J; Cebra, C K

    2001-01-01

    A 7-month-old, male llama was diagnosed with peritonitis caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Clinical findings, medical treatment, and case outcome are described. Hematogenous dissemination from suspected pneumonia is proposed as the route of infection in this case. Possible transmission of the organism through contact with horses is discussed. PMID:11424579

  19. Comparing manager and visitor perceptions of llama use in wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; Neal A. Christensen; Dale J. Blahna; Kari S. Archibald

    1998-01-01

    Llama use in wilderness is projected to increase over the next 5 years. While the greatest concerns about this increase in use are unexpected impacts to native flora, impacts to native fauna, and conflicts with other user types, there is also concern about how prepared managers are to deal with this increasing recreation demand. This research compares manager attitudes...

  20. Neuromuscular partitioning, architectural design, and myosin fiber types of the M. vastus lateralis of the llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Palencia, Pablo; Delhon, Gustavo; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2004-11-01

    The llama (Lama glama) is one of the few mammals of relatively large body size in which three fast myosin heavy chain isoforms (i.e., IIA, IIX, IIB) are extensively expressed in their locomotory muscles. This study was designed to gain insight into the morphological and functional organization of skeletal musculature in this peculiar animal model. The neuromuscular partitioning, architectural design, and myosin fiber types were systematically studied in the M. vastus lateralis of adult llamas (n = 15). Four nonoverlapping neuromuscular partitions or compartments were identified macroscopically (using a modified Sihler's technique for muscle depigmentation), although they did not conform strictly to the definitions of "neuromuscular compartments." Each neuromuscular partition was innervated by primary branches of the femoral nerve and was arranged within the muscle as paired partitions, two in parallel (deep-superficial compartmentalization) and the other two in-series (proximo-distal compartmentalization). These neuromuscular partitions of the muscle varied in their respective architectural designs (studied after partial digestion with diluted nitric acid) and myosin fiber type characteristics (identified immunohistochemically with specific anti-myosin monoclonal antibodies, then examined by quantitative histochemistry and image analysis). The deep partitions of the muscle had longer fibers, with lower angles of pinnation, and higher percentages of fast-glycolytic fibers than the superficial partitions of the muscle. These differences clearly suggest a division of labor in the whole M. vastus lateralis of llamas, with deep partitions exhibiting features well adapted for dynamic activities in the extension of stifle, whereas superficial portions seem to be related to the antigravitational role of the muscle in preserving the extension of the stifle during standing and stance phase of the stride. This peculiar structural and functional organization of the llama M

  1. Analysis of genetic diversity in Bolivian llama populations using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Romero, F; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Rodríguez, T; Arranz, J J

    2013-08-01

    South American camelids (SACs) have a major role in the maintenance and potential future of rural Andean human populations. More than 60% of the 3.7 million llamas living worldwide are found in Bolivia. Due to the lack of studies focusing on genetic diversity in Bolivian llamas, this analysis investigates both the genetic diversity and structure of 12 regional groups of llamas that span the greater part of the range of distribution for this species in Bolivia. The analysis of 42 microsatellite markers in the considered regional groups showed that, in general, there were high levels of polymorphism (a total of 506 detected alleles; average PIC across per marker: 0.66), which are comparable with those reported for other populations of domestic SACs. The estimated diversity parameters indicated that there was high intrapopulational genetic variation (average number of alleles and average expected heterozygosity per marker: 12.04 and 0.68, respectively) and weak genetic differentiation among populations (FST range: 0.003-0.052). In agreement with these estimates, Bolivian llamas showed a weak genetic structure and an intense gene flow between all the studied regional groups, which is due to the exchange of reproductive males between the different flocks. Interestingly, the groups for which the largest pairwise FST estimates were observed, Sud Lípez and Nor Lípez, showed a certain level of genetic differentiation that is probably due to the pattern of geographic isolation and limited communication infrastructures of these southern localities. Overall, the population parameters reported here may serve as a reference when establishing conservation policies that address Bolivian llama populations. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Combining proteomic tools to characterize the protein fraction of llama (Lama glama) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Besma; Bianchi, Leonardo; Henry, Céline; Miranda, Guy; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Llamas belong to the Camelidae family along with camels. While dromedary camel milk has been broadly characterized, data on llama milk proteins are scarce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the protein composition of llama milk. Skimmed llama milk proteins were first characterized by a 2D separation technique coupling RP-HPLC in the first dimension with SDS-PAGE in the second dimension (RP-HPLC/SDS-PAGE). Llama milk proteins, namely caseins (αs1 -, αs2 -, β-, and κ-caseins), α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin, were identified using PMF. Llama milk proteins were also characterized by online LC-ESI-MS analysis. This approach allowed attributing precise molecular masses for most of the previously MS-identified llama milk proteins. Interestingly, α-lactalbumin exhibits distinct chromatographic behaviors between llama and dromedary camel milk. De novo sequencing of the llama α-lactalbumin protein by LC coupled with MS/MS (LC-MS/MS) showed the occurrence of two amino acid substitutions (R62L/I and K89L/I) that partly explained the higher hydrophobicity of llama α-lactalbumin compared with its dromedary counterpart. Taken together, these results provide for the first time a thorough description of the protein fraction of Lama glama milk. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Repeated embryo collection and interspecies transfer in alpacas and llamas during non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior evaluation was evaluated, collecting and interspecies embryo transfer inter species in llamas and alpacas during non-breeding season, 10 and 10 donor alpacas llamas, alpacas and 20 receiving 20 llamas, 5 alpacas and 5 llamas males were used. Sexual behavior by libido in males and acceptance of female to male in the presence of a dominant follicle was evaluated, the collection of embryos simple ovulation by non-surgical technique was performed and the fresh embryos are transferred directly into the horn left. It was observed that only 40% of alpaca accept the male and female in all cases had to use two males for mating, but all llama males mounted on the first attempt and accepted all females breeding. Embryos were collected at 25 and 60% of alpacas and llamas washes respectively, all were grade 1 embryos transferable; the embryo transfer fertility evaluated by ultrasound at 25 days was 100 and 41.6% respectively for donor alpaca and llama, however ultrasound evaluation at 60 days fertility was 50 and 25% respectively for donor alpaca and llama. We conclude that there is greater reproductive seasonality in alpaca regard to llamas, all were grade 1 embryos collected, fertility evaluated by ultrasound 25 days down to 60 days, demonstrating embryonic mortality, possibly due to the non-breeding season of both species.

  4. G-CSF/anti-G-CSF antibody complexes drive the potent recovery and expansion of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells without compromising CD8+ T cell immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Administration of recombinant G-CSF following cytoreductive therapy enhances the recovery of myeloid cells, minimizing the risk of opportunistic infection. Free G-CSF, however, is expensive, exhibits a short half-life, and has poor biological activity in vivo. Methods We evaluated whether the biological activity of G-CSF could be improved by pre-association with anti-G-CSF mAb prior to injection into mice. Results We find that the efficacy of G-CSF therapy can be enhanced more than 100-fold by pre-association of G-CSF with an anti-G-CSF monoclonal antibody (mAb). Compared with G-CSF alone, administration of G-CSF/anti-G-CSF mAb complexes induced the potent expansion of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in mice with or without concomitant cytoreductive treatment including radiation or chemotherapy. Despite driving the dramatic expansion of myeloid cells, in vivo antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses were not compromised. Furthermore, injection of G-CSF/anti-G-CSF mAb complexes heightened protective immunity to bacterial infection. As a measure of clinical value, we also found that antibody complexes improved G-CSF biological activity much more significantly than pegylation. Conclusions Our findings provide the first evidence that antibody cytokine complexes can effectively expand myeloid cells, and furthermore, that G-CSF/anti-G-CSF mAb complexes may provide an improved method for the administration of recombinant G-CSF. PMID:24279871

  5. No detectable carotenoid concentrations in serum of llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, J; Schweigert, F J; Stanitznig, A; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Baldermann, S; Wittek, T

    2017-08-01

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments and important for a variety of physiological functions. They are major dietary vitamin A precursors and act as lipophilic antioxidants in a variety of tissues and are associated with important health benefits in humans and animals. All animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet, but to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the intestinal carotenoid absorption and their blood concentrations in New World camelids. The present study aimed to assess the serum concentrations of selected carotenoids in llamas (n = 13) and alpacas (n = 27). Serum carotenoids as well as retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and these were unable to detect any carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene) in the samples. The concentrations of retinol in alpacas (2.89 ± 1.13 μmol/l; mean ± SD) were higher (p = 0.024) than those found in llamas (2.05 ± 0.87 μmol/l); however, the concentrations of α-tocopherol were not significantly (p = 0.166) different (llamas: 3.98 ± 1.83 μmol/l; alpacas: 4.95 ± 2.14 μmol/l). The results show that both llamas and alpacas are not able to absorb intact carotenoids, but efficiently convert provitamin A carotenoids to retinol. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Morphometric analysis of llama (Lama glama) sperm head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaretto, C; Lombardo, D M; Giuliano, S; Gambarotta, M; Carretero, M I; Miragaya, M H

    2012-05-01

    Llama production in Argentina has increased, as the international interest in breeding this type of animals has grown in the last years. Considering the great polymorphism that llama spermatozoa present at evaluation using light microscopy, the aim of this study was to objectively evaluate llama sperm head morphometry using digital morphometric analysis. Five ejaculates from each of eight males were obtained to evaluate morphometric parameters of 8000 sperm heads stained with Tinción 15(®). The following average results were obtained for each parameter: size parameters: area 20.09 μm(2), length 6.60 μm, width 4.14 μm, equivalent circle diameter 5.06 μm, curve length 5.79 μm and curve width 3.48 μm; boundary parameters: perimeter 18.54 μm and convex perimeter 17.34 μm; and shape parameters: roundness 1.28 and elongation 1.59. Morphometric parameters of sperm head were compared between ejaculates of the same male and between males. Significant differences between ejaculates of the same male were found for all parameters evaluated (P < 0.01). Significant differences between males were found for all morphometric parameters (P < 0.01) except for curve length, curve width and perimeter. The differences detected would indicate that there is not a single morphometric pattern for Lama glama sperm head, because parameter values cannot be standardised. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Pituitary null cell adenoma in a domestic llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, M D; Kiupel, M; Draper, A C E

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary gland neoplasia has been reported rarely in camelids. A 12-year-old neutered male llama (Lama glama) presented with lethargy, inappetence and neurological signs. On physical examination, the llama was mentally dull and exhibited compulsive pacing and circling to the left. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry revealed haemoconcentration, mild hypophosphataemia, hyperglycaemia, hypercreatininaemia and hyperalbuminaemia. Humane destruction was elected due to rapid clinical deterioration and poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a pituitary macroadenoma and bilateral internal hydrocephalus. Microscopically, the pituitary tumour was composed of neoplastic chromophobic pituitary cells. Ultrastructural studies revealed similar neoplastic cells to those previously described in human null cell adenomas. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin and chromogranin A), but did not exhibit immunoreactivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, neuronal and all major pituitary hormone markers (adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone), consistent with the diagnosis of a pituitary null cell adenoma. This is the first report of pituitary neoplasia in a llama. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ad35 and ad26 vaccine vectors induce potent and cross-reactive antibody and T-cell responses to multiple filovirus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Zahn

    Full Text Available Filoviruses cause sporadic but highly lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa in the human population. Currently, no drug or vaccine is available for treatment or prevention. A previous study with a vaccine candidate based on the low seroprevalent adenoviruses 26 and 35 (Ad26 and Ad35 was shown to provide protection against homologous Ebola Zaire challenge in non human primates (NHP if applied in a prime-boost regimen. Here we have aimed to expand this principle to construct and evaluate Ad26 and Ad35 vectors for development of a vaccine to provide universal filovirus protection against all highly lethal strains that have caused major outbreaks in the past. We have therefore performed a phylogenetic analysis of filovirus glycoproteins to select the glycoproteins from two Ebola species (Ebola Zaire and Ebola Sudan/Gulu,, two Marburg strains (Marburg Angola and Marburg Ravn and added the more distant non-lethal Ebola Ivory Coast species for broadest coverage. Ad26 and Ad35 vectors expressing these five filovirus glycoproteins were evaluated to induce a potent cellular and humoral immune response in mice. All adenoviral vectors induced a humoral immune response after single vaccination in a dose dependent manner that was cross-reactive within the Ebola and Marburg lineages. In addition, both strain-specific as well as cross-reactive T cell responses could be detected. A heterologous Ad26-Ad35 prime-boost regime enhanced mainly the humoral and to a lower extend the cellular immune response against the transgene. Combination of the five selected filovirus glycoproteins in one multivalent vaccine potentially elicits protective immunity in man against all major filovirus strains that have caused lethal outbreaks in the last 20 years.

  9. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  10. A combination of p53-activating APR-246 and phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody potently inhibits tumor development in hormone-dependent mutant p53-expressing breast cancer xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Y

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yayun Liang,1 Benford Mafuvadze,1 Cynthia Besch-Williford,2 Salman M Hyder1 1Deparment of Biomedical Sciences and Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, Columbia, MO, USA; 2IDEXX BioResearch, Columbia, MO, USA Background: Between 30 and 40% of human breast cancers express a defective tumor suppressor p53 gene. Wild-type p53 tumor suppressor protein promotes cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor–dependent angiogenesis, whereas mutant p53 protein (mtp53 lacks these functions, resulting in tumor cell survival and metastasis. Restoration of p53 function is therefore a promising drug-targeted strategy for combating mtp53-expressing breast cancer. Methods: In this study, we sought to determine whether administration of APR-246, a small-molecule drug that restores p53 function, in combination with 2aG4, an antibody that targets phosphatidylserine residues on tumor blood vessels and disrupts tumor vasculature, effectively inhibits advanced hormone-dependent breast cancer tumor growth. Results: APR-246 reduced cell viability in mtp53-expressing BT-474 and T47-D human breast cancer cells in vitro, and significantly induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. However, APR-246 did not reduce cell viability in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, which express wild-type p53. We next examined APR-246’s anti-tumor effects in vivo using BT-474 and T47-D tumor xenografts established in female nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with APR-246 and/or 2aG4 and tumor volume followed over time. Tumor growth was more effectively suppressed by combination treatment than by either agent alone, and combination therapy completely eradicated some tumors. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tumor tissue sections demonstrated that combination therapy more effectively induced apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation in tumor xenografts than either agent alone. Importantly, combination therapy dramatically reduced the density of blood

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma originating from a cutaneous scar in a llama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K; Barrington, G M; Parish, S M

    1997-01-01

    A nonhealing wound associated with a laceration in a 12-year-old llama was evaluated. Initial attempts at closure were unsuccessful and biopsy revealed scar tissue. Subsequent biopsies, 18 mo later, revealed squamous cell carcinoma with regional metastasis. This report describes squamous cell carcinoma, secondary to a traumatic wound in a llama. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9332750

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma originating from a cutaneous scar in a llama.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, K; Barrington, G M; Parish, S M

    1997-01-01

    A nonhealing wound associated with a laceration in a 12-year-old llama was evaluated. Initial attempts at closure were unsuccessful and biopsy revealed scar tissue. Subsequent biopsies, 18 mo later, revealed squamous cell carcinoma with regional metastasis. This report describes squamous cell carcinoma, secondary to a traumatic wound in a llama.

  13. Assessment of the effects of feed restriction and amino acid supplementation on glucose tolerance in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebra, Christopher K; Tornquist, Susan J; Jester, Rebecca M; Stelletta, Calogero

    2004-07-01

    To assess the effects of prolonged feed deprivation on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and lipid homeostasis in llamas. 9 adult female llamas. On each of 2 consecutive days, food was withheld from the llamas for 8 hours. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after IV injection of dextrose (0.5 g/kg) for determination of plasma insulin and serum glucose, triglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Between experimental periods, the llamas received supplemental amino acids IV (185 mg/kg in solution). The llamas were then fed a limited diet (grass hay, 0.25% of body weight daily) for 23 days, after which the experimental procedures were repeated. Feed restriction decreased glucose tolerance and had slight effects on insulin secretion in llamas. Basal lipid fractions were higher after feed restriction, but dextrose administration resulted in similar reductions in serum lipid concentrations with and without feed restriction. Insulin secretion was decreased on the second day of each study period, which lessened reduction of serum lipid concentrations but did not affect glucose tolerance. Despite having a comparatively competent pancreatic response, feed-restricted llamas assimilated dextrose via an IV bolus more slowly than did llamas on full rations. However, repeated administration of dextrose reduced insulin secretion and could promote hyperglycemia and fat mobilization. These findings suggested that veterinarians should use alternative methods of supplying energy to camelids with long-term reduced feed intake or consider administering agents to improve the assimilation of glucose.

  14. Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae specific lama single-domain antibody fragments effectively inhibit bacterial adhesion in vitro but poorly protect against diarrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Solt, van C.B.; Hoogendoorn, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Niewold, T.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2005-01-01

    Oral administration of polyclonal antibodies directed against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4 fimbriae is used to protect against piglet post-weaning diarrhoea. For cost reasons, we aim to replace these polyclonal antibodies by recombinant llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs)

  15. A truncated receptor-binding domain of MERS-CoV spike protein potently inhibits MERS-CoV infection and induces strong neutralizing antibody responses: implication for developing therapeutics and vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanying Du

    Full Text Available An emerging respiratory infectious disease with high mortality, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, is caused by a novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV. It was first reported in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and has now spread to eight countries. Development of effective therapeutics and vaccines is crucial to save lives and halt the spread of MERS-CoV. Here, we show that a recombinant protein containing a 212-amino acid fragment (residues 377-588 in the truncated receptor-binding domain (RBD: residues 367-606 of MERS-CoV spike (S protein fused with human IgG Fc fragment (S377-588-Fc is highly expressed in the culture supernatant of transfected 293T cells. The purified S377-588-Fc protein efficiently binds to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4, the receptor of MERS-CoV, and potently inhibited MERS-CoV infection, suggesting its potential to be further developed as a therapeutic modality for treating MERS-CoV infection and saving the patients' lives. The recombinant S377-588-Fc is able to induce in the vaccinated mice strong MERS-CoV S-specific antibodies, which blocks the binding of RBD to DPP4 receptor and effectively neutralizes MERS-CoV infection. These findings indicate that this truncated RBD protein shows promise for further development as an effective and safe vaccine for the prevention of MERS-CoV infection.

  16. Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Rene; Villca, Saul; Liden, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The 'Altiplano') was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760mmHg), temperature (11 and 35 deg. C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity and methane yields based on two 2 4-1 fractional factorial designs with 8 treatments for each kind of manure. The reactors were operated semi-continuously with daily manure feeding for periods between 50 and 100 days. Temperature was the main factor effect found, and the hydraulic retention time and the manure content in feed were also found significant whereas the effect of pressure was not significant in the range studied. The methane yield obtained with cow manure at 11 - bar C was between 6.4 and 33.6lCH 4 kg -1 VS (volatile solids added) whereas at 35 deg. C the methane yield was between 49.6 and 131.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS. The methane yield from llama manure was somewhat lower than for cow manure (between 3.3 and 19.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 11 deg. C and between 35.6 and 84.1lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 35 deg. C, respectively). However, overall llama manure was found to be the best raw material of the two for biogas production, due to its high content of volatile solid-higher than has been previously reported for most manures-and also its high nitrogen and phosphorous content

  17. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of body urea into the temporarily isolated rumen cleaned and filled with a test solution was measured in the llama. Simultaneously urea recirculation into the total gastro-intestinal tract (GI-tract) was estimated using 14 C-urea. The permeability of the rumen wall to urea could be changed significantly. With CO 2 or butyric acid in the test solution, permeability was highest, it was low when food was withheld and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. Changes in the permeability can affect the transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall more extensively than changes in plasma urea concentrations. (author)

  18. LLAMA: A new mm and submm observing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Cappa, C.; Giménez de Castro, G.; da Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Larrarte, J. J.; Lepine, J.; Viramonte, J.

    2017-07-01

    The current status of the project LLAMA, acronym of Large Latin American Millimetre Array is very briefly described in this paper. This project is a joint scientific and technological undertaking of Argentina and Brazil on the basis of an equal investment share, whose mail goal is both to install and to operate an observing facility capable of exploring the Universe at millimetre and sub/millimetre wavelengths. This facility will be erected in the argentinean province of Salta, at a site located 4830m above sea level.

  19. A Dual-Modality Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccine for Preventing Genital Herpes by Using Glycoprotein C and D Subunit Antigens To Induce Potent Antibody Responses and Adenovirus Vectors Containing Capsid and Tegument Proteins as T Cell Immunogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Mahairas, Gregory G; Shaw, Carolyn E; Huang, Meei-Li; Koelle, David M; Posavad, Christine; Corey, Lawrence; Friedman, Harvey M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a genital herpes prophylactic vaccine containing herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) to stimulate humoral immunity and UL19 (capsid protein VP5) and UL47 (tegument protein VP13/14) as T cell immunogens. The HSV-2 gC2 and gD2 proteins were expressed in baculovirus, while the UL19 and UL47 genes were expressed from replication-defective adenovirus vectors. Adenovirus vectors containing UL19 and UL47 stimulated human and murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Guinea pigs were either (i) mock immunized; (ii) immunized with gC2/gD2, with CpG and alum as adjuvants; (iii) immunized with the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors; or (iv) immunized with the combination of gC2/gD2-CpG/alum and the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors. Immunization with gC2/gD2 produced potent neutralizing antibodies, while UL19 and UL47 also stimulated antibody responses. After intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, the mock and UL19/UL47 adenovirus groups developed severe acute disease, while 2/8 animals in the gC2/gD2-only group and none in the combined group developed acute disease. No animals in the gC2/gD2 or combined group developed recurrent disease; however, 5/8 animals in each group had subclinical shedding of HSV-2 DNA, on 15/168 days for the gC2/gD2 group and 13/168 days for the combined group. Lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia were positive for HSV-2 DNA and latency-associated transcripts for 5/8 animals in the gC2/gD2 group and 2/8 animals in the combined group. None of the differences comparing the gC2/gD2-only group and the combined group were statistically significant. Therefore, adding the T cell immunogens UL19 and UL47 to the gC2/gD2 vaccine did not significantly reduce genital disease and vaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding compared with the excellent protection provided by gC2/gD2 in the guinea pig model. HSV-2 infection is a common cause of genital ulcer disease and a significant public health concern. Genital herpes increases the risk of transmission and

  20. Traditional llama husbandry and breeding management in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markemann, A; Valle Zárate, A

    2010-01-01

    The llama claims the largest population of the domestic South American camelids, most of which are raised in Bolivia. More than 53,000 rural families are dedicated to llama husbandry as part of their livelihood strategy. Contemporary Andean societies deliberately select animals for specific traits and employ substantial livestock management to secure subsistence. This study presents traditional llama husbandry and breeding management activities in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia. Traditional selection traits for male and female llamas are documented and assessed by a ranking and a ratio-scaled evaluation. Husbandry and management parameters are in concordance with other studies conducted in the region, but show a high variation. Average llama herd sizes are rather small (mu = 45.6). In some herds, breeding males are utilized for a long time and mix with other herds, causing concerns about inbreeding. Preferred trait groups for llama males according to farmers' responses were body conformation, fibre, testicle conformation, fleece colour and height at withers. Traditional selection criteria generally relate to the phenotype, but also include the commercially interesting fibre trait. The presented results should be considered in breeding and management programmes for the respective llama population to ensure sustainable use of this genetically and culturally valuable resource.

  1. Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Giuliano, S; Zampini, R; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M; Miceli, D C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of llama seminal plasma in the formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Female llamas with follicles in the mature phase were mated with a bulbourethral glands-removed male. Females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males were used as control. Oviducts were obtained by surgery 24 h after mating. The uterotubal junction and isthmus were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and mucopolysaccharides were identified by Alcian blue staining. To know the proteins probably involved in sperm reservoir formation, SDS-PAGE of seminal plasma (8% and 18% resolving gel) was made. Spermatozoa only adhered to the oviductal mucosa surface of uterotubal junction of females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males confirming that seminal plasma and, in particular, bulbourethral secretions are related with the oviductal sperm reservoir formation. Histological sections showed sperm in the lumen, immersed in substance, positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Alcian blue staining of seminal plasma proteins SDS-PAGE showed a band of high molecular weight containing mucopolysaccharides, only present in nonbulbourethral glands-removed males. Bulbourethral glands would secrete at least eight different proteins that most likely participate in the process of sperm storage in the oviduct. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Nutritional support for treatment of hepatic lipidosis in a llama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Saun, R J; Callihan, B R; Tornquist, S J

    2000-11-15

    A 3-year-old female llama that was 3 months into her first lactation and 10 weeks pregnant was evaluated for anorexia of 24 hours' duration. On physical examination, the llama was in lateral recumbency, bradycardic, tachypneic, and hyperthermic. Palpation per rectum confirmed the presence of a possible dry fecal mass in the spiral colon. A tissue biopsy specimen of the liver was obtained, and histologic examination revealed moderate diffuse lipid accumulation within the hepatocytes. Lactated Ringer's solution was administered for rehydration, and partial parenteral nutrition was then initiated. Hepatic lipidosis is a disease characterized by abnormal accumulation of lipid in the liver and is associated with high mortality in camelids. Anorexia associated with hepatic lipidosis promotes further lipid mobilization and fatty infiltration of the liver. Partial parenteral nutrition with enteral supplementation may be used to maintain adequate energy intake and minimize further lipid mobilization. The distinctive metabolism of camelids may require higher amino acid supplementation relative to nonprotein calories in parenteral solutions than those traditionally provided to other species. Treatment with insulin may be effective

  3. Evaluation of intra-abdominal vasectomy in llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W; Sumar, J

    1991-11-01

    A method of intra-abdominal vasectomy (deferentectomy), using a laparoscopic technique in llamas and alpacas, was evaluated. Food was withheld from 14 animals for 24 hours before sedation and laparoscopy. The ductus deferens was located close to the bladder, and a 2- to 3-cm section of ductus deferens was resected with the aid of a pair of hook scissors. The procedure was completed in 5 to 8 minutes, and animals did not have any adverse effects. Forty-five days after vasectomy, animals were used for detecting sexually receptive females or inducing ovulation during reproductive physiologic studies. The procedure did not impair libido and had no effect on male sexual behavior for many years. The technique is simpler, safer, and faster than the traditional external approach.

  4. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Llamas were provided with a large rumen fistula, and the transfer of blood urea into the temporarily isolated rumen, cleaned and filled with test solution was measured. Plasma urea clearance due to transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall should indicate changes in its permeability to urea. Clearance values were highest with CO 2 or with high concentrations of butyric acid. Permeability was low when food was with-held and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. The permeability of the rumen wall to blood urea can be altered significantly. These changes can affect blood urea transfer more extensively than changes in the plasma urea concentration within physiological ranges

  5. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of repeated administrations of llama ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) during the peri-ovulatory period on corpus luteum development and function in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Silva, M; Norambuena, C; Adams, G P; Guerra, M; Ratto, M H

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period (pre-ovulatory, ovulatory, early post-ovulatory), will enhance the luteotrophic effect in llamas. Female llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography in B- and Doppler-mode using a scanner equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer to monitor ovarian follicle and luteal dynamics. When a growing follicle ≥7mm was detected, llamas were assigned randomly to one of the three groups and given 1mg of purified OIF/NGF im (intramuscular) (a) pre-ovulation (single dose; n=12), (b) pre-ovulation and at the time of ovulation (2 doses, n=10), or (c) pre-ovulation, at the time of ovulation, and 24h after ovulation (3 doses, n=10). The pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at the time of treatment, ovulation rate and the first day of CL detection did not differ (P=0.3) among groups. However, maximum CL diameter was greatest (P=0.003) in llamas in the 2-dose group, and smallest in the 3-dose group. Accordingly, the 2 dose-group had the largest day-to-day profile for CL diameter (Pllama seminal plasma is luteotrophic and the effect on CL size and function is affected by the number and timing of treatments during the peri-ovulatory period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spontaneous ovulation or male effect in alpacas and llamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumar JB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New discoveries in ovulation induced mammals, researchers considered the question of whether spontaneous and induced ovulations are distinct entities or individual parts of a single continuum of a “malefacilitated oestrus and ovulation”. This rigid classification should be taken with precaution, because is possible that the various mechanisms involved in the spontaneous ovulation can, under specific conditions coexist in some determined species. It is possible that male hormones can provoke the ovulation by masculine pheromones. The “Ram Effect” can be used to synchronize ewes naturally, for artificial insemination. Pheromones are specialized hormones released by the ram and smelled by the ewes; they are found in the wool and wax, in such a way that synchronized the heat and the advancement of the breeding season Also, using artificial vaginal-cervical stimulation (AVS with a glass rod, ovulation has been induced in the mink, shrews and felids. This form of tactile stimulation (AVS has found no ability for induction of ovulation in SAC. Additional stimuli/cues are often necessary to facilitate the ovulatory response. They include olfactory, visual, auditory or posture, more of them very common in SAC. Few research studies in alpacas and llamas showed a variable number of females ovulating by the sole proximity of the male to the female, by adopting the copulatory position (posture (sitting or prone position, female to female mounting (tactile, males mounting females covered with aprons to avoid penis intromission (tactile and auditory, interrupted matings, sitting close to a male copulating to a female (visual, olfactory?, the guttural sound (orgling made by the copulating male (auditory, and probably other non-identified cues. The rate of spontaneous ovulation in alpacas and llamas, increase up to 50% during the breeding season. These spontaneous ovulation has been diagnosed by sexual behavior (female rejection to the male, by

  8. Identification of Lamanema chavezi Becklund 1963 infection in a llama (Lama glama) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, Julie Ann C; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Kreuder, Amanda J; Schleining, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Lamanema chavezi, a parasitic nematode of New World camelids, was diagnosed by examination of feces and formalin-fixed liver from a 14-month-old female llama (Lama glama) that died after a 6-week illness. Infection with L. chavezi was initially suspected when a granuloma containing an unidentified nematode was detected microscopically in the hepatic parenchyma from a necropsy specimen. The subsequent diagnosis of L. chavezi infection was based on the morphologic features of 2 immature nematodes dissected from individual hepatic granulomas, characteristics of eggs detected in feces of the llama by centrifugal flotation in sugar solution (specific gravity: 1.30), development of third-stage larvae within the eggs after incubation of the llama feces at room temperature for ≥30 days, and the morphology of third-stage larvae released from the embryonated eggs. Collectively, these findings indicate that the llama, born and raised in Oregon, harbored an autochthonous L. chavezi infection. Eggs identified as L. chavezi were also detected by centrifugal flotation of pelleted feces from 3 of 7 herd mates of the llama indicating this parasite is endemic in the Oregon herd. The findings reported herein serve to alert diagnosticians and veterinary practitioners to the occurrence of L. chavezi in New World camelids in the United States and describe diagnostic features of this potential pathogen.

  9. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca Wilfredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control, phosphate-buffered saline (negative control, or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each, but none ovulated in the other groups (P Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa.

  10. Um metaromance histórico: «Jaguar en Llamas», Arturo Arias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Paraquett

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O romance histórico Jaguar en llamas, do escritor guatemalteco Arturo Arias, parodia a história de seu país, subvertendo a história oficial, conforme o procedimento utilizado por outros autores hispano-americanos no final do século XX. Esse romance, no entanto, não se constrói segundo o paradigma convencional, o que o torna um meta romance histórico.Palavras-chave: Literatura guatemalteca; Arturo Arias; Jaguar en Llamas; paródia; romance histórico.Resumen: La novela histórica Jaguar en llamas, del escritor gualtemalteco Arturo Arias, parodia la historia de su país, subvertiendo la historia oficial, de acuerdo con el procedimiento de otros autores hispanoamericanos en el fin del siglo XX, aunque no se construya según el paradigma convencional, lo que hace con que esa novela sea leída y vista como una meta novela histórica.Palabras-clave: Literatura guatemalteca; Arturo Arias; Jaguar en Llamas; parodia; novela histórica.Keywords: Guatemalan literature; Arturo Arias; Jaguar en Llamas; parody; historical novel.

  11. Carcass characteristics of llamas (Lama glama) reared in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez; Maino; Guzmán; Vaquero; Köbrich; Pokniak

    2000-07-01

    Body and carcass composition were studied on 10 male and 10 female naturally reared llamas (Lama glama). Half the animals were young (9-12 months) and the other half adult (>3 year). The average live weights for young and adult males were 104.4 and 100.6kg, and for females 67.6 and 104.6kg, respectively. Average carcass weights for the four groups were 58.9, 56.2, 36.8 and 56.7kg, respectively. Carcass composition for males and females was similar, but males had slightly higher dressing percentages than females (56.1 and 55.8 vs. 54.1 and 54.2 for young and adult males and females, respectively). Carcass length and fat depth at the loin and proportions of cuts in the carcass were similar for both the sexes, except for leg and tail, which were proportionately heavier in young females compared to the other groups. The composition of meat on fresh basis was: moisture 70.2%, protein 20.5%, ether extract 8.23% and ash 3.4%. Age and sex seemed to have no effects on the body and carcass characteristics studied nor on the chemical composition of meat.

  12.  Variable fragments of heavy chain antibodies (VHHs: a new magic bullet molecule of medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Smolarek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Serum of animals belonging to the Camelidae family (camels and llamas contains fully active antibodies that are naturally devoid of light chains. Variable domains derived from heavy chain antibodies (hcAb called VHHs or nanobodies™ can bind antigens as effectively as full-length antibodies and are easy to clone and express. Because of their potential, VHHs are being intensively studied as potential therapeutic, diagnostic and imaging tools. The paper reviews the molecular background of heavy chain antibodies and describes methods of obtaining recombinant fragments of heavy chain antibodies as well as their therapeutic, diagnostic and other applications.

  13. Design and Testing of a Thermostable Platform for Multimerization of Single Domain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    H.J. Properties , production, and applications of camelid single domain antibody fragments. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 2007, 77, 13‒22. 2. Goldman...Conway, J.; Sherwood, L.J.; Fech, M.; Vo, B.; Liu, J.L.; Hayhurst, A. Thermostable llama single domain antibodies for detection of Botulinum A...antiparallel coiled-coil inserted. J. Mol. Bio. 2001, 306, 25‒35. 9. Liu, J.L.; Anderson, G.P.; Goldman, E.R. Isolation of anti- toxin single domain

  14. A case of nasal myiasis due to Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) in a llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Alroy, Karen Ann; Ticona, Daniel Santiago; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Infection by the larval form of Oestrus ovis (sheep bot fly) is common in many areas of Peru. This is an obligate parasite of sheep and goats, and it is the cause of oestrosis, or nasal myiasis, which can lead to severe clinical manifestations in livestock. A case of myiasis caused by O. ovis in a llama (Lama glama) in Cuzco, Peru, is reported here. This llama presented with respiratory distress and died due to bilateral hemorrhagic pneumonia. During the necropsy, six intact dipterous larvae were recovered from the nasal fossae and cranial sinuses being identified as O. ovis. This is the first report of nasal myiasis in llamas due to O. ovis in Peru.

  15. Detection of fiber-digesting bacteria in the forestomach contents of llamas (Lama glama by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Cerón Cucchi

    Full Text Available The high fibrolytic activity and large biomass of strictly-anaerobic bacteria that inhabit the rumen makes them primarily responsible for the degradation of the forage consumed by ruminants. Llamas feed mainly on low quality fibrous roughages that are digested by an active and diverse microflora. The products of this fermentation are volatile fatty acids and microbial biomass, which will be used by the animals. The aim of this study was to detect the three major fiber-digesting anaerobic bacteria in the forestomach contents of llamas by PCR. In this study, we detected Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes in the forestomach contents of eight native llamas from Argentina.

  16. A case of nasal myiasis due to Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae in a llama (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta

    Full Text Available Infection by the larval form of Oestrus ovis (sheep bot fly is common in many areas of Peru. This is an obligate parasite of sheep and goats, and it is the cause of oestrosis, or nasal myiasis, which can lead to severe clinical manifestations in livestock. A case of myiasis caused byO. ovis in a llama (Lama glama in Cuzco, Peru, is reported here. This llama presented with respiratory distress and died due to bilateral hemorrhagic pneumonia. During the necropsy, six intact dipterous larvae were recovered from the nasal fossae and cranial sinuses being identified as O. ovis. This is the first report of nasal myiasis in llamas due to O. ovis in Peru.

  17. Use of computed tomography to evaluate the intestinal tract of adult llamas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoogmoed, L.; Roberts, G.; Snyder, J.R.; Yarbrough, T.; Haromon, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the llama, signs of colic are obscure and may be exhibited as persistent sternal recumbency and anorexia even in the presence of a surgical lesion. Diagnostic methods for evaluation of abdominal disorders are limited. As a result, surgical intervention may be prolonged and increase the risk of mortality and postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of computed tomography to evaluate the llama intestinal tract. Eighteen hours prior to the computed tomography scan, six llamas were given barium sulfate (15%) via an orogastric tube. Following induction of general anesthesia, the llamas were positioned in sternal recumbency, and 10 mm contiguous slices were obtained from the diaphragm to the tuber ischiadicum. Structures that were consistently identified included the first, second, and third compartments (C1, 2, and 3), small intestine, spiral colon, and ascending colon. C1 was easily identified in the cranial aspect of the abdomen due to its large size relative to the other compartments and characteristic saccules. C2 was located cranial, ventral, and to the right of C1, while C3 was visualized as a tubular structure to the right and ventral to C1 and C2, C3 was traced caudally until it turned dorsally and continued cranially to a dilated ampulla in the right cranial abdomen delineating the entrance to the small intestine. The spiral colon was identified consistently in the left ventral caudal abdomen. Structures that could not be conclusively identified included the cecum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Computed tomography allowed a consistent evaluation of the major intestinal structures associated with colic in the llama. Thus, computed tomography is a potentially valuable noninvasive diagnostic tool to effectively evaluate the abdominal cavity and differentiate medical from surgical lesions in the llama

  18. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus specific antibodies in naturally exposed Israeli llamas, alpacas and camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, D. (Dan); Rotenberg, D. (Ditza); Khinich, E. (Evgeny); Erster, O. (Oran); Bardenstein, S. (Svetlana); van Straten, M. (Michael); N.M.A. Okba (Nisreen); Raj, S.V. (Stalin V.); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); Miculitzki, M. (Marcelo); Davidson, I. (Irit)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThus far, no human MERS-CoV infections have been reported from Israel. Evidence for the circulation of MERS-CoV in dromedaries has been reported from almost all the countries of the Middle East, except Israel. Therefore, we aimed to analyze MERS-CoV infection in Israeli camelids, sampled

  19. Encendiendo una Llama. Bilingual Gifted and Talented Program: Overview, Identification of Students, and Instructional Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford Public Schools, CT.

    Three pamphlets describe facets of "Encendiendo Una Llama," a Hartford (Connecticut) demonstration program for bilingual gifted and talented students. An overview pamphlet summarizes key aspects of the model program: identification procedures, instructional services, teacher training, parent involvement, evidence of effectiveness, implementation…

  20. Year One Evaluation of "Encendiendo Una Llama" Bilingual Gifted and Talented Program. Report 80-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, Daniel; Roby, Wallace R.

    The document reports activities of "Encendiendo Una Llama," a bilingual gifted and talented program serving 60 students in grades K through 6 in a school day resource room component or in an after school program. Twelve program objectives are outlined in terms of proposed activities, proposed evaluation, actual results, and…

  1. Identification of cattle, llama and horse meat by near infrared reflectance or transflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani-Linares, L W; Gallo, C; Alomar, D

    2012-02-01

    Visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VIS-NIRS) was used to discriminate meat and meat juices from three livestock species. In a first trial, samples of Longissimus lumborum muscle, corresponding to beef (31) llamas (21) and horses (27), were homogenised and their spectra collected in reflectance (NIRSystems 6500 scanning monochromator, in the range of 400-2500 nm). In the second trial, samples of meat juice (same muscle) from the same species (20 beef, 19 llama and 19 horse) were scanned in folded transmission (transflectance). Discriminating models (PLS regression) were developed against "dummy" variables, testing different mathematical treatments of the spectra. Best models indentified the species of almost all samples by their meat (reflectance) or meat juice (transflectance) spectra. A few (three of beef and one of llama, for meat samples; one of beef and one of horse, for juice samples) were classified as uncertain. It is concluded that NIRS is an effective tool to recognise meat and meat juice from beef, llama and horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Adventures of Artemis and the Llama: A Case for Imaginary Histories in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Artemis is a late Hellenistic Greek marble sculpture of the huntress, running in a flowing garment, now lacking arms, legs, and head, and about three-quarters life-sized. The llama is a remarkable hollow male figure of smooth thin gold, and about two inches tall, and was made by the Inca before the Spanish conquest in 1532. This narrative is just…

  3. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  4. Ambigüedad y justicia en El Llano en llamas de Juan Rulfo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldgel Carballo, Víctor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In El llano en llamas, the multiplication of points of view and narrative voices bring about a reflection on the potentialities and dangers of ambiguous meaning. By appealing to a multiperspectivism that emphasizes discontinuity, Rulfo invite us to examine the violence inherent to the encounter between different voices, and upon the ways in which the coercion and silencing of the other support the construction of hegemonic meaning.En El llano en llamas la multiplicación de puntos de vista propicia una reflexión sobre las potencialidades y los peligros de un sentido ambiguo. Mediante un multiperspectivismo que enfatiza lo discontinuo, Rulfo nos invita a meditar acerca de la violencia inherente al encuentro entre diferentes y acerca de los modos en que la coerción y el silenciamiento del otro funcionan como pilares en la construcción de sentidos hegemónicos.

  5. Fracture repair with transfixation pins and fiberglass cast in llamas and small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneps, A J; Schmotzer, W B; Huber, M J; Riebold, T W; Watrous, B J; Arnold, J S

    1989-11-01

    Transfixation pinning with fiberglass casting is an effective and adaptable method of longbone fracture fixation in llamas and small ruminants. Treatment of fractures in 7 limbs of 4 llamas and 2 small ruminants with this technique are described. Steinmann pins are placed transcortically proximal, and if necessary, distal to the fracture. The pin ends and limb are encased in fiberglass cast material. The cast is strong enough in animals of this size to eliminate the need for external frames or connecting bars. Severely comminuted fractures and fractures near joints are especially suited to fixation with this technique. Complications encountered in these cases included loosening of pins and one delayed union. All fractures healed to permit full use of the limb.

  6. Diminished renal urea excretion in the llama at reduced food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Renal urea excretion was studied in three llamas under various feeding conditions. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from inulin clearance. Tubular reabsorbed urea was the difference between glomerular filtered and renal excreted urea. Plasma urea concentration increased significantly when feeding was reduced by 40% and 60%, not applicable to a straw diet. With reduced hay feeding and on a straw diet only a slight and insignificant decrease was observed in renal urea excretion, with only a 3% lowering in GFR and glomerular filtered urea. With a straw diet, the glomerular filtered urea was significantly below the controls. The fraction of filtered urea reabsorbed in the tubules was constant (36%-47%). Very high reabsorption (87%) on a supplemented straw dietwas observed in one llama which after nearly 6 months on this low protein diet - could be shown to have lost only 5% of its body weight

  7. First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus–Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyombayire, Julien; Anzala, Omu; Gazzard, Brian; Karita, Etienne; Bergin, Philip; Hayes, Peter; Kopycinski, Jakub; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Jackson, Akil; Bizimana, Jean; Farah, Bashir; Sayeed, Eddy; Parks, Christopher L.; Inoue, Makoto; Hironaka, Takashi; Hara, Hiroto; Shu, Tsugumine; Matano, Tetsuro; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Park, Harriet; Gilmour, Jill; Lombardo, Angela; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna S.; Cox, Josephine H.

    2017-01-01

    Background. We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)–vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. Methods. Sixty-five HIV-1–uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35–vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (SLA); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (SHA); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (ASH); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (SHSH). Results. All vaccine regimens were well tolerated. Gag-specific IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot–determined response rates and geometric mean responses were higher (96% and 248 spot-forming units, respectively) in groups primed with SeV-Gag and boosted with Ad35-GRIN (SLA and SHA) than those after a single dose of Ad35-GRIN (56% and 54 spot-forming units, respectively) or SeV-Gag (55% and 59 spot-forming units, respectively); responses persisted for ≥8 months after completion of the prime-boost regimen. Functional CD8+ T-cell responses with greater breadth, magnitude, and frequency in a viral inhibition assay were also seen in the SLA and SHA groups after Ad35-GRIN boost, compared with those who received either vaccine alone. SeV-Gag did not boost T-cell counts in the ASH group. In contrast, the highest Gag-specific antibody titers were seen in the ASH group. Mucosal antibody responses were sporadic. Conclusions. SeV-Gag primed functional, durable HIV-specific T

  8. First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus-Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyombayire, Julien; Anzala, Omu; Gazzard, Brian; Karita, Etienne; Bergin, Philip; Hayes, Peter; Kopycinski, Jakub; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Jackson, Akil; Bizimana, Jean; Farah, Bashir; Sayeed, Eddy; Parks, Christopher L; Inoue, Makoto; Hironaka, Takashi; Hara, Hiroto; Shu, Tsugumine; Matano, Tetsuro; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Park, Harriet; Gilmour, Jill; Lombardo, Angela; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna S; Cox, Josephine H

    2017-01-01

     We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine.  Sixty-five HIV-1-uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35-vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (S L A); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (S H A); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (AS H ); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (S H S H ).  All vaccine regimens were well tolerated. Gag-specific IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot-determined response rates and geometric mean responses were higher (96% and 248 spot-forming units, respectively) in groups primed with SeV-Gag and boosted with Ad35-GRIN (S L A and S H A) than those after a single dose of Ad35-GRIN (56% and 54 spot-forming units, respectively) or SeV-Gag (55% and 59 spot-forming units, respectively); responses persisted for ≥8 months after completion of the prime-boost regimen. Functional CD8 + T-cell responses with greater breadth, magnitude, and frequency in a viral inhibition assay were also seen in the S L A and S H A groups after Ad35-GRIN boost, compared with those who received either vaccine alone. SeV-Gag did not boost T-cell counts in the AS H group. In contrast, the highest Gag-specific antibody titers were seen in the AS H group. Mucosal antibody responses were sporadic.  SeV-Gag primed functional, durable HIV-specific T-cell responses and boosted antibody

  9. Molecular detection of Sarcocystis aucheniae in the blood of llamas from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mara; Decker Franco, Cecilia; Romero, Sandra; Carletti, Tamara; Schnittger, Leonhard; Florin-Christensen, Monica

    Sarcocystis aucheniae are apicomplexan protozoa that infect South American camelids (SACs), giving rise to macroscopic cysts similar to rice grains in skeletal muscles. Visual detection of macrocysts in slaughtered animals hampers commercialization of SAC meat, a highly relevant economic exploitation for Andean rural families. Importantly, the consumption of undercooked S. aucheniae-infested meat causes gastroenteritis. A carnivore definitive host, possibly the dog, acquires the parasite when feeding on infected SAC meat, and later eliminates infective oocysts in its feces. The parasite cycle is completed when SACs ingest contaminated water or pastures. We hypothesized that parasite DNA can be detected in SAC blood using molecular methods. In order to test this hypothesis, a seminested PCR format was specifically designed to target the hypervariable 18S rRNA gene region of S. aucheniae. PCR conditions were optimized using genomic DNA extracted from macrocyst bradyzoites. A detection limit of up to 1 parasite in 10μl of llama blood was established based on DNA samples extracted from aliquots of S. aucheniae bradyzoite-spiked non-infected llama blood. The seminested PCR allowed to detect natural infections of S. aucheniae in llama blood samples originating in the Andean flatlands of Argentina. Specific amplification of S. aucheniae DNA was corroborated by amplicon sequencing. This is the first report of S. aucheniae detection in llama blood, which provides a valuable diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of the efficacy of control measures for this parasitosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Upper airway obstruction in a llama caused by aberrant nasopharyngeal bots (Cephenemyia sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattoon, J.S.; Gerros, T.C.; Parker, J.E.; Carter, C.A.; LaMarche, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    A 9 month old female llama was presented with inspiratory dyspnea. Radiographically, there was a large soft tissue mass nearly occluding the nasopharynx. During endoscopic examination three nasopharyngeal bots were identified embedded in the mass. The larvae were removed and the patient treated with ivermectin. The patient was discharged one week later free of clinical respiratory disease. In follow-up radiographs made 6 weeks later, only residual radiopacity in the area of the mass remained

  11. Diminished renal urea excretion in the llama at reduced food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    At a low protein low-energy diet or during reduced food intake, the glomerular filtration rate and thereby the glomerular filtered urea was reduced by about 30%. During most experiments tubular reabsorption of filtered urea was rather constant (averaging 43%). A high reabsorption of 87% was observed in one llama for several weeks during a straw diet with moderate supplementation of some carbohydrates. (author)

  12. LLAMA: normal star formation efficiencies of molecular gas in the centres of luminous Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, D. J.; Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I.; Koss, M.; Ricci, C.; Lutz, D.; Riffel, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Genzel, R.; Hicks, E. H.; Lin, M.-Y.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Riffel, R. A.; Schartmann, M.; Schawinski, K.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Saintonge, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.; Treister, E.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    Using new Atacama Pathfinder Experiment and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope spectroscopy of the CO 2→1 line, we undertake a controlled study of cold molecular gas in moderately luminous (Lbol = 1043-44.5 erg s-1) active galactic nuclei (AGN) and inactive galaxies from the Luminous Local AGN with Matched Analogs (LLAMA) survey. We use spatially resolved infrared photometry of the LLAMA galaxies from 2MASS, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel), corrected for nuclear emission using multicomponent spectral energy distribution fits, to examine the dust-reprocessed star formation rates, molecular gas fractions and star formation efficiencies (SFEs) over their central 1-3 kpc. We find that the gas fractions and central SFEs of both active and inactive galaxies are similar when controlling for host stellar mass and morphology (Hubble type). The equivalent central molecular gas depletion times are consistent with the discs of normal spiral galaxies in the local Universe. Despite energetic arguments that the AGN in LLAMA should be capable of disrupting the observable cold molecular gas in their central environments, our results indicate that nuclear radiation only couples weakly with this phase. We find a mild preference for obscured AGN to contain higher amounts of central molecular gas, which suggests connection between AGN obscuration and the gaseous environment of the nucleus. Systems with depressed SFEs are not found among the LLAMA AGN. We speculate that the processes that sustain the collapse of molecular gas into dense pre-stellar cores may also be a prerequisite for the inflow of material on to AGN accretion discs.

  13. Macroscopic anatomy, irrigation and venous drainage of female reproductive apparatus of llama (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    León M., Eric; Sato S., Alberto; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Cisneros S., Jannet

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical description of the reproductive tract of the female llama was studied in four animals. Macroscopically, the reproductive system is morphologically similar to the cow. However, the difference is the absence of intercornual ligament and cotyledons, and the presence of an intercornual septum, as in the alpaca. The distribution of the arteries and veins that irrigated and drained the blood to and from the pelvic cavity and reproductive system presented a vascular distribution almos...

  14. Prevalence of Mycoplasma haemolamae infection in Peruvian and Chilean llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, Susan J; Boeder, Lisa; Rios-Phillips, Carolina; Alarcon, Virgilio

    2010-09-01

    Mycoplasma haemolamae is a hemotropic mycoplasma that affects red blood cells of llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). It is variably associated with anemia, and most infections are subclinical. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay has facilitated detection of this infection in llamas and alpacas in the United States and other countries. Whether the infection occurs in camelids in South America has previously been unknown. The current study documents a 15.8% infection rate among 76 Peruvian llamas, a 19.3% infection rate among Peruvian alpacas at one site, and a 9.26% infection rate in 108 Chilean alpacas from selected herds. All of the camelids tested appeared to be clinically healthy. No gender or species predilection was found. Only 1 positive camelid younger than 18 months was found. Infection is not associated with anemia, and the mean packed cell volume (PCV) in positive Peruvian camelids was slightly higher than the mean PCV in negative Peruvian camelids. In the Chilean alpacas, the positive alpacas had a slightly lower PCV than the negative alpacas, although the mean PCV was not in the anemic range in any of the groups.

  15. Hepatic lipidosis in llamas and alpacas: 31 cases (1991-1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, S J; Van Saun, R J; Smith, B B; Cebra, C K; Snyder, S P

    1999-05-01

    To identify factors associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in llamas and alpacas. Retrospective case series. 30 llamas and 1 alpaca. Medical records were searched to identify llamas or alpacas in which a histologic diagnosis of HL was made. Information was retrieved on signalment, history, clinical and laboratory findings, and results of necropsy or examination of biopsy specimens. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi 2 analyses. Females were affected more often than males; however, the sex distribution was not different from that of the camelid population in the diagnostic laboratory's database. Fifty-four percent of the females were pregnant, and 46% were lactating. Most affected camelids were 6 to 10 years old. Anorexia and recent weight loss were common (51.6% of camelids). An infective agent was found in only one ilama, and toxins and mineral deficiencies were not identified. The most common abnormalities on serum biochemical analysis were a high concentration of bile acids, high activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hypoproteinemia. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB) were high in those camelids in which these compounds were assayed. Twenty-nine camelids did not survive. Sick camelids should be considered at risk for developing HL, especially those with anorexia or the metabolic demands of pregnancy and lactation. Other stresses also appear to contribute. High concentrations of NEFA, beta-HB, and bile acids; high activities of GGT and AST; and hypoproteinemia may indicate that HL has developed.

  16. Application of monoclonal antibodies in functional and comparative investigations of heavy-chain immunoglobulins in new world camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, L P; Gagliardo, L F; Duffy, M S; Smith, M C; Appleton, J A

    2005-03-01

    Of the three immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes described to occur in camelids, IgG2 and IgG3 are distinct in that they do not incorporate light chains. These heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) constitute approximately 50% of the IgG in llama serum and as much as 75% of the IgG in camel serum. We have produced isotype-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in order to investigate the roles of HCAbs in camelid immunity. Seventeen stable hybridomas were cloned, and three MAbs that were specific for epitopes on the gamma chains of llama IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3 were characterized in detail. Affinity chromatography revealed that each MAb bound its isotype in solution in llama serum. The antibodies bound to the corresponding alpaca IgGs, to guanaco IgG1 and IgG2, and to camel IgG1. Interestingly, anti-IgG2 MAbs bound three heavy-chain species in llama serum, confirming the presence of three IgG2 subisotypes. Two IgG2 subisotypes were detected in alpaca and guanaco sera. The MAbs detected llama serum IgGs when they were bound to antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and were used to discern among isotypes induced during infection with a parasitic nematode. Diseased animals, infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, did not produce antigen-specific HCAbs; rather, they produced the conventional isotype, IgG1, exclusively. Our data document the utility of these MAbs in functional and physiologic investigations of the immune systems of New World camelids.

  17. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C MARÍN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos y llama (Lama glama, cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares fueron observados en las cuatro especies de Lamini, incluso similares a los descritos para camello, Camelus bactrianus. Sin embargo, se encontraron finas y consistentes diferencias en los brazos cortos del cromosoma 1, permitiendo separar a camellos, guanacos y llamas, de las de vicuñas y alpacas. Este patrón fue consistente incluso en un híbrido guanaco x alpaca. Relaciones equivalentes fueron encontradas en las secuencias completas del gen para citocromo b, así como en el árbol de expansión mínima de las secuencias parciales de la región control, agrupando a guanacos con llamas y a vicuñas con alpacas. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron a V. vicugna y a L. guanicoe como grupos recíprocamente monofHéticos. El análisis de las secuencias de ambos genes mostró dos ciados entre las vicuñas, concordantes con las subespecies reconocidas para esta especie, pero los resultados obtenidos para guanacos no reflejaron la existencia de las cuatro subespecies previamente propuestas. El análisis combinado de variaciones cromosómicas y moleculares demostraron una alta similitud genética entre alpacas y vicuñas, así como entre llamas y guanacos. Aunque se revela hibridización direccional, nuestros resultados apoyan fuertemente la hipótesis de que la llama se deriva de L. guanicoe, y la alpaca de V. vicugna, apoyando la reclasificación de la alpaca como V. pacosFour camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe and

  18. Asymmetric mesoporous silica nanoparticles as potent and safe immunoadjuvants provoke high immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaraju, Prasanna Lakshmi; Jambhrunkar, Manasi; Yang, Yannan; Liu, Yang; Lu, Yao; Yu, Chengzhong

    2018-02-20

    Asymmetric mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a head-tail structure are potent immunoadjuvants for delivering a peptide antigen, generating a higher antibody immune response in mice compared to their symmetric counterparts.

  19. A stably expressed llama single-domain intrabody targeting Rev displays broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Eline; Li, Guangdi; Vanstreels, Els; Vercruysse, Thomas; Pannecouque, Christophe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Daelemans, Dirk

    2014-12-01

    The HIV Rev protein mediates the transport of partially and unspliced HIV mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Rev multimerizes on a secondary stem-loop structure present in the viral intron-containing mRNA species and recruits the cellular karyopherin CRM1 to export viral mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Previously we have identified a single-domain intrabody (Nb(190)), derived from a llama heavy-chain antibody, which efficiently inhibits Rev multimerization and suppresses the production of infectious virus. We recently mapped the epitope of this nanobody and demonstrated that Rev residues K20 and Y23 are crucial for interaction while residues V16, H53 and L60 are important to a lesser extent. Here, we generated cell lines stably expressing Nb(190) and assessed the capacity of these cell lines to suppress the replication of different HIV-1 subtypes. These cells stably expressing the single-domain antibody are protected from virus-induced cytopathogenic effect even in the context of high multiplicity of infection. In addition, the replication of different subtypes of group M and one strain of group O is significantly suppressed in these cell lines. Next, we analysed the natural variations of Rev amino acids in sequence samples from HIV-1 infected patients worldwide and assessed the effect of Nb(190) on the most prevalent polymorphisms occurring at the key epitope positions (K20 and Y23) in Rev. We found that Nb(190) was able to suppress the function of these Rev variants except for the K20N mutant, which was present in only 0.7% of HIV-1 sequence populations (n = 4632). Cells stably expressing the single-domain intrabody Nb(190) are protected against virus-induced cytopathogenic effect and display a selective survival advantage upon infection. In addition, Nb(190) suppresses the replication of a wide range of different HIV-1 subtypes. Large-scale sequence analysis reveals that the Nb(190) epitope positions in Rev are well conserved across major HIV-1

  20. Cetrorelix suppresses the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation induced by ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) present in llama seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mauricio E; Smulders, Juan P; Guerra, Monserrat; Valderrama, Ximena P; Letelier, Claudia; Adams, Gregg P; Ratto, Marcelo H

    2011-05-30

    The purpose of the study was to determine if the effect of llama OIF on LH secretion is mediated by stimulation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Using a 2-by-2 factorial design to examine the effects of OIF vs GnRH with or without a GnRH antagonist, llamas with a growing ovarian follicle greater than or equal to 8 mm were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7 per group) and a) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix acetate) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF, b) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of cetrorelix followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH, c) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF or d) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH. Pre-treatment with cetrorelix or saline was given as a single slow intravenous dose 2 hours before intramuscular administration of either GnRH or OIF. Blood samples for LH measurement were taken every 15 minutes from 1.5 hours before to 8 hours after treatment. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken every-other-day from Day 0 (day of treatment) to Day 16. Ovulation rate was not different (P = 0.89) between placebo+GnRH (86%) and placebo+OIF groups (100%); however, no ovulations were detected in llamas pre-treated with cetrorelix. Plasma LH concentrations surged (P llamas suggesting that LH secretion is modulated by a direct or indirect effect of OIF on GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus.

  1. Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with eCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Aller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two intravaginal devices (ID containing the same dose (0.5 g of progesterone (P4 on subsequent ovarian response, embryo production and circulating P4 concentration profile in llamas (Lama glama treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n = 10 llamas per group to one of the following groups and treated (Day 0 with an ID containing 0.5 g of vegetal P4 to synchronize the emergence of a new follicular wave: i DIB 0.5® and ii Cronipres M15®. On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The IDs were removed on Day 7. Llamas were naturally mated (Day 9 and treated with GnRH analogue to induce ovulation. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating. Blood samples were taken every day from Day 0 to Day 7 to measure circulating P4 concentrations. The results indicated that DIB device maintained greater plasma P4 levels as compared to Cronipres until Day 2. However, the mean (± SD number of corpora lutea and recovered embryos was not affected (p < 0.05 by the type of ID (5.3 ± 2.6 vs 4.2 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.6 ± 3.0 for DIB and Cronipres, respectively. In conclusion, both DIB and Cronipres devices can be successfully used to synchronize the emergence of follicular wave prior to a single dose of eCG in superovulation protocol in llamas.

  2. Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with eCG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, J.F.; Abalos, M.C.; Acuña, F.A.; Virgili, R.; Requena, F.; Cancino, A.K.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two intravaginal devices (ID) containing the same dose (0.5 g) of progesterone (P4) on subsequent ovarian response, embryo production and circulating P4 concentration profile in llamas (Lama glama) treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n = 10 llamas per group) to one of the following groups and treated (Day 0) with an ID containing 0.5 g of vegetal P4 to synchronize the emergence of a new follicular wave: i) DIB 0.5® and ii) Cronipres M15®. On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The IDs were removed on Day 7. Llamas were naturally mated (Day 9) and treated with GnRH analogue to induce ovulation. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating. Blood samples were taken every day from Day 0 to Day 7 to measure circulating P4 concentrations. The results indicated that DIB device maintained greater plasma P4 levels as compared to Cronipres until Day 2. However, the mean (± SD) number of corpora lutea and recovered embryos was not affected (p < 0.05) by the type of ID (5.3 ± 2.6 vs 4.2 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.6 ± 3.0 for DIB and Cronipres, respectively). In conclusion, both DIB and Cronipres devices can be successfully used to synchronize the emergence of follicular wave prior to a single dose of eCG in superovulation protocol in llamas. (Author)

  3. Cetrorelix suppresses the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation induced by ovulation-inducing factor (OIF present in llama seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letelier Claudia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine if the effect of llama OIF on LH secretion is mediated by stimulation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design to examine the effects of OIF vs GnRH with or without a GnRH antagonist, llamas with a growing ovarian follicle greater than or equal to 8 mm were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7 per group and a pre-treated with 1.5 mg of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix acetate followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF, b pre-treated with 1.5 mg of cetrorelix followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH, c pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF or d pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH. Pre-treatment with cetrorelix or saline was given as a single slow intravenous dose 2 hours before intramuscular administration of either GnRH or OIF. Blood samples for LH measurement were taken every 15 minutes from 1.5 hours before to 8 hours after treatment. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken every-other-day from Day 0 (day of treatment to Day 16. Results Ovulation rate was not different (P = 0.89 between placebo+GnRH (86% and placebo+OIF groups (100%; however, no ovulations were detected in llamas pre-treated with cetrorelix. Plasma LH concentrations surged (P Conclusion Cetrorelix (GnRH antagonist inhibited the preovulatory LH surge induced by OIF in llamas suggesting that LH secretion is modulated by a direct or indirect effect of OIF on GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus.

  4. Comparison of differents methods of sperm selection of llama raw semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Cruz, R; Giuliano, S M; Gambarotta, M C; Morrell, J M; Abraham, M C; Miragaya, M H; Carretero, M I

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of different sperm selection methods applied to the same llama ejaculate. Four treatments were compared: two variants of the swim up technique (with and without seminal plasma), and two different colloids, Androcoll-E-Large and Percoll(®). Using electroejaculation, 21 semen samples were obtained from 7 llama males (n=7, r=3). The ejaculates were incubated in a solution of 0.1% collagenase, to decrease thread formation, and then split into 4 aliquots: one aliquot was layered over a column of Androcoll-E-Large (SLC) and the second over a column of Percoll (45%). The third aliquot was deposited in a tube with culture medium and was incubated at a 45° angle for 30min at 37°C (SU1). The last aliquot was centrifuged to separate the spermatozoa and seminal plasma. The sperm pellet obtained was resuspended, and transferred to a tube with culture medium which was incubated at an angle of 45° for 30min at 37°C (SU2). Both aliquots SLC and P showed higher proportions of progressive motility and plasma membrane functionality (p≤0.05) than raw semen. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in sperm viability and in normal spermatozoa between raw semen and treatments. Nevertheless, only SLC did not have a significant increase of bent tails. In conclusion SLC centrifugation would be the method of choice for selecting llama spermatozoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular characterization of the llama FGF5 gene and identification of putative loss of function mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, M S; Vidal-Rioja, L; Frank, E N; Di Rocco, F

    2017-12-01

    Llama, the most numerous domestic camelid in Argentina, has good fiber-production ability. Although a few genes related to other productive traits have been characterized, the molecular genetic basis of fiber growth control in camelids is still poorly understood. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a secreted signaling protein that controls hair growth in humans and other mammals. Mutations in the FGF5 gene have been associated with long-hair phenotypes in several species. Here, we sequenced the llama FGF5 gene, which consists of three exons encoding 813 bp. cDNA analysis from hair follicles revealed the expression of two FGF5 alternative spliced transcripts, in one of which exon 2 is absent. DNA variation analysis showed four polymorphisms in the coding region: a synonymous SNP (c.210A>G), a single base deletion (c.348delA), a 12-bp insertion (c.351_352insCATATAACATAG) and a non-sense mutation (c.499C>T). The deletion was always found together with the insertion forming a haplotype and producing a putative truncated protein of 123 amino acids. The c.499C>T mutation also leads to a premature stop codon at position 168. In both cases, critical functional domains of FGF5, including one heparin binding site, are lost. All animals analyzed were homozygous for one of the deleterious mutations or compound heterozygous for both (i.e. c.348delA, c.351_352insCATATAACATAG/c.499T). Sequencing of guanaco samples showed that the FGF5 gene encodes a full-length 270-amino acid protein. These results suggest that FGF5 is likely functional in short-haired wild species and non-functional in the domestic fiber-producing species, the llama. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract in clinically normal alpacas and llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Cebra, Christopher K

    2013-01-15

    To assess the feasibility and usefulness of CT enterography to evaluate the gastrointestinal tract in clinically normal llamas and alpacas. Prospective observational study. 7 clinically normal alpacas and 8 clinically normal llamas. The imaging protocol included orogastric administration of iodinated contrast material mixed with water. Three hours later, helical CT scanning was performed of the entire abdomen with transverse and multiplanar sagittal and dorsal projections before and after IV iodinated contrast agent injection. Both oral and IV contrast agents were well tolerated, and no adverse reactions were observed. Transverse images depicted the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in the short axis; however, dorsal and sagittal projections aided in localizing and differentiating the various gastrointestinal segments, including the pancreas. In all camelids, the wall of the gastrointestinal tract was well differentiated. In all but 2 camelids, all gastrointestinal segments were well visualized and differentiated. In those 2 animals, the cecum was difficult to identify. Good distention of the small intestine was achieved by use of the oral contrast agent. The dorsal projections were useful to identify the pancreas in its entire length. The present study supplied new information about gastrointestinal wall thickness, intestinal diameter, and location of the pancreas and ileocecocolic junction in alpacas and llamas. Multiplanar contrast-enhanced CT was useful to reveal the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and abdominal lymph nodes. The shorter time delay before imaging, compared with the delay with conventional barium studies, makes this technique complementary or superior to conventional radiographic or ultrasonographic studies for evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Comportamiento farmacocinético de la marbofloxacina y de la enrofloxacina en llamas ("Lama glama")

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Langre, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    La marbofloxacina y la enrofloxacina son antimicrobianos pertenecientes al grupo de las fluoroquinolonas, desarrolladas exclusivamente para uso veterinario, que han demostrado poseer unas características farmacocinéticas adecuadas para su uso en diversas especies. El objetivo de este trabajo fue definir el comportamiento farmacocinético de la marbofloxacina y enrofloxacina en llamas (Lama glama), a dosis de 5 mg/kg de peso corporal. Para ello se estudió la disposición del fármaco tras la admi...

  8. Heterobilharzia americana infection and congestive heart failure in a llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corapi, W V; Eden, K B; Edwards, J F; Snowden, K F

    2015-05-01

    The schistosome Heterobilharzia americana infects several mammalian species in the southeastern United States, including horses, but infections have not been reported in camelids. This is a report of H. americana infection in a 6-year-old llama with extensive cardiac pathology and congestive heart failure. Parasite-induced granulomas were widely disseminated and included overwhelming involvement of the lungs and liver. Microscopic lesions in the heart included myofiber degeneration and necrosis, with extensive replacement fibrosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed the presence of H. americana in the lungs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Comparación entre los sitios de LLAMA y APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareilles, F. A.; Morras, R.; Hauscarriaga, F. P.; Guarrera, L.; Arnal, E. M.; Lepine, J. R. D.

    A comparison among the meteorological condition prevailing at the location of APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) telescope and the site selected to deploy LLAMA (Long Latin American Millimeter Array) is carried out. The later is dubbed Alto Chorrillo, and is located 4800 m above sea level and around 16 km eastward from the town of San Antonio de los Cobres (province of Salta). This work is part of a long term monitoring campaign aim at selecting sites for millimeter and submillimeter radioastronomy that is being carried out by the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR) since 2002. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. Antimitochondrial antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  11. Tilting the balance between canonical and noncanonical conformations for the H1 hypervariable loop of a llama VHH through point mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sai Pooja; Velez-Vega, Camilo; Escobedo, Fernando A

    2013-01-10

    Nanobodies are single-domain antibodies found in camelids. These are the smallest naturally occurring binding domains and derive functionality via three hypervariable loops (H1-H3) that form the binding surface. They are excellent candidates for antibody engineering because of their favorable characteristics like small size, high solubility, and stability. To rationally engineer antibodies with affinity for a specific target, the hypervariable loops can be tailored to obtain the desired binding surface. As a first step toward such a goal, we consider the design of loops with a desired conformation. In this study, we focus on the H1 loop of the anti-hCG llama nanobody that exhibits a noncanonical conformation. We aim to "tilt" the stability of the H1 loop structure from a noncanonical conformation to a (humanized) type 1 canonical conformation by studying the effect of selected mutations to the amino acid sequence of the H1, H2, and proximal residues. We use all-atomistic, explicit-solvent, biased molecular dynamic simulations to simulate the wild-type and mutant loops in a prefolded framework. We thus find mutants with increasing propensity to form a stable type 1 canonical conformation of the H1 loop. Free energy landscapes reveal the existence of conformational isomers of the canonical conformation that may play a role in binding different antigenic surfaces. We also elucidate the approximate mechanism and kinetics of transitions between such conformational isomers by using a Markovian model. We find that a particular three-point mutant has the strongest thermodynamic propensity to form the H1 type 1 canonical structure but also to exhibit transitions between conformational isomers, while a different, more rigid three-point mutant has the strongest propensity to be kinetically trapped in such a canonical structure.

  12. Antibody-Based Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nurit Becker; Itai Benhar

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-based immunotoxins comprise an important group in targeted cancer therapeutics. These chimeric proteins are a form of biological guided missiles that combine a targeting moiety with a potent effector molecule. The targeting moiety is mostly a monoclonal antibody (MAb) or a recombinant antibody-based fragment that confers target specificity to the immunotoxin. The effector domain is a potent protein toxin of bacterial or plant origin, which, following binding to the target cells, unde...

  13. 16 kDa heat shock protein from heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a homodimer - suitability for diagnostic applications with specific llama VHH monoclonals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh K Srivastava

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 16 kDa heat shock protein (HSP is an immuno-dominant antigen, used in diagnosis of infectious Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb. causing tuberculosis (TB. Its use in serum-based diagnostics is limited, but for the direct identification of M.tb. bacteria in sputum or cultures it may represent a useful tool. Recently, a broad set of twelve 16 kDa specific heavy chain llama antibodies (VHH has been isolated, and their utility for diagnostic applications was explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify the epitopes recognized by the nine (randomly selected from a set of twelve 16 kDa specific VHH antibodies distinct VHH antibodies, 14 overlapping linear epitopes (each 20 amino acid long were characterized using direct and sandwich ELISA techniques. Seven out of 14 epitopes were recognized by 8 out of 9 VHH antibodies. The two highest affinity binders B-F10 and A-23 were found to bind distinct epitopes. Sandwich ELISA and SPR experiments showed that only B-F10 was suitable as secondary antibody with both B-F10 and A-23 as anchoring antibodies. To explain this behavior, the epitopes were matched to the putative 3D structure model. Electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography were used to determine the higher order conformation. A homodimer model best explained the differential immunological reactivity of A-23 and B-F10 against heat-treated M.tb. lysates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The concentrations of secreted antigens of M.tb. in sputum are too low for immunological detection and existing kits are only used for identifying M.tb. in cultures. Here we describe how specific combinations of VHH domains could be used to detect the intracellular HSP antigen. Linked to methods of pre-concentrating M.tb. cells prior to lysis, HSP detection may enable the development of protein-based diagnostics of sputum samples and earlier diagnosis of diseases.

  14. Inhibition of type VI secretion by an anti-TssM llama nanobody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Son Nguyen

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is a secretion pathway widespread in Gram-negative bacteria that targets toxins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Although most T6SSs identified so far are involved in inter-bacterial competition, a few are directly required for full virulence of pathogens. The T6SS comprises 13 core proteins that assemble a large complex structurally and functionally similar to a phage contractile tail structure anchored to the cell envelope by a trans-membrane spanning stator. The central part of this stator, TssM, is a 1129-amino-acid protein anchored in the inner membrane that binds to the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein. In this study, we have raised camelid antibodies against the purified TssM periplasmic domain. We report the crystal structure of two specific nanobodies that bind to TssM in the nanomolar range. Interestingly, the most potent nanobody, nb25, competes with the TssJ lipoprotein for TssM binding in vitro suggesting that TssJ and the nb25 CDR3 loop share the same TssM binding site or causes a steric hindrance preventing TssM-TssJ complex formation. Indeed, periplasmic production of the nanobodies displacing the TssM-TssJ interaction inhibits the T6SS function in vivo. This study illustrates the power of nanobodies to specifically target and inhibit bacterial secretion systems.

  15. The LLAMA 12 m mm/sub-mm radiotelescope in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepine, Jacques; Edemundo Arnal, Marcelo; de Graauw, Thijs; Abraham, Zulema; Gimenez de Castro, Guillermo; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Morras, Ricardo; Larrarte, Juan; Viramontes, José; Finger, Ricardo; Kooi, Jacob; Reeves, Rodrigo; Beaklini, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    LLAMA (Large Latin American Millimetric Array) is a joint Argentinean-Brazilian project of a 12m mm/sub-mm radio telescope similar to the APEX antenna, to be installed at a site at 4800 m altitude near San Antonio de Los Cobres in the Salta Province in Argentine, at 150 km from ALMA. The scientific cases for single dish and VLBI observations include black holes and accretion disks, the molecular evolution of interstellar clouds, the structure of the Galaxy, the formation of galaxies, and much more. The antenna was ordered to the company Vertex Antennentechnik in June 2014, and the construction is progressing quickly; it will be installed at the site in 2016. The radio telescope will be equipped with up to six receivers covering bands similar to those of ALMA. Cryostats with room for 3 cartridges, constructed by NAOJ (Tokyo,Japan), will be installed in each of the two Nasmyth cabins. Among the first receivers we will have an ALMA band 9 provided by NOVA (Groningen, Holland) and a band 5 from the Chalmers University (Sweden). Other receivers are still being discussed at the time of submission of this abstract,At high frequencies, VLBI observations at high frequencies could be made with ALMA, APEX and ASTE, and Northern radiotelescopes. In this way, LLAMA will be a seed for a Latin-American VLBI network.

  16. Collection and analysis of peritoneal fluid from healthy llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebra, Christopher K; Tornquist, Susan J; Reed, Shannon K

    2008-05-01

    To describe a technique for abdominocentesis in camelids and report peritoneal fluid biochemical and cytologic findings from healthy llamas and alpacas. Prospective study. Animals-17 adult llamas and 5 adult alpacas. Right paracostal abdominocentesis was performed. Peritoneal fluid was collected by gravity flow into tubes containing potassium-EDTA for cell count and cytologic evaluation and lithium heparin for biochemical analysis. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture into heparinized tubes at the same time. Cytologic components were quantified. Fluid pH and concentrations of total carbon dioxide, sodium, potassium, chloride, lactate, and glucose were compared between peritoneal fluid and venous blood. All but 3 camelids had peritoneal fluid cell counts of or = 2.5 g/dL. Peritoneal fluid of camelids generally contained slightly less glucose, lactate, and sodium and roughly equal concentrations of potassium and chloride as venous blood. Peritoneal fluid was collected safely from healthy camelids. Compared with blood, peritoneal fluid usually had a low cell count and protein concentration, but some individuals had higher values. Electrolyte concentrations resembled those found in blood. High cell counts and protein concentrations found in peritoneal fluid of some healthy camelids may overlap with values found in diseased camelids, complicating interpretation of peritoneal fluid values.

  17. Evaluation of insulin resistance in two kinds of South American camelids: llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, A V; Atwater, I; Navia, M A; Jeffs, S

    2000-10-01

    Insulin resistance was evaluated in South American camelids, llamas and alpacas, by use of the minimal model test and the insulin tolerance test. Animals were catheterized for long-term studies and tamed to minimize stress during evaluation. Results indicated a low insulin sensitivity index (SI) = 0 to 0.97, median = 0.39 x 10(-4) min/uIU x ml, about a fifth the value in other mammals and humans. The KITT was between 1.43 and 3.19 %/min, also significantly lower than that reported for humans. Glycosylated hemoglobin concentration was 6%, and HbAlc concentration was 5.5%; red blood cell lifetime, as measured by use of the 51Cr method, was 120 days, similar to the value in humans. We concluded that llamas and alpacas have naturally higher blood glucose concentration than do humans and other mammals during the glucose tolerance test. Using the same mathematical tools to evaluate glucose metabolism as those used in people, South American camelids appear to be resistant to insulin. Thus, the South American camelid may be a useful new animal model for the study of sugar metabolism and various facets of diabetes mellitus, especially protection from the deleterious effects of glycosylation.

  18. 1981-82 Project Evaluation for Encendiendo Una Llama: A Program for Bilingual Gifted and Talented Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Wallace

    The operation of "Encendiendo Una Llama," Hartford, Connecticut's program for bilingual gifted students, was evaluated for the 1981-82 school year. A total of 173 gifted children of limited English proficiency in grades 3 through 6 were served by the program at four locations. The program, staff, objectives, and target population are…

  19. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Assessment of the effects of epinephrine and insulin on plasma and serum biochemical variables in llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebra, Christopher K; Tornquist, Susan J

    2004-12-01

    To describe the metabolic effects of epinephrine administration in New World camelids and investigate whether these effects are influenced by administration of insulin. 6 llamas and 8 alpacas (all adult castrated males). Prior to each experiment, food was withheld from camelids for 8 hours. On each of 2 consecutive days, alpacas were administered epinephrine (10 mg/kg, IM; time 0); alpacas were randomly assigned to receive regular insulin (0.2 U/kg, IV) immediately after epinephrine administration on one of those days. In llamas, the experiment was performed once after administration of epinephrine only. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 minutes after treatment, blood samples were collected and several serum or plasma biochemical variables were assessed; in addition, plasma samples from llamas were assessed for insulin concentrations. Data were compared between days (alpacas only) and between time points. Administration of epinephrine induced mobilization of glucose, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. A small increase in endogenous insulin concentration was detected in epinephrine-treated llamas, compared with baseline values. Overall, insulin administration decreased, negated, or delayed the epinephrine-associated increases in serum or plasma concentrations of circulating energy substrates, except that it augmented the epinephrine-associated increase in concentration of triglycerides. Epinephrine appeared to mobilize energy substrates in camelids and hence may be involved in the pathogenesis of disorders of glucose and fat metabolism. Insulin appeared to antagonize most of these effects, and its administration may have therapeutic value in camelids.

  1. Pentavalent single-domain antibodies reduce Campylobacter jejuni motility and colonization in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riazi

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the world, with symptoms ranging from acute diarrhea to severe neurological disorders. Contaminated poultry meat is a major source of C. jejuni infection, and therefore, strategies to reduce this organism in poultry, are expected to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter-associated diseases. We have investigated whether oral administration of C. jejuni-specific single-domain antibodies would reduce bacterial colonization levels in chickens. Llama single-domain antibodies specific for C. jejuni were isolated from a phage display library generated from the heavy chain IgG variable domain repertoire of a llama immunized with C. jejuni flagella. Two flagella-specific single-domain antibodies were pentamerized to yield high avidity antibodies capable of multivalent binding to the target antigen. When administered orally to C. jejuni-infected two-day old chicks, the pentabodies significantly reduced C. jejuni colonization in the ceca. In vitro, the motility of the bacteria was also reduced in the presence of the flagella-specific pentabodies, suggesting the mechanism of action is through either direct interference with flagellar motility or antibody-mediated aggregation. Fluorescent microscopy and Western blot analyses revealed specific binding of the anti-flagella pentabodies to the C. jejuni flagellin.

  2. Potent peptidic fusion inhibitors of influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Juraszek, Jarek; Brandenburg, Boerries; Buyck, Christophe; Schepens, Wim B. G.; Kesteleyn, Bart; Stoops, Bart; Vreeken, Rob J.; Vermond, Jan; Goutier, Wouter; Tang, Chan; Vogels, Ronald; Friesen, Robert H. E.; Goudsmit, Jaap; van Dongen, Maria J. P.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2017-09-28

    Influenza therapeutics with new targets and mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat potential pandemics, emerging viruses, and constantly mutating strains in circulation. We report here on the design and structural characterization of potent peptidic inhibitors of influenza hemagglutinin. The peptide design was based on complementarity-determining region loops of human broadly neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (FI6v3 and CR9114). The optimized peptides exhibit nanomolar affinity and neutralization against influenza A group 1 viruses, including the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and avian H5N1 strains. The peptide inhibitors bind to the highly conserved stem epitope and block the low pH–induced conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. These peptidic compounds and their advantageous biological properties should accelerate the development of new small molecule– and peptide-based therapeutics against influenza virus.

  3. High throughput screening for antibody induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity in early antibody discovery using homogeneous macroconfocal fluorescence imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Arnout F.; Bosch, Martijn; de Weers, Michel; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    2010-01-01

    Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) represents an important Fc-mediated effector function of antibodies and is a quality often sought in candidates for therapeutic antibody development in cancer. Antibodies inducing potent CDC are relatively rare as the ability to induce CDC is strongly

  4. Single-domain antibodies that compete with the natural ligand fibroblast growth factor block the internalization of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veggiani, Gianluca; Ossolengo, Giuseppe; Aliprandi, Marisa; Cavallaro, Ugo [IFOM-IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano (Italy); Marco, Ario de, E-mail: ario.demarco@ung.si [IFOM-IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano (Italy); Dept. Environmental Sciences, University of Nova Gorica (UNG), Vipavska 13, P.O. Box 301-SI-5000, Rozna Dolina, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} Recombinant antibodies for FGFR1 were isolated from a llama naive library in VHH format. {yields} These antibodies compete with the natural ligand FGF-2 for the same epitope on FGFR1. {yields} The antibody competition inhibits the FGF-2-dependent internalization of FGFR1. -- Abstract: Single-domain antibodies in VHH format specific for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were isolated from a phage-display llama naive library. In particular, phage elution in the presence of the natural receptor ligand fibroblast growth factor (FGF) allowed for the identification of recombinant antibodies that compete with FGF for the same region on the receptor surface. These antibodies posses a relatively low affinity for FGFR1 and were never identified when unspecific elution conditions favoring highly affine binders were applied to panning procedures. Two populations of competitive antibodies were identified that labeled specifically the receptor-expressing cells in immunofluorescence and recognize distinct epitopes. Antibodies from both populations effectively prevented FGF-dependent internalization and nuclear accumulation of the receptor in cultured cells. This achievement indicates that these antibodies have a capacity to modulate the receptor physiology and, therefore, constitute powerful reagents for basic research and a potential lead for therapeutic applications.

  5. Single-domain antibodies that compete with the natural ligand fibroblast growth factor block the internalization of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veggiani, Gianluca; Ossolengo, Giuseppe; Aliprandi, Marisa; Cavallaro, Ugo; Marco, Ario de

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Recombinant antibodies for FGFR1 were isolated from a llama naive library in VHH format. → These antibodies compete with the natural ligand FGF-2 for the same epitope on FGFR1. → The antibody competition inhibits the FGF-2-dependent internalization of FGFR1. -- Abstract: Single-domain antibodies in VHH format specific for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were isolated from a phage-display llama naive library. In particular, phage elution in the presence of the natural receptor ligand fibroblast growth factor (FGF) allowed for the identification of recombinant antibodies that compete with FGF for the same region on the receptor surface. These antibodies posses a relatively low affinity for FGFR1 and were never identified when unspecific elution conditions favoring highly affine binders were applied to panning procedures. Two populations of competitive antibodies were identified that labeled specifically the receptor-expressing cells in immunofluorescence and recognize distinct epitopes. Antibodies from both populations effectively prevented FGF-dependent internalization and nuclear accumulation of the receptor in cultured cells. This achievement indicates that these antibodies have a capacity to modulate the receptor physiology and, therefore, constitute powerful reagents for basic research and a potential lead for therapeutic applications.

  6. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and laboratory findings in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanne M.; Valentine, Beth A.; Cebra, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical signs, duration of illness, clinicopathologic findings, and ultrasonographic findings were evaluated in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors (MRCT). All but 1 animal died or was euthanized. Common clinical findings were anorexia, recumbency or weakness, and weight loss or poor growth. Peripheral lymphadenomegaly occurred in only 7 animals and was detected more often at necropsy than during physical examination. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, acidosis, azotemia, anemia, hyperglycemia, and neutrophilia. Ultrasonography detected tumors in 4/6 animals. Cytologic evaluation of fluid or tissue aspirates or histopathology of biopsy tissue was diagnostic in 5/6 cases. A clinical course of 2 wk or less prior to death or euthanasia was more common in animals ≤ 2 y of age (9/11) than in older animals (6/13). Regular examination of camelids to include clinical pathology and evaluation of peripheral lymph nodes may result in early detection of MCRT. PMID:21358931

  7. Antibody biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Another milestone in the history of antibodies was the work of Porter and Edelman ... transgenic animals (Lonberg et al., 1994; Green et al.,. 1994) or .... create and to screen human recombinant antibodies libraries, that is ...

  8. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody; Antimicrosomal antibody; Microsomal antibody; Thyroid peroxidase antibody; TPOAb ... Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also been linked with an increased risk ...

  9. Proyecto "LLAMA"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, E. M.; Mirabel, I. F.; Morras, R.; Romero, G. E.; Abraham, Z.; de Gouveira Dal Pino, E. M.; Lepine, J.

    In this paper we briefly describe a joint scientific and technological effort between Argentina and Brazil, whose first goal is to install and run, in the northwestern part of Argentina, a millimetre and submillimetre observa- tional facility. In the long run, we would like to incorporate this dish to existing ones (ALMA, APEX, ASTE) in the northern extreme of Chile, to be able to carry out, for the first time in Latinamerican soil, very long base- line interferometry at mm/submm wavelengths. We also succintly mention a long term campaign that is under way in order to monitor the transparency of the atmosphere at those wavelengths. The science that can be accom- plished with this instrument, the technology transfer spin-offs related to this project, and the scientific and strategic importance of this project within both the Argentinean and Latinamerican radioastronomy is described. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aba Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Llamas (Lama glama are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2 and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m. injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB and oestradiol cypionate (ECP. Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6 or ECP (ECP group, n = 6. Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA using a repeated measures (within-SS design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5 than in ECP group (day 9. Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose

  11. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Llamas (Lama glama) are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2) and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB) and oestradiol cypionate (ECP). Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6) or ECP (ECP group, n = 6). Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a repeated measures (within-SS) design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD) was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5) than in ECP group (day 9). Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose of both

  12. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  13. Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Cecilia; Bassi, Daniela; López, Constanza; Pisacane, Vincenza; Otero, Maria Claudia; Puglisi, Edoardo; Rebecchi, Annalisa; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Vignolo, Graciela

    2016-11-07

    Llama represents for the Andean regions a valid alternative to bovine and pork meat and thanks to the high proteins and low fat content; it can constitute a good product for the novel food market. In this study, culture-dependent and independent methods were applied to investigate the microbial ecology of naturally fermented llama sausages produced in Northwest Argentina. Two different production technologies of llama sausage were investigated: a pilot-plant scale (P) and an artisanal one (A). Results obtained by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of 16S rRNA amplicons showed that the production technologies influenced the development of microbial communities with a different composition throughout the entire fermentation process. Both sequencing and microbiological counts demonstrated that Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) contributed largely to the dominant microbiota. When a total of 230 isolates were approached by RAPD-PCR, presumptive LAB strains from P production exhibited an initial variability in RAPD fingerprints switching to a single profile at the final of ripening, while A production revealed a more heterogeneous RAPD pattern during the whole fermentation process. The constant presence of Lactobacillus sakei along the fermentation in both productions was revealed by HTS and confirmed by species-specific PCR from isolated strains. The technological characterization of Lb. sakei isolates evidenced their ability to grow at 15°C, pH4.5 and 5% NaCl (95%). Most strains hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Bacteriocins encoding genes and antimicrobial resistance were found in 35% and 42.5% of the strains, respectively. An appropriate choice of a combination of autochthonous strains in a starter formulation is fundamental to improve and standardize llama sausages safety and quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo phage display screening for tumor vascular targets in glioblastoma identifies a llama nanobody against dynactin-1-p150Glued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lith, Sanne A M; Roodink, Ilse; Verhoeff, Joost J C; Mäkinen, Petri I; Lappalainen, Jari P; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Raats, Jos; van Wijk, Erwin; Roepman, Ronald; Letteboer, Stef J; Verrijp, Kiek; Leenders, William P J

    2016-11-01

    Diffuse gliomas are primary brain cancers that are characterised by infiltrative growth. Whereas high-grade glioma characteristically presents with perinecrotic neovascularisation, large tumor areas thrive on pre-existent vasculature as well. Clinical studies have revealed that pharmacological inhibition of the angiogenic process does not improve survival of glioblastoma patients. Direct targeting of tumor vessels may however still be an interesting therapeutic approach as it allows pinching off the blood supply to tumor cells. Such tumor vessel targeting requires the identification of tumor-specific vascular targeting agents (TVTAs).Here we describe a novel TVTA, C-C7, which we identified via in vivo biopanning of a llama nanobody phage display library in an orthotopic mouse model of diffuse glioma. We show that C-C7 recognizes a subpopulation of tumor blood vessels in glioma xenografts and clinical glioma samples. Additionally, C-C7 recognizes macrophages and activated endothelial cells in atherosclerotic lesions. By using C-C7 as bait in yeast-2-hybrid (Y2H) screens we identified dynactin-1-p150Glued as its binding partner. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunostainings with C-C7 and a commercial anti-dynactin-1-p150Glued antibody, and via co-immunoprecipitation/western blot studies. Normal brain vessels do not express dynactin-1-p150Glued and its expression is reduced under anti-VEGF therapy, suggesting that dynactin-1-p150Glued is a marker for activated endothelial cells.In conclusion, we show that in vivo phage display combined with Y2H screenings provides a powerful approach to identify tumor-targeting nanobodies and their binding partners. Using this combination of methods we identify dynactin-1-p150Glued as a novel targetable protein on activated endothelial cells and macrophages.

  15. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-08-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama's characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major - TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis - DS and pars acromialis - DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the support

  16. Antiprothrombin Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Žigon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, the presence of a group of pathogenic autoantibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies causes thrombosis and pregnancy complications. The most frequent antigenic target of antiphospholipid antibodies are phospholipid bound β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GPI and prothrombin. The international classification criteria for APS connect the occurrence of thrombosis and/or obstetric complications together with the persistence of lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL and antibodies against β2GPI (anti-β2GPI into APS. Current trends for the diagnostic evaluation of APS patients propose determination of multiple antiphospholipid antibodies, among them also anti-prothrombin antibodies, to gain a common score which estimates the risk for thrombosis in APS patients. Antiprothrombin antibodies are common in APS patients and are sometimes the only antiphospholipid antibodies being elevated. Methods for their determination differ and have not yet been standardized. Many novel studies confirmed method using phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT ELISA as an antigen on solid phase encompass higher diagnostic accuracy compared to method using prothrombin alone (aPT ELISA. Our research group developed an in-house aPS/PT ELISA with increased analytical sensitivity which enables the determination of all clinically relevant antiprothrombin antibodies. aPS/PT exhibited the highest percentage of lupus anticoagulant activity compared to aCL and anti-β2GPI. aPS/PT antibodies measured with the in-house method associated with venous thrombosis and presented the strongest independent risk factor for the presence of obstetric complications among all tested antiphospholipid antibodies

  17. Cow, sheep and llama manure at psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion with low cost tubular digesters in cold climate and high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Herrero, J; Alvarez, R; Cespedes, R; Rojas, M R; Conde, V; Aliaga, L; Balboa, M; Danov, S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the co-digestion of cow and llama manure combined with sheep manure, in psychrophilic conditions and real field low cost tubular digesters adapted to cold climate. Four digesters were monitored in cold climate conditions; one fed with cow manure, a second one with llama manure, the third one with co-digestion of cow-sheep manure and the fourth one was fed with llama-sheep manure. The slurry had a mean temperature of 16.6 °C, the organic load rate was 0.44 kgvs m(-3) d(-1) and the hydraulic retention time was 80 days. After one hundred days biogas production was stable, as was the methane content and the pH of the effluent. The co-digestion of cow-sheep manure results in a biogas production increase of 100% compared to the mono-digestion of cow manure, while co-digestion of llama-sheep manure results in a decrease of 50% in biogas production with respect to mono-digestion of llama manure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cataracts in New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, and guanacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, Juliet R

    2002-05-01

    Cataracts are the most frequently seen lens diseases in New World camelids. The causes of cataracts are unknown in many animals, but cataracts secondary to intraocular inflammation seem to be common. Congenital or juvenile-onset cataracts, if another cause is not apparent, should be considered as possibly caused by heredity, and the affected animals should not be bred. Persistent hyaloid vascular anomalies may also have an important role in cataract formation and could be heritable or caused by an in utero disturbance. Pedigree analyses, test breedings, and possibly DNA studies of llamas with cataracts will be required to determine their potential heritability in these species. Cataract surgery can be done successfully in camelids. It is important to evaluate the posterior segment with B scan ultrasonography before surgery in animals in which the posterior segment previously has not been seen. This evaluation allows the surgeon to better prepare for the presence of hyaloid vascular anomalies. Use of phacoemulsification, gentle tissue handling, liberal use of anti-inflammatory medications and endothelial protectants (BSS + and viscoelastics) during surgery has increased the success rate of this surgery in camelids. Unlike cataract surgery in dogs and horses undergoing, cataract surgery, in camelids seems to be important to remove much of the posterior lens capsule. This removal prevents severe capsular fibrosis and subsequent vision loss. There is evidence that a posterior capsulectomy and anterior viterectomy can help prevent postoperative glaucoma. Research needs to be done to see whether these species have an increased risk for ciliary-block glaucoma.

  19. SL15: A seminal plasma-derived lectin from the sperm of llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Renato; Sequeira, Sabrina; Argañaraz, Martin E; Apichela, Silvana A

    2017-07-01

    The oviductal sperm reservoir of South American camelids is formed when sperm bind to N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) on the surface of oviductal epithelium. The aim of this study was to characterize the GalNAc-binding proteins on llama sperm, and to establish their origin. Sperm-adsorbed proteins were extracted with 0.5 M KCl in Hepes-balanced salts. Sperm-adsorbed and seminal plasma proteins were then subjected to ligand blotting for their GalNAc affinity, and the labeled bands were identified by mass spectrometry. Three proteins were identified in seminal plasma versus only one in the sperm-adsorbed population; SL15, a seminal lectin, was common to both. SL15 is a homologue of Zymogen granule protein 16, homolog B-like, which belongs to the Jacalin-related lectin family. This lectin is likely presented to sperm via seminal plasma since epididymal sperm are not capable of binding GalNAc, whereas ejaculated sperm does, and its transcript was enriched predominantly in the prostate and bulbourethral glands. This is the first report of a seminal lectin in South American camelids that originates in the male reproductive tract, and is probably involved in sperm reservoir formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Generation of single domain antibody fragments derived from camelids and generation of manifold constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincke, Cécile; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Wernery, Ulrich; Devoogdt, Nick; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Muyldermans, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Immunizing a camelid (camels and llamas) with soluble, properly folded proteins raises an affinity-matured immune response in the unique camelid heavy-chain only antibodies (HCAbs). The peripheral blood lymphocytes of the immunized animal are used to clone the antigen-binding antibody fragment from the HCAbs in a phage display vector. A representative aliquot of the library of these antigen-binding fragments is used to retrieve single domain antigen-specific binders by successive rounds of panning. These single domain antibody fragments are cloned in tandem to generate manifold constructs (bivalent, biparatopic or bispecific constructs) to increase their functional affinity, to increase specificity, or to connect two independent antigen molecules.

  1. The LLAMA Project: A SINFONI Study of Gas Outflows and Feeding in Local, X-ray Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Thomas Taro; Davies, Richard; Burtscher, Leonard; Lin, Ming-yi

    2018-01-01

    We present new results from our survey of the inner few hundred parsecs of nearby galaxies as part of our Local Luminous AGN with Matched Analogues (LLAMA) project. AGN within the LLAMA sample were selected based on detection at ultra-hard X-rays (14-195 keV) by the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope ensuring the definitive presence of an AGN. We further imposed a redshift (z 42.5) cutoff to create a complete and volume-limited sample of nearby, luminous AGN. Inactive galaxies were chosen carefully by matching in redshift, host galaxy morphology, inclination, and stellar mass to create a clean sample with which to compare to the AGN. A subset of LLAMA AGN and inactive galaxies were observed with VLT/SINFONI using adaptive optics producing high spatial resolution integral field unit spectra in the H and K band. This unique IFU data allows for analysis of a suite of NIR emission lines including [FeII], H2 (1-0) S(1), [SiVI], and Br-gamma to probe the ionized and warm molecular gas in the circumnuclear region as well as CO absorption lines to probe the stellar disk. I will present initial results from our study including the prevalence of AGN outflows along with their geometry, kinematics, and mass outflow rates and compare the mass, state, and excitation mechanisms of circumnuclear gas between AGN and inactive galaxies. Finally, I will discuss our results in the context of AGN fuelling and feedback and provide insight on interpreting similar data at higher redshift.

  2. Monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of monoclonal antibodies are described, centering on studies made by the author and those presented at the Second International Conference on Monoclonal Antibody Immunoconjugates for Cancer held in March this year (1987). The history of immuno-nuclear medicine and procedures for producing monoclonal antibodies are briefly outlined. Monoclonal antibodies are immunoglobulins. Here, the structure of IgG, which is used most frequently, is described. An IgG is composed of two antigen binding fragments (Fab) and one crystallizable fragment (Fc). The end portion of a Fab reacts with an antigen. One of the major applications of immuno-nuclear medicine is the diagnosis of cancer. As label nucleides, 131 I and 111 I were selected in most cases in the past while 123 I and 99m Tc are currently used more often. Advantages and disadvantages of this diagnosis method is discussed citing studies presented at the First (1986) and Second (1987) International Conference on Monoclonal Antibody Immunoconjugates for Cancer. The present status of the application of monoclonal antibodies to treatment of cancer is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Effect of forage quality on intake, chewing activity, faecal particle size distribution, and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre in sheep, goats, and llamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2012-01-01

    types of forage for two periods in a crossover design. The species included six adult, non-pregnant female Danish Landrace goats, Shropshire sheep, and Lama glama llamas with body weights of 45 ± 5, 75 ± 6, and 135 ± 20 kg (mean ± SD), respectively. Forage included chopped artificially dried grass hay.......05). Sheep and goats had a higher NDF intake per kg BW than did llamas when fed GSS (P ... chewing was higher in sheep than in goats (P goats than in sheep (P goats or sheep (P

  4. Anatomía macroscópica, irrigación y drenaje venoso del aparato reproductor femenino de la llama (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    León M., Eric; Sato S., Alberto; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Cisneros S., Jannet

    2011-01-01

    Se hizo la descripción anatómica del tracto reproductor femenino de la llama. Se usaron 4 llamas adultas. Macroscópicamente, la anatomía del aparato reproductor es morfológicamente similar a la del bovino, diferenciándose por la ausencia de ligamento intercornual y cotiledones, así como por la presentación de un tabique intercornual, como es el caso de la alpaca. La distribución de las arterias y venas que irrigaron y drenaron sangre a la cavidad pélvica y aparato reproductor presentaron en u...

  5. Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette O.; Kiani, Ali; Tejada, Einstein

    2014-01-01

    goats and six Shropshire sheep, were used in a crossover design study. The experiment lasted for two periods of three weeks. Half of the animals were fed either high-quality grass hay (HP) or low-quality grass seed straw (LP) during each period. Animals were placed in metabolic cages during the last 5 d......, and gaseous exchange was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for 22 h. Metabolisable energy for maintenance (MEm) and fasting energy expenditure (FEExp) were estimated by regression approach. Dry matter (DM) intake per kg0.75 was substantially reduced in llamas and sheep, but not in goats, on the LP...

  6. Celebrity Patients, VIPs, and Potentates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, James E.; Dunderdale, Barbara A.; Stern, Theodore A.

    2002-12-01

    BACKGROUND: During the second half of the 20th century, the literature on the doctor-patient relationship mainly dealt with the management of "difficult" (personality-disordered) patients. Similar problems, however, surround other types of "special" patients. METHOD: An overview and analysis of the literature were conducted. As a result, such patients can be subcategorized by their main presentations; each requires a specific management strategy. RESULTS: Three types of "special" patients stir up irrational feelings in their caregivers. Sick celebrities threaten to focus public scrutiny on the private world of medical caregivers. VIPs generate awe in caregivers, with loss of the objectivity essential to the practice of scientific medicine. Potentates unearth narcissism in the caregiver-patient relationship, which triggers a struggle between power and shame. Pride, privacy, and the staff's need to be in control are all threatened by introduction of the special patient into medicine's closed culture. CONCLUSION: The privacy that is owed to sick celebrities should be extended to protect overexposed staff. The awe and loss of medical objectivity that VIPs generate are counteracted by team leadership dedicated to avoiding any deviation from standard clinical procedure. Moreover, the collective ill will surrounding potentates can be neutralized by reassuring them that they are "special"-and by caregivers mending their own vulnerable self-esteem.

  7. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the effect of cooling and of the addition of collagenase on llama sperm DNA using toluidine blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, M I; Giuliano, S M; Casaretto, C I; Gambarotta, M C; Neild, D M

    2012-05-01

    The effect cryopreservation has on sperm chromatin condensation has been studied in many species but not in South American camelids. The objectives of this study were to evaluate with toluidine blue (TB) the effects of cooling and of adding collagenase on llama sperm DNA condensation. The optimum incubation time (30 s, 1.5 and 3 min) with a reducing agent (dithiothreitol) was also determined. When comparing cooled samples with the raw ejaculate, a significant increase in sperm showing a high degree of decondensation (TB positive) was observed (P = 0.005). A positive correlation was observed, both in raw and cooled semen, between sperm head morphological abnormalities observed in TB-stained cells and TB-positive sperm (highly decondensed DNA), but not with TB-intermediate spermatozoa (moderately decondensed DNA). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in samples incubated with or without 0.1% collagenase. In cooled semen, but not in raw, a significant increase (P = 0.000) in reacted sperm (TB positive) was observed using 3-min incubation with 1% dithiothreitol (DTT). To conclude, cooling would seem to produce an increase in llama sperm chromatin decondensation. Also, 0.1% collagenase in H-TALP-BSA could be added to raw semen to aid its manipulation as it would not seem to increase DNA decondensation. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Meat quality attributes of the Longissimus lumborum muscle of the Kh'ara genotype of llama (Lama glama) reared extensively in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani-Linares, L W; Gallo, C B

    2013-05-01

    Twenty male llama of the Kh'ara genotype, reared extensively in the north of Chile, were slaughtered at ages between 2 and 4 permanent teeth (2 to 3.5years) and analyses were carried out on the Longissimus lumborum muscle, including composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash, cholesterol, amino acids, fatty acid profile and collagen content) and meat quality parameters (pH, color, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear-force). Llama meat was characterized by a low cholesterol (39.04mg/100g) and intramuscular fat (1.56%) content, a total collagen content of 6.28mg/g, of which 20.28% was soluble collagen. Amino acid composition and fatty acid profile were similar to those found for beef finished on forage. Llama meat showed a low n-6/n-3 (4.69) and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (1.55) ratio and acceptable values of DFA (65.78%). Quality parameters in llama Longissimus muscle were within the ranges reported for more traditional meats such as beef and lamb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relevamiento serológico de anticuerpos contra enfermedades virales de interés sanitario en llamas (Lama glama de la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S Barbieri

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones de llamas de Argentina se concentran principalmente en la provincia de Jujuy; su explotación representa un importante recurso económico de las comunidades altoandinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra algunos agentes virales asociados a enfermedades de impacto productivo en rodeos de llamas de Jujuy. Se analizaron 349 sueros de llamas adultas de 6 departamentos de la puna jujeña ubicados por encima de los 3300 msnm. Se obtuvo una prevalencia del 100 % para rotavirus grupo A y del 70 % para el virus parainfluenza-3 bovino, mientras que no se detectaron reactores para herpesvirus bovino 1, virus de la diarrea viral bovina, influenza A humana (H1N1 e influenza equina (H3N8. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la amplia distribución de rotavirus y virus parainfluenza y la baja susceptibilidad a herpesvirus y pestivirus en las tropas de llamas de la puna jujeña.

  11. Sarcocystis spp. in llamas (Lama glama) in Southern Bolivia: a cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and loss in income caused by carcass downgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, A L; Limon, G; Vides, H; Cortez, A; Guitian, J

    2014-10-01

    Llamas (Lama glama) are intermediate hosts of the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis spp. This parasite is described as causing economic losses in the production of llama meat in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors and explore spatial patterns of Sarcocystis in llamas in an area of the Bolivian High Plateau including estimating financial losses due to carcass downgrades as a result of the presence of Sarcocystis cysts. Information was collected from a local abattoir between 2006 and 2011 on 1196 llamas. Sarcocystis status was determined at meat inspection where any carcasses with one or more visible cysts were deemed Sarcocystis positive. A high prevalence was found, estimated to vary between 23.4% (95% CI 16.6-30.1) in 2007 and 50.3% (95% CI 44.4-56.3) in 2011. Period prevalence between 2006 and 2011 was estimated at 34.1% (95% CI 31.4-36.8). Age, sex and type (analogous to breed) were identified as risk factors for Sarcocystis using a mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for clustering by community and owner. Llamas over 4.5 years of age had an increased odds of being Sarcocystis positive (OR 19.31, 95% CI 9.10-40.98) as well as females (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.68) and long haired type llamas (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.26-2.87). An interaction between age and sex was detected indicating that the increased odds of disease from the youngest age group to the 2.5-4.5 years group was much more pronounced in females than in males. Spatial patterns of Sarcocystis were explored at district level by means of Standardised Morbidity Ratios and some spatial heterogeneity was revealed. Estimates of financial loss due to the disease were calculated using the difference in price paid for Sarcocystis positive and negative meat. Loss due to Sarcocystis varied per year but could be up to 20% of the annual income generated through the abattoir by sale of meat. Overall this study shows a high prevalence of Sarcocystis in the study

  12. Catalytic Antibodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biological processes and is intended to catalyze a reaction for which no real enzyme is ... the reaction. In order to enhance the rates of chemical reactions, enzymes, ..... of such antibodies has already been exploited in the production of a biosensor. ..... tant to the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries for the synthesis ...

  13. Neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin by a human monoclonal antibody specific for the catalytic light chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad P Adekar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are a family of category A select bioterror agents and the most potent biological toxins known. Cloned antibody therapeutics hold considerable promise as BoNT therapeutics, but the therapeutic utility of antibodies that bind the BoNT light chain domain (LC, a metalloprotease that functions in the cytosol of cholinergic neurons, has not been thoroughly explored.We used an optimized hybridoma method to clone a fully human antibody specific for the LC of serotype A BoNT (BoNT/A. The 4LCA antibody demonstrated potent in vivo neutralization when administered alone and collaborated with an antibody specific for the HC. In Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells, the 4LCA antibody prevented the cleavage of the BoNT/A proteolytic target, SNAP-25. Unlike an antibody specific for the HC, the 4LCA antibody did not block entry of BoNT/A into cultured cells. Instead, it was taken up into synaptic vesicles along with BoNT/A. The 4LCA antibody also directly inhibited BoNT/A catalytic activity in vitro.An antibody specific for the BoNT/A LC can potently inhibit BoNT/A in vivo and in vitro, using mechanisms not previously associated with BoNT-neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies specific for BoNT LC may be valuable components of an antibody antidote for BoNT exposure.

  14. Evaluation of two platelet-rich plasma processing methods and two platelet-activation techniques for use in llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semevolos, Stacy A; Youngblood, Cori D; Grissom, Stephanie K; Gorman, M Elena; Larson, Maureen K

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2 processing methods (commercial kit vs conical tube centrifugation) for preparing platelet rich plasma (PRP) for use in llamas and alpacas. SAMPLES Blood samples (30 mL each) aseptically collected from 6 healthy llamas and 6 healthy alpacas. PROCEDURES PRP was prepared from blood samples by use of a commercial kit and by double-step conical tube centrifugation. A CBC was performed for blood and PRP samples. Platelets in PRP samples were activated by means of a freeze-thaw method with or without 23mM CaCl 2 , and concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β 1 were measured. Values were compared between processing methods and camelid species. RESULTS Blood CBC values for llamas and alpacas were similar. The commercial kit yielded a significantly greater degree of platelet enrichment (mean increase, 8.5 fold vs 2.8 fold) and WBC enrichment (mean increase, 3.7 fold vs 1.9 fold) than did conical tube centrifugation. Llamas had a significantly greater degree of platelet enrichment than alpacas by either processing method. No difference in WBC enrichment was identified between species. Concentrations of both growth factors were significantly greater in PRP samples obtained by use of the commercial kit versus those obtained by conical tube centrifugation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For blood samples from camelids, the commercial kit yielded a PRP product with a higher platelet and WBC concentration than achieved by conical tube centrifugation. Optimal PRP platelet and WBC concentrations for various applications need to be determined for llamas and alpacas.

  15. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  16. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-01-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama’s characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major – TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis – DS and pars acromialis – DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the

  17. Comparison of two cooling protocols for llama semen: with and without collagenase and seminal plasma in the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, M I; Giuliano, S M; Arraztoa, C C; Santa Cruz, R C; Fumuso, F G; Neild, D M

    2017-08-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) of South American Camelids could interfere with the interaction of spermatozoa with the extenders; therefore it becomes necessary to improve semen management using enzymatic treatment. Our objective was to compare two cooling protocols for llama semen. Twelve ejaculates were incubated in 0.1% collagenase and then were divided into two aliquots. One was extended in lactose and egg yolk (LEY) (Protocol A: collagenase and SP present). The other aliquot was centrifuged, and the pellet was resuspended in LEY (Protocol B: collagenase and SP absent). Both samples were maintained at 5°C during 24 hr. Routine and DNA evaluations were carried out in raw and cooled semen. Both cooling protocols maintained sperm viability, membrane function and DNA fragmentation, with Protocol A showing a significantly lowered total and progressive motility (p semen samples prior to either cooling or freeze-thawing. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. First llama (Lama glama) pregnancy obtained after in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of gametes from live animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasorras, V; Baca Castex, C; Alonso, A; Giuliano, S; Santa Cruz, R; Arraztoa, C; Chaves, G; Rodríguez, D; Neild, D; Miragaya, M

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental competence and pregnancy rate of llama hatched blastocysts produced in vitro using gametes from live animals and two different culture conditions. Fifteen adult females were superstimulated with 1500 IU of eCG, eleven (73%) responded to the treatment and were used as oocyte donors. Follicular aspiration was conducted by flank laparotomy. Semen collections were performed under general anesthesia by electroejaculation of the male. Sixty-six COCs were recovered from 77 aspirated follicles (86% recovery) and were randomly placed in Fertil-TALP microdroplets with the sperm suspension (20 × 10(6)live spermatozoa/ml). After 24 h, they were placed in SOFaa medium supplemented with FCS and randomly assigned to one of two culture conditions. Culture condition 1 (CC1) consisted of 6 days of culture (n=28) and culture condition 2 (CC2) consisted of renewing the culture medium every 48 h (n=35). In CC1, the blastocyst rate was 36% (10/28) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 28% (8/28) whereas in CC2, the blastocyst rate was 34% (12/35) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 20% (7/35) (p>0.05). No pregnancies were obtained after embryo transfer (ET) of CC1 blastocysts (0/8) while one pregnancy was obtained (1/7) after transferring a hatched blastocyst from CC2. Forty-two days after the ET, the pregnancy was lost. This study represents the first report of a pregnancy in the llama after intrauterine transfer of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using gametes from live animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Substrate and O2 fluxes during rest and exercise in a high-altitude-adapted animal, the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochachka, P.W.; Mommsen, T.P.; Jones, J.H.; Taylor, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Llamas were trained to exercise on a treadmill at graded speeds. O 2 uptake values at rest, at modest exercise (ME) and at heavy exercise were 0.069, 0.297, and 0.594 ml O 2 ·kg -1 ·s -1 . Corresponding values for cardiac output were 1.64, 4.39, and 6.85 ml·kg -1 ·s -1 . Palmitate, glucose, and lactate replacement rates (R a values) were determined at these varying work rates using a single-bolus injection of 14 C- or 3 H-labeled metabolites, two at a time. During ME, the R a values for glucose and palmitate increased about twofold but showed no further increase when exercised intensity was increased about twofold. In contrast to these results, R a values for lactate increased much more with increasing work rate. A combination of increased perfusion (increased cardiac output) and increased lactate availability (increased plasma concentration) could account for the lactate R a data. During prolonged ME, the R a for lactate decreased because lactate availability decreased; concurrently, both the plasma free fatty acid availability and the R a values for pamlitate greatly increased. Because O 2 carrying capacity is low in the llama (as in all high-altitude-adapted mammals), a given level of exercise required exaggerated increases in cardiac output. As a result, the flux rates of palmitate, glucose, and lactate through the plasma compartment could readily account for O 2 flux rates even at relatively high sustainable rates of exercise

  20. Development and evaluation of single domain antibodies for vaccinia and the L1 antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Walper

    Full Text Available There is ongoing interest to develop high affinity, thermal stable recognition elements to replace conventional antibodies in biothreat detection assays. As part of this effort, single domain antibodies that target vaccinia virus were developed. Two llamas were immunized with killed viral particles followed by boosts with the recombinant membrane protein, L1, to stimulate the immune response for envelope and membrane proteins of the virus. The variable domains of the induced heavy chain antibodies were selected from M13 phage display libraries developed from isolated RNA. Selection via biopanning on the L1 antigen produced single domain antibodies that were specific and had affinities ranging from 4×10(-9 M to 7.0×10(-10 M, as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Several showed good ability to refold after heat denaturation. These L1-binding single domain antibodies, however, failed to recognize the killed vaccinia antigen. Useful vaccinia binding single domain antibodies were isolated by a second selection using the killed virus as the target. The virus binding single domain antibodies were incorporated in sandwich assays as both capture and tracer using the MAGPIX system yielding limits of detection down to 4×10(5 pfu/ml, a four-fold improvement over the limit obtained using conventional antibodies. This work demonstrates the development of anti-vaccinia single domain antibodies and their incorporation into sandwich assays for viral detection. It also highlights the properties of high affinity and thermal stability that are hallmarks of single domain antibodies.

  1. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  2. Fungal Glucosylceramide-Specific Camelid Single Domain Antibodies Are Characterized by Broad Spectrum Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara De Coninck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical crop protection is widely used to control plant diseases. However, the adverse effects of pesticide use on human health and environment, resistance development and the impact of regulatory requirements on the crop protection market urges the agrochemical industry to explore innovative and alternative approaches. In that context, we demonstrate here the potential of camelid single domain antibodies (VHHs generated against fungal glucosylceramides (fGlcCer, important pathogenicity factors. To this end, llamas were immunized with purified fGlcCer and a mixture of mycelium and spores of the fungus Botrytis cinerea, one of the most important plant pathogenic fungi. The llama immune repertoire was subsequently cloned in a phage display vector to generate a library with a diversity of at least 108 different clones. This library was incubated with fGlcCer to identify phages that bind to fGlcCer, and VHHs that specifically bound fGlcCer but not mammalian or plant-derived GlcCer were selected. They were shown to inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in vitro, with VHH 41D01 having the highest antifungal activity. Moreover, VHH 41D01 could reduce disease symptoms induced by B. cinerea when sprayed on tomato leaves. Based on all these data, anti-fGlcCer VHHs show the potential to be used as an alternative approach to combat fungal plant diseases.

  3. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Latorre, E; Arranz, J J

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess the mtDNA diversity of Bolivian South American camelid (SAC) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the Bolivian camelids and other populations of SACs. We have analysed two different mtDNA regions: the complete coding region of the MT-CYB gene and 513 bp of the D-loop region. The populations sampled included Bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and Chilean guanacos. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in the studied populations. In general, MT-CYB was more variable than D-loop. On a species level, the vicunas showed the lowest genetic variability, followed by the guanacos, alpacas and llamas. Phylogenetic analyses performed by including additional available mtDNA sequences from the studied species confirmed the existence of the two monophyletic clades previously described by other authors for guanacos (G) and vicunas (V). Significant levels of mtDNA hybridization were found in the domestic species. Our sequence analyses revealed significant sequence divergence within clade G, and some of the Bolivian llamas grouped with the majority of the southern guanacos. This finding supports the existence of more than the one llama domestication centre in South America previously suggested on the basis of archaeozoological evidence. Additionally, analysis of D-loop sequences revealed two new matrilineal lineages that are distinct from the previously reported G and V clades. The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. Detection of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in llama (Lama glama) oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, R; Argañaraz, M E; Miceli, D C; Apichela, S A

    2014-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in several reproductive events like oocyte-spermatozoa interaction and semen liquefaction. In order to study their role in the llama oviductal reproductive process, MMP activity in oviductal fluid (OF) was assayed. Considering that llama genome sequences are partially known, a strategy to procure cDNA sequences of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was designed. Afterwards, their expression patterns in the different llama oviductal segments were assayed. Gelatine zymograms detected 62 and 94 kDa protease activities that matched MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9, respectively. Expression pattern analysis showed that MMP and TIMP mRNAs were present in ampulla, isthmus, utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and papilla. Altogether, these findings support the argument that MMPs/TIMPs are produced in the oviduct and secreted into the oviductal lumen. Our results encourage further studies to elucidate the role of these proteins in reproductive oviductal events. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The materno-fetal interface in llama (Lama guanicoe glama A interface materno-fetal em lhamas (Lama guanicoe glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Iturrizaga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 9 llamas (28 through 36 weeks of gestation were collected and fixed in 4% buffered paraformaldehyde (light microscopy and in 2.5% buffered glutaraldehyde (transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The material was processed in paraplast and slides (5mm were stained with HE, PAS, Masson-Trichrome, acid phosphatase and Perl's. The uteroferrin was immunolocalized. The results show that llama placenta is chorioallantoic, diffuse, folded and epitheliochorial, and the fetus is covered with an epidermal membrane. The trophoblast cells have variable morphology: cubic, rounded and triangular cells, with cytoplasm containing PAS-positive granules. Binucleated cells with large cytoplasm and rounded nuclei, as well as giant trophoblastic cells with multiple nuclei were also observed. Numerous blood vessels were observed beneath the cells of the uterine epithelium and around the chorionic subdivided branches. Glandular activity was shown by PAS, Perl's, and acid phosphatase positive reactions in the cytoplasm and glandular lumen, and by immunolocalization of the uteroferrin in the glandular epithelium. The uterine glands open in spaces formed by the areoles, which are filled by PAS-positive material. The llama fetus was covered by the epidermal membrane, composed of stratified epithelium, with up to seven layers of mono-, bi- or trinucleated cells. The high level of maternal and fetal vascularization surfaces indicates an intense exchange of substances across both surfaces. The metabolic activity shown in the uterine glands suggests an adaptation of the gestation to the high altitudes of the natural habitat of this species.Fragmentos da placenta de 9 animais (28-36 semanas de gestação, provenientes do Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura (IVITA, Cusco-Peru, e da Universidad del Altiplano (UNA, Puno-Peru, foram colhidos e fixados em paraformoldeído 4% em PBS para microscopia de luz e em glutaraldeido em 2,5% PBS

  6. Control del avance del frente de llama en el lecho de sinterización de minerales de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cores, A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A sintering pan of 40 cm cubed is loaded with a mixture of iron ores, limestone and coke weighing 110 kg in a sintering pilot plant. In this sintering pan, a series of thermocouples have been introduced at different depths. Tests have been carried out to study the width of the combustion zone and the maximum temperature of the flame front across the sintering bed. For the analysis of the results, a data acquisition system was used. This consisted of two modules connected in serie, for performing the analogue-digital conversion. The analogue entry point is the exit point of the thermocouples and the digital exit point was the temperature average. A computer was used for conserving and storing the data and for carrying out interpolations, simulating the state and evolution of the flame front across the bed.

    En una planta piloto de sinterización se cargan, en la paila cúbica de 40 cm de lado, 110 kg de una mezcla de minerales de hierro, caliza y coque, donde se han introducido una serie de termopares a diferentes profundidades. Se realizan ensayos para estudiar la evolución del ancho de la zona de combustión y de la temperatura máxima del frente de llama a través del lecho de sinterización. Para el análisis de los resultados se utiliza un sistema de adquisición de datos formado por dos módulos conectados en serie, encargados de realizar la conversión analógico-digital. La entrada analógica es la salida de los termopares y la salida digital es la medida de la temperatura. Se dispone de un ordenador para la conservación y almacenamiento de los datos y para realizar interpolaciones que simulan el estado y evolución del frente de llama a través del lecho.

  7. 2-Aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Bui, Minna; Shen, Wang; Baskaran, Subramanian; Allen, Darin A; Elling, Robert A; Flanagan, W Michael; Fung, Amy D; Hanan, Emily J; Harris, Shannon O; Heumann, Stacey A; Hoch, Ute; Ivy, Sheryl N; Jacobs, Jeffrey W; Lam, Stuart; Lee, Heman; McDowell, Robert S; Oslob, Johan D; Purkey, Hans E; Romanowski, Michael J; Silverman, Jeffrey A; Tangonan, Bradley T; Taverna, Pietro; Yang, Wenjin; Yoburn, Josh C; Yu, Chul H; Zimmerman, Kristin M; O'Brien, Tom; Lew, Willard

    2009-09-01

    This Letter describes the discovery and key structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of 2-aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors. 2-Aminobenzimidazole serves as a bioisostere of the biaryl urea residue of SNS-314 (1c), which is a potent Aurora kinase inhibitor and entered clinical testing in patients with solid tumors. Compared to SNS-314, this series of compounds offers better aqueous solubility while retaining comparable in vitro potency in biochemical and cell-based assays; in particular, 6m has also demonstrated a comparable mouse iv PK profile to SNS-314.

  8. Highly Potent Antibacterial Organometallic Peptide Conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, Bauke; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2017-01-01

    ConspectusResistance of pathogenic bacteria against currently marketed antibiotics is again increasing. To meet the societal need for effective cures, scientists are faced with the challenge of developing more potent but equally bacteria-specific drugs. Currently, most efforts are directed toward

  9. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably

  10. Antibodies and Selection of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanack, Katja; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Listek, Martin

    Monoclonal antibodies are universal binding molecules with a high specificity for their target and are indispensable tools in research, diagnostics and therapy. The biotechnological generation of monoclonal antibodies was enabled by the hybridoma technology published in 1975 by Köhler and Milstein. Today monoclonal antibodies are used in a variety of applications as flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting, immunoassays or therapeutic approaches. First step of the generation process is the immunization of the organism with appropriate antigen. After a positive immune response the spleen cells are isolated and fused with myeloma cells in order to generate stable, long-living antibody-producing cell lines - hybridoma cells. In the subsequent identification step the culture supernatants of all hybridoma cells are screened weekly for the production of the antibody of interest. Hybridoma cells producing the antibody of interest are cloned by limited dilution till a monoclonal hybridoma is found. This is a very time-consuming and laborious process and therefore different selection strategies were developed since 1975 in order to facilitate the generation of monoclonal antibodies. Apart from common automation of pipetting processes and ELISA testing there are some promising approaches to select the right monoclonal antibody very early in the process to reduce time and effort of the generation. In this chapter different selection strategies for antibody-producing hybridoma cells are presented and analysed regarding to their benefits compared to conventional limited dilution technology.

  11. Llama-derived single variable domains (nanobodies) directed against chemokine receptor CXCR7 reduce head and neck cancer cell growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maussang, David; Mujić-Delić, Azra; Descamps, Francis J; Stortelers, Catelijne; Vanlandschoot, Peter; Stigter-van Walsum, Marijke; Vischer, Henry F; van Roy, Maarten; Vosjan, Maria; Gonzalez-Pajuelo, Maria; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Merchiers, Pascal; van Rompaey, Philippe; Smit, Martine J

    2013-10-11

    The chemokine receptor CXCR7, belonging to the membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, is expressed in several tumor types. Inhibition of CXCR7 with either small molecules or small interference (si)RNA has shown promising therapeutic benefits in several tumor models. With the increased interest and effectiveness of biologicals inhibiting membrane-bound receptors we made use of the "Nanobody platform" to target CXCR7. Previously we showed that Nanobodies, i.e. immunoglobulin single variable domains derived from naturally occurring heavy chain-only camelids antibodies, represent new biological tools to efficiently tackle difficult drug targets such as G protein-coupled receptors. In this study we developed and characterized highly selective and potent Nanobodies against CXCR7. Interestingly, the CXCR7-targeting Nanobodies displayed antagonistic properties in contrast with previously reported CXCR7-targeting agents. Several high affinity CXCR7-specific Nanobodies potently inhibited CXCL12-induced β-arrestin2 recruitment in vitro. A wide variety of tumor biopsies was profiled, showing for the first time high expression of CXCR7 in head and neck cancer. Using a patient-derived CXCR7-expressing head and neck cancer xenograft model in nude mice, tumor growth was inhibited by CXCR7-targeting Nanobody therapy. Mechanistically, CXCR7-targeting Nanobodies did not inhibit cell cycle progression but instead reduced secretion of the angiogenic chemokine CXCL1 from head and neck cancer cells in vitro, thus acting here as inverse agonists, and subsequent angiogenesis in vivo. Hence, with this novel class of CXCR7 inhibitors, we further substantiate the therapeutic relevance of targeting CXCR7 in head and neck cancer.

  12. Cobre en alimentos de consumo básico por espectroscopia de absorción atómica modalidad de llama, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Cuantificar el contenido de cobre en alimentos de la canasta básica de consumo del costarricense. Materiales y métodos: Los alimentos se procesaron de acuerdo con el patrón de consumo costarricense, se determinó la cantidad óptima de HNO3.al 65 % óptimo para su digestión en horno de microondas por evaluación de los porcentajes de recuperación. La cuantificación se realizó sobre las muestras digeridas por espectroscopia de absorción atómica de llama., las mediciones se hicieron a 324...

  13. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Razpotnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood–brain barrier (BBB makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs, and cell-based approaches. We have already shown the successful delivery of single-chain fragment variable (scFv with CPP as a linker between two variable domains in the brain. Antibodies normally face poor penetration through the BBB, with some variants sufficiently passing the barrier on their own. A “Trojan horse” method allows passage of biomolecules, such as antibodies, through the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT. Such examples of therapeutic antibodies are the bispecific antibodies where one binding specificity recognizes and binds a BBB receptor, enabling RMT and where a second binding specificity recognizes an antigen as a therapeutic target. On the other hand, cell-based systems such as stem cells (SCs are a promising delivery system because of their tumor tropism and ability to cross the BBB. Genetically engineered SCs can be used in gene therapy, where they express anti-tumor drugs, including antibodies. Different types and sources of SCs have been studied for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain; both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and neural stem cells (NSCs show great potential. Following the success in treatment of leukemias and lymphomas, the adoptive T-cell therapies, especially the chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-Ts, are making their way into glioma treatment as another type of cell

  14. Curcumin – A Potent Inhibitor of Galectin-3 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerka Dumić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of galectin-3, a b-galactoside binding lectin, was found to be affected by different kinds of stressors, and is strongly modified in numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Although no precise regulatory mechanisms of galectin-3 expression are unraveled, transcription factors AP-1 (activator protein 1 and NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa B play an important role in these processes. Activities of both transcription factors are affected by curcumin, a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma species. We have analyzed the impact of curcumin on the expression of galectin-3 in glioblastoma cells under basal conditions and under stress invoked by the cell exposure to alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG and ultraviolet C (UV-C light. Galectin-3 level was measured by western-blot technique using M3/38 monoclonal antibody. Curcumin has decreased the basal level of galectin-3, while the pretreatment of cells with curcumin has considerably reduced the inducible effect of UV-C radiation and abolished the inducible effect of alkylating agent. Thus, curcumin has been identified as a potent inhibitor of galectin-3 expression.

  15. Lyme disease antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes ... needed. A laboratory specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . ...

  16. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  17. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood of ...

  18. Nuclear medicine: Monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Sakahara, H.; Koizumi, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Torizuka, K.; Yokoyama, A.

    1986-01-01

    Antitumor monoclonal antibody was successfully labeled with Tc-99m by using dithiosemicarbazone (DTS) as a bifunctional chelating agent. In the first step, DTS was coupled to antibody without loss of immunoreactivity; the compound then efficiently formed a neutral 1:1 chelate with pentavalent or tetravalent Tc-99m. Imaging with Tc-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody to human osteosarcoma (OST-7) clearly displayed a small tumor in nude mice at 6 and 24 hours after intravenous administration. The tumor-to-blood ratio of the Tc-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody was higher than that of a radioiodinated antibody and similar to that of an In-111-labeled antibody. Thus, conjugation of DTS to monoclonal antibody followed by radiometalation is a simple and efficient method of preparing Tc-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody

  19. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  20. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  1. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  2. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. ... different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  3. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The usefulness of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and treatment of human (ovarian) cancer was investigated. A review of tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies is presented. Special attention is given to factors that influence the localization of the antibodies in tumors, isotope choice and methods of radiolabeling of the monoclonal antibodies. Two monoclonal antibodies, OC125 and OV-TL3, with high specificity for human epithelial ovarian cancer are characterized. A simple radio-iodination technique was developed for clinical application of the monoclonal antibodies. The behavior of monoclonal antibodies in human tumor xenograft systems and in man are described. Imaging of tumors is complicated because of high background levels of radioactivity in other sites than the tumor, especially in the bloodpool. A technique was developed to improve imaging of human tumor xenographs in nude mice, using subtraction of a specific and a non-specific antibody, radiolabeled with 111 In, 67 Ga and 131 I. To investigate the capability of the two monoclonal antibodies, to specifically localize in human ovarian carcinomas, distribution studies in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma xenografts were performed. One of the antibodies, OC125, was used for distribution studies in ovarian cancer patients. OC125 was used because of availability and approval to use this antibody in patients. The same antibody was used to investigate the usefulness of radioimmunoimaging in ovarian cancer patients. The interaction of injected radiolabeled antibody OC125 with circulating antigen and an assay to measure the antibody response in ovarian cancer patients after injection of the antibody is described. 265 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  4. Serology and longevity of immunity against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and llama induced by an oil-based EG95 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, T V; Jensen, O; Mossello, M; Iriarte, J; Avila, H G; Gertiser, M L; Serafino, J J; Romero, S; Echenique, M A; Dominguez, D E; Barrios, J R; Heath, D

    2016-08-01

    An oil-based formulation of the EG95 vaccine to protect grazing animals against infection with Echinococcus granulosus was formulated in Argentina. The efficacy of the vaccine was monitored by serology in sheep and llama (Lama glama) and was compared to the serology in sheep previously published using a QuilA-adjuvanted vaccine. Long-term efficacy was also tested in sheep by challenging with E. granulosus eggs of the G1 strain 4 years after the beginning of the trial. The serological results for both sheep and llama were similar to those described previously, except that there was a more rapid response after the first vaccination. A third vaccination given after 1 year resulted in a transient boost in serology that lasted for about 12 months, which was similar to results previously described. Sheep challenged after 4 years with three vaccinations presented 84·2% reduction of live cysts counts compared with control group, and after a fourth vaccination prior to challenge, this reduction was 94·7%. The oil-based vaccine appeared to be bio-equivalent to the QuilA vaccine. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. eCD4-Ig variants that more potently neutralize HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Ina; Gardner, Matthew R; Davis-Gardner, Meredith E; Prasad, Neha R; Alfant, Barnett; Weber, Jesse A; Farzan, Michael

    2018-03-28

    The HIV-1 entry inhibitor eCD4-Ig is a fusion of CD4-Ig and a coreceptor-mimetic peptide. eCD4-Ig is markedly more potent than CD4-Ig, with neutralization efficiencies approaching those of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). However, unlike bNAbs, eCD4-Ig neutralizes all HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV isolates that it has been tested against, suggesting that it may be useful in clinical settings where antibody escape is a concern. Here we characterize three new eCD4-Ig variants, each with different architectures and each utilizing D1.22, a stabilized form of CD4 domain 1. These variants were 10- to 20-fold more potent than our original eCD4-Ig variant, with a construct bearing four D1.22 domains (eD1.22-HL-Ig) exhibiting the greatest potency. However, this variant mediated less efficient antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity than eCD4-Ig itself or several other eCD4-Ig variants, including the smallest variant (eD1.22-Ig). A variant with the same architecture as original eCD4-Ig (eD1.22-D2-Ig) showed modestly higher thermal stability and best prevented promotion of infection of CCR5-positive, CD4-negative cells. All three variants, and eCD4-Ig itself, mediated more efficient shedding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 than did CD4-Ig. Finally, we show that only three D1.22 mutations contributed to the potency of eD1.22-D2-Ig, and that introduction of these changes into eCD4-Ig resulted in a variant 9-fold more potent than eCD4-Ig and 2-fold more potent than eD1.22-D2-Ig. These studies will assist in developing eCD4-Ig variants with properties optimized for prophylaxis, therapy, and cure applications. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 bNAbs have properties different from antiretroviral compounds. Specifically, antibodies can enlist immune effector cells to eliminate infected cells, whereas antiretroviral compounds simply interfere with various steps in the viral lifecycle. Unfortunately, HIV-1 is adept at evading antibody recognition, limiting the

  6. Potent neutralization of hepatitis A virus reveals a receptor mimic mechanism and the receptor recognition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxi; Zhu, Ling; Dang, Minghao; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Yuan, Shuai; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo; Ren, Jingshan; Kotecha, Abhay; Walter, Thomas S; Wang, Junzhi; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I; Rao, Zihe

    2017-01-24

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infects ∼1.4 million people annually and, although there is a vaccine, there are no licensed therapeutic drugs. HAV is unusually stable (making disinfection problematic) and little is known of how it enters cells and releases its RNA. Here we report a potent HAV-specific monoclonal antibody, R10, which neutralizes HAV infection by blocking attachment to the host cell. High-resolution cryo-EM structures of HAV full and empty particles and of the complex of HAV with R10 Fab reveal the atomic details of antibody binding and point to a receptor recognition site at the pentamer interface. These results, together with our observation that the R10 Fab destabilizes the capsid, suggest the use of a receptor mimic mechanism to neutralize virus infection, providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  7. Recent advances in the construction of antibody-drug conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudasama, Vijay; Maruani, Antoine; Caddick, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) comprise antibodies covalently attached to highly potent drugs using a variety of conjugation technologies. As therapeutics, they combine the exquisite specificity of antibodies, enabling discrimination between healthy and diseased tissue, with the cell-killing ability of cytotoxic drugs. This powerful and exciting class of targeted therapy has shown considerable promise in the treatment of various cancers with two US Food and Drug Administration approved ADCs currently on the market (Adcetris and Kadcyla) and approximately 40 currently undergoing clinical evaluation. However, most of these ADCs exist as heterogeneous mixtures, which can result in a narrow therapeutic window and have major pharmacokinetic implications. In order for ADCs to deliver their full potential, sophisticated site-specific conjugation technologies to connect the drug to the antibody are vital. This Perspective discusses the strategies currently used for the site-specific construction of ADCs and appraises their merits and disadvantages.

  8. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  9. Radiolabeled antibody imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies, in particular monoclonal antibodies, offer the potential for the specific nuclear imaging of malignant and benign diseases in man. If this imaging potential is realized, they may also have a large role in cancer treatment. This paper reviews: (1) what monoclonal antibodies are and how they differ from polyclonal antibodies, (2) how they are produced and radiolabeled, (3) the results of preclinical and clinical trials in cancer imaging, including the utility of SPECT and antibody fragments, (4) the role of antibodies in the diagnosis of benign diseases, (5) alternate routes of antibody delivery, (6) the role of these agents in therapy, and (7) whether this technology ''revolutionizes'' the practice of nuclear radiology, or has a more limited complementary role in the imaging department

  10. Addressing the Immunogenicity of the Cargo and of the Targeting Antibodies with a Focus on Deimmunized Bacterial Toxins and on Antibody-Targeted Human Effector Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Grinberg, Yehudit; Benhar, Itai

    2017-01-01

    Third-generation immunotoxins are composed of a human, or humanized, targeting moiety, usually a monoclonal antibody or an antibody fragment, and a non-human effector molecule. Due to the non-human origin of the cytotoxic domain, these molecules stimulate potent anti-drug immune responses, which limit treatment options. Efforts are made to deimmunize such immunotoxins or to combine treatment with immunosuppression. An alternative approach is using the so-called ?human cytotoxic fusion protein...

  11. Sulfoximines as potent RORγ inverse agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvry, Gilles; Bihl, Franck; Bouix-Peter, Claire; Christin, Olivier; Defoin-Platel, Claire; Deret, Sophie; Feret, Christophe; Froude, David; Hacini-Rachinel, Feriel; Harris, Craig S; Hervouet, Catherine; Lafitte, Guillaume; Luzy, Anne-Pascale; Musicki, Branislav; Orfila, Danielle; Parnet, Veronique; Pascau, Coralie; Pascau, Jonathan; Pierre, Romain; Raffin, Catherine; Rossio, Patricia; Spiesse, Delphine; Taquet, Nathalie; Thoreau, Etienne; Vatinel, Rodolphe; Vial, Emmanuel; Hennequin, Laurent F

    2018-05-01

    Progress in the identification of suitable RORγ inverse agonists as clinical candidates has been hampered by the high lipophilicity that seems required for high potency on this nuclear receptor. In this context, we decided to focus on the replacement of the hydroxymethyl group found on known modulators to determine if more polarity could be tolerated in this position. SAR of the replacement of this moiety is presented in this article leading to the identification of sulfoximine derivatives as potent modulators with pharmacological activity in the in vivo mouse Imiquimod psoriasis model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Addressing the Immunogenicity of the Cargo and of the Targeting Antibodies with a Focus on Deimmunized Bacterial Toxins and on Antibody-Targeted Human Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Yehudit; Benhar, Itai

    2017-01-01

    Third-generation immunotoxins are composed of a human, or humanized, targeting moiety, usually a monoclonal antibody or an antibody fragment, and a non-human effector molecule. Due to the non-human origin of the cytotoxic domain, these molecules stimulate potent anti-drug immune responses, which limit treatment options. Efforts are made to deimmunize such immunotoxins or to combine treatment with immunosuppression. An alternative approach is using the so-called “human cytotoxic fusion proteins”, in which antibodies are used to target human effector proteins. Here, we present three relevant approaches for reducing the immunogenicity of antibody-targeted protein therapeutics: (1) reducing the immunogenicity of the bacterial toxin, (2) fusing human cytokines to antibodies to generate immunocytokines and (3) addressing the immunogenicity of the targeting antibodies. PMID:28574434

  13. Engineered Promoters for Potent Transient Overexpression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Y Even

    Full Text Available The core promoter, which is generally defined as the region to which RNA Polymerase II is recruited to initiate transcription, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression. The core promoter consists of different combinations of several short DNA sequences, termed core promoter elements or motifs, which confer specific functional properties to each promoter. Earlier studies that examined the ability to modulate gene expression levels via the core promoter, led to the design of strong synthetic core promoters, which combine different core elements into a single core promoter. Here, we designed a new core promoter, termed super core promoter 3 (SCP3, which combines four core promoter elements (the TATA box, Inr, MTE and DPE into a single promoter that drives prolonged and potent gene expression. We analyzed the effect of core promoter architecture on the temporal dynamics of reporter gene expression by engineering EGFP expression vectors that are driven by distinct core promoters. We used live cell imaging and flow cytometric analyses in different human cell lines to demonstrate that SCPs, particularly the novel SCP3, drive unusually strong long-term EGFP expression. Importantly, this is the first demonstration of long-term expression in transiently transfected mammalian cells, indicating that engineered core promoters can provide a novel non-viral strategy for biotechnological as well as gene-therapy-related applications that require potent expression for extended time periods.

  14. Protective Monotherapy Against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection by a Potently Neutralizing Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-11

    were 49   identified and enrolled in VRC200 clinical trial #NCT00067054 after giving signed 50   informed consent . Peripheral blood mononuclear...illness 56   when administered one day after lethal challenge. Treatment with a single human 57   mAb suggests a simplified therapeutic strategy for...efforts to simplify the ZMapp regimen to contain fewer mAbs have not been successful in 75   the macaque EVD model (7). We sought to isolate

  15. Production of Potent Fully Human Polyclonal Antibodies Against Zaire Ebola Virus in Transchromosomal Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    both humans and non-human primates (NHP) causing severe hemorrhagic fevers with symptoms of disease including sudden onset of fever , chills, headache...and anorexia followed by sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and the appearance of a petechial rash1-3. Filoviruses are categorized as...hemorrhagic fever . Clinics in laboratory medicine 30, 161-177 (2010). 6. Parren, P.W., et al., Pre- and postexposure prophylaxis of Ebola virus

  16. Tubulin Inhibitor-Based Antibody-Drug Conjugates for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs are a class of highly potent biopharmaceutical drugs generated by conjugating cytotoxic drugs with specific monoclonal antibodies through appropriate linkers. Specific antibodies used to guide potent warheads to tumor tissues can effectively reduce undesired side effects of the cytotoxic drugs. An in-depth understanding of antibodies, linkers, conjugation strategies, cytotoxic drugs, and their molecular targets has led to the successful development of several approved ADCs. These ADCs are powerful therapeutics for cancer treatment, enabling wider therapeutic windows, improved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, and enhanced efficacy. Since tubulin inhibitors are one of the most successful cytotoxic drugs in the ADC armamentarium, this review focuses on the progress in tubulin inhibitor-based ADCs, as well as lessons learned from the unsuccessful ADCs containing tubulin inhibitors. This review should be helpful to facilitate future development of new generations of tubulin inhibitor-based ADCs for cancer therapy.

  17. Naturin: a potent bio-immunomodifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Nian Shen; Li Lu; Homayoon Shidnia; Xiao Qing Jia

    1995-01-01

    Mechanism of the efficacy of naturin in enhancement and rejuvenation in natural immunity including NK cells, LAK cell activity and CD4 + T-cell function against cancer and infectious diseases is still not known. However, the immunomodulating effect of naturin is similar or even better than the results of IL-1α and IL-7. It is intriguing to speculate that the potent immunomodifier effect of naturin may be mediated either entirely or partially due to a mechanism involving cytokines. Our experiments suggest that naturin plays a role in the restoration of cellular immunosuppression induced by a number of different stresses. This in turn may reflect the fact that naturin possesses a potential regulatory role in induction of some immune cytokines. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Yoshiko; Usuki, Hirokazu; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2011-01-05

    We introduce a highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces omiyaensis (SOT), which belongs to the trypsin family. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT was examined using in vitro assays and was compared with those of known fibrinolytic enzymes such as plasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase, and nattokinase. Compared to other enzymes, SOT showed remarkably higher hydrolytic activity toward mimic peptides of fibrin and plasminogen. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT is about 18-fold higher than that of plasmin, and is comparable to that of t-PA by fibrin plate assays. Furthermore, SOT had some plasminogen activator-like activity. Results show that SOT and nattokinase have very different fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic modes, engendering significant synergetic effects of SOT and nattokinase on fibrinolysis. These results suggest that SOT presents important possibilities for application in the therapy of thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual antibody therapy to harness the innate anti-tumor immune response to enhance antibody targeting of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Cariad; Marabelle, Aurelien; Houot, Roch; Kohrt, Holbrook E

    2015-04-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly evolving field that offers a novel paradigm for cancer treatment: therapies focus on enhancing the immune system's innate and adaptive anti-tumor response. Early immunotherapeutics have achieved impressive clinical outcomes and monoclonal antibodies are now integral to therapeutic strategies in a variety of cancers. However, only recently have antibodies targeting innate immune cells entered clinical development. Innate immune effector cells play important roles in generating and maintaining antitumor immunity. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) are important innate immune mechanisms for tumor eradication. These cytolytic processes are initiated by the detection of a tumor-targeting antibody and can be augmented by activating co-stimulatory pathways or blocking inhibitory signals on innate immune cells. The combination of FDA-approved monoclonal antibodies with innate effector-targeting antibodies has demonstrated potent preclinical therapeutic synergy and early-phase combinatorial clinical trials are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies as biomarkers to identify severe primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Ariela; Mattia, Elena; Tonello, Marta; Grava, Chiara; Pengo, Vittorio; Ruffatti, Amelia

    2017-05-01

    Anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies have begun to be considered potentional biomarkers for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This cohort study investigate the role of aPS/PT antibodies as a risk factor for severe APS by evaluating the association between those antibodies and clinical/laboratory profiles of APS. Plasma/serum samples from 197 APS patients, 100 healthy subjects and 106 patients with autoimmune diseases were collected. IgG/IgM aPS/PT antibodies were assayed using commercial ELISA kit. Prevalences of IgG and IgM aPS/PT (pantiphospholipid antibody patients than in double and single positivity ones (p<0.0001 for all). APS/PT antibodies were associated to severe thrombosis, severe pregnancy complications inducing prematurity, and vascular microangiopathy, all generally associated to high risk APS forms requiring strong therapy.

  1. Generation of “LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries” (LYNDAL) for selecting fully human antibody fragments with therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebolder, Philipp; Keller, Armin; Haase, Stephanie; Schlegelmilch, Anne; Kiefer, Jonathan D; Karimi, Tamana; Weber, Tobias; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Kehm, Roland; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Jäger, Dirk; Federspil, Philippe A; Herold-Mende, Christel; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Kontermann, Roland E; Arndt, Michaela A E; Krauss, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient strategies for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies with unique functional properties that are exploitable for tailored therapeutic interventions remains a major challenge in the antibody technology field. Here, we present a methodology for recovering such antibodies from antigen-encountered human B cell repertoires. As the source for variable antibody genes, we cloned immunoglobulin G (IgG)-derived B cell repertoires from lymph nodes of 20 individuals undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Sequence analysis of unselected “LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries” (LYNDAL) revealed a naturally occurring distribution pattern of rearranged antibody sequences, representing all known variable gene families and most functional germline sequences. To demonstrate the feasibility for selecting antibodies with therapeutic potential from these repertoires, seven LYNDAL from donors with high serum titers against herpes simplex virus (HSV) were panned on recombinant glycoprotein B of HSV-1. Screening for specific binders delivered 34 single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) with unique sequences. Sequence analysis revealed extensive somatic hypermutation of enriched clones as a result of affinity maturation. Binding of scFvs to common glycoprotein B variants from HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains was highly specific, and the majority of analyzed antibody fragments bound to the target antigen with nanomolar affinity. From eight scFvs with HSV-neutralizing capacity in vitro,the most potent antibody neutralized 50% HSV-2 at 4.5 nM as a dimeric (scFv)2. We anticipate our approach to be useful for recovering fully human antibodies with therapeutic potential.

  2. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  3. Expression of recombinant Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eFrenzel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with human-like post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  4. Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Erhardt, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report for the first time the characterization of llama (Lama glama) caseins at transcriptomic and genetic level. A total of 288 casein clones transcripts were analysed from two lactating llamas. The most represented mRNA populations were those correctly assembled (85.07%) and they encoded for mature proteins of 215, 217, 187 and 162 amino acids respectively for the CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3 genes. The exonic subdivision evidenced a structure made of 21, 9, 17 and 6 exons for the αs1-, β-, αs2- and κ-casein genes respectively. Exon skipping and duplication events were evidenced. Two variants A and B were identified in the αs1-casein gene as result of the alternative out-splicing of the exon 18. An additional exon coding for a novel esapeptide was found to be cryptic in the κ-casein gene, whereas one extra exon was found in the αs2-casein gene by the comparison with the Camelus dromedaries sequence. A total of 28 putative phosphorylated motifs highlighted a complex heterogeneity and a potential variable degree of post-translational modifications. Ninety-six polymorphic sites were found through the comparison of the lama casein cDNAs with the homologous camel sequences, whereas the first description and characterization of the 5’- and 3’-regulatory regions allowed to identify the main putative consensus sequences involved in the casein genes expression, thus opening the way to new investigations -so far- never achieved in this species. PMID:25923814

  5. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Gastón; Regensburger, Cristian; Gos, M Laura; Pardini, Lais; Verma, Shiv K; Ctibor, Juliana; Serrano-Martínez, Marcos Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P; Venturini, M Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5-3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.

  6. Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Erhardt, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report for the first time the characterization of llama (Lama glama) caseins at transcriptomic and genetic level. A total of 288 casein clones transcripts were analysed from two lactating llamas. The most represented mRNA populations were those correctly assembled (85.07%) and they encoded for mature proteins of 215, 217, 187 and 162 amino acids respectively for the CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3 genes. The exonic subdivision evidenced a structure made of 21, 9, 17 and 6 exons for the αs1-, β-, αs2- and κ-casein genes respectively. Exon skipping and duplication events were evidenced. Two variants A and B were identified in the αs1-casein gene as result of the alternative out-splicing of the exon 18. An additional exon coding for a novel esapeptide was found to be cryptic in the κ-casein gene, whereas one extra exon was found in the αs2-casein gene by the comparison with the Camelus dromedaries sequence. A total of 28 putative phosphorylated motifs highlighted a complex heterogeneity and a potential variable degree of post-translational modifications. Ninety-six polymorphic sites were found through the comparison of the lama casein cDNAs with the homologous camel sequences, whereas the first description and characterization of the 5'- and 3'-regulatory regions allowed to identify the main putative consensus sequences involved in the casein genes expression, thus opening the way to new investigations -so far- never achieved in this species.

  7. Characterization of a Large Panel of Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies against HIV-1 gp120 and Isolation of Novel Neutralizing Antibodies against the V3 Loop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Qin

    Full Text Available We recently reported the induction of potent, cross-clade neutralizing antibodies (nAbs against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 in rabbits using gp120 based on an M-group consensus sequence. To better characterize these antibodies, 93 hybridomas were generated, which represent the largest panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs ever generated from a vaccinated rabbit. The single most frequently recognized epitope of the isolated mAbs was at the very C-terminal end of the protein (APTKAKRRVVEREKR, followed by the V3 loop. A total of seven anti-V3 loop mAbs were isolated, two of which (10A3 and 10A37 exhibited neutralizing activity. In contrast to 10A3 and most other anti-V3 loop nAbs, 10A37 was atypical with its epitope positioned more towards the C-terminal half of the loop. To our knowledge, 10A37 is the most potent and broadly neutralizing anti-V3 loop mAb induced by vaccination. Interestingly, all seven anti-V3 loop mAbs competed with PGT121, suggesting a possibility that early induction of potent anti-V3 loop antibodies could prevent induction of more broadly neutralizing PGT121-like antibodies that target the conserved base of the V3 loop stem.

  8. Enzymatic Inactivation of Endogenous IgG by IdeS Enhances Therapeutic Antibody Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnum, Sofia; Runström, Anna; Bockermann, Robert; Winstedt, Lena; Crispin, Max; Kjellman, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous plasma IgG sets an immunologic threshold that dictates the activity of tumor-directed therapeutic antibodies. Saturation of cellular antibody receptors by endogenous antibody limits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Here, we show how enzymatic cleavage of IgG using the bacterial enzyme IdeS can be utilized to empty both high and low affinity Fcγ-receptors and clear the entire endogenous antibody pool. Using in vitro models, tumor animal models as well as ex vivo analysis of sera collected during a previous clinical trial with IdeS, we show how clearing of competing plasma antibody levels with IdeS unblocks cellular antibody receptors. We show that therapeutic antibodies against breast cancer (trastuzumab), colon cancer (cetuximab), and lymphomas (rituximab and alemtuzumab) can be potentiated when endogenous IgG is removed. Overall, IdeS is shown to be a potent tool to reboot the human antibody repertoire and to generate a window to preferentially load therapeutic antibodies onto effector cells and thereby create an armada of dedicated tumor-seeking immune cells. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(9); 1887-97. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  10. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Also known as What Is Antiphospholipid (AN-te-fos-fo-LIP-id) antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder. Autoimmune disorders ...

  11. Antibody-Based Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Becker

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-based immunotoxins comprise an important group in targeted cancer therapeutics. These chimeric proteins are a form of biological guided missiles that combine a targeting moiety with a potent effector molecule. The targeting moiety is mostly a monoclonal antibody (MAb or a recombinant antibody-based fragment that confers target specificity to the immunotoxin. The effector domain is a potent protein toxin of bacterial or plant origin, which, following binding to the target cells, undergoes internalization and causes cell death. Over time and following research progression, immunotoxins become better fitted to their purpose, losing immunogenic fragments and non-specific targeting moieties. Many immunotoxins have gone through clinical evaluation. Some of these have been shown to be active and work is progressing with them in the form of further clinical trials. Others, mostly developed in the previous century, failed to generate a response in patients, or even caused undesired side effects. This article reviews the antibody and protein-toxin based immunotoxins that were clinically evaluated up to the present day.

  12. Maturation Pathways of Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter S. Dimitrov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Several human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs and antibody fragments, including the best characterized in terms of structure-function b12 and Fab X5, exhibit relatively potent and broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity. However, the elicitation of b12 or b12-like antibodies in vivo by vaccine immunogens based on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env has not been successful. B12 is highly divergent from the closest corresponding germline antibody while X5 is less divergent. We have hypothesized that the relatively high degree of specific somatic hypermutations may preclude binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env to closest germline antibodies, and that identifying antibodies that are intermediates in the pathways to maturation could help design novel vaccine immunogens to guide the immune system for their enhanced elicitation. In support of this hypothesis we have previously found that a germline-like b12 (monovalent and bivalent scFv as an Fc fusion protein or IgG lacks measurable binding to an Env as measured by ELISA with a sensitivity in the μM range [1]; here we present evidence confirming and expanding these findings for a panel of Envs. In contrast, a germline-like scFv X5 bound Env with high (nM affinity. To begin to explore the maturation pathways of these antibodies we identified several possible b12 intermediate antibodies and tested their neutralizing activity. These intermediate antibodies neutralized only some HIV-1 isolates and with relatively weak potency. In contrast, germline-like scFv X5 neutralized a subset of the tested HIV-1 isolates with comparable efficiencies to that of the mature X5. These results could help explain the relatively high immunogenicity of the coreceptor binding site on gp120 and the abundance of CD4-induced (CD4i antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients (X5 is a CD4i antibody as well as the maturation pathway of X5. They also can help identify antigens that can bind specifically to b12 germline and

  13. Reorienting the Fab domains of trastuzumab results in potent HER2 activators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M Scheer

    Full Text Available The structure of the Fab region of antibodies is critical to their function. By introducing single cysteine substitutions into various positions of the heavy and light chains of the Fab region of trastuzumab, a potent antagonist of HER2, and using thiol chemistry to link the different Fabs together, we produced a variety of monospecific F(ab'(2-like molecules with activities spanning from activation to inhibition of breast tumor cell growth. These isomers (or bis-Fabs of trastuzumab, with varying relative spatial arrangements between the Fv-regions, were able to either promote or inhibit cell-signaling activities through the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways. A quantitative phosphorylation mapping of HER2 indicated that the agonistic isomers produced a distinct phosphorylation pattern associated with activation. This study suggests that antibody geometric isomers, found both in nature and during synthetic antibody development, can have profoundly different biological activities independent of their affinities for their target molecules.

  14. Reorienting the Fab Domains of Trastuzumab Results in Potent HER2 Activators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Justin M.; Sandoval, Wendy; Elliott, J. Michael; Shao, Lily; Luis, Elizabeth; Lewin-Koh, Sock-Cheng; Schaefer, Gabriele; Vandlen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the Fab region of antibodies is critical to their function. By introducing single cysteine substitutions into various positions of the heavy and light chains of the Fab region of trastuzumab, a potent antagonist of HER2, and using thiol chemistry to link the different Fabs together, we produced a variety of monospecific F(ab′)2-like molecules with activities spanning from activation to inhibition of breast tumor cell growth. These isomers (or bis-Fabs) of trastuzumab, with varying relative spatial arrangements between the Fv-regions, were able to either promote or inhibit cell-signaling activities through the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways. A quantitative phosphorylation mapping of HER2 indicated that the agonistic isomers produced a distinct phosphorylation pattern associated with activation. This study suggests that antibody geometric isomers, found both in nature and during synthetic antibody development, can have profoundly different biological activities independent of their affinities for their target molecules. PMID:23284778

  15. Single-Domain Antibodies As Therapeutics against Human Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In full-size formats, monoclonal antibodies have been highly successful as therapeutics against cancer and immune diseases. However, their large size leads to inaccessibility of some epitopes and relatively high production costs. As an alternative, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs offer special advantages compared to full-size antibodies, including smaller size, larger number of accessible epitopes, relatively low production costs and improved robustness. Currently, sdAbs are being developed against a number of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, influenza viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, and enteric viruses. Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial infection or any other diseases. In this review, we discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral diseases.

  16. Intracellular trafficking of new anticancer therapeutics: antibody-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalim, Muhammad; Chen, Jie; Wang, Shenghao; Lin, Caiyao; Ullah, Saif; Liang, Keying; Ding, Qian; Chen, Shuqing; Zhan, Jinbiao

    2017-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a milestone in targeted cancer therapy that comprises of monoclonal antibodies chemically linked to cytotoxic drugs. Internalization of ADC takes place via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and pinocytosis. Conjugation strategies, endocytosis and intracellular trafficking optimization, linkers, and drugs chemistry present a great challenge for researchers to eradicate tumor cells successfully. This inventiveness of endocytosis and intracellular trafficking has given considerable momentum recently to develop specific antibodies and ADCs to treat cancer cells. It is significantly advantageous to emphasize the endocytosis and intracellular trafficking pathways efficiently and to design potent engineered conjugates and biological entities to boost efficient therapies enormously for cancer treatment. Current studies illustrate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of ADC, protein, and linker strategies in unloading and also concisely evaluate practically applicable ADCs.

  17. Development of Antibody-Based Vaccines Targeting the Tumor Vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaodong; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    A functional vasculature is essential for tumor progression and malignant cell metastasis. Endothelial cells lining blood vessels in the tumor are exposed to a unique microenvironment, which in turn induces expression of specific proteins designated as tumor endothelial markers (TEMs). TEMs either localized at the plasma membrane or secreted into the extracellular matrix are accessible for antibody targeting, which can be either infused or generated de novo via vaccination. Recent studies have demonstrated vaccines against several TEMs can induce a strong antibody response accompanied by a potent antitumor effect in animal models. These findings present an exciting field for novel anticancer therapy development. As most of the TEMs are self-antigens, breaking tolerance is necessary for a successful vaccine. This chapter describes approaches to efficiently induce a robust antibody response against the tumor vasculature.

  18. Radiolabelled antibodies in imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, B.A.; Haber, E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent technological advances make it possible to produce pure (monoclonal) antibodies in unlimited quantities without the need for continuous immunization of animals and to label these antibodies with a variety of radionuclides which can be traced by single-photon computed tomography. An outline review of the state of the art is presented, with particular reference to the imaging of myocardial infarcts and to tumour imaging studies using labelled monoclonal antibodies (sup(99m)Tc and 125 I). Lengthy bibliography. (U.K.)

  19. Exploring the antigenic response to multiplexed immunizations in a chicken model of antibody production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousted, Tina Mostrup; Kalliokoski, Otto; Christensen, Sofie Kjellerup

    2017-01-01

    that the competing effects of co-administering multiple immunogens effectively limit the antibody specificities that can be raised in a single individual to a fairly low number. Two potent model immunogens, KLH and CRM197, were administered together with competing antigens in various concentrations and complexities...

  20. Murine Antibody Responses to Cleaved Soluble HIV-1 Envelope Trimers Are Highly Restricted in Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Joyce K.; Crampton, Jordan C.; Cupo, Albert; Ketas, Thomas; van Gils, Marit J.; Sliepen, Kwinten; de Taeye, Steven W.; Sok, Devin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Deresa, Isaiah; Stanfield, Robyn; Ward, Andrew B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Crotty, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Generating neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) is a major goal of many current HIV-1 vaccine efforts. To be of practical value, these nAbs must be both potent and cross-reactive in order to be capable of preventing the transmission of the highly diverse and generally neutralization resistant (Tier-2)

  1. Synthesis and SAR studies of potent imidazopyridine anticoccidial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gui-Bai; Qian, Xiaoxia; Feng, Dennis; Fisher, Michael; Brown, Christine M; Gurnett, Anne; Leavitt, Penny Sue; Liberator, Paul A; Misura, Andrew S; Tamas, Tamas; Schmatz, Dennis M; Wyvratt, Matthew; Biftu, Tesfaye

    2007-07-01

    Diaryl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives, such as 6a and 7i, have been synthesized and found to be potent inhibitors of parasite PKG activity. The most potent compounds are the 7-isopropylaminomethyl analog 6a and 2-isopropylamino analog 7i. These compounds are also fully active in in vivo assay as anticoccidial agents at 25 ppm in feed.

  2. Antibodies to uv light denatured DNA in systemic lupus erythematosus: detection by filter radioimmunoassay and clinical correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P; Russell, A S; Percy, J S

    1976-12-01

    Antibodies to ultraviolet light denatured DNA (UV DNA) have been measured in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and normal subjects, using a millipore filter radioimmunoassay. High levels of UV DNA binding were only found in patients with SLE. The presence of UV DNA antibodies correlated well with the presence of native DNA antibodies, although immunodiffusion studies and inhibition techniques showed these antibodies to be immunologically distinct in many cases. Forty-one percent of the SLE patients had had photosensitivity at some stage of their disease, but there was a poor correlation between this symptom and the presence of UV DNA antibodies. Although UV DNA is known to be a potent immunogen, none of the results from this study suggests that antibodies to UV DNA are more than another example of the broad spectrum of antinuclear antibodies seen in SLE.

  3. Sifuvirtide, a potent HIV fusion inhibitor peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rui-Rui; Yang, Liu-Meng; Wang, Yun-Hua; Pang, Wei; Tam, Siu-Cheung; Tien, Po; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2009-01-01

    Enfuvirtide (ENF) is currently the only FDA approved HIV fusion inhibitor in clinical use. Searching for more drugs in this category with higher efficacy and lower toxicity seems to be a logical next step. In line with this objective, a synthetic peptide with 36 amino acid residues, called Sifuvirtide (SFT), was designed based on the crystal structure of gp41. In this study, we show that SFT is a potent anti-HIV agent with relatively low cytotoxicity. SFT was found to inhibit replication of all tested HIV strains. The effective concentrations that inhibited 50% viral replication (EC 50 ), as determined in all tested strains, were either comparable or lower than benchmark values derived from well-known anti-HIV drugs like ENF or AZT, while the cytotoxic concentrations causing 50% cell death (CC 50 ) were relatively high, rendering it an ideal anti-HIV agent. A GST-pull down assay was performed to confirm that SFT is a fusion inhibitor. Furthermore, the activity of SFT on other targets in the HIV life cycle was also investigated, and all assays showed negative results. To further understand the mechanism of action of HIV peptide inhibitors, resistant variants of HIV-1 IIIB were derived by serial virus passage in the presence of increasing doses of SFT or ENF. The results showed that there was cross-resistance between SFT and ENF. In conclusion, SFT is an ideal anti-HIV agent with high potency and low cytotoxicity, but may exhibit a certain extent of cross-resistance with ENF.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.Y.T.; Sikora, K.

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) can be used to differentiate between normal and neoplastic cells and thus exploited for diagnostic and, ultimately, therapeutic gain. The evidence for the existence of human tumour antigens is reviewed. Several areas of diagnosis are already benefiting from the application of the monoclonal technology. Immunohistology can help the pathologist with difficult diagnostic problems. New classifications of lymphoma and leukaemia can be based on specific surface molecules. Similarly, the detection of shed tumour antigens is already established as part of the routine assessment of many patients with common solid tumours. Isotopically labeled monoclonal antibodies have been used to localise primary and metastatic tumours. The use of antibodies in this way is not only a promising diagnostic tool but also the first step in studying the possibility of arming antibodies to provide therapeutic agents. Such trials are currently in progress. (Auth.)

  5. Future of antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Duncan; O'Leary, Rhona; Pujar, Narahari S

    2007-03-15

    Antibody purification seems to be safely ensconced in a platform, now well-established by way of multiple commercialized antibody processes. However, natural evolution compels us to peer into the future. This is driven not only by a large, projected increase in the number of antibody therapies, but also by dramatic improvements in upstream productivity, and process economics. Although disruptive technologies have yet escaped downstream processes, evolution of the so-called platform is already evident in antibody processes in late-stage development. Here we perform a wide survey of technologies that are competing to be part of that platform, and provide our [inherently dangerous] assessment of those that have the most promise.

  6. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital herpes. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ... person has ever been infected with oral or genital herpes . It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus ...

  7. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  8. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Noy-Porat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, against which there is no available antidote. To date, the use of neutralizing antibodies is the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-ricin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. Two non-human primates were immunized with either a ricin-holotoxin- or subunit-based vaccine, to ensure the elicitation of diverse high affinity antibodies. By using a comprehensive set of primers, immune scFv phage-displayed libraries were constructed and panned. A panel of 10 antibodies (five directed against the A subunit of ricin and five against the B subunit was isolated and reformatted into a full-length chimeric IgG. All of these antibodies were found to neutralize ricin in vitro, and several conferred full protection to ricin-intoxicated mice when given six hours after exposure. Six antibodies were found to possess exceptionally high affinity toward the toxin, with KD values below pM (koff < 1 × 10−7 s−1 that were well correlated with their ability to neutralize ricin. These antibodies, alone or in combination, could be used for the development of a highly-effective therapeutic preparation for post-exposure treatment of ricin intoxication.

  9. Development and characterization of human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize multiple TGFβ isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, Daniel; Lao, Llewelyn; Khan, Shireen; Lee, Steve; Takeuchi, Toshihiko; Mirza, Amer M

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)β levels are elevated in, and drive the progression of, numerous disease states such as advanced metastatic cancer and systemic and ocular fibrosis. There are 3 main isoforms, TGFβ1, 2, and 3. As multiple TGFβ isoforms are involved in disease processes, maximal therapeutic efficacy may require neutralization of 2 or more of the TGFβ isoforms. Fully human antibody phage display libraries were used to discover a number of antibodies that bind and neutralize various combinations of TGFβ1, 2 or 3. The primary panning did not yield any uniformly potent pan-isoform neutralizing antibodies; therefore, an antibody that displayed potent TGFβ 1, 2 inhibition, but more modest affinity versus TGFβ3, was affinity matured by shuffling with a light chain sub-library and further screening. This process yielded a high affinity pan-isoform neutralizing clone. Antibodies were analyzed and compared by binding affinity, as well as receptor and epitope competition by surface plasmon resonance methods. The antibodies were also shown to neutralize TGFβ effects in vitro in 3 assays: 1) interleukin (IL)-4 induced HT-2 cell proliferation; 2) TGFβ-mediated IL-11 release by A549 cells; and 3) decreasing SMAD2 phosphorylation in Detroit 562 cells. The antibodies' potency in these in vitro assays correlated well with their isoform-specific affinities. Furthermore, the ability of the affinity-matured clone to decrease tumor burden in a Detroit 562 xenograft study was superior to that of the parent clone. This affinity-matured antibody acts as a very potent inhibitor of all 3 main isoforms of TGFβ and may have utility for therapeutic intervention in human disease.

  10. Economy diversification: a potent tool for tourism development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economy diversification: a potent tool for tourism development in Nigeria. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... The diversity of cultural attractions, the friendly disposition of the people, revamped National ...

  11. Radiolabelled antibody imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    A steadily growing number of tumor-associated antigens are used to raise antibodies used for the detection of human tumors by external imaging, a technique termed immunoscintigraphy. The majority of these clinical antibody studies are performed using Iodine-131, which is cheap, readily available and easily attached to protein. It has the disadvantage of having a high energy gamma emission (365 keV) which is poorly detected by modern cameras, so that increasing use is now being made of more appropriate labels with lower energies for imaging, such as Iodine-123, Indium-111 and Technetium-99m. A number of research centres in the United Kingdom are currently involved in the production of tumor-associated monoclonal antibodies, only a small number of which are finally selected for diagnostic use. These developments represent a major area of advancement in Nuclear Medicine and when used for imaging are capable of providing diagnostic information complimentary to other diagnostic techniques

  12. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  13. A review of machines and devices to potentize homeopathic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Abhirup; Suresh, Akkihebbal Krishnamurthy; Kane, Shantaram Govind; Bellare, Jayesh Ramesh

    2017-11-01

    Potentization, consisting of serial dilution and succussion, is a key step in the manufacture of homeopathic medicines. Originally prescribed as a manual process, several attempts at mechanization have been published, patented and even commercialised in order to remove the human element and introduce reproducibility without drudgery. Various machines have been used over the years to prepare homeopathic medicines. Although these machines follow the same principles, i.e. energetically mixing the medicines and diluting them significantly, their mode of operation is different from each other. This review paper surveys the main methods of preparation of homeopathic medicines. The main machines discussed are: Boericke's potentizer, Tyler Kent's instrument, John Alphonse's machine and the fluxion potentizer, which were used in the past, as well as more recent potentizers like arm-and-weight instruments, the K-Tronic potentizer and Quinn's machine. We review the construction and operating principle of each of these machines, along with their advantages and limitations. A scheme for relative performance assessment of these machines is proposed based on the parameters mechanical efficiency, physico-chemical efficiency, turbulence generation, energy dissipation, and accuracy of dilution. Quinn's machine and the arm-and-weight potentizer perform well for generating turbulence due to high impaction forces, while John Alphonse's machine is much more accurate in diluting the homeopathic medicines at every step. Both the commercial potentizers, Quinn's machine and the K-Tronic potentizer, are completely automated and therefore reduce the manual labour and variation in succussive forces during each step, which may produce uniformity in physico-chemical changes within the resulting homeopathic medicines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook

    1979-01-01

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  15. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  16. Prediction of Antibody Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies recognize their cognate antigens in a precise and effective way. In order to do so, they target regions of the antigenic molecules that have specific features such as large exposed areas, presence of charged or polar atoms, specific secondary structure elements, and lack of similarity...... to self-proteins. Given the sequence or the structure of a protein of interest, several methods exploit such features to predict the residues that are more likely to be recognized by an immunoglobulin.Here, we present two methods (BepiPred and DiscoTope) to predict linear and discontinuous antibody...

  17. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  18. Post-infection immunodeficiency virus control by neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unlike most acute viral infections controlled with the appearance of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs, primary HIV infections are not met with such potent and early antibody responses. This brings into question if or how the presence of potent antibodies can contribute to primary HIV control, but protective efficacies of antiviral antibodies in primary HIV infections have remained elusive; and, it has been speculated that even NAb induction could have only a limited suppressive effect on primary HIV replication once infection is established. Here, in an attempt to answer this question, we examined the effect of passive NAb immunization post-infection on primary viral replication in a macaque AIDS model. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The inoculums for passive immunization with simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVmac239-specific neutralizing activity were prepared by purifying polyclonal immunoglobulin G from pooled plasma of six SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques with NAb induction in the chronic phase. Passive immunization of rhesus macaques with the NAbs at day 7 after SIVmac239 challenge resulted in significant reduction of set-point plasma viral loads and preservation of central memory CD4 T lymphocyte counts, despite the limited detection period of the administered NAb responses. Peripheral lymph node dendritic cell (DC-associated viral RNA loads showed a remarkable peak with the NAb administration, and DCs stimulated in vitro with NAb-preincubated SIV activated virus-specific CD4 T lymphocytes in an Fc-dependent manner, implying antibody-mediated virion uptake by DCs and enhanced T cell priming. CONCLUSIONS: Our results present evidence indicating that potent antibody induction post-infection can result in primary immunodeficiency virus control and suggest direct and indirect contribution of its absence to initial control failure in HIV infections. Although difficulty in achieving requisite neutralizing titers for

  19. Human Cell Line-Derived Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Hart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IgA antibodies have great potential to improve the functional diversity of current IgG antibody-based cancer immunotherapy options. However, IgA production and purification is not well established, which can at least in part be attributed to the more complex glycosylation as compared to IgG antibodies. IgA antibodies possess up to five N-glycosylation sites within their constant region of the heavy chain as compared to one site for IgG antibodies. The human GlycoExpress expression system was developed to produce biotherapeutics with optimized glycosylation and used here to generate a panel of IgA isotype antibodies directed against targets for solid (TA-mucin 1, Her2, EGFR, Thomsen–Friedenreich and hematological (CD20 cancer indications. The feasibility of good manufacturing practice was shown by the production of 11 g IgA within 35 days in a one liter perfusion bioreactor, and IgA antibodies in high purity were obtained after purification. The monoclonal IgA antibodies possessed a high sialylation degree, and no non-human glycan structures were detected. Kinetic analysis revealed increased avidity antigen binding for IgA dimers as compared to monomeric antibodies. The IgA antibodies exhibited potent Fab- and Fc-mediated functionalities against cancer cell lines, whereby especially granulocytes are recruited. Therefore, for patients who do not sufficiently benefit from therapeutic IgG antibodies, IgA antibodies may complement current regiment options and represent a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. In conclusion, a panel of novel biofunctional IgA antibodies with human glycosylation was successfully generated.

  20. Polyfunctional HIV-Specific Antibody Responses Are Associated with Spontaneous HIV Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Ackerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elite controllers (ECs represent a unique model of a functional cure for HIV-1 infection as these individuals develop HIV-specific immunity able to persistently suppress viremia. Because accumulating evidence suggests that HIV controllers generate antibodies with enhanced capacity to drive antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC that may contribute to viral containment, we profiled an array of extra-neutralizing antibody effector functions across HIV-infected populations with varying degrees of viral control to define the characteristics of antibodies associated with spontaneous control. While neither the overall magnitude of antibody titer nor individual effector functions were increased in ECs, a more functionally coordinated innate immune-recruiting response was observed. Specifically, ECs demonstrated polyfunctional humoral immune responses able to coordinately recruit ADCC, other NK functions, monocyte and neutrophil phagocytosis, and complement. This functionally coordinated response was associated with qualitatively superior IgG3/IgG1 responses, whereas HIV-specific IgG2/IgG4 responses, prevalent among viremic subjects, were associated with poorer overall antibody activity. Rather than linking viral control to any single activity, this study highlights the critical nature of functionally coordinated antibodies in HIV control and associates this polyfunctionality with preferential induction of potent antibody subclasses, supporting coordinated antibody activity as a goal in strategies directed at an HIV-1 functional cure.

  1. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  2. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.......In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients....

  3. Human monoclonal antibodies: the residual challenge of antibody immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Herman

    2014-01-01

    One of the major reasons for seeking human monoclonal antibodies has been to eliminate immunogenicity seen with rodent antibodies. Thus far, there has yet been no approach which absolutely abolishes that risk for cell-binding antibodies. In this short article, I draw attention to classical work which shows that monomeric immunoglobulins are intrinsically tolerogenic if they can be prevented from creating aggregates or immune complexes. Based on these classical studies two approaches for active tolerization to therapeutic antibodies are described.

  4. Antibody-mediated immunotherapy against chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Zhang, Tian-Ying; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2017-08-03

    The currently available drugs to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogs, which can only induce disease remission and are inefficient for the functional cure of patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB). Since high titers of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may be essential to exhaust the host anti-HBV immune response and they cannot be significantly reduced by current drugs, new antiviral strategies aiming to suppress serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could help restore virus-specific immune responses and promote the eradication of the virus. As an alternative strategy, immunotherapy with HBsAg-specific antibodies has shown some direct HBsAg suppression effects in several preclinical and clinical trial studies. However, most described previously HBsAg-specific antibodies only had very short-term HBsAg suppression effects in CHB patients and animal models mimicking persistent HBV infection. More-potent antibodies with long-lasting HBsAg clearance effects are required for the development of the clinical application of antibody-mediated immunotherapy for CHB treatment. Our recent study described a novel mAb E6F6 that targets a unique epitope on HBsAg. It could durably suppress the levels of HBsAg and HBV DNA via Fcγ receptor-dependent phagocytosis in vivo. In this commentary, we summarize the current research progress, including the therapeutic roles and mechanisms of antibody-mediated HBV clearance as well as the epitope-determined therapeutic potency of the antibody. These insights may provide some clues and guidance to facilitate the development of therapeutic antibodies against persistent viral infection.

  5. ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as ratios. For example, the result 1:320 means that one part blood sample was mixed with 320 parts of a diluting ... name "antinuclear". My doctor told me my ANA test is ... normal concentration of these antibodies. This is one of the tools in diagnosing lupus as well ...

  6. Monoclonal antibodies in myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergeld, P.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Richardson, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of disease goes back to the vision of Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century; however, the first successful treatment with a mAb was not until 1982, in a lymphoma patient. In multiple myeloma, mAbs are a very recent and exciting add...

  7. Antibodies Targeting EMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    these unusual antibodies can effectively be displayed on the cell surface. 5 Additionally, we successfully prepared cDNA from lymphocytes derived...from cow peripheral blood, spleen, and lymph nodes, amplified this cDNA by PCR with VH gene specific primers, and this “library” has been cloned into

  8. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out for sure? If antibody tests and/or symptoms suggest celiac disease, the physician needs to establish the diagnosis by ... who is still experiencing symptoms, to establish the diagnosis or to rule out celiac disease as a part of establishing another diagnosis. Find ...

  9. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MACRA MACRAlerts MACRA FAQs MACRA Glossary MACRA Resources Position Statements Insurance Advocacy Current Issues Tools & Resources Practice Resources ... a medical or health condition. Resources Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) in Spanish (Español) Download Print-Friendly PDF ... Join Donate © 2018 American College ...

  10. Humanised IgG1 antibody variants targeting membrane-bound carcinoembryonic antigen by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, S Q; Umana, P; Mössner, E; Ntouroupi, T; Brünker, P; Schmidt, C; Wilding, J L; Mortensen, N J; Bodmer, W F

    2009-11-17

    The effect of glycoengineering a membrane specific anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (this paper uses the original term CEA for the formally designated CEACAM5) antibody (PR1A3) on its ability to enhance killing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines by human immune effector cells was assessed. In vivo efficacy of the antibody was also tested. The antibody was modified using EBNA cells cotransfected with beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III and the humanised hPR1A3 antibody genes. The resulting alteration of the Fc segment glycosylation pattern enhances the antibody's binding affinity to the FcgammaRIIIa receptor on human immune effector cells but does not alter the antibody's binding capacity. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is inhibited in the presence of anti-FcgammaRIII blocking antibodies. This glycovariant of hPR1A3 enhances ADCC 10-fold relative to the parent unmodified antibody using either unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear or natural killer (NK) cells and CEA-positive CRC cells as targets. NK cells are far more potent in eliciting ADCC than either freshly isolated monocytes or granulocytes. Flow cytometry and automated fluorescent microscopy have been used to show that both versions of hPR1A3 can induce antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) by monocyte-derived macrophages. However, the glycovariant antibody did not mediate enhanced ADCP. This may be explained by the relatively low expression of FcgammaRIIIa on cultured macrophages. In vivo studies show the efficacy of glycoengineered humanised IgG1 PR1A3 in significantly improving survival in a CRC metastatic murine model. The greatly enhanced in vitro ADCC activity of the glycoengineered version of hPR1A3 is likely to be clinically beneficial.

  11. Next Generation Antibody Therapeutics Using Bispecific Antibody Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Nearly fifty monoclonal antibodies have been approved to date, and the market for monoclonal antibodies is expected to continue to grow. Since global competition in the field of antibody therapeutics is intense, we need to establish novel antibody engineering technologies to provide true benefit for patients, with differentiated product values. Bispecific antibodies are among the next generation of antibody therapeutics that can bind to two different target antigens by the two arms of immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecule, and are thus believed to be applicable to various therapeutic needs. Until recently, large scale manufacturing of human IgG bispecific antibody was impossible. We have established a technology, named asymmetric re-engineering technology (ART)-Ig, to enable large scale manufacturing of bispecific antibodies. Three examples of next generation antibody therapeutics using ART-Ig technology are described. Recent updates on bispecific antibodies against factor IXa and factor X for the treatment of hemophilia A, bispecific antibodies against a tumor specific antigen and T cell surface marker CD3 for cancer immunotherapy, and bispecific antibodies against two different epitopes of soluble antigen with pH-dependent binding property for the elimination of soluble antigen from plasma are also described.

  12. Rugged single domain antibody detection elements for Bacillus anthracis spores and vegetative cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Walper

    Full Text Available Significant efforts to develop both laboratory and field-based detection assays for an array of potential biological threats started well before the anthrax attacks of 2001 and have continued with renewed urgency following. While numerous assays and methods have been explored that are suitable for laboratory utilization, detection in the field is often complicated by requirements for functionality in austere environments, where limited cold-chain facilities exist. In an effort to overcome these assay limitations for Bacillus anthracis, one of the most recognizable threats, a series of single domain antibodies (sdAbs were isolated from a phage display library prepared from immunized llamas. Characterization of target specificity, affinity, and thermal stability was conducted for six sdAb families isolated from rounds of selection against the bacterial spore. The protein target for all six sdAb families was determined to be the S-layer protein EA1, which is present in both vegetative cells and bacterial spores. All of the sdAbs examined exhibited a high degree of specificity for the target bacterium and its spore, with affinities in the nanomolar range, and the ability to refold into functional antigen-binding molecules following several rounds of thermal denaturation and refolding. This research demonstrates the capabilities of these sdAbs and their potential for integration into current and developing assays and biosensors.

  13. Enhancing blockade of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion: assessing combinations of antibodies against PfRH5 and other merozoite antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available No vaccine has yet proven effective against the blood-stages of Plasmodium falciparum, which cause the symptoms and severe manifestations of malaria. We recently found that PfRH5, a P. falciparum-specific protein expressed in merozoites, is efficiently targeted by broadly-neutralizing, vaccine-induced antibodies. Here we show that antibodies against PfRH5 efficiently inhibit the in vitro growth of short-term-adapted parasite isolates from Cambodia, and that the EC(50 values of antigen-specific antibodies against PfRH5 are lower than those against PfAMA1. Since antibody responses elicited by multiple antigens are speculated to improve the efficacy of blood-stage vaccines, we conducted detailed assessments of parasite growth inhibition by antibodies against PfRH5 in combination with antibodies against seven other merozoite antigens. We found that antibodies against PfRH5 act synergistically with antibodies against certain other merozoite antigens, most notably with antibodies against other erythrocyte-binding antigens such as PfRH4, to inhibit the growth of a homologous P. falciparum clone. A combination of antibodies against PfRH4 and basigin, the erythrocyte receptor for PfRH5, also potently inhibited parasite growth. This methodology provides the first quantitative evidence that polyclonal vaccine-induced antibodies can act synergistically against P. falciparum antigens and should help to guide the rational development of future multi-antigen vaccines.

  14. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  15. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization.

    KAUST Repository

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2014-01-01

    for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps of the humanization experiment protocol. AVAILABILITY: http

  16. Antibodies from plants for bionanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Edgue, G.; Twyman, R.M.; Beiss, V.; Fischer, R.; Sack, M.

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are produced as part of the vertebrate adaptive immune response and are not naturally made by plants. However, antibody DNA sequences can be introduced into plants, and together with laboratory technologies that allow the design of antibodies recognizing any conceivable molecular structure, plants can be used as green factories' to produce any antibody at all. The advent of plant-based transient expression systems in particular allows the rapid, convenient, and safe production of a...

  17. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  18. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to Pneumocystis carinii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, J A; Halpern, J L; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    To increase understanding of the antigenic structure of Pneumocystis carinii, we developed monoclonal antibodies to rat and human P. carinii. The specificity of the antibodies was demonstrated by immunofluorescence and immunoblot studies. Only one of five monoclonal antibodies to rat P. carinii r...

  20. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed.

  1. A Novel Affinity Tag, ABTAG, and Its Application to the Affinity Screening of Single-Domain Antibodies Selected by Phage Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Hussack

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABTAG is a camelid single-domain antibody (sdAb that binds to bovine serum albumin (BSA with low picomolar affinity. In surface plasmon resonance (SPR analyses using BSA surfaces, bound ABTAG can be completely dissociated from the BSA surfaces at low pH, over multiple cycles, without any reduction in the capacity of the BSA surfaces to bind ABTAG. A moderate throughput, SPR-based, antibody screening assay exploiting the unique features of ABTAG is described. Anti-carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6 sdAbs were isolated from a phage-displayed sdAb library derived from the heavy chain antibody repertoire of a llama immunized with CEACAM6. Following one or two rounds of panning, enriched clones were expressed as ABTAG fusions in microtiter plate cultures. The sdAb-ABTAG fusions from culture supernatants were captured on BSA surfaces and CEACAM6 antigen was then bound to the captured molecules. The SPR screening method gives a read-out of relative expression levels of the fusion proteins and kinetic and affinity constants for CEACAM6 binding by the captured molecules. The library was also panned and screened by conventional methods and positive clones were subcloned and expressed for SPR analysis. Compared to conventional panning and screening, the SPR-based ABTAG method yielded a considerably higher diversity of binders, some with affinities that were three orders of magnitude higher affinity than those identified by conventional panning.

  2. Clinical use of antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Hoer, Gustav; Cox, P.H.; Buraggi, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Use of monoclonal antibodies as tumour specific carrier molecules for therapeutic agents or as in vivo diagnostic reagents when labelled with radionuclides or NMR signal enhancers is attracting more and more attention. The potential is enormous but the technical problems are also considerable requiring the concerted action of many different scientific disciplines. This volume is based upon a symposium organised in Frankfurt in 1990 under the auspices of the European Association of Nuclear Medicines' Specialist Task Groups on Cardiology and the Utility of Labelled Antibodies. It gives a multidisciplinary review of the state of the art and of problems to be solved as well as recording the not inconsiderable successes which have been booked to date. The book will be of value as a reference to both clinicians and research scientists. refs.; figs.; tabs

  3. Delta antibody radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J

    1985-11-15

    The principle and procedure are described of the radioimmunoassay of delta antibody (delta-Ab) using the ABBOTT ANTI-DELTA kit by Abbott Co. A description is given of the kit, the working procedure and the method of evaluation. The results are reported of the incidence of delta-Ab in sera of patients with viral hepatitis B, in haemophiliacs, carriers of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and blood donors. The presence was detected of delta-Ab in one HBsAg carrier. The necessity is emphasized of delta-Ab determinations in the blood of donors in view of the antibody transfer with blood and blood preparations.

  4. [Antibody therapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabira, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shin-Ei; Jin, Haifeng

    2011-11-01

    In order to avoid Abeta-induced autoimmune encephalitis, several monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are in clinical trials. These are bapineuzumab, solanezumab, ponezumab, gantenerumab, BAN2401, gammaguard and octagam. Since each antibody has a different antigen epitope of Abeta, anti-amyloid activities are different. It is unknown which antibody is effective for Alzheimer disease, and we must wait for the result of clinical trials. Some patients who developed tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody showed slower decline after AN-1792 vaccination. We developed TAPIR-like monoclonal antibody, which was found to react with Abeta oligomers preferentially.

  5. Estudio preliminar de las mineralizaciones de la mina de oro romana de Llamas de Cabrera (Leon, NO de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes, J.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The mine of Llamas de Cabrera (Leon, Spain is a gold deposit operated during the Roman Empire, in which primary and secondary gold ores coexist. The primary gold ores were hosted mainly in the upper layers of the Armorican Quartzite. They are lodes, being very abundant those hosted in N180°E/70-85°E tensional fractures and rare the ones associated to N70°E and N125°E fractures. They are formed by quartz and arsenopyrite very dominant over pyrite, galena, gold, chalcopyrite, bismuthinite, tetrahedrite and covellite. The accompanying hydrothermal alteration is silicification, sericitization and chloritization. The determined supergene minerals are scorodite, goethite and anglesite. The operated gold is free gold located generally in microfractures in arsenopyrite or quartz. Its content in silver varies from 1,99 to 7,62%, whereas the copper content is very low, remaining below the limit of instrumental detection. This study shows the existence of two phases of mineralization, deposited during two hydrothermal events of hercinian age, in addition to the supergenic phase. The secondary gold ores, operated in alluvial and colluvial sediments, were deployed by the action of the exogenous cycle on the primary gold deposits. We consider that the total volume of material moved at roman time ascended to 2 Mm3.La mina de Llamas de Cabrera (León, España es un yacimiento de oro explotado en época romana, en el que coexisten mineralizaciones de oro primario y de oro secundario. Las mineralizaciones de oro primario arman sobre todo en los tramos superiores de la Cuarcita Armoricana. Se trata de mineralizaciones filonianas, siendo muy abundantes las que encajan en fracturas tensionales de dirección N180°E/70-85°E y ocasionales las asociadas a fracturas de direcciones N70°E y N125°E. Están formadas por cuarzo y arsenopirita muy dominante sobre pirita, galena, oro, calcopirita, bismutina, tetraedrita y covellina. Las alteraciones

  6. Quantitative relationship between antibody affinity and antibody avidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between antibody avidity, measured by the dissociation of the antigen-antibody bond in antigen excess, and antibody affinity was studied. Complexes of radiolabelled antigen and antibody of known affinity were prepared in vitro and allowed to stand for seven days to reach equilibrium. Then nonlabelled antigen in one hundred fold excess was added to dissociate the complexes. After an appropriate incubation the fraction of antigen bound to antibody was measured by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method. The dissociation index was the fraction bound in the experimental sample divided by the fraction bound in the control. The correlation coefficient between the dissociation index and the antibody binding constant was 0.92 for early dissociation and 0.98 for late dissociation. The regression equation relating the binding constant to the dissociation index was K = 6.4(DI) + 6.25, where DI is the late dissociation index and K is the logarithm to the base 10 of the binding constant. There is a high correlation between avidity and affinity of antibody. Antibody affinity can be estimated from avidity data. The stability of antigen-antibody complexes can be predicted from antibody affinity

  7. Neutralization of Clostridium difficile Toxin B Mediated by Engineered Lactobacilli That Produce Single-Domain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kasper Krogh; Strokappe, Nika M.; Hultberg, Anna; Truusalu, Kai; Smidt, Imbi; Mikelsaar, Raik-Hiio; Mikelsaar, Marika; Verrips, Theo; Hammarström, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the Western world. The major virulence factors of C. difficile are two exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), which cause extensive colonic inflammation and epithelial damage manifested by episodes of diarrhea. In this study, we explored the basis for an oral antitoxin strategy based on engineered Lactobacillus strains expressing TcdB-neutralizing antibody fragments in the gastrointestinal tract. Variable domain of heavy chain-only (VHH) antibodies were raised in llamas by immunization with the complete TcdB toxin. Four unique VHH fragments neutralizing TcdB in vitro were isolated. When these VHH fragments were expressed in either secreted or cell wall-anchored form in Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, they were able to neutralize the cytotoxic effect of the toxin in an in vitro cell-based assay. Prophylactic treatment with a combination of two strains of engineered L. paracasei BL23 expressing two neutralizing anti-TcdB VHH fragments (VHH-B2 and VHH-G3) delayed killing in a hamster protection model where the animals were challenged with spores of a TcdA− TcdB+ strain of C. difficile (P survived until the termination of the experiment at day 5 and showed either no damage or limited inflammation of the colonic mucosa despite having been colonized with C. difficile for up to 4 days. The protective effect in the hamster model suggests that the strategy could be explored as a supplement to existing therapies for patients. PMID:26573738

  8. [Study of anti-idiotype antibodies to human monoclonal antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, R; Takahashi, N; Owaki, I; Kannagi, R; Endo, N; Morita, N; Inoue, M

    1992-02-01

    A human monoclonal antibody, ll-50 (IgM, lambda), was generated, which reacted specifically with a major of glycolipid present in LS174T colon cancer cells. The glycolipid antigen which reacted with the ll-50 antibody was expected to four sugar residues from its TLC mobility, and it was ascertained that the glycolipid antigen which reacted with ll-50 antibody might be Lc4 antigen [Gal beta 1----3 GLcNAc beta 1----3 Gal beta 1----4 Glc beta 1----1 Cer] judging from TLC immunostaining and ELISA when the reactivity of ll-50 antibody was tested using various pure glycolipids in 3-5 sugar residues as an antigen. Sera in patients with malignant disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed by Sandwich assay of immobilized and biotinylated ll-50 antibody. The serum of the Lc4 antigen recognized by ll-50 antibody was significantly higher in patients with malignant disorders than that in healthy individuals (p less than 0.05). Three mouse monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3 and C5 (all IgG1), were generated by the immunization of BALB/c mice with ll-50 antibody. These anti-idiotype antibodies specifically bound to to human monoclonal antibody, ll-50 and had a significant inhibitory activity towards the binding of ll-50 antibody to the Lc4 antigen. This indicated that these anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3, and C5, were paratope-related anti-idiotype antibodies. G3, B3, and C5 were expected to define the nearest idiotope because they could mutually inhibit ll-50 antibody. Sera in patients with malignant disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed by Sandwich assay of immobilized and biotinylated anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3, and C5. As to the ll-50 like antibodies defined by C5 (Id-C5+), the mean serum level in patients with malignant disorders was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals (p less than 0.05). As to the ll-50 like antibodies defined by B3 (Id-B3+), the mean serum level in patients with malignant disorders was significantly higher

  9. Isolation of Single-Domain Antibody Fragments That Preferentially Detect Intact (146S Particles of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus for Use in Vaccine Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. Harmsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intact (146S foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDVs can dissociate into specific (12S viral capsid degradation products. FMD vaccines normally consist of inactivated virions. Vaccine quality is dependent on 146S virus particles rather than 12S particles. We earlier isolated two llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs that specifically recognize 146S particles of FMDV strain O1 Manisa and shown their potential use in quality control of FMD vaccines during manufacturing. These 146S-specific VHHs were specific for particular O serotype strains and did not bind strains from other FMDV serotypes. Here, we describe the isolation of 146S-specific VHHs against FMDV SAT2 and Asia 1 strains by phage display selection from llama immune libraries. VHHs that bind both 12S and 146S particles were readily isolated but VHHs that bind specifically to 146S particles could only be isolated by phage display selection using prior depletion for 12S particles. We obtained one 146S-specific VHH—M332F—that binds to strain Asia 1 Shamir and several VHHs that preferentially bind 146S particles of SAT2 strain SAU/2/00, from which we selected VHH M379F for further characterization. Both M332F and M379F did not bind FMDV strains from other serotypes. In a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA employing unlabeled and biotinylated versions of the same VHH M332F showed high specificity for 146S particles but M379F showed lower 146S-specificity with some cross-reaction with 12S particles. These ELISAs could detect 146S particle concentrations as low as 2.3–4.6 µg/l. They can be used for FMD vaccine quality control and research and development, for example, to identify virion stabilizing excipients.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to human factor VII: a one step immunoradiometric assay for VII:Ag.

    OpenAIRE

    Takase, T; Tuddenham, E G; Chand, S; Goodall, A H

    1988-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies (RFF-VII/1, RFF-VII/2, and RFF-VII/3) which bind specifically to different epitopes on human factor VII antigen were raised. Two of the antibodies, RFF-VII/1 and RFF-VII/2, bound strongly to factor VII antigen (VII:Ag), but only RFF-VII/1 and RFF-VII/3 were potent inhibitors of factor VII coagulation activity (VII:C). RFF-VII/1 and RFF-VII/2 were used in a one step, double monoclonal immunoradiometric assay for VII:Ag. This was highly reproducible and detecte...

  11. Microbials for the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadiut, Oliver; Capone, Simona; Krainer, Florian; Glieder, Anton; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis by chimeric monoclonal antibodies with tandemly repeated Fc domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroaki; Ootsubo, Michiko; Fukazawa, Mizuki; Motoi, Sotaro; Konakahara, Shu; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2011-04-01

    We previously reported that chimeric monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with tandemly repeated Fc domains, which were developed by introducing tandem repeats of Fc domains downstream of 2 Fab domains, augmented binding avidities for all Fcγ receptors, resulting in enhanced antibody (Ab)-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Here we investigated regarding Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) mediated by these chimeric mAbs, which is considered one of the most important mechanisms that kills tumor cells, using two-color flow cytometric methods. ADCP mediated by T3-Ab, a chimeric mAb with 3 tandemly repeated Fc domains, was 5 times more potent than that by native anti-CD20 M-Ab (M-Ab hereafter). Furthermore, T3-Ab-mediated ADCP was resistant to competitive inhibition by intravenous Ig (IVIG), although M-Ab-mediated ADCP decreased in the presence of IVIG. An Fcγ receptor-blocking study demonstrated that T3-Ab mediated ADCP via both FcγRIA and FcγRIIA, whereas M-Ab mediated ADCP exclusively via FcγRIA. These results suggest that chimeric mAbs with tandemly repeated Fc domains enhance ADCP as well as ADCC, and that Fc multimerization may significantly enhance the efficacy of therapeutic Abs. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of a potent endothelium-derived angiogenic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowski, Vera; Tölle, Markus; Tran, Thi Nguyet Anh

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of angiogenic factors by vascular endothelial cells is one of the key mechanisms of angiogenesis. Here we report on the isolation of a new potent angiogenic factor, diuridine tetraphosphate (Up4U) from the secretome of human endothelial cells. The angiogenic effect of the endothelia...

  14. microRNA-101 is a potent inhibitor of autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa B; Wen, Jiayu; Lees, Michael

    2011-01-01

    performed a functional screen in search of microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate the autophagic flux in breast cancer cells. In this study, we identified the tumour suppressive miRNA, miR-101, as a potent inhibitor of basal, etoposide- and rapamycin-induced autophagy. Through transcriptome profiling, we...

  15. Nanosilver: Potent antimicrobial agent and its biosynthesis | Sarsar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been reported using chemical and physical methods. This review describes a cost effective and ecofriendly approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Thus, in this review we focus on the role of microorganisms and plants in the synthesis of nanosilver and their potent ...

  16. Radioimmunoassay with heterologous antibody (hetero-antibody RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, Atsushi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Itoh, Zen; Wakabayashi, Katsumi

    1991-01-01

    To develop a homologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) for a hormone of a small or rare animal often meets difficulty in collecting a large amount of purified antigen required for antibody production. On the other hand, to employ a heterologous RIA to estimate the hormone often gives poor sensitivity. To overcome this difficulty, a 'hetero-antibody' RIA was studied. In a hetero-antibody RIA system, a purified preparation of a hormone is used for radioiodination and standardization and a heterologous antibody to the hormone is used for the first antibody. Canine motilin and rat LH were selected as examples, and anti-porcine motilin and anti-hCG, anti-hCGβ or anti-ovine LHβ was used as the heterologous antibody. The sensitivities of the hetero-antibody RIAs were much higher than those of heterologous RIAs in any case, showing that these hetero-antibody RIA systems were suitable for practical use. To clarify the principle of hetero-antibody RIA, antiserum to porcine motilin was fractionated on an affinity column where canine motilin was immobilized. The fraction bound had greater constants of affinity with both porcine and canine motilins than the rest of the antibody fractions. This fraction also reacted with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence common to porcine and canine motilins in a competitive binding test with labeled canine motilin. These results suggest that an antibody population having high affinity and cross-reactivity is present in polyclonal antiserum and indicate that the population can be used in hetero-antibody RIA at an appropriate concentration. (author)

  17. Bispecific small molecule-antibody conjugate targeting prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan Hyuk; Axup, Jun Y; Lawson, Brian R; Yun, Hwayoung; Tardif, Virginie; Choi, Sei Hyun; Zhou, Quan; Dubrovska, Anna; Biroc, Sandra L; Marsden, Robin; Pinstaff, Jason; Smider, Vaughn V; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-10-29

    Bispecific antibodies, which simultaneously target CD3 on T cells and tumor-associated antigens to recruit cytotoxic T cells to cancer cells, are a promising new approach to the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Here we report a site-specific, semisynthetic method for the production of bispecific antibody-like therapeutics in which a derivative of the prostate-specific membrane antigen-binding small molecule DUPA was selectively conjugated to a mutant αCD3 Fab containing the unnatural amino acid, p-acetylphenylalanine, at a defined site. Homogeneous conjugates were generated in excellent yields and had good solubility. The efficacy of the conjugate was optimized by modifying the linker structure, relative binding orientation, and stoichiometry of the ligand. The optimized conjugate showed potent and selective in vitro activity (EC50 ~ 100 pM), good serum half-life, and potent in vivo activity in prophylactic and treatment xenograft mouse models. This semisynthetic approach is likely to be applicable to the generation of additional bispecific agents using drug-like ligands selective for other cell-surface receptors.

  18. Bispecific small molecule–antibody conjugate targeting prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan Hyuk; Axup, Jun Y.; Lawson, Brian R.; Yun, Hwayoung; Tardif, Virginie; Choi, Sei Hyun; Zhou, Quan; Dubrovska, Anna; Biroc, Sandra L.; Marsden, Robin; Pinstaff, Jason; Smider, Vaughn V.; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies, which simultaneously target CD3 on T cells and tumor-associated antigens to recruit cytotoxic T cells to cancer cells, are a promising new approach to the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Here we report a site-specific, semisynthetic method for the production of bispecific antibody-like therapeutics in which a derivative of the prostate-specific membrane antigen-binding small molecule DUPA was selectively conjugated to a mutant αCD3 Fab containing the unnatural amino acid, p-acetylphenylalanine, at a defined site. Homogeneous conjugates were generated in excellent yields and had good solubility. The efficacy of the conjugate was optimized by modifying the linker structure, relative binding orientation, and stoichiometry of the ligand. The optimized conjugate showed potent and selective in vitro activity (EC50 ∼100 pM), good serum half-life, and potent in vivo activity in prophylactic and treatment xenograft mouse models. This semisynthetic approach is likely to be applicable to the generation of additional bispecific agents using drug-like ligands selective for other cell-surface receptors. PMID:24127589

  19. Discovery and Characterization of a Potent Interleukin-6 Binding Peptide with Neutralizing Activity In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Ranganath

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is an important member of the cytokine superfamily, exerting pleiotropic actions on many physiological processes. Over-production of IL-6 is a hallmark of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as Castleman's Disease (CD and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Antagonism of the interleukin IL-6/IL-6 receptor (IL-6R/gp130 signaling complex continues to show promise as a therapeutic target. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs directed against components of this complex have been approved as therapeutics for both CD and RA. To potentially provide an additional modality to antagonize IL-6 induced pathophysiology, a peptide-based antagonist approach was undertaken. Using a combination of molecular design, phage-display, and medicinal chemistry, disulfide-rich peptides (DRPs directed against IL-6 were developed with low nanomolar potency in inhibiting IL-6-induced pSTAT3 in U937 monocytic cells. Targeted PEGylation of IL-6 binding peptides resulted in molecules that retained their potency against IL-6 and had a prolongation of their pharmacokinetic (PK profiles in rodents and monkeys. One such peptide, PN-2921, contained a 40 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG moiety and inhibited IL-6-induced pSTAT3 in U937 cells with sub-nM potency and possessed 23, 36, and 59 h PK half-life values in mice, rats, and cynomolgus monkeys, respectively. Parenteral administration of PN-2921 to mice and cynomolgus monkeys potently inhibited IL-6-induced biomarker responses, with significant reductions in the acute inflammatory phase proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA and C-reactive protein (CRP. This potent, PEGylated IL-6 binding peptide offers a new approach to antagonize IL-6-induced signaling and associated pathophysiology.

  20. Human antibody technology and the development of antibodies against cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlin, Mats; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus that causes chronic infections in a large set of the population. It may cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, is linked to immunosenescence and implied to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Modulation of the immune system's abilities to manage the virus represent a highly viable therapeutic option and passive immunotherapy with polyclonal antibody preparations is already in clinical use. Defined monoclonal antibodies offer many advantages over polyclonal antibodies purified from serum. Human CMV-specific monoclonal antibodies have consequently been thoroughly investigated with respect to their potential in the treatment of diseases caused by CMV. Recent advances in human antibody technology have substantially expanded the breadth of antibodies for such applications. This review summarizes the fundamental basis for treating CMV disease by use of antibodies, the basic technologies to be used to develop such antibodies, and relevant human antibody specificities available to target this virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Next-Generation DNA Sequencing of VH/VL Repertoires: A Primer and Guide to Applications in Single-Domain Antibody Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin A

    2018-01-01

    Immunogenetic analyses of expressed antibody repertoires are becoming increasingly common experimental investigations and are critical to furthering our understanding of autoimmunity, infectious disease, and cancer. Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies have now made it possible to interrogate antibody repertoires to unprecedented depths, typically by sequencing of cDNAs encoding immunoglobulin variable domains. In this chapter, we describe simple, fast, and reliable methods for producing and sequencing multiplex PCR amplicons derived from the variable regions (V H , V H H or V L ) of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We include complete protocols and primer sets for amplicon sequencing of V H /V H H/V L repertoires directly from human, mouse, and llama lymphocytes as well as from phage-displayed V H /V H H/V L libraries; these can be easily be adapted to other types of amplicons with little modification. The resulting amplicons are diverse and representative, even using as few as 10 3 input B cells, and their generation is relatively inexpensive, requiring no special equipment and only a limited set of primers. In the absence of heavy-light chain pairing, single-domain antibodies are uniquely amenable to NGS analyses. We present a number of applications of NGS technology useful in discovery of single-domain antibodies from phage display libraries, including: (i) assessment of library functionality; (ii) confirmation of desired library randomization; (iii) estimation of library diversity; and (iv) monitoring the progress of panning experiments. While the case studies presented here are of phage-displayed single-domain antibody libraries, the principles extend to other types of in vitro display libraries.

  2. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can...... elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity...... and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps...

  3. Cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a perspective of the use of antibodies to target diagnostic isotopes to tumors. Antibodies with reasonable specificity can be developed against almost any substance. If selective targeting to cancer cells can be achieved, the prospects for a selective therapy are equally intriguing. But the development of cancer detection, or imaging, with radiolabeled antibodies has depended upon advances in a number of different areas, including cancer immunology and immunochemistry for identifying suitable antigen targets and antibodies to these targets, tumor biology for model systems, radiochemistry for he attachment of radionuclides to antibodies, molecular biology for reengineering the antibodies for safer and more effective use in humans, and nuclear medicine for providing the best imaging protocols and instrumentation to detect minute amounts of elevated radioactivity against a background of considerable noise. Accordingly, this book has been organized to address the advances that are being made in many of these areas

  4. Characterization of Notch1 antibodies that inhibit signaling of both normal and mutated Notch1 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aste-Amézaga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Notch receptors normally play a key role in guiding a variety of cell fate decisions during development and differentiation of metazoan organisms. On the other hand, dysregulation of Notch1 signaling is associated with many different types of cancer as well as tumor angiogenesis, making Notch1 a potential therapeutic target.Here we report the in vitro activities of inhibitory Notch1 monoclonal antibodies derived from cell-based and solid-phase screening of a phage display library. Two classes of antibodies were found, one directed against the EGF-repeat region that encompasses the ligand-binding domain (LBD, and the second directed against the activation switch of the receptor, the Notch negative regulatory region (NRR. The antibodies are selective for Notch1, inhibiting Jag2-dependent signaling by Notch1 but not by Notch 2 and 3 in reporter gene assays, with EC(50 values as low as 5+/-3 nM and 0.13+/-0.09 nM for the LBD and NRR antibodies, respectively, and fail to recognize Notch4. While more potent, NRR antibodies are incomplete antagonists of Notch1 signaling. The antagonistic activity of LBD, but not NRR, antibodies is strongly dependent on the activating ligand. Both LBD and NRR antibodies bind to Notch1 on human tumor cell lines and inhibit the expression of sentinel Notch target genes, including HES1, HES5, and DTX1. NRR antibodies also strongly inhibit ligand-independent signaling in heterologous cells transiently expressing Notch1 receptors with diverse NRR "class I" point mutations, the most common type of mutation found in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL. In contrast, NRR antibodies failed to antagonize Notch1 receptors bearing rare "class II" or "class III" mutations, in which amino acid insertions generate a duplicated or constitutively sensitive metalloprotease cleavage site. Signaling in T-ALL cell lines bearing class I mutations is partially refractory to inhibitory antibodies as compared to cell

  5. A novel merozoite surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum (MSP-3 identified by cellular-antibody cooperative mechanism antigenicity and biological activity of antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Oeuvray

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the identification of a 48kDa antigen targeted by antibodies which inhibit Plasmodium falciparum in vitro growth by cooperation with blood monocytes in an ADCI assay correlated to the naturally acquired protection. This protein is located on the surface of the merozoite stage of P. falciparum, and is detectable in all isolates tested. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that peptides derived from the amino acid sequence of MSP-3 contain potent B and T-cell epitopes recognized by a majority of individuals living in endemic areas. Moreover human antibodies either purified on the recombinant protein, or on the synthetic peptide MSP-3b, as well as antibodies raised in mice, were all found to promote parasite killing mediated by monocytes.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillman, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the current status of in-vivo use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Publications appearing between 1980 and 1988 were identified by computer searches using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT, by reviewing the table of contents of recently published journals, and by searching bibliographies of identified books and articles. More than 700 articles, including peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, were identified and selected for analysis. The literature was reviewed and 235 articles were selected as relevant and representative of the current issues and future applications for in-vivo monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy and of the toxicity and efficacy which has been associated with clinical trials. Approaches include using antibody alone (interacting with complement or effector cells or binding directly with certain cell receptors) and immunoconjugates (antibody coupled to radioisotopes, drugs, toxins, or other biologicals). Most experience has been with murine antibodies. Trials of antibody alone and radiolabeled antibodies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and the in-vivo trafficking of antibodies to tumor cells. However, tumor cell heterogeneity, lack of cytotoxicity, and the development of human antimouse antibodies have limited clinical efficacy. Although the immunoconjugates are very promising, heterogeneity and the antimouse immune response have hampered this approach as has the additional challenge of chemically or genetically coupling antibody to cytotoxic agents. As a therapeutic modality, monoclonal antibodies are still promising but their general use will be delayed for several years. New approaches using human antibodies and reducing the human antiglobulin response should facilitate treatment. 235 references

  7. Tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.; Hilgers, J.

    1987-01-01

    Many monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-associated antigens have been identified, but so far none of these are tumor specific. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used for imaging of a wide variety of tumors with success. Radiolabeling of antibody is usually done with iodine isotopes of which 123 I is the best candidate for radioimmunodetection purposes. The labeling of antibodies through chelates makes it possible to use metal radioisotopes like 111 In, which is the best radioisotope for imaging with monoclonal antibodies due to its favorable half-life of 2.5 days. Usually imaging cannot be performed within 24 h after injection, but clearance of antibody can be increased by using F(ab) 2 of Fab. Another approach is to clear non-bound antibody by a second antibody, directed against the first. The detection limit of immunoimaging is about 2 cm, but will be improved by tomography or SPECT. There is still a high false positive and false negative rate, which makes it impossible to use radioimmunodetection as the only technique for diagnosis of tumors. In combination with other detection techniques, tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies can improve diagnosis. 44 refs.; 3 tabs

  8. Effect of kinase inhibitors on the therapeutic properties of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh Ngoc; Matera, Eva-Laure; Mathé, Doriane; Evesque, Anne; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Dumontet, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapies of malignancies currently consist of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and small molecule kinase inhibitors. The combination of these novel agents raises the issue of potential antagonisms. We evaluated the potential effect of 4 kinase inhibitors, including the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, and 3 PI3K inhibitors idelalisib, NVP-BEZ235 and LY294002, on the effects of the 3 monoclonal antibodies, rituximab and obinutuzumab (directed against CD20) and trastuzumab (directed against HER2). We found that ibrutinib potently inhibits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity exerted by all antibodies, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.2 microM for trastuzumab, 0.5 microM for rituximab and 2 microM for obinutuzumab, suggesting a lesser effect in combination with obinutuzumab than with rituximab. The 4 kinase inhibitors were found to inhibit phagocytosis by fresh human neutrophils, as well as antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis induced by the 3 antibodies. Conversely co-administration of ibrutinib with rituximab, obinutuzumab or trastuzumab did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect of ibrutinib in vivo in murine xenograft models. In conclusion, some kinase inhibitors, in particular, ibrutinib, are likely to exert inhibitory effects on innate immune cells. However, these effects do not compromise the antitumor activity of monoclonal antibodies in vivo in the models that were evaluated.

  9. Soluble HIV-1 envelope immunogens derived from an elite neutralizer elicit cross-reactive V1V2 antibodies and low potency neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carbonetti

    Full Text Available We evaluated four gp140 Envelope protein vaccine immunogens that were derived from an elite neutralizer, subject VC10042, whose plasma was able to potently neutralize a wide array of genetically distinct HIV-1 isolates. We sought to determine whether soluble Envelope proteins derived from the viruses circulating in VC10042 could be used as immunogens to elicit similar neutralizing antibody responses by vaccination. Each gp140 was tested in its trimeric and monomeric forms, and we evaluated two gp140 trimer vaccine regimens in which adjuvant was supplied at all four immunizations or at only the first two immunizations. Interestingly, all four Envelope immunogens elicited high titers of cross-reactive antibodies that recognize the variable regions V1V2 and are potentially similar to antibodies linked with a reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial. Two of the four immunogens elicited neutralizing antibody responses that neutralized a wide array of HIV-1 isolates from across genetic clades, but those responses were of very low potency. There were no significant differences in the responses elicited by trimers or monomers, nor was there a significant difference between the two adjuvant regimens. Our study identified two promising Envelope immunogens that elicited anti-V1V2 antibodies and broad, but low potency, neutralizing antibody responses.

  10. Structurally well-defined macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1998-06-01

    Freund's adjuvant produced severe inflammation that augments development of antibodies. Thus, mixed administration of antigens with adjuvant was not required as long as inflammation was induced in the hosts. Since macrophage activation for phagocytosis and antigen processing is the first step of antibody development, inflammation-primed macrophage activation plays a major role in immune development. Therefore, macrophage activating factor should act as an adjuvant for immunization. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation process is the major macrophage activating cascade that requires participation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) and glycosidases of B and T lymphocytes. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase efficiently generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF) we have ever encountered. Administration of GcMAF (20 or 100 pg/mouse) resulted in stimulation of the progenitor cells for extensive mitogenesis and activation of macrophages. Administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) along with immunization of mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days. Thus, GcMAF has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization. Although malignant tumours are poorly immunogenic, 4 days after GcMAF-primed immunization of mice with heat-killed Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, the ascites tumour was no longer transplantable in these mice.

  11. An ayurvedic formulation Sankat Mochan: A potent anthelmintic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomendra Kumar Sarwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Object: Sankat Mochan is an ayurvedic formulation used in the urban and rural area of India. This polyherbal formulation is used for general stomach problems including abdominal cramping and diarrhea. The present investigation evaluated the anthelmintic activity of an aqueous solution of an ayurvedic medicine Sankat Mochan. Materials and Method: Various concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10% of medicine were used for anthelmintic activity on Pheretima posthuma. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control. Result and Conclusion: The result showed that the Sankat Mochan possess anthelmintic activity more potent than that of piperazine citrate. Thus, Sankat Mochan may be used as a potent anthelmintic agent against helminthiasis.

  12. SAH derived potent and selective EZH2 inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Pei-Pei; Huang, Buwen; Zehnder, Luke; Tatlock, John; Bingham, Patrick; Krivacic, Cody; Gajiwala, Ketan; Diehl, Wade; Yu, Xiu; Maegley, Karen A.

    2015-04-01

    A series of novel enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) inhibitors was designed based on the chemical structure of the histone methyltransferase (HMT) inhibitor SAH (S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine). These nucleoside-based EZH2 inhibitors blocked the methylation of nucleosomes at H3K27 in biochemical assays employing both WT PRC2 complex as well as a Y641N mutant PRC2 complex. The most potent compound, 27, displayed IC50’s against both complexes of 270 nM and 70 nM, respectively. To our knowledge, compound 27 is the most potent SAH-derived inhibitor of the EZH2 PRC2 complex yet identified. This compound also displayed improved potency, lipophilic efficiency (LipE), and selectivity profile against other lysine methyltransferases compared with SAH.

  13. Fluoxetine Is a Potent Inhibitor of Coxsackievirus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Jun; Quinn, Kevin K.; Kye, Steve; Cooper, Paige; Damoiseaux, Robert; Krogstad, Paul

    2012-01-01

    No antiviral drugs currently exist for the treatment of enterovirus infections, which are often severe and potentially life threatening. Molecular screening of small molecule libraries identified fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, as a potent inhibitor of coxsackievirus replication. Fluoxetine did not interfere with either viral entry or translation of the viral genome. Instead, fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine markedly reduced the synthesis of viral RNA and prot...

  14. Alkylsulfanyl analogs as potent α2δ ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kousei; Ohata, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Jun; Onishi, Yoshiyuki; Kawamura, Asuka; Domon, Yuki; Arakawa, Naohisa; Inoue, Tatsuya; Kitano, Yutaka; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Abe, Yuki; Deguchi, Tsuneo

    2018-06-15

    We identified novel (3R, 5S)-3-aminomethyl-5-methanesulfanyl hexanoic acid (5a: DS75091588) and (3R, 5S)-3-aminomethyl-5-ethanesulfanyl hexanoic acid (6a: DS18430756) as sulfur-containing γ-amino acid derivatives that were useful for the treatment of neuropathic pain. These two compounds exhibited a potent analgesic effect in animal models of both type I diabetes and type II diabetes, and good pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibodies may or may not be associated with adverse reactions, and identification of the specific type of RBC ... the only things that can cause a transfusion reaction. The recipient's immune ... or to drugs that the donor may have taken. Rarely, antibodies in the plasma ...

  16. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptides...... can be modified to obtain desired properties or conformation, tagged for purification, isotopically labeled for protein quantitation or conjugated to immunogens for antibody production. The antibodies that bind to these peptides represent an invaluable tool for biological research and discovery....... To better understand the underlying mechanisms of antibody-antigen interaction here we present a pipeline developed by us to structurally classify immunoglobulin antigen binding sites and to infer key sequence residues and other variables that have a prominent role in each structural class....

  17. Insulin-like growth factor I/somatomedin C: a potent inducer of oligodendrocyte development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMorris, F.A.; Smith, T.M.; DeSalvo, S.; Furlanetto, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Cell cultures established from cerebrum of 1-day-old rats were used to investigate hormonal regulation of the development of oligodendrocytes, which synthesize myelin in the central nervous system. The number of oligodendrocytes that developed was preferentially increased by insulin, or by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), also known as somatomedin C. High concentrations of insulin were required for substantial induction of oligodendrocyte development, whereas only 3.3 ng of IGF-I per ml was needed for a 2-fold increase in oligodendrocyte numbers. At an IGF-I concentration of 100 ng/ml, oligodendrocyte numbers were increased 6-fold in cultures grown in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum, or up to 60-fold in cultures maintained in serum-free medium. IGF-I produced less than a 2-fold increase in the number of nonoligodendroglial cells in the same cultures. Type I IGF receptors were identified on oligodendrocytes and on a putative oligodendrocyte precursor cell population identified by using mouse monoclonal antibody A2B5. Radioligand binding assays were done. These results indicate that IGF-I is a potent inducer of oligodendrocyte development and suggest a possible mechanism based on IGF deficiency for the hypomyelination that results from early postnatal malnutrition

  18. Interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar vesicles as synthetic vaccines for potent humoral and cellular immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James J.; Suh, Heikyung; Bershteyn, Anna; Stephan, Matthias T.; Liu, Haipeng; Huang, Bonnie; Sohail, Mashaal; Luo, Samantha; Ho Um, Soong; Khant, Htet; Goodwin, Jessica T.; Ramos, Jenelyn; Chiu, Wah; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2011-03-01

    Vaccines based on recombinant proteins avoid the toxicity and antivector immunity associated with live vaccine (for example, viral) vectors, but their immunogenicity is poor, particularly for CD8+ T-cell responses. Synthetic particles carrying antigens and adjuvant molecules have been developed to enhance subunit vaccines, but in general these materials have failed to elicit CD8+ T-cell responses comparable to those for live vectors in preclinical animal models. Here, we describe interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar vesicles formed by crosslinking headgroups of adjacent lipid bilayers within multilamellar vesicles. Interbilayer-crosslinked vesicles stably entrapped protein antigens in the vesicle core and lipid-based immunostimulatory molecules in the vesicle walls under extracellular conditions, but exhibited rapid release in the presence of endolysosomal lipases. We found that these antigen/adjuvant-carrying vesicles form an extremely potent whole-protein vaccine, eliciting endogenous T-cell and antibody responses comparable to those for the strongest vaccine vectors. These materials should enable a range of subunit vaccines and provide new possibilities for therapeutic protein delivery.

  19. Evaluation of a panel of antibodies for the immunohistochemical identification of immune cells in paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissues of new- and old-world camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Ann-Kathrin; Lehmbecker, Annika; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Spitzbarth, Ingo

    2017-02-01

    Different species of camelids play an important role in the epidemiology of various emerging infectious diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome. For precise investigations of the immunopathogenesis in these host species, appropriate immunohistochemical markers are highly needed in order to phenotype distinct immune cells populations in camelids. So far, specific immunohistochemical markers for camelid immune cells are rarely commercially available, and cross-reactivity studies are restricted to the use of frozen dromedary tissues. To bridge this gap, 14 commercially available primary antibodies were tested for their suitability to demonstrate immune cell populations on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections of dromedaries, Bactrian camels, llamas, and alpacas in the present study. Out of these, 9 antibodies directed against CD3, CD20, CD79α, HLA-DR, Iba-1, myeloid/histiocyte antigen, CD204, CD208, and CD68 antigen exhibited distinct immunoreaction patterns to certain camelid immune cell subsets. The distribution of these antigens was comparatively evaluated in different anatomical compartments of thymus, spleen, mesenteric, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The presented results will provide a basis for further investigations in camelids, especially with respect to the role of the immune response in certain infectious diseases, which harbor a considerable risk to spill over to other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibody- and TRIM21-dependent intracellular restriction of Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakebrandt, Nikolas; Lentes, Sabine; Neumann, Heinz; James, Leo C; Neumann-Staubitz, Petra

    2014-11-01

    TRIM21 ('tripartite motif-containing protein 21', Ro52) is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic Fc receptor, which has a potent role in protective immunity against nonenveloped viruses. TRIM21 mediates intracellular neutralisation of antibody-coated viruses, a process called ADIN (antibody-dependent intracellular neutralisation). Our results reveal a similar mechanism to fight bacterial infections. TRIM21 is recruited to the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica in epithelial cells early in infection. TRIM21 does not bind directly to S. enterica, but to antibodies opsonising it. Most importantly, bacterial restriction is dependent on TRIM21 as well as on the opsonisation state of the bacteria. Finally, Salmonella and TRIM21 colocalise with the autophagosomal marker LC3, and intracellular defence is enhanced in starved cells suggesting an involvement of the autophagocytic pathway. Our data extend the protective role of TRIM21 from viruses to bacteria and thereby strengthening the general role of ADIN in cellular immunity. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oriented conjugates of monoclonal and single-domain antibodies with quantum dots for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry diagnostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanova, Alyona; Even-Desrumeaux, Klervi; Millot, Jean-Marc; Chames, Patrick; Baty, Daniel; Artemyev, Mikhail; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Nabiev, Igor

    2012-03-01

    Ideal diagnostic nanoprobes should not exceed 15 nm in size and should contain high-affinity homogeneously oriented capture molecules on their surface. An advanced procedure for antibody (Ab) reduction was used to cleave each Ab into two functional half-Abs, 75-kDa heavy-light chain fragments, each containing an intact antigen-binding site. Affinity purification of half-Abs followed by their linkage to quantum dots (QDs) yielded oriented QD-Ab conjugates whose functionality was considerably improved compared to those obtained using the standard protocols. Ultrasmall diagnostic nanoprobes were engineered through oriented conjugation of QDs with 13-kDa single-domain Abs (sdAbs) derived from llama IgG. sdAbs were tagged with QDs via an additional cysteine residue specifically integrated into the C-terminal region of sdAb using genetic engineering. This approach made it possible to obtain sdAb-QD nanoprobes <12 nm in diameter comprising four copies of sdAbs linked to the same QD in an oriented manner. sdAb-QD conjugates against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and HER2 exhibited an extremely high specificity in flow cytometry; the quality of immunohistochemical labeling of biopsy samples was found to be superior to that of labeling according to the current "gold standard" protocols of anatomo-pathological practice. The nano-bioengineering approaches developed can be extended to oriented conjugation of Abs and sdAbs with different semiconductor, noble metal, or magnetic nanoparticles.

  2. Radiolabeled antibodies in cancer. Oncology Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories through the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiolabeled antibodies--labeling and imaging techniques; Radiolabeled antibodies--carcinoembryonic antigen; Radiolabeled antibodies--alpha-fetoprotein; Radiolabeled antibodies--human chorionic gonadotropin; Radiolabeled antibodies--ferritin; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of colorectal tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of malignant melanoma; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of urogenital tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of thyroid tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--other clinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--selected preclinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--reviews

  3. New perspectives on recombinant human antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Kruif (John); A.-R. van der Vuurst de Vries (Anne); L. Cilenti (L.); E. Boel (E.); W. van Ewijk (Willem); T. Logtenberg (Ton)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe limited potential of murine monoclonal antibodies for human immunotherapy has driven recent progress in recombinant antibody technology. Here, de Kruif and colleagues report on advances in the development and use of phage-antibody-display libraries.

  4. Measurement of antibodies to tubulin by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, G M; Cowin, P; Whitehouse, J M.A. [CRC Medical Oncology Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, U.K.

    1979-07-24

    A solid-phase double antibody radioimmunoassay capable of measuring antibody to tubulin, the principal component of microtubules, is described. This assay is simple, combining sensitivity with specificity and also allowing determination of antibody subclasses.

  5. Immunization with Clinical HIV-1 Env Proteins Induces Broad Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity-Mediating Antibodies in a Rabbit Vaccination Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2017-11-17

    The induction of both neutralizing antibodies and non-neutralizing antibodies with effector functions, for example, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is desired in the search for effective vaccines against HIV-1. In the pursuit of novel immunogens capable of inducing an efficient antibody response, rabbits were immunized with selected antigens using different prime-boost strategies. We immunized 35 different groups of rabbits with Env antigens from clinical HIV-1 subtypes A and B, including immunization with DNA alone, protein alone, and DNA prime with protein boost. The rabbit sera were screened for ADCC activity using a GranToxiLux-based assay with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as effector cells and CEM.NKR CCR5 cells coated with HIV-1 envelope as target cells. The groups with the highest ADCC activity were further characterized for cross-reactivity between HIV-1 subtypes. The immunogen inducing the most potent and broadest ADCC response was a trimeric gp140. The ADCC activity was highest against the HIV-1 subtype corresponding to the immunogen. The ADCC activity did not necessarily reflect neutralizing activity in the pseudovirus-TZMbl assay, but there was an overall correlation between the two antiviral activities. We present a rabbit vaccination model and an assay suitable for screening HIV-1 vaccine candidates for the induction of ADCC-mediating antibodies in addition to neutralizing antibodies. The antigens and/or immunization strategies capable of inducing antibodies with ADCC activity did not necessarily induce neutralizing activity and vice versa. Nevertheless, we identified vaccine candidates that were able to concurrently induce both types of responses and that had ADCC activity that was cross-reactive between different subtypes. When searching for an effective vaccine candidate, it is important to evaluate the antibody response using a model and an assay measuring the desired function.

  6. Complexity of Human Antibody Response to Dengue Virus: Implication for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Yang; Lin, Hong-En; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2017-01-01

    The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) are the leading cause of arboviral diseases in humans. Decades of efforts have made remarkable progress in dengue vaccine development. Despite the first dengue vaccine (dengvaxia from Sanofi Pasteur), a live-attenuated tetravalent chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccine, has been licensed by several countries since 2016, its overall moderate efficacy (56.5-60.8%) in the presence of neutralizing antibodies during the Phase 2b and 3 trials, lower efficacy among dengue naïve compared with dengue experienced individuals, and increased risk of hospitalization among young children during the follow-up highlight the need for a better understanding of humoral responses after natural DENV infection. Recent studies of more than 300 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against DENV have led to the discovery of several novel epitopes on the envelope protein recognized by potent neutralizing mAbs. This information together with in-depth studies on polyclonal sera and B-cells following natural DENV infection has tremendous implications for better immunogen design for a safe and effective dengue vaccine. This review outlines the progress in our understanding of mouse mAbs, human mAbs, and polyclonal sera against DENV envelope and precursor membrane proteins, two surface proteins involved in vaccine development, following natural infection; analyses of these discoveries have provided valuable insight into new strategies involving molecular technology to induce more potent neutralizing antibodies and less enhancing antibodies for next-generation dengue vaccine development.

  7. Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs) for Personalized Treatment of Solid Tumors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, John M; Morris, Charles Q

    2017-05-01

    Attaching a cytotoxic "payload" to an antibody to form an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) provides a mechanism for selective delivery of the cytotoxic agent to cancer cells via the specific binding of the antibody to cancer-selective cell surface molecules. The first ADC to receive marketing authorization was gemtuzumab ozogamicin, which comprises an anti-CD33 antibody conjugated to a highly potent DNA-targeting antibiotic, calicheamicin, approved in 2000 for treating acute myeloid leukemia. It was withdrawn from the US market in 2010 following an unsuccessful confirmatory trial. The development of two classes of highly potent microtubule-disrupting agents, maytansinoids and auristatins, as payloads for ADCs resulted in approval of brentuximab vedotin in 2011 for treating Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and approval of ado-trastuzumab emtansine in 2013 for treating HER2-positive breast cancer. Their success stimulated much research into the ADC approach, with >60 ADCs currently in clinical evaluation, mostly targeting solid tumors. Five ADCs have advanced into pivotal clinical trials for treating various solid tumors-platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, mesothelioma, triple-negative breast cancer, glioblastoma, and small cell lung cancer. The level of target expression is a key parameter in predicting the likelihood of patient benefit for all these ADCs, as well as for the approved compound, ado-trastuzumab emtansine. The development of a patient selection strategy linked to target expression on the tumor is thus critically important for identifying the population appropriate for receiving treatment.

  8. Challenges to the development of vaccines to hepatitis C virus that elicit neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Edelgard Drummer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite 20 years of research, a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has not been developed. A vaccine to prevent HCV will need to induce broadly reactive immunity able to prevent infection by the 7 genetically and antigenically distinct genotypes circulating world-wide. Hepatitis C virus encodes two surface exposed glycoproteins, E1 and E2 that function as a heterodimer to mediate viral entry. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs to both E1 and E2 have been described with the major NAb target being E2. The function of E2 is to attach virions to host cells via cell surface receptors that include, but is not limited to, the tetraspanin CD81 and scavenger receptor B class I. However, E2 has developed a number of immune evasion strategies to limit the effectiveness of the NAb response and possibly limit the ability of the immune system to generate potent NAbs in natural infection. Hypervariable regions that shield the underlying core domain, subdominant neutralization epitopes and glycan shielding combine to make E2 a difficult target for the immune system. This review summarizes recent information on the role of neutralizing antibodies to prevent HCV infection, the targets of the neutralizing antibody response and structural information on glycoprotein E2 in complex with neutralizing antibodies. This new information should provide a framework for the rational design of new vaccine candidates that elicit highly potent broadly reactive NAbs to prevent HCV infection.

  9. Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizeng, Q; Nilsson, C; Sourial, S

    2004-01-01

    Links Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals.Lizeng Q, Nilsson C, Sourial S, Andersson S, Larsen O, Aaby P, Ehnlund M, Bjorling E. Research Center, South Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The mechanisms behind...... the resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection are still not fully understood. In the present study, we explored the HIV-2-specific humoral serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) immune response in HIV-2-exposed IgG-seronegative (EGSN) individuals. Serum samples from heterosexual EGSN individuals...... and their known HIV-2-infected partners, as well as controls originating from Guinea-Bissau in Africa, were studied. Antibody reactivity to native and recombinant envelope glycoproteins was investigated, and the capacity of purified serum IgA to neutralize HIV-2(SBL6669) was tested. Our results showed that 16...

  10. Synthetic biocompatible polymers are an effective delivery platform that elicits potent antibody responses against HIV-1 glycopeptide immunogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francica, J.; Lynn, G.; Laga, Richard; Aussedat, B.; Meyerhoff, R.; Alam, M.; Danishefsky, S.; Haynes, B.; Seder, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, Supplement 1 (2016), s. 221-P07.27 ISSN 0889-2229. [Conference on HIV Research for Prevention - HIV R4P. 17.10.2016-21.10.2016, Chicago] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biocompatible polymers * druh delivery Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  11. Novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies: synergy and antagonism with tumor necrosis factor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceran Ceyhan

    2012-10-01

    , but antagonistically on BT-474 cells. A representative anti-HER2 antibody inhibited Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation leading to cyclin D1 accumulation and growth arrest in SK-BR-3 cells, independently from TNF-α. Conclusions Novel antibodies against extracellular domain of HER2 may serve as potent anti-cancer bioactive molecules. Cell-dependent synergy and antagonism between anti-HER2 antibodies and TNF-α provide evidence for a complex interplay between HER2 and TNF-α signaling pathways. Such complexity may drastically affect the outcome of HER2-directed therapeutic interventions.

  12. Streamlined Total Synthesis of Trioxacarcins and Its Application to the Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Analogues Thereof. Discovery of Simpler Designed and Potent Trioxacarcin Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Chen, Pengxi; Zhu, Shugao; Cai, Quan; Erande, Rohan D; Li, Ruofan; Sun, Hongbao; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Aujay, Monette; Sandoval, Joseph; Gavrilyuk, Julia

    2017-11-01

    A streamlined total synthesis of the naturally occurring antitumor agents trioxacarcins is described, along with its application to the construction of a series of designed analogues of these complex natural products. Biological evaluation of the synthesized compounds revealed a number of highly potent, and yet structurally simpler, compounds that are effective against certain cancer cell lines, including a drug-resistant line. A novel one-step synthesis of anthraquinones and chloro anthraquinones from simple ketone precursors and phenylselenyl chloride is also described. The reported work, featuring novel chemistry and cascade reactions, has potential applications in cancer therapy, including targeted approaches as in antibody-drug conjugates.

  13. Lack of protection following passive transfer of polyclonal highly functional low-dose non-neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Dugast

    Full Text Available Recent immune correlates analysis from the RV144 vaccine trial has renewed interest in the role of non-neutralizing antibodies in mediating protection from infection. While neutralizing antibodies have proven difficult to induce through vaccination, extra-neutralizing antibodies, such as those that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, are associated with long-term control of infection. However, while several non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been tested for their protective efficacy in vivo, no studies to date have tested the protective activity of naturally produced polyclonal antibodies from individuals harboring potent ADCC activity. Because ADCC-inducing antibodies are highly enriched in elite controllers (EC, we passively transferred highly functional non-neutralizing polyclonal antibodies, purified from an EC, to assess the potential impact of polyclonal non-neutralizing antibodies on a stringent SHIV-SF162P3 challenge in rhesus monkeys. Passive transfer of a low-dose of ADCC inducing antibodies did not protect from infection following SHIV-SF162P3 challenge. Passively administered antibody titers and gp120-specific, but not gp41-specific, ADCC and antibody induced phagocytosis (ADCP were detected in the majority of the monkeys, but did not correlate with post infection viral control. Thus these data raise the possibility that gp120-specific ADCC activity alone may not be sufficient to control viremia post infection but that other specificities or Fc-effector profiles, alone or in combination, may have an impact on viral control and should be tested in future passive transfer experiments.

  14. Site-specific chemical modification of antibody fragments using traceless cleavable linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Steiner, Martina; Hartmann, Isabelle; Neri, Dario; Casi, Giulio

    2013-11-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are promising agents for the selective delivery of cytotoxic drugs to specific cells (for example, tumors). In this protocol, we describe two strategies for the precise modification at engineered C- or N-terminal cysteines of antibodies in IgG, diabody and small immunoprotein (SIP) formats that yield homogenous ADCs. In this protocol, cemadotin derivatives are used as model drugs, as these agents have a potent cytotoxic activity and are easy to synthesize. However, other drugs with similar functional groups could be considered. In the first approach, a cemadotin derivative containing a sulfhydryl group results in a mixed disulfide linkage. In the second approach, a cemadotin derivative containing an aldehyde group is joined via a thiazolidine linkage. The procedures outlined are robust, enabling the preparation of ADCs with a defined number of drugs per antibody in a time frame between 7 and 24 h.

  15. Targeting the autolysis loop of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Fogh, Sarah; Bekes, Erin C

    2011-01-01

    Tight regulation of serine proteases is essential for their physiological function, and unbalanced states of protease activity have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. One key example is the presence of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) in different human cancer types......, demonstrating a direct link between conformational changes of the autolysis loop and the creation of a catalytically mature active site. All three antibodies are potent inhibitors of uPA activity, the two pro-uPA-specific ones by inhibiting conversion of pro-uPA to active uPA and the active u......PA-specific antibody by shielding the access of plasminogen to the active site. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence, the conformation-specific antibodies mAb-112 and mAb-12E6B10 enabled us to selectively stain pro-uPA or active uPA on the surface of cultured cells. Moreover, in various independent model systems...

  16. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3 of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2, the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection.

  17. Enhanced neutralization potency of botulinum neurotoxin antibodies using a red blood cell-targeting fusion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad P Adekar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT potently inhibits cholinergic signaling at the neuromuscular junction. The ideal countermeasures for BoNT exposure are monoclonal antibodies or BoNT antisera, which form BoNT-containing immune complexes that are rapidly cleared from the general circulation. Clearance of opsonized toxins may involve complement receptor-mediated immunoadherence to red blood cells (RBC in primates or to platelets in rodents. Methods of enhancing immunoadherence of BoNT-specific antibodies may increase their potency in vivo. We designed a novel fusion protein (FP to link biotinylated molecules to glycophorin A (GPA on the RBC surface. The FP consists of an scFv specific for murine GPA fused to streptavidin. FP:mAb:BoNT complexes bound specifically to the RBC surface in vitro. In a mouse model of BoNT neutralization, the FP increased the potency of single and double antibody combinations in BoNT neutralization. A combination of two antibodies with the FP gave complete neutralization of 5,000 LD50 BoNT in mice. Neutralization in vivo was dependent on biotinylation of both antibodies and correlated with a reduction of plasma BoNT levels. In a post-exposure model of intoxication, FP:mAb complexes gave complete protection from a lethal BoNT/A1 dose when administered within 2 hours of toxin exposure. In a pre-exposure prophylaxis model, mice were fully protected for 72 hours following administration of the FP:mAb complex. These results demonstrate that RBC-targeted immunoadherence through the FP is a potent enhancer of BoNT neutralization by antibodies in vivo.

  18. Discovery of tertiary sulfonamides as potent liver X receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, William J; Buckholz, Richard G; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L; Galardi, Cristin M; Gampe, Robert T; Hyatt, Stephen M; Merrihew, Susan L; Moore, John T; Oplinger, Jeffrey A; Reid, Paul R; Spearing, Paul K; Stanley, Thomas B; Stewart, Eugene L; Willson, Timothy M

    2010-04-22

    Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  19. Tea Contains Potent Inhibitors of Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Junfeng; Li, Zhe; Xing, Shu; Ho, Wanting Tina; Fu, Xueqi; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe

    2011-01-01

    Tea is widely consumed all over the world. Studies have demonstrated the role of tea in prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases including diabetes and obesity, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. PTP1B is a widely expressed tyrosine phosphatase which has been defined as a target for therapeutic drug development to treat diabetes and obesity. In screening for inhibitors of PTP1B, we found that aqueous extracts of teas exhibited potent PTP1B inhibitory effects with an IC50 val...

  20. Trigocherrierin A, a Potent Inhibitor of Chikungunya Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourjot

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trigocherrierin A (1 and trigocherriolide E (2, two new daphnane diterpenoid orthoesters (DDOs, and six chlorinated analogues, trigocherrins A, B, F and trigocherriolides A–C, were isolated from the leaves of Trigonostemon cherrieri. Their structures were identified by mass spectrometry, extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. These compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV replication. Among the DDOs isolated, compound 1 exhibited the strongest anti-CHIKV activity (EC50 = 0.6 ± 0.1 µM, SI = 71.7.

  1. Synthesis and SAR studies of very potent imidazopyridine antiprotozoal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biftu, Tesfaye; Feng, Dennis; Fisher, Michael; Liang, Gui-Bai; Qian, Xiaoxia; Scribner, Andrew; Dennis, Richard; Lee, Shuliang; Liberator, Paul A; Brown, Chris; Gurnett, Anne; Leavitt, Penny S; Thompson, Donald; Mathew, John; Misura, Andrew; Samaras, Samantha; Tamas, Tamas; Sina, Joseph F; McNulty, Kathleen A; McKnight, Crystal G; Schmatz, Dennis M; Wyvratt, Matthew

    2006-05-01

    Compounds 10a (IC50 110 pM) and 21 (IC50 40 pM) are the most potent inhibitors of Eimeria tenella cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity reported to date and are efficacious in the in vivo antiparasitic assay when administered to chickens at 12.5 and 6.25 ppm levels in the feed. However, both compounds are positive in the Ames microbial mutagenesis assay which precludes them from further development as antiprotozoal agents in the absence of negative lifetime rodent carcinogenicity studies.

  2. Discovery of a potent and selective GPR120 agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimpukade, Bharat; Hudson, Brian D; Hovgaard, Christine Kiel

    2012-01-01

    GPR120 is a receptor of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids reported to mediate GLP-1 secretion, insulin sensitization, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects and is therefore emerging as a new potential target for treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. Further investigation...... is however hindered by the lack of suitable receptor modulators. Screening of FFA1 ligands provided a lead with moderate activity on GPR120 and moderate selectivity over FFA1. Optimization led to the discovery of the first potent and selective GPR120 agonist....

  3. Propiedades fisicoquimicas de hot-dog de carne de llama con inclusión de albúmina, goma de tara y prote´ina de soya - ciia 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Apaza, C.; Universidad Peruana Unión, Puno Juliaca, Perú; Elias, C.; Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina, Lima, Perú; Salvá, B.; Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina, Lima, Perú

    2017-01-01

    Se evaluó el perfil de textura (TPA), Aw y pH de hot-dog elaborado a base a carne de llama; se trabajó con 16 formulaciones que incluyeron diferentes niveles de inclusión de albúmina de huevo (AH), goma de tara (GT) y concentrado funcional de soya (CFS). Mediante el TPA se evaluó la cohesividad, masticabilidad, dureza, gomosidad y elasticidad. Para evaluar el efecto individual y sinérgico de los componentes se utilizó el método de Diseño de mezclas. Se encontró que la adición de CFS influenci...

  4. Propiedades fisicoquimicas de hot-dog de carne de llama con inclusión de albúmina, goma de tara y proteína de soya - CIIA 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Apaza, C.; Elias, C.; Salvá, B.

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN Se evaluó el perfil de textura (TPA), Aw y pH de hot-dog elaborado a base a carne de llama; se trabajó con 16 formulaciones que incluyeron diferentes niveles de inclusión de albúmina de huevo (AH), goma de tara (GT) y concentrado funcional de soya (CFS). Mediante el TPA se evaluó la cohesividad, masticabilidad, dureza, gomosidad y elasticidad. Para evaluar el efecto individual y sinérgico de los componentes se utilizó el método de Diseño de mezclas. Se encontró que la adición de CFS i...

  5. A Rational Engineering Strategy for Designing Protein A-Binding Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin A.; Sulea, Traian; van Faassen, Henk; Hussack, Greg; Purisima, Enrico O.; MacKenzie, C. Roger; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and streptococcal protein G (SpG) affinity chromatography are the gold standards for purifying monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic applications. However, camelid VHH single-domain Abs (sdAbs or VHHs) are not bound by SpG and only sporadically bound by SpA. Currently, VHHs require affinity tag-based purification, which limits their therapeutic potential and adds considerable complexity and cost to their production. Here we describe a simple and rapid mutagenesis-based approach designed to confer SpA binding upon a priori non-SpA-binding VHHs. We show that SpA binding of VHHs is determined primarily by the same set of residues as in human mAbs, albeit with an unexpected degree of tolerance to substitutions at certain core and non-core positions and some limited dependence on at least one residue outside the SpA interface, and that SpA binding could be successfully introduced into five VHHs against three different targets with no adverse effects on expression yield or antigen binding. Next-generation sequencing of llama, alpaca and dromedary VHH repertoires suggested that species differences in SpA binding may result from frequency variation in specific deleterious polymorphisms, especially Ile57. Thus, the SpA binding phenotype of camelid VHHs can be easily modulated to take advantage of tag-less purification techniques, although the frequency with which this is required may depend on the source species. PMID:27631624

  6. Dissecting Immunogenicity of Monoclonal Antibodies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    The potential of monoclonal antibodies, (mAbs), for use in therapeutic and diagnostic applications has not been fully realized in part due to counter-immune responses that often arise in patient recipients of mAb...

  7. Antiviral Activity of HIV gp120 Targeting Bispecific T Cell Engager (BiTE®) Antibody Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozy, Johannes; Schlaepfer, Erika; Mueller, Christina K S; Rochat, Mary-Aude; Rampini, Silvana K; Myburgh, Renier; Raum, Tobias; Kufer, Peter; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Muenz, Markus; Speck, Roberto F

    2018-05-02

    Today's gold standard in HIV therapy is the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). It requires strict adherence by patients and life-long medication, which can lower the viral load below detection limits and prevent HIV-associated immunodeficiency, but cannot cure patients. The bispecific T cell engaging (BiTE®) antibody technology has demonstrated long-term relapse-free outcomes in patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphocytic leukemia. We here generated BiTE® antibody constructs that target the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 (HIV gp120) using either the scFv B12 or VRC01, the first two extracellular domains (1+2) of human CD4 alone or joined to the single chain variable fragment (scFv) of the antibody 17b fused to an anti-human CD3ϵ scFv. These engineered human BiTE® antibody constructs showed engagement of T cells for redirected lysis of HIV gp120-transfected CHO cells. Furthermore, they substantially inhibited HIV-1 replication in PBMCs as well as in macrophages co-cultured with autologous CD8+ T-cells, the most potent being the human CD4(1+2) BiTE® antibody construct and the CD4(1+2)L17b BiTE® antibody construct. The CD4(1+2) h BiTE® antibody construct promoted HIV infection of human CD4-/CD8+ T cells. In contrast, the neutralizing B12 and the VRC01 BiTE® antibody constructs as well as the CD4(1+2)L17b BiTE® antibody construct did not. Thus, BiTE® antibody constructs targeting HIV gp120 are very promising for constraining HIV and warrant further development as novel antiviral therapy with curative potential. Importance HIV is a chronic infection well controlled with the current cART. However, we lack cure of HIV, and the HIV pandemic goes on. Here we showed in vitro and ex vivo t hat a bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE®) antibody construct targeting HIV gp120 resulted in substantially reduced HIV replication. In addition, these BiTE® antibody constructs display efficient killing of gp120 expressing cells and inhibited replication in ex vivo

  8. Antibodies to watch in 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplon, Hélène; Reichert, Janice M.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pace of antibody therapeutics development accelerated in 2017, and this faster pace is projected to continue through 2018. Notably, the annual number of antibody therapeutics granted a first approval in either the European Union (EU) or United States (US) reached double-digits (total of 10) for the first time in 2017. The 10 antibodies granted approvals are: brodalumab, dupilumab, sarilumab, guselkumab, benralizumab, ocrelizumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, avelumab, duvalumab, and emicizumab. Brodalumab, however, had already been approved in Japan in 2016. As of December 1, 2017, nine antibody therapeutics (ibalizumab, burosumab, tildrakizumab, caplacizumab, erenumab, fremanezumab, galcanezumab, romosozumab, mogamulizumab) were in regulatory review in the EU or US, and regulatory actions on their marketing applications are expected by the end of 2018. Based on company announcements and estimated clinical study primary completion dates, and assuming the study results are positive, marketing applications for at least 12 antibody therapeutics that are now being evaluated in late-stage clinical studies may be submitted by the end of 2018. Of the 12 candidates, 8 are for non-cancer indications (lanadelumab, crizanlizumab, ravulizumab, eptinezumab, risankizumab, satralizumab, brolucizumab, PRO140) and 4 are for cancer (sacituzumab govitecan, moxetumomab pasudotox, cemiplimab, ublituximab). Additional antibody therapeutics to watch in 2018 include 19 mAbs undergoing evaluation in late-stage studies with primary completion dates in late 2017 or during 2018. Of these mAbs, 9 are for non-cancer indications (lampalizumab, roledumab, emapalumab, fasinumab, tanezumab, etrolizumab, NEOD001, gantenerumab, anifrolumab) and 10 are for cancer indications (tremelimumab, isatuximab, BCD-100, carotuximab, camrelizumab, IBI308, glembatumumab vedotin, mirvetuximab soravtansine, oportuzumab monatox, L19IL2/L19TNF). Positive clinical study results may enable marketing application

  9. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevado Castro, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x10 7 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x10 7 spleen cells to 1x10 6 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  10. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization.

    KAUST Repository

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo

    2014-10-09

    SUMMARY: Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity into a suitable human template. Unfortunately, this procedure may results in a partial or complete loss of affinity of the grafted molecule that can be restored by back-mutating some of the residues of human origin to the corresponding murine ones. This trial-and-error procedure is hard and involves expensive and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps of the humanization experiment protocol. AVAILABILITY: http://www.biocomputing.it/tabhu CONTACT: anna.tramontano@uniroma1.it, pierpaolo.olimpieri@uniroma1.it SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Antibodies to watch in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry's progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the "Antibodies to watch" series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration's Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed.

  12. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  13. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Okada, H.

    1990-05-01

    Since the description by Kohler and Milstein 1975 of their technique for producing monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity, it has become a mainstay in most laboratories that utilize immunochemical techniques to study problems in basic, applied or clinical research. Paradoxically, the very success of monoclonal antibodies has generated a literature which is now so vast and scattered that it has become difficult to obtain a perspective. This brief review represents the distillation of many publications relating to the production and use of monoclonaal antibodies as radiopharmaceuticals. Significant advances were made possible in the last few years by combined developments in the fields of tumor-associated antigens and of monoclonal antibodies. In fact monoclonal antibodies against some well defined tumor-associated antigens, has led to significantly greater practical possibilities for producing highly specific radiolabeled antibodies as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy of human tumors. One of the main requirements of this methodology is the availability of stable radiopharmaceutical reagents which after labeling in vivo injection retain the capacity of specific interaction with the defined antigen and their molecular integrity. Since injection into human is the objetive of this kind of study all the specifications of radiopharmaceutical have to be fulfilled e.g. sterility, apirogenicity and absence of toxicity. (author) [pt

  14. Human Galectin-9 Is a Potent Mediator of HIV Transcription and Reactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying host immune determinants governing HIV transcription, latency and infectivity in vivo is critical to developing an HIV cure. Based on our recent finding that the host factor p21 regulates HIV transcription during antiretroviral therapy (ART, and published data demonstrating that the human carbohydrate-binding immunomodulatory protein galectin-9 regulates p21, we hypothesized that galectin-9 modulates HIV transcription. We report that the administration of a recombinant, stable form of galectin-9 (rGal-9 potently reverses HIV latency in vitro in the J-Lat HIV latency model. Furthermore, rGal-9 reverses HIV latency ex vivo in primary CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected, ART-suppressed individuals (p = 0.002, more potently than vorinostat (p = 0.02. rGal-9 co-administration with the latency reversal agent "JQ1", a bromodomain inhibitor, exhibits synergistic activity (p<0.05. rGal-9 signals through N-linked oligosaccharides and O-linked hexasaccharides on the T cell surface, modulating the gene expression levels of key transcription initiation, promoter proximal-pausing, and chromatin remodeling factors that regulate HIV latency. Beyond latent viral reactivation, rGal-9 induces robust expression of the host antiviral deaminase APOBEC3G in vitro and ex vivo (FDR<0.006 and significantly reduces infectivity of progeny virus, decreasing the probability that the HIV reservoir will be replenished when latency is reversed therapeutically. Lastly, endogenous levels of soluble galectin-9 in the plasma of 72 HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals were associated with levels of HIV RNA in CD4+ T cells (p<0.02 and with the quantity and binding avidity of circulating anti-HIV antibodies (p<0.009, suggesting a role of galectin-9 in regulating HIV transcription and viral production in vivo during therapy. Our data suggest that galectin-9 and the host glycosylation machinery should be explored as foundations for novel HIV cure strategies.

  15. Method of stably radiolabeling antibodies with technetium and rhenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, C.H.; Reba, R.C.; Eckelman, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for labeling antibodies or antibody fragments with radionuclides of technetium or rhenium to obtain stable labeling, comprising: reacting a reduced radioisotope of technetium or rhenium with an antibody or antibody fragment, or a diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated antibody or antibody fragment, in the presence of free or carrier-bound diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The amount of DTPA is sufficient to substantially completely inhibit binding of the reduced technetium or rhenium to nonstable binding sites of the antibody or antibody fragment, or the DTPA-conjugated antibody or antibody fragment. The resultant stably labeled antibody or antibody fragment, or DTPA[conjugated antibody or antibody fragment is recovered

  16. Identification of a potent endothelium-derived angiogenic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Jankowski

    Full Text Available The secretion of angiogenic factors by vascular endothelial cells is one of the key mechanisms of angiogenesis. Here we report on the isolation of a new potent angiogenic factor, diuridine tetraphosphate (Up4U from the secretome of human endothelial cells. The angiogenic effect of the endothelial secretome was partially reduced after incubation with alkaline phosphatase and abolished in the presence of suramin. In one fraction, purified to homogeneity by reversed phase and affinity chromatography, Up4U was identified by MALDI-LIFT-fragment-mass-spectrometry, enzymatic cleavage analysis and retention-time comparison. Beside a strong angiogenic effect on the yolk sac membrane and the developing rat embryo itself, Up4U increased the proliferation rate of endothelial cells and, in the presence of PDGF, of vascular smooth muscle cells. Up4U stimulated the migration rate of endothelial cells via P2Y2-receptors, increased the ability of endothelial cells to form capillary-like tubes and acts as a potent inducer of sprouting angiogenesis originating from gel-embedded EC spheroids. Endothelial cells released Up4U after stimulation with shear stress. Mean total plasma Up4U concentrations of healthy subjects (N=6 were sufficient to induce angiogenic and proliferative effects (1.34 ± 0.26 nmol L(-1. In conclusion, Up4U is a novel strong human endothelium-derived angiogenic factor.

  17. Potent inhibition of tau fibrillization with a multivalent ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honson, Nicolette S.; Jensen, Jordan R.; Darby, Michael V.; Kuret, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of tau fibrillization are under investigation as tools for interrogating the tau aggregation pathway and as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease. Established inhibitors include thiacarbocyanine dyes, which can inhibit recombinant tau fibrillization in the presence of anionic surfactant aggregation inducers. In an effort to increase inhibitory potency, a cyclic bis-thiacarbocyanine molecule containing two thiacarbocyanine moieties was synthesized and characterized with respect to tau fibrillization inhibitory activity by electron microscopy and ligand aggregation state by absorbance spectroscopy. Results showed that the inhibitory activity of the bis-thiacarbocyanine was qualitatively similar to a monomeric cyanine dye, but was more potent with 50% inhibition achieved at ∼80 nM concentration. At all concentrations tested in aqueous solution, the bis-thiacarbocyanine collapsed to form a closed clamshell structure. However, the presence of tau protein selectively stabilized the open conformation. These results suggest that the inhibitory activity of bis-thiacarbocyanine results from multivalency, and reveal a route to more potent tau aggregation inhibitors

  18. Potent inhibition of HIV-1 replication by a Tat mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke W Meredith

    Full Text Available Herein we describe a mutant of the two-exon HIV-1 Tat protein, termed Nullbasic, that potently inhibits multiple steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle. Nullbasic was created by replacing the entire arginine-rich basic domain of wild type Tat with glycine/alanine residues. Like similarly mutated one-exon Tat mutants, Nullbasic exhibited transdominant negative effects on Tat-dependent transactivation. However, unlike previously reported mutants, we discovered that Nullbasic also strongly suppressed the expression of unspliced and singly-spliced viral mRNA, an activity likely caused by redistribution and thus functional inhibition of HIV-1 Rev. Furthermore, HIV-1 virion particles produced by cells expressing Nullbasic had severely reduced infectivity, a defect attributable to a reduced ability of the virions to undergo reverse transcription. Combination of these inhibitory effects on transactivation, Rev-dependent mRNA transport and reverse transcription meant that permissive cells constitutively expressing Nullbasic were highly resistant to a spreading infection by HIV-1. Nullbasic and its activities thus provide potential insights into the development of potent antiviral therapeutics that target multiple stages of HIV-1 infection.

  19. Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Buck

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV types are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. Our recent development of high-titer HPV pseudoviruses has made it possible to perform high-throughput in vitro screens to identify HPV infection inhibitors. Comparison of a variety of compounds revealed that carrageenan, a type of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from red algae, is an extremely potent infection inhibitor for a broad range of sexually transmitted HPVs. Although carrageenan can inhibit herpes simplex viruses and some strains of HIV in vitro, genital HPVs are about a thousand-fold more susceptible, with 50% inhibitory doses in the low ng/ml range. Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding of HPV virions to cells. This finding is consistent with the fact that carrageenan resembles heparan sulfate, an HPV cell-attachment factor. However, carrageenan is three orders of magnitude more potent than heparin, a form of cell-free heparan sulfate that has been regarded as a highly effective model HPV inhibitor. Carrageenan can also block HPV infection through a second, postattachment heparan sulfate-independent effect. Carrageenan is in widespread commercial use as a thickener in a variety of cosmetic and food products, ranging from sexual lubricants to infant feeding formulas. Some of these products block HPV infectivity in vitro, even when diluted a million-fold. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether carrageenan-based products are effective as topical microbicides against genital HPVs.

  20. Chloroatranol, an extremely potent allergen hidden in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Svedman, Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is a long-known, popular natural extract widely used in perfumes. It is reported as the cause of allergic reactions in a significant number of those with perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute has been the target of recent research to identify its allergenic components. Recently...... an open test simulating the use of perfumes on the volar aspect of the forearms in a randomized and double-blinded design. A solution with 5 p.p.m. chloroatranol was used for 14 days, and, in case of no reaction, the applications were continued for another 14 days with a solution containing 25 p.p.m. All....... The dose eliciting a reaction in 50% of the test subjects at patch testing was 0.2 p.p.m. In conclusion, the hidden exposure to a potent allergen widely used in perfumes has caused a highly sensitized cohort of individuals. Judged from the elicitation profile, chloroatranol is the most potent allergen...

  1. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and cytokine/chemokine secretion by KHYG-1 cells stably expressing FcγRIIIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Motoi, Sotaro; Sugiura, Masahito; Kajikawa, Masunori; Kojima, Shuji; Kohroki, Junya; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2014-09-01

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by natural killer (NK) cells is a major mechanism of tumor therapy with antibodies. NK cells not only manifest cytotoxicity but also secrete a variety of cytokines/chemokines that regulate immune responses. Using a retroviral vector, in this study we established a KHYG-1 cell line that stably expresses FcγRIIIA (CD16A). The KHYG-1/FcγRIIIA cells exerted potent antibody concentration-dependent ADCC, whereas parental KHYG-1 cells did not. In contrast, without antibody, the natural killer activity of KHYG-1/FcγRIIIA cells was less potent than that of parental KHYG-1 cells. During the course of ADCC, KHYG-1/FcγRIIIA cells secreted IFN-γ and MIP-1α dependent upon antibody concentration, but parental KHYG-1 cells did not. These results suggest that KHYG-1/FcγRIIIA cells would be useful in studies to elucidate the function of NK cells and the mechanism of ADCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of a CD4-Binding-Site Antibody to HIV that Evolved Near-Pan Neutralization Breadth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Ishida, Elise; Zhou, Tongqing; Griesman, Trevor; Sheng, Zizhang; Wu, Fan; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Zhang, Baoshan; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Schramm, Chaim A.; Zheng, Anqi; Joyce, M.  Gordon; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Ransier, Amy; Darko, Sam; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Louder, Mark K.; Alam, S.  Munir; Parks, Robert; Kelsoe, Garnett; Von Holle, Tarra; Haynes, Barton F.; Douek, Daniel C.; Hirsch, Vanessa; Seaman, Michael S.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Detailed studies of the broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that underlie the best available examples of the humoral immune response to HIV are providing important information for the development of therapies and prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection. Here, we report a CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibody, named N6, that potently neutralized 98% of HIV-1 isolates, including 16 of 20 that were resistant to other members of its class. N6 evolved a mode of recognition such that its binding was not impacted by the loss of individual contacts across the immunoglobulin heavy chain. In addition, structural analysis revealed that the orientation of N6 permitted it to avoid steric clashes with glycans, which is a common mechanism of resistance. Thus, an HIV-1-specific bNAb can achieve potent, near-pan neutralization of HIV-1, making it an attractive candidate for use in therapy and prophylaxis.

  3. Radioiodination of antibodies for tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    In view of the great potential of radioiodinated antibody for the detection and treatment of cancer, the present article deals with the various techniques of radioiodination of antibody and their uses. Topics include methods of iodination of antibody, advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and effects of radioiodination on the antibody molecules with respect to their physiochemical and immunologic reactivity. In addition, the clinical usefulness of radioiodinated antibodies is discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Antibodies from plants for bionanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgue, Gueven; Twyman, Richard M; Beiss, Veronique; Fischer, Rainer; Sack, Markus

    2017-11-01

    Antibodies are produced as part of the vertebrate adaptive immune response and are not naturally made by plants. However, antibody DNA sequences can be introduced into plants, and together with laboratory technologies that allow the design of antibodies recognizing any conceivable molecular structure, plants can be used as 'green factories' to produce any antibody at all. The advent of plant-based transient expression systems in particular allows the rapid, convenient, and safe production of antibodies, ranging from laboratory-scale expression to industrial-scale manufacturing. The key features of plant-based production include safety, speed, low cost, and convenience, allowing newcomers to rapidly master the technology and use it to its full advantage. Manufacturing in plants has recently achieved significant milestones and offers more than just an alternative to established microbial and mammalian cell platforms. The use of plants for product development in particular offers the power and flexibility to easily coexpress many different genes, allowing the plug-and-play construction of novel bionanomaterials, perfectly complementing existing approaches based on plant virus-like particles. As well as producing single antibodies for applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry, plants can be used to produce antibody-based supramolecular structures and scaffolds as a new generation of green bionanomaterials that promise a bright future based on clean and renewable nanotechnology applications. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1462. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1462 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 The Authors. WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Clickable prodrugs bearing potent and hydrolytically cleavable nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrerafi K

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Keivan Sadrerafi, Emilia O Mason, Mark W Lee Jr Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA Purpose: Our previous study indicated that carborane containing small-molecule 1-(hydroxymethyl-7-(4′-(trans-3″-(3‴-pyridylacrylamidobutyl-1,7-dicarbadodecaborane (hm-MC4-PPEA, was a potent inhibitor of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt. Nampt has been shown to be upregulated in most cancers and is a promising target for the treatment of many different types of cancers, including breast cancers. Patients and methods: To increase the selectivity of hm-MC4-PPEA toward cancer cells, three prodrugs were synthesized with different hydrolyzable linkers: ester, carbonate, and carbamate. Using click chemistry a fluorophore was attached to these prodrugs to act as a model for our conjugation strategy and to serve as an aid for prodrug stability studies. The stabilities of these drug conjugates were tested in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at normothermia (37°C using three different pH levels, 5.5, 7.5, and 9.5, as well as in horse serum at physiological pH. The stability of each was monitored using reversed-phase HPLC equipped with both diode array and fluorescence detection. The inhibitory activity of hm-MC4-PPEA was also measured using a commercially available colorimetric assay. The biological activities of the drug conjugates as well as those of the free drug (hm-MC4-PPEA, were evaluated using the MTT assay against the human breast cancer cell lines T47D and MCF7, as well as the noncancerous, transformed, Nampt-dependent human breast epithelium cell line 184A1.Results: hm-MC4-PPEA showed to be a potent inhibitor of recombinant Nampt activity, exhibiting an IC50 concentration of 6.8 nM. The prodrugs showed great stability towards hydrolytic degradation under neutral, mildly acidic and mildly basic conditions. The carbamate prodrug also showed to be stable in rat serum. However, the carbonate and the ester prodrug

  6. Monoclonal antibody hapten radiopharmaceutical delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, D.A.; McTigue, M.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred μg of monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CHA255 with a binding constant Kb of 4 x 10 9 was complexed with indium-111 labelled BLEDTA II, BLEDTA IV, benzyl EDTA, and an EDTA conjugate of Fab. The 24-h tumour and organ distribution of BALB/c mice bearing KHJJ tumours was studied for each compound alone, the antibody complex, and 3 h following a chelate chase of the antibody complex. Whole body biological half-life was measured for 7 days with and without a chelate chase for each antibody complex. The 24-h whole body counts dropped 20 to 60% and blood concentration fell over 89% within 3 h of administering the chelate chase. Theoretical equivalent human organ doses were calculated from the 24-h organ concentrations, effective half-life, and MIRD 11 S values (absorbed dose per cumulated activity). Liver and spleen were the target organs, with the dose ranging from 0.50 to 3.91 rads mCi -1 . The reduction in organ radiation dose varied up to 95% following the chelate chase. Rapid selective renal clearance of chelate labelled radiopharmaceuticals by competitive inhibition (chelate chase) of their reversible binding to monoclonal antibodies enhances tumour imaging and improves the radiation dosimetry. (author)

  7. HIV-1 specific antibody titers and neutralization among chronically infected patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes S Gach

    Full Text Available The majority of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 have been isolated from untreated patients with acute or chronic infection. To assess the extent of HIV-1 specific antibody response and neutralization after many years of virologic suppression from potent combination ART, we examined antibody binding titers and neutralization of 51 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection on suppressive ART for at least three years. In this cross-sectional analysis, we found high antibody titers against gp120, gp41, and the membrane proximal external region (MPER in 59%, 43%, and 27% of patients, respectively. We observed significantly higher endpoint binding titers for gp120 and gp41 for patients with >10 compared to ≤ 10 years of detectable HIV RNA. Additionally, we observed higher median gp120 and gp41 antibody titers in patients with HIV RNA 10 years of detectable HIV RNA (8/20 [40.0%] versus 3/31 [9.7%] for ≤ 10 years, p = 0.02 and a trend toward greater neutralization in patients with ≤ 5 years of HIV RNA 5 years, p = 0.08. All patients with neutralizing activity mediated successful phagocytosis of VLPs by THP-1 cells after antibody opsonization. Our findings of highly specific antibodies to several structural epitopes of HIV-1 with antibody effector functions and neutralizing activity after long-term suppressive ART, suggest continuous antigenic stimulation and evolution of HIV-specific antibody response occurs before and after suppression with ART. These patients, particularly those with slower HIV progression and more time with detectable viremia prior to initiation of suppressive ART, are a promising population to identify and further study functional antibodies against HIV-1.

  8. Circulating levels of human salusin-β, a potent hemodynamic and atherogenesis regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Fujimoto

    Full Text Available Using bioinformatics analysis, we previously identified salusin-β, an endogenous bioactive peptide with diverse physiological activities. Salusin-β is abundantly expressed in the neuroendocrine system and in systemic endocrine cells/macrophages. Salusin-β acutely regulates hemodynamics and chronically induces atherosclerosis, but its unique physicochemical characteristics to tightly adhere to all types of plastic and glassware have prevented elucidation of its precise pathophysiological role. To quantitate plasma total salusin-β concentrations, we produced rabbit and chicken polyclonal antibodies against the C- and N-terminal end sequences, circumvented its sticky nature, and successfully established a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Salusin-β was abundantly present in the plasma of healthy volunteers, ranging from 1.9 to 6.6 nmol/L. Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that a single immunoreactive salusin-β peak coincided with synthetic authentic salusin-β. Plasma salusin-β concentrations were unaffected by postural changes and by potent vasopressin release stimuli, such as hypertonic saline infusion or smoking. However, salusin-β concentrations showed significant circadian variation; concentrations were high during the daytime and reached the lowest concentrations in the early morning. Plasma salusin-β levels in subjects with diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease showed distinctly higher levels than healthy controls. Patients with panhypopituitarism combined with complete central diabetes insipidus also showed significantly higher plasma salusin-β levels. Therefore, the ELISA system developed in this study will be useful for evaluating circulating total salusin-β levels and for confirming the presence of authentic salusin-β in human plasma. The obtained results suggest a limited contribution of the neuroendocrine system to peripheral total salusin

  9. Development of a potent invigorator of immune responses endowed with both preventive and therapeutic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwar GP

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gursaran P Talwar,1 Jagdish C Gupta,1 Abu S Mustafa,2 Hemanta K Kar,3 Kiran Katoch,4 Shreemanta K Parida,5 Prabhakara P Reddi,6 Niyaz Ahmed,7 Vikram Saini,8 Somesh Gupta9 1Talwar Research Foundation, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Microbiology, Kuwait University, Kuwait; 3Department of Dermatology, Paras Hospital, Gurgaon, 4National JALMA Institute of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Agra, India; 5German Centre of Infection, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany; 6Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, IL, USA; 7Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India; 8Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA; 9Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Abstract: This article reviews briefly the making of an immunoprophylactic-cum-immunotherapeutic vaccine against leprosy. The vaccine is based on cultivable, heat-killed atypical mycobacteria, whose gene sequence is now known. It has been named Mycobacterium indicus pranii. It has received the approval of the Drug Controller General of India and the US Food and Drug Administration. Besides leprosy, M. indicus pranii has found utility in the treatment of category II (“difficult to treat” tuberculosis. It also heals ugly anogenital warts. It has preventive and therapeutic action against SP2/O myelomas. It is proving to be a potent adjuvant for enhancing antibody titers of a recombinant vaccine against human chorionic gonadotropin, with the potential of preventing pregnancy without derangement of ovulation and menstrual regularity in sexually active women. Keywords: leprosy, tuberculosis, anogenital warts, myeloma, adjuvant

  10. Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutmann, J.; Koeck, A.S.; Schauer, E.; Parlow, F.; Moeller, A.K.; Kapp, A.; Foerster, E.S.; Schoepf, E.L.; Luger, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as well as a receptor for human picorna virus, and its regulation thus affects various immunologic and inflammatory reactions. The weak, constitutive ICAM-1 expression on human keratinocytes (KC) can be up-regulated by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In order to further examine the regulation of KC ICAM-1 expression, normal human KC or epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB) were incubated with different cytokines and/or exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Subsequently, ICAM-1 expression was monitored cytofluorometrically using a monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Stimulation of cells with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, rhIL-4, rhIL-5, rhIL-6, rh granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rh interferon alpha (rhIFN alpha), and rh transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) did not increase ICAM-1 surface expression. In contrast, rhTNF beta significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of rhTNF beta with rhIFN gamma increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive KC synergistically. This stimulatory effect of rhTNF beta was further confirmed by the demonstration that rhTNF beta was capable of markedly enhancing ICAM-1 mRNA expression in KC. Finally, exposure of KC in vitro to sublethal doses of UV radiation (0-100 J/m2) prior to cytokine (rhIFN tau, rhTNF alpha, rhTNF beta) stimulation inhibited ICAM-1 up-regulation in a dose-dependent fashion. These studies identify TNF beta and UV light as potent regulators of KC ICAM-1 expression, which may influence both attachment and detachment of leukocytes and possibly viruses to KC

  11. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Goswami, Arunava; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Devakumar, C.; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Subhramanyam, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Elemental sulfur (S 0 ), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  12. Aurintricarboxylic acid is a potent inhibitor of phosphofructokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, S A; Foe, L G; Kemp, R G; Jurin, R R

    1989-01-01

    Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) was found to be a very potent inhibitor of purified rabbit liver phosphofructokinase (PFK), giving 50% inhibition at 0.2 microM. The inhibition was in a manner consistent with interaction at the citrate-inhibitory site of the enzyme. The data suggest that inhibition of PFK by ATA was not due to denaturation of the enzyme or the irreversible binding of inhibitor, since the inhibition could be reversed by addition of allosteric activators of PFK, i.e. fructose 2,6-bisphosphate or AMP. Two other tricarboxylic acids, agaric acid and (-)-hydroxycitrate, were found to inhibit PFK. ATA at much higher concentrations (500 microM) was shown to inhibit fatty acid synthesis from endogenous glycogen in rat hepatocytes; however, protein synthesis was not altered. PMID:2525029

  13. Red wine contains a potent inhibitor of phenolsulphotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, J T; Glover, V; Sandler, M

    1985-01-01

    Many ethanolic drinks, especially red wine, contain potent inhibitors of phenolsulphotransferase. At a dilution of 1/75 from the original beverage, extracts from six types of red wine inhibited human platelet phenolsulphotransferase P by a mean of 99% and human platelet phenolsulphotransferase M by 12%. Such extracts had no significant effect on rat liver monoamine oxidase A or human platelet monoamine oxidase B. The inhibitors, which have not yet been identified, can be extracted into ethyl acetate at acid or neutral pH. Thus, they are not monoamines. Flavonoid phenols are plausible candidates. As phenolsulphotransferase M and P are involved in the metabolism of many phenols, including drugs, the inhibition of these enzymes could result in the enhancement of pharmacological potency and have important clinical consequences. PMID:3857069

  14. Epidemiological Studies of Potent Environmental Pathogen: Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir A. Brohi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A general survey for six months was undertaken for the prevalence of environmental bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae among the different age groups (3-65 years including both sexes from various hospitals of Hyderabad city. Laboratory examinations revealed S. pneumoniae as most potent environmental pathogen from the sputum and throat swabs of old aged patients and children respectively. During observations, 39 specimens were growth positive; the biochemistry of isolates revealed that they were coagulase, catalase and oxidase negative, TSI, gel hydrolysis positive and were able to ferment glucose, lactose, maltose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, starch and raffinose. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that pneumococci were resistant to the cefspan, septran, cravit, pipemetic acid, azomax, bacitracin, and penicillin and a clear zone of inhibition was observed on clithromycin, optochin, cefizox, genatamycin, minocyclin, levoflaxacin, and vancomycin. There were intermediate zone of inhibition found on claforan, nalidixic acid, amoxycillin, fosfomycin, fortum, and erythromycin on Mueller Hinton’s agar after 24 hours incubation

  15. Development of potent inhibitors of the coxsackievirus 3C protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eui Seung; Lee, Won Gil; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Rho, Seong Hwan; Im, Isak; Yang, Sung Tae; Sellamuthu, Saravanan; Lee, Yong Jae; Kwon, Sun Jae; Park, Ohkmae K.; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Park, Woo Jin; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2007-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C protease (3CP) plays essential roles in the viral replication cycle, and therefore, provides an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of human diseases caused by CVB3 infection. CVB3 3CP and human rhinovirus (HRV) 3CP have a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity. Comparative modeling of these two 3CPs revealed one prominent distinction; an Asn residue delineating the S2' pocket in HRV 3CP is replaced by a Tyr residue in CVB3 3CP. AG7088, a potent inhibitor of HRV 3CP, was modified by substitution of the ethyl group at the P2' position with various hydrophobic aromatic rings that are predicted to interact preferentially with the Tyr residue in the S2' pocket of CVB3 3CP. The resulting derivatives showed dramatically increased inhibitory activities against CVB3 3CP. In addition, one of the derivatives effectively inhibited the CVB3 proliferation in vitro

  16. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

    2010-10-01

    Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  17. Amnion: a potent graft source for cell therapy in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong Jin; Soncini, Maddalena; Kaneko, Yuji; Hess, David C; Parolini, Ornella; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2009-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a new field primarily based on the concept of transplanting exogenous or stimulating endogenous stem cells to generate biological substitutes and improve tissue functions. Recently, amnion-derived cells have been reported to have multipotent differentiation ability, and these cells have attracted attention as a novel cell source for cell transplantation therapy. Cells isolated from amniotic membrane can differentiate into all three germ layers, have low immunogenicity and anti-inflammatory function, and do not require the destruction of human embryos for their isolation, thus circumventing the ethical debate commonly associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells. Accumulating evidence now suggests that the amnion, which had been discarded after parturition, is a highly potent transplant material in the field of regenerative medicine. In this report, we review the current progress on the characterization of MSCs derived from the amnion as a remarkable transplantable cell population with therapeutic potential for multiple CNS disorders, especially stroke.

  18. Fragment-based discovery of a potent NAMPT inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanova, Alla; Longenecker, Kenton L; Pratt, Steve D; Panchal, Sanjay C; Clark, Richard F; Lake, Marc; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha M; Raich, Diana; Sun, Chaohong; Petros, Andrew M

    2017-12-12

    NAMPT expression is elevated in many cancers, making this protein a potential target for anticancer therapy. We have carried out both NMR based and TR-FRET based fragment screens against human NAMPT and identified six novel binders with a range of potencies. Co-crystal structures were obtained for two of the fragments bound to NAMPT while for the other four fragments force-field driven docking was employed to generate a bound pose. Based on structural insights arising from comparison of the bound fragment poses to that of bound FK866 we were able to synthetically elaborate one of the fragments into a potent NAMPT inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiological studies of potent environment pathogen streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohi, N.A.; Tunio, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    A general survey for six months was undertaken for the prevalence of environmental bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae among the different age groups (3-65 years) including both sexes from various hospitals of Hyderabad city. Laboratory examinations revealed S. pneumoniae as most potent environmental pathogen from the sputum and throat swabs of old aged patients and children respectively. During observations, 39 specimens were growth positive; the biochemistry of isolates revealed that they were coagulase, catalase and oxidase negative, TSI, gel hydrolysis positive and were able to ferment glucose, lactose, maltose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, starch and raffinose. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that pneumococci were resistant to the cefspan, septran, cravit, pipemetic acid, azomax, bacitracin, and penicillin and a clear zone of inhibition was observed on clithromycin, optochin, cefizox, genatamycin, minocyclin, levoflaxacin, and vancomycin. There were intermediate zone of inhibition found on claforan, nalidixic acid, amoxycillin, fosfomycin, fortum, and erythromycin on Mueller Hinton's agar after 24 hours incubation. (author)

  20. Interferon-Lambda: A Potent Regulator of Intestinal Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Baldridge, Megan T

    2017-01-01

    Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus. We also briefly discuss IFN-λ interactions with other cytokines important in the intestine, and how IFN-λ may play a role in regulation of intestinal viruses by the commensal microbiome. Finally, we indicate currently outstanding questions regarding IFN-λ control of enteric infections that remain to be explored to enhance our understanding of this important immune molecule.

  1. Validación de la metodología de cuantificación del magnesio por espectroscopia de absorción atómica de llama en la canasta básica de Costa Rica Validation methodology of quantification of magnesium by atomic flame spectroscopy in the basic food basket of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Silva Trejos; Ericka Valverde Montero

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Validar la metodología analítica para la determinación de magnesio en alimentos por espectroscopia de absorción atómica de llama. Materiales y Métodos: Los alimentos que se consumen cocidos, se cocieron a la manera usual de consumo del costarricense y se les determinó la humedad. La digestión de las muestras se realizó en horno de microondas y se cuantificó el contenido de magnesio por espectroscopía de absorción atómica de llama. La validación de la metodología se realizó con disol...

  2. Anti-topoisomerase drugs as potent inducers of chromosomal aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Bassi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA topoisomerases catalyze topological changes in DNA that are essential for normal cell cycle progression and therefore they are a preferential target for the development of anticancer drugs. Anti-topoisomerase drugs can be divided into two main classes: "cleavable complex" poisons and catalytic inhibitors. The "cleavable complex" poisons are very effective as anticancer drugs but are also potent inducers of chromosome aberrations so they can cause secondary malignancies. Catalytic inhibitors are cytotoxic but they do not induce chromosome aberrations. Knowledge about the mechanism of action of topoisomerase inhibitors is important to determine the best anti-topoisomerase combinations, with a reduced risk of induction of secondary malignancies.As topoisomerases de DNA catalisam alterações topológicas no DNA que são essenciais para a progressão do ciclo celular normal e, portanto, são um alvo preferencial para o desenvolvimento de drogas anticâncer. Drogas anti-topoisomerases podem ser divididas em duas classes principais: drogas anti-"complexos cliváveis" e inibidores catalíticos. As drogas anti-"complexos cliváveis" são muito eficazes como drogas anticancerígenas, mas são também potentes indutores de aberrações cromossômicas, podendo causar neoplasias malignas secundárias. Inibidores catalíticos são citotóxicos mas não induzem aberrações cromossômicas. Conhecimento a respeito do mecanismo de ação de inibidores de topoisomerases é importante para determinar as melhores combinações anti-topoisomerases, com um reduzido risco de indução de neoplasias malignas secundárias.

  3. Human antibodies fix complement to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes and are associated with protection against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michelle J; Reiling, Linda; Feng, Gaoqian; Langer, Christine; Osier, Faith H; Aspeling-Jones, Harvey; Cheng, Yik Sheng; Stubbs, Janine; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Conway, David J; McCarthy, James S; Muller, Ivo; Marsh, Kevin; Anders, Robin F; Beeson, James G

    2015-03-17

    Antibodies play major roles in immunity to malaria; however, a limited understanding of mechanisms mediating protection is a major barrier to vaccine development. We have demonstrated that acquired human anti-malarial antibodies promote complement deposition on the merozoite to mediate inhibition of erythrocyte invasion through C1q fixation and activation of the classical complement pathway. Antibody-mediated complement-dependent (Ab-C') inhibition was the predominant invasion-inhibitory activity of human antibodies; most antibodies were non-inhibitory without complement. Inhibitory activity was mediated predominately via C1q fixation, and merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 were identified as major targets. Complement fixation by antibodies was very strongly associated with protection from both clinical malaria and high-density parasitemia in a prospective longitudinal study of children. Ab-C' inhibitory activity could be induced by human immunization with a candidate merozoite surface-protein vaccine. Our findings demonstrate that human anti-malarial antibodies have evolved to function by fixing complement for potent invasion-inhibitory activity and protective immunity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mathematical modeling of antibody drug conjugates with the target and tubulin dynamics to predict AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Il Hyo

    2018-04-14

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs)are one of the most recently developed chemotherapeutics to treat some types of tumor cells. They consist of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), linkers, and potent cytotoxic drugs. Unlike common chemotherapies, ADCs combine selectively with a target at the surface of the tumor cell, and a potent cytotoxic drug (payload) effectively prevents microtubule polymerization. In this work, we construct an ADC model that considers both the target of antibodies and the receptor (tubulin) of the cytotoxic payloads. The model is simulated with brentuximab vedotin, one of ADCs, and used to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of ADCs in vivo. It also predicts area under the curve (AUC) of ADCs and the payloads by identifying the half-life. The results show that dynamical behaviors fairly coincide with the observed data and half-life and capture AUC. Thus, the model can be used for estimating some parameters, fitting experimental observations, predicting AUC, and exploring various dynamical behaviors of the target and the receptor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunization With Fc-Based Recombinant Epstein–Barr Virus gp350 Elicits Potent Neutralizing Humoral Immune Response in a BALB/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingchun Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was the first human virus proved to be closely associated with tumor development, such as lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. Despite many efforts to develop prophylactic vaccines against EBV infection and diseases, no candidates have succeeded in effectively blocking EBV infection in clinical trials. Previous investigations showed that EBV gp350 plays a pivotal role in the infection of B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, using monomeric gp350 proteins as antigens has not been effective in preventing infection. Multimeric forms of the antigen are more potently immunogenic than monomers; however, the multimerization elements used in previous constructs are not approved for human clinical trials. To prepare a much-needed EBV prophylactic vaccine that is potent, safe, and applicable, we constructed an Fc-based form of gp350 to serve as a dimeric antigen. Here, we show that the Fc-based gp350 antigen exhibits dramatically enhanced immunogenicity compared with wild-type gp350 protein. The complete or partial gp350 ectodomain was fused with the mouse IgG2a Fc domain. Fusion with the Fc domain did not impair gp350 folding, binding to a conformation-dependent neutralizing antibody (nAb and binding to its receptor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance. Specific antibody titers against gp350 were notably enhanced by immunization with gp350-Fc dimers compared with gp350 monomers. Furthermore, immunization with gp350-Fc fusion proteins elicited potent nAbs against EBV. Our data strongly suggest that an EBV gp350 vaccine based on Fc fusion proteins may be an efficient candidate to prevent EBV infection in clinical applications.

  6. Development of broad-spectrum human monoclonal antibodies for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedictis, P. de; Minola, A.; Rota, E.; Aiello, R.; Zecchin, B.; Salomoni, A.; Foglierini, M.; Agatic, G.; Vanzetta, F.; Lavenir, R.; Lepelletier, A.; Bentley, E.; Weiss, R.; Cattoli, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Currently available rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for use in humans includes equine or human rabies immunoglobulins (RIG). The replacement of RIG with an equally or more potent and safer product is strongly encouraged due to the high costs and limited availability of existing RIG. In this study, we identified two broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies that represent a valid and affordable alternative to RIG in rabies PEP. Memory B cells from four selected vaccinated donors were immortalized and monoclonal antibodies were tested for neutralizing activity and epitope specificity. Two antibodies, identified as RVC20 and RVC58 (binding to antigenic site I and III, respectively), were selected for their potency and broad-spectrum reactivity. In vitro, RVC20 and RVC58 were able to neutralize all 35 rabies virus (RABV) and 25 non-RABV lyssaviruses. They showed higher potency and breath compared to antibodies under clinical development (namely CR57, CR4098, and RAB1) and commercially available human RIG. In vivo, the RVC20–RVC58 cocktail protected Syrian hamsters from a lethal RABV challenge and did not affect the endogenous hamster post-vaccination antibody response. (author)

  7. Growth promotion of genetically modified hematopoietic progenitors using an antibody/c-Mpl chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Masahiro; Chen, Jianhong; Sogo, Takahiro; Teng, Jinying; Otsu, Makoto; Onodera, Masafumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Ueda, Hiroshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2011-09-01

    Thrombopoietin is a potent cytokine that exerts proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through its cognate receptor, c-Mpl. Therefore, mimicry of c-Mpl signaling by a receptor recognizing an artificial ligand would be attractive to attain specific expansion of genetically modified HSCs. Here we propose a system enabling selective expansion of genetically modified cells using an antibody/receptor chimera that can be activated by a specific antigen. We constructed an antibody/c-Mpl chimera, in which single-chain Fv (ScFv) of an anti-fluorescein antibody was tethered to the extracellular D2 domain of the erythropoietin receptor and transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains of c-Mpl. When the chimera was expressed in interleukin (IL)-3-dependent pro-B cell line Ba/F3, genetically modified cells were selectively expanded in the presence of fluorescein-conjugated BSA (BSA-FL) as a specific antigen. Furthermore, highly purified mouse HSCs transduced with the retrovirus carrying antibody/c-Mpl chimera gene proliferated in vitro in response to BSA-FL, and the cells retained in vivo long-term repopulating abilities. These results demonstrate that the antibody/c-Mpl chimera is capable of signal transduction that mimics wild-type c-Mpl signaling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and characterization of novel chimeric monoclonal antibodies for broad spectrum neutralization of rabies virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Kyeom Kim

    Full Text Available Current post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus infection has several limitations in terms of supply, cost, safety, and efficacy. Attempts to replace human or equine rabies immune globulins (HRIG or ERIG have been made by several companies and institutes. We developed potent monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a broad spectrum of rabies viruses by screening hybridomas received from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Two kinds of chimeric human antibodies (chimeric #7 and #17 were constructed by cloning the variable regions from selected hybridomas and the constant region of a human antibody. Two antibodies were bound to antigenic site III and I/IV, respectively, and were able to neutralize 51 field isolates of rabies virus that were isolated at different times and places such as Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Australia. These two antibodies neutralize rabies viruses with high efficacy in an in vivo test using Syrian hamster and mouse models and show low risk for adverse immunogenicity.

  9. Development and characterization of novel chimeric monoclonal antibodies for broad spectrum neutralization of rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pan Kyeom; Keum, Sun Ju; Osinubi, Modupe O V; Franka, Richard; Shin, Ji Young; Park, Sang Tae; Kim, Man Su; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Soo Young; Carson, William; Greenberg, Lauren; Yu, Pengcheng; Tao, Xiaoyan; Lihua, Wang; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong; Shampur, Madhusdana; Rupprecht, Charles E; Chang, Shin Jae

    2017-01-01

    Current post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus infection has several limitations in terms of supply, cost, safety, and efficacy. Attempts to replace human or equine rabies immune globulins (HRIG or ERIG) have been made by several companies and institutes. We developed potent monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a broad spectrum of rabies viruses by screening hybridomas received from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Two kinds of chimeric human antibodies (chimeric #7 and #17) were constructed by cloning the variable regions from selected hybridomas and the constant region of a human antibody. Two antibodies were bound to antigenic site III and I/IV, respectively, and were able to neutralize 51 field isolates of rabies virus that were isolated at different times and places such as Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Australia. These two antibodies neutralize rabies viruses with high efficacy in an in vivo test using Syrian hamster and mouse models and show low risk for adverse immunogenicity.

  10. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2013-04-09

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  11. Refolding Technologies for Antibody Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Arakawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Refolding is one of the production technologies for pharmaceutical grade antibody fragments. Detergents and denaturants are primarily used to solubilize the insoluble proteins. The solubilized and denatured proteins are refolded by reducing the concentration of the denaturants or detergents. Several refolding technologies have been used for antibody fragments, comprising dilution, dialysis, solid phase solvent exchange and size exclusion chromatography, as reviewed here. Aggregation suppressor or folding-assisting agents, including arginine hydrochloride, ionic liquids and detergents or denaturants at low concentrations, are included in the refolding solvent to enhance refolding yield.

  12. Serum Antibody Biomarkers for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    typically developing control. US, unaffected sibling control. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...typically developing (TD) children (e.g., Warren et al., 1990; Singh, 2009). The goal of this study is to identify a serum antibody biomarker for ASD using...50% less IgG1 antibody in ASD boys vs . TD boys (p=0.0096). The level of ASD1 binding to the AM group was the same as to the ASD boys. These data

  13. Monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, P; Reischl, U

    1998-01-01

    An immunoassay may be defined as an assay that employs an immunological reagent, usually an antibody, to confer specificity for the ligand being measured. As a corollary to this, the discovery, and subsequent development, of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has greatly expanded the application and use of immunoassays. Polyclonal reagents, with their associated problems of specificity and quality control, have now been largely replaced by readily available MAbs of potential immortality and well-defined specificity and affinity. This has resulted, in the last two decades, in a great expansion in the range of immunoassays available and also a significant improvement in their reproducibility and reliability.

  14. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  15. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2017-03-28

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  16. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  17. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S

    2010-04-13

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  18. Tumor detection using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldofsky, P.J.; Powe, J.; Hammond, N.D.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope conjugated to monoclonal antibody products has been used for imaging tumors targeted by the antibody. As imaging progresses, new sets of procedural and technical questions arise. In this chapter, we discuss several current problems in imaging tumor with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody. These include (1) methods for selection of specific antibody and, once the particular antibody is selected, which fragment form is to be used; (2) imaging procedures: what are the optimum imaging parameters, such as optimum time for imaging after administration of tracer and considerations regarding background subtraction; and (3) noninvasive quantitative techniques: quantitation of localization of antibody indirectly from quantitative information in the images.100 references

  19. Bispecific antibodies targeting human CD73

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting CD73. In particular, the present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting different epitopes on CD73 or a bispecific antibody targeting an epitope on CD73 and an epitope on a different antigen.......The present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting CD73. In particular, the present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting different epitopes on CD73 or a bispecific antibody targeting an epitope on CD73 and an epitope on a different antigen....

  20. Targeting the autolysis loop of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkjaer, Kenneth A; Fogh, Sarah; Bekes, Erin C; Chen, Zhuo; Blouse, Grant E; Jensen, Janni M; Mortensen, Kim K; Huang, Mingdong; Deryugina, Elena; Quigley, James P; Declerck, Paul J; Andreasen, Peter A

    2011-08-15

    Tight regulation of serine proteases is essential for their physiological function, and unbalanced states of protease activity have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. One key example is the presence of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) in different human cancer types, with high levels correlating with a poor prognosis. This observation has stimulated efforts into finding new principles for intervening with uPA's activity. In the present study we characterize the so-called autolysis loop in the catalytic domain of uPA as a potential inhibitory target. This loop was found to harbour the epitopes for three conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies, two with a preference for the zymogen form pro-uPA, and one with a preference for active uPA. All three antibodies were shown to have overlapping epitopes, with three common residues being crucial for all three antibodies, demonstrating a direct link between conformational changes of the autolysis loop and the creation of a catalytically mature active site. All three antibodies are potent inhibitors of uPA activity, the two pro-uPA-specific ones by inhibiting conversion of pro-uPA to active uPA and the active uPA-specific antibody by shielding the access of plasminogen to the active site. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence, the conformation-specific antibodies mAb-112 and mAb-12E6B10 enabled us to selectively stain pro-uPA or active uPA on the surface of cultured cells. Moreover, in various independent model systems, the antibodies inhibited tumour cell invasion and dissemination, providing evidence for the feasibility of pharmaceutical intervention with serine protease activity by targeting surface loops that undergo conformational changes during zymogen activation. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  1. Production and characterisation of a neutralising chimeric antibody against botulinum neurotoxin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Prigent

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins, produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, are the causative agent of botulism. This disease only affects a few hundred people each year, thus ranking it among the orphan diseases. However, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A is the most potent toxin known to man. Due to their potency and ease of production, these toxins were classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as Category A biothreat agents. For several biothreat agents, like BoNT/A, passive immunotherapy remains the only possible effective treatment allowing in vivo neutralization, despite possible major side effects. Recently, several mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against a recombinant fragment of BoNT/A were produced in our laboratory and most efficiently neutralised the neurotoxin. In the present work, the most powerful one, TA12, was selected for chimerisation. The variable regions of this antibody were thus cloned and fused with the constant counterparts of human IgG1 (kappa light and gamma 1 heavy chains. Chimeric antibody production was evaluated in mammalian myeloma cells (SP2/0-Ag14 and insect cells (Sf9. After purifying the recombinant antibody by affinity chromatography, the biochemical properties of chimeric and mouse antibody were compared. Both have the same very low affinity constant (close to 10 pM and the chimeric antibody exhibited a similar capacity to its parent counterpart in neutralising the toxin in vivo. Its strong affinity and high neutralising potency make this chimeric antibody interesting for immunotherapy treatment in humans in cases of poisoning, particularly as there is a probable limitation of the immunological side effects observed with classical polyclonal antisera from heterologous species.

  2. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are heavy plasma proteins, with sugar chains added to amino-acid residues by N-linked glycosylation and occasionally by O-linked glycosylation. The versatility of antibodies is demonstrated by the various functions that they mediate such as neutralization, agglutination, fixation with activation of complement and activation of effector cells. Naturally occurring antibodies protect the organism against harmful pathogens, viruses and infections. In addition, almost any organic chemical induces antibody production of antibodies that would bind specifically to the chemical. These antibodies are often produced from multiple B cell clones and referred to as polyclonal antibodies. In recent years, scientists have exploited the highly evolved machinery of the immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex molecules such as antibodies from a single B clone, heralding the era of monoclonal antibodies. Most of the antibodies currently in the clinic, target components of the immune system, are not curative and seek to alleviate symptoms rather than cure disease. Our group used a novel strategy to identify reparative human monoclonal antibodies distinct from conventional antibodies. In this chapter, we discuss the therapeutic relevance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

  3. Purification of immunoreactive radiolabeled moniclonal antibodies with anti-iodiotypic moniclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temponi, M.; Pupa, S.; Ferrone, S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described to purify immunoreactive moniclonal antibodies from radiolabeled monoclonal antibody preparations. The method is based on incubation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies with insolubilized anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to idiotopes within the antigen-combining site of monoclonal antibodies to be purified an elution of bound monoclonal antibodies with a low pH buffer. The immunoreactive fraction of the purified monoclonal antibodies was at least 82%; the yeald was at least 73%. The purification procedure did not cause any detectable change in the affinity constant of the eluted monoclonal antibodies. The method is simple and rapid; the requirement for anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to idiotopes within the antigen-combining site of the antibodies to be purified is not likely to represent a major limitation in the broad application of the present method, since the hybridoma technology has greatly facilitated the development of anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies. (author). 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Dengue antibodies in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Silva, Rejane Cristina; Eid, Andressa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is an urban arbovirus whose etiologic agent is a virus of the genus Flavorius with four distinct antigen serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The Campo Mourão region in Brazil is endemic for dengue fever. OBTECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific to the four serotypes of dengue in donors of the blood donor service in the city of Campo Mourão. Epidemiological records were evaluated and 4 mL of peripheral blood from 213 blood donors were collected in tubes without anticoagulant. Serum was then obtained and immunochromatographic tests were undertaken (Imuno-Rápido Dengue IgM/IgG(TM)). Individuals involved in the study answered a social and epidemiological questionnaire on data which included age, gender and diagnosis of dengue. Only three (1.4%) of the 213 blood tests were positive for IgG anti-dengue antibodies. No donors with IgM antibody, which identifies acute infection, were identified. The results of the current analysis show that the introduction of quantitative or molecular serological methods to determine the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or the detection of the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic regions should be established so that the quality of blood transfusions is guaranteed.

  5. Progranulin antibodies in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Lorenz; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Fadle, Natalie; Regitz, Evi; Klemm, Philipp; Zaks, Marina; Kemele, Maria; Hasenfus, Andrea; Csernok, Elena; Gross, Wolfgang L; Pasquali, Jean-Louis; Martin, Thierry; Bohle, Rainer Maria; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Systemic vasculitides constitute a heterogeneous group of diseases. Autoimmunity mediated by B lymphocytes and their humoral effector mechanisms play a major role in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) as well as in non-ANCA associated primary systemic vasculitides and in the different types of autoimmune connective tissue disorders and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to detect autoantibodies in systemic vasculitides, we screened protein macroarrays of human cDNA expression libraries with sera from patients with ANCA-associated and ANCA-negative primary systemic vasculitides. This approach led to the identification of antibodies against progranulin, a 88 kDA secreted glycoprotein with strong anti-inflammatory activity in the course of disease of giant-cell arteritis/polymyalgia rheumatica (14/65), Takayasu's arteritis (4/13), classical panarteritis nodosa (4/10), Behcet's disease (2/6) and in the course of disease in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (31/75), Churg-Strauss syndrome (7/23) and in microscopic polyangiitis (7/19). In extended screenings the progranulin antibodies were also detected in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (39/91) and rheumatoid arthritis (16/44). Progranulin antibodies were detected only in 1 of 97 healthy controls. Anti-progranulin positive patients with systemic vasculitides, systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis had significant lower progranulin plasma levels, indicating a neutralizing effect. In light of the anti-inflammatory effects of progranulin, progranulin antibodies might exert pro-inflammatory effects thus contributing to the pathogenesis of the respective autoimmune diseases and might serve as a marker for disease activity. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that a positive progranulin antibody status was associated with active disease in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiplex serology of paraneoplastic antineuronal antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Maat (Peter); E. Brouwer (Eric); E. Hulsenboom (Esther); M.M. van Duijn (Martijn); M.W.J. Schreurs (Marco); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); P.A. Smitt (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractParaneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are devastating neurological disorders secondary to cancer, associated with onconeural autoantibodies. Such antibodies are directed against neuronal antigens aberrantly expressed by the tumor. The detection of onconeural antibodies in a patient

  7. Alternative affinity tools: more attractive than antibodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, V.J.B.; Levisson, M.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Smidt, H.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies are the most successful affinity tools used today, in both fundamental and applied research (diagnostics, purification and therapeutics). Nonetheless, antibodies do have their limitations, including high production costs and low stability. Alternative affinity tools based on nucleic acids

  8. [Neuroimmunological diseases associated with VGKC complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-05-01

    Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels(VGKC) were first identified by radioimmunoassay of radioisotope labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were found only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in Morvan's syndrome and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins(for example LGI-1, Caspr-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. Caspr-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability.

  9. A novel monoclonal antibody to a defined peptide epitope in MUC16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos-Silva, Lara; Ricardo, Sara; Chen, Kowa

    2015-01-01

    with the tandem-repeat region, their epitopes appear to be conformational dependent and not definable by a short peptide. Aberrant glycoforms of MUC16 may constitute promising targets for diagnostic and immunotherapeutic intervention, and it is important to develop well-defined immunogens for induction of potent...... immunodominant linear peptide epitopes within the tandem repeat. We developed one monoclonal antibody, 5E11, reactive with a minimum epitope with the sequence FNTTER. This sequence contains potential N- and O-glycosylation sites and, interestingly, glycosylation blocked binding of 5E11. In immunochemistry...

  10. Efficient payload delivery by a bispecific antibody-drug conjugate targeting HER2 and CD63

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Goeij, Bart E.C.G.; Vink, Tom; Ten Napel, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) are designed to be stable in circulation and to release potent cytotoxic drugs intracellularly following antigen-specific binding, uptake, and degradation in tumor cells. Efficient internalization and routing to lysosomes where proteolysis can take place is therefore......, for the first time, that intracellular trafficking of ADCs can be improved using a bsAb approach that targets the lysosomal membrane protein CD63 and provide a rationale for the development of novel bsADCs that combine tumor-specific targeting with targeting of rapidly internalizing antigens. © 2016 American...

  11. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.

  12. Acetone Extract from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa: A Potent Natural Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodla Lavanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae has been employed in traditional Thai medicine to treat colic diarrhoea, dysentery, abscesses, haemorrhage, and gynaecopathy. In addition, it has been used to formulate skin-whitening, anti-aging and skin beautifying agents. Ethnomedical activities of this plant may be due its antioxidant property. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of R. tomentosa leaf extract. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed by lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and metal chelating activity. R. tomentosa extract demonstrated its free radical scavenging effects in concentration dependent manner. In vivo antioxidant activity of the extract was conducted in Swiss Albino mice. Levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione (GSH, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in blood, liver, and kidney were analyzed using microtitre plate photometer. Administration of CCl4 caused significant increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx levels. In contrast, R. tomentosa extract (0.8 g/kg effectively prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The results suggest that R. tomentosa extract can serve as a potent antioxidant.

  13. Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Christiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the predominant cause of common cold. In addition, HRVs are implicated in the worsening of COPD and asthma, as well as the loss of lung transplants. Despite significant efforts, no anti-viral agent is approved for the prevention or treatment of HRV-infection. Results In this study we demonstrate that Iota-Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweed, is a potent anti-rhinoviral substance in-vitro. Iota-Carrageenan reduces HRV growth and inhibits the virus induced cythopathic effect of infected HeLa cells. In addition, Iota-Carrageenan effectively prevents the replication of HRV1A, HRV2, HRV8, HRV14, HRV16, HRV83 and HRV84 in primary human nasal epithelial cells in culture. The data suggest that Iota-Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding or the entry of virions into the cells. Conclusion Since HRV infections predominately occur in the nasal cavity and the upper respiratory tract, a targeted treatment with a product containing Iota-Carrageenan is conceivable. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether Iota-Carrageenan-based products are effective in the treatment or prophylaxis of HRV infections.

  14. Small Molecule Anticonvulsant Agents with Potent In Vitro Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garry R.; Zhang, Yan; Du, Yanming; Kondaveeti, Sandeep K.; Zdilla, Michael J.; Reitz, Allen B.

    2012-01-01

    Severe seizure activity is associated with recurring cycles of excitotoxicity and oxidative stress that result in progressive neuronal damage and death. Intervention to halt these pathological processes is a compelling disease-modifying strategy for the treatment of seizure disorders. In the present study, a core small molecule with anticonvulsant activity has been structurally optimized for neuroprotection. Phenotypic screening of rat hippocampal cultures with nutrient medium depleted of antioxidants was utilized as a disease model. Increased cell death and decreased neuronal viability produced by acute treatment with glutamate or hydrogen peroxide were prevented by our novel molecules. The neuroprotection associated with this chemical series has marked structure activity relationships that focus on modification of the benzylic position of a 2-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl sulfamide core structure. Complete separation between anticonvulsant activity and neuroprotective action was dependent on substitution at the benzylic carbon. Chiral selectivity was evident in that the S-enantiomer of the benzylic hydroxy group had neither neuroprotective nor anticonvulsant activity, while the R-enantiomer of the lead compound had full neuroprotective action at ≤40 nM and antiseizure activity in three animal models. These studies indicate that potent, multifunctional neuroprotective anticonvulsants are feasible within a single molecular entity. PMID:22535312

  15. Potent Insulin Secretagogue from Scoparia dulcis Linn of Nepalese Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Khaga Raj; Adhikari, Achyut; Hafizur, Rahman M; Hameed, Abdul; Raza, Sayed Ali; Kalauni, Surya Kant; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2015-10-01

    Ethno-botanical inspired isolation from plant Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Sweet Broomweed) yielded six compounds, coixol (1), glutinol (2), glutinone (3), friedelin (4), betulinic acid (5), and tetratriacontan-1-ol (6). There structures were identified using mass and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their insulin secretory activity on isolated mice islets and MIN-6 pancreatic β-cell line, and compounds 1 and 2 were found to be potent and mildly active, respectively. Compound 1 was further evaluated for insulin secretory activity on MIN-6 cells. Compound 1 was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity assay against MIN-6, 3T3 cell lines, and islet cells, and in vivo acute toxicity test in mice that was found to be non-toxic. The insulin secretory activity of compounds 1 and 2 supported the ethno-botanic uses of S. dulcis as an anti-diabetic agent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Hemin as a generic and potent protein misfolding inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanqin [School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Carver, John A. [Discipline of Pharmacology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Ho, Lam H.; Elias, Abigail K. [School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Musgrave, Ian F. [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Pukala, Tara L., E-mail: tara.pukala@adelaide.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • Hemin prevents Aβ42, α-synuclein and RCM-κ-casein forming amyloid fibrils. • Hemin inhibits the β-sheet structure formation of Aβ42. • Hemin reduces the cell toxicity caused by fibrillar Aβ42. • Hemin dissociates partially formed Aβ42 fibrils. • Hemin prevents amorphous aggregation by ADH, catalase and γs-crystallin. - Abstract: Protein misfolding causes serious biological malfunction, resulting in diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and cataract. Molecules which inhibit protein misfolding are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In the present study, thioflavin T fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated that hemin prevents amyloid fibril formation of kappa-casein, amyloid beta peptide and α-synuclein by blocking β-sheet structure assembly which is essential in fibril aggregation. Further, inhibition of fibril formation by hemin significantly reduces the cytotoxicity caused by fibrillar amyloid beta peptide in vitro. Interestingly, hemin degrades partially formed amyloid fibrils and prevents further aggregation to mature fibrils. Light scattering assay results revealed that hemin also prevents protein amorphous aggregation of alcohol dehydrogenase, catalase and γs-crystallin. In summary, hemin is a potent agent which generically stabilises proteins against aggregation, and has potential as a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for protein misfolding diseases.

  17. Therapeutic Perspectives of 8-Prenylnaringenin, a Potent Phytoestrogen from Hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Štulíková

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hop (Humulus lupulus L., as a key ingredient for beer brewing, is also a source of many biologically active molecules. A notable compound, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN, structurally belonging to the group of prenylated flavonoids, was shown to be a potent phytoestrogen, and thus, became the topic of active research. Here, we overview the pharmacological properties of 8-PN and its therapeutic opportunities. Due to its estrogenic effects, administration of 8-PN represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms that occur as a consequence of a progressive decline in hormone levels in women. Application of 8-PN in the treatment of menopause has been clinically examined with promising results. Other activities that have already been assessed include the potential to prevent bone-resorption or inhibition of tumor growth. On the other hand, the use of phytoestrogens is frequently questioned regarding possible adverse effects associated with long-term consumption. In conclusion, we emphasize the implications of using 8-PN in future treatments of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms, including the need for precise evidence and further investigations to define the safety risks related to its therapeutic use.

  18. 2-acetylphenol analogs as potent reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legoabe LJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lesetja J Legoabe,1 Anél Petzer,1 Jacobus P Petzer1,21Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South AfricaAbstract: Based on a previous report that substituted 2-acetylphenols may be promising leads for the design of novel monoamine oxidase (MAO inhibitors, a series of C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs (15 and related compounds (two were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B. Generally, the study compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against both MAO-A and MAO-B, with selectivity for the B isoform. Among the compounds evaluated, seven compounds exhibited IC50 values <0.01 µM for MAO-B inhibition, with the most selective compound being 17,000-fold selective for MAO-B over the MAO-A isoform. Analyses of the structure–activity relationships for MAO inhibition show that substitution on the C5 position of the 2-acetylphenol moiety is a requirement for MAO-B inhibition, and the benzyloxy substituent is particularly favorable in this regard. This study concludes that C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs are potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors, appropriate for the design of therapies for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.Keywords: monoamine oxidase, MAO, inhibition, 2-acetylphenol, structure–activity relationship

  19. Radioimmunoassay method for detection of gonorrhea antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A novel radioimmunoassay for the detection of gonorrhea antibodies in serum is described. A radionuclide is bound to gonorrhea antigens produced by a growth culture. In the presence of gonorrhea antibodies in the serum, an antigen-antibody conjugate is formed, the concentration of which can be measured with conventional radiometric methods. The radioimmunoassay is highly specific

  20. Immunoglobulin G4: an odd antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, R. C.; Stapel, S. O.; Schuurman, J.; Rispens, T.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its well-known association with IgE-mediated allergy, IgG4 antibodies still have several poorly understood characteristics. IgG4 is a very dynamic antibody: the antibody is involved in a continuous process of half-molecules (i.e. a heavy and attached light-chain) exchange. This process, also

  1. Selective assay for CyPA and CyPB in human blood using highly specific anti-peptide antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, F; Boutillon, C; Mariller, C; Spik, G

    1995-01-13

    Cyclophilins A and B (CyPA and CyPB) are known to be the main binding proteins for cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressive drug. Due to the high homology between the two proteins, antibodies to CyPB were found to cross-react with CyPA. In order to avoid this phenomenon, we raised specific antibodies against peptides copying the most divergent parts of the two sequences. These antibodies allowed us to develop an ELISA capture assay selective for either isotype. Thus, we showed that leukocyte CyPB concentration was almost ten times lower than that of CyPA, and that in contrast to the results described in the literature, only CyPB was released in plasma. Moreover, CyPB levels in leukocytes and plasma were found to correlate for the same donor, but no relationship was found with CyPA level.

  2. Late cutaneous effects of a local potent steroid during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulff, Eva; Maroti, Marianne; Serup, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with a local potent corticosteroid during adjuvant external radiotherapy (ERT) of breast cancer is associated with late skin toxicity. Material and methods: Sixty patients (32 treated with potent corticoid cream versus 28 controls t...

  3. Bicyclams, selective antagonists of the human chemokine receptor CXCR4, potently inhibit feline immunodeficiency virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Clercq, E. de; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Balzarini, J.; Bridger, G.J.; Henson, G.; Schols, D.

    1999-01-01

    Bicyclams are low-molecular-weight anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents that have been shown to act as potent and selective CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonists. Here, we demonstrate that bicyclams are potent inhibitors of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication when

  4. Hydroxychavicol: a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor obtained from the leaves of betel, Piper betle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Nakao, Kikuyo; Hirata, Noriko; Namba, Kensuke; Nomi, Takao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Moriyama, Kenzo; Shintani, Takahiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    The screening of Piperaceous plants for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity revealed that the extract of the leaves of Piper betle possesses potent activity. Activity-guided purification led us to obtain hydroxychavicol as an active principle. Hydroxychavicol is a more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor than allopurinol, which is clinically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  5. AMD3465, a monomacrocyclic CXCR4 antagonist and potent HIV entry inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, Sigrid; Princen, Katrien; De Clercq, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 function as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are attractive targets for the development of anti-HIV drugs. The most potent CXCR4 antagonists described until today are the bicyclams. The prototype compound, AMD3100, exhibits potent and s...

  6. Consistent manufacturing and quality control of a highly complex recombinant polyclonal antibody product for human therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Torben P; Naested, Henrik; Rasmussen, Søren K; Hauptig, Peter; Wiberg, Finn C; Rasmussen, Lone Kjaer; Jensen, Anne Marie Valentin; Persson, Pia; Wikén, Margareta; Engström, Anders; Jiang, Yun; Thorpe, Susan J; Förberg, Cecilia; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2011-09-01

    The beneficial effect of antibody therapy in human disease has become well established mainly for the treatment of cancer and immunological disorders. The inherent monospecificity of mAbs present limitations to mAb therapy which have become apparent notably in addressing complex entities like infectious agents or heterogenic endogenous targets. For such indications mixtures of antibodies comprising a combination of specificities would convey more potent biological effect which could translate into therapeutic efficacy. Recombinant polyclonal antibodies (rpAb) consisting of a defined number of well-characterized mAbs constitute a new class of target specific antibody therapy. We have developed a cost-efficient cell banking and single-batch manufacturing concept for the production of such products and demonstrate that a complex pAb composition, rozrolimupab, comprising 25 individual antibodies can be manufactured in a highly consistent manner in a scaled-up manufacturing process. We present a strategy for the release and characterization of antibody mixtures which constitute a complete series of chemistry, manufacturing, and control (CMC) analytical methods to address identity, purity, quantity, potency, and general characteristics. Finally we document selected quality attributes of rozrolimupab based on a battery of assays at the genetic-, protein-, and functional level and demonstrate that the manufactured rozrolimupab batches are highly pure and very uniform in their composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Characterization of specific antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV)-encoded interleukin 10 produced by 28 % of CMV-seropositive blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lemos Rieper, Carina; Galle, Pia Søndergaard; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    -10 nor with Epstein-Barr virus-encoded IL-10. Anti-cmvIL-10 antibodies potently inhibited the binding of cmvIL-10 to cellular receptors, and they specifically inhibited cmvIL-10-induced JAK-STAT signalling. Ultimately, anti-cmvIL-10 antibodies blocked the inhibitory effect of cmvIL-10...... percent of plasma samples from 3200 Danish blood donors (corresponding to 28¿% of the anti-CMV IgG-positive donors) contained substantial levels of anti-cmvIL-10 IgG antibodies, as measured by a radioimmunoassay for human anti-cmvIL-10 antibodies. The antibodies neither cross-reacted with native human IL...... on lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor alpha and IL-1ß from blood mononuclear cells. Taken together, our data signify that cmvIL-10 has been produced during CMV infection, and that anti-cmvIL-10 IgG antibodies represent an effective immunological counter reaction against cmvIL-10....

  8. Complexity of Human Antibody Response to Dengue Virus: Implication for Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yang Tsai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV are the leading cause of arboviral diseases in humans. Decades of efforts have made remarkable progress in dengue vaccine development. Despite the first dengue vaccine (dengvaxia from Sanofi Pasteur, a live-attenuated tetravalent chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccine, has been licensed by several countries since 2016, its overall moderate efficacy (56.5–60.8% in the presence of neutralizing antibodies during the Phase 2b and 3 trials, lower efficacy among dengue naïve compared with dengue experienced individuals, and increased risk of hospitalization among young children during the follow-up highlight the need for a better understanding of humoral responses after natural DENV infection. Recent studies of more than 300 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against DENV have led to the discovery of several novel epitopes on the envelope protein recognized by potent neutralizing mAbs. This information together with in-depth studies on polyclonal sera and B-cells following natural DENV infection has tremendous implications for better immunogen design for a safe and effective dengue vaccine. This review outlines the progress in our understanding of mouse mAbs, human mAbs, and polyclonal sera against DENV envelope and precursor membrane proteins, two surface proteins involved in vaccine development, following natural infection; analyses of these discoveries have provided valuable insight into new strategies involving molecular technology to induce more potent neutralizing antibodies and less enhancing antibodies for next-generation dengue vaccine development.

  9. Antiphospholipid Antibody Induced by Nivolumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Aburahma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nivolumab is a monoclonal antibody against the programmed death protein 1 and is used for patients with advanced melanoma. It is associated with potentially immune-related adverse events, including disorders of the skin, GI tract, and the thyroid; these disorders were successfully treated with prednisone and infliximab. Other immunotherapeutic agents were observed to induce the formation of antiphospholipid antibody (APA including α-interferon and interleukin-2. We present a case of APA development after the third dose of nivolumab in a 71-year-old male with advanced melanoma. The APA was detected after finding a prolonged aPTT; the lupus anticoagulant assay tested positive. The patient was treated with prednisone but, unfortunately, he expired a few days later.

  10. Solid phase double-antibody radioimmunoassay procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niswender, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention is concerned with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure for assaying body fluid content of an antigenic substance which may either be an antigen itself or a hapten capable of being converted, such as by means of reaction with a protein, to an antigenic material. The present invention is concerned with a novel and improved modification of a double-antibody RIA technique in which there is a first antibody that is specific to the antigenic substance suspected to be present in a body fluid from which the assay is intended. The second antibody, however, is not specific to the antigenic substance or analyte, but is an antibody against the first antibody

  11. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid is a potent PPARγ agonist with neuroprotective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Xavier; Del Río, Carmen; Casano, Salvatore; Palomares, Belén; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Navarrete, Carmen; Sánchez-Carnerero, Carolina; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, Maria Luz; Meyer, Stefan; Morello, Gaetano; Appendino, Giovanni; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Phytocannabinoids are produced in Cannabis sativa L. in acidic form and are decarboxylated upon heating, processing and storage. While the biological effects of decarboxylated cannabinoids such as Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol have been extensively investigated, the bioactivity of Δ 9 -tetahydrocannabinol acid (Δ 9 -THCA) is largely unknown, despite its occurrence in different Cannabis preparations. Here we have assessed possible neuroprotective actions of Δ 9 -THCA through modulation of PPARγ pathways. The effects of six phytocannabinoids on PPARγ binding and transcriptional activity were investigated. The effect of Δ 9 -THCA on mitochondrial biogenesis and PPARγ coactivator 1-α expression was investigated in Neuro-2a (N2a) cells. The neuroprotective effect was analysed in STHdh Q111/Q111 cells expressing a mutated form of the huntingtin protein and in N2a cells infected with an adenovirus carrying human huntingtin containing 94 polyQ repeats (mHtt-q94). The in vivo neuroprotective activity of Δ 9 -THCA was investigated in mice intoxicated with the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA). Cannabinoid acids bind and activate PPARγ with higher potency than their decarboxylated products. Δ 9 -THCA increased mitochondrial mass in neuroblastoma N2a cells and prevented cytotoxicity induced by serum deprivation in STHdh Q111/Q111 cells and by mutHtt-q94 in N2a cells. Δ 9 -THCA, through a PPARγ-dependent pathway, was neuroprotective in mice treated with 3-NPA, improving motor deficits and preventing striatal degeneration. In addition, Δ 9 -THCA attenuated microgliosis, astrogliosis and up-regulation of proinflammatory markers induced by 3-NPA. Δ 9 -THCA shows potent neuroprotective activity, which is worth considering for the treatment of Huntington's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Intracellular accumulation of potent amiloride analogues by human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simchowitz, L.; Woltersdorf, O.W. Jr.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of uptake of a series of amiloride derivatives by human neutrophils was investigated using [ 14 C]amiloride and the 14 C-labeled 5-(1-hexahydroazepinyl)-6-bromo analogue (BrMM) which is approximately 500-fold more potent than the parent compound at inhibiting Na+/H+ exchange. At an external concentration of 2 microM, the influx of BrMM at 37 degrees C was rapid, reaching a steady state by approximately 20 min. The rate of BrMM uptake (approximately 25 mumol/liter.min) was approximately 90-fold faster than for the same concentration of amiloride, a finding which correlates with differences in lipid partitioning of the two compounds. Uptake was unrelated to specific binding to Na+/H+ exchange transport sites: influx of either drug was nonsaturable whereas amiloride- and BrMM-mediated inhibition of Na+/H+ countertransport obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with apparent Ki values of approximately 75 and approximately 0.2 microM. Entry occurred exclusively via the neutral (uncharged) forms (pK'a 8.40-8.55). Influx was markedly pH-dependent: it was enhanced by extracellular alkalinization and reduced by acidification. Influx was, however, insensitive to large changes in membrane voltage, thereby implying the protonated (charged) species to be impermeant. About 75% of the total intracellular pool of amiloride, but only approximately 25% of BrMM, is contained within the lysosomes, an expected consequence of the partitioning and subsequent trapping of a weak base within this strongly acidic subcellular compartment. With BrMM, there was a relative approximately 60-fold enrichment in the internal/external water concentration ratio of the drug; the value for amiloride was much less, approximately 4. This disparity is consistent with substantial binding of BrMM to internal constituents, presumably to proteins and/or nucleic acids

  13. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B; O'Brien, Thomas J; Stevenson, David M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using (13)C-labeled sugars and [(15)N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2015, Pisithkul et al.

  14. Discovery of potent broad spectrum antivirals derived from marine actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Raveh

    Full Text Available Natural products provide a vast array of chemical structures to explore in the discovery of new medicines. Although secondary metabolites produced by microbes have been developed to treat a variety of diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, to date there has been limited investigation of natural products with antiviral activity. In this report, we used a phenotypic cell-based replicon assay coupled with an iterative biochemical fractionation process to identify, purify, and characterize antiviral compounds produced by marine microbes. We isolated a compound from Streptomyces kaviengensis, a novel actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments obtained off the coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, which we identified as antimycin A1a. This compound displays potent activity against western equine encephalitis virus in cultured cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of less than 4 nM and a selectivity index of greater than 550. Our efforts also revealed that several antimycin A analogues display antiviral activity, and mechanism of action studies confirmed that these Streptomyces-derived secondary metabolites function by inhibiting the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby suppressing de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Furthermore, we found that antimycin A functions as a broad spectrum agent with activity against a wide range of RNA viruses in cultured cells, including members of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Finally, we demonstrate that antimycin A reduces central nervous system viral titers, improves clinical disease severity, and enhances survival in mice given a lethal challenge with western equine encephalitis virus. Our results provide conclusive validation for using natural product resources derived from marine microbes as source material for antiviral drug discovery, and they indicate that host mitochondrial electron transport is a viable

  15. Identification and screening of potent antimicrobial peptides in arthropod genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwadi, Deepesh; Shrestha, Anishma; Yilma, Binyam; Kozlovski, Itamar; Sa-Eed, Munaya; Dahal, Nikesh; Jukosky, James

    2018-05-01

    Using tBLASTn and BLASTp searches, we queried recently sequenced arthropod genomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using a database of known arthropod cecropins, defensins, and attacins. We identified and synthesized 6 potential AMPs and screened them for antimicrobial activity. Using radial diffusion assays and microtiter antimicrobial assays, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial effects of these peptides against several human pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We also conducted hemolysis assays to examine the cytotoxicity of these peptides to mammalian cells. Four of the six peptides identified showed antimicrobial effects in these assays. We also created truncated versions of these four peptides to assay their antimicrobial activity. Two cecropins derived from the monarch butterfly genome (Danaus plexippus), DAN1 and DAN2, showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 2-16 μg/ml when screened against Gram-negative bacteria. HOLO1 and LOUDEF1, two defensin-like peptides derived from red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus), respectively, exhibited MICs in the range of 13-25 μg/ml against Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, HOLO1 showed an MIC less than 5 μg/ml against the fungal species Candida albicans. These peptides exhibited no hemolytic activity at concentrations up to 200 μg/ml. The truncated peptides derived from DAN2 and HOLO1 showed very little antimicrobial activity. Our experiments show that the peptides DAN1, DAN2, HOLO1, and LOUDEF1 showed potent antimicrobial activity in vitro against common human pathogens, did not lyse mammalian red blood cells, and indicates their potential as templates for novel therapeutic agents against microbial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.; Stevenson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. PMID:26070680

  17. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  18. Development of antibody against sulfamethazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziying; Xi Wenge; Liu Yibing; Zhang Liling; Guo Weizheng; Han Shiquan

    2004-01-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMT) is widely used to treat bacterial and protozoan infections in food animals. So its residue has been detected in various food products, and in Europe, the tolerance level for sulfonamides in meat and milk is 100 ng/g. To ensure that residues in animal food products do not exceed this limit, a simple, sensitive, and rapid method to determinate their residues in animal tissues is needed. In this paper the development of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies against sulfamethazine (SMT) and a simplified method to identify residual sulfamethazine by radio immunoassay (RIA) is presented. Polyclonal antibodies (PcAbs) against sulfamethazine (SMT) were obtained by immunizing rabbits with SMT-conjugated bovine serum albumin (BSA). The association constants (Ka) of the PcAbs were higher than 108 and the cross-reactivities with Sulfadiazine(SD), Sulfaquinoxaline(SQX) which were structurally related compounds were lower than 0.05%(RIA). Simultaneous, six strains of hybridoma cell were prepared which can secrete monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against SMT . The Ka of the McAbs against SMT were higher than 107 and the cross-reactivities with SD, SQX were lower than 0.1%(RIA). (authors)

  19. A Novel Platform for the Potentiation of Therapeutic Antibodies Based on Antigen-Dependent Formation of IgG Hexamers at the Cell Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, R. N.; Beurskens, F. J.; Verploegen, S.

    2016-01-01

    IgG antibodies can organize into ordered hexamers on cell surfaces after binding their antigen. These hexamers bind the first component of complement C1 inducing complement-dependent target cell killing. Here, we translated this natural concept into a novel technology platform (HexaBody technology......) for therapeutic antibody potentiation. We identified mutations that enhanced hexamer formation and complement activation by IgG1 antibodies against a range of targets on cells from hematological and solid tumor indications. IgG1 backbones with preferred mutations E345K or E430G conveyed a strong ability to induce...... conditional complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of cell lines and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patient tumor cells, while retaining regular pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutical developability. Both mutations potently enhanced CDC- and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of a type II CD...

  20. 9 CFR 113.452 - Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody... REQUIREMENTS Antibody Products § 113.452 Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody is a specific antibody product containing antibodies directed against one or more somatic antigens...

  1. Modification of Antibody Function by Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasch, James R; Dasch, Amy L

    2017-09-01

    The ability to "fine-tune" recombinant antibodies by mutagenesis separates recombinant antibodies from hybridoma-derived antibodies because the latter are locked with respect to their properties. Recombinant antibodies can be modified to suit the application: Changes in isotype, format (e.g., scFv, Fab, bispecific antibodies), and specificity can be made once the heavy- and light-chain sequences are available. After immunoglobulin heavy and light chains for a particular antibody have been cloned, the binding site-namely, the complementarity determining regions (CDR)-can be manipulated by mutagenesis to obtain antibody variants with improved properties. The method described here is relatively simple, uses commercially available reagents, and is effective. Using the pComb3H vector, a commercial mutagenesis kit, PfuTurbo polymerase (Agilent), and two mutagenic primers, a library of phage with mutagenized heavy and light CDR3 can be obtained. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Designing two-in-one antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Ignacio Garcia; Espinoza, Luis R

    2009-09-01

    Evaluation of: Bostrom J, Shang-Fan Y, Kan D et al.: Variants of the antibody Herceptin that interact with HER2 and VEGF at the antigen binding site. Science 323, 1610-1614 (2009). The longstanding held notion that one antibody equals one antigen and, hence, one function has been challenged in recent years. Improved technology in antibody production, especially the accumulation of sequence data of immunoglobulin genes and the advent of PCR have made it possible to clone antibody gene repertoires. The current paper provides further challenge to the notion of one antibody = one antigen by developing 'two-in-one' antibodies with an antigen-binding site that binds two distinct proteins with high affinity. A therapeutic variant antibody of Herceptin (Genentech, CA, USA) was isolated that binds the human EGF receptor (HER)2 and also to VEGF. This development may represent a breakthrough discovery and may have significant implications in the therapy of malignant, infectious, allergic and autoimmune disorders.

  3. Quantification of the Impact of the HIV-1-Glycan Shield on Antibody Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongqing Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While the HIV-1-glycan shield is known to shelter Env from the humoral immune response, its quantitative impact on antibody elicitation has been unclear. Here, we use targeted deglycosylation to measure the impact of the glycan shield on elicitation of antibodies against the CD4 supersite. We engineered diverse Env trimers with select glycans removed proximal to the CD4 supersite, characterized their structures and glycosylation, and immunized guinea pigs and rhesus macaques. Immunizations yielded little neutralization against wild-type viruses but potent CD4-supersite neutralization (titers 1: >1,000,000 against four-glycan-deleted autologous viruses with over 90% breadth against four-glycan-deleted heterologous strains exhibiting tier 2 neutralization character. To a first approximation, the immunogenicity of the glycan-shielded protein surface was negligible, with Env-elicited neutralization (ID50 proportional to the exponential of the protein-surface area accessible to antibody. Based on these high titers and exponential relationship, we propose site-selective deglycosylated trimers as priming immunogens to increase the frequency of site-targeting antibodies.

  4. Quantification of the Impact of the HIV-1-Glycan Shield on Antibody Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tongqing; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Cheng, Cheng; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B. E.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Chambers, Michael; Druz, Aliaksandr; Geng, Hui; McKee, Krisha; Kwon, Young Do; O’Dell, Sijy; Sastry, Mallika; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Xu, Kai; Chen, Lei; Chen, Rita E.; Louder, Mark K.; Pancera, Marie; Wanninger, Timothy G.; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Farney, S. Katie; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Lemmin, Thomas; Narpala, Sandeep; Rawi, Reda; Soto, Cinque; Todd, John-Paul; Shen, Chen-Hsiang; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Yang, Yongping; Zhao, Peng; Haynes, Barton F.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; Scorpio, Diana G.; Shapiro, Lawrence; McDermott, Adrian B.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2017-04-01

    While the HIV-1-glycan shield is known to shelter Env from the humoral immune response, its quantitative impact on antibody elicitation has been unclear. Here, we use targeted deglycosylation to measure the impact of the glycan shield on elicitation of antibodies against the CD4 supersite. We engineered diverse Env trimers with select glycans removed proximal to the CD4 supersite, characterized their structures and glycosylation, and immunized guinea pigs and rhesus macaques. Immunizations yielded little neutralization against wild-type viruses but potent CD4-supersite neutralization (titers 1: >1,000,000 against four-glycan-deleted autologous viruses with over 90% breadth against four-glycan-deleted heterologous strains exhibiting tier 2 neutralization character). To a first approximation, the immunogenicity of the glycan-shielded protein surface was negligible, with Env-elicited neutralization (ID50) proportional to the exponential of the protein-surface area accessible to antibody. Based on these high titers and exponential relationship, we propose site-selective deglycosylated trimers as priming immunogens to increase the frequency of site-targeting antibodies.

  5. Vibrio cholerae O1 secretes an extracellular matrix in response to antibody-mediated agglutination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Baranova

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae O1 is one of two serogroups responsible for epidemic cholera, a severe watery diarrhea that occurs after the bacterium colonizes the human small intestine and secretes a potent ADP-ribosylating toxin. Immunity to cholera is associated with intestinal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies, which are known to inhibit V. cholerae motility and promote bacterial cell-cell crosslinking and aggregation. Here we report that V. cholerae O1 classical and El Tor biotypes produce an extracellular matrix (ECM when forcibly immobilized and agglutinated by ZAC-3 IgG, an intestinally-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb against the core/lipid A region of LPS. ECM secretion, as demonstrated by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy, occurred within 30 minutes of antibody exposure and peaked by 3 hours. Non-motile mutants of V. cholerae did not secrete ECM following ZAC-3 IgG exposure, even though they were susceptible to agglutination. The ECM was enriched in O-specific polysaccharide (OSP but not Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. Finally, we demonstrate that ECM production by V. cholerae in response to ZAC-3 IgG was associated with bacterial resistant to a secondary complement-mediated attack. In summary, we propose that V. cholerae O1, upon encountering anti-LPS antibodies in the intestinal lumen, secretes an ECM (or O-antigen capsule possibly as a strategy to shield itself from additional host immune factors and to exit an otherwise inhospitable host environment.

  6. Pre-existing neutralizing antibody mitigates B cell dysregulation and enhances the Env-specific antibody response in SHIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Jaworski

    Full Text Available Our central hypothesis is that protection against HIV infection will be powerfully influenced by the magnitude and quality of the B cell response. Although sterilizing immunity, mediated by pre-formed abundant and potent antibodies is the ultimate goal for B cell-targeted HIV vaccine strategies, scenarios that fall short of this may still confer beneficial defenses against viremia and disease progression. We evaluated the impact of sub-sterilizing pre-existing neutralizing antibody on the B cell response to SHIV infection. Adult male rhesus macaques received passive transfer of a sub-sterilizing amount of polyclonal neutralizing immunoglobulin (Ig purified from previously infected animals (SHIVIG or control Ig prior to intra-rectal challenge with SHIVSF162P4 and extensive longitudinal sampling was performed. SHIVIG treated animals exhibited significantly reduced viral load and increased de novo Env-specific plasma antibody. Dysregulation of the B cell profile was grossly apparent soon after infection in untreated animals; exemplified by a ≈50% decrease in total B cells in the blood evident 2-3 weeks post-infection which was not apparent in SHIVIG treated animals. IgD+CD5+CD21+ B cells phenotypically similar to marginal zone-like B cells were highly sensitive to SHIV infection, becoming significantly decreased as early as 3 days post-infection in control animals, while being maintained in SHIVIG treated animals, and were highly correlated with the induction of Env-specific plasma antibody. These results suggest that B cell dysregulation during the early stages of infection likely contributes to suboptimal Env-specific B cell and antibody responses, and strategies that limit this dysregulation may enhance the host's ability to eliminate HIV.

  7. Glycoprotein-Specific Antibodies Produced by DNA Vaccination Protect Guinea Pigs from Lethal Argentine and Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joseph W; Maes, Piet; Kwilas, Steven A; Ballantyne, John; Hooper, Jay W

    2016-01-20

    Several members of the Arenaviridae can cause acute febrile diseases in humans, often resulting in lethality. The use of convalescent-phase human plasma is an effective treatment in humans infected with arenaviruses, particularly species found in South America. Despite this, little work has focused on developing potent and defined immunotherapeutics against arenaviruses. In the present study, we produced arenavirus neutralizing antibodies by DNA vaccination of rabbits with plasmids encoding the full-length glycoprotein precursors of Junín virus (JUNV), Machupo virus (MACV), and Guanarito virus (GTOV). Geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers, as measured by the 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT(50)), exceeded 5,000 against homologous viruses. Antisera against each targeted virus exhibited limited cross-species binding and, to a lesser extent, cross-neutralization. Anti-JUNV glycoprotein rabbit antiserum protected Hartley guinea pigs from lethal intraperitoneal infection with JUNV strain Romero when the antiserum was administered 2 days after challenge and provided some protection (∼30%) when administered 4 days after challenge. Treatment starting on day 6 did not protect animals. We further formulated an IgG antibody cocktail by combining anti-JUNV, -MACV, and -GTOV antibodies produced in DNA-vaccinated rabbits. This cocktail protected 100% of guinea pigs against JUNV and GTOV lethal disease. We then expanded on this cocktail approach by simultaneously vaccinating rabbits with a combination of plasmids encoding glycoproteins from JUNV, MACV, GTOV, and Sabia virus (SABV). Sera collected from rabbits vaccinated with the combination vaccine neutralized all four targets. These findings support the concept of using a DNA vaccine approach to generate a potent pan-arenavirus immunotherapeutic. Arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses. In infected humans, convalescent-phase plasma containing neutralizing antibodies can mitigate the

  8. Glycoprotein-Specific Antibodies Produced by DNA Vaccination Protect Guinea Pigs from Lethal Argentine and Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joseph W.; Maes, Piet; Kwilas, Steven A.; Ballantyne, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several members of the Arenaviridae can cause acute febrile diseases in humans, often resulting in lethality. The use of convalescent-phase human plasma is an effective treatment in humans infected with arenaviruses, particularly species found in South America. Despite this, little work has focused on developing potent and defined immunotherapeutics against arenaviruses. In the present study, we produced arenavirus neutralizing antibodies by DNA vaccination of rabbits with plasmids encoding the full-length glycoprotein precursors of Junín virus (JUNV), Machupo virus (MACV), and Guanarito virus (GTOV). Geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers, as measured by the 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50), exceeded 5,000 against homologous viruses. Antisera against each targeted virus exhibited limited cross-species binding and, to a lesser extent, cross-neutralization. Anti-JUNV glycoprotein rabbit antiserum protected Hartley guinea pigs from lethal intraperitoneal infection with JUNV strain Romero when the antiserum was administered 2 days after challenge and provided some protection (∼30%) when administered 4 days after challenge. Treatment starting on day 6 did not protect animals. We further formulated an IgG antibody cocktail by combining anti-JUNV, -MACV, and -GTOV antibodies produced in DNA-vaccinated rabbits. This cocktail protected 100% of guinea pigs against JUNV and GTOV lethal disease. We then expanded on this cocktail approach by simultaneously vaccinating rabbits with a combination of plasmids encoding glycoproteins from JUNV, MACV, GTOV, and Sabia virus (SABV). Sera collected from rabbits vaccinated with the combination vaccine neutralized all four targets. These findings support the concept of using a DNA vaccine approach to generate a potent pan-arenavirus immunotherapeutic. IMPORTANCE Arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses. In infected humans, convalescent-phase plasma containing neutralizing antibodies can

  9. Evaluation of bovine viral diarrhea virus in New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Philip A; Belknap, Ellen B; Brock, Kenneth V; Collins, James K; Pugh, David G

    2003-07-15

    To determine the effect of experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) on llamas and their fetuses, evaluate seroprevalence of BVDV in llamas and alpacas, and genetically characterize BVDV isolates from llamas. Prospective study. 4 pregnant llamas for the experimental infection study and 223 llamas and alpacas for the seroprevalence study. Llamas (seronegative to BVDV) were experimentally infected with a llama isolate of BVDV via nasal aerosolization. After inoculation, blood samples were collected every other day for 2 weeks; blood samples were obtained from crias at birth and monthly thereafter. For the seroprevalence study, blood was collected from a convenience sample of 223 camelids. Isolates of BVDV were characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Viremia and BVDV-specific antibody response were detected in the experimentally infected llamas, but no signs of disease were observed. No virus was detected in the crias or aborted fetus, although antibodies were evident in crias after colostrum consumption. Seroprevalence to BVDV was 0.9% in llamas and alpacas. Sequences of the llama BVDV isolates were comparable to known bovine isolates. Findings suggest that llamas may be infected with BVDV but have few or no clinical signs. Inoculation of llamas during gestation did not result in fetal infection or persistent BVDV infection of crias. Seroprevalence to BVDV in llamas and alpacas is apparently low. The most likely source for BVDV infection in camelids may be cattle.

  10. Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surinder Batra

    2006-01-01

    Current therapeutic approaches against the advanced stages of human solid tumors are palliative rather than curative. Many modalities, including, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, either alone or in combination have met with only modest success for advanced metastatic cancers. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies with cytotoxic effects of radioisotopes. It is the ''smart'' way of delivering radiation to the known and occult metastatic cancer cells and is independent of drug toxicity and/or hormone resistance. The tumor associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) containing the unique disaccharide sialyl-Tn, is highly expressed in majority of adenocarcinomas, including carcinomas of the prostate, breast, ovaries, pancreas and colon (80-90%) compared to undetectable expression in normal tissues. Monoclonal antibody CC49, reactive with TAG-72, after conjugation to potent gamma- and beta-emitting radionuclides, has been useful in selective systemic radiolocalization of disease and therapy of primary and metastatic tumor sites. However, limited therapeutic responses were observed in patients. Limited success of antibody based delivery of radioisotopes can be attributed to several factors including undesirable pharmacokinetics, poor tumor uptake and high immunogenicity of intact antibodies (IgGs). The primary factors contributing towards the failure of RIT include: (1) longer serum half-lives of the intact IgG molecules resulting in the radiotoxicity, (2) generation of human antibodies against murine antibodies (HAMA) that limits the frequency of dose administration, (3) poor diffusion rates of intact IgG due to the large size and (4) high interstitial fluid pressures (IFP) encountered in solid tumors. The major goal of our multidisciplinary project was to develop specific novel radiopharmaceuticals, with desired pharmacokinetics, for the diagnosis and therapy of solid tumors. To overcome the low uptake of radioactivity by tumors and to

  11. Donor-derived HLA antibody production in patients undergoing SCT from HLA antibody-positive donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, K; Yoshihara, S; Maruya, E; Ikegame, K; Kaida, K; Hayashi, K; Kato, R; Inoue, T; Fujioka, T; Tamaki, H; Okada, M; Onuma, T; Fujii, N; Kusunoki, Y; Soma, T; Saji, H; Ogawa, H

    2012-10-01

    Pre-existing donor-specific HLA antibodies in patients undergoing HLA-mismatched SCT have increasingly been recognized as a risk factor for primary graft failure. However, the clinical implications of the presence of HLA antibodies in donors remain unknown. We prospectively examined 123 related donors for the presence of HLA antibodies by using a Luminex-based single antigen assay. Of these, 1/57 (1.8%) male, 6/27 (22%) parous female and 0/39 (0%) nonparous female donors were HLA antibody-positive. Then, we determined the presence of HLA antibodies in seven patients who received SCT from antibody-positive donors. Of these, four became HLA antibody-positive after SCT. The specificities of the antibodies that emerged in the patients closely resembled those of the antibodies found in the donors, indicating their production by donor-derived plasma cells. Moreover, the kinetics of the HLA antibody levels were similar in all four patients: levels started increasing within 1 week after SCT and peaked at days 10-21, followed by a gradual decrease. These results suggest that donor-derived HLA antibody production frequently occurs in patients undergoing SCT from antibody-positive donors. Further studies are warranted for clarifying the clinical significance of donor-derived HLA antibodies, including the role of these antibodies in post transplant platelet transfusion refractoriness.

  12. Generation and Characterization of ALX-0171, a Potent Novel Therapeutic Nanobody for the Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohr, Thomas; Palomo, Concepción; Piedra, Pedro A.; Gilbert, Brian E.; Mas, Vicente; Millar, Andrena; Power, Ultan F.; Stortelers, Catelijne; Allosery, Koen; Melero, José A.; Depla, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important causative agent of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and elderly individuals. Its fusion (F) protein is critical for virus infection. It is targeted by several investigational antivirals and by palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody used prophylactically in infants considered at high risk of severe RSV disease. ALX-0171 is a trimeric Nanobody that binds the antigenic site II of RSV F protein with subnanomolar affinity. ALX-0171 demonstrated in vitro neutralization superior to that of palivizumab against prototypic RSV subtype A and B strains. Moreover, ALX-0171 completely blocked replication to below the limit of detection for 87% of the viruses tested, whereas palivizumab did so for 18% of the viruses tested at a fixed concentration. Importantly, ALX-0171 was highly effective in reducing both nasal and lung RSV titers when delivered prophylactically or therapeutically directly to the lungs of cotton rats. ALX-0171 represents a potent novel antiviral compound with significant potential to treat RSV-mediated disease. PMID:26438495

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C - a potent risk factor in children diagnosed with stadium 4 neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Miskowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF-C, CD34 and VEGFR-2 in cancer tissue of children diagnosed with stadium 4 neuroblastoma (NB and correlate their presence with the survival rate of children diagnosed with that stage of the disease. Eighteen children assigned to stadium 4 composed the study group. Fourteen patients (allocated to stadium 3 formed a control group. VEGF-C, CD34 and VEGFR-2 expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay. Consecutive slides incubated with anti-CD34 and anti-VEGFR-2 antibodies revealed that the two markers were colocalized within endothelial layer of the blood vessels. On the other hand, VEGF-C was expressed exclusively in tumour cells. As demonstrated by Fisher's exact test, the risk of NB treatment failure (progression or relapse as well as tumour related death, when all the patients were considered, was found to be significant in VEGF-C positive patients. VEGF-C expression in NB constitutes a potent risk factor and may direct future anti-angiogenic treatment strategy. The proximity of VEGF-C and CD34/VEGFR-2 of NB could be the equivalent of a potentially interesting VEGF-C fashion involving a tumour cell invasion into the blood vessels in an early phase of metastases promoting.

  14. Induction of potent NK cell-dependent anti-myeloma cytotoxic T cells in response to combined mapatumumab and bortezomib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Paul J; Hsu, Andy K; Chen, Yin R; Halse, Heloise M; Loh, Joanna; Cordy, Reece; Fielding, Kate; Davis, Joanne; Noske, Josh; Davenport, Alex J; Lindqvist-Gigg, Camilla A; Humphreys, Robin; Tai, Tsin; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Smyth, Mark J; Ritchie, David S

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that some cancer therapies can promote tumor immunogenicity to boost the endogenous antitumor immune response. In this study, we used the novel combination of agonistic anti-TRAIL-R1 antibody (mapatumumab, Mapa) with low dose bortezomib (LDB) for this purpose. The combination induced profound myeloma cell apoptosis, greatly enhanced the uptake of myeloma cell apoptotic bodies by dendritic cell (DC) and induced anti-myeloma cytotoxicity by both CD8 + T cells and NK cells. Cytotoxic lymphocyte expansion was detected within 24 h of commencing therapy and was maximized when myeloma-pulsed DC were co-treated with low dose bortezomib and mapatumumab (LDB+Mapa) in the presence of NK cells. This study shows that Mapa has two distinct but connected modes of action against multiple myeloma (MM). First, when combined with LDB, Mapa produced powerful myeloma cell apoptosis; secondly, it promoted DC priming and an NK cell-mediated expansion of anti-myeloma cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL). Overall, this study indicates that Mapa can be used to drive potent anti-MM immune responses.

  15. DARPA Antibody Technology Program. Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv Antibody Produced by Illumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    ECBC-TR-1395 DARPA ANTIBODY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM STANDARDIZED TEST BED FOR... ANTIBODY CHARACTERIZATION: CHARACTERIZATION OF AN MS2 SCFV ANTIBODY PRODUCED BY ILLUMINA Patricia E. Buckley Alena M. Calm Heather Welsh Roy...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv

  16. Potent agonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarandi, M; Serfozo, P; Zsigo, J; Bokser, L; Janaky, T; Olsen, D B; Bajusz, S; Schally, A V

    1992-03-01

    Analogs of the 29 amino acid sequence of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) with agmatine (Agm) in position 29 have been synthesized by the solid phase method, purified, and tested in vitro and in vivo. The majority of the analogs contained desaminotyrosine (Dat) in position 1, but a few of them had Tyr1, or N-MeTyr1. Some peptides contained one or more additional L- or D-amino acid substitutions in positions 2, 12, 15, 21, 27, and/or 28. Compared to the natural sequence of GH-RH(1-29)NH2, [Dat1,Ala15]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-3-191) and [D-Ala2,Ala15]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-3-201) were 8.2 and 7.1 times more potent in vitro, respectively. These two peptides contained Met27. Their Nle27 analogs, [Dat1,Ala15,Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm(MZ-2-51), prepared previously (9), and [D-Ala2,Ala15,Nle28]GH-RH(1-28)Agm(MZ-3-195) showed relative in vitro potencies of 10.5 and 2.4, respectively. These data indicate that replacement of Met27 by Nle27 enhanced the GH-releasing activity of the analog when the molecule contained Dat1-Ala2 residues at the N-terminus, but peptides containing Tyr1-D-Ala2 in addition to Nle27 showed decreased potencies. Replacement of Ser28 with Asp in multi-substituted analogs of GH-RH(1-28)Agm resulted in a decrease in in vitro potencies compared to the parent compound. Thus, the Ser28-containing MZ-2-51, and [Dat1,Ala15,D-Lys21,Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm, its Asp28 homolog (MZ-3-149), possessed relative activities of 10.5 and 5.6, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AK, Litchman AH, Pillai S, eds. Cellular and Molecular Immunology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ... D, Brostoff J, Roth DB, Roitt IM, eds. Immunology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  18. Monoclonal anti-melanoma antibodies and their possible clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, K.E.; Hellstroem, Ingegerd; Washington Univ., Seattle; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1985-01-01

    Cell surface antigens of human melanoma, as defined by monoclonal antibodies, are discussed and in particular the three antigens p97, a GD3 ganglioside and a proteoglycan. The potential diagnostic uses of antibodies to melanoma antigens are reviewed including in vitro diagnosis by immuno-histology, in vitro diagnosis by serum assays and in vivo diagnosis by tumour imaging using radioactively labelled antibodies. The potential therapeutic uses of monoclonal antibodies to melanoma antigens are also reviewed including targets for antibody therapy, the use of antibodies alone, radiolabelled antibodies, antibody-toxin conjugates, antibody-drug conjugates, anti-idiotypic antibodies and vaccines. (UK)

  19. Iodoacetyl-functionalized pullulan: A supplemental enhancer for single-domain antibody-polyclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of survivin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takahiko; Arai, Hidenao; Koyama, Tetsuo; Hatano, Ken; Nemoto, Naoto; Matsuoka, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Survivin, an inhibitor of the apoptosis protein family, is a potent tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the methods that has been used for detection of survivin. However, ELISA has several disadvantages caused by the use of conventional antibodies, and we have therefore been trying to develop a novel ELISA system using camelid single-domain antibodies (VHHs) as advantageous replacements. Here we report a supplemental approach to improve the VHH-polyclonal antibody sandwich ELISA for survivin detection. Iodoacetyl-functionalized pullulan was synthesized, and its thiol reactivity was characterized by a model reaction with l-cysteine. The thiophilic pullulan was applied to an immunoassay asan additive upon coating of standard assay plates with an anti-survivin VHH fusion protein with C-terminal cysteine. The results showed that the mole ratio of the additive to VHH had a significant effect on the consequent response. Mole ratios of 0.07, 0.7, and 7 led to 90% lower, 15% higher, and 69% lower responses, respectively, than the response of a positive control in which no additive was used. The background levels observed in any additive conditions were as low as that of a negative control lacking both VHH and the additive. These results indicate the applicability of the thiol-reactive pullulan as a response enhancer to VHH-based ELISA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anticardiolipin antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, A; Woods, R; Dowding, V; Roden, D; Barry, C

    1987-10-01

    Anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) was present in the sera of 49% of 90 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The ACA was absent in 30 control patients with osteoarthritis. C-reactive protein levels equal to or exceeding 7 mg/dl were found in 10 patients all of whom were ACA positive. ACA was present in a larger proportion of rheumatoid factor (RF) positive than of RF negative patients. Male sex and extra-articular manifestations of RA were both more common in ACA positive than ACA negative patients. In the ACA positive group the lupus anticoagulant and VDRL tests were negative. However, a small number of patients had evidence of vascular events.