WorldWideScience

Sample records for living unit level

  1. Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradman, Asa; Schwartz, Jackie M.; Fenster, Laura; Barr, Dana B.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide use was restricted starting in the 1970s in developed countries and the 1980s and 1990s in developing countries. Current exposure to OC pesticides – DDT, lindane (99% pure gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) – occurs on a limited basis. We measured p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, HCB, beta (β)-HCH (the most persistent isomer of technical-grade HCH) and γ-HCH in serum from 426 low-income pregnant Latina women living in an agricultural community in California. Detection frequencies were 94-100%. Median levels (ng/g-lipid) of p,p′-DDE (1,052), p,p′-DDT (13), β-HCH (37) and HCB (65) were significantly higher than U.S. population levels. Multivariate analyses of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, β-HCH and HCB indicate that time spent living outside the United States and birthplace in an area of Mexico with recent use of OC pesticides were significant predictors of exposure. Time spent living in the United States was associated with increased serum levels of p,p′-DDE and β-HCH, but the increase for each year lived in the United States was lower than for each year lived outside the United States. There was no difference between the increase of HCB levels over time spent in or outside the United States, suggesting current and thus preventable exposure routes. However, we observed no associations between serum levels of any OC compound and current intake of saturated fat or agricultural take-home exposure risk factors. Lactation history and recent weight gain were negatively associated with serum levels of some, but not all OC compounds studied. Smoking history was borderline associated with elevated HCB levels. We observed no significant associations with body mass index. Although the weight of evidence from this study indicates that most exposure occurred prior to moving to the United States, the results for HCB indicate the possibility of ongoing exposure in this country. PMID:17033681

  2. Lifelong Learning Experience and Level of Social Exclusion or Inclusion of Asian Communities Living in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Klein, Sonia; Panesar, Jasbir

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects the situation of Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom which is influenced by global trends, the patterns of differing learning they participate in which are influenced by the concept of LifeLong Learning within each country, educational opportunities, socio......-economic positions of this target group and entrepreneurship activities taking place. Global trends influence disadvantaged learners level of participation in learning within Europe. The Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom, despite the differences in migration period, have made the decision to live......, including Asian communities, have been negatively affected in the recent years due to the increased political restrictions and media coverage. In comparison, despite the recent immigration policies in the UK, many members of the Asian communities have embraced the opportunities LifeLong Learning has...

  3. Relationships between the stocking levels of live trees and dead tree attributes in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; J.A. Westfall

    2009-01-01

    There has been little examination of the relationship between the stocking of live trees in forests and the associated attributes of dead tree resources which could inform large-scale efforts to estimate and manage deadwood resources. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between the stocking of standing live trees and attributes of standing dead and...

  4. Development and verification of a leningrad NPP unit 1 living PSA model in the INL SAPHIRE code format for prompt operational safety level monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronislav, Vinnikov

    2007-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents results of the work, that was carried out in complete conformity with the Technical Assignment, which was developed by the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant. The initial scientific and technical information, contained into the In-Depth Safety Assessment Reports, was given to the author of the work. This information included graphical Fault Trees of Safety Systems and Auxiliary Technical Systems, Event Trees for the necessary number of Initial Events, and also information about failure probabilities of basic components of the nuclear unit. On the basis of this information and fueling it to the Usa Idaho National Laboratory (INL) SAPHIRE code, we have developed an electronic version of the Data Base for failure probabilities of the components of technical systems. Then, we have developed both the electronic versions of the necessary Fault Trees, and an electronic versions of the necessary Event Trees. And at last, we have carried out the linkage of the Event Trees. This work has resulted in the Living PSA (LPSA - Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment) Model of the Leningrad NPP Unit 1. The LPSA-model is completely adapted to be consistent with the USA INL SAPHIRE Risk Monitor. The second part of the paper results in analysis of fire consequences in various places of Leningrad NPP Unit 1. The computations were carried out with the help of the LPSA-model, developed in SAPHIRE code format. On the basis of the computations the order of priority of implementation of fire prevention measures was established. (author)

  5. Classification of Living Things. A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development. Grades 7 and 8. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    This manual is one of a series designed to assist junior high school teachers in developing general level or non-academic science programs which focus on the relationship between science and society. Although designed primarily for grades 7 and 8, the content is also suitable for students in grade 6. The major portion of the manual consists of six…

  6. Table of Half-Lives for Excited Nuclear Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S G

    1970-07-15

    The knowledge of the half-lives of excited states is often a valuable information in the investigation of the nuclear level structure. The present paper contains a collection of such half-lives being published in the current literature over the period 1967-1970. The data is arranged in increasing order of mass number.

  7. PNGMDR - Characterisation of intermediate-level long-lived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    This document presents the status of the characterization of intermediate-level long-lived wastes which are warehoused on exploited EDF sites or which will be produced during the deconstruction of first-generation reactors. It addresses aspects related to characterisation and packaging of wastes produced before 2015. More specifically, it addresses aspects related to contamination and to activation. Contamination is assessed by measurements whereas activation assessment is based on numerical simulations associated with measurements performed during parcel production. After having mentioned the concerned reactors, the document presents the methodology adopted for these assessments, and reports the progress status of the characterization process for these intermediate-level long-lived wastes

  8. New law on staffing levels will save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Good news about nurse staffing levels can be hard to find, so how fantastic that a protracted campaign in Wales finally paid off last week with the passage of legislation to ensure hospital wards are staffed safely. Next month, the Queen will give royal assent to the Safe Nurse Staffing Levels (Wales) Bill, which will save lives, produce better outcomes and enhance the patient experience of care.

  9. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  10. Individual radiation doses from unit releases of long lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S.

    1990-04-01

    The turn-over in a standard biosphere of radionuclides, disposed in a repository for high level waste was studied from a dose point of view. A multi-compartment model with unit releases to the biosphere was designed and solved by the BIOPATH-code. The uncertainty in the results due to the uncertainty in input parameter values were examined for all nuclides with the PRISM-system. Adults and five year old children were exposed from 10 different exposure pathways originating from activity in well and lake water. The results given as total doses per year and Bq release (conversion factors) can be used in combination with leakage rates from the geosphere for safety analysis of a repository. The conversion factors obtained (arithmetic mean values), are given. (65 refs.) (authors)

  11. Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

  12. Plate waste of adults in the United States measured in free-living conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Roe

    Full Text Available We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e.g., school cafeterias. Plate waste from the same participants during the laboratory-based meals is significantly higher with an average of 203.2 grams of solid plate waste per meal (531.3 kcals or 39.1% of the food provided, which is similar to the plate waste percentages found reported in some school cafeteria settings. The amount of plate waste generated in free-living conditions is significantly positively associated with portion size selected for an item. In a multivariate analysis that controls for macronutrient profile, items selected from the vegetables, fats/oils/dressings, and grains categories are associated with significantly greater amounts of plate waste per item. We find no significant associations between free-living plate waste and gender, age, race or body mass index but find that women leave more plate waste in the lab meal where portion sizes are pre-determined by the researcher and similar for all respondents. We discuss possible implications of these findings for programs focused on reducing plate waste and food waste among consumers.

  13. Plate waste of adults in the United States measured in free-living conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, H. Raymond

    2018-01-01

    We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals) per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e.g., school cafeterias). Plate waste from the same participants during the laboratory-based meals is significantly higher with an average of 203.2 grams of solid plate waste per meal (531.3 kcals) or 39.1% of the food provided, which is similar to the plate waste percentages found reported in some school cafeteria settings. The amount of plate waste generated in free-living conditions is significantly positively associated with portion size selected for an item. In a multivariate analysis that controls for macronutrient profile, items selected from the vegetables, fats/oils/dressings, and grains categories are associated with significantly greater amounts of plate waste per item. We find no significant associations between free-living plate waste and gender, age, race or body mass index but find that women leave more plate waste in the lab meal where portion sizes are pre-determined by the researcher and similar for all respondents. We discuss possible implications of these findings for programs focused on reducing plate waste and food waste among consumers. PMID:29444094

  14. EnviroAtlas - Above Ground Live Biomass Carbon Storage for the Conterminous United States- Forested

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes the average above ground live dry biomass estimate for the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in kg/m...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Below Ground Live Tree Biomass Carbon Storage for the Conterminous United States- Forested

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes the average below ground live tree root dry biomass estimate for the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit Hydrologic Unit...

  16. "Living Apart Together": Relationships in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Strohm

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We use two surveys to describe the demographic and attitudinal correlates of being in "Living Apart Together" (LAT, cohabiting, and marital relationships for heterosexuals, lesbians, and gay men. About one third of U.S. adults not married or cohabiting are in LAT relationships - these individuals would be classified as "single" in conventional studies that focus on residential unions. Gay men are somewhat more likely than heterosexual men to be in LAT relationships. For heterosexuals and lesbians, LAT relationships are more common among younger people. Heterosexuals in LAT unions are less likely to expect to marry their partners, but more likely to say that couples should be emotionally dependent than are cohabiters. Regardless of sexual orientation, people in LAT relationships perceive similar amounts of emotional support from partners, but less instrumental support than cohabiters perceive.

  17. The physical activity levels among people living with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Frantz

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Furthermore, the presence of obesity, dietary imbalances and sedentary ... activities/exercises in people living with HIV/AIDS while being treated with ..... Smoking in Dyslipidaemia in HIV-Infected Patients with Lipodystrophy.

  18. Differences in Attitudes Toward Living Kidney Donation Among Dominican Immigrants Living in Spain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Flores-Medina, J; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Dominican population has a double-emigration pathway: one is to the USA, by proximity, and the other is to Spain, by sociocultural identification. Our aim was to determine attitudes toward living organ donation among Dominicans residing in Florida (USA) and Spain. All study participants were at least 15 years old and living in either Florida (USA) or Spain, and stratified by gender and age. A questionnaire on attitudes toward living kidney donation ("PCID-LKD Ríos") was used. The support of immigrant associations in Florida and Spain was required to advise on survey locations. Data obtained were anonymized and self-administered. The study questionnaire was completed by 123 Dominicans, 68% of whom were in favor of living related kidney donation. There were differences (P = .004) according to the country of residence. Eighty-one percent of Spain's Dominican residents were in favor, compared with 56% of Florida's residents. Factors associated with attitude toward donation were level of education (P donation (P = .006), attitude toward cadaveric organ donation (P donation (P = .046). Attitudes toward living kidney donation among immigrant Dominicans varies between Spain and the USA, with the former showing a more positive view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-Unit Initiating Event Analysis for a Single-Unit Internal Events Level 1 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong San; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 highlighted the importance of considering the risks from multi-unit accidents at a site. The ASME/ANS probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) standard also includes some requirements related to multi-unit aspects, one of which (IE-B5) is as follows: 'For multi-unit sites with shared systems, DO NOT SUBSUME multi-unit initiating events if they impact mitigation capability [1].' However, the existing single-unit PSA models do not explicitly consider multi-unit initiating events and hence systems shared by multiple units (e.g., alternate AC diesel generator) are fully credited for the single unit and ignores the need for the shared systems by other units at the same site [2]. This paper describes the results of the multi-unit initiating event (IE) analysis performed as a part of the at-power internal events Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for an OPR1000 single unit ('reference unit'). In this study, a multi-unit initiating event analysis for a single-unit PSA was performed, and using the results, dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing PSA model for the reference unit (OPR1000 type). Event trees were developed for dual-unit LOOP and dual-unit SBO which can be transferred from dual- unit LOOP. Moreover, CCF basic events for 5 diesel generators were modelled. In case of simultaneous SBO occurrences in both units, this study compared two different assumptions on the availability of the AAC D/G. As a result, when dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing single-unit PSA model, the total CDF increased by 1∼ 2% depending on the probability that the AAC D/G is available to a specific unit in case of simultaneous SBO in both units.

  20. Contextualizing immigrants' lived experience: story of Taiwanese immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun

    2003-01-01

    Immigration involves extensive changes in living environments. Nonetheless, the predominant approach in the health science literature has been to utilize individual characteristics (including ethnic background) to explain and predict immigrants' lived experiences and health outcomes. Contexts, particularly the larger societal contexts by which immigrants are constituted, are generally ignored. Data from a critical ethnography regarding immigrants' experiences with language, occupation, and economic survival in the United States are utilized to illustrate that immigrants' lives are inseparable from the larger societal contexts, such as immigration policy, Western imperialism, and structural discrimination. The implications for practice, education, and research are discussed.

  1. ANALISIS TINGKAT KEMATANGAN (MATURITY LEVELS UNIT LAYANAN PENGADAAN KABUPATEN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gde Uma Darmapramita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of government procurement of goods and service is governed by presidential regulation number 70 year of 2012.  According to that, in Badung Regency implemented centralized in Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency. As the one of Indonesia procurement unit pilot, Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency has given the opportunity to perform a self assessment of its  maturity levels as government unit. The objective of this research is to find factors that influence Procuremet Service Unit of Badung Regency maturity levels, and also to find out in what level is Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency stand. Data collection for this research have done by  using questionnaire that involve 50 respondents who understand very well about the duties and function of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency to perform a government procurement of good and services. The data analysis have been performed by use of factor analysis and supported by SPSS program. The result shows there are 3 factors that influent the Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency maturity levels, which are : the synergy and organization culture, resources and risk management and organization’s performance development.  Whereas the maturity levels of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency is stand at compliance. Based to the factors that formed, the highly commitment and strong leadership of Badung Regency leader are very decisive to push ahead the enhancement  and  the development of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency.  First thing can be done is to establish an independent Procurement Service Unit therewith its Procurement Unit Development road maps that can be tiered and sustainable plan, monitor and evaluate

  2. Regulatory approaches in the United States of America for safe management and disposal of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeves, J.T.; Bell, M.J.; Nelson, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Regulation of the safe management and disposal of commercial, man-made, long-lived radioactive wastes in the United States is the responsibility of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In some instances, state regulatory authorities have entered into agreements with the NRC to exercise regulatory authority over management and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and uranium mill tailings within their borders. The legal and regulatory framework employed to achieve safe management and disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes in the US regulatory system is quite detailed, and in many cases the requirements are considerably prescriptive. The NRC has undertaken an initiative to move in the direction of adopting risk-informed, performance-based and risk-informed, less-prescriptive regulations. The current status and future direction of the legal and regulatory framework for management and disposal of commercial long-lived radioactive waste in the US is described. (author)

  3. Depression And Loneliness Levels Among the Older People, a Comparison Between Living Alone, Living with Family or Living at Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Agirman

    2017-09-01

    CONCLUSION: In the study, we found out that, rate of depression in older people is higher than the level in entire society, the same is true for the sense of loneliness, loneliness becomes more fierce, as depression becomes stronger, The older people living alone are more exposed to depression compared to the ones living with family or being nursed, and loneliness becomes a more important problem for these people, [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(3.000: 234-240

  4. Different Living Things. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets.] Unit 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit is designed to: (1) help students develop an elementary understanding of how living things can be…

  5. Mental Health of Survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake Living in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Thousands of survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake are currently living in the United States. This podcast features a brief non-disease-specific interview with Dr. Marc Safran, CDC's longest serving psychiatrist, about a few of the mental health challenges such survivors may face.

  6. Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions of the continental United States. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies used outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Leigh, I.W.

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal technologies are an integral part of the waste management process. In the United States, commercial LLW disposal is the responsibility of the State or groups of States (compact regions). The United States defines LLW as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high- level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material as defined in Section II(e)(2) of the Atomic Energy Act. LLW may contain some long-lived components in very low concentrations. Countries outside the United States, however, may define LLW differently and may use different disposal technologies. This paper outlines the LLW disposal technologies that are planned or being used in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom (UK)

  8. Optimal maintenance policy incorporating system level and unit level for mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chaoqun; Deng, Chao; Wang, Bingran

    2018-04-01

    The study works on a multi-level maintenance policy combining system level and unit level under soft and hard failure modes. The system experiences system-level preventive maintenance (SLPM) when the conditional reliability of entire system exceeds SLPM threshold, and also undergoes a two-level maintenance for each single unit, which is initiated when a single unit exceeds its preventive maintenance (PM) threshold, and the other is performed simultaneously the moment when any unit is going for maintenance. The units experience both periodic inspections and aperiodic inspections provided by failures of hard-type units. To model the practical situations, two types of economic dependence have been taken into account, which are set-up cost dependence and maintenance expertise dependence due to the same technology and tool/equipment can be utilised. The optimisation problem is formulated and solved in a semi-Markov decision process framework. The objective is to find the optimal system-level threshold and unit-level thresholds by minimising the long-run expected average cost per unit time. A formula for the mean residual life is derived for the proposed multi-level maintenance policy. The method is illustrated by a real case study of feed subsystem from a boring machine, and a comparison with other policies demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach.

  9. LIVING TOGETHER IN SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL FROM LOGOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alfredo Salinas-Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess the Logoterapia to promote a harmonious coexistence secondary school level, for it involved second graders of secondary level being 37 male and 30 female whose ages ranged between 13 and 14 years and 17 teachers being 16 female and only one male with an average age of 33 years. The research was conducted using a descriptive, cross-sectional research design study by applying the Guide for Self-diagnosis of School Coexistence from the educational perspective of Fierro, Tapia, Fortoul, Martínez-Parente, Macouzet and Jimenez, the Existential Scale A. Längle, Orgler C. and M. Kundi and Purpose of Life Scale (PIL of Crumbaugh J. and Maholick. It is concluded that the development of personal skills and existential allow a harmonious school life.

  10. The Meaning of Everyday Meals in Living Units for Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Karen Marie

    2005-01-01

    Even when frail older people become unable to live on their own and manage everyday activities, they can still experience a variety of meanings within meal-related activities that contribute to quality of life. This article reports research findings that focused on the meal, from preparation......, adjacent to which is a shared dining room and kitchen. If the residents choose to, and are capable, they are involved in everyday activities of the unit and eat together with staff. This way of organising meals seems to influence most of the everyday life in the unit by shaping a homely place. It also...... enables a living community that acts in and enlivens everyday existence. Meals themselves also make it possible to be somebody and be yourself in ordinary life and to make a place for valued occupations, things that give substance to everyday life. In sum, the study found that as an occupation, meals give...

  11. Long-lived radionuclides in low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.E.; Coe, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    In July 1982, the Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch of the NRC, anticipating the impact of the proposed Part 61 to 10 CFR, funded a two-year project by SAI to study the radionuclide contents of LWR generated in low-level waste. The objectives of the study are: (1) to analyze, using verified techniques, 150 archived samples for specified beta- and x-ray-emitting nuclides that had not previously been analyzed; (2) to analyze twenty new samples obtained from operating plants for all relevant nuclides and compare them to previous data to ascertain trends; (3) to develop empirical scaling factors through the use of which concentrations of hard-to-analyze nuclides can be estimated from analyses of the gamma-ray emitting nuclides. The new samples are analyzed and the results are summarized and interpreted. Over fifty archived samples have also been analyzed. We discuss scaling factor development. Factors are presented that relate 63 Ni and 59 Ni to 60 Co for PWRs and to 58 Co for BWRs, 90 Sr to 137 Cs for BWRs and 241 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 244 Cm to 144 Ce for all LWRs. 8 figures, 3 tables

  12. Mental Health of Survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake Living in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-16

    Thousands of survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake are currently living in the United States. This podcast features a brief non-disease-specific interview with Dr. Marc Safran, CDC's longest serving psychiatrist, about a few of the mental health challenges such survivors may face.  Created: 4/16/2010 by CDC Center of Attribution: Mental and Behavioral Health Team, 2010 CDC Haiti Earthquake Mission, CDC Emergency Operations Center.   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  13. Plasticity, political economy, and physical growth status of Guatemala Maya children living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, B; Loucky, J

    1997-01-01

    Migration of Maya refugees to the United States since the late 1970s affords the opportunity to study the consequences of life in a new environment on the growth of Maya children. The children of this study live in Indiantown, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. Maya children between 4 and 14 years old (n = 240) were measured for height, weight, fatness, and muscularity. Overall, compared with reference data for the United States, the Maya children are, on average, healthy and well nourished. They are taller and heavier and carry more fat and muscle mass than Maya children living in a village in Guatemala. However, they are shorter, on average, than children of black, Mexican-American, and white ethnicity living in Indiantown. Children of Maya immigrants born in the United States tend to be taller than immigrant children born in Guatemala or Mexico. Families that invest economic and social resources in their children have taller children. More economic successful families have taller children. Migration theory and political economy theory from the social sciences are combined with plasticity theory and life history theory (parental investment) from biology to interpret these data.

  14. Comparison of place attachment influence on the level of happiness of people living near residential parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhakim, I.; Kurniawan, E. B.; Wardhani, D. K.

    2018-05-01

    Several studies have shown that living close to a park is associated with high levels of happiness. However, there is a possible difference in the level of happiness between living close to a park (0-400 meters radius) compared to living far from the park (400-1.000 meters radius). Therefore, this study aims to compare the influence of Place Attachment on the level of happiness for people living near a park, especially residential parks in some housing areas in Malang City. Place Attachment in this study defined as a bond between an individual and a particular setting. The study demonstrates a positive influence of Place Attachment on the level of happiness of people living near the park. Respondents who live close to a park (R = 0.441; Happiness Level = 97.8%; Average Happiness = 6.833) tend to have a higher level of happiness compared to respondents who live far from a park (R = 0.326; Happiness Level = 69.9%; average Happiness = 4.148). This result shows the urgency to reconsider the provision standard of residential parks in Indonesia which only suggests one residential park for every 1,000 meters radius.

  15. Noise pollution levels in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Bree; Joshi, Prashant; Heard, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Patients and staff may experience adverse effects from exposure to noise. This study assessed noise levels in the pediatric intensive care unit and evaluated family and staff opinion of noise. Noise levels were recorded using a NoisePro DLX. The microphone was 1 m from the patient's head. The noise level was averaged each minute and levels above 70 and 80 dBA were recorded. The maximum, minimum, and average decibel levels were calculated and peak noise level great than 100 dBA was also recorded. A parent questionnaire concerning their evaluation of noisiness of the bedside was completed. The bedside nurse also completed a questionnaire. The average maximum dB for all patients was 82.2. The average minimum dB was 50.9. The average daily bedside noise level was 62.9 dBA. The average % time where the noise level was higher than 70 dBA was 2.2%. The average percent of time that the noise level was higher than 80 dBA was 0.1%. Patients experienced an average of 115 min/d where peak noise was greater than 100 dBA. The parents and staff identified the monitors as the major contribution to noise. Patients experienced levels of noise greater than 80 dBA. Patients experience peak noise levels in excess of 100 dB during their pediatric intensive care unit stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel technique of reducing radon levels in living premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radon is a naturally occurring gas seeping into homes and underground structures (buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, etc.) from the surrounding soil through walls, floor, etc. and emanating from construction materials such as concrete, granite, etc. The level of radon is especially great in regions with the higher content of uranium in soil and water and with geological breaks of the Earth's crust. Concentrations of uranium higher than 10 g per ton of soil have been found in 14% of territory of Uzbekistan. As a result, for instance, concentration of radon 10-100 times exceeds the regulation level in 14% of premises in Tashkent, 41% of premises in Almalik town and 44% in Yangiabad town. The purpose of this work was creating a method to reduce concentration of radon gas in buildings and underground structures. We suppose that the most effective technique is a treatment of walls, floors, etc. of basement and underground structures by special chemicals which seal micropores inside the construction materials. Sealing the pores stops radon diffusion and, in addition, it blocks another radon pathway - water migration and emanation from concrete, gypsum or other construction materials. In the paper polymeric silicoorganic compounds are investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, Rn-222, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment by chemicals has been examined. Influence of types of cement and sand, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric silicoorganic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of concrete (ageing of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (ageing of treated concrete) have been examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spray. Experiments have shown that chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing the coefficient of gas

  17. The Living, Dynamic and Complex Environment Care in Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Büscher, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the Adult Intensive Care Unit environment of care, experienced by professionals working in this unit, managers, patients, families and professional support services, as well as build a theoretical model about the Adult Intensive Care Unit environment of care. Grounded Theory, both for the collection and for data analysis. Based on theoretical sampling, we carried out 39 in-depth interviews semi-structured from three different Adult Intensive Care Units. built up the so-called substantive theory "Sustaining life in the complex environment of care in the Intensive Care Unit". It was bounded by eight categories: "caring and continuously monitoring the patient" and "using appropriate and differentiated technology" (causal conditions); "Providing a suitable environment" and "having relatives with concern" (context); "Mediating facilities and difficulties" (intervenienting conditions); "Organizing the environment and managing the dynamics of the unit" (strategy) and "finding it difficult to accept and deal with death" (consequences). confirmed the thesis that "the care environment in the Intensive Care Unit is a living environment, dynamic and complex that sustains the life of her hospitalized patients".

  18. The Living, Dynamic and Complex Environment Care in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Terezinha Stein Backes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of the Adult Intensive Care Unit environment of care, experienced by professionals working in this unit, managers, patients, families and professional support services, as well as build a theoretical model about the Adult Intensive Care Unit environment of care.METHOD: Grounded Theory, both for the collection and for data analysis. Based on theoretical sampling, we carried out 39 in-depth interviews semi-structured from three different Adult Intensive Care Units.RESULTS: built up the so-called substantive theory "Sustaining life in the complex environment of care in the Intensive Care Unit". It was bounded by eight categories: "caring and continuously monitoring the patient" and "using appropriate and differentiated technology" (causal conditions; "Providing a suitable environment" and "having relatives with concern" (context; "Mediating facilities and difficulties" (intervenienting conditions; "Organizing the environment and managing the dynamics of the unit" (strategy and "finding it difficult to accept and deal with death" (consequences.CONCLUSION: confirmed the thesis that "the care environment in the Intensive Care Unit is a living environment, dynamic and complex that sustains the life of her hospitalized patients".

  19. The effect of adult children living in the United States on the likelihood of cognitive impairment for older parents living in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Brian; González-González, Cesar; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Wong, Rebeca

    2018-01-01

    The increased risk for poor physical and mental health outcomes for older parents in Mexico who have an adult child living in the United States may contribute to an increased risk for cognitive impairment in this population. The objective of this study was to examine if older adults in Mexico who have one or more adult children living in the United States are more or less likely to develop cognitive impairment over an 11-year period compared to older adults who do not have any adult children living in the United States. Data for this study came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. The final sample included 2609 participants aged 60 and over who were not cognitively impaired in 2001 and had one or more adult children (age ≥15). Participants were matched using a propensity score that was estimated with a multivariable logistic regression model that included sociodemographic characteristics and migration history of the older parents. Having one or more adult children living in the United States is associated with lower socioeconomic status and higher number of depressive symptoms, but greater social engagement for older parents living in Mexico. No significant differences in the odds for developing cognitive impairment according to having one or more adult children living in the United States were detected. In summary, having one or more adult children living in the United States was associated with characteristics that may increase and decrease the risk for cognitive impairment. This may contribute to the non-significant relationship between migration status of adult children and likelihood for cognitive impairment for older parents living in Mexico.

  20. The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non- Communicable Diseases: The Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach. ... The Political Declaration issued at the meeting focused the attention of world leaders and the global health community on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).

  1. A Bit(e) of the Everyday- The Meaning of Meals in the New Living Units for Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Karen Marie

    2003-01-01

    nursing homes in Denmark. Data were collected through participant observation during mealtimes in one unit and by interviewing and analysed using a comparative and interpretative approach. The themes identified that meals gave time and space for: a homely place, a lived community, being somebody and being......The aim of this qualitative study was to identity and interpret the experiences, values and meanings of the meals among a small group of elderly living in the new living units. Meals in this study include preparations and cleaning up besides the actual meal. Living units are a new way of organising...... yourself and for having valued doings. The conclusion was that the way meals were arranged shaped most of everyday life in the unit. They gave room for everyday life by shaping a homely place and enabled a living community that acted in and put life to the everyday. Meals also made it possible...

  2. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1996-02-09

    The ratio of {sup 210}Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ({sup 222}Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5{+-}2.2) x 10{sup -5} (arithmetic mean{+-}S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of {sup 210}Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of {sup 210}Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 214}Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of {sup 210}Po to {sup 210}Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, were 1:7.5x10{sup -5} and 1:0.6 x 10{sup -5}, respectively.

  3. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The ratio of 210 Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ( 222 Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5±2.2) x 10 -5 (arithmetic mean±S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of 210 Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of 210 Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, 210 Pb and 214 Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of 210 Po to 210 Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to 210 Pb and 210 Po, were 1:7.5x10 -5 and 1:0.6 x 10 -5 , respectively

  4. 76 FR 15342 - Workforce Investment Act; Lower Living Standard Income Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Standard Income Level AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of determination of Lower Living Standard Income Level. SUMMARY: Under Title I of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA... Income level (LLSIL) for uses described in the law. WIA defines the term ``Low Income Individual'' as one...

  5. 75 FR 25296 - Workforce Investment Act; Lower Living Standard Income Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Standard Income Level AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of Determination of Lower Living Standard Income Level. SUMMARY: Under Title I of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA... Income Level (LLSIL) for uses described in the law. WIA defines the term ``Low Income Individual'' as one...

  6. Measuring healthcare productivity - from unit to system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Vesa Johannes; Peltokorpi, Antti; Torkki, Paulus; Tallbacka, Kaj

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare productivity is a growing issue in most Western countries where healthcare expenditure is rapidly increasing. Therefore, accurate productivity metrics are essential to avoid sub-optimization within a healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to focus on healthcare production system productivity measurement. Design/methodology/approach - Traditionally, healthcare productivity has been studied and measured independently at the unit, organization and system level. Suggesting that productivity measurement should be done in different levels, while simultaneously linking productivity measurement to incentives, this study presents the challenges of productivity measurement at the different levels. The study introduces different methods to measure productivity in healthcare. In addition, it provides background information on the methods used to measure productivity and the parameters used in these methods. A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical information for managers. Findings - The study introduces different approaches and methods to measure productivity in healthcare. Practical implications - A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical benefits for managers. Originality/value - The authors focus on the measurement of the whole healthcare production system and try to avoid sub-optimization. Additionally considering an individual patient approach, productivity measurement is examined at the unit level, the organizational level and the system level.

  7. Perceptions of intersectional stigma among diverse women living with HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Whitney S; Logie, Carmen H; Napoles, Tessa M; Walcott, Melonie; Batchelder, Abigail W; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Wingood, Gina M; Konkle-Parker, Deborah J; Turan, Bulent; Wilson, Tracey E; Johnson, Mallory O; Weiser, Sheri D; Turan, Janet M

    2018-05-04

    Attitudes and behavior that devalue individuals based upon their HIV status (HIV-related stigma) are barriers to HIV prevention, treatment, and wellbeing among women living with HIV. Other coexisting forms of stigma (e.g., racism, sexism) may worsen the effects of HIV-related stigma, and may contribute to persistent racial and gendered disparities in HIV prevention and treatment. Few studies examine perceptions of intersectional stigma among women living with HIV. From June to December 2015, we conducted 76 qualitative interviews with diverse women living with HIV from varied socioeconomic backgrounds enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in Birmingham, Alabama; Jackson, Mississippi; Atlanta, Georgia; and San Francisco, California. Interview guides facilitated discussions around stigma and discrimination involving multiple interrelated identities. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using thematic analysis. Interviewees shared perceptions of various forms of stigma and discrimination, most commonly related to their gender, race, and income level, but also incarceration histories and weight. Women perceived these interrelated forms of social marginalization as coming from multiple sources: their communities, interpersonal interactions, and within systems and structures. Our findings highlight the complexity of social processes of marginalization, which profoundly shape life experiences, opportunities, and healthcare access and uptake among women living with HIV. This study highlights the need for public health strategies to consider community, interpersonal, and structural dimensions across intersecting, interdependent identities to promote the wellbeing among women living with HIV and to reduce social structural and health disparities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of season and living environment on children's urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Huang, Yu-Kai; Luvsan, Munkh-Erdene; Gombojav, Enkhjargal; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bulgan, Jargal; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2015-02-01

    Heating indoor living environments elevates air pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of season and living environment on children's urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Our study subjects were 320 children aged 11-15 years living in gers, brick houses and apartments, in ger and non-ger areas of Ulaanbaatar. Spot urine samples and questionnaires were collected three times from each subject in three seasons, September (warm) and December (cold) in 2011 and March (moderate) in 2012. Urinary 1-OHP was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (HPLC/FLD). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were applied to estimate the seasonal and residential effects on 1-OHP levels, adjusting for demographic and environmental factors. Children's urinary 1-OHP levels showed significant seasonal differences with 0.30 ± 0.57 μmol/mol creatinine in cold season, 0.14 ± 0.12 μmol/mol creatinine in moderate season, and 0.14 ± 0.21 μmol/mol creatinine in warm season. After controlling confounding factors, the GEE model showed that season, living area, and housing type had significant influence on children's urinary 1-OHP levels. Urinary 1-OHP levels in the cold and moderate seasons were, respectively 2.13 and 1.37 times higher than the warm season. Urinary 1-OHP levels for children living in ger areas were 1.27 times higher than those living in non-ger areas. Children who lived in gers or brick houses had 1.58 and 1.34 times higher 1-OHP levels, respectively, compared with those living in apartments. Children's urinary 1-OHP levels were associated with either estimated NO2 or SO2 concentrations at their home addresses in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolian children's urinary 1-OHP levels were significantly elevated during the cold season, and for those living in ger areas, gers, or brick houses in Ulaanbaatar. Children's urinary 1-OHP levels were associated PAH co

  9. Defining the "dose" of altitude training: how high to live for optimal sea level performance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Karlsen, Trine; Resaland, Geir K; Ge, R-L; Harber, Matthew P; Witkowski, Sarah; Stray-Gundersen, James; Levine, Benjamin D

    2014-03-15

    Chronic living at altitudes of ∼2,500 m causes consistent hematological acclimatization in most, but not all, groups of athletes; however, responses of erythropoietin (EPO) and red cell mass to a given altitude show substantial individual variability. We hypothesized that athletes living at higher altitudes would experience greater improvements in sea level performance, secondary to greater hematological acclimatization, compared with athletes living at lower altitudes. After 4 wk of group sea level training and testing, 48 collegiate distance runners (32 men, 16 women) were randomly assigned to one of four living altitudes (1,780, 2,085, 2,454, or 2,800 m). All athletes trained together daily at a common altitude from 1,250-3,000 m following a modified live high-train low model. Subjects completed hematological, metabolic, and performance measures at sea level, before and after altitude training; EPO was assessed at various time points while at altitude. On return from altitude, 3,000-m time trial performance was significantly improved in groups living at the middle two altitudes (2,085 and 2,454 m), but not in groups living at 1,780 and 2,800 m. EPO was significantly higher in all groups at 24 and 48 h, but returned to sea level baseline after 72 h in the 1,780-m group. Erythrocyte volume was significantly higher within all groups after return from altitude and was not different between groups. These data suggest that, when completing a 4-wk altitude camp following the live high-train low model, there is a target altitude between 2,000 and 2,500 m that produces an optimal acclimatization response for sea level performance.

  10. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  11. Lived experience of the intensive care unit for patients who experienced delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorne, Karen; Gaudine, Alice; Meadus, Robert; Solberg, Shirley

    2015-11-01

    Delirium is a common occurrence for patients in the intensive care unit and can have a profound and lasting impact on them. Few studies describe the experience of intensive care patients who have had delirium. To understand the lived experience of intensive care for critically ill patients who experienced delirium. The study participants consisted of 7 men and 3 women, 46 to 70 years old, who had delirium according to the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit. The van Manen method of hermeneutic phenomenology was used, and data collection entailed audio recorded semistructured interviews. Four themes were detected: "I can't remember," "Wanting to make a connection," "Trying to get it straight," and "Fear and safety concerns." Nurses working in intensive care units need to assess patients for delirium, assess the mental status of patients who have delirium, and help patients and patients' families learn about and deal with the psychological effects of the intensive care unit experience. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Economic Conditions During Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Singleton Live Births in the United States, 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire E; Li, Yu; Luo, Zhehui

    2017-11-15

    We know little about the relationship between the macroeconomy and birth outcomes, in part due to the methodological challenge of distinguishing effects of economic conditions on fetal health from effects of economic conditions on selection into live birth. We examined associations between state-level unemployment rates in the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, using natality data on singleton live births in the United States during 1990-2013. We used fixed-effect logistic regression models and accounted for selection by adjusting for state-level unemployment before conception and maternal characteristics associated with both selection and birth outcomes. We also tested whether associations between macroeconomic conditions and birth outcomes differed during and after (compared with before) the Great Recession (2007-2009). Each 1-percentage-point increase in the first-trimester unemployment rate was associated with a 5% increase in odds of preterm birth, while second-trimester unemployment was associated with a 3% decrease in preterm birth odds. During the Great Recession, however, first-trimester unemployment was associated with a 16% increase in odds of preterm birth. These findings increase our understanding of the effects of the Great Recession on health and add to growing literature suggesting that macro-level social and economic factors contribute to perinatal health. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Costs, Staffing, and Services of Assisted Living in the United States: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisling-Rundgren, Amy; Paul, David P; Coustasse, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Assisted-living facilities (ALFs), which provide a community for residents who require assistance throughout their day, are an important part of the long-term-care system in the United States. The costs of ALFs are paid either out of pocket, by Medicaid, or by long-term-care insurance. Monthly costs of ALFs have increased over the past 5 years on an average of 4.1%. The purpose of this research was to examine the future trends in ALFs in the United States to determine the impact of health care on costs. The methodology for this study was a literature review, and a total of 32 sources were referenced. Trends in monthly costs of ALFs have increased from 2004 to 2014. Within the past 5 years, there has been an increase on average of 4.1% in assisted-living costs. Medicaid is one payer for residents of ALFs, whereas another alternative is the use of long-term-care insurance. Unfortunately, Medicare does not pay for ALFs. Staffing concerns in ALFs are limited because of each state having different rules and regulations. Turnover and retention rates of nurses in ALFs are suggested to be high, whereas vacancy rate for nurses is suggested to be lower. The baby-boomer generation can be one contribution to the increase in costs. Over the years, there has been an increase in Alzheimer disease, which has had also an effect on cost in ALFs.

  14. Disposal approach for long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Joo Wan; Kim, Chang Lak

    2005-01-01

    There certainly exists the radioactive inventory that exceeds the waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste. In this paper, current disposal status of the long-lived radioactive waste in several nations are summarized and the basic procedures for disposal approach are suggested. With this suggestion, intensive discussion and research activities can hopefully be launched to set down the possible resolutions to dispose of the long-lived radioactive waste

  15. Assessment of studies and researches on warehousing - High-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This large report first presents the approach adopted for the study and research on the warehousing of high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes. It outlines how reversible storage and warehousing are complementary, discusses the lessons learned from researches performed by the CEA on long duration warehousing, presents the framework of studies and researches performed since 2006, and presents the scientific and technical content of studies and researches (warehousing need analysis, search for technical options providing complementarity with storage, extension or creation of warehousing installations). The second part addresses high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive waste parcels, indicates their origins and quantities. The third part proposes an analysis of warehousing capacities: existing capacities, French industrial experience in waste parcel warehousing, foreign experience in waste warehousing. The fourth part addresses reversible storage in deep geological formation: storage safety functions, storage reversibility, storage parcels, storage architecture, chronicle draft. The fifth part proposes an inventory of warehousing needs in terms of additional capacities for the both types of wastes (high-level, and intermediate-level-long-lived), and discusses warehousing functionalities and safety objectives. The sixth and seventh parts propose a detailed overview of design options for warehousing installations, respectively for high-level and for intermediate-level-long-lived waste parcels: main technical issues, feasibility studies of different concepts or architecture shapes, results of previous studies and introduction to studies performed since 2011, possible evolutions of the HA1, HA2 and MAVL concepts. The eighth chapter reports a phenomenological analysis of warehousing and the optimisation of material selection and construction arrangements. The last part discusses the application of researches to the extension of the

  16. Determination of optimum pressurizer level for kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Sup; Lee Jae Yong; Kim, Yo Han; Lee, Dong Hyuk [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To determine the optimum pressurizer water level during normal operation for Kori unit 1, performance and safety analysis are performed. The methodology is developed by evaluating {sup d}ecrease in secondary heat removal{sup e}vents such as Loss of Normal Feedwater accident. To demonstrate optimum pressurizer level setpoint, RETRAN-03 code is used for performance analysis. Analysis results of RETRAN following reactor trip are compared with the actual plant data to justify RETRAN code modelling. The results of performance and safety analyses show that the newly established level setpoints not only improve the performance of pressurizer during transient including reactor trip but also meet the design bases of the pressurizer volume and pressure. 6 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  17. Determination of optimum pressurizer level for kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Sup; Yong, Lee Jae; Kim, Yo Han; Lee, Dong Hyuk [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    To determine the optimum pressurizer water level during normal operation for Kori unit 1, performance and safety analysis are performed. The methodology is developed by evaluating {sup d}ecrease in secondary heat removal{sup e}vents such as Loss of Normal Feedwater accident. To demonstrate optimum pressurizer level setpoint, RETRAN-03 code is used for performance analysis. Analysis results of RETRAN following reactor trip are compared with the actual plant data to justify RETRAN code modelling. The results of performance and safety analyses show that the newly established level setpoints not only improve the performance of pressurizer during transient including reactor trip but also meet the design bases of the pressurizer volume and pressure. 6 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  18. Family members' lived experience in the intensive care unit: a phemenological study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKiernan, Margaret

    2012-01-31

    AIM: To describe the lived experience of family members of patients in the intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: Admission of a critically ill relative to an intensive care unit causes anxiety and stress to family members. Nursing care is initially focused on maintaining the physiological stability of the patient and less on the needs and concerns of family members. Understanding how families make sense of this experience may help nurses focus on the delivery of family centred care. METHODOLOGY: A phenomenological method was used to describe the lived experiences of family members of patients in an intensive care unit. In-depth interviews were conducted with six family members and analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged from the data: the need to know, making sense of it all, being there with them and caring and support. Family members needed honest information about the patient\\'s progress and outcome to make the situation more bearable for them. Making sense of the situation was a continuous process which involved tracking and evaluating care given. Being with their relative sustained their family bond and was a way to demonstrate love and support. Caring reassurance provided by the nurses enabled a sense of security. Support was needed by family members to assist them in coping. CONCLUSION: The research provided an insight into how family members viewed the impact of the admission and how they subsequently found ways of dealing with the situation. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Using a holistic approach to nursing assessment and care delivery in intensive care necessitates that nurses interact with and care for family members of patients. Development of a philosophy of family centred care is necessary, with formal assessment of families to take place soon after admission and an appropriate plan of care drawn up at this time.

  19. Korean immigrant women's lived experience of childbirth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Young; Kim, Wooksoo; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    To understand Korean immigrant women's common experiences and practices of utilizing health care services in the United States during childbirth. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design. Recruitment was conducted through advertisement on the MissyUSA.com website, which is the largest online community for married Korean women who live in North America. A purposive sample of 15 Korean immigrant women who experienced childbirth in the United States within the past 5 years was recruited. Data were collected using semistructured telephone interviews and were analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. During childbirth in the United States, participants faced multifaceted barriers in unfamiliar sociocultural contexts yet maintained their own cultural heritages. They navigated the unfamiliar health care system and developed their own strategies to overcome barriers to health care access. Korean immigrant women actively sought health information on the Internet and through social networking during childbirth. Korean immigrant women selectively accepted new cultural beliefs with some modifications from their own cultural contexts and developed their own distinct birth cultures. Understanding a particular culture and respecting women's traditions, beliefs, and practices about their childbirth could help nurses to provide culturally sensitive care. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Distribution of living larger benthic foraminifera in littoral environments of the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of larger benthic foraminifera in Recent littoral environment of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi and Western regions) was investigated with the aim of understanding the response of those foraminifera to an increase in water salinity. For this purpose, 100 sediment samples from nearshore shelf, beach-front, channel, lagoon, and intertidal environment were collected. Sampling was undertaken at a water depth shallower than 15 m in water with a temperature of 22 to 35˚C, a salinity ranging from 40 to 60‰ and a pH of 8. Samples were stained with rose Bengal at the moment of sample collection in order to identify living specimens. The most abundant epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera in the studied area were Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus with less common Spirolina areatina, S. aciculate and Sorites marginalis. The living specimens of the above mentioned species with normal test growing were particularly abundant in the nearshore shelf and lagoonal samples collected on seaweed. Dead specimens were concentrated in the coarser sediments of the beach-front, probably transported from nearby environments. Shallow coastal ponds are located in the upper intertidal zone and have a maximum salinity of 60‰ and contain abundant detached seagrass. Samples collected from these ponds possess a living foraminifera assemblage dominated by Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of Peneroplis presented abnormality in test growth, such as the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test, irregular suture lines and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress mainly caused by high and variable salinity. The unique presence of living epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the pond together with seagrass and continued to live in the pond. This hypothesis is supported by

  1. Stress Levels of Nurses in Oncology Outpatient Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Woonhwa; Kiser-Larson, Norma

    2016-04-01

    Oncology nursing is often a source of substantial stress for nurses. Many nurses, particularly novice nurses, have inadequate preparation to care for patients at the end of life and their families. Unless nurses prevent or manage work-related stress by using effective coping strategies, oncology nursing staff will continue to suffer from burnout and compassion fatigue. The purpose of this article is to identify stress levels and stressful factors of nurses working in oncology outpatient units and to explore coping behaviors for work-related stress of oncology staff nurses in outpatient units. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to identify stress levels and stressful factors for outpatient oncology nurses, investigate differences in stress levels among nurses' demographic characteristics, and explore coping behaviors of the nurses. Study participants (N = 40) included RNs and licensed practical nurses who completed the Nursing Stress Scale, three open-ended questions, and a demographic questionnaire. The highest sources of stress were workload and patient death and dying. Demographic variables of age and work experience in nursing showed a significant positive relationship to work-related stress scores. The three most frequently used coping behaviors were verbalizing, exercising or relaxing, and taking time for self. Continuing education programs on stress management are highly recommended. Outpatient oncology nurses should be nurtured and supported through tailored interventions at multiple levels to help them find effective coping strategies and develop self-care competencies. Although younger and less experienced nurses had lower mean stress scores than older and more experienced nurses, the continuing education programs and tailored interventions would be helpful for all oncology nursing staff.

  2. Cohabitation and children's living arrangements: New estimates from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Bumpass

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the 1995 and 2002 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth to examine recent trends in cohabitation in the United States. We find increases in both the prevalence and duration of unmarried cohabitation. Cohabitation continues to transform children's family lives, as children are increasingly likely to be born to a cohabiting mother (18Å  during 1997-2001 or to experience their mother's entry into a cohabiting union. Consequently, we estimate that two-fifths of all children spend some time in a cohabiting family by age 12. Because of substantial missing data in the 2002 NSFG, we are unable to produce new estimates of divorce and children's time in single-parent families. Nonetheless, our results point to the steady growth of cohabitation and to the evolving role of cohabitation in U.S. family life.

  3. Belonging and adapting: mental health of Bosnian refugees living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Emily F; Kane, Catherine F

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the experience of Bosnian refugees currently living in the United States. Using a phenomenological method, seven adult female Bosnian refugees each participated in an audio-recorded interview lasting from one to two hours. Two major themes emerged from the analyses of the text: belonging and adapting. Belonging included concepts of cultural memory, identity and difference, empathy and reciprocity, and perfection of speech. Adapting focused on coping with transitions, coping with memories of past and attendant losses, coping with accepting a new culture while trying to fit into the new culture, and learning the new language perfectly. Implicit in the refugees' experiences were states of culture shock, loneliness, psychic numbness, grief, nostalgia, and feelings of dejection, humiliation, inferiority, and feeling as if they belonged nowhere. Simultaneously, the refugees reported feelings of relief and safety after leaving behind the threat of death in their old homes, feelings of gratefulness for their new freedom to hope for a better life, and their restored ability to notice beauty, as well as a sense of normalcy in their new lives. Recommendations for nursing research include the need to identify additional factors promoting successful belonging and adapting in refugees. Recommendations for nursing practice include the importance of adopting a perspective that is respectful of the uniqueness of each refugee and the necessity for recognizing the normal processes of refugee adaptation.

  4. The Effect of Live Spontaneous Harp Music on Patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marie Chiasson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effect of live, spontaneous harp music on individual patients in an intensive care unit (ICU, either pre- or postoperatively. The purpose was to determine whether this intervention would serve as a relaxation or healing modality, as evidenced by the effect on patient’s pain, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and heart rate variability. Each consenting patient was randomly assigned to receive either a live 10-minute concert of spontaneous music played by an expert harpist or a 10-minute rest period. Spontaneous harp music significantly decreased patient perception of pain by 27% but did not significantly affect heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, or heart rate variability. Trends emerged, although being not statistically significant, that systolic blood pressure increased while heart rate variability decreased. These findings may invoke patient engagement, as opposed to relaxation, as the underlying mechanism of the decrease in the patients’ pain and of the healing benefit that arises from the relationship between healer, healing modality, and patient.

  5. Health Insurance Trends in United States Living Kidney Donors (2004 to 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Fleishman, A

    2016-12-01

    Some transplant programs consider the lack of health insurance as a contraindication to living kidney donation. Still, prior studies have shown that many adults are uninsured at time of donation. We extend the study of donor health insurance status over a longer time period and examine associations between insurance status and relevant sociodemographic and health characteristics. We queried the United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network registry for all living kidney donors (LKDs) between July 2004 and July 2015. Of the 53 724 LKDs with known health insurance status, 8306 (16%) were uninsured at the time of donation. Younger (18 to 34 years old), male, minority, unemployed, less educated, unmarried LKDs and those who were smokers and normotensive were more likely to not have health insurance at the time of donation. Compared to those with no health risk factors (i.e. obesity, smoking, hypertension, estimated glomerular filtration rate health risk factors at the time of donation were more likely to be uninsured (p health risk factors, blacks (28%) and Hispanics (27%) had higher likelihood of being uninsured compared to whites (19%; p health insurance benefits to all previous and future LKDs. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Environments of Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems Over the Central United States in Convection Permitting Climate Simulations: Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qing [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Houze, Robert A. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Leung, L. Ruby [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Feng, Zhe [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-12-27

    Continental-scale convection-permitting simulations of the warm seasons of 2011 and 2012 reproduce realistic structure and frequency distribution of lifetime and event mean precipitation of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over the central United States. Analysis is performed to determine the environmental conditions conducive to generating the longest-lived MCSs and their subsequent interactions. The simulations show that MCSs systematically form over the Great Plains ahead of a trough in the westerlies in combination with an enhanced low-level jet from the Gulf of Mexico. These environmental properties at the time of storm initiation are most prominent for the MCSs that persist for the longest times. Systems reaching 9 h or more in lifetime exhibit feedback to the environment conditions through diabatic heating in the MCS stratiform regions. As a result, the parent synoptic-scale wave is strengthened as a divergent perturbation develops over the MCS at high levels, while a cyclonic circulation perturbation develops in the midlevels of the trough, where the vertical gradient of heating in the MCS region is maximized. The quasi-balanced mesoscale vortex helps to maintain the MCS over a long period of time by feeding dry, cool air into the environment at the rear of the MCS region, so that the MCS can draw in air that increases the evaporative cooling that helps maintain the MCS. At lower levels the south-southeasterly jet of warm moist air from the Gulf is enhanced in the presence of the synoptic-scale wave. That moisture supply is essential to the continued redevelopment of the MCS.

  7. The Biosphere as a Living System. On Peculiarities of the Evolutionary Process on the Biosphere Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexej Yablokov

    2016-10-01

    ; spontaneity and non-directional changes of the development programs; securing successful changes by natural selection; geometrical progression of reproduction as a “spring” of life. There are four basic levels of organization of life: molecular-genetics, ontogenetics, species-populational, ecosystemic. Among the main features of the evolution of the biosphere: spreading of life on the planet; the uprising of the biosphere’ turnover of matters on the basis of the use of solar energy; increasing of the closeness of this turnover; strengthening the energy flow through the biosphere; the increase in mass of organic matter involved in this cycle; the emergence of the genetic code; the emergence of eukaryotes; increasing of the structural and functional diversity of the biosphere. Among the major achievements of evolution in the plant world: improving the chemical mechanisms of photosynthesis, plants access to land (the appearance of vascular and root systems; the growth of the photosynthetic capacity of terrestrial plant communities. Among the main achievements of evolution in the animal world: the appearance of the skeleton, hemoglobin; increasing the independence from the external factors (growth of a homeostasis; the emergence of the nervous system and sociality. Among the patterns of evolution of organs and functions in different groups of living organisms: the intensification of functions; intensification of the multifunctionality and duplications of biological systems components; supplementation (rather than substitution of new functions to the old. Chorologically (spatially biosphere is composed of ecosystems of all sizes, including biogeocoenoses (which are the ecosystems within the boundaries of the phytocenosis. Biogeocoenoses are minimal spatial unit of biosphere with its own evolutionary destiny (but not "one more" name of an ecosystem, is as usual treated in the western literature. The Biosphere as whole is not only the largest Earth’ ecosystem, but also

  8. Bat Biology, Genomes, and the Bat1K Project: To Generate Chromosome-Level Genomes for All Living Bat Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeling, Emma C; Vernes, Sonja C; Dávalos, Liliana M; Ray, David A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Myers, Eugene

    2018-02-15

    Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene. Despite their great numbers and diversity, many species are threatened and endangered. Here we announce Bat1K, an initiative to sequence the genomes of all living bat species (n∼1,300) to chromosome-level assembly. The Bat1K genome consortium unites bat biologists (>148 members as of writing), computational scientists, conservation organizations, genome technologists, and any interested individuals committed to a better understanding of the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie the unique adaptations of bats. Our aim is to catalog the unique genetic diversity present in all living bats to better understand the molecular basis of their unique adaptations; uncover their evolutionary history; link genotype with phenotype; and ultimately better understand, promote, and conserve bats. Here we review the unique adaptations of bats and highlight how chromosome-level genome assemblies can uncover the molecular basis of these traits. We present a novel sequencing and assembly strategy and review the striking societal and scientific benefits that will result from the Bat1K initiative.

  9. Physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in the Mmasechaba informal settlement in Gauteng. Apart from the questionnaire, anthropometric measurements were recorded and body mass index and waist-to-hip ratios were calculated. The results indicated that the incidence of ...

  10. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Maia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P 0.05. Sixteen captive males showed higher testosterone concentration during winter and spring compared with 30 free-living animals (P < 0.05. Progesterone concentration varied among seasons in 26 captive females (P < 0.05, being higher in autumn (15.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL than in summer (6.6 ± 1.5 ng/mL, winter (5.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL and spring (4.3 ± 0.7 ng/mL. Progesterone concentration of 24 free-living females varied between autumn (17.1 ± 6.0 ng/mL and winter (1.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL (P < 0.05, but we could not obtain data for spring or summer. No difference in progesterone levels was observed between captive and free-living females in autumn and winter.

  11. The interaction with suspended and settled sedimentary materials of long-lived radionuclides discharged into United Kingdom coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1987-11-01

    Low-level liquid radioactive wastes are routinely discharged under authorization into United Kingdom coastal waters from nuclear reactor sites, from nuclear fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants, and from other facilities connected with the nuclear industries. The effluents contain a wide range of radionuclides, with greatly varying half-lives and in different chemical forms. The receiving environments are also markedly different. All of these factors need to be taken into account in order that the authorizations for discharge are based on a sound knowledge of the underlying environmental science as well as meeting the objectives of radiological protection. The largest research effort has been expended on the longer-lived nuclides discharged from the BNFL plant at Sellafield into the Irish Sea. These studies have focused on such aspects as the nature of the effluent, the dispersion of the soluble nuclides out of the Irish Sea, the retention of other nuclides within it, and the incorporation of radionuclides into settled sediments. Some comparisons have also been made between other sites by observing the concentrations of radionuclides in similar materials, at similar distances, per unit rate of discharge. Although these studies are useful in developing an understanding of the dynamics of radionuclides in coastal environments, it is essential to have a wider and more general knowledge if the long-term consequences of discharging radionuclides—or any other chemical waste—into coastal waters are to be fully evaluated. These consequences are assessed by the use of models which have, necessarily, to simplify many of the processes involved. It is therefore all the more important that the underlying science relating to the nature and behaviour of the wastes, and of the receiving environment, is fully explored, and that the assumptions used in the models can be satisfactorily validated.

  12. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study

  13. Development of low level 226Ra analysis for live fish using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandani, Z.; Prestwich, W. V.; Byun, S. H.

    2017-06-01

    A low level 226Ra analysis method for live fish was developed using a 4π NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. In order to find out the best algorithm for accomplishing the lowest detection limit, the gamma-ray spectrum from a 226Ra point was collected and nine different methods were attempted for spectral analysis. The lowest detection limit of 0.99 Bq for an hour counting occurred when the spectrum was integrated in the energy region of 50-2520 keV. To extend 226Ra analysis to live fish, a Monte Carlo simulation model with a cylindrical fish in a water container was built using the MCNP code. From simulation results, the spatial distribution of the efficiency and the efficiency correction factor for the live fish model were determined. The MCNP model will be able to be conveniently modified when a different fish or container geometry is employed as fish grow up in real experiments.

  14. Aube storage centre for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2009 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information, opinion of the Health and safety Committee (CHSCT)

  15. Aube storage center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2008 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information

  16. Aube storage center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2010 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information, recommendations of the Health and safety Committee (CHSCT)

  17. The Lived Experience of Jordanian Parents in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuidhail, Jamila; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad; Mrayan, Lina; Salameh, Taghreed

    2017-04-01

    Many international studies in the field of neonatal nursing have identified parental stress, coping difficulties, support issues, and various other experiences that are related to the birth of a preterm infant. However, no studies have assessed the interrelated issues of parental stress, social support, satisfaction, and nursing support in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Jordan. This study describes the lived experiences, needs in relation to care, and support systems of parents whose neonates were admitted to the NICU. A qualitative design using a phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of Jordanian parents who gave birth to neonates in the NICU setting. Participants were recruited from the NICUs of government, teaching, and private hospitals. Data were collected using semistructured interviews that were conducted with parents in a suitable place. Ten participants were interviewed: eight mothers and two fathers. After interviews were transcribed, the methodology suggested by van Manen (1990) was used to analyze the data. The shock, worry, and anxiety experienced by parents; the influences of NICU admission on the experiences of parents and families; the information and assistance required and received by parents from healthcare professionals; and the emotions and satisfaction of parents were the main themes that emerged from the study to reflect the lived experience of parents of neonates in the NICU. The parents in this study were satisfied with the healthcare process in the NICUs, even when this care did not fulfill their expectations or needs for their infants. Nurses in the NICUs must develop interventions and strategies that minimize the stress experienced by parents and that support the emotional capacity of parents to deal with this stressful situation.

  18. Level 1 shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halada, P.; Cillik, I.; Stojka, T.; Kuzma, M.; Prochaska, J.; Vrtik, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results that have been applied within the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia. The SPSA project was realized by VUJE Trnava Inc., Slovakia in 2001-2002 years. The Level 1 SPSA study for Mochovce NPP Unit 1 covers internal events as well as internal (fires, floods and heavy load drop) and external (aircraft crash, extreme meteorological conditions, seismic event and influence of surrounding industry) hazards. Mochovce NPP consists of two operating units equipped with VVER 440/V213 reactors safety upgraded before construction finishing and operation start. 87 safety measures based on VVER 440 operational experience and international mission insights were implemented to enhance its operational and nuclear safety. The SPSA relates to full power PSA (FPSA) as a continuation of the effort to create a harmonized level 1 PSA model for all operational modes of the plant with the goal to use it for further purposes as follows: Real Time Risk Monitor, Maintenance Optimization, Technical Specifications Optimization, Living PSA. (author)

  19. Characteristics of Transgender Women Living with HIV Receiving Medical Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuko; Frazier, Emma L; Huang, Ping; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-09-01

    Little has been reported from population-based surveys on the characteristics of transgender persons living with HIV. Using Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) data, we describe the characteristics of HIV-infected transgender women and examine their care and treatment needs. We used combined data from the 2009 to 2011 cycles of MMP, an HIV surveillance system designed to produce nationally representative estimates of the characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States, to compare demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, and met and unmet needs for supportive services of transgender women with those of non-transgender persons using Rao-Scott chi-square tests. An estimated 1.3% of HIV-infected persons receiving care in the United States self-identified as transgender women. Transgender women were socioeconomically more marginalized than non-transgender men and women. We found no differences between transgender women and non-transgender men and women in the percentages prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, a significantly lower percentage of transgender women compared to non-transgender men had 100% ART dose adherence (78.4% vs. 87.4%) and durable viral suppression (50.8% vs. 61.4%). Higher percentages of transgender women needed supportive services. No differences were observed in receipt of most of supportive services, but transgender women had higher unmet needs than non-transgender men for basic services such as food and housing. We found little difference between transgender women and non-transgender persons in regards to receipt of care, treatment, and most of supportive services. However, the noted disparities in durable viral suppression and unmet needs for basic services should be explored further.

  20. Predisposing risk factors for delirium in living donor liver transplantation patients in intensive care units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Han Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delirium is one of the main causes of increased length of intensive care unit (ICU stay among patients who have undergone living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. We aimed to evaluate risk factors for delirium after LDLT as well as to investigate whether delirium impacts the length of ICU and hospital stay. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients who underwent LDLT during the period January 2010 to December 2012 at a single medical center were enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU scale was used to diagnose delirium. Preoperative, postoperative, and hematologic factors were included as potential risk factors for developing delirium. RESULTS: During the study period, delirium was diagnosed in 37 (47.4% patients after LDLT. The mean onset of symptoms occurred 7.0±5.5 days after surgery and the mean duration of symptoms was 5.0±2.6 days. The length of stay in the ICU for patients with delirium (39.8±28.1 days was significantly longer than that for patients without delirium (29.3±19.0 days (p<0.05. Risk factors associated with delirium included history of alcohol abuse [odds ratio (OR = 6.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.85-22.06], preoperative hepatic encephalopathy (OR = 4.45, 95% CI: 1.36-14.51, APACHE II score ≥16 (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.71-2.56, and duration of endotracheal intubation ≥5 days (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.52-2.23. CONCLUSIONS: History of alcohol abuse, preoperative hepatic encephalopathy, APACHE II scores ≥16 and endotracheal intubation ≥5 days were predictive of developing delirium in the ICU following liver transplantation surgery and were associated with increased length of ICU and hospital stay.

  1. Projected demographic composition of the United States population of people living with diagnosed HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia E; Golden, Matthew R; Hughes, James P; Goodreau, Steven M; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Buskin, Susan E; Hawes, Stephen E

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of HIV from a fatal disease to lifelong disease has resulted in an HIV-infected population that is growing and aging, placing new and increasing demands on public programs and health services. We used National HIV Surveillance System and US census data to project the demographic composition of the population of people living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) in the United States through 2045. The input parameters for the projections include: (1) census projections, (2) number of people with an existing HIV diagnosis in 2013, (3) number of new HIV diagnoses in 2013, and (4) death rate within the PLWDH population in 2013. Sex-, risk group-, and race-specific projections were estimated through an adapted Leslie Matrix Model for age-structured populations. Projections for 2013-2045 suggest that the number of PLWDH in the U.S. will consistently grow, from 917,294 to 1,232,054, though the annual growth rate will slow from 1.8% to 0.8%. The number of PLWDH aged 55 years and older will increase from 232,113 to 470,221. The number of non-Hispanic (NH) African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics is projected to consistently grow, shifting the racial/ethnic composition of the US PLWDH population from 32 to 23% NH-White, 42 to 38% NH-Black, and 20-32% Hispanic between 2013 and 2045. Given current trends, the composition of the PLWDH population is projected to change considerably. Public health practitioners should anticipate large shifts in the age and racial/ethnic structure of the PLWDH population in the United States.

  2. Assessment of the impact of an old MSWI. Part 2. Level of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in serum of people living in its vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, C.; Focant, J.F.; Massart, A.C.; Eppe, G.; Pauw, E. De [Mass Spectrometry Lab., Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    For biomonitoring purposes, levels of Dioxin and PCB in human serum have been extensively measured all over the world, mostly in Asia or United States, but also in Europe such as in Germany, United Kingdom, Spain or in the Nordic Countries. These studies have been carried out either on general population in order to draw background level, or on exposed people to assess health risk or to highlight dioxin source emissions. This study reports dioxin and PCB concentrations in serum from people living in the surrounding of an old municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) recently closed because of very high dioxin emission rates.

  3. Characterisation of long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K.; Carlsson, T.; Viitanen, P.; Walderhaug, T.; Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S.; Backe, S.

    1997-11-01

    The present report is final report from a study on characterisation of radioactive waters in the Nordic countries. The study has mainly been focused on long-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Methods to measure or estimate the activity content and the general composition are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding characterisation of waste under treatment and characterisation of already produced waste packages. (au)

  4. Characterisation of long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Nordic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB, (El Salvador); Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe, (Denmark); Carlsson, T.; Viitanen, P. [VVT, (Finland); Walderhaug, T. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute (Iceland); Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)

    1997-11-01

    The present report is final report from a study on characterisation of radioactive waters in the Nordic countries. The study has mainly been focused on long-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Methods to measure or estimate the activity content and the general composition are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding characterisation of waste under treatment and characterisation of already produced waste packages. (au).

  5. Practice of walking and its association with perceived environment among elderly Brazilians living in a region of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Rodrigo S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was analyze associations between the practice of walking and environmental perception among elderly Brazilians in a region of low socioeconomic level. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 elderly people aged 60 years and over. To evaluate walking, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, long version (leisure and transport modules was used. The environment was evaluated by means of the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale (NEWS (adapted Brazilian version. For the statistical analysis, multiple logistic regression models were created separately for men and women. The practice of at least 150 minutes a week of walking was the dependent variable, and the variables of environmental perception were the independent variables. All the models were controlled for schooling level and age. Results The proportion of elderly people active in walking was 56.9% for the men and 26.4% for the women. The perception of the presence of soccer fields (OR = 4.12 and their proximity, within ten minutes' walk from home (OR = 3.43, were associated with the practice of walking among the men. The perception of the presence of public squares (OR = 4.70 and the proximity of primary healthcare units, within ten minutes' walk from home (OR = 3.71, were associated with the practice of walking among the women. An association with adequate perception of vehicle traffic remained at the threshold of significance for the women. Conclusion Accessibility of leisure structures such as football fields and public squares and of health services such as primary healthcare units were important environmental variables associated with the practice of walking among elderly people living in a region of low socioeconomic level in Brazil. These variables need to be taken into consideration when aiming to promote the practice of walking among elderly people living in similar regions.

  6. Separation of actinides and long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive wastes (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarik, Z.

    1991-11-01

    The management of high-level radioactive wastes is facilitated, if long-lived and radiotoxic actinides and fission products are separated before the final disposal. Especially important is the separation of americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium, strontium, cesium and technetium. The separated nuclides can be deposited separately from the bulk of the high-level waste, but their transmutation to short-lived nuclides is a muchmore favourable option. This report reviews the chemistry of the separation of actinides and fission products from radioactive wastes. The composition, nature and conditioning of the wastes are described. The main attention is paid to the solvent extraction chemistry of the elements and to the application of solvent extraction in unit operations of potential partitioning processes. Also reviewed is the behaviour of the elements in the ion exchange chromatography, precipitation, electrolysis from aqueous solutions and melts, and the distribution between molten salts and metals. Flowsheets of selected partitioning processes are shown and general aspects of the waste partitioning are shortly discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Living in the United States. A Brief Introduction to the Culture for Visitors, Students and Business Travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Anni; Clark, Raymond C.

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of the United States, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money and banks; food; restaurants; drinking and smoking laws; hotels; postal and telecommunications services;…

  8. Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Eskenazi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP and three diethyl alkylphosphates (DEAP in urine samples collected from ~400 children living in an agricultural community when they were 6, 12, and 24 months old. We examined bivariate associations between DAP metabolite levels and determinants such as age, diet, season, and parent occupation. To evaluate independent impacts, we then used generalized linear mixed multivariable models including interaction terms with age. The final models indicated that DMAP metabolite levels increased with age. DMAP levels were also positively associated with daily servings of produce at 6- and 24-months. Among the 6-month olds, DMAP metabolite levels were higher when samples were collected during the summer/spring versus the winter/fall months. Among the 12-month olds, DMAP and DEAP metabolites were higher when children lived ≤60 meters from an agricultural field. Among the 24-month-olds, DEAP metabolite levels were higher during the summer/spring months. Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of OP pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. The impact of these determinants varied by age and class of DAP metabolite.

  9. How unit level nursing responsibilities are structured in US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnick, Ann F; Mion, Lorraine C; Johnson, Mary E; Catrambone, Cathy

    2007-10-01

    To describe (1) the extent to which acute and intensive care units use the elements of nursing models (team, functional, primary, total patient care, patient-focused care, case management) and (2) the deployment of non-unit-based personnel resources. The lack of current data-based behavioral descriptions of the extent to which elements of nursing models are implemented makes it difficult to determine how work models may influence outcomes. Nurse managers of 56 intensive care units and 80 acute care adult units from 40 randomly selected US hospitals participated in a structured interview regarding (1) day-shift use of patient assignment behaviors associated with nursing models and (2) the availability and consistency of assignment of non-unit-based support personnel. No model was implemented fully. Almost all intensive care units reported similar assignment behaviors except in the consistency of patient assignment. Non-intensive care units demonstrated wide variation in assignment patterns. Patterns differed intra-institutionally. There were large differences in the availability and deployment of non-unit-based supportive resources. Administrators must recognize the differences in work models within their institutions as a part of any quality improvement effort. Attempts to test new work models must be rigorous in the measurement of their implementation.

  10. A relational leadership perspective on unit-level safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debra N; Hoffman, Leslie A; Sereika, Susan M; Lorenz, Holly L; Wolf, Gail A; Burns, Helen K; Minnier, Tamra E; Ramanujam, Rangaraj

    2011-11-01

    This study compared nursing staff perceptions of safety climate in clinical units characterized by high and low ratings of leader-member exchange (LMX) and explored characteristics that might account for differences. Frontline nursing leaders' actions are critical to ensure patient safety. Specific leadership behaviors to achieve this goal are underexamined. The LMX perspective has shown promise in nonhealthcare settings as a means to explain safety climate perceptions. Cross-sectional survey of staff (n = 711) and unit directors from 34 inpatient units in an academic medical center was conducted. Significant differences were found between high and low LMX scoring units on supervisor safety expectations, organizational learning-continuous improvement, total communication, feedback and communication about errors, and nonpunitive response to errors. The LMX perspective can be used to identify differences in perceptions of safety climate among nursing staff. Future studies are needed to identify strategies to improve staff safety attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  11. Impurity levels and fatigue lives of pseudoelastic NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, M.; Frenzel, J.; Frotscher, M.; Pfetzing-Micklich, J.; Steegmüller, R.; Wohlschlögel, M.; Mughrabi, H.; Eggeler, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we show how different oxygen (O) and carbon (C) levels affect fatigue lives of pseudoelastic NiTi shape memory alloys. We compare three alloys, one with an ultrahigh purity and two which contain the maximum accepted levels of C and O. We use bending rotation fatigue (up to cycle numbers >10 8 ) and scanning electron microscopy (for investigating microstructural details of crack initiation and growth) to study fatigue behavior. High cycle fatigue (HCF) life is governed by the number of cycles required for crack initiation. In the low cycle fatigue (LCF) regime, the high-purity alloy outperforms the materials with higher number densities of carbides and oxides. In the HCF regime, on the other hand, the high-purity and C-containing alloys show higher fatigue lives than the alloy with oxide particles. There is high experimental scatter in the HCF regime where fatigue cracks preferentially nucleate at particle/void assemblies (PVAs) which form during processing. Cyclic crack growth follows the Paris law and does not depend on impurity levels. The results presented in the present work contribute to a better understanding of structural fatigue of pseudoelastic NiTi shape memory alloys

  12. Multistate outbreak of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections linked to live poultry from agricultural feed stores and mail-order hatcheries, United States 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara C. Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Live poultry-associated salmonellosis is an emerging public health issue in the United States. Public and animal health officials collaborated to investigate one of the largest (356 cases, 39 states of these outbreaks reported to date. A case was defined as illness in a person infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium with illness onset between 1 March and 22 October 2013. The median patient age was seven years (range: <1–87 years; 58% of ill persons were children ≤10 years, 51% were female, 25% were hospitalized; 189 (76% of 250 patients reported live poultry exposure in the week before illness; and 149 (95% of 157 reported purchasing live poultry from agricultural feed stores. Traceback investigations identified 18 live poultry sources, including 16 mail-order hatcheries. Environmental sampling was conducted at two mail-order hatcheries. One (2.5% of 40 duplicate samples collected at one hatchery yielded the outbreak strain. Live poultry are an important source of human salmonellosis, particularly among children, highlighting the need for educational campaigns and comprehensive interventions at the mail-order hatchery and agricultural feed store levels. Prevention and control efforts depend on a One Health approach, involving cooperation between public and animal health officials, industry, health professionals, and consumers.

  13. Black lives matter: a theological response to racism's impact on the black body in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Williams, David R.

    2017-01-01

    After the killing of 18-year-old Michael Brown by police in Ferguson, Missouri in August 2014, there has been a renewed movement in the United States and across the world in support of black lives. The movement, under the guiding framework of Black Lives Matter, has resulted in a national conversation on police brutality and racism, and the violent effects these have on the black body. Using the framework of black theological thought on the body, this paper identifies the many ways that racis...

  14. Measurement of millisecond half-lives of isomeric levels in some nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, K C; Khurana, C S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1976-09-01

    Half-lives of 2.7, 14.5, 17, 20, 20.4, 44 and 2230 msec, of isomeric levels in /sup 208/Bi, /sup 88/Y, /sup 75/As, /sup 24/Na, /sup 71/Ge, /sup 114/In and /sup 167/Er respectively have been measured, employing on-line irradiation system. These millisecond isomeric levels are produced by 14.7 MeV neutrons through (n,p), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,n') and (n,2n) reactions on natural target samples. A ..gamma..-ray scintillation detector coupled with NTA-512B, 1024 channel analyzer has been used to follow the decay of the millisecond activities. Deflected deuteron beam bursts have been used to reduce the long-time background to initial count ratios in the decay curves to achieve a better accuracy of measurements.

  15. Comparison of Nutrition and Lung Function Outcomes in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Living in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Christopher H; Sykes, Jenna; Stanojevic, Sanja; Marshall, Bruce; Petren, Kristofer; Ostrenga, Josh; Fink, Aliza; Elbert, Alexander; Quon, Bradley S; Stephenson, Anne L

    2018-03-15

    A 10-year gap in the median age of survival for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was reported between patients living in Canada compared with patients living in the United States. Because both malnutrition and poor lung function are associated with an increased risk of mortality in CF, we investigated the temporal and longitudinal trends in lung function and nutrition between Canada and the United States. This cohort study used Canadian CF Registry and U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry data from 1990 to 2013. A unified dataset was created to harmonize the variables collected within the two registries for the purpose of comparing outcomes between the two countries. We conducted three analyses: survival differences by birth cohort; population trends for FEV 1 and body mass index (BMI) over time; and individual patient FEV 1 and BMI trajectories. The study included a total of 37,772 patients in the United States and 5,149 patients in Canada. Patients with CF experienced significant improvements in nutritional status and lung function in both Canada and the United States during the study. In addition, the survival gap between the two countries is narrowing within younger birth cohorts. The improvements for the patients within the United States were most prominent in the BMI trajectories, where patients born after 1990 in the United States have higher BMI that has persisted over time. The reasons for the observed improvements, and catch-up in the United States, are likely multifactorial and include the introduction of high-fat, high-calorie diets; introduction of newborn screening; and/or improved access to care for CF children in the United States.

  16. Determination of long-lived radionuclides at ultratrace level using advanced mass spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoriy, M.

    2005-11-01

    Determination of long-lived radionuclides at sub-fg concentration level is a challenging task in analytical chemistry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with its ability to provide the sensitive and fast multielemental analysis is one of the most suitable method for the measurements of long lived radionuclides in the trace and ultra trace concentration range. In present the Ph.D. study a variety of procedures have been developed permitting the sub fg ml-1 determination of long-lived radionuclides (e.g. U, Th, Pu) as well as 226 Ra (T 1/2 = 1600 y) and 90 Sr (T 1/2 = 28.1 y) in different samples. In order to avoid isobaric interferences, to increase the sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the methods the application of different techniques: pre-concentration of the sample, off-line separation on the crown resin, measurements under cold plasma conditions, using microconcentric nebulizers (e.g DIHEN, DS-5) or the application of LA-ICP-MS for sample introduction have been studied. The limits of detection for different radionuclides was significantly improved in comparison to the ones reported in the literature, and, depending on the method applied, was varied from 10 -15 to 10 -18 g ml -1 concentration range. In addition to the analysis of long lived radionuclides, some other elements, that can present potential interest to the analyzed sample, were measured within the framework of the present study. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAICP- MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 20μm m thin sections of human brain tissue. The sample surface was scanned (raster area ∝80 mm 2 ) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 213 nm, diameter of laser crater 50μm, and laser power density 3x10 9 W cm -2 ) in a cooled laser ablation chamber developed for these measurements. Cross sections of human brain samples - hippocampus as well as brain tissues infected and non-infected with Glioblastoma Multiforme (tumor

  17. Daily Living Skills at Your Fingertips. Daily Living Skills for 0-4 Level Adult Basic Education Students. Curriculum and Teacher Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Margret

    A curriculum and teacher guide are provided for a program to teach daily living skills to 0-4 level adult basic education students. The guide presents a method of instruction and lists the materials provided. Teaching plans (content outlines) are provided for these areas: cooking, housekeeping, laundry, leisure skills, and medication awareness. A…

  18. Noise level in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Werther B; Pedreira, Mavilde L G; de Aguiar, Maria Augusta L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the noise level at a PICU. This prospective observational study was performed in a 10 bed PICU at a teaching hospital located in a densely populated district within the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Sound pressure levels (dBA) were measured 24 hours during a 6-day period. Noise recording equipment was placed in the PICU access corridor, nursing station, two open wards with three and five beds, and in isolation rooms. The resulting curves were analyzed. A basal noise level variation between 60 and 70 dBA was identified, with a maximum level of 120 dBA. The most significant noise levels were recorded during the day and were produced by the staff. The basal noise level identified exceeds International Noise Council recommendations. Education regarding the effects of noise on human hearing and its relation to stress is the essential basis for the development of a noise reduction program.

  19. Long-lived 222Rn progeny concentrations in ground level air of Milan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcazzan, G.M.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Bocelli, R.

    2002-01-01

    Short-lived (2 18P o, 2 14P b, 2 14B i, 2 14P o) as well as long-lived (2 10P b, 2 10B i, 2 10P o) Radon's decay products in atmosphere are due to the 2 22R n exhalation from the continental Earth's crust, where it is generated in the 2 38U decay series. The measurement of the radionuclides concentration in the atmosphere - in addition to yielding valuable data for radioprotection purposes and for assessing the environmental impact of natural radioactivity - can provide information on atmospheric thermodynamic conditions as well as on atmospheric processes that involve aerosols such as transport, dispersion, removal rates and residence time. In particular, the concentration ratio of 2 10P b with other Radon's daughters can be used to obtain information on mean residence time of aerosols (Poet et al., 1972; Rangarajan, 1992; Gaggeler et al., 1995). Continuous measurements of hourly concentration of Radon and its short-lived progeny are routinely carried out in Milan by our group, and the temporal behaviour comes out a suitable tracer of atmospheric stability conditions and a local index of the evolution of the mixing layer height (Marcazzan et al., 1993; Marcazzan et al., 1997). The aim of this work was to measure the concentration and temporal behaviour of 2 10P b on a weekly and a monthly scale at ground level in the urban area of Milan and to get reliable measurements on the annual average concentration for the implementation of the existing data base (Preiss et al., 1996)

  20. Measurement of the Radiative Decay of the Longest-Lived Level in the Fe XVII Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2014-08-01

    The Fe XVII emission spectrum comprises several very prominent X-ray lines that play an important role in the study of many astrophysical objects. Among the Fe XVII X-ray lines, those emanating from a 3s level, i.e., lines 3F, 3G, and M2, invariably appear too strong compared to the lines emanating from a 3d level, i.e., lines 3C and 3D, when compared to theory. Two of the four 3s levels are metastable, which means they have a rather long radiative decay time compared to collisional processes. The decay rate of the 2p^53s J=2 level has recently been measured at the Livermore EBIT facility [J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia and P. Beiersdorfer, ApJ 721, 576 (2010)], and the scatter of predictions by a factor of 1.7 has been reduced to a measurement uncertainty of merely a few percent. Even longer-lived is the J=0 level of the same 2p^53s configuration. Theory predicts an exclusive magnetic dipole decay to the lowest J=1 level of the same 2p^53s configuration, i.e. to the upper level of line 3G. There appear to be fewer predictions for this rate than for the rates associated with the other Fe XVII levels. Various calculations yield a decay rate near 16 000 s-1 for this level (or a level lifetime near 63 µs). If this value is correct, electron-impact collisions affect line ratios tied to this level at densities between about 10^10 cm-3 and 10^13 cm-3, that is, exactly at many coronal densities of present interest. We have used the Livermore EBIT facility to measure the M1 decay rate of the 2p^53s J=0 level. We find a value commensurate with the value predicted by the Flexible Atomic Code.Work performed under auspices of U.S. D.o.E. by DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA progam under Interagency Agreement NNG13WF991.

  1. Context of the long-term management of low-level short-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.

    2004-01-01

    Until the international moratorium of 1983, Belgium relied on sea disposal for its low-level waste. Since then, ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian radioactive waste management agency, has launched studies to look for land-based solutions. These studies, which are still going on, have gone through various phases. The sometimes harsh reactions in public opinion and the recommendations of independent experts, however, progressively led ONDRAF/NIRAS to question its work methodology. On 16 January 1998 was a milestone in Belgian's nuclear waste management. On that day, the Belgian federal government opted for a final, or potentially final, solution for the long-term management of short-lived, low-level radioactive waste, a solution that also had to be progressive, flexible, and reversible. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAF/NIRAS in particular that of developing methods to enable the integration of final repository project proposals at a local level and restricted the number of potential sites for final disposal to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium and to possibly interested local districts. The government's decision of 16 January 1998 forced ONDRAF/NIRAS to change its strategy. The agency set up a new work programme and worked out an innovative methodology. This new methodology aims to generate, at the level of the interested towns and villages, draft projects for a final repository supported by a wide public consensus. (author)

  2. Evaluation of tectonic impact on radon level of lithological units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkowicz, S.; Strzelecki, R.

    2000-01-01

    The radon potential maps of the Sudetes Mountains and Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been prepared on a base of arithmetic mean value of radon concentration in soil air in distinguished lithological/stratigraphic units. Both zones of shallow position of ground table and the fault zones influence value of this parameter: the first one affects in specific conditions lowering of background values, the second ones - origin of values several and teen times higher than rock background values. Estimation of power of tectonic influence on general radon potential of the lithological units has been made on a base of examination of histograms of distribution of radon concentration in soil air. In the Sudetes area, 0 % to about 30 % of the measurements is related to fault zones. Higher tectonic engagement (about 30 %) characterizes the Karkonosze Granites, Izera Gneisses and Strzegom Granites. In the cases of Karkonosze Granites and the Strzegom Granites, rock background values concentrations in soil air are a little than 50 kBq/m 3 , what is the value defined for lower threshold of high radon risk areas. In conclusion, presence of numerous fault zones and fissures increases radon risk category with one class. Background modal values of radon emanations, defined for the studied units, in the 5 cases fulfill criteria for medium radon risk areas, and in other cases do not exceed of the threshold 10 kBq/m 3 . It displays, that in the case of low radon potential rocks only a few-percent rich population of measurements related to tectonic zones, is sufficient to substantially deform of the image of the studied unit radon potential. For instance, medium radon potential characterizes the Klodzko - Zloty Stok Granites (the arithmetic mean value of this class is 36.15 kBq/m 3 , n=104) and small tectonic engagement (about 3.8 %). In the result the modal value belongs to the class 20-30 kBq/m 3 . The Poreba Beds in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin are characterised by almost the same radon

  3. Associations of demographics, living conditions, work and lifestyle, with levels of satisfaction of nursing personnel in Grahamstown, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hodgskiss, J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diverse demographics, living conditions, working conditions and lifestyles in the South African workforce are likely to affect levels of satisfaction and quality of life. Stressors facing nursing personnel include high mental and physical demands...

  4. Low income and living alone are risk factors for admission to the intensive care unit with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line

    were matched on sex, age and area of residence (Central Region Denmark) to 9-10 controls per patient (3,869) retrieved from the background population through Statistics Denmark. Socioeconomic status was defined as highest accomplished educational level, yearly income (based on yearly tax declaration...... for CCI was significantly higher among the lowest income tertile (OR 2.17, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.56-3.02, pincome tertile. Compared to living with a cohabitant, individuals living alone had an OR of 2.63 (2.06-3.35, p.... There was no significant association between educational level and the risk of admission to the ICU with sepsis. Conclusion: Individuals either living alone or having a low income had significantly higher odds of ICU admission with sepsis. The results indicate that this patient group needs specific attention when...

  5. Apolipoprotein CIII polymorphism and triglyceride levels of a Japanese population living in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Parzianello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein CIII (apo-CIII participates in the regulation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. Several polymorphic sites have been detected within and around the apo-CIII gene. Here, we examined the relationship between apo-CIII SstI polymorphism (CC, CG, GG genotypes and plasma triglyceride (TG levels in a group of 159 Japanese individuals living in Southern Brazil. The sample was divided into a group of Japanese descendants (N = 51 with high TG (HTG; >200 mg/dL and a group of Japanese descendants (N = 108 with normal TG (NTG; <200 mg/dL. TG and total cholesterol levels were analyzed by an enzymatic method using the Labtest-Diagnostic kit and high- and low-density lipoproteins by a direct method using the Labtest-Diagnostic kit and DiaSys Diagnostic System International kit, respectively. A 428-bp sequence of apo-CIII gene was amplified using oligonucleotide primers 5' GGT GAC CGA TGG CTT CAG TTC CCT GA 3' and 5' CAG AAG GTG GAT AGA GCG CTG GCC T 3'. The PCR products were digested with a restriction endonuclease SstI. Rare G allele was highly prevalent in our study population (0.416 compared to Caucasians (0.00-0.11. G allele was almost two times more prevalent in the HTG group compared to the NTG group (P < 0.001. The genotype distribution was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant association between rare G allele and HTG in Japanese individuals living in Southern Brazil as indicated by one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05.

  6. Higher Bilirubin Levels of Healthy Living Liver Donors Are Associated With Lower Posttransplant Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangbin; Yang, Ju Dong; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Kim, Jong Man; Shin, Jun Chul; Son, Hee Jeong; Gwak, Mi Sook; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Gaab Soo

    2016-09-01

    Serum bilirubin level, which may reflect the host defense against increased oxidative stress, is inversely associated with the risk of cancer development. In liver transplantation, the intrinsic bilirubin metabolism of donor liver is subsequently translated into recipient. Thus, we hypothesized that liver transplantation conducted with living donors with higher serum bilirubin reduces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. Two hundred fifty recipients who underwent liver transplantation for treating HCC within the Milan criteria were included in the study. The association between donor preoperative total bilirubin concentration and the risk of HCC recurrence was analyzed using the Fine and Gray regression model with posttransplant death as a competing risk event with adjustment for tumor biology including α-fetoprotein, histological differentiation, and microvascular invasion. All donors were confirmed to have no underlying hepatobiliary diseases or hematological disorders. Donor preoperative total bilirubin concentration was 0.7 mg/dL in median and ranged from 0.2 to 2.7 mg/dL. Thirty-five (14.0%) recipients developed HCC recurrence. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that donor preoperative total bilirubin concentration was inversely associated with the recurrence risk (hazard ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.72; P = 0.013). The highest (≥1.0 mg/dL) versus lowest (≤0.6 mg/dL) tertile of donor preoperative total bilirubin showed a significant reduction of the recurrence risk (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.70; P = 0.006). Hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence risk decreases in relation to the increase in total serum bilirubin level of healthy living donors without underlying hepatobiliary or hematological disorders. Further validation of bilirubin as a potent anticancer substance against HCC is warranted.

  7. Disposal of high level and long lived radioactive waste in deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niezborala, J.M.; Hoorelbeke, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The status of ANDRA's research program on high level and long lived waste corresponds to the start of construction of the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory in an argillite layer, as well as to the selection in 1999 of preliminary disposal concepts corresponding to this layer. The paper describes the preliminary concepts dealing with transuranic waste, high level vitrified waste and potentially disposed spent fuel. Provision is made for a high level of flexibility, in particular with regard to options of reversibility of the disposal process, and to potential evolutions of the waste inventory. These concepts were selected for research purpose to assess by the year 2006 the feasibility of a potential repository, with.respect in particular to safety rules. The paper mentions the research targets of the program aiming at answering major scientific and technological questions raised by the concepts. The program includes the fitting and validation of the modelling, on the basis in particular of the experimental work to be carried out in the Underground Research Laboratory, making it possible to dimension the disposal concepts and to assess their safety. (authors)

  8. An Internet of Things Based Multi-Level Privacy-Preserving Access Control for Smart Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Salama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the Internet of Things (IoT in healthcare through the use of mobile medical applications and wearable devices allows patients to capture their healthcare data and enables healthcare professionals to be up-to-date with a patient’s status. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, which is considered as one of the major applications of IoT, is a home environment augmented with embedded ambient sensors to help improve an individual’s quality of life. This domain faces major challenges in providing safety and security when accessing sensitive health data. This paper presents an access control framework for AAL which considers multi-level access and privacy preservation. We focus on two major points: (1 how to use the data collected from ambient sensors and biometric sensors to perform the high-level task of activity recognition; and (2 how to secure the collected private healthcare data via effective access control. We achieve multi-level access control by extending Public Key Infrastructure (PKI for secure authentication and utilizing Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC for authorization. The proposed access control system regulates access to healthcare data by defining policy attributes over healthcare professional groups and data classes classifications. We provide guidelines to classify the data classes and healthcare professional groups and describe security policies to control access to the data classes.

  9. Multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with live poultry--United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-23

    During June 2007, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) Public Health Laboratory examined specimens from two ill persons and identified Salmonella Montevideo isolates with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern (PFGE pattern 1). MDH officials interviewed the patients and determined that both had been exposed to chickens originating from the same Iowa hatchery (hatchery A). In September 2007, a cluster of seven additional infections with PFGE pattern 1 was identified in North Dakota; all seven patients had been exposed to baby chicks obtained from hatchery A. A subsequent nationwide investigation identified a total of 65 S. Montevideo isolates with PFGE pattern 1 during 2007 and a likely association with exposure to live poultry purchased at feed stores or by mail order from hatchery A or seven other hatcheries in four states. Meanwhile, throughout 2007, a separate outbreak was occurring that involved infections with a different S. Montevideo strain (PFGE pattern 2). A total of 64 of those isolates were identified in 23 states during 2007. Exposure to live poultry from a hatchery in New Mexico (hatchery B) and a hatchery in Ohio (hatchery C) was associated with those infections. This report describes two distinct and unrelated outbreaks, which demonstrate the ongoing risk for Salmonella infection from live poultry purchased from agricultural feed stores or directly from mail order hatcheries. The mail order hatchery industry is a source of bird-associated human pathogens, such as Salmonella, and comprehensive infection-control strategies are needed to prevent additional illnesses resulting from live poultry contact.

  10. Visualization and measurement of ATP levels in living cells replicating hepatitis C virus genome RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Ando

    Full Text Available Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP is the primary energy currency of all living organisms and participates in a variety of cellular processes. Although ATP requirements during viral lifecycles have been examined in a number of studies, a method by which ATP production can be monitored in real-time, and by which ATP can be quantified in individual cells and subcellular compartments, is lacking, thereby hindering studies aimed at elucidating the precise mechanisms by which viral replication energized by ATP is controlled. In this study, we investigated the fluctuation and distribution of ATP in cells during RNA replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV, a member of the Flaviviridae family. We demonstrated that cells involved in viral RNA replication actively consumed ATP, thereby reducing cytoplasmic ATP levels. Subsequently, a method to measure ATP levels at putative subcellular sites of HCV RNA replication in living cells was developed by introducing a recently-established Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based ATP indicator, called ATeam, into the NS5A coding region of the HCV replicon. Using this method, we were able to observe the formation of ATP-enriched dot-like structures, which co-localize with non-structural viral proteins, within the cytoplasm of HCV-replicating cells but not in non-replicating cells. The obtained FRET signals allowed us to estimate ATP concentrations within HCV replicating cells as ∼5 mM at possible replicating sites and ∼1 mM at peripheral sites that did not appear to be involved in HCV replication. In contrast, cytoplasmic ATP levels in non-replicating Huh-7 cells were estimated as ∼2 mM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate changes in ATP concentration within cells during replication of the HCV genome and increased ATP levels at distinct sites within replicating cells. ATeam may be a powerful tool for the study of energy metabolism during replication of the viral genome.

  11. AP600 level of automation: United States utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekkerman, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Design of the AP600 advanced nuclear plant man-machine interface system (M-MIS) is guided by the applicable requirements from the Utility Requirements Document (URD). However, the URD has left certain aspects of the M-MIS to be determined by the designer working together with utilities sponsoring the work. This is particularly true in the case of the level of automation to be designed into the M-MIS. Based on experience from currently operating plants, utilities have specified the identity and roles of personnel in the control room, which has led to establishing a number of level of automation issues for the AP600. The key role of automated computerized procedures in the AP600 automation has been determined and resolved. 5 refs

  12. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36 Cl and 93 Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  13. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  14. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (AIRS Only). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  15. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  16. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (With HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  17. Moderation of the Relation of County-Level Cost of Living to Nutrition by the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Wimer, Christopher; Seligman, Hilary

    2016-11-01

    To examine the association of county-level cost of living with nutrition among low-income Americans. We used the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (2012-2013; n = 14 313; including 5414 persons in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP]) to examine associations between county-level cost-of-living metrics and both food acquisitions and the Healthy Eating Index, with control for individual-, household-, and county-level covariates and accounting for unmeasured confounders influencing both area of living and food acquisition. Living in a higher-cost county-particularly one with high rent costs-was associated with significantly lower volume of acquired vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; greater volume of acquired refined grains, fats and oils, and added sugars; and an 11% lower Healthy Eating Index score. Participation in SNAP was associated with nutritional improvements among persons living in higher-cost counties. Living in a higher-cost county (particularly with high rent costs) is associated with poorer nutrition among low-income Americans, and SNAP may mitigate the negative nutritional impact of high cost of living.

  18. Conjugated Polymer with Intrinsic Alkyne Units for Synergistically Enhanced Raman Imaging in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengliang; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Li, Zhiliang; Huang, Yanyi; Schanze, Kirk S; Wang, Shu

    2017-10-16

    Development of Raman-active materials with enhanced and distinctive Raman vibrations in the Raman-silent region (1800-2800 cm -1 ) is highly required for specific molecular imaging of living cells with high spatial resolution. Herein, water-soluble cationic conjugated polymers (CCPs), poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) derivatives, are explored for use as alkyne-state-dependent Raman probes for living cell imaging due to synergetic enhancement effect of alkyne vibrations in Raman-silent region compared to alkyne-containing small molecules. The enhanced alkyne signals result from the integration of alkyne groups into the rigid backbone and the delocalized π-conjugated structure. PPE-based conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) were also prepared as Raman-responsive nanomaterials for distinct imaging application. This work opens a new way into the development of conjugated polymer materials for enhanced Raman imaging. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  20. Association of physical inactivity with hypertension and low educational level in people living with HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Santos, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira; Cardoso, Rodrigo de Castro; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and whether it is associated with sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, and body composition variables in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study makes use of data from a cohort of 288 adults aged ≥19 years, conducted between October 2009 and July 2011. The variables studied were sex, age, education, income, skin color, tobacco use, alcohol intake, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, length of HIV/AIDS diagnosis, use of antiretroviral therapy and length of its use, CD4, hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus. Physical inactivity was defined as a score below 600 metabolic equivalent minutes/week according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version. Poisson multiple regression was applied in the multivariate analysis with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 44.1%. Education of ≤4 years of study (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.71) and HT (PR: 1.49) were associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent in PLWHA and associated with low educational level and HT. We highlight the simultaneous association between two cardiometabolic risk factors, HT and physical inactivity.

  1. Review of short-lived radionuclide activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodd, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of the accelerator-produced short-lived radionuclides which are used in radiopharmaceuticals available commercially in the US and of the accelerator facilities devoted primarily to their production. Reactions for the efficient production of 67 Ga, 81 Rb → /sup 81m/Kr, 111 In, 201 Tl, and 123 I are given. Methods for the production of higher purity 123 I are suggested

  2. Financing the Business. PACE Revised. Level 3. Unit 8. Research & Development Series No. 240CB8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This individualized, competency-based unit on financing businesses, the eighth of 18 modules, is on the third level of the revised Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). Intended for the advanced secondary and postsecondary levels and for adults wanting training or retraining, this unit, together with the other materials at…

  3. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. Rick; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R.; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is “to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind.” Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections. PMID:26092453

  4. Prestudy of final disposal of long-lived low and intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiborgh, M [ed.; Kemakta Konsult AB., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    The repository for long-lived low and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5, is foreseen to be located adjacent to the deep repository for spent encapsulated fuel, SFL 2. The SFL 3-5 repository comprises of three repository parts which will be used for the different categories of waste. In this report the work performed within a pre-study of the SFL 3-5 repository concept is summarised. The aim was to make a first preliminary and simplified assessment of the near-field as a barrier to radionuclide dispersion. A major task has been to compile information on the waste foreseen to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The waste comprises of; low and intermediate level waste from Studsvik, operational waste from the central interim storage for spent fuel, CLAB, and the encapsulation plant, decommissioning waste from these facilities, and core components and internal parts from the reactors. The total waste volume has been estimated to about 25000 m{sup 3}. The total activity content at repository closure is estimated to be about 1 {center_dot}10{sup 17} Bq in SFL 3-5. At repository closure the short-lived radionuclides, for example Co-60 and Fe-55, have decayed considerably and the activity is dominated by nickel isotopes in the metallic waste from the reactors, to be disposed of in SFL 5. However, other radionuclides may be more or equally important from a safety point of view, e.g cesium-isotopes and actinides which are found in largest amounts in the SFL 3 waste. A first evaluation of the long term performance or the SFL 3-5 repository has been made. A systematic methodology for scenario formulation was tested. The near-field release of contaminants was calculated for a selected number of radionuclides and chemo-toxic elements. The radionuclide release calculations revealed that Cs-137 and Ni-63 would dominate the annual release from all repository parts during the first 1000 years after repository closure and that Ni-59 would dominate at longer times.

  5. Prestudy of final disposal of long-lived low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiborgh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The repository for long-lived low and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5, is foreseen to be located adjacent to the deep repository for spent encapsulated fuel, SFL 2. The SFL 3-5 repository comprises of three repository parts which will be used for the different categories of waste. In this report the work performed within a pre-study of the SFL 3-5 repository concept is summarised. The aim was to make a first preliminary and simplified assessment of the near-field as a barrier to radionuclide dispersion. A major task has been to compile information on the waste foreseen to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The waste comprises of; low and intermediate level waste from Studsvik, operational waste from the central interim storage for spent fuel, CLAB, and the encapsulation plant, decommissioning waste from these facilities, and core components and internal parts from the reactors. The total waste volume has been estimated to about 25000 m 3 . The total activity content at repository closure is estimated to be about 1 ·10 17 Bq in SFL 3-5. At repository closure the short-lived radionuclides, for example Co-60 and Fe-55, have decayed considerably and the activity is dominated by nickel isotopes in the metallic waste from the reactors, to be disposed of in SFL 5. However, other radionuclides may be more or equally important from a safety point of view, e.g cesium-isotopes and actinides which are found in largest amounts in the SFL 3 waste. A first evaluation of the long term performance or the SFL 3-5 repository has been made. A systematic methodology for scenario formulation was tested. The near-field release of contaminants was calculated for a selected number of radionuclides and chemo-toxic elements. The radionuclide release calculations revealed that Cs-137 and Ni-63 would dominate the annual release from all repository parts during the first 1000 years after repository closure and that Ni-59 would dominate at longer times

  6. Living Things Reproduce. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P8 SIS unit focuses on reproduction in animals and in flowering plants. Particular topics examined include the…

  7. Live-load performance evaluation of historic covered timber bridges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwon Seo; Travis K. Hosteng; Brent M. Phares; James P. Wacker

    2015-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), was established to preserve the covered timber bridge structures that were constructed in the early 1800s. Today, many of the approximately 880 covered timber bridges still in existence in the United States are closed to vehicular traffic;...

  8. Lived Experiences of Diversity Visa Lottery Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Tekleab Elos; Mendoza, Bernadette M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.; Richard, Veronica M.

    2012-01-01

    Every year approximately 50,000 people immigrate to the United States through the avenue referred to as the Diversity Visa (DV) Lottery. In this article, the authors present a literature review of immigration to the U.S. through the DV Lottery, reflect on their own immigration histories, and utilize phenomenology to investigate and describe…

  9. Measuring patient safety culture: an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  10. Measuring patient safety culture : an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, G. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  11. Strategy for reducing ozone levels in the northeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the northeast USA, ozone episodes are frequent during the summer; most of these episodes last 3-4 days. The duration and frequency of these episodes is mainly determined by weather conditions. The persistence of ozone episodes in the region is explained by the fact that emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)) are like those of other regions of the USA affected by acute ozone problems. The population density, industry, and use of automobiles are other factors contributing to the difficulty of maintaining acceptable ozone levels. The ozone problem is especially severe in the New York metropolitan area and most of New Jersey. Strategies for combating ozone precursors have relied entirely on reducing emissions of VOCs, while little has been done to reduce NOx, except for automobile emissions. The Clean Air Act of 1990 provides for significant reductions of NOx and VOC from mobile sources and insists on VOC emissions reductions from stationary sources. In California, stricter emission standards for VOC and NOx have been implemented for new vehicles, requiring wider use of low- or zero-emission vehicles. The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) organization, formed by the state agencies responsible for air quality, is aiding the northeast states to evaluate the advantages of adopting California standards for vehicles. Twelve northeast states propose to adopt the Californian low-emission vehicle program and are examining other options such as reformulated gasolines, improved maintenance and verification programs, and measures to reduce the number of miles travelled. 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes: defining the context, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The French law from December 30, 1991 has defined an ambitious 15 years program of researches in order to explore the different possible paths for the long-term management of long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The law foresees also that at the end of the 15 years research program, a project of law will be prepared by the French government and transmitted to the European parliament in 2006. A public debate has been organized and emceed in 2005 in order dialogue with the general public and to gather its questions, remarks and fears. In the framework of their contribution to this debate, the ministries of industry and environment have prepared this document which answers some key questions about radioactive waste management: where do wastes come from, what are the risks, how are they managed today in France and in foreign countries, what are the results of the researches carried out during 15 years, what are the advantages and drawbacks of each waste management solution considered, what is the perspective of application of each solution, what is the position of experts, what will be the decision process. This synthetic document supplies some reference marks to better understand these different points. Some pedagogical files about radioactivity, fuel cycle, and nuclear industry activities are attached to the document. (J.S.)

  13. Urinary levels of bisphenol analogues in residents living near a manufacturing plant in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjia; Guan, Jian; Yin, Jie; Shao, Bing; Li, Hong

    2014-10-01

    The use of bisphenol A (BPA) has been restricted in many countries because of its potential health effects. As a result of these restrictions, a group of bisphenol analogues that are structurally similar to BPA have been developed as the alternatives for industrial applications. However, latest researches indicated that these chemicals have similar endocrine-disrupting effects as BPA in humans. Moreover, only a limited number of studies have attempted to monitor the exposure level in humans of other bisphenol analogues. In the present study, the concentrations of seven bisphenols, including bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), BPA, bisphenol AF (BPAF), tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), in human urine samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronidase/arylsulfatase and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Under the optimised conditions, high recoveries (81.6-116.8%) were obtained for all the analytes, and the relative standard deviations (RSD, %) were less than 16.4% (n=6). The isotopic internal standard calibration curves for each of the target compounds exhibited excellent linearity (r(2)>0.99) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the analytes in urine ranged from 0.024 to 0.310 ng mL(-1). The method was applied to investigate the urinary levels of these seven bisphenols in a cohort of residents living near a BPAF manufacturing plant in south China. BPS, BPF, BPA and BPAF were detected in urine samples at concentrations ranging from

  14. Experimental relationships between levels of corticosterone in plasma and feathers in a free-living bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Marchant, Tracy A; Soos, Catherine; Machin, Karen L; Clark, Robert G

    2013-11-01

    Integrated measures of corticosterone (CORT), such as from feathers (CORTf), have intuitive appeal because they incorporate both the duration and amplitude of glucocorticoid secretion. An association between CORTf and plasma CORT has never been shown in wild birds, and it is unclear as to when and whether these measures should be correlated, given that they are fundamentally different yet related measures of physiology. We hypothesized that CORTf should correlate with instantaneous measurements of plasma CORT when the latter reflect sustained changes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To test this, we experimentally manipulated levels of plasma CORT in wild nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) using 5 day time-release CORT pellets, and measured plasma CORT and growth parameters before, during and at the end of hormone manipulation (days 7, 9 and 11 post-hatch, respectively). CORTf and plasma CORT were significantly positively related only when the latter was at its highest and most variable among individuals (day 9). A similar relationship was expected at day 11, but plasma CORT had returned to near-original levels. Nestlings with higher CORTf were smaller, lighter and less likely to fledge, but we did not detect seasonal effects on CORTf. Our results clearly demonstrate that CORTf from free-living birds can reflect plasma CORT, but correlations may not always be expected, especially if elevations in plasma CORT are relatively modest and of short duration. Our work suggests that CORTf is best used to study the activity of the HPA axis over relatively long time frames and can be used effectively to advance avian ecology.

  15. Soil and Living Things. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the structure of the two main soil types in Seychelles; (2) the role of roots in…

  16. Living with Dying in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Nursing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayer, Debbie; Lockhart, Joan Such

    2016-07-01

    Despite reported challenges encountered by nurses who provide palliative care to children, few researchers have examined this phenomenon from the perspective of nurses who care for children with life-threatening illnesses in pediatric intensive care units. To describe and interpret the essence of the experiences of nurses in pediatric intensive care units who provide palliative care to children with life-threatening illnesses and the children's families. A hermeneutic phenomenological study was conducted with 12 pediatric intensive care unit nurses in the northeastern United States. Face-to-face interviews and field notes were used to illuminate the experiences. Five major themes were detected: journey to death; a lifelong burden; and challenges delivering care, maintaining self, and crossing boundaries. These themes were illuminated by 12 subthemes: the emotional impact of the dying child, the emotional impact of the child's death, concurrent grieving, creating a peaceful ending, parental burden of care, maintaining hope for the family, pain, unclear communication by physicians, need to hear the voice of the child, remaining respectful of parental wishes, collegial camaraderie and support, and personal support. Providing palliative care to children with life-threatening illnesses was complex for the nurses. Findings revealed sometimes challenging intricacies involved in caring for dying children and the children's families. However, the nurses voiced professional satisfaction in providing palliative care and in support from colleagues. Although the nurses reported collegial camaraderie, future research is needed to identify additional supportive resources that may help staff process and cope with death and dying. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  17. The Lives and Politics of Latinas in the United States: A Selective Bibliography [and] Women and Politics in Latin America: A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Catherine, Comp.; Searing, Susan, Comp.

    Two bibliographies list over 200 sources of information on Latin American women living in the United States and in Latin America. The first bibliography cites books, chapters from books, journal articles, pamphlets, dissertations, and theses dealing with the lives and politics of Mexican-American, Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Central and South…

  18. The feasibility of measuring social networks among older adults in assisted living and dementia special care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Katherine M; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Hampton, Keith N; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2015-03-01

    Studies indicate that social integration has a significant influence on physical and mental health. Older adults experience an increased risk of social isolation as their social networks decline with fewer traditional opportunities to add new social relationships. Deaths of similar aged friends, cognitive and functional impairments, and relocating to a nursing home (NH) or assisted-living (AL) facility contribute to difficulties in maintaining one's social network. Due to the paucity of research examining the social networks of people residing in AL and NH, this study was designed to develop and test the feasibility of using a combination of methodological approaches to capture social network data among older adults living in AL and a dementia special care unit NH. Social network analysis of both egocentric and sociocentric networks was conducted to visualize the social networks of 15 residents of an AL neighborhood and 12 residents of a dementia special care unit NH and to calculate measures network size, centrality, and reciprocity. The combined egocentric and sociocentric method was feasible and provided a robust indicator of resident social networks highlighting individuals who were socially integrated as well as isolated. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  20. A Comparison Between the Level of Happiness Among the Elderly Living at Home and That of Senior Home Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was designed to compare the level of happiness among the elderly population living at home with that of senior home residents. Methods & Materials: This was a causative-comparative study. The statistical population consisted of all 60 plus men and women residing at home and senior homes in the city of Tabriz, from whom 100 samples were selected in two groups of 50 individuals (25 females and 25 males using an availability non-random sampling method. The oxford happiness questionnaire was used in order to collect data, which were then analyzed using an independent t-test. Results: Results showed that the level of happiness among the elderly living at home was significantly higher than that of senior home residents. Furthermore, among indicators of happiness, life satisfaction levels, psychological health, positive mood, and efficiency were significantly higher among the elderly living at home. However, there was no significant difference between the two in terms of self-esteem. Conclusion: Findings indicate that, due to better social and family support, the level of happiness among the elderly living at home is significantly higher than that of senior home residents. Conversely, residing at senior homes consequent to financial and family conditions, for those who would otherwise live with family, leads to depressed mood, dissatisfaction with life, and ultimately lack of happiness.

  1. Asian students change their eating patterns after living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y L; Dixon, Z; Himburg, S; Huffman, F

    1999-01-01

    To collect information on changes in dietary patterns among Asian students before and after immigration to the United States. A questionnaire designed to collect information about background, changes in food habits, and frequency of food consumption from a 72-item food list was mailed to subjects. Potential participants were students of local universities and junior colleges who were born in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan, or Korea and were aged 18 years or older. All subjects were required to have been residing in the United States for at least 3 months before the start of the study. Questionnaires were mailed to 120 potential participants. Paired t tests were used to determine differences in eating patterns and frequency of food consumption of subjects before and after immigrating to the United States. Seventy-one questionnaires were returned. Because of missing information on 8 of these questionnaires, only 63 were used in the analysis, which gave a response rate of 53%. The number of students consuming only 2 meals per day increased significantly; 29 (46%) respondents skipped breakfast because of their school schedules. Despite no significant change in the frequency of snack consumption, a majority (n = 46; 73%) of the respondents were consuming more salty and sweet snack items. Subjects were eating out less often, but they were selecting more American-style fast foods when they did eat out. Significant increases were noted in consumption of fats/sweets, diary products, and fruits, and significant decreases were noted in the consumption of meat/meat alternatives and vegetables after immigration to the United States. Results of this study could be useful to dietetics practitioners as they observe changes in dietary patterns of Asian immigrants. These health professionals can use this information to plan nutrition education programs for Asian groups so that they can make informed decisions in adapting to new eating patterns and make wise food choices in their

  2. Length of migration and eating habits of Portuguese university students living in London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Sofia; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Caraher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have pointed adverse effects of long term migration on eating habits. Research is needed to understand if this effect occurs also with a short length of migration, as is the case of international students. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of short and long term migration on eating habits of Portuguese university students. Participants were 46 English and 55 Portuguese students from universities in London, United Kingdom. The findings from this study highlight the difficulties that Portuguese students faced in maintaining a traditional Mediterranean diet after moving to a Northern European environment.

  3. Bacterial and viral pathogens in live oysters: 2007 United States market survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaola, Angelo; Jones, Jessica L; Woods, Jacquelina; Burkhardt, William; Calci, Kevin R; Krantz, Jeffrey A; Bowers, John C; Kasturi, Kuppuswamy; Byars, Robin H; Jacobs, Emily; Williams-Hill, Donna; Nabe, Khamphet

    2010-05-01

    Two samples of market oysters, primarily from retail establishments, were collected twice each month in each of nine states during 2007. Samples were shipped refrigerated overnight to five U.S. Food and Drug Administration laboratories on a rotating basis and analyzed by most probable number (MPN) for total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus numbers and for the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae, Salmonella spp., norovirus (NoV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Levels of indicator organisms, including fecal coliforms (MPN), Escherichia coli (MPN), male-specific bacteriophage, and aerobic plate counts, were also determined. V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus levels were distributed seasonally and geographically by harvest region and were similar to levels observed in a previous study conducted in 1998-1999. Levels of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were typically several logs lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels regardless of season or region. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels in the Gulf and Mid-Atlantic regions were about two logs greater than the levels observed in the Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Pathogens generally associated with fecal pollution were detected sporadically or not at all (toxigenic V. cholerae, 0%; Salmonella, 1.5%; NoV, 3.9%; HAV, 4.4%). While seasonal prevalences of NoV and HAV were generally greater in oysters harvested from December to March, the low detection frequency obscured any apparent seasonal effects. Overall, there was no relationship between the levels of indicator microorganisms and the presence of enteric viruses. These data provide a baseline that can be used to further validate risk assessment predictions, determine the effectiveness of new control measures, and compare the level of protection provided by the U.S. shellfish sanitation system to those in other countries.

  4. Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Live Oysters: 2007 United States Market Survey ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaola, Angelo; Jones, Jessica L.; Woods, Jacquelina; Burkhardt, William; Calci, Kevin R.; Krantz, Jeffrey A.; Bowers, John C.; Kasturi, Kuppuswamy; Byars, Robin H.; Jacobs, Emily; Williams-Hill, Donna; Nabe, Khamphet

    2010-01-01

    Two samples of market oysters, primarily from retail establishments, were collected twice each month in each of nine states during 2007. Samples were shipped refrigerated overnight to five U.S. Food and Drug Administration laboratories on a rotating basis and analyzed by most probable number (MPN) for total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus numbers and for the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae, Salmonella spp., norovirus (NoV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Levels of indicator organisms, including fecal coliforms (MPN), Escherichia coli (MPN), male-specific bacteriophage, and aerobic plate counts, were also determined. V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus levels were distributed seasonally and geographically by harvest region and were similar to levels observed in a previous study conducted in 1998-1999. Levels of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were typically several logs lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels regardless of season or region. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels in the Gulf and Mid-Atlantic regions were about two logs greater than the levels observed in the Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Pathogens generally associated with fecal pollution were detected sporadically or not at all (toxigenic V. cholerae, 0%; Salmonella, 1.5%; NoV, 3.9%; HAV, 4.4%). While seasonal prevalences of NoV and HAV were generally greater in oysters harvested from December to March, the low detection frequency obscured any apparent seasonal effects. Overall, there was no relationship between the levels of indicator microorganisms and the presence of enteric viruses. These data provide a baseline that can be used to further validate risk assessment predictions, determine the effectiveness of new control measures, and compare the level of protection provided by the U.S. shellfish sanitation system to those in other countries. PMID:20190085

  5. Thermal characteristics of a medium-level concentration photovoltaic unit with evaporation cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotov, Yuri V.; Reyz, Michael A.; Fisher, Yossi

    2009-08-01

    The results of thermal analysis and experiments are presented for a 1-kW brand new medium-level (8X) concentration photovoltaic (CPV) unit that is cooled by evaporation and built as an elongated floating solar unit. The unit keeps the silicon PV elements at low and stable temperature around the clock, significantly outperforms competitors' systems in terms of the power output and the life span of identical PV elements. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the PV element temperature level exceeds the temperature level of water in the water basin (used as a heat sink) by just a few degrees.

  6. LIVING THE AMERICAN DREAM? WAGE OUTCOMES OF ALBANIAN IMMIGRANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Kate M. Mane; Brigitte S.Waldorf

    2010-01-01

    Immigrants’ human capital and human capital potential is not fully transferrable into wage levels in the host county. Albania is a recent case in point that offers an opportunity for study. Since the collapse of the totalitarian regime in 1990, Albania has undergone drastic demographic changes, fueled by unprecedented levels of emigration and disproportionately large shares of those who are leaving are highly skilled individuals. Albania’s brain drain has received a large amount of research a...

  7. Radon and its decay products in living spaces: estimation of radiation exposure and risks for radon levels measured in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1984-03-01

    After a general introduction to radiation levels, radon and its daughter products are considered. Radon in living spaces is discussed, in particular the radon concentration in family houses. The influence of energy saving characteristics on the radon concentration in the indoor air includes a 'matched pair' analysis and ventilation installations and dwell duration of indoor air noxious agents. Estimation of the radiation risks are determined, including risks of lung cancer, human epidemiological investigations (miners and radiation levels in living spaces), and possible results of energy saving characteristics. Finally characteristics and recommendations in general are given. (A.N.K.)

  8. Global Strategy Implementation at the Business Unit Level: Operational Capabilities and Administrative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall Roth; David M Schweiger; Allen J Morrison

    1991-01-01

    The study examines the impact of internationally strategy on organizational design and the influence of the organizational design on effectiveness at the business unit level. The empirical findings are based on survey responses from eighty-two business units competing in global industries. The findings are supportive of the contingency notion which suggests that business unit effectiveness is a function of the fit between the international strategy and the organizational design.© 1991 JIBS. J...

  9. Elevated blood-lead levels among children living in the rural Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Travis J; Solon, Orville; Quimbo, Stella A; Tan, Cheryl May C; Butrick, Elizabeth; Peabody, John W

    2007-09-01

    Generally, lead poisoning is not considered a significant environmental hazard for children in rural areas of developing countries. With a prospectively designed policy experiment, the research community and the government are conducting a broad-based investigation to introduce and evaluate the impact of health policy reforms on children in a rural area of the Philippines - the Quality Improvement Demonstration Study (QIDS). As part of this study, we researched lead exposure in children under the age of five. We sampled a population of children from the Visayas region in the central Philippines, covering approximately one third of the country's geographical area. From December 2003 to September 2004, the survey collected blood lead levels (BLL) together with demographic, socioeconomic and child health data points. Supplemental field-testing among a sub-sample of the most exposed children assessed the sources of environmental lead exposure. Among children in this study, 21% (601 of 2861 children) had BLL greater than 10 microg/dl. BLL were associated independently with age, haemoglobin concentration, water source, roofing material, expenditures and history of breastfeeding. A follow-up assessment of possible environmental exposures among the sub-sample of children with elevated BLL revealed no single or predominant exposure source. Instead, there appear to be multiple potential sources, such as fossil-fuel combustion, lead paint (in or around 38% of homes) and household items. Elevated BLL are common among children in the Visayas, and may signify an under-recognized threat to children living in rural areas of other developing nations. This setting has varied environmental sources of lead. Observed correlates of BLL may be of clinical, environmental and public health utility to identify and mitigate the consequences of lead toxicity.

  10. DNA polymorphism in the living fossil Ginkgo biloba from the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuddus, Ruhul H; Kuddus, Nayema N; Dvorchik, Igor

    2002-02-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis is a valuable tool in studying inter- and intra-specific genetic variations, patterns of gene expression, and for the identification of specific genes using nearly isogenic variants. Here we used RAPD analysis to study the genetic variation in Ginkgo biloba grown in the eastern United States. Our results support the evidence that Southern blot hybridization of RAPD using probes made from cloned DNA fragments allows a more accurate analysis of the RAPD pattern than dye-stained gels or Southern blot hybridization of RAPD blots using probes made from purified PCR products. Using these techniques, we observed a high degree of relatedness among plants grown in certain localities although significant genetic variation may exist in the species, and could be a possible explanation for the observed variations in the efficacy of medications derived from G. biloba extract.

  11. [Equivalent continuous noise level in neonatal intensive care unit associated to burnout syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Galindo, A P; Camargo Caicedo, Y; Vélez-Pereira, A M

    2015-01-01

    Noise levels in neonatal intensive care units allow the appearance of symptoms associated with burnout such as stress, irritability, fatigue and emotional instability on health care personnel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the equivalent continuous noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit and compare the results with noise levels associated with the occurrence of burnout syndrome on the care team. Continuous sampling was conducted for 20 days using a type I sound level meter on the unit. The maximum, the ninetieth percentile and the equivalent continuous noise level (Leq) values were recorded. Noise level is reported in the range of 51.4-77.6 decibels A (dBA) with an average of 64 dBA, 100.6 dBA maximum, and average background noise from 57.9 dBA. Noise levels exceed the standards suggested for neonatal intensive care units, are close to maximum values referred for noise exposure in the occupational standards and to noise levels associated with the onset of burnout; thus allowing to infer the probability of occurrence of high levels of noise present in the unit on the development of burnout in caregivers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of selection methods to deduce natural background levels for groundwater units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Passier, H.F.; Klein, J.

    2008-01-01

    Establishment of natural background levels (NBL) for groundwater is commonly performed to serve as reference when assessing the contamination status of groundwater units. We compare various selection methods to establish NBLs using groundwater quality data forfour hydrogeologically different areas

  13. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The geophysical parameters have been averaged and binned into 1 x 1 deg grid cells,...

  14. Deadbeat control of power leveling unit with bidirectional buck/boost DC/DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    Hamasaki, Shin-ichi; Mukai, Ryosuke; Yano, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    As a distributed generation system increases, a stable power supply becomes difficult. Thus control of power leveling (PL) unit is required to maintain the balance of power flow for irregular power generation. The unit is required to respond to change of voltage and bidirectional power flow. So the bidirectional buck/boost DC/DC converter is applied for the control of PL unit in this research. The PL unit with Electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) is able to absorb change of power, and it is...

  15. The impact of a noise reduction quality improvement project upon sound levels in the open-unit-design neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W F

    2010-07-01

    To decrease measured sound levels in the neonatal intensive care unit through implementation of human factor and minor design modification strategies. Prospective time series. Two open-unit-design neonatal centers. Implementation of a coordinated program of noise reduction strategies did not result in any measurable improvement in levels of loudness or quiet. Two centers, using primarily human behavior noise reduction strategies, were unable to demonstrate measurable improvements in sound levels within the occupied open-unit-design neonatal intensive care unit.

  16. Problems in shallow land disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste in the united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, P.R.; DeBuchananne, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    Disposal of solid low-level wastes containing radionuclides by burial in shallow trenches was initiated during World War II at several sites as a method of protecting personnel from radiation and isolating the radionuclides from the hydrosphere and biosphere. Today, there are 11 principal shallow-land burial sites in the United States that contain a total of more than 1.4 million cubic meters of solid wastes contaminated with a wide variety of radionuclides. Criteria for burial sites have been few and generalized and have contained only minimal hydrogeologic considerations. Waste-management practices have included the burial of small quantities of long-lived radionuclides with large volumes of wastes contaminated with shorter-lived nuclides at the same site, thereby requiring an assurance of extremely long-time containment for the entire disposal site. Studies at 4 of the 11 sites have documented the migration of radionuclides. Other sites are being studied for evidence of containment failure. Conditions at the 4 sites are summarized. In each documented instance of containment failure, ground water has probably been the medium of transport. Migrating radionuclides that have been identified include90Sr,137Cs,106Ru,239Pu,125Sb,60Co, and3H. Shallow land burial of solid wastes containing radionuclides can be a viable practice only if a specific site satisfies adequate hydrogeologic criteria. Suggested hydrogeologic criteria and the types of hydrogeologic data necessary for an adequate evaluation of proposed burial sites are given. It is mandatory that a concomitant inventory and classification be made of the longevity, and the physical and chemical form of the waste nuclides to be buried, in order that the anticipated waste types can be matched to the containment capability of the proposed sites. Ongoing field investigations at existing sites will provide data needed to improve containment at these sites and help develop hydrogeologic criteria for new sites. These

  17. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  18. 75 FR 6709 - United States, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation Inc.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Live Music Entertainment Industry 15. The components of the live music entertainment industry pertinent... American Music business principally involves the promotion of live music events at Live Nation owned and/or... generate substantial income from live music events. Major concert venues that generate substantial income...

  19. Mean lives of the 5.106 and 5.834 MeV levels of 14N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, R.K.; Poletti, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The recoil distance method (RDM) has been used to measure the mean lives of the 5.106 and 5.834 MeV levels of 14 N as tau = 6.27 +- 0.10 ps and tau = 11.88 +- 0.24 ps respectively. The results are compared to previous measurements and to shell-model calculations. (orig.)

  20. Use of Interactive Live Digital Imaging to Enhance Histology Learning in Introductory Level Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higazi, Tarig B.

    2011-01-01

    Histology is one of the main subjects in introductory college-level Human Anatomy and Physiology classes. Institutions are moving toward the replacement of traditional microscope-based histology learning with virtual microscopy learning amid concerns of losing the valuable learning experience of traditional microscopy. This study used live digital…

  1. The Intensive Care Unit Perspective of Becoming a Level I Trauma Center: Challenges of Strategy, Leadership, and Operations Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Richard H; Cohen, Wess; Borgia, Dena; Simon, Ronald J

    2018-01-01

    The primary purpose of this narrative is to elucidate the numerous significant changes that occur at the intensive care unit (ICU) level as a medical center pursues becoming a Level I trauma center. Specifically, we will focus on the following important areas: (1) leadership and strategy issues behind the decision to move forward with becoming a trauma center; (2) preparation needed to take a highly functioning surgical ICU and align it for the inevitable changes that happen as trauma go-live occurs; (3) intensivist staffing changes; (4) roles for and training of advanced practice practitioners; (5) graduate medical education issues; (6) optimizing interactions with closely related services; (7) nursing, staffing, and training issues; (8) bed allocation issues; and (9) reconciling the advantages of a "unified adult critical care service" with the realities of the central relationship between trauma and surgical critical care.

  2. The Intensive Care Unit Perspective of Becoming a Level I Trauma Center: Challenges of Strategy, Leadership, and Operations Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Savel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this narrative is to elucidate the numerous significant changes that occur at the intensive care unit (ICU level as a medical center pursues becoming a Level I trauma center. Specifically, we will focus on the following important areas: (1 leadership and strategy issues behind the decision to move forward with becoming a trauma center; (2 preparation needed to take a highly functioning surgical ICU and align it for the inevitable changes that happen as trauma go-live occurs; (3 intensivist staffing changes; (4 roles for and training of advanced practice practitioners; (5 graduate medical education issues; (6 optimizing interactions with closely related services; (7 nursing, staffing, and training issues; (8 bed allocation issues; and (9 reconciling the advantages of a “unified adult critical care service” with the realities of the central relationship between trauma and surgical critical care.

  3. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Yasin B; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2014-12-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), deep breaths, sustained airway occlusion, and sneezing. Central drive [estimated by root-mean-squared (RMS) EMG value 75 ms after the onset of EMG activity (RMS75)], recruitment delay, and onset discharge frequencies were similar during eupnea and hypoxia-hypercapnia. Compared with eupnea, central drive increased (∼25%) during deep breaths, and motor units were recruited ∼12 ms earlier (P motor units were recruited ∼30 ms earlier (P motor unit onset discharge frequencies were significantly higher (P Recruitment order of motor unit pairs observed during eupnea was maintained for 98%, 87%, and 84% of the same pairs recorded during hypoxia-hypercapnia, deep breaths, and airway occlusion, respectively. Reversals in motor unit recruitment order were observed primarily if motor unit pairs were recruited motor unit recruitment order being determined primarily by the intrinsic size-dependent electrophysiological properties of phrenic motor neurons. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Qualitative overview of living conditions and health status of seasonal (mobile/temporary agricultural workers in two housing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this research we aimed to determine the status of seasonal agricultural workers located in two housing units in terms of living, working and health conditions.  Methods: This is a descriptive study using qualitative methods: in-depth interviews and in situ observations. It took place in provinces of Adana and Mersin located in the Çukurova region and the Şanlıurfa province. A common feature of these provinces is their high density of seasonal agricultural workers. Our field work was performed by going to places where seasonal agricultural workers live and work. The research was conducted during the dates of March 2014 and August 2014. Snowball sampling methods was used in this research. Data were collected by interviews with 26 seasonal agricultural workers who were older than 15. Results: Seasonal agricultural workers were working without social insurance, safe transportation facilities, or guarantee of employment and without any worker’s health and safety precautions being taken by the employees. Accommodation units lacked fundamental structural and safety features. Seasonal agricultural workers were faced with social alienation and could not access the basic health services such as vaccination, antenatal follow-up, reproductive health or outpatient services. Also, their diet was unbalanced and insufficient. Children could not take the benefit sufficiently from education and were employed in agricultural work. In addition to their agricultural work, women also were exploited in their domestic life. Conclusion: Seasonal agricultural workers were in an aggrieved position concerning topics such as transportation, accommodation, wages and social insurance. To eliminate these conditions, the opinion of agricultural middlemen, seasonal agricultural workers and employees should be taken into account with the financial support of local authorities under the scope of the law. 

  5. Verification of a level-3 diesel emissions control strategy for transport refrigeration units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewalla, Umesh

    Transport Refrigeration Units (TRUs) are refrigeration systems used to control the environment of temperature sensitive products while they are being transported from one place to another in trucks, trailers or shipping containers. The TRUs typically use an internal combustion engine to power the compressor of the refrigeration unit. In the United States TRUs are most commonly powered by diesel engines which vary from 9 to 40 horsepower. TRUs are capable of both heating and cooling. The TRU engines are relatively small, inexpensive and do not use emissions reduction techniques such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A significant number of these engines operate in highly populated areas like distribution centers, truck stops, and other facilities which make them one of the potential causes for health risks to the people who live and work nearby. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is known for its adverse effects on both human beings and the environment. Considering these effects, regulatory bodies have imposed limitations on the PM emissions from a TRU engine. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the regulated emissions from a TRU engine under both engine out and particulate filter system out conditions during pre-durability (when the filter system was new) and post-durability test (after the filter system was subjected to 1000 hours in-field trial). The verification program was performed by the Center for Alternative Fuel, Engines and Emissions (CAFEE) at West Virginia University (WVU). In this program, a catalyzed silicon carbide (SiC) diesel particulate filter (DPF) was evaluated and verified as a Level-3 Verified Diesel Emissions Control Strategy (VDECS) (. 85% PM reduction) under California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations 2702 [1]. The emissions result showed that the filter system reduced diesel PM by a percentage of 96 +/- 1 over ISO 8178-C1 [2] cycle and 92 +/- 5 over EPA TRU [3] cycle, qualifying as a Level 3 VDECS. The percentage

  6. [Levels of state-trait anxiety between mothers and fathers who have children in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Carrasco, Karmina Elena

    2013-01-01

    Background: when there is a child patient in the family, it is frequent that parents get upset. Anxiety in the mother and father could be different depending on the way each one lives the critical situation of the child patient. The purpose was to measure levels of anxiety in fathers and mothers who had a hospitalized child in an intensive care unit. Methods: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was applied to a group of 50 pairs of parents who had a hospitalized child in the intensive care unit in a pediatric hospital. A no probabilistic intentional sample was used. Differences between groups were analyzed by Student's t test. Results: no significant differences were obtained between mothers and fathers for both state-anxiety and trait-anxiety. Significant differences were obtained intra-groups between both kinds of anxiety. Conclusions: having a child who is chronically sick or hospitalized for intensive therapy causes similar levels of anxiety in both parents. Anxiety is significantly increased in both parents when their child is hospitalized in an intensive therapy unit.

  7. Geological repository layout for radioactive high level long lived waste in argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussen, JL

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the 1991 French radioactive waste act, ANDRA has studied the feasibility of a geological repository in the argillite layer of the Bure site for high level long lived waste. This presentation is focussed on the underground facilities which constitute the specific component of this project. The preliminary underground layout which has been elaborated is based on four categories of data: - the waste characteristics and inventory; - the geological properties of the host argillite; - the long term performance objectives of the repository; - the specifications in terms of operation and reversibility. The underground facilities consist of two types of works: the access works (shafts and drifts) and the disposal cells. The function of the access works is to permit the implementation of two concurrent activities: the nuclear operations (transfer and emplacement of the disposal packages into the disposal cells) and the construction of the next disposal cells. The design of the drifts network which matches up to this function is also influenced by two other specifications: the minimization of the drift dimensions in order to limit their influence on the integrity of the geological formation and the necessity of a safe ventilation in case of fire. The resulting layout is a network of 4 parallel drifts (2 of them being dedicated to the operation, the other two being dedicated to the construction activities). The average diameter of these access drifts is 7 meters. The link between the surface and the underground is ensured by 4 shafts. The most important function of the disposal cells is to contribute to the long term performance of the repository. In this regard, the thermal and geotechnical considerations play an important role. The B wastes (intermediate level wastes) are not (or not very) exothermic. Consequently, the design of their disposal cells result mainly from geotechnical considerations. The disposal packages (made of concrete) are piled up in

  8. Self-caring of women with osteoarthritis living at different levels of independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Carol L; Schmeiser, Donna; Yehle, Karen T

    2003-08-01

    Successful management of chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA) may improve health and quality of life and foster independence. Health professionals need to understand what women do to manage their OA by self-caring in order to support the improvement of health in older adults. A descriptive study of difficulties of living with and self-caring of OA was conducted. Sixty women over 65 years old who lived in homes in the community, in assisted living (AL) apartments, and in long-term care (LTC) facilities participated in interviews. Data were the reports of symptoms and self-caring behaviors. Descriptive, Kendall tau-b and tau-c, and chi-square analyses revealed that there were similarities and differences among the women. All of the women used a variety of self-caring techniques. Differences included that community-residing women reported more often that they had pain, moved too slowly, and had sleep disturbances. Community-residing women reported more negative emotions, while reporting significantly more often that they used a wide range of positive coping methods. By anticipating severe physical and functional problems of living with OA and difficulties in self-caring, health care providers may help women maintain an independent lifestyle.

  9. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes; Les dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  10. Main factors determining the KNP units 5 and 6 safety level according to the PSA level 1 result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, B.; Marinova, B.; Nenkova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a powerful tool for ascertainment of the safety level reached at nuclear power plants operation. The results of PSA determine very clearly the functions, systems, equipment or operator actions that have to be improved in order to increase the plant safety level as a whole. The present report presents the main results of the last upgraded revision of PSA level 1 of units 5 and 6 of KNPP. The objective of the report is to lay emphasis on the factors determining the result obtained, i.e. to demonstrate the scopes whose improvement leads to an increase of the safety level reached at the units power operation. In the frame of the study presented the following categories of initiating events are included: Internal initiating events; Initiating events result of internal fires; Initiating events result of seismic action; Floods. Only the reactor core is considered as a source of radioactive contamination. Only initiating events related to the reactor work on power are analyzed. Unit 5 of KNPP is accepted as a basic unit for the study. All modifications and design changes implemented up to year 2000 are taken into account. The results of PSA level 1 for units 5 and 6 of KNPP covering the risk of internal initiators are presented. The assessment of the core damage due to internal initiators is based on the analysis of 18 groups of initiating events. 932 consequences and two groups of initial events are identified, leading to core damage. As a result of the quantitative calculation, over 15000 minimal cuts for the core damage are obtained. The first 80 cuts bear over 75% of the frequency obtained, and the first 700 cuts bear over 90%. Distribution of the core damage frequency by different groups of initiators is presented in tables and diagrams. A comparison of the result obtained for the reactor core damage of KNPP units 5 and 6 with assessment obtained for similar power plants is presented. The data for different NPPs are taken

  11. Variation in levels of anxiety to dental treatment among nonorphan and orphan children living under different systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkala, Jayanth; Chandrabhatla, Srinivas Kumar; Vanga, Narasimha Rao V

    2015-08-01

    It is essential to understand the factors influencing the level of anxiety to dental treatment among different children as it can influence seeking dental care. Here, we assessed the impact of parental loss on dental anxiety among 6-13-year-old children. A total of 444 children within the age group 6-13 years were selected. Group 1 consisted of orphan children living in government-run orphanages, Group 2 consisted of orphan children taken care by a person with a motherly relationship, Group 3 consisted of abandoned children living in private organization and Group 4 consisted of children living with their parents. Dental anxiety was measured using children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale and modified faces version of modified child dental anxiety scale. The highest number of anxious children were observed in Group 4 and the difference in the anxiety levels among the four groups was found to be highly statistically significant. Children living in government-run orphanages had least dental anxiety. All the orphans may not have the same anxiety levels and the environment of upbringing the orphans plays a significant role in the development of the anxiety.

  12. Noise level in intensive care units of a public university hospital in Santa Marta (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Galindo, A P; Camargo Caicedo, Y; Vélez-Pereira, A M

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the noise level in adult, pediatric and neonatal intensive care units of a university hospital in the city of Santa Marta (Colombia). A descriptive, observational, non-interventional study with follow-up over time was carried out. Continuous sampling was conducted for 20 days for each unit using a type i sound level meter, filter frequency in A weighting and Fast mode. We recorded the maximum values, the 90th percentile as background noise, and the continuous noise level. The mean hourly levels in the adult unit varied between 57.40±1.14-63.47±2.13dBA, with a maximum between 71.55±2.32-77.22±1.94dBA, and a background noise between 53.51±1.16-60.26±2.10dBA; in the pediatric unit the mean hourly levels varied between 57.07±3.07-65.72±2.46dBA, with a maximum of 68.69±3.57-79.06±2.34dBA, and a background noise between 53.33±3.54-61.96±2.85dBA; the neonatal unit in turn presented mean hourly values between 59.54±2.41-65.33±1.77dBA, with a maximum value between 67.20±2.13-77.65±3.74dBA, and a background noise between 55.02±2.03-58.70±1.95dBA. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between the hourly values and between the different units, with the time of day exhibiting a greater influence. The type of unit affects the noise levels in intensive care units, the pediatric unit showing the highest values and the adult unit the lowest values. However, the parameter exerting the greatest influence upon noise level is the time of day, with higher levels in the morning and evening, and lower levels at night and in the early morning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of nurse staffing based on changes in unit-level workload associated with patient churn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ronda G; Bobay, Kathleen L; Jolly, Nicholas A; Suby, Chrysmarie

    2015-04-01

    This analysis compares the staffing implications of three measures of nurse staffing requirements: midnight census, turnover adjustment based on length of stay, and volume of admissions, discharges and transfers. Midnight census is commonly used to determine registered nurse staffing. Unit-level workload increases with patient churn, the movement of patients in and out of the nursing unit. Failure to account for patient churn in staffing allocation impacts nurse workload and may result in adverse patient outcomes. Secondary data analysis of unit-level data from 32 hospitals, where nursing units are grouped into three unit-type categories: intensive care, intermediate care, and medical surgical. Midnight census alone did not account adequately for registered nurse workload intensity associated with patient churn. On average, units were staffed with a mixture of registered nurses and other nursing staff not always to budgeted levels. Adjusting for patient churn increases nurse staffing across all units and shifts. Use of the discharges and transfers adjustment to midnight census may be useful in adjusting RN staffing on a shift basis to account for patient churn. Nurse managers should understand the implications to nurse workload of various methods of calculating registered nurse staff requirements. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. An Analysis of Grades, Class Level and Faculty Evaluation Scores in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the results of a student evaluation of faculty against the grades awarded and the level of the course for a higher education institution in the United Arab Emirates. The purpose of the study was to determine if the grades awarded in the course and/or level of the course impacted the evaluation scores awarded to the faculty…

  15. Financing the Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 8. Research & Development Series No. 240AB8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on financing a business, the eighth in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  16. Twenty-four-hour urinary water-soluble vitamin levels correlate with their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2011-02-01

    To examine the association between 24 h urinary water-soluble vitamin levels and their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren. All foods consumed for four consecutive days were recorded accurately by a weighed food record. A single 24 h urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins were measured. An elementary school in Inazawa City, Japan. A total of 114 healthy, free-living, Japanese elementary-school children aged 10-12 years. The urinary level of each water-soluble vitamin was correlated positively to its mean intake in the past 2-4 d (vitamin B1: r = 0·42, P vitamin B2: r = 0·43, P vitamin B6: r = 0·49, P vitamin C: r = 0·39, P vitamin B12 (r = 0·10, P = NS). Estimated mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary levels and recovery rates were 97-102 % of their 3 d mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (79 %). The results show that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for vitamin B12, reflected their recent intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren and could be used as a potential biomarker to estimate mean vitamin intake.

  17. [Effect of inorganic fluorine on living organisms of different phylogenetic level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agalakova, N I; Gusev, G P

    2011-01-01

    The presented review summarizes literature data on pathways of the inorganic fluoride intake into the plant, animal, and human organisms, on its metabolism, distribution, and accumulation in the organism, forms of fluoride in biological tissues, toxic effects of fluoride on physiological and reproductive functions of living organisms of various phylogenetic groups, as well as clinical symptoms of deficient and excessive fluoride intake into the human organism.

  18. Characteristics of the Nursing Practice Environment Associated With Lower Unit-Level RN Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Park, Shin Hye; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine characteristics of the nursing practice environment associated with lower RN turnover. Identifying characteristics of the practice environment that contribute to lower RN turnover is important for meeting the national quality strategy priority of reducing healthcare costs. Data from 1002 adult care units in 162 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators participating hospitals were analyzed using multivariate linear regression. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index was used to measure practice environment characteristics. RN turnover was measured at the unit level. Nursing units with higher overall ratings of the nursing practice environment had lower rates of RN turnover. Units with higher RN perceived staffing and resource adequacy experienced significantly lower RN turnover. Unit managers and hospital administrators should consider RN perception of staffing and resource adequacy and the overall practice environment when developing targeted strategies for decreasing RN turnover.

  19. Nurse manager perspective of staff participation in unit level shared governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Norris, Mitzi R; Brown, Lana M; Scott, Karen J

    2017-11-01

    To examine the nurse manager perspective surrounding implementation of unit level shared governance in one Veterans Health Administration facility. Nursing shared governance is a formal model allowing nursing staff decision-making input into clinical practice, quality improvement, evidence-based practice and staff professional development. Unit level shared governance is a management process where decision authority is delegated to nursing staff at the unit level. Convenience sampling was used to recruit ten nurse managers who participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using content analysis and constant comparison techniques. Demographic data were described using descriptive statistics. The participants included seven female and three male nurse managers with seven Caucasian and three African American. Participant quotes were clustered to identify sub-themes that were then grouped into four global themes to describe unit level shared governance. The global themes were: (1) motivation, (2) demotivation, (3) recommendations for success, and (4) outcomes. These research findings resonate with previous studies that shared governance may be associated with increased nurse empowerment, self-management, engagement, and satisfaction. These findings reflect the need for nurse managers to promote and recognize staff participation in unit level shared governance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Levels of Heavy Metals in Adolescents Living in the Industrialised Area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Northern Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Interdonato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n=29 living 45 km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24 h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls  (P<0.0001 or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population.

  1. [Environmental noise levels in 2 intensive care units in a tertiary care centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel; Zárate-Coronado, Olivia; Gaxiola-González, Fabiola; Neyoy-Sombra, Venigna

    2017-04-03

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) has established a maximum noise level of 40 decibels (dB) for an intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to compare the noise levels in 2 different intensive care units at a tertiary care centre. Using a cross-sectional design study, an analysis was made of the maximum noise level was within the intensive coronary care unit and intensive care unit using a digital meter. A measurement was made in 4 different points of each room, with 5minute intervals, for a period of 60minutes 7:30, 14:30, and 20:30. The means of the observations were compared with descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U. An analysis with Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to the mean noise level. The noise observed in the intensive care unit had a mean of 64.77±3.33dB (P=.08), which was similar to that in the intensive coronary care unit, with a mean of 60.20±1.58dB (P=.129). Around 25% or more of the measurements exceeded the level recommended by the WHO by up to 20 points. Noise levels measured in intensive care wards exceed the maximum recommended level for a hospital. It is necessary to design and implement actions for greater participation of health personnel in the reduction of environmental noise. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management ______________________________________ By...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management 6...Level Training; United States Marine Corps; Operations Management ; Supply Chain Management; Process Analysis 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  3. The effects of living distantly from peritoneal dialysis units on peritonitis risk, microbiology, treatment and outcomes: a multi-centre registry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Yeoungjee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to determine whether distance between residence and peritoneal dialysis (PD unit influenced peritonitis occurrence, microbiology, treatment and outcomes. Methods The study included all patients receiving PD between 1/10/2003 and 31/12/2008, using ANZDATA Registry data. Results 365 (6% patients lived ≥100 km from their nearest PD unit (distant group, while 6183 (94% lived S. aureus peritonitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.09-2.47. Distant patients with first peritonitis episodes were less likely to be hospitalised (64% vs 73%, p = 0.008 and receive antifungal prophylaxis (4% vs 10%, p = 0.01, but more likely to receive vancomycin-based antibiotic regimens (52% vs 42%, p  Conclusions Living ≥100 km away from a PD unit was associated with increased risk of S. aureus peritonitis, modified approaches to peritonitis treatment and peritonitis outcomes that were comparable to, or better than patients living closer to a PD unit. Staphylococcal decolonisation should receive particular consideration in remote living patients.

  4. Live demonstration: Screen printed, microwave based level sensor for automated drug delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2018-01-01

    Level sensors find numerous applications in many industries to automate the processes involving chemicals. Recently, some commercial ultrasound based level sensors are also being used to automate the drug delivery process [1]. Some of the most

  5. Generation of long-living entanglement between two distant three-level atoms in non-Markovian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Yang, Sen; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan; Ding, Weiqiang

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, a scheme for the generation of long-living entanglement between two distant Λ-type three-level atoms separately trapped in two dissipative cavities is proposed. In this scheme, two dissipative cavities are coupled to their own non-Markovian environments and two three-level atoms are driven by the classical fields. The entangled state between the two atoms is produced by performing Bell state measurement (BSM) on photons leaving the dissipative cavities. Using the time-dependent Schördinger equation, we obtain the analytical results for the evolution of the entanglement. It is revealed that, by manipulating the detunings of classical field, the long-living stationary entanglement between two atoms can be generated in the presence of dissipation.

  6. Anxiety Levels of Children Living in Intact, Single Parent, and Blended Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tammie D.; And Others

    Researchers have not yet been able to determine the effect of divorce on children's level of anxiety. Many studies suggest that divorce and remarriage can cause a great deal of anxiety in children. A study was conducted to determine if elementary, middle, and high school students differ in levels of state anxiety (level of anxiety at a particular…

  7. Central dogma at the single-molecule level in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gene-Wei; Xie, X Sunney

    2011-07-20

    Gene expression originates from individual DNA molecules within living cells. Like many single-molecule processes, gene expression and regulation are stochastic, that is, sporadic in time. This leads to heterogeneity in the messenger-RNA and protein copy numbers in a population of cells with identical genomes. With advanced single-cell fluorescence microscopy, it is now possible to quantify transcriptomes and proteomes with single-molecule sensitivity. Dynamic processes such as transcription-factor binding, transcription and translation can be monitored in real time, providing quantitative descriptions of the central dogma of molecular biology and the demonstration that a stochastic single-molecule event can determine the phenotype of a cell.

  8. An Internet of Things Based Multi-Level Privacy-Preserving Access Control for Smart Living

    OpenAIRE

    Usama Salama; Lina Yao; Hye-young Paik

    2018-01-01

    The presence of the Internet of Things (IoT) in healthcare through the use of mobile medical applications and wearable devices allows patients to capture their healthcare data and enables healthcare professionals to be up-to-date with a patient’s status. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), which is considered as one of the major applications of IoT, is a home environment augmented with embedded ambient sensors to help improve an individual’s quality of life. This domain faces major cha...

  9. Technologies for destruction of long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste - overview and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    A major issue surrounding current nuclear power generation is the management and disposal of long-lived, high-level waste (HLW). The planned and scientifically acceptable destination for this waste is in deep underground, geologically stable, repositories. However, public concerns surrounding such disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes and other issues such as proliferation and safety negatively affect the potential role that nuclear power can play in meeting current and future national energy needs. This paper and this topical session on nuclear waste minimization, management, and remediation focus on two nuclear systems and their associated technologies that have the potential to address concerns surrounding long-lived radionuclides in HLW. Both systems offer technology applicable to HLW from current light water reactors (LWRs). In addition, these systems represent advanced nuclear power concepts that have important features associated with integrated management of wastes long-term fuel supplies, and enhanced safety. The first system is the integral fast reactor (IFR) concept. This system incorporates a metal-fueled fast reactor coupled with chemical separations based on pyroprocessing to produce power while burning long-lived actinide waste. The IFR applications include the burning of actinides from current LWR spent fuel and energy production in a breeder environment. The second concept, accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW), is based on an accelerator-induced intense source of thermal neutrons and is aimed at the destruction of long-lived actinides and fission products. This concept can be applied to long-lived radionuclides in spent-fuel HLW as well as a future fission power source built around use of natural thorium or uranium as fuels coupled with concurrent waste destruction

  10. Discrete dynamical model of mechanisms determining the relations of biodiversity and stability at different levels of organization of living matter

    OpenAIRE

    Kabalyants, Petr; Nosov, Konstantin; Bespalov, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims at building the model of relations of biodiversity and stability at different levels of organization of living matter with the use of discrete dynamical models. The relations revealed in the study are illustrated by case studies of zooplankton community of the eutrophicated lake and the colorimetric parameters of the microalgae community of phytobenthos and phytoperiphyton. The results offer: (1) new approaches to estimating the risk of mass development of toxic cyanobacteria i...

  11. PERHITUNGAN DANA PENSIUN DENGAN METODE PROJECTED UNIT CREDIT DAN INDIVIDUAL LEVEL PREMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GUSTI AYU KOMANG KUSUMA WARDHANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The company which provides the pension program needs the actuarial valuation to estimate the fund amount required by the company to pay for pension funding. Actuarial method that used in this research are projected unit credit and invidual level premium method. Through this research be obtained the result of valuation pension benefits with career average salary assumption is lower than the other salary assumptions. On the other hand, the result of normal cost final value valuation using individual level premium method is smaller than projected unit credit method that suits for the participants of the pension funding program.

  12. PERHITUNGAN DANA PENSIUN DENGAN METODE PROJECTED UNIT CREDIT DAN INDIVIDUAL LEVEL PREMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GUSTI AYU KOMANG KUSUMA WARDHANI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The company which provides the pension program needs the actuarial valuation to estimate the fund amount required by the company to pay for pension funding. Actuarial method that used in this research are projected unit credit and invidual level premium method. Through this research be obtained the result of valuation pension benefits with career average salary assumption is lower than the other salary assumptions. On the other hand, the result of normal cost final value valuation using individual level premium method is smaller than projected unit credit method that suits for the participants of the pension funding program.

  13. Live demonstration: Screen printed, microwave based level sensor for automated drug delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-02

    Level sensors find numerous applications in many industries to automate the processes involving chemicals. Recently, some commercial ultrasound based level sensors are also being used to automate the drug delivery process [1]. Some of the most desirable features of level sensors to be used for medical use are their non-intrusiveness, low cost and consistent performance. In this demo, we will present a completely new method of sensing the liquid level using microwaves. It is a common stereotype to consider microwaves sensing mechanism as being expensive. Unlike usual expensive, intrusive and bulky microwave methods of level sensing using guided radars, we will present an extremely low cost printed, non-intrusive microwave sensor to reliably sense the liquid level.

  14. Technologies for destruction of long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste: Overview and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper, and this topical session on Nuclear Waste Minimization, Management and Remediation, focuses on two nuclear systems, and their associated technologies, that have the potential to address concerns surrounding long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste. Both systems offer technology applicable to HLW from present light-water reactors (LWR). Additionally these systems represent advanced nuclear power concepts that have important features associated with integrated management of wastes, long-term fuel supplies, and enhanced safety. The first system is the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. This system incorporates a metal-fueled fast reactor coupled with chemical separations based on pyroprocessing to produce power while simultaneously burning long-lived actinide waste. IFR applications include burning of actinides from current LWR spent fuel and energy production in a breeder environment. The second concept, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW), is based upon an accelerator-induced intense source of thermal neutrons and is aimed at destruction of long-lived actinides and fission products. This concept can be applied to long-lived radionuclides in spent fuel HLW as well as a future fission power source built around use of natural thorium or uranium as fuels coupled with concurrent waste destruction

  15. The effects of living distantly from peritoneal dialysis units on peritonitis risk, microbiology, treatment and outcomes: a multi-centre registry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine whether distance between residence and peritoneal dialysis (PD) unit influenced peritonitis occurrence, microbiology, treatment and outcomes. Methods The study included all patients receiving PD between 1/10/2003 and 31/12/2008, using ANZDATA Registry data. Results 365 (6%) patients lived ≥100 km from their nearest PD unit (distant group), while 6183 (94%) lived peritonitis in distant patients (1.34 years, 95% CI 1.07-1.61) was significantly shorter than in local patients (1.68 years, 95% CI 1.59-1.77, p = 0.001), whilst overall peritonitis rates were higher in distant patients (incidence rate ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.20-1.46). Living ≥100 km away from a PD unit was independently associated with a higher risk of S. aureus peritonitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.09-2.47). Distant patients with first peritonitis episodes were less likely to be hospitalised (64% vs 73%, p = 0.008) and receive antifungal prophylaxis (4% vs 10%, p = 0.01), but more likely to receive vancomycin-based antibiotic regimens (52% vs 42%, p peritonitis outcomes, distant patients were more likely to be cured with antibiotics alone (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.24). All other outcomes were comparable between the two groups. Conclusions Living ≥100 km away from a PD unit was associated with increased risk of S. aureus peritonitis, modified approaches to peritonitis treatment and peritonitis outcomes that were comparable to, or better than patients living closer to a PD unit. Staphylococcal decolonisation should receive particular consideration in remote living patients. PMID:22702659

  16. Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter L; Caviar, Elena M; McCallum, Richard W

    2005-10-01

    Fructose intake has increased considerably in the United States, primarily as a result of increased consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, fruits and juices, and crystalline fructose. The purpose was to determine how often fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, would result in malabsorption and/or symptoms in healthy persons. Fructose absorption was measured using 3-hour breath hydrogen tests and symptom scores were used to rate subjective responses for gas, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and loose stools. The study included 15 normal, free-living volunteers from a medical center community and was performed in a gastrointestinal specialty clinic. Subjects consumed 25- and 50-g doses of crystalline fructose with water after an overnight fast on separate test days. Mean peak breath hydrogen, time of peak, area under the curve (AUC) for breath hydrogen and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during a 3-hour period after subjects consumed both 25- and 50-g doses of fructose. Differences in mean breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptom scores between doses were analyzed using paired t tests. Correlations among peak breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptoms were also evaluated. More than half of the 15 adults tested showed evidence of fructose malabsorption after 25 g fructose and greater than two thirds showed malabsorption after 50 g fructose. AUC, representing overall breath hydrogen response, was significantly greater after the 50-g dose. Overall symptom scores were significantly greater than baseline after each dose, but scores were only marginally greater after 50 g than 25 g. Peak hydrogen levels and AUC were highly correlated, but neither was significantly related to symptoms. Fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, may result in mild gastrointestinal distress in normal people. Additional study is warranted to evaluate the response to fructose-glucose mixtures (as in high-fructose corn syrup) and fructose taken with food in both normal people and those with

  17. Reflections on attitudes, experiences, and vulnerability of intimate partner violence among Southeast Asian college women living in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Buseh, Aaron; Arunothong, Wachiraporn

    2015-12-01

    To provide culturally sensitive intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs for ethnic groups, a basic foundational understanding of Southeast Asian (SEA) women living in the United States is vital. The purpose of this study was to describe SEA college women's perceptions of IPV and how the women recognize their vulnerability to such violent situations. Qualitative methods using focus group discussions were employed to elicit participants' perceptions. Participants included 18 SEA college women, ages 18-34 (Mean=22; SD=7.22). Transcriptions were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Five themes emerged: recognition of IPV; perception of individual vulnerability to IPV; experience and responses to IPV; help seeking and support system; and strategies used for prevention of IPV. Findings yielded an understanding of intertwined issues of cultural norms associated with IPV, social and economic disparities, and challenges for IPV prevention in SEA communities. Culturally sensitive prevention programs will be more effective by reforming cultural values, while at the same time promoting non-violent relationships and increasing access to services. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Assessing the impact of deep sea disposal of low level radioactive waste on living marine resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is the final result of two Consultants' Meetings and a Technical Committee Meeting concerning: 1) Developing methods of estimating dose to marine organisms from sea dumping; and 2) reviewing the effects of radiation on marine organisms and the means by which the significance of these effects may be judged. Calculations of water concentrations in and near the dump site were made and these were used to estimate doses to ''typical'' marine species living at or near the sea floor at a depth of 4000 meters. These calculations show that there are radionuclides that can give rise to significant doses to these typical species and that future revisions of the Definition and Recommendations (IAEA Safety Series No. 78) will have to consider impacts on the marine ecosystem in setting limits for dumping. 235 refs, 10 figs, tabs

  19. I'm trying to heal...noise levels in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milette, Isabelle H; Carnevale, Franco A

    2003-01-01

    The literature demonstrates clearly that most intensive care units exceed the standard recommendations for noise levels in hospitals, and that high noise levels have negative impacts on patients and staff. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of noise in a PICU and compare it to the recommendations of international bodies. We outline recommendations to promote the awareness of this problem and suggest strategies to decrease the level of noise in a PICU. The orientations of these strategies are threefold: 1) architectural-acoustic design, 2) equipment design and, most importantly, 3) staff education.

  20. Neuroscience Intermediate-Level Care Units Staffed by Intensivists: Clinical Outcomes and Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeremanteng, Kwadwo; Hendin, Ariel; Bhardwaj, Kalpana; Thavorn, Kednapa; Neilipovitz, Dave; Kubelik, Dalibour; D'Egidio, Gianni; Stotts, Grant; Rosenberg, Erin

    2017-01-01

    With an aging population and increasing numbers of intensive care unit admissions, novel ways of providing quality care at reduced cost are required. Closed neurointensive care units improve outcomes for patients with critical neurological conditions, including decreased mortality and length of stay (LOS). Small studies have demonstrated the safety of intermediate-level units for selected patient populations. However, few studies analyze both cost and safety outcomes of these units. This retrospective study assessed clinical and cost-related outcomes in an intermediate-level neurosciences acute care unit (NACU) before and after the addition of an intensivist to the unit's care team. Starting in October 2011, an intensivist-led model was adopted in a 16-bed NACU unit, including daytime coverage by a dedicated intensivist. Data were obtained from all patients admitted 1 year prior to and 2 years after this intervention. Primary outcomes were LOS and hospital costs. Safety outcomes included mortality and readmissions. Descriptive and analytic statistics were calculated. Individual and total patient costs were calculated based on per-day NACU and ward cost estimates and significance measured using bootstrapping. A total of 2931 patients were included over the study period. Patients were on average 59.5 years and 53% male. The most common reasons for admission were central nervous system (CNS) tumor (27.6%), ischemic stroke (27%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (11%). Following the introduction of an intensivist, there was a significant reduction in NACU and hospital LOS, by 1 day and 3 days, respectively. There were no differences in readmissions or mortality. Adding an intensivist produced an individual cost savings of US$963 in NACU and US$2687 per patient total hospital stay. An intensivist-led model of intermediate-level neurointensive care staffed by intensivists is safe, decreases LOS, and produces cost savings in a system increasingly strained to provide quality

  1. The Principle of Substance Stability Is Applicable to All Levels of Organization of Living Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi P. Gladyshev

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of substance stability – the feedback principle – is applicable to allbiological systems. It boils down for different temporal hierarchies to the following: duringthe formation (self-assembly of the most thermodynamically stable structures at the highesthierarchical level (j, e.g., the supramolecular level, in accordance with the second law,Nature spontaneously uses predominantly the (available for the given local part of thebiological system least thermodynamically stable structures belonging to a lower level, forexample, the molecular level (j-1. The principle can be also applied to understructurehierarchical levels of any temporal hierarchy. It helps in understanding the causes of cancerformation and the origin of some other diseases.

  2. Level 1 PSA study of Mochovce unit 1 NPP (SM AA 10 and 08)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cillik, I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents genesis of Level 1 PSA project preparation for all operational modes of Mochovce NPP unit 1 including the description of its' main objectives, scope and working method. The PSA study which includes full power (FPSA) as well as shutdown and low power conditions (SPSA) Level 1 PSA has to support the nuclear safety improvements of the unit. They evaluate the basic design and the benefits of all improvements, which were found necessary to be incorporated before the start-up of the unit. The study includes internal events (transients and under-loss of coolant accident, LOCAs), internal hazards as fires and floods and selected external hazards as earthquake, influence of external industry, extreme meteorological conditions and aircraft crash.The PSA (both FPSA and SPSA) models is developed using the RISK SPECTRUM PSA code. (author)

  3. Financing the Business. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 8. Research & Development Series No. 240BB8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on financing a small business, the eighth in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and try out…

  4. Managing fusion high-level waste-A strategy for burning the long-lived products in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion devices appear to be a viable option for burning their own high-level waste (HLW). We propose a novel strategy to eliminate (or minimize) the HLW generated by fusion systems. The main source of the fusion HLW includes the structural and recycled materials, refractory metals, and liquid breeders. The basic idea involves recycling and reprocessing the waste, separating the long-lived radionuclides from the bulk low-level waste, and irradiating the limited amount of HLW in a specially designed module to transmute the long-lived products into short-lived radioisotopes or preferably, stable elements. The potential performance of the new concept seems promising. Our analysis indicated moderate to excellent transmutation rates could be achieved in advanced fusion designs. Successive irradiation should burn the majority of the HLW. The figures of merit for the concept relate to the HLW burn-up fraction, neutron economy, and impact on tritium breeding. Hopefully, the added design requirements could be accommodated easily in fusion power plants and the cost of the proposed system would be much less than disposal in a deep geological HLW repository. Overall, this innovative approach offers benefits to fusion systems and helps earn public acceptance for fusion as a HLW-free source of clean nuclear energy

  5. Prospective cohort study on noise levels in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Joffe, Ari R; Sheppard, Cathy; Pugh, Jodie; Moez, Elham Khodayari; Dinu, Irina A; Jou, Hsing; Hartling, Lisa; Vohra, Sunita

    2018-04-01

    To describe noise levels in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit, and to determine the relationship between sound levels and patient sedation requirements. Prospective observational study at a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). Sound levels were measured continuously in slow A weighted decibels dB(A) with a sound level meter SoundEarPro® during a 4-week period. Sedation requirement was assessed using the number of intermittent (PRNs) doses given per hour. Analysis was conducted with autoregressive moving average models and the Granger test for causality. 39 children were included in the study. The average (SD) sound level in the open area was 59.4 (2.5) dB(A) with a statistically significant but clinically unimportant difference between day/night hours (60.1 vs. 58.6; p-value noise levels were > 90 dB. There was a significant association between average (p-value = 0.030) and peak sound levels (p-value = 0.006), and number of sedation PRNs. Sound levels were above the recommended values with no differences between day/night or open area/single room. High sound levels were significantly associated with sedation requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Ching-Chang; Lin Wu-Ting; Liao Po-Chi; Su Huey-Jen [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health/Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic substances, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan); Chen Hsiu-Lin [Inst. of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Many reports have suggested that PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) contribute to immune deficiency, liver damage, human carcinogenesis, and neuromotor maturation in children. Therefore, beginning in 1999, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a survey to determine serum levels of PCDD/Fs in the general populations living around 19 incinerators in Taiwan. Relatively high average serum PCDD/F levels were unexpectedly found in Tainan city, a less industrialized area in southwestern Taiwan, than in other urban areas. We therefore reviewed the usage history of the land and found that a factory situated between Hsien-Gong Li and Lu-Erh Li, two administrative units of Tainan city, had been manufacturing pentachlorophenol (PCP) between 1967 and 1982. PCDD/Fs are formed as byproducts in the PCP manufacturing process. Exposure to PCP and its derivatives via the food chain is the most significant intake route of PCDD/Fs in consumers in the European Union (EU). In Japan, in addition to combustion processes, PCP and chlornitrofen (CNP) have also been identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs in Tokyo Bay7. A preliminary investigation showed that the soil in the PCP factory and sediments in the sea reservoir (13 hectares) near the deserted factory were seriously contaminated with PCDD/Fs (260-184,000 and 20-6220 pg I-TEQ/g, respectively), levels higher than those in other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the PCDD/F levels of fish meat in the sea reservoir and the serum in inhabitants living in the vicinity of the closed PCP plant and other nearby areas. The data from human and other biota samples might clarify the transmission pathway of the PCDD/F contaminants from the PCP factory to local residents, provide information about the exposure status of those living in the vicinity of the deserted PCP factory, and also lead to useful suggestions for controlling PCDD/F accumulation in those living near such

  7. Elevated serum estradiol levels in artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer cycles negatively impact ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Rani; Jindal, Sangita; Feil, Heather; Buyuk, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels during artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles and ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates (OP/LB). A historical cohort study was conducted in an academic setting in order to correlate peak and average estradiol levels with ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates for all autologous artificial frozen embryo transfer cycles performed from 1/2011 to 12/2014. Average and peak E 2 levels from 110 autologous artificial FET cycles from 95 patients were analyzed. Average E 2 levels were significantly lower in cycles resulting in OP/LB compared to those that did not (234.1 ± 16.6 pg/ml vs. 315 ± 24.8 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.04). Although peak E 2 levels were not significantly different between cycles resulting in OP/LB compared with those that did not (366.9 ± 27.7 pg/ml vs. 459.1 ± 32.3 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.19), correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant (p = 0.02) downward trend in OP/LB rates with increasing peak E 2 levels. This study suggests that elevated E 2 levels in artificial autologous FET cycles are associated with lower OP/LB rates. Estradiol levels should be monitored during artificial FET cycles.

  8. The Principle of Substance Stability Is Applicable to All Levels of Organization of Living Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gladyshev, Georgi P.

    2006-01-01

    The principle of substance stability – the feedback principle – is applicable to allbiological systems. It boils down for different temporal hierarchies to the following: duringthe formation (self-assembly) of the most thermodynamically stable structures at the highesthierarchical level (j), e.g., the supramolecular level, in accordance with the second law,Nature spontaneously uses predominantly the (available for the given local part of thebiological system) least thermodynamically...

  9. La Familia: methodological issues in the assessment of perinatal social support for Mexicanas living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L

    2001-11-01

    Do Mexicanas receive social support from a close network of family and friends during the perinatal period? To answer this question, a longitudinal ethnographic study followed 28 urban Mexican-origin women living in the US from their last trimester of pregnancy through their first month post-partum. A total of 93 interviews with Mexicanas focused on health and social support. All of the women lived in a large western city in the US but varied in their acculturation and income levels. Analyses identified four social support themes from women's experience (the emic analysis) and four social support typologies from the researcher (etic) analyses. The kinds of support women described as emanating from their support networks were inductively identified as Helping with Daily Hassles, Showing Love and Understanding, Being There for Me, and My Family Failing Me. Approximately half of the women reported densely supportive networks. The other women were disconnected from their support networks, or dealt with antagonism or instability in their networks. Women's perceptions of social support differed from the judgements made by the researcher about received support. Specifically, women perceived more network members in the supportive category than did the researcher by a factor of 1.4, and fewer network members in the disconnected category by a factor of 0.7. From an emic perspective, women listed only half as many antagonistic network members compared to the etic analysis (a factor of 0.50). These emic/etic discrepancies complicate clinical assessment of social support, but suggest that data on social support should be collected as part of the clinical processes of perinatal risking. To enhance assessment of social support, a clinically relevant guide is proposed for use by practitioners caring for Mexicanas in the perinatal period.

  10. Analysis of area level and unit level models for small area estimation in forest inventories assisted with LiDAR auxiliary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Francisco; Monleon, Vicente J; Temesgen, Hailemariam; Ford, Kevin R

    2017-01-01

    Forest inventories require estimates and measures of uncertainty for subpopulations such as management units. These units often times hold a small sample size, so they should be regarded as small areas. When auxiliary information is available, different small area estimation methods have been proposed to obtain reliable estimates for small areas. Unit level empirical best linear unbiased predictors (EBLUP) based on plot or grid unit level models have been studied more thoroughly than area level EBLUPs, where the modelling occurs at the management unit scale. Area level EBLUPs do not require a precise plot positioning and allow the use of variable radius plots, thus reducing fieldwork costs. However, their performance has not been examined thoroughly. We compared unit level and area level EBLUPs, using LiDAR auxiliary information collected for inventorying 98,104 ha coastal coniferous forest. Unit level models were consistently more accurate than area level EBLUPs, and area level EBLUPs were consistently more accurate than field estimates except for large management units that held a large sample. For stand density, volume, basal area, quadratic mean diameter, mean height and Lorey's height, root mean squared errors (rmses) of estimates obtained using area level EBLUPs were, on average, 1.43, 2.83, 2.09, 1.40, 1.32 and 1.64 times larger than those based on unit level estimates, respectively. Similarly, direct field estimates had rmses that were, on average, 1.37, 1.45, 1.17, 1.17, 1.26, and 1.38 times larger than rmses of area level EBLUPs. Therefore, area level models can lead to substantial gains in accuracy compared to direct estimates, and unit level models lead to very important gains in accuracy compared to area level models, potentially justifying the additional costs of obtaining accurate field plot coordinates.

  11. Evaluation of the levels of stress in the elderly living at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ladeira Garbaccio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the stress level of the elderly assisted by the Primary Health Care of Piumhi, in the Midwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2010. This was a cross-sectional research with of 64 elderly residents in households. There was a predominance of older women. Regarding chronic diseases 81.3% were bearers of chronic diseases, 75% were cardiac and 29.7% had depression. In the Inventory of Symptoms of Stress for Adults, seniors kept the average 7 (low stress, being more frequent cognitive stress. Female gender was associated with stress level (p<0.05. The elderly showed a good physical and mental status, and we identified low levels of stress, predominantly the cognitive stress type.

  12. Pretransplant soluble CD30 level has limited effect on acute rejection, but affects graft function in living donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Soo; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Soon Il; Ahn, Hyung Joon; Ju, Man Ki; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeon, Kyung Ock; Kim, Yu Seun

    2006-12-27

    Serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels might be a useful marker of immunologic status in pre transplant (Tx) recipients. We retrospectively correlated preTx sCD30 levels (high versus low) on postTx graft survival, incidence of acute rejection, and graft function using stored preTx serum. Of 254 recipients who underwent kidney Tx, 120 recipients were enrolled under the uniform criteria (living donor, age >25 years, viral hepatitis free, diabetes free). The preTx sCD30 was not significantly associated with differences in graft survival rate during 47.5+/-11.4 months of follow-up (P = 0.5901). High sCD30 (> or =115 U/ml) was associated with a higher incidence of clinically or pathologically defined acute rejection than low sCD30, but the difference was not statistically significant (33.9% vs. 22.4%, P = 0.164). The response rate to antirejection therapy in patients with high sCD30 was inferior to those with low sCD30, but also was not statistically significant (33.3% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.087). However, mean serum creatinine levels in high sCD30 patients at one month, one year, and three years postTx were significantly different from those with low sCD30 (P acute rejection episodes, donor age, kidney weight/recipient body weight ratio, and preTx sCD30 levels were independent variables affecting the serum creatinine level three years postTx. PreTx sCD30 level has a limited effect on the incidence of acute rejection and response to antirejection treatment, but inversely and independently affects serum creatinine level after living donor kidney transplantation.

  13. THE INFORMATION CONTENT OF THE FARM AND UNIT LEVEL NUTRIENT BALANCES FOR THE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T SOMOGYI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The farm gate balance is well known from the environmental literature. This method is not suitable in every case to show the nutrient load for the environment of agricultural companies that is the reason why unit level internal nutrient balances are applied to express the level of nutrient pollution on the environment. These also help to determine the source of the pollution. With the survey of the nutrient flows within the farm we determine the keystones of nutrient management to control the nutrient load of the pollution sources. On the basis of the results and the controlled data of the unit level internal balances we make recommendations for the most appropriate environmental policy instrument to reduce the nutrient pollution.

  14. Status of activities: Low-level radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.B.; Shilkett, R.C.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of low-level radioactive waste management in the United States is to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In support of this objective is the development of waste treatment and disposal technologies designed to provide stabilization and long-term institutional control of low-level radioactive wastes. Presented herein is a technical review of specific low-level radioactive waste management activities in the United States. Waste treatment and disposal technologies are discussed along with the performance objectives of the technologies aimed at protecting the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. 13 refs., 4 figs

  15. Design of shared unit-dose drug distribution network using multi-level particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linjie; Monteiro, Thibaud; Wang, Tao; Marcon, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Unit-dose drug distribution systems provide optimal choices in terms of medication security and efficiency for organizing the drug-use process in large hospitals. As small hospitals have to share such automatic systems for economic reasons, the structure of their logistic organization becomes a very sensitive issue. In the research reported here, we develop a generalized multi-level optimization method - multi-level particle swarm optimization (MLPSO) - to design a shared unit-dose drug distribution network. Structurally, the problem studied can be considered as a type of capacitated location-routing problem (CLRP) with new constraints related to specific production planning. This kind of problem implies that a multi-level optimization should be performed in order to minimize logistic operating costs. Our results show that with the proposed algorithm, a more suitable modeling framework, as well as computational time savings and better optimization performance are obtained than that reported in the literature on this subject.

  16. Refugee Resettlement Patterns and State-Level Health Care Insurance Access in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pooja; Venkatesh, Arjun Krishna

    2016-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between state-level implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and resettlement patterns among refugees. We linked federal refugee resettlement data to ACA expansion data and found that refugee resettlement rates are not significantly different according to state-level insurance expansion or cost. Forty percent of refugees have resettled to states without Medicaid expansion. The wide state-level variability in implementation of the ACA should be considered by federal agencies seeking to optimize access to health insurance coverage among refugees who have resettled to the United States.

  17. Lung Cancer Mortality Associated With Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among People Living With HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna P; Kong, Chung Yin; Hyle, Emily P; Baggett, Travis P; Huang, Mingshu; Parker, Robert A; Paltiel, A David; Losina, Elena; Weinstein, Milton C; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer has become a leading cause of death among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH). Over 40% of PLWH in the United States smoke cigarettes; HIV independently increases the risk of lung cancer. To project cumulative lung cancer mortality by smoking exposure among PLWH in care. Using a validated microsimulation model of HIV, we applied standard demographic data and recent HIV/AIDS epidemiology statistics with specific details on smoking exposure, combining smoking status (current, former, or never) and intensity (heavy, moderate, or light). We stratified reported mortality rates attributable to lung cancer and other non-AIDS-related causes by smoking exposure and accounted for an HIV-conferred independent risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer mortality risk ratios (vs never smokers) for male and female current moderate smokers were 23.6 and 24.2, respectively, and for those who quit smoking at age 40 years were 4.3 and 4.5. In sensitivity analyses, we accounted for nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and for a range of HIV-conferred risks of death from lung cancer and from other non-AIDS-related diseases (eg, cardiovascular disease). Cumulative lung cancer mortality by age 80 years (stratified by sex, age at entry to HIV care, and smoking exposure); total expected lung cancer deaths, accounting for nonadherence to ART. Among 40-year-old men with HIV, estimated cumulative lung cancer mortality for heavy, moderate, and light smokers who continued to smoke was 28.9%, 23.0%, and 18.8%, respectively; for those who quit smoking at age 40 years, it was 7.9%, 6.1%, and 4.3%; and for never smokers, it was 1.6%. Among women, the corresponding mortality for current smokers was 27.8%, 20.9%, and 16.6%; for former smokers, it was 7.5%, 5.2%, and 3.7%; and for never smokers, it was 1.2%. ART-adherent individuals who continued to smoke were 6 to 13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than from traditional AIDS-related causes, depending on

  18. 78 FR 16871 - Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA); Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ..., urban and rural differences and family size) determined annually by the Secretary [of Labor] based on... higher level of the poverty line or 70 percent of the LLSIL. This issuance provides the Secretary's annual LLSIL for 2013 and references the current 2013 Health and Human Services ``Poverty Guidelines...

  19. Living with sea-level rise and climate change: a case study of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koningsveld, M.; Mulder, J.P.M. P.M.; Stive, M.J.F.; van der Valk, L.; van der Weck, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Based on historical hindsight, this paper shows that sea-level rise has played a fundamental role in the development of the low-lying environment of the Netherlands. It was beneficial in morphological terms during the mid-Holocene, but from Roman times, it has been a threat to the coastal zone

  20. Lived experiences of parents of premature babies in the intensive care unit in a private hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Steyn

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU, and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. Method: Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. Results: Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. Recommendations: Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. Conclusion: Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents’ relationships.

  1. Lived experiences of parents of premature babies in the intensive care unit in a private hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Erika; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris

    2017-02-28

    Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU), and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents' relationships.

  2. Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; Solomon, Susan; Gilford, Daniel M

    2017-01-24

    Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that short-lived greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the "world avoided" by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to short-lived substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in short-lived gases or net radiative forcing.

  3. Optimizing FRET-FLIM Labeling Conditions to Detect Nuclear Protein Interactions at Native Expression Levels in Living Arabidopsis Roots

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Yuchen

    2018-05-15

    Protein complex formation has been extensively studied using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). However, implementing this technology to detect protein interactions in living multicellular organism at single-cell resolution and under native condition is still difficult to achieve. Here we describe the optimization of the labeling conditions to detect FRET-FLIM in living plants. This study exemplifies optimization procedure involving the identification of the optimal position for the labels either at the N or C terminal region and the selection of the bright and suitable, fluorescent proteins as donor and acceptor labels for the FRET study. With an effective optimization strategy, we were able to detect the interaction between the stem cell regulators SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW at endogenous expression levels in the root pole of living Arabidopsis embryos and developing lateral roots by FRET-FLIM. Using this approach we show that the spatial profile of interaction between two transcription factors can be highly modulated in reoccurring and structurally resembling organs, thus providing new information on the dynamic redistribution of nuclear protein complex configurations in different developmental stages. In principle, our optimization procedure for transcription factor complexes is applicable to any biological system.

  4. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  5. Some Live Issues of the Physics Teaching in all the School Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mico, Silvana; Mandili, Jorgo

    2010-01-01

    In many countries the levels of social and economic development are also the determinants of education policies. During the last 10 years Albania had new developments in social and economic environment, but the education policies has remain the same or have been almost insignificantly enhanced. It isn't our intention discussing these policies, but just expressing some considerations according to the most recent experience and our vision. These considerations regard the teaching physics quality in all the school levels. It's truth that students have serious difficulty in understanding physics. We have tried to understand why this happens and how we can help them? In this paper we identify some teaching and learning problems and argue importance of using of educational philosophy, cognitive theory and pedagogical research to change our teaching of physics.

  6. Level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre-school children in their ordinary lives

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    and keywords The level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre- school children in their ordinary lives. The diploma thesis deals with the issue of movement activity of pre-school children. Movement activities are vital part of healthy life, especially for children. It should be an essential part of every activity, no matter if it is sport, game, relaxation or just a walk to school. It should be a common part of every pre-school child daily programme. The ac...

  7. The inventory model for feasibility studies of a deep geological disposal for high level and long lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, M.; Lagrange, M.H.; Porcher, J.B.; Chupeau, J.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed inventory of high level and long lived waste packages was established to perform studies for the feasibility of an underground repository. This inventory takes into account existing conditioned waste, unconditioned waste and arisings generated by existing facilities. Grouping of waste package sorts in package types is done regarding relevant characteristics that determine the design of disposal vaults. The radiological content of each package type is derived from calculations of nuclear interactions inside the reactors, from the distribution of the nuclides in the different package types; it is cross-checked with available data on waste sorts. (author)

  8. Evaluation of power commissioning of the Mochovce Unit 1 power level up to 100 % Nnom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvaic, I.; Mickolci, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document contains an evaluation of the power phase of power commissioning of the Mochovce Unit 1 in the phase up to the power level of 100 % N nom .In the document, the courses and results of tests in this phase of power commissioning are summarized, evaluation of the performance of important systems and equipment of the unit is carried out, and the compliance with Limits and Conditions in the course of the phase is assessed. On this basis, conclusions are drawn and recommendations for the unit to be ready for subsequent phases of the power commissioning. The evaluation was developed by the scientific management of the Mochovce commissioning providing an independent support for the operators for supervising the commissioning tasks from the point of nuclear safety

  9. Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, James K; Schmidt, Frank L; Hayes, Theodore L

    2002-04-01

    Based on 7,939 business units in 36 companies, this study used meta-analysis to examine the relationship at the business-unit level between employee satisfaction-engagement and the business-unit outcomes of customer satisfaction, productivity, profit, employee turnover, and accidents. Generalizable relationships large enough to have substantial practical value were found between unit-level employee satisfaction-engagement and these business-unit outcomes. One implication is that changes in management practices that increase employee satisfaction may increase business-unit outcomes, including profit.

  10. Units 3 and 4 steam generators new water level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoev, D.; Genov, St.

    2001-01-01

    The Steam Generator Water Level Control System is one of the most important for the normal operation systems, related to the safety and reliability of the units. The main upgrading objective for the SG level and SGWLC System modernization is to assure an automatic maintaining of the SG level within acceptable limits (below protections and interlocks) from 0% to 100% of the power in normal operation conditions and in case of transients followed by disturbances in the SG controlled parameters - level, steam flow, feedwater flow and/or pressure/temperature. To achieve this objective, the computerized controllers of new SG water level control system follows current computer control technology and is implemented together with replacement of the feedwater control valves and the needed I and C equipment. (author)

  11. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl, 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl, 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl, 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl, 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl, 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl, and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl, respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01 and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05. Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that

  12. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Moges, Beyene; Fantahun, Bereket; Tafess, Ketema; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Yismaw, Gizachew; Ayane, Tilahun; Yabutani, Tomoki; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-13

    Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and 18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl), 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl), 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl), 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl), and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and beneficial strategies for micronutrient

  13. Community-level Language Planning for Chinese Heritage Language Maintenance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Chung Cheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of Chinese heritage language in the United States from the perspective of language policy and planning. The case study examines the Chinese heritage language maintenance through community-based Chinese schools (CHS, and CHS’s relationships with Chinese American community, as well as governments and non-government organizations in China, Taiwan, and the United States. The paper starts with a theoretical discussion on the definition of language policy and planning, and then describes the history and heritage language education of Chinese Americans in the United States. The paper also presents micro-level planning activities initiated by CHSs in the Chinese American community and non-government organizations. Special focus is placed on the interaction between non-government organizations in the US and governmental bodies in Taiwan and mainland China and in the United States. This paper suggests that micro planning of heritage language maintenance is beneficial when initiated in the community, but it can only be developed and sustained within the wider scope of macro-level planning from governments

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to hypertension and hyperlipidemia self-management among African-American men living in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Everett; Ponder, Monica; Bernard, Stephanie

    2017-05-01

    Perceptions of illness affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) self-management. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding hypertension and hyperlipidemia management among 34 African-American men with hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia, age 40-65, living in the Southeastern United States. In-person focus groups were conducted using semi-structured interview questions informed by the Health Belief Model (HBM). Participants had a high level of knowledge about hypertension self-management, but less about cholesterol self-management. Perceived severity of both conditions was acknowledged, though participants perceived hypertension as more severe. Barriers to self-management included medication side effects and unhealthy dietary patterns. Facilitators included social support, positive healthcare experiences, and the value placed on family. Cultural implications highlighted the importance of food in daily life and social settings. Participants expressed how notions of masculinity affected self-management-noting the impact of feelings of vulnerability and perceived lack of control stemming from diagnosis and treatment expectations. The findings highlight gaps in knowledge of hyperlipidemia versus hypertension, and the impact of cultural context and perceptions on engagement in self-management behaviors. Public health practitioners and healthcare providers serving African-American men should address cultural factors and notions of masculinity which can hinder effective disease management among this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The brain sizes of living elasmobranchii as their organization level indicator. I. General analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkov, N A

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between brain and body masses of 64 species and subspecies of modern sharks and skates was investigated. It was established that the level of their encephalization in terms of the polygons of encephalization and the allometry coefficient (alpha), shows quite obviously the general organization level of one or another taxon of sharks and skates. Alpha = 0.56 for the class of cartilaginous fishes, and for the superorder of sharks and skates alpha = 0.54 and 0.61, accordingly. For several orders alpha constitutes: sharks--common for relict Hexanchiformes and Heterodontiformes 0.44, Squaliformes 0.43 and Carcharhiniformes 0.52 and skates--Rajiformes 0.44 and Dasyatiformes 0.52. All values are similar to those of other vertebrates and the theoretically calculated value of alpha (0.67). It was established the "place" of present-day Elasmobranchii and all cartilaginous fishes in the evolutionary row of Gnathostomata and Craniata on the developing and relative sizes of CNS, and the corrected alpha value for this particular vertebrate class was specified which was found to be sensationally high also in the works of foreign and native authors (Bauchot et al., 1976; Northcutt, 1978; Ebbesson, 1980; Kreps, 1980).

  16. Information Seen as Part of the Development of Living Intelligence: the Five-Leveled Cybersemiotic Framework for FIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Brier

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: It is argued that a true transdisciplinary information science going from physical information to phenomenological understanding needs a metaphysical framework. Three different kinds of causality are implied: efficient, formal and final. And at least five different levels of existence are needed: 1. The quantum vacuum fields with entangled causation. 2. The physical level with is energy and force-based efficient causation. 3. The informational-chemical level with its formal causation based on pattern fitting. 4. The biological-semiotic level with its non-conscious final causation and 5. The social-linguistic level of self-consciousness with its conscious goal-oriented final causation. To integrate these consistently in an evolutionary theory as emergent levels, neither mechanical determinism nor complexity theory are sufficient because they cannot be a foundation for a theory of lived meaning. C. S. Peirce's triadic semiotic philosophy combined with a cybernetic and systemic view, like N. Luhmann's, could create the framework I call Cybersemiotics.

  17. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  18. Putting Children on the Path to Becoming Responsible Adults: The Perspective of One Parent Living in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    Many parents seeking a sound education for their children are looking beyond the narrow boundaries of test scores into the realm of character education. This article explores how parenting approaches can help children live fulfilling lives in the present and also prepare them for future adult roles in personal, social, and professional spheres.…

  19. The influence of socio-living conditions and health factors on the level of life satisfaction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimiera Zdziebło

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The period of late adulthood is a period in which many actions for the purpose of summing up and evaluating the life so far are taken. One of the aspects of life which is then evaluated is its quality. Under the influence of many factors, the quality of life decreases among the elderly and thus it influences their life satisfaction level. Aim of the research: To evaluate the influence of socio-living and health factors on the level of life satisfaction of the elderly. Material and methods: The research was conducted through a diagnostic survey, using an opinion poll technique. The applied research tool was a copyrighted questionnaire and life satisfaction scale – SWLS (the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The examined group consisted of persons in older age, benefiting from nurse care in various health facilities. Results : The majority of those examined showed a mean rate (satisfaction with life. There are major discrepancies among the studies on the extent of influence according to such factors as housing conditions, income and professional activity. Health factors, namely suffering from multiple diseases, the chronic character of the disease, handicap and disability correlate with the feeling of satisfaction with life. The more factors – health problems, the lower is the rate of satisfaction with life. Conclusions: The socio-living conditions to a major extent influence the evaluation of satisfaction with life of the examined persons. Health factors play a major role in the feeling of satisfaction with life. There are no major differences in the evaluation of the life lived so far between inhabitants of cities and the countryside.

  20. Surface disposal of low-level and medium-level short-lived waste. How safe is the disposal facility in Dessel in the long term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    A disposal facility for the disposal of low-level and medium-level short-lived waste is planned to be built on a site located in the community of Dessel (Belgium). The facility will consist of 34 modules, corresponding to a storage volume capacity of approximately 70,000 m3. The disposal concept includes waste containers that are encapsulated in a concrete box which is filled with mortar. Approximately 900 of these blocks, or monoliths, fit inside each module. The article discusses the Research and Development programme that has been conducted at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN in conjunction with the development of this facility. Main emphasis is on the models that have been developed for predicting the long-term containment of the disposal facility.

  1. Ambient Noise Levels in Acute Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Referral Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia R. B D'Souza; Leslie Edward Lewis; Vijay Kumar; Ramesh Bhat Y; Jayashree Purkayastha; Hari Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Background: Advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival of neonates admitted to the intensive care of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). However, the NCU may be an inappropriate milieu, with presence of overwhelming stimuli, most potent being the continuous presence of noise in the ambience of the NICU. Aim and Objectives: To determine and describe the ambient noise levels in the acute NICU of a tertiary referral hospital. Material and Methods...

  2. Comparison of the N Reactor and Ignalina Unit No. 2 Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; McKay, S.L.

    1995-06-01

    A multilateral team recently completed a full-scope Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) on the Ignalina Unit No. 2 reactor plant in Lithuania. This allows comparison of results to those of the PSA for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) N Reactor. The N Reactor, although unique as a Western design, has similarities to Eastern European and Soviet graphite block reactors

  3. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-11-13

    HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. There was little urban-rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (pinequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these

  4. Noise level in a neonatal intensive care unit in Santa Marta - Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Galindo, Angélica Patricia; Camargo Caicedo, Yiniva; Velez-Pereira, Andres M

    2017-09-30

    The environment of neonatal intensive care units is influenced by numerous sources of noise emission, which contribute to raise the noise levels, and may cause hearing impairment and other physiological and psychological changes on the newborn, as well as problems with care staff. To evaluate the level and sources of noise in the neonatal intensive care unit. Sampled for 20 consecutive days every 60 seconds in A-weighting curves and fast mode with a Type I sound level meter. Recorded the average, maximum and minimum, and the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles. The values are integrated into hours and work shift, and studied by analysis of variance. The sources were characterized in thirds of octaves. The average level was 64.00 ±3.62 dB(A), with maximum of 76.04 ±5.73 dB(A), minimum of 54.84 ±2.61dB(A), and background noise of 57.95 ±2.83 dB(A). We found four sources with levels between 16.8-63.3 dB(A). Statistical analysis showed significant differences between the hours and work shift, with higher values in the early hours of the day. The values presented exceed the standards suggested by several organizations. The sources identified and measured recorded high values in low frequencies.

  5. Homocysteine levels after nitrous oxide anesthesia for living-related donor renal transplantation: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskunfirat, N; Hadimioglu, N; Ertug, Z; Akbas, H; Davran, F; Ozdemir, B; Aktas Samur, A; Arici, G

    2015-03-01

    Nitrous oxide anesthesia increases postoperative homocysteine concentrations. Renal transplantation candidates present with higher homocysteine levels than patients with no renal disease. We designed this study to investigate if homocysteine levels are higher in subjects receiving nitrous oxide for renal transplantation compared with subjects undergoing nitrous oxide free anesthesia. Data from 59 patients scheduled for living-related donor renal transplantation surgery were analyzed in this randomized, controlled, blinded, parallel-group, longitudinal trial. Patients were assigned to receive general anesthesia with (flowmeter was set at 2 L/min nitrous oxide and 1 L/min oxygen) or without nitrous oxide (2 L/min air and 1 L/min oxygen). We evaluated levels of total homocysteine and known determinants, including creatinine, folate, vitamin B12, albumin, and lipids. We evaluated factor V and von Willebrand factor (vWF) to determine endothelial dysfunction and creatinine kinase myocardial band (CKMB)-mass, troponin T to show myocardial ischemia preoperatively in the holding area (T1), after discontinuation of anesthetic gases (T2), and 24 hours after induction (T3). Compared with baseline, homocysteine concentrations significantly decreased both in the nitrous oxide (22.3 ± 16.3 vs 11.8 ± 9.9; P nitrous oxide-free groups (21.5 ± 15.3 vs 8.0 ± 5.7; P nitrous oxide group had significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine concentrations than the nitrous oxide-free group (P = .021). The actual homocysteine difference between groups was 3.8 μmol/L. This study shows that homocysteine levels markedly decrease within 24 hours after living-related donor kidney transplantation. Patients receiving nitrous oxide have a lesser reduction, but this finding is unlikely to have a clinical relevance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Breed

    Full Text Available Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  7. Commercial processing and disposal alternatives for very low levels of radioactive waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States has several options available in the commercial processing and disposal of very low levels of radioactive waste. These range from NRC licensed low level radioactive sites for Class A, B and C waste to conditional disposal or free release of very low concentrations of material. Throughout the development of disposal alternatives, the US promoted a graded disposal approach based on risk of the material hazards. The US still promotes this approach and is renewing the emphasis on risk based disposal for very low levels of radioactive waste. One state in the US, Tennessee, has had a long and successful history of disposal of very low levels of radioactive material. This paper describes that approach and the continuing commercial options for safe, long term processing and disposal. (author)

  8. Top level risk study for units 1 to 4 at NPP Kozloduy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkova, I.

    1997-01-01

    The first Top Level Study of NPP Kozloduy Units 1/4 was started in 1991 and completed in March 1992 by BEQE. The Primary objective of the project was to provide in a short term a tool for quantified comparison of the relative risk benefits that various design or operational modifications would have if implemented on NPP Kozloduy Units 1/4. This original version of the Study was reviewed by the IAEA who agreed in general with the conclusions indicating that the report provides valuable insights which should be used in the decision making process. The IAEA made suggestion for some changes. These comments were taken into account in the subsequent version. In early 1994 the new version was issued. The objective of this second project, in addition to revising the original study to reflect the IAEA comments, was to address the potential benefits from further improvements at NPP Kozloduy. The work on the second version was going on in parallel with the activities carried out in the mainframe of several NPP Kozloduy Units 1/4 Upgrading Program (WANO Six-Month Program, Program for the NPP Kozloduy Units 1-4 Upgrading, Twinning Program, etc.). And at last, a Top-Level Probabilistic Safety Study was carried out by EQE - Bulgaria and completed early in 1995 at the request of NPP Kozloduy. The objective of the project was the contribution of the different activities performed in the mainframe of the Program for the NPP Kozloduy Units 1-4 Safety Upgrading in the overall safety improvement to be assessed. 3 figs, 1 tab

  9. Multi-level examination of correlates of active transportation to school among youth living within 1 mile of their school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropp, Kathleen M; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-10-16

    Active transportation to school is a method by which youth can build physical activity into their daily routines. We examined correlates of active transportation to school at both individual- (characteristics of the individual and family) and area- (school and neighborhood) levels amongst youth living within 1 mile (1.6 km) of their school. Using the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey, we selected records of students (n = 3 997) from 161 schools that resided in an urban setting and lived within 1 mile from their school. Student records were compiled from: (1) individual-level HBSC student questionnaires; (2) area-level administrator (school) questionnaires; and (3) area-level geographic information system data sources. The outcome, active transportation to school, was determined via a questionnaire item describing the method of transportation that individual students normally use to get to school. Analyses focused on factors at multiple levels that potentially contribute to student decisions to engage in active transportation. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were employed. Approximately 18% of the variance in active transportation was accounted for at the area-level. Several individual and family characteristics were associated with engagement in active transportation to school including female gender (RR vs. males = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.91), having ≥2 cars in the household (RR vs. no cars = 0.87, 0.74-0.97), and family socioeconomic status (RR for 'not well off' vs. 'very well off' = 1.14, 1.01-1.26). Neighborhood characteristics most strongly related to active transportation were: the length of roads in the 1 km buffer (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.23, 1.00-1.42), the amount of litter in the neighborhood (RR for 'major problem' vs. 'no problem' = 1.47, 1.16-1.57), and relatively hot climates (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.33 CI, 1.05-1.53). Engagement in active transportation to school was related

  10. Sound levels in a neonatal intensive care unit significantly exceeded recommendations, especially inside incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Johanna; de Suremain, Aurelie; Berne Audeoud, Frederique; Ego, Anne; Debillon, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    This study measured sound levels in a 2008 built French neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and compared them to the 2007 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations. The ultimate aim was to identify factors that could influence noise levels. The study measured sound in 17 single or double rooms in the NICU. Two dosimeters were installed in each room, one inside and one outside the incubators, and these conducted measurements over a 24-hour period. The noise metrics measured were the equivalent continuous sound level (L eq ), the maximum noise level (L max ) and the noise level exceeded for 10% of the measurement period (L 10 ). The mean L eq , L 10 and L max were 60.4, 62.1 and 89.1 decibels (dBA), which exceeded the recommended levels of 45, 50 and 65 dBA (p care was correlated to an increased noise level, except for a postconceptional age below 32 weeks. The sound levels significantly exceeded the AAP recommendations, particularly inside incubators. A multipronged strategy is required to improve the sound environment and protect the neonates' sensory development. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An Examination of the Relationship between Acculturation Level and PTSD among Central American Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Sarita Marie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation level and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence in Central American immigrants in the United States. Central American immigrants represent a population that is a part of the Latino/Hispanic Diaspora in the United States. By the year 2050 the United States…

  12. Prevalence of Hospitalized Live Births Affected by Alcohol and Drugs and Parturient Women Diagnosed with Substance Abuse at Liveborn Delivery: United States, 1999–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. Methods This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. Results From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. Conclusions The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539

  13. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  14. Development of a unit cell model for interim performance assessment of vitrified low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1995-09-01

    The unit cell modeling approach has been developed and used in analysis of some design options for a vitrified low level waste disposal facility. The unit cell modeling approach is likely to be useful in interim performance assessment for the facility. The present unit cell model will probably need to be refitted in terms of some model parameters for the latter purpose. Two present disposal facility concepts differ in the length of a capillary barrier proposed to limit effective recharge through the top of the facility. Results of the study summarized herein suggest design of a capillary barrier which can reduce a recharge rate of 0.1 cm/yr by one or two orders of magnitude seems feasible for both concepts. A benchmark comparison of the unit cell model against a full facility model shows comparable predictive accuracy in less than one percent of the computer time. Results suggest that model parameters include capillary barrier performance, inter-canister spacing, rate of moisture withdrawal due to glass corrosion, contaminant inventory, and the well interceptor factor. It is also important that variations of waste form hydraulic parameters suggest that transport through the waste form is dominated by diffusion

  15. A Community-Level Initiative to Prevent Obesity: Results From Kaiser Permanente's Healthy Eating Active Living Zones Initiative in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Atiedu, Akpene; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Keene, Laura; Davoudi, Mehrnaz; Spring, Rebecca; Molina, Michelle; Lee, Lynda; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Steimberg, Clara; Tinajero, Roberta; Ravel, Jodi; Nudelman, Jean; Azuma, Andrea Misako; Kuo, Elena S; Solomon, Loel

    2018-05-01

    A growing number of health systems are leading health promotion efforts in their wider communities. What impact are these efforts having on health behaviors and ultimately health status? This paper presents evaluation results from the place-based Kaiser Permanente Healthy Eating Active Living Zones obesity prevention initiative, implemented in 2011-2015 in 12 low-income communities in Kaiser Permanente's Northern and Southern California Regions. The Healthy Eating Active Living Zones design targeted places and people through policy, environmental, and programmatic strategies. Each Healthy Eating Active Living Zone is a small, low-income community of 10,000 to 20,000 residents with high obesity rates and other health disparities. Community coalitions planned and implemented strategies in each community. A population-dose approach and pre and post surveys were used to assess impact of policy, program, and environmental change strategies; the analysis was conducted in 2016. Population dose is the product of reach (number of people affected by a strategy divided by target population size) and strength (the effect size or relative change in behavior for each person exposed to the strategy). More than 230 community change strategies were implemented over 3 years, encompassing policy, environmental, and programmatic changes as well as efforts to build community capacity to sustain strategies and make changes in the future. Positive population-level results were seen for higher-dose strategies, particularly those targeting youth physical activity. Higher-dose strategies were more likely to be found in communities with the longest duration of investment. These results demonstrate that strong (high-dose), community-based obesity prevention strategies can lead to improved health behaviors, particularly among youth in school settings. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is

  16. Investigation of background radiation levels and geologic unit profiles in Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, G.H.; Foutz, W.L.; Lesperance, L.R.

    1989-11-01

    As part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed radiological surveys on 435 vicinity properties (VPs) in the Durango area. This study was undertaken to establish the background radiation levels and geologic unit profiles in the Durango VP area. During the months of May through June, 1986, extensive radiometric measurements and surface soil samples were collected in the Durango VP area by personnel from ORNL's Grand Junction Office. A majority of the Durango VP surveys were conducted at sites underlain by Quaternary alluvium, older Quaternary gravels, and Cretaceous Lewis and Mancos shales. These four geologic units were selected to be evaluated. The data indicated no formation anomalies and established regional background radiation levels. Durango background radionuclide concentrations in surface soil were determined to be 20.3 ± 3.4 pCi/g for 40 K, 1.6 ± 0.5 pCi/g for 226 Ra, and 1.2 ± 0.3 pCi/g for 232 Th. The Durango background gamma exposure rate was found to be 16.5 ± 1.3 μR/h. Average gamma spectral count rate measurements for 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were determined to be 553, 150, and 98 counts per minute (cpm), respectively. Geologic unit profiles and Durango background radiation measurements are presented and compared with other areas. 19 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Integrated Level 3 risk assessment for the LaSalle Unit 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, A.C. Jr.; Brown, T.D.; Miller, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was performed on the LaSalle County Station nuclear power plant using state-of-the-art PRA analysis techniques. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the risk to the offsite population during full power operation of the plant and to include a characterization of the uncertainties in the calculated risk values. Uncertainties were included in the accident frequency analysis, accident progression analysis, and the source term analysis. Only weather uncertainties were included in the consequence analysis. In this paper selected results from the accident frequency, accident progression, source term, consequence, and integrated risk analyses are discussed and the methods used to perform a fully integrated Level 3 PRA are examined. LaSalle County Station is a two-unit nuclear power plant located 55 miles southwest of Chicago, Illinois. Each unit utilizes a Mark 2 containment to house a General Electric 3323 MWt BWR-5 reactor. This PRA, which was performed on Unit 2, included internal as well as external events. External events that were propagated through the risk analysis included earthquakes, fires, and floods. The internal event accident scenarios included transients, transient-induced LOCAs (inadvertently stuck open relief valves), anticipated transients without scram, and loss of coolant accidents

  18. The Change in Living Kidney Donation in Women and Men in the United States (2005-2015): A Population-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jagbir; Joffres, Yayuk; Rose, Caren; Lesage, Julie; Landsberg, David; Kadatz, Matthew; Gill, John

    2018-04-01

    The factors underlying the decline in living kidney donation in the United States since 2005 must be understood to inform strategies to ensure access to this option for future patients. Population-based estimates provide a better assessment of donation activity than do trends in the number of living donor transplants. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and the United States Census, we determined longitudinal changes in living kidney donation between 2005 and 2015, focusing on the effect of sex and income. We used multilevel Poisson models to adjust for differences in age, race, the incidence of ESRD, and geographic factors (including population density, urbanization, and daily commuting). During the study period, the unadjusted rate of donation was 30.1 and 19.3 per million population in women and men, respectively, and the adjusted incidence of donation was 44% higher in women (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.39 to 1.49). The incidence of donation was stable in women (IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.07) but declined in men (IRR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.83). Income was associated with longitudinal changes in donation in both sexes, yet donation was stable in the highest two population income quartiles in women but only in the highest income quartile in men. In both sexes, living related donations declined, irrespective of income. In conclusion, living donation declined in men but remained stable in women between 2005 and 2015, and income appeared to have a greater effect on living donation in men. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Implication of the level mixing concept on the possibility of Moessbauer absorption on isotopes with a long lived excited state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussement, R.; Scheveneels, G.; Hardeman, F.; Boolchand, P.

    1988-01-01

    In proposals and designs of possible γ-lasers, called grasers, the resonant absorption of γ-rays, called Moessbauer absorption, plays a dominant role. However two conflicting requirements on the lifetime of the isomeric state result in poor perspectives. In order to achieve the inversion of population that is necessary for the laser working, a long lived state is preferred so that the inverted system could be prepared by radiochemical means. However a long lived state implies a very small natural linewidth. At the other hand one needs a linewidth that is at least of the same order of magnitude as the inhomogeneous energy spread due to imperfections in the crystalline surrounding or due to dipole-dipole interactions with the nearest neighbours. One can circumvent the stringent requirement on the natural linewidth, when the effective lifetime is much shorter than the radiative one. The effective lifetime is in fact nothing else than the coherence time of the quantum state. If this coherence is only broke by the radiative decay, one obtains the natural linewidth. If, however, the nucleus is strongly coupled to the reservoir of its surrounding, it makes frequent phase and energy jumps. Its correlation time becomes very short and the associated linewidth becomes strongly but homogeneously broadened. To couple the nucleus with its neighbours and with the reservoir we use the principles of resonant level mixing. We will describe and illustrate this method with the case of 109m Ag. (orig./BHO)

  20. [Serum lipids and blood pressure levels in the +Mapuche population living in the Chilean region of Araucanía].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockins, B; Larenas, G; Charles, M; Standen, D; Espinoza, O; Illesca, M; Opazo, J A; Carrasco, B; Lanas, F; Davis, M

    1998-11-01

    Chilean aboriginal populations (Mapuche) predominantly live in the region of Araucanía, in the southern part of the country. Their cardiovascular risk factors have not been systematically assessed. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Mapuche population. Blood pressure, weight, height, dietary habits, fasting serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 1.948 adults living in 28 Mapuche communities. Thirteen percent of males and 16% of females had high blood pressure. Body mass index was 25.5 kg/m2 in males and 28.1 kg/m2 in females. Forty five percent of women and 24% of men were classified as obese. Mean serum total cholesterol was 186.7 +/- 9.6 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol was 58.7 +/- 30.7 mg/dl, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol was 3.4 +/- 2 and triglycerides were 155.2 +/- 91.2 mg/dl. Twenty eight percent of males and 9.6% of females smoked. Mapuche individuals have higher levels of HDL cholesterol a better total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and lower frequency of smoking than non aboriginal Chileans subjects.

  1. High-level radioactive waste management in the United States. Background and status: 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The US high-level radioactive waste disposal program is investigating a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether or not it is a suitable location for the development of a deep mined geologic repository. At this time, the US program is investigating a single site, although in the past, the program involved successive screening and comparison of alternate locations. The United States civilian reactor programs do not reprocess spent fuel; the high-level waste repository will be designed for the emplacement or spent fuel and a limited amount of vitrified high-level wastes from previous reprocessing in the US. The legislation enabling the US program also contains provisions for a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility, which could provide temporary storage of spent fuel accepted for disposal, and improve the flexibility of the repository development schedule

  2. Evaluating fundamentals of care: The development of a unit-level quality measurement and improvement programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jenny M; Bell, Jeanette; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2018-06-01

    The project aimed to develop a unit-level quality measurement and improvement programme using evidence-based fundamentals of care. Feedback from patients, families, whānau, staff and audit data in 2014 indicated variability in the delivery of fundamental aspects of care such as monitoring, nutrition, pain management and environmental cleanliness at a New Zealand District Health Board. A general inductive approach was used to explore the fundamentals of care and design a measurement and improvement programme, the Patient and Whānau Centred Care Standards (PWCCS), focused on fundamental care. Five phases were used to explore the evidence, and design and test a measurement and improvement framework. Nine identified fundamental elements of care were used to define expected standards of care and develop and test a measurement and improvement framework. Four six-monthly peer reviews have been undertaken since June 2015. Charge Nurse Managers used results to identify quality improvements. Significant improvement was demonstrated overall, in six of the 27 units, in seven of the nine standards and three of the four measures. In all, 89% (n = 24) of units improved their overall result. The PWCCS measurement and improvement framework make visible nursing fundamentals of care in line with continuous quality improvement to increase quality of care. Delivering fundamentals of care is described by nurses as getting ?back to basics'. Patient and family feedback supports the centrality of fundamentals of care to their hospital experience. Implementing a unit-level fundamentals of care quality measurement and improvement programme clarifies expected standards of care, highlights the contribution of fundamentals of care to quality and provides a mechanism for ongoing improvements. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 2 Units: Postal Services, Our Homes, Clothing, Community Helpers, and Custodians In Our Lives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Five curriculum units for the second grade level focus on: (1) clothing producers and suppliers, and the clothing industry; (2) postal service workers and the postal system; (3) janitorial workers; (4) workers who build, furnish, and maintain homes and the housing industry; and (5) various community workers. Behavioral unit objectives emphasize…

  4. The relationship between body mass index and quality of life in community-living older adults living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottone, F G; Hawkins, K; Musich, S; Cheng, Y; Ozminkowski, R J; Migliori, R J; Yeh, C S

    2013-01-01

    Carrying excess weight is associated with various chronic conditions especially in older adults, and can have a negative influence on the quality of life of this population. The objective of this study was to estimate the independent (i.e. adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and health status differences) impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) on health-related quality of life. A mail survey was sent to 60,000 older adults living in 10 states. The survey assessed quality of life using the average physical component scores (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) obtained from the Veterans Rand 12-item (VR-12) health status tool embedded in the survey. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to estimate the independent impact of each BMI category on quality of life, compared to the impact of other chronic conditions. A total of 22,827 (38%) eligible sample members responded to the survey. Of those, 2.2% were underweight, 38.5% had a normal BMI, 37.0% were overweight, 18.5% were obese and 1.9% were morbidly obese. Following OLS regression techniques, respondents' PCS values were statistically significantly lower for the underweight, overweight, obese and morbidly obese BMI categories, compared to the normal BMI group. Compared with all other chronic conditions, being morbidly obese (-6.0 points) had the largest negative impact on the PCS. Underweight was the only BMI category with a statistically significantly lower MCS value. The greatest negative impacts of the various BMI categories on quality of life were on physical rather than mental aspects, especially for those in the underweight, obese and morbidly obese categories, more so than many other chronic conditions.

  5. Task-dependent output of human parasternal intercostal motor units across spinal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Anna L; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E

    2017-12-01

    During breathing, there is differential activity in the human parasternal intercostal muscles and the activity is tightly coupled to the known mechanical advantages for inspiration of the same regions of muscles. It is not known whether differential activity is preserved for the non-respiratory task of ipsilateral trunk rotation. In the present study, we compared single motor units during resting breathing and axial rotation of the trunk during apnoea. We not only confirmed non-uniform recruitment of motor units across parasternal intercostal muscles in breathing, but also demonstrated that the same motor units show an altered pattern of recruitment in the non-respiratory task of trunk rotation. The output of parasternal intercostal motoneurones is modulated differently across spinal levels depending on the task and these results help us understand the mechanisms that may govern task-dependent differences in motoneurone output. During inspiration, there is differential activity in the human parasternal intercostal muscles across interspaces. We investigated whether the earlier recruitment of motor units in the rostral interspaces compared to more caudal spaces during inspiration is preserved for the non-respiratory task of ipsilateral trunk rotation. Single motor unit activity (SMU) was recorded from the first, second and fourth parasternal interspaces on the right side in five participants in two tasks: resting breathing and 'isometric' axial rotation of the trunk during apnoea. Recruitment of the same SMUs was compared between tasks (n = 123). During resting breathing, differential activity was indicated by earlier recruitment of SMUs in the first and second interspaces compared to the fourth space in inspiration (P motor units showed an altered pattern of recruitment because SMUs in the first interspace were recruited later and at a higher rotation torque than those in the second and fourth interspaces (P recruitment measures, was good-excellent [intraclass

  6. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (pstigma (HIV and drug related) reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma

  7. Hepatitis A in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border: the role of international travel and food-borne exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michelle; Hopkins, Jackie; Farrington, Leigh; Gresham, Louise; Ginsberg, Michele; Bell, Beth P

    2004-07-01

    Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border historically have had among the highest hepatitis A rates in the United States, but risk factors have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border in San Diego County, California. In this case-control study, hepatitis A cases among Hispanic children who were younger than 18 years reported from June 1998 through August 2000 were matched by age group and exposure period to Hispanic children who were susceptible to HAV infection. Participants and their families were interviewed about demographic information and potential sources of HAV infection, including attending child care, food and waterborne exposures, cross-border and other international travel, and travel-related activities. Participants included 132 children with hepatitis A and 354 control subjects. The median age of study participants was 7 years (range: 1-17). Sixty-seven percent of case-patients traveled outside the United States during the incubation period, compared with 25% of the children without hepatitis A (odds ratio [OR]: 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-9.7); all children, except 1, had traveled to Mexico. In multivariate analysis, hepatitis A was associated with having eaten food from a taco stand or street food vendor (adjusted OR: 17.0; 95% CI: 4.1-71.1) and having eaten salad/lettuce (adjusted OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) during travel. Hepatitis A among Hispanic children who live in an urban area of the United States-Mexico border is associated with cross-border travel to Mexico and food-borne exposures during travel. Travelers to areas where hepatitis A is endemic should receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.

  8. Determining Your Potential as an Entrepreneur. PACE Revised. Level 3. Unit 2. Research & Development Series No. 240CB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This individualized, competency-based unit on determining one's potential as an entrepreneur, the second of 18 modules, is on the third level of the revised Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). Intended for the advanced secondary and postsecondary levels and for adults wanting training or retraining, this unit, together…

  9. Planning the Marketing Strategy. PACE Revised. Level 3. Unit 6. Research & Development Series No. 240CB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This individualized, competency-based unit on planning marketing strategy, the sixth of 18 modules, is on the third level of the revised Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). Intended for the advanced secondary and postsecondary levels and for adults wanting training or retraining, this unit, together with the other…

  10. Inventories of organic materials and complexing agents in intermediate-level long-lived parcels (Report PNGMDR 2013-2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an inventory of organic materials and of complexing agents they may produce within parcels of alpha wastes which are to be produced or are being currently produced. The report proposes the results of campaigns of measurements of degassing, and comparison with results of modelling studies. The assessment of degassing rates of parcels of alpha wastes is completed by an assessment of hydrogen produced by radiolysis of interstitial water within the concrete container. Thus, after a presentation of the main parcels used by the CEA for intermediate-level long-lived wastes, and of an inventory of wastes containing organic materials, this report describes the consequences of radiolysis on polymers, and describes the objectives of R and D studies. It reports measurements and presents simulation tools for heterogeneous wastes, homogeneous wastes, production of water-soluble degradation products, and transfer and adsorption of these products in the storage site argillite

  11. Ramsar hot springs: how safe is to live in an environment with high level of natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Ramsar in northern Iran is among the world's well-known areas with highest levels of natural radiation. Annual exposure levels in areas with elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar are up to 260 mGy y -1 and average exposure rates are about 10 mGy y -1 for a population of about 2000 residents. Due to the local geology, which includes high levels of radium in rocks, soils, and groundwater, Ramsar residents are also exposed to high levels of alpha activity in the form of ingested radium and radium decay progeny as well as very high radon levels (over 1000 MBq m -3 ) in their dwellings. In some cases, the inhabitants of these areas receive doses much higher than the current ICRP-60 dose limit of 20 mSv y -1 . As the biological effects of low doses of radiation are not fully understood, the current radiation protection recommendations are based on the predictions of an assumption on the linear, no-threshold (LNT) relationship between radiation dose and the carcinogenic effects. Considering LNT, areas having such levels of natural radiation must be evacuated or at least require immediate remedial actions. Inhabitants of the high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) of Ramsar ar largely unaware of natural radiation, radon, or its possible health effects, and the inhabitants have not encountered any harmful effects due to living in their paternal houses. In this regard, it is often difficult to ask the inhabitants of HLNRAs of Ramsar to carry out remedical actions. Despite the fact that considering LNT and ALARA, public health in HLNRAs like Ramsar is best served by relocating the inhabitants, the residents' health seems unaffected and relocation is upsetting to the residents. Based on the findings obtained by studies on the health effect of high levels of natural radiation in Ramsar, as well as other HLNRAs, no consistent detrimental effect has been detected so far. However, more research is needed to clarify if the regulatory authorities should set limiting

  12. Determination of Noise Level and Its Sources in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatal Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jahangir Blourchian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Neonatal intensive care units (NICU different sound intensities and frequencies are produced from different sources, which may exert undesirable physiological effects on the infants. The aim of this study was to determine the noise level and its sources in the NICU and neonatal ward of Al-Zahra Hospital of Rasht, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the intensity of the sounds generated by the internal and external sources in the NICU and neonatal ward was measured using a sound level meter device. The sound produced by each of the sources was individually calculated. Data were analyzed performing descriptive and analytical statistics, using SPSS version 19. Results: The mean noise levels in six rooms and a hallway during morning, afternoon and night shifts with the electromechanical devices turned on were 61.67±4.5, 61.32±4.32 and 60.71±4.56 dB, respectively. Moreover, with the devices tuned off the mean noise levels during morning, afternoon and evening shifts were 64.97±2.6, 60.6±1.29 and 57.91±4.73 dB, respectively. The differences between the mean noise levels in the neonatal wards (standard noise level=45 dB during each shift with the electromechanical devices turned on and off were statistically significant (P=0.002 and P

  13. Ambient Noise Levels in Acute Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. B D'Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival of neonates admitted to the intensive care of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. However, the NCU may be an inappropriate milieu, with presence of overwhelming stimuli, most potent being the continuous presence of noise in the ambience of the NICU. Aim and Objectives: To determine and describe the ambient noise levels in the acute NICU of a tertiary referral hospital. Material and Methods: The ambient noise, in this study was the background sound existing in the environment of the acute NICU of a tertiary referral hospital in South India. The ambient noise levels were analyzed by an audiologist and acoustical engineer using a standardized and calibrated Sound Level Meter (SLM i.e., the Hand Held Analyzer type 2250, Brüel and Kjær, Denmark on a weighted frequency A and reported as dB (A. Results: The ambient noise levels were timed measurements yielded by the SLM in terms of L eq, L as well as L exceeded the standard A 10 Aeqmax levels (Leq< 45 dB, L ≤ 50 dB, and Lmax ≤ 65 10 dB.The L eq ranged from 59.4 to 62.12 dB A. A Ventilators with alarms caused the maximum amount of ambient noise yielding a L Sound Pressure Level AF (SPL of 82.14 dB A. Conclusion: The study has found high levels of ambient noise in the acute NICU. Though there are several measures to reduce the ambient noise levels in the NICU, it is essential to raise awareness among health care personnel regarding the observed ambient noise levels and its effects on neonates admitted to the NICU.

  14. Top-down models in biology: explanation and control of complex living systems above the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Levin, Michael

    2016-11-01

    It is widely assumed in developmental biology and bioengineering that optimal understanding and control of complex living systems follows from models of molecular events. The success of reductionism has overshadowed attempts at top-down models and control policies in biological systems. However, other fields, including physics, engineering and neuroscience, have successfully used the explanations and models at higher levels of organization, including least-action principles in physics and control-theoretic models in computational neuroscience. Exploiting the dynamic regulation of pattern formation in embryogenesis and regeneration requires new approaches to understand how cells cooperate towards large-scale anatomical goal states. Here, we argue that top-down models of pattern homeostasis serve as proof of principle for extending the current paradigm beyond emergence and molecule-level rules. We define top-down control in a biological context, discuss the examples of how cognitive neuroscience and physics exploit these strategies, and illustrate areas in which they may offer significant advantages as complements to the mainstream paradigm. By targeting system controls at multiple levels of organization and demystifying goal-directed (cybernetic) processes, top-down strategies represent a roadmap for using the deep insights of other fields for transformative advances in regenerative medicine and systems bioengineering. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Improving environmental performance through unit-level organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment: A capability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Elisa; Spitzeck, Heiko

    2016-11-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment (OCBEs) are increasingly advocated as a means of complementing formal practices in improving environmental performance. Adopting a capability perspective, we propose that a firm's employee involvement capability translates into environmental performance through the manifestation of unit-level OCBEs, and that this relationship is amplified by a shared vision capability. In a cross-country and multi-industry sample of 170 firms, we find support for our hypotheses, shedding light on contextual determinants of OCBEs, and on how firms may engender a positive relationship between top-down environmental initiatives and bottom-up behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form

  17. Characteristics of unit-level patient safety culture in hospitals in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-10-22

    Patient safety culture (PSC) has an important role in determining safety and quality in healthcare. Currently, little is known about the status of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. To develop appropriate strategies, characteristics of unit-level PSC should be investigated. Work units may be classified according to the characteristics of PSC, and common problems and appropriate strategies may be identified for each work unit category. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. In 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted at 18 hospitals in Japan. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire, developed by the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was distributed to all healthcare workers (n =12,076). Percent positive scores for 12 PSC sub-dimensions were calculated for each unit, and cluster analysis was used to categorise the units according to the percent positive scores. A generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to analyse the results of the cluster analysis, and odds ratios (ORs) for categorisation as high-PSC units were calculated for each unit type. A total of 9,124 respondents (75.6%) completed the questionnaire, and valid data from 8,700 respondents (72.0%) were analysed. There were 440 units in the 18 hospitals. According to the percent positive scores for the 12 sub-dimensions, the 440 units were classified into 2 clusters: high-PSC units (n =184) and low-PSC units (n =256). Percent positive scores for all PSC sub-dimensions for high-PSC units were significantly higher than those for low-PSC units. The GLMM revealed that the combined unit type of 'Obstetrics and gynaecology ward, perinatal ward or neonatal intensive care unit' was significantly more likely to be categorised as high-PSC units (OR =9.7), and 'Long-term care ward' (OR =0.2), 'Rehabilitation unit' (OR =0.2) and 'Administration unit' (OR =0.3) were significantly less likely to be categorised as high

  18. Geoecology: a county-level environmental data base for the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.J.; Emerson, C.J.; Nungesser, M.K.

    1980-09-01

    The Geoecology Data Base represents a unique compilation of computerized environmental data for research and development needs. Environmental assessment and planning for energy development require rapid access to data at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. In the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have developed an integrated data base of diverse environmental resource information from extant sources. Data are stored at the county level of resolution for the conterminous United States with some data available for subcounty units within larger, more diverse eastern counties. The Geoecology Data Base contains selected data on terrain and soils, water resources, forestry, vegetation, agriculture, land use, wildlife, air quality, climate, natural areas, and endangered species. Basic files on human population are also included to complement the environmental files. Data are stored in metric-SI units. The Geoecology Data Base is currently fulfilling diverse ongoing research needs while it is being expanded and updated as needs and new data are identified. This report is both a documentation and a user's guide to the Geoecology Data Base. It describes the Data Base design, illustrates applications, provides examples of accessing the Data Base, and gives general information on the data set contents.

  19. The influence of neonatal intensive care unit design on sound level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Li; Chen, Chao-Huei; Wu, Chih-Chao; Huang, Hsiu-Jung; Wang, Teh-Ming; Hsu, Chia-Chi

    2009-12-01

    Excessive noise in nurseries has been found to cause adverse effects in infants, especially preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The NICU design may influence the background sound level. We compared the sound level in two differently designed spaces in one NICU. We hypothesized that the sound level in an enclosed space would be quieter than in an open space. Sound levels were measured continuously 24 hours a day in two separate spaces at the same time, one enclosed and one open. Sound-level meters were placed near beds in each room. Sound levels were expressed as decibels, A-weighted (dBA) and presented as hourly L(eq), L(max), L(10), and L(90). The hourly L(eq) in the open space (50.8-57.2dB) was greater than that of the enclosed space (45.9-51.7dB), with a difference of 0.4-10.4dB, and a mean difference of 4.5dB (p<0.0001). The hourly L(10), L(90), and L(max) in the open space also exceeded that in the enclosed space (p<0.0001). The sound level measured in the enclosed space was quieter than in the open space. The design of bed space should be taken into consideration when building a new NICU. Besides the design of NICU architecture, continuous monitoring of sound level in the NICU is important to maintain a quiet environment.

  20. Maintaining reduced noise levels in a resource-constrained neonatal intensive care unit by operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A; Denzil, S B; Linda, R; Josephine, P K; Nagapoornima, M; Suman Rao, P N; Swarna Rekha, A

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of operant conditioning in sustaining reduced noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Quasi-experimental study on quality of care. Level III NICU of a teaching hospital in south India. 26 staff employed in the NICU. (7 Doctors, 13 Nursing staff and 6 Nursing assistants). Operant conditioning of staff activity for 6 months. This method involves positive and negative reinforcement to condition the staff to modify noise generating activities. Comparing noise levels in decibel: A weighted [dB (A)] before conditioning with levels at 18 and 24 months after conditioning. Decibel: A weighted accounts for noise that is audible to human ears. Operant conditioning for 6 months sustains the reduced noise levels to within 62 dB in ventilator room 95% CI: 60.4 - 62.2 and isolation room (95% CI: 55.8 - 61.5). In the preterm room, noise can be maintained within 52 dB (95% CI: 50.8 - 52.6). This effect is statistically significant in all the rooms at 18 months (P = 0.001). At 24 months post conditioning there is a significant rebound of noise levels by 8.6, 6.7 and 9.9 dB in the ventilator, isolation and preterm room, respectively (P =0.001). Operant conditioning for 6 months was effective in sustaining reduced noise levels. At 18 months post conditioning, the noise levels were maintained within 62 dB (A), 60 dB (A) and 52 dB (A) in the ventilator, isolation and pre-term room, respectively. Conditioning needs to be repeated at 12 months in the ventilator room and at 18 months in the other rooms.

  1. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  2. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States - progress or stalemate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Larson, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The U.S. nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW - industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW - face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of U.S. low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change

  3. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States -- Progress or stalemate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The US nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW -- industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW -- face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of US low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change

  4. Population-level differences in revascularization treatment and outcomes among various United States subpopulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Garth Graham; Yang-Yu Karen Xiao; Dan Rappoport; Saima Siddiqi

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent general improvements in health care, significant disparities persist in the cardiovascular care of women and racial/ethnic minorities. This is true even when income, education level, and site of care are taken into consideration. Possible explanations for these disparities include socioeconomic considerations, elements of discrimination and racism that affect socioeconomic status, and access to adequate medical care. Coronary revascularization has become the accepted and recommended treatment for myocardial infarction(MI) today and is one of the most common major medical interventions in the United States, with more than 1 million procedures each year. This review discusses recent data on disparities in co-morbidities and presentation symptoms, care and access to medical resources, and outcomes in revascularization as treatment for acute coronary syndrome, looking especially at women and minority populations in the United States. The data show that revascularization is used less in both female and minority patients. We summarize recent data on disparities in co-morbidities and presentation symptoms related to MI; access to care, medical resources, and treatments; and outcomes in women, blacks, and Hispanics. The picture is complicated among the last group by the many Hispanic/Latino subgroups in the United States. Some differences in outcomes are partially explained by presentation symptoms and co-morbidities and external conditions such as local hospital capacity. Of particular note is the striking differential in both presentation co-morbidities and mortality rates seen in women, compared to men, especially in women ≤ 55 years of age. Surveillance data on other groups in the United States such as American Indians/Alaska Natives and the many Asian subpopulations show disparities in risk factors and co-morbidities, but revascularization as treatment for MI in these populations has not been adequately studied. Significant research is required to

  5. Anti-müllerian hormone levels are associated with live birth rates in ART, but the predictive ability of anti-müllerian hormone is modest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alson, Sara S E; Bungum, Leif J; Giwercman, Aleksander; Henic, Emir

    2018-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the association between serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) level and cumulative live birth rates (LBR) in patients undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycle, and to compare serum AMH levels with Antral Follicle Count (AFC) and Ovarian Sensitivity Index (OSI) as predictors of live birth. A prospective cohort study of 454 patients under the age of 40 and with a regular menstrual cycle of 21-35 days, undergoing their first IVF treatment cycles between September 2010 and June 2015. Participants were divided into three groups based on their AMH level, (AMH ≤10, AMH 10-distribution between patients with or without live birth was analyzed using a Mann-Whitney-test, and live birth rates were compared between groups by a chi-squared test for linear trend. The ability of AMH, OSI and AFC as predictors of live birth was assessed by a receiver operating characteristics-analysis and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Patients with live birth had a higher AMH, median (range) 26 [0-137] pmol/l, compared with patients without live birth, AMH 22 [0-154] pmol/l, p = 0.035. Mean live birth rate (SD) was 0.36 (0.48) in the total cohort, 0.26 (0.44) in AMH-group birth rates increased with 8% per AMH-group (95% CI: 0.02 -0.14, p = 0.015). The AUC for AFC was 0.56, for AMH 0.57 and for OSI 0.63, respectively. AMH concentration in serum is associated with live birth rates after IVF. Our results suggest that both AMH, AFC and OSI have an equal but modest predictive ability in relation to live birth rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel, high-level waste and long-lived intermediate level waste sited in opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Marschall, P.; Zuidema, P.; Gribi, P.

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel and highly radioactive wastes in Opalinus clay strata. This study provides a comprehensive treatment of the issue of gas generation in a repository for spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW), sited in the Opalinus clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. The issue of how gas generation in and transport from waste repositories may influence disposal system performance has been under study for many years, both at Nagra and internationally. The report consists of three main parts: (i) A synthesis of basic information on the host rock and on details of repository construction; (ii) A discussion on gas transport characteristics of the engineered barrier system and the geosphere; (iii) A discussion on the effects of gas on system performance, based on the available information on gas generation, gas transport properties and gas pathways provided in the previous parts of the report. Simplified model calculations based on a mass balance approach for the gas generated within the repository are presented and discussed

  7. France's State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-06-13

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo's severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution.

  8. Analysis of death anxiety levels in nursing staff of critical care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Cristina Pascual Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When the patients are in the end-of-life, the cares would focus to favor a good death, for that reason the nursing staff must know how to integrate the death like a part of the life, being avoided that produces anxiety to them before the possibility of taking part its own fears to the death. The core of nursing staff in intensive care units is to maintain life of their patients, reason why the end-of life in them is not easy or natural.Objective: Evaluate the death anxiety levels in intensive care nursing staff.Material and method: An observational study was conducted descriptive cross hospital adult and Paediatric ICU General University Gregorio Marañón Hospital, through survey to nurses and auxiliary nurses of those units.The anxiety inventory was used to Death (Death Anxiety Inventory [DAI] for the assessment of anxiety before death. Outcomes: Paediatric ICU nurses have higher levels of anxiety that the adult ICU as well as the less experienced professionals and those declared not feel trained in the subject.Conclusions: Experience and the training are key elements that help professionals face to death, from management we must ensure that patients in stage terminal are served by professionals with this profile.

  9. Hierarchical Bayes Small Area Estimation under a Unit Level Model with Applications in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageena Nazir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To studied Bayesian aspect of small area estimation using Unit level model. In this paper we proposed and evaluated new prior distribution for the ratio of variance components in unit level model rather than uniform prior. To approximate the posterior moments of small area means, Laplace approximation method is applied. This choice of prior avoids the extreme skewness, usually present in the posterior distribution of variance components. This property leads to more accurate Laplace approximation. We apply the proposed model to the analysis of horticultural data and results from the model are compared with frequestist approach and with Bayesian model of uniform prior in terms of average relative bias, average squared relative bias and average absolute bias. The numerical results obtained highlighted the superiority of using the proposed prior over the uniform prior. Thus Bayes estimators (with new prior of small area means have good frequentist properties such as MSE and ARB as compared to other traditional methods viz., Direct, Synthetic and Composite estimators.

  10. Customer satisfaction survey with clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Rae; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, In Suk; Chang, Chulhun L; Lee, Eun Yup; Son, Han Chul; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2014-09-01

    We performed customer satisfaction surveys for physicians and nurses regarding clinical laboratory services, and for outpatients who used phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level to evaluate our clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. Thus, we wish to share our experiences with the customer satisfaction survey for clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. Board members of our laboratory designed a study procedure and study population, and developed two types of questionnaire. A satisfaction survey for clinical laboratory services was conducted with 370 physicians and 125 nurses by using an online or paper questionnaire. The satisfaction survey for phlebotomy services was performed with 347 outpatients who received phlebotomy services by using computer-aided interviews. Mean satisfaction scores of physicians and nurses was 58.1, while outpatients' satisfaction score was 70.5. We identified several dissatisfactions with our clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. First, physicians and nurses were most dissatisfied with the specimen collection and delivery process. Second, physicians and nurses were dissatisfied with phlebotomy services. Third, molecular genetic and cytogenetic tests were found more expensive than other tests. This study is significant in that it describes the first reference survey that offers a survey procedure and questionnaire to assess customer satisfaction with clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level.

  11. Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang

    2016-09-06

    Ground-level ozone is adverse to human and vegetation health. High ground-level ozone concentrations usually occur over the United States in the summer, often referred to as the ozone season. However, observed monthly mean ozone concentrations in the southeastern United States were higher in October than July in 2010. The October ozone average in 2010 reached that of July in the past three decades (1980-2010). Our analysis shows that this extreme October ozone in 2010 over the Southeast is due in part to a dry and warm weather condition, which enhances photochemical production, air stagnation, and fire emissions. Observational evidence and modeling analysis also indicate that another significant contributor is enhanced emissions of biogenic isoprene, a major ozone precursor, from water-stressed plants under a dry and warm condition. The latter finding is corroborated by recent laboratory and field studies. This climate-induced biogenic control also explains the puzzling fact that the two extremes of high October ozone both occurred in the 2000s when anthropogenic emissions were lower than the 1980s and 1990s, in contrast to the observed decreasing trend of July ozone in the region. The occurrences of a drying and warming fall, projected by climate models, will likely lead to more active photochemistry, enhanced biogenic isoprene and fire emissions, an extension of the ozone season from summer to fall, and an increase of secondary organic aerosols in the Southeast, posing challenges to regional air quality management.

  12. Association between sarcopenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, and higher-level functional capacity in community-dwelling Japanese elderly people. Subjects were 1158 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese people aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance. Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Subjects without low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and low physical performance were classified as "normal." Examination of higher-level functional capacity was performed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC). The TMIG-IC is a 13-item questionnaire completed by the subject; it contains five questions on self-maintenance and four questions each on intellectual activity and social role. Sarcopenia was identified in 11.3% and 10.7% of men and women, respectively. The percentage of disability for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was 39.0% in men with sarcopenia and 30.6% in women with sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, in men, sarcopenia was significantly associated with IADL disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. In women, sarcopenia was significantly associated with every subscale of the TMIG-IC disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. This study revealed that sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, had a significant association with disability in higher-level functional capacity in elderly Japanese subjects. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may prevent higher-level functional disability among elderly people. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides content in mosses, lichens and needles of Siberia areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakhovenko, V.D.; Sukhorukov, F.V.; Shcherbov, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate the present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides activity in lichen-moss cover and needles in the Siberia region. During the expeditionary activities (1995-2004) the Lichen cover mosses and needles were sampled in the Ust'-Ordinsky and Aginsky Buryatsky autonomous regions, Altai area, Republic of Altai, Novosibirsk Region, the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous region. The identical species of lichen, mosses. needles were collected from Siberia (lichens - Cladonia, Evernia, Usnea, Parmeli; mosses - Polytrichum, Hylocomium, Pleurozium, Sphagnum; needles - Pinaceae). It was collected 6 and more lichen species from each of 18 sample sites, more than 3 Moss species from 7 sample sites, and in place of coniferous trees joint growth (a pine, a cedar, a fir, a fur-tree and a larch). The needles were selected from all trees and thus were divided into one-year-old and many-year old. The samples were analyzed in the Laboratory of Trace Elements Geochemistry and Ecogeochemistry of the UIGGM, Novosibirsk, using special sample preparation and analysis techniques. The content of 137 Cs were determined by gamma-spectrometry (analyst Stepin A.S.), 90 Sr by beta-radiometry with a radiochemical sample preparation (analyst Makeover I.V.). The data reported are evidence that a present-day level of radioactive contamination in moss-lichen cover and needles of Siberia areas corresponds to this of global background, expect for northern area of Siberia (YNAD) for which hyperactivity are determined for the each of three components. Radiocesium concentration in one-year old needles reflects a level of atmospheric intake only for accidents, for other cases the condition of current needles reflects basically radionuclide level established as the result of dynamic balance between root intake and annual biogenic abscission of needles. (author)

  14. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist along active shorelines in NPS units, including, e.g., Cape Cod, Padre Island, Hawaii Volcanoes, and the Everglades. Iconic cultural resources managed by NPS include the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Fort Sumter, the Golden Gate, and heiaus and fish traps along the coast of Hawaii. Impacts anticipated from sea level rise include inundation and flooding of beaches and low lying marshes, shoreline erosion of coastal areas, and saltwater intrusion into the water table. These impacts and other coastal hazards will threaten park beaches, marshes, and other resources and values; alter the viability of coastal roads; and require the NPS to re-evaluate the financial, safety, and environmental implications of maintaining current projects and implementing future projects in ocean and coastal parks in the context of sea level rise. Coastal erosion will increase as sea levels rise. Barrier islands along the coast of Louisiana and North Carolina may have already passed the threshold for maintaining island integrity in any scenario of sea level rise (U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Program Report 4.1). Consequently, sea level rise is expected to hasten the disappearance of historic coastal villages, coastal wetlands, forests, and beaches, and threaten coastal roads, homes, and businesses. While sea level is rising in most coastal parks, some parks are experiencing lower water levels due to isostatic rebound and lower lake levels. NPS funded a Coastal Vulnerability Project to evaluate the physical and geologic factors affecting 25 coastal parks. The USGS Open File Reports for each park are available at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/. These reports were designed to inform park planning efforts. NPS conducted a Storm Vulnerability Project to provide ocean and coastal

  15. The effect of illegal lead processing on blood lead levels in children living in the mining area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorac Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgraund/Aim. The northern part of Kosovo was one of the largest lead and zinc production industries in Europe. Special attention has been paid to the landfill sites of these metals remained after past industrial activities. The inhabitants of Roma camps in this area are collecting led waste they process by crushing and melting in their shacks in primitively organized working environments. Because of all the aforementioned it was necessary to examine the concentration of blood lead level (BLL in the children aged less than 6 years inhabiting this area, especially taking care of blood analysis of children living in Roma camps. Methods. The study was conducted in the municipality of Leposavić, Province Kosovo and Metohija, Serbia. Totally 78 subjects participated in the study. All the subjects were divided into two groups: the group I consisting of 42 children who lived in the Romas camp, and the group II with 36 children from a city kindergarten. Based on the mathematical model WRPLOT we found out that both groups of patients were in the low risk zone for industrial contamination exposure. Blood analysis was done according to the protocol provided by ESA Lead Care. Results. The average age of participants in the study was 4.60 ± 1.63 years. The mean BBL in the children from the group 1 was 19.11 μg/dL and from the group 2 4.87 μg/dL. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean values of BBL between the groups (U = 39, p < 0.001. All of the children from the group 1 had BBL greater than 5 μg/dL in comparison to 38.9% of the children from the group 2 (χ2 = 35.75, p < 0.001. Conclusion. Although both groups were located outside the zone of direct spread of pollution, the results indicate high concentrations of lead in blood of all the examined children. The concentration was higher in the children who lived in the area in which illegal processing of lead waste took place. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education

  16. [Physical performance of older adults living in rural areas at sea level and at high altitude in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estela-Ayamamani, David; Espinoza-Figueroa, Jossué; Columbus-Morales, Mauricio; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando; Parodi, José F; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Living at high altitudes requires the inhabitants to adapt biologically and socially to the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in physical performance (PP) in rural populations at sea level and at high altitude. A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural communities in Ancash, Peru, located at 3.345 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) and also in communities located in coastal areas at 6m.a.s.l. PP was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and other associated factors. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated. A total of 130 older adults were assessed in the high altitude communities and 129 on the coast. The median age was 71.4 years, and 55.6% were female. Low physical performance (SPPB ≤ 6) was 10.0% at high altitude and 19.4% on the coast (p<0.05). Factors associated with low physical performance were residing at the coast (aPR: 2.10, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.33), self-reported poor health (aPR: 2.48, 95% CI 1.21 -5.08), hypertension (aPR: 1.73, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.98), and age (aPR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07), while being a farmer (aPR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.97), and being independent (aPR: 0.37, 95% CI 0,20-, 072) were found to be protective factors. It was also found that the inhabitants of the coast have a mean of 0.86 points lower total SPPB than the high altitude ones (p=0.004). There is an association between altitude of residence and PP in older adults. The prevalence of a low PP in older adults in rural areas at sea level is twice as high compared to those living in high altitude rural communities. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Noise levels in neonatal intensive care unit and use of sound absorbing panel in the isolette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuncu, E; Akman, I; Kulekci, S; Akdas, F; Bilgen, H; Ozek, E

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure the noise level of a busy neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to determine the effect of sound absorbing panel (SAP) on the level of noise inside the isolette. The sound pressure levels (SPL) of background noise, baby crying, alarms and closing of isolette's door/portholes were measured by a 2235-Brüel&Kjaer Sound Level Meter. Readings were repeated after applying SAP (3D pyramidal shaped open cell polyurethane foam) to the three lateral walls and ceiling of the isolette. The median SPL of background noise inside the NICU was 56dBA and it decreased to 47dBA inside the isolette. The median SPL of monitor alarms and baby crying inside the isolette were not different than SPL measured under radiant warmer (p>0.05). With SAP, the median SPL of temperature alarm inside the isolette decreased significantly from 82 to 72dBA, monitor alarm from 64 to 56dBA, porthole closing from 81 to 74dBA, and isolette door closing from 80 to 68dBA (pnoise produced by baby crying when SAP was used in the isolette (79dBA vs 69dBA, respectively) (pnoise. The noise level in our NICU is significantly above the universally recommended levels. Being inside the isolette protects infants from noise sources produced outside the isolette. However, very high noises are produced inside the isolette as well. Sound absorbing panel can be a simple solution and it attenuated the noise levels inside the isolette.

  18. Use of interactive live digital imaging to enhance histology learning in introductory level anatomy and physiology classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higazi, Tarig B

    2011-01-01

    Histology is one of the main subjects in introductory college-level Human Anatomy and Physiology classes. Institutions are moving toward the replacement of traditional microscope-based histology learning with virtual microscopy learning amid concerns of losing the valuable learning experience of traditional microscopy. This study used live digital imaging (LDI) of microscopic slides on a SMART board to enhance Histology laboratory teaching. The interactive LDI system consists of a digital camera-equipped microscope that projects live images on a wall-mounted SMART board via a computer. This set-up allows real-time illustration of microscopic slides with highlighted key structural components, as well as the ability to provide the students with relevant study and review material. The impact of interactive LDI on student learning of Histology was then measured based on performance in subsequent laboratory tests before and after its implementation. Student grades increased from a mean of 76% (70.3-82.0, 95% CI) before to 92% (88.8-95.3, 95% CI) after integration of LDI indicating highly significant (P < 0.001) enhancement in students' Histology laboratory performance. In addition, student ratings of the impact of the interactive LDI on their Histology learning were strongly positive, suggesting that a majority of students who valued this learning approach also improved learning and understanding of the material as a result. The interactive LDI technique is an innovative, highly efficient and affordable tool to enhance student Histology learning, which is likely to expand knowledge and student perception of the subject and in turn enrich future science careers. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. A dynamic state-level analysis of carbon dioxide emissions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Travis

    2013-01-01

    As climate change and the regulation of carbon dioxide emissions play an increasingly important role in the global policy debate, careful consideration of the state-level determinants driving emissions must be considered. The importance of state-level determinants in the transmission of carbon dioxide matters especially for a country that differs from coast to coast in energy use and industry makeup like the United States. To add to the policy debate this paper estimates two models that account for the dynamic nature of emissions of carbon dioxide emissions at the state-level from 1980–2010 while taking account of scale, technique, and composition effects. When stochastic trends are taken account of, an environmental Kuznets curve relationship with a feasible turning point is found for carbon dioxide emissions. - Highlights: • State-level analysis of carbon dioxide emissions. • Dynamic panel estimation to account for time series properties. • Feasible environmental Kuznets curve for carbon dioxide emissions. • Implications for state environmental policy discussed

  20. Living conditions in the districts of Oslo and poisonings by substances of abuse treated at casualty clinic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, Maja; Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind; Brekke, Mette

    2015-11-17

    Use of and acute poisoning by substances of abuse represent a major health problem and are often linked to social destitution. We describe associations between place of residence, living conditions and the incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse in Oslo. All patients who were 12 years of age or older and resident in Oslo and who were treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) were included prospectively for a continuous period of one year, from October 2011 to September 2012. The 15 districts of Oslo were categorised into three groups of living conditions, from the best (I) to the poorest (III) living conditions, based on the City of Oslo's living conditions index. Homeless people were grouped separately. The incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse treated in the OAEOC was estimated. Of a total of 1,560 poisonings by substances of abuse, 1,094 cases (70%) affected men. The median age was 41 years. The most frequent toxic agents were ethanol, with 915 cases (59%), and heroin, with 249 cases (16%). The incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse treated in the OAEOC per year per 1,000 inhabitants amounted to 1.75 in living conditions group I, to 2.76 in living conditions group II and 3.41 in living conditions group III. Living conditions group III had a significantly higher incidence than living conditions group II (p < 0.001), and living conditions group II had a significantly higher incidence than living conditions group I (p < 0.001). The incidence of acute poisoning by substances of abuse was higher, the poorer the living conditions in the district.

  1. New York vs. United States: Federalism and the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Although 97 percent of LLRW is so slightly radioactive that it requires little or no shielding to protect the public, the remaining 3 percent consists of materials that must be shielded for periods ranging from 300 to several thousand years. Some of the material classified as LLRW contains open-quotes open-quote hot spots close-quote, where concentrations of radioactivity may be quite high.close quotes Even aside from such hot spots, LLRW poses a threat to human health. While nuclear power plants generate the bulk of LLRW, a significant quantity of LLRW is generated by industry, and academic and medical institutions. States are allowed to regulate LLRW that is generated by the private sector, as long as the regulations are compatible with, and at least as restrictive as, those of the NRC. However, states may not regulate LLRW generated by NRC-licensed nuclear power plants. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLR-WPAA, or the Act) attempted to solve the problem of insufficient LLRW disposal capacity in the United States by further shifting responsibility for LLRW disposal to the states. The Act required each state to provide an approved disposal site that could be located either within that state or within a region formed by a compact including that state. In June, 1992, the United States Supreme Court struck down a key provision of the Act that would have forced a state to take title to all LLRW generated within its borders if that state failed to meet a 1996 deadline for providing such a disposal site. This note will examine the constitutional basis for, and the consequences of, that decision. In addition, this note will suggest that the Court's new criterion for determining when a federal statute violates principles of federalism be replaced by a more coherent and workable test resting on a theory of political accountability and on the Guarantee Clause of the United States Constitution

  2. Modelling high level system design and unit commitment for a microgrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, A.D. [Centre for Energy Policy and Technology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Leach, M.A. [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    This article develops a linear programming cost minimisation model for the high level system design and corresponding unit commitment of generators and storage within a microgrid; a set of energy resources working co-operatively to create a cost effective, reliable and environmentally friendly energy provision system. Previous work in this area is used as a basis for formulation of a new approach to this problem, with particular emphasis on why a microgrid is different to centralised generation or other grid-connected decentralised energy resources. Specifically, the model explicitly defines the amount of time that the microgrid would be expected to operate autonomously, and restricts flow of heat between microgrid participants to defined cases. The model developed is applied to a set of United Kingdom commercial load profiles, under best current estimates of energy prices and technology capital costs, to determine investment attractiveness of the microgrid. Sensitivity analysis of results to variations in energy prices is performed. The results broadly indicate that a microgrid can offer an economic proposition, although it is necessarily slightly more expensive than regular grid-connected decentralised generation. The analysis results have raised important questions regarding a fair method for settlement between microgrid participants, and game theory has been identified as a suitable tool to analyse aspects of this situation. (author)

  3. Modelling high level system design and unit commitment for a microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, A.D.; Leach, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a linear programming cost minimisation model for the high level system design and corresponding unit commitment of generators and storage within a microgrid; a set of energy resources working co-operatively to create a cost effective, reliable and environmentally friendly energy provision system. Previous work in this area is used as a basis for formulation of a new approach to this problem, with particular emphasis on why a microgrid is different to centralised generation or other grid-connected decentralised energy resources. Specifically, the model explicitly defines the amount of time that the microgrid would be expected to operate autonomously, and restricts flow of heat between microgrid participants to defined cases. The model developed is applied to a set of United Kingdom commercial load profiles, under best current estimates of energy prices and technology capital costs, to determine investment attractiveness of the microgrid. Sensitivity analysis of results to variations in energy prices is performed. The results broadly indicate that a microgrid can offer an economic proposition, although it is necessarily slightly more expensive than regular grid-connected decentralised generation. The analysis results have raised important questions regarding a fair method for settlement between microgrid participants, and game theory has been identified as a suitable tool to analyse aspects of this situation. (author)

  4. High level waste transport and disposal cost calculations for the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nattress, P.C.; Ward, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power has been generated in the United Kingdom since 1962, and throughout that time fuel has been reprocessed giving rise to high level waste. This has been managed by storing fission products and related wastes as highly active liquor, and more recently by a program of vitrification and storage of the glass blocks produced. Government policy is that vitrified high level waste should be stored for at least 50 years, which has the technical advantage of allowing the heat output rate of the waste to fall, making disposal easier and cheaper. Thus, there is no immediate requirement to develop a deep geological repository in the UK, but the nuclear companies do have a requirement to make financial provision out of current revenues for high level waste disposal at a future repository. In 1991 the interested organizations undertook a new calculation of costs for such provisions, which is described here. The preliminary work for the calculation included the assumption of host geology characteristics, a compatible repository concept including overpacking, and a range of possible nuclear programs. These have differing numbers of power plants, and differing mixes of high level waste from reprocessing and spent fuel for direct disposal. An algorithm was then developed so that the cost of high level waste disposal could be calculated for any required case within a stated envelope of parameters. An Example Case was then considered in detail leading to the conclusion that a repository to meet the needs of a constant UK nuclear economy up to the middle of the next century would have a cash cost of UK Pounds 1194M (US$2011M). By simple division the cost to a kWh of electricity is UK Pounds 0.00027 (0.45 US mil). (author)

  5. Future-oriented tweets predict lower county-level HIV prevalence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Molly E; Schwartz, H Andrew; Chen, Qijia; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Future orientation promotes health and well-being at the individual level. Computerized text analysis of a dataset encompassing billions of words used across the United States on Twitter tested whether community-level rates of future-oriented messages correlated with lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates and moderated the association between behavioral risk indicators and HIV. Over 150 million tweets mapped to U.S. counties were analyzed using 2 methods of text analysis. First, county-level HIV rates (cases per 100,000) were regressed on aggregate usage of future-oriented language (e.g., will, gonna). A second data-driven method regressed HIV rates on individual words and phrases. Results showed that counties with higher rates of future tense on Twitter had fewer HIV cases, independent of strong structural predictors of HIV such as population density. Future-oriented messages also appeared to buffer health risk: Sexually transmitted infection rates and references to risky behavior on Twitter were associated with higher HIV prevalence in all counties except those with high rates of future orientation. Data-driven analyses likewise showed that words and phrases referencing the future (e.g., tomorrow, would be) correlated with lower HIV prevalence. Integrating big data approaches to text analysis and epidemiology with psychological theory may provide an inexpensive, real-time method of anticipating outbreaks of HIV and etiologically similar diseases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. State-level differences in breast and cervical cancer screening by disability status: United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Thierry, JoAnn M; Wolf, Lesley A

    2009-01-01

    Despite reported disparities in the use of preventive services by disability status, there has been no national surveillance of breast and cervical cancer screening among women with disabilities in the United States. To address this, we used state-level surveillance data to identify disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening among women by disability status. Data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate disability prevalence and state-level differences in breast and cervical cancer screening among women by disability status. Overall, modest differences in breast cancer screening were found; women with a disability were less likely than those without to report receiving a mammogram during the past 2 years (72.2% vs. 77.8%; p < .001). However, disparities in breast cancer screening were more pronounced at the state level. Furthermore, women with a disability were less likely than those without a disability to report receiving a Pap test during the past 3 years (78.9% vs. 83.4%; p < .001). This epidemiologic evidence identifies an opportunity for federal and state programs, as well as other stakeholders, to form partnerships to align disability and women's health policies. Furthermore, it identifies the need for increased public awareness and resource allocation to reduce barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening experienced by women with disabilities.

  7. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. United States Program on Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.

    2004-01-01

    The President signed the Congressional Joint Resolution on July 23, 2002, that designated the Yucca Mountain site for a proposed geologic repository to dispose of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is currently focusing its efforts on submitting a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in December 2004 for construction of the proposed repository. The legislative framework underpinning the U.S. repository program is the basis for its continuity and success. The repository development program has significantly benefited from international collaborations with other nations in the Americas

  9. Effects of shutdown chemistry on steam generator radiation levels at Point Beach Unit 2. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormuth, J.W.

    1982-05-01

    A refueling shutdown chemistry test was conducted at a PWR, Point Beach Unit 2. The objective was to yield reactor coolant chemistry data during the cooldown/shutdown process which might establish a relationship between shutdown chemistry and its effects on steam generator radiation fields. Of particular concern were the effects of the presence of hydrogen in the coolant as contrasted to an oxygenated coolant. Analysis of reactor coolant samples showed a rapid soluble release (spike) in Co-58, Co-60, and nickel caused by oxygenation of the coolant. The measurement of radioisotope specific activities indicates that the material undergoing dissolution during the shutdown originated from different sources which had varying histories of activation. The test program developed no data which would support theories that oxygenation of the coolant while the steam generators are full of water contributes to increased steam generator radiation levels

  10. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, I. G.

    1997-01-01

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this 'national' resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  11. Presentation of preliminary studies relative to the long duration disposal of medium level and long lived (MLLL) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, C.; Moreau, A.; Fayette, L.; Bellon, M.; Templier, J.C.; Macias, R.M.; Porcher, J.B.; Rey, F.; Hollender, F.; Girard, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    In the contract of objectives signed in 2001 with the government, the French atomic energy commission (CEA) committed itself to supply reports of preliminary studies about long duration disposal concepts for medium level and long lived radioactive wastes. This document makes the synthesis of the preliminary studies carried out in 2001 and 2002 by exploring simultaneously the surface and subsurface disposal concepts. The studies deal with the design of a facility with a long service life. Four hypotheses have been retained for the preliminary studies: a secular lifetime (typically 100 to 300 years), a single and new site for all waste packages (no existing facility available), two confinement barriers, an envelope-type site with specific characteristics (seismicity, climate conditions, airplane crash..). These preliminary studies show the existence of solutions for each option: with and without storage containers in both type (surface and subsurface) of facilities. They outline the necessity of studying more thoroughly some technical points. This instruction will be performed for the concepts retained after a multi-criteria analysis. (J.S.)

  12. The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS): development of a brief measure of unit level implementation leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R

    2014-04-14

    In healthcare and allied healthcare settings, leadership that supports effective implementation of evidenced-based practices (EBPs) is a critical concern. However, there are no empirically validated measures to assess implementation leadership. This paper describes the development, factor structure, and initial reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of a very brief measure of implementation leadership: the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS). Participants were 459 mental health clinicians working in 93 different outpatient mental health programs in Southern California, USA. Initial item development was supported as part of a two United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) studies focused on developing implementation leadership training and implementation measure development. Clinician work group/team-level data were randomly assigned to be utilized for an exploratory factor analysis (n = 229; k = 46 teams) or for a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 230; k = 47 teams). The confirmatory factor analysis controlled for the multilevel, nested data structure. Reliability and validity analyses were then conducted with the full sample. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 12-item scale with four subscales representing proactive leadership, knowledgeable leadership, supportive leadership, and perseverant leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis supported an a priori higher order factor structure with subscales contributing to a single higher order implementation leadership factor. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. The ILS is a brief and efficient measure of unit level leadership for EBP implementation. The availability of the ILS will allow researchers to assess strategic leadership for implementation in order to advance understanding of leadership as a predictor of organizational context for implementation. The ILS also holds promise as a tool for

  13. The implementation leadership scale (ILS): development of a brief measure of unit level implementation leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In healthcare and allied healthcare settings, leadership that supports effective implementation of evidenced-based practices (EBPs) is a critical concern. However, there are no empirically validated measures to assess implementation leadership. This paper describes the development, factor structure, and initial reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of a very brief measure of implementation leadership: the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS). Methods Participants were 459 mental health clinicians working in 93 different outpatient mental health programs in Southern California, USA. Initial item development was supported as part of a two United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) studies focused on developing implementation leadership training and implementation measure development. Clinician work group/team-level data were randomly assigned to be utilized for an exploratory factor analysis (n = 229; k = 46 teams) or for a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 230; k = 47 teams). The confirmatory factor analysis controlled for the multilevel, nested data structure. Reliability and validity analyses were then conducted with the full sample. Results The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 12-item scale with four subscales representing proactive leadership, knowledgeable leadership, supportive leadership, and perseverant leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis supported an a priori higher order factor structure with subscales contributing to a single higher order implementation leadership factor. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusions The ILS is a brief and efficient measure of unit level leadership for EBP implementation. The availability of the ILS will allow researchers to assess strategic leadership for implementation in order to advance understanding of leadership as a predictor of organizational context for implementation

  14. Becoming a Parent of a Child with Special Needs: Perspectives from Korean Mothers Living in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Joo; Park, Hye Jun

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to explore how cultural contexts influence the attitudes of mothers raising children with disabilities. Semi-structured in-depth interviews of seven immigrant Korean mothers regarding their personal experiences within the complexities of the special education system in the United States were analysed to identify factors…

  15. Collective Training and Fielding Opportunities for the Objective Force Maneuver Systems at the Unit of Action Level in a Unit Manning/Unit Replacement Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courts, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of Objective Force formations, beginning with the first Unit of Action, will fundamentally change existing organizational structures, training requirements and operational constructs for the U.S. Army...

  16. United States regulations for institutional controls at high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccone, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The United States regulations for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are found at Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Parts 60 and 63, which cover deep geologic disposal at a generic site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, respectively. As an independent regulator, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing and oversight of a high-level waste repository in the United States. The licensing approach for disposal has discreet decisions, made by the NRC, that include approval of construction authorisation, approval to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste, and approval for permanent closure. For construction authorisation approval, the applicant must provide a description of the programme to be used to maintain the records. The NRC will have an active oversight role during the construction and operation period, which can be on the order of 100 years for the facility before permanent closure. The oversight activities are part of the active institutional controls, and serve as a means of conveying knowledge for that initial period, given that this will likely involve multiple generations of workers for both the implementer and the regulator. Additionally, the NRC provides requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at 10 CFR Chap. 73.51. For permanent closure approval, the applicant must provide a detailed description of the measures to be employed-such as land use controls, construction of monuments, and preservation of records. The NRC's regulatory role in any licensing action is to apply the applicable regulations and guidance, and to review applications for proposed actions to determine if compliance with regulations has been achieved. The burden of proof is on the applicant or licensee to show that the proposed action is safe, to demonstrate that regulations are met, and to ensure continued compliance with the regulations

  17. NOAA Water Level Predictions Stations for the Coastal United States and Other Non-U.S. Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Ocean Service (NOS) maintains a long-term database containing water level measurements and derived tidal data for coastal waters of the United States...

  18. Transition into adult care: factors associated with level of preparedness among adolescents living with HIV in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Pal, Khuondyla; Khol, Vohith; Tuot, Sovannary; Sau, Sokunmealiny; Chhoun, Pheak; Mburu, Gitau; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Chhim, Kolab; Ly, Penhsun

    2017-07-17

    Preparing adolescents for transition into adult care and supporting their acquisition of self-health care management skills is a critical determinant of their post-transition HIV care outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of research on effective transition strategies. This study explores factors associated with adolescent preparedness for transition into adult care in Cambodia. In August 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy clinics, utilizing a structured questionnaire. The level of preparedness was determined using a pre-existing scale, and adolescents were categorized as having a high- or low level of preparedness for transition. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Of 223 adolescents, 55.2% were male, and their mean age was 15.8 years. Overall, 53.3% had a high level of preparedness for transition. As part of the transition protocol, 2.7% had completed a transfer form, 24.7% had a transition case manager, 29.6% had been counselled about the transition, and 19.7% had visited an adult ART clinic. In multivariate analysis, a higher level of preparedness for transition was independently associated with older age (AOR 2.44, 95% CI 1.34-4.46; p = 0.004), family having received social support for their health (AOR 5.32, 95% CI 1.97-14.36; p = 0.001), knowing the kind of treatment they received (ART) (AOR 12.67, 95% CI 2.91-15.19; p = 0.001), trust in friends or family for HIV treatment (AOR 7.82, 95% CI 1.13-8.89; p = 0.008), receiving counseling on transition (AOR 3.17, 95% CI 1.15-8.76; p = 0.03), having a 'Case Manager' identified to support them during the preparation process for transition (AOR 3.89, 95% CI 1.08-13.96; p = 0.04), and satisfaction with preparation process for transition in general (AOR 0.35, 95% CI 0.03-0.87; p = 0.01). A range of individual, social and health system and services factors may determine successful

  19. Assessing the level of healthcare information technology adoption in the United States: a snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Blackford

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive knowledge about the level of healthcare information technology (HIT adoption in the United States remains limited. We therefore performed a baseline assessment to address this knowledge gap. Methods We segmented HIT into eight major stakeholder groups and identified major functionalities that should ideally exist for each, focusing on applications most likely to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. We then conducted a multi-site qualitative study in Boston and Denver by interviewing key informants from each stakeholder group. Interview transcripts were analyzed to assess the level of adoption and to document the major barriers to further adoption. Findings for Boston and Denver were then presented to an expert panel, which was then asked to estimate the national level of adoption using the modified Delphi approach. We measured adoption level in Boston and Denver was graded on Rogers' technology adoption curve by co-investigators. National estimates from our expert panel were expressed as percentages. Results Adoption of functionalities with financial benefits far exceeds adoption of those with safety and quality benefits. Despite growing interest to adopt HIT to improve safety and quality, adoption remains limited, especially in the area of ambulatory electronic health records and physician-patient communication. Organizations, particularly physicians' practices, face enormous financial challenges in adopting HIT, and concerns remain about its impact on productivity. Conclusion Adoption of HIT is limited and will likely remain slow unless significant financial resources are made available. Policy changes, such as financial incentivesto clinicians to use HIT or pay-for-performance reimbursement, may help health care providers defray upfront investment costs and initial productivity loss.

  20. Comparison study on models for calculation of NPP’s levelized unit electricity cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuryanti; Mochamad Nasrullah; Suparman

    2014-01-01

    Economic analysis that is generally done through the calculation of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC) is crucial to be done prior to any investment decision on the nuclear power plant (NPP) project. There are several models that can be used to calculate LUEC, which are: R&D PT. PLN (Persero) Model, Mini G4ECONS model and Levelized Cost model. This study aimed to perform a comparison between the three models. Comparison technique was done by tracking the similarity used for each model and then given a case of LUEC calculation for SMR NPP 2 x 100 MW using these models. The result showed that the R&D PT. PLN (Persero) Model have a common principle with Mini G4ECONS model, which use Capital Recovery Factor (CRF) to discount the investment cost which eventually become annuity value along the life of plant. LUEC on both models is calculated by dividing the sum of the annual investment cost and the cost for operating NPP with an annual electricity production.While Levelized Cost model based on the annual cash flow. Total of annual costs and annual electricity production were discounted to the first year of construction in order to obtain the total discounted annual cost and the total discounted energy generation. LUEC was obtained by dividing both of the discounted values. LUEC calculations on the three models produce LUEC value, which are: 14.5942 cents US$/kWh for R&D PT. PLN (Persero) Model, 15.056 cents US$/kWh for Mini G4ECONs model and 14.240 cents US$/kWh for Levelized Cost model. (author)

  1. Effect of therapeutic Swedish massage on anxiety level and vital signs of Intensive Care Unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves da Silva, Tatiana; Stripari Schujmann, Debora; Yamada da Silveira, Leda Tomiko; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Fu, Carolina

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate how Swedish massage affects the level of anxiety and vital signs of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Quasi-experimental study. ICU patients, 18-50 years old, cooperative, respiratory and hemodynamic stable, not under invasive mechanical ventilation. allergic to massage oil, vascular or orthopedic post-operative, skin lesions, thrombosis, fractures. A 30-min Swedish massage was applied once. arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, S-STAI questionnaire. Timing of evaluation: pre-massage, immediately post-massage, 30 min post-massage. Comparison: T-test, corrected by Bonferroni method, level of significance of 5%, confidence interval of 95%. 48 patients included, 30 (62.5%) female, mean age 55.46 (15.70) years old. Mean S-STAI pre-massage: 42.51 (9.48); immediately post-massage: 29.34 (6.37); 30 min post-massage: 32.62 (8.56), p < 0.001 for all comparison. Mean vital signs achieved statistical significance between pre-massage and immediately post-massage. Swedish massage reduced anxiety of ICU patients immediately and 30 min post-massage. Vital signs were reduced immediately post-massage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Live and Educational Music Therapy on Working Alliance and Trust With Patients on Detoxification Unit: A Four-Group Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2016-11-09

    Lyric analysis is a commonly utilized music therapy intervention for clients in substance abuse rehabilitation wherein participants interpret song lyrics related to their clinical objectives. For these patients, working alliance and trust in the therapist represent consequential factors that may influence outcomes. However, there is a lack of randomized controlled music therapy studies investigating working alliance and trust in the therapist within lyric analysis interventions for patients with addictions. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively differentiate live versus recorded and educational versus recreational music therapy interventions via measures of working alliance and trust with patients on a detoxification unit. Participants (N = 130) were cluster randomized in a single-session posttest-only design to one of four conditions: Live educational music therapy, recorded educational music therapy, education without music, or recreational music therapy. Dependent measures included working alliance and trust in the therapist. Educational music therapy interventions were scripted lyric analyses. There was no statistically significant between-group difference in any of the measures. Although not significant, a greater number of patients and research participants attended live educational music therapy sessions. Between-group descriptive data were consistently similar but attendance trends may have implications for engaging patients and billing. Implications for clinical practice, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  3. Cernavoda NPP Unit 1: Ensuring heat sink at very low Danube river levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urjan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: On August 24, 2003 the summer heat wave has caused the Danube River to drop to its lowest level in more than a century, forcing a government commission of experts and a team of technical specialists from Cernavoda NPP to close Romania's unique nuclear reactor in operation at Cernavoda. The paper presents some of the required actions needed for plant shutdown and ensuring adequate fuel cooling at very low suction bay levels, due to the Danube River level drop (Danube waters cools the reactor). The water level in the Danube River at Cernavoda village, where the reactor is located, fell to a depth of less than three meters (10 feet) on Saturday, down from its usual level of almost seven meters (23 feet). Consequently, the Unit 1 nuclear power plant was shut down Sunday due to this record drought, which left insufficient water to cool down the reactor. Operating Instruction procedures were elaborated in order to provide a logical sequence of actions when the bay level decreases under 2.25 m, or the estimated level after 3 days will be lower than 1.8 m. When Raw Service Water (RSW) is lost, Recirculated Cooling Water (RCW) will remain in service only for Moderator, ESC, HT Pumps, HT Purification, D/C Cooler, LAC's, and D 2 O Feed Pump. Alternate water sources, like potable water and water from the fire protection system were taken in consideration in order to ensure heat sink to the RCW loads. At the same time, in case of total loss of Class III and Class IV Power, and Stand-By Diesel Generators unavailable because of the loss of heat sink provided by the RSW, Emergency Power System (EPS) was configured to supply directly the Class III Power 6 kV bus (BUG bus). Economical Impact According to a report, closing the nuclear plant costs Romania $500,000 a day. The total cost includes also losses due to a 40 percent reduction in hydroelectric power generation due to reduced river flow. The country had to cease power exports until the reactor comes back on line

  4. High Incidence and Levels of Ochratoxin A in Wines Sourced from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Christopher Lawrence; Bartley, Amanda; Welch, Aaron Z; Berry, John P

    2017-12-21

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxin contaminants of food crops. Among the agricultural products consequently contaminated by OTA is wine. In the present study, a sample of wines sourced from the United States was assessed for OTA. Wines were primarily analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) coupled to a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique which was developed and validated as a simplified sample preparation approach. More than 85% of the wines evaluated were found to contain OTA, at levels above the limit-of-detection (LOD = 0.1 µg L -1 ), and 76% were above the limit-of-quantitation (LOQ = 0.3 µg L -1 ) for the LLE/HPLC-FD method. More than two-thirds of the wines above the LOQ were found to exceed 1 µg L -1 . Complementary analysis by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) confirmed OTA in 74% of the OTA-positive wines (i.e., >LOQ by HPLC-FD). Overall, both the occurrence and measured levels of OTA were generally high, specifically relative to previous assessments of OTA in wine, and two of the wines were above the only current (European Union) regulatory limit of two parts-per-billion (ppb, ~2 µg L -1 ). Possible trends with respect to geographical region and/or growing climate are noted. As the first assessment of U.S. wines in more than a decade, the overall high occurrence and levels of OTA in wine, and possible geographic and climatic trends, point to a need for regular surveillance of wines, as well as investigation of the relevant contributors to OTA occurrence toward mitigating contamination and exposure risks.

  5. Nutritional Status Changes and Activities of Daily Living after Hip Fracture in Convalescent Rehabilitation Units: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Shinta; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Momosaki, Ryo

    2018-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that malnutrition impedes functional recovery in patients with hip fracture, but there are few reports on improvement in nutritional status and return to activities of daily living (ADL) in these patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between change in nutritional status and recovery of ADL in malnourished patients after hip fracture and to identify predictors of functional recovery among the characteristic features of undernutrition. This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Data for patients aged ≥65 years with hip fracture and malnutrition (Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form [MNA-SF] score ≤7) at the time of admission to convalescent rehabilitation units were obtained from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database between November 2015 and August 2017. The main outcome measures were Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at discharge and the proportion of patients discharged home. Patients were divided into two groups based on MNA-SF scores at discharge: improvement in nutritional status (>7, IN group) and non-improvement in nutritional status (≤7, NN group). Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the groups. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to adjust for confounders including age, sex, comorbidity, pre-fracture ADL level, and FIM score on admission. Of 876 patients, 110 met the eligibility criteria (mean age, 85 years; 78.2% female); 77 of the patients were assigned to the IN group and 33 to the NN group. The patients in the IN group were younger and had higher FIM and MNA-SF scores on admission than those in the NN group. At discharge, the median FIM score was significantly higher in the IN group than in the NN group (110 vs 83, Pnutritional status and higher FIM score at discharge (B=7.377 [B=partial regression coefficient], P=0.036) but no association with discharge to home. Mobility, neuropsychological impairment, and weight loss subscores of

  6. Optimizing FRET-FLIM Labeling Conditions to Detect Nuclear Protein Interactions at Native Expression Levels in Living Arabidopsis Roots

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Yuchen; Stahl, Yvonne; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Smet, Wouter; Du, Yujuan; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Goedhart, Joachim; Scheres, Ben; Blilou, Ikram

    2018-01-01

    Protein complex formation has been extensively studied using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). However, implementing this technology to detect protein interactions in living

  7. Prevalence of use of advance directives, health care proxy, legal guardian, and living will in 512 patients hospitalized in a cardiac care unit/intensive care unit in 2 community hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Aronow, Wilbert S; Alexa, Margelusa; Gothwal, Ritu; Jesmajian, Stephen; Bhushan, Bharat; Gaba, Praveen; Catevenis, James

    2010-04-30

    The prevalence of use of any advance directives was 26% in 112 patients hospitalized in a cardiac care unit (CCU)/intensive care unit (ICU) in an academic medical center. We investigated in 2 community hospitals the prevalence of use of advance directives (AD), health care proxy (HCP), legal guardian (LG), and living will (LW) in 512 patients hospitalized in a CCU/ ICU approached for AD and HCP. The use of AD was 22%, of HCP was 19%, of LG was 16%, and of LW was 5%. The use of AD was 22%, of HCP was 19%, of LG was 16%, and of LW was 5% in patients hospitalized in a CCU/ICU. Educational programs on use of AD and of HCP need to be part of cardiovascular training programs and of cardiovascular continuing medical education.

  8. The partnership experience on the disposal of low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, P. de; Cool, W.; Hooft, E.; Waffelaert, A.; Blommaert, J.; Draulans, J.

    2008-01-01

    With the governmental decision of January 16, 1998, the long-term storage option for the low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste (category A waste) was abandoned and ONDRAF/NIRAS was given the mission to further examine the options of deep and surface disposal, in order to prepare a federal decision on the technical option to be developed. ONDRAF/NIRAS was also asked to develop the methods and structures of interaction with the local stakeholders, and to limit its siting activities to nuclear and candidate municipalities. This brought ONDRAF/NIRAS to the concept of local partnerships with interested municipalities, and during the pre-project phase 1998-2006 partnerships were created with the municipalities of Dessel (STOLA-Dessel, 1999), Mol (MONA, 2000) and Fleurus-Farciennes (PaLoFF, 2003). On 23 June, 2006 the Belgian Government decided that category A waste will be disposed of in a near-surface repository on the territory of the Dessel municipality. This decision implies that ONDRAF/NIRAS, in further interaction with the local stakeholders, can start the preparation of a licence application. This decision was the endpoint of the pre-project phase (1998-2006) and was based on the final reports of the partnerships of Dessel (STOLA-Dessel, now STORA) and Mol (MONA), approved by their municipality councils, and on ONDRAF/NIRAS final report, confirming the feasibility of the proposed disposal systems. As the municipality council of Fleurus did not approve the final report of the partnership PaLoFF, ONDRAF/NIRAS did not submit this report to the responsible minister. The preceding positive local decision in both Dessel (May 2005) and Mol (July 2005), and both on the partnership and municipality council level, to accept, under certain conditions, a disposal facility on their territory was the result of a 6 years long process of discussions within the partnership of all aspects of the disposal system and its integration in the municipality. During these

  9. Cytokine polymorphisms and plasma levels are associated with sleep onset insomnia in adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Caryl L; Zak, Rochelle S; Lerdal, Anners; Pullinger, Clive R; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Lee, Kathryn A

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disturbance has been associated with inflammation and cytokine activity, and we previously described genetic associations between cytokine polymorphisms and sleep maintenance and duration among adults with HIV/AIDS. Although sleep onset insomnia (SOI) is also a commonly reported sleep problem, associations between cytokine biomarkers and SOI have not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to describe SOI in relation to cytokine plasma concentrations and gene polymorphisms in a convenience sample of 307 adults (212 men, 72 women, and 23 transgender) living with HIV/AIDS. Based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index item that asks the time it usually took to fall asleep in the past month, participants were categorized as either >30min to fall asleep (n=70, 23%) or 30min or less to fall asleep (n=237). Plasma cytokines were analyzed, and genotyping was conducted for 15 candidate genes involved in cytokine signaling: interferon-gamma (IFNG), IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1), interleukins (IL1R2, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, IL17A), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB1 and NFKB2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA). Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as potential covariates. After adjusting for genomic estimates of ancestry, self-reported race/ethnicity and viral load, SOI was associated with higher IL-13 plasma levels and with six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): IL1B rs1143642 and rs1143623, IL6 rs4719714, IL13 rs1295686, NFKB1 rs4648110, and TNFA rs2857602. In addition, the IL1B rs1143642 polymorphism was associated with plasma levels of IL-1β in adjusted analyses. This study strengthens the evidence for an association between inflammation and sleep disturbance, particularly self-report of habitual SOI. In this chronic illness population, the cytokine polymorphisms associated with SOI provide direction for future personalized medicine intervention research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  10. Concentration Limits in the Cement Based Swiss Repository for Long-lived, Intermediate-level Radioactive Wastes (LMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, Urs

    1999-12-01

    The Swiss repository concept for long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LMA), in Swiss terminology) foresees cylindrical concrete silos surrounded by a ring of granulated bentonite to deposit the waste. As one of the possible options and similar to the repository for high level wastes, the silos will be located in a deep crystalline host rock. Solidified with concrete in steel drums, the waste is stacked into a silo and the silo is then backfilled with a porous mortar. To characterize the release of radionuclides from the repository, the safety assessment considers first the dissolution into the pore water of the concrete, and then diffusion through the outer bentonite ring into the deep crystalline groundwater. For 19 safety relevant radionuclides (isotopes of U, Th, Pa, Np, Pu, Am, Ni, Zr, Mo, Nb, Se, Sr, Ra, Tc, Sn, I, C, Cs, Cl) the report recommends maximum elemental concentrations to be expected in the cement pore water of the particularly considered repository. These limits will form the parameter base for subsequent release model chains. Concentration limits in a geochemical environment are usually obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations performed with geochemical speciation codes. However, earlier studies revealed that this procedure does not always lead to reliable results. Main reasons for this are the complexity of the systems considered, as well as the lacking completeness of, and the uncertainty associated with the thermodynamic data. To improve the recommended maximum concentrations for a distinct repository design, this work includes additional design- and system-dependent criteria. The following processes, inventories and properties are considered in particular: a) recent experimental investigations, particularly from cement systems, b) thermodynamic model calculations when reliable data are available, c) total inventories of radionuclides, d) sorption- and co-precipitation processes, e) dilution with stable isotopes, f

  11. Planning the Marketing Strategy. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 6. Research & Development Series No. 240AB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on planning a marketing strategy, the sixth in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  12. Flowsheet development studies for the decontamination of high-activity-level water at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Bigelow, J.E.; Campbell, D.O.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Several chemical processing flowsheets were considered for the decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2. A zeolite ion exchange process was evaluated and recommended for absorption of the bulk of the highly radioactive cesium and strontium. Standard organic ion-exchange resins were selected to remove the remaining traces of radioactive nuclides (except tritium which cannot be removed by any practical process). Process conditions were evaluated using both synthetic, tracer-level solutions and samples of actual, high-activity level water from TMI Unit 2

  13. Siting the high level radioactive waste repository in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellotte, J.

    1992-01-01

    For more than twenty-five years after the National Academy of Science issued its 1957 report recommending a Mined Geologic Disposal System (''MGDS'') for high level radioactive waste, no substantial progress was made in selecting and siting a repository. The United States Congress attempted to give substantive and procedural direction to the program in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Seeing that very little had been accomplished some five years later, Congress gave further direction and tentatively selected a single site, Yucca Mountain in Nevada, in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act Amendments of 1987. Selection of the Yucca Mountain site created a political conflict between federal and state authorities. Until recently, that conflict stalled the site characterization and evaluation program. Standards development under a polycentric regulatory regime has also been slow and has created a number of technical, legal and policy controversies. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), charged with setting radiation protection rules, may be developing regulatory standards which are technically unachievable and, therefore, legally unprovable in a licensing proceeding. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), having the responsibility for licensing and setting performance objectives, may be taking an overly conservative approach. This approach could seriously impact the cost and may preclude the ability to reach an affirmative finding on license issuance. The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for siting, construction and operation of the repository. In so doing, DOE must apply both EPA and NRC standards. To the extent that EPA and NRC standards are untimely, poorly defined, unrealistic, inconsistent, and technically or legally unsound, DOE may be forestalled from fulfilling its responsibilities. The US must rethink its approach to siting the high level radioactive waste repository and take realistic, timely action to preserve the nuclear option. (Author)

  14. A study of concrete for the tumulus disposal units in low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Roy, D.M.; Licastro, P.H.; Scheetz, B.E.

    1991-01-01

    The tumulus disposal concept can provide a major means for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) provided the concrete structures of the tumulus disposal units are designed and fabricated for long term durability. As an initial phase of the study, a detailed characterization and testing of the component materials for the tumulus concrete have been evaluated. Key properties of hardened concrete that are important in assuring and predicting the long term durability, which have been evaluated, or are being evaluated, include: water permeability; chloride permeability; sulfate resistance; porosity and pore structure; freeze-thaw resistance; leaching and dissolution; alkali-aggregate reaction; and strength. Those properties were evaluated on samples from field concrete cylinders provided by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES), or samples prepared in the laboratory, or both. The proposed concrete mix design showed an excellent resistance to repeated freeze-thaw cycles, and a very low permeability to chloride. An accelerated test method was used to evaluate alkali-aggregate reactivity in concrete for samples containing representative coarse and fine aggregates proposed for the tumulus concrete, and also conducted for samples cored from the field concrete cylinders

  15. Haematological parameters in different african populations: an experience from united nations level 3 hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, R.; Khan, N.U.; Iqbal, Z.; Anwar, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate hematological parameters in African population to estimate normal reference intervals for these tests. Study Design: Cross sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, United Nations level 3 hospital, Nyala, Darfur from 1st Mar to 30th Dec 2014. Material and Methods: There were 396 healthy African male and female volunteers selected between 18-65 years of age, belonging to different countries. Fresh whole blood was used to measure haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, haematocrit (Hct), total red blood cell (TRBC) count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet count, total leucocyte count (TLC) and differential white blood cells count. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. Results: Mean Hb of study group was 13.81 +- 1.99 g/dl. Mean TLC was 5.50 +- 1.96 x 103/ul. Mean lymphocyte count was 2.58 +- 0.95. Mean platelet count was 234 +- 92 x103 /ul. Mean values for Hb Concentration, TRBC, Hct Ratio, MCV, MCH and MCHC were all higher for African Males than Females; this difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: This multi-national African population based study confirms the variations in haematological parameters previously described in single nation African studies. The commonly observed variations in normal adults are low RBC indices, relative neutropenia and lymphocytosis. (author)

  16. Impact of County-Level Socioeconomic Status on Oropharyngeal Cancer Survival in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C

    2017-04-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of county-level socioeconomic status on survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer in the United States. Study Design Retrospective cohort study via a large population-based cancer database. Methods Data were extracted from the SEER 18 database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) of the National Cancer Institute. The study cohort included 18,791 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012. Results Patients residing in counties with a low socioeconomic status index had worse overall survival (56.5% vs 63.0%, P socioeconomic status index. On multivariable analysis, residing in a county with a low socioeconomic status index was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.29; P status, year of diagnosis, site, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage group, presence of distant metastasis, presence of unresectable tumor, histologic grade, surgical resection of primary site, treatment with neck dissection, and radiation therapy. Conclusion Residing in a county with a low socioeconomic status index is associated with worse survival. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism by which socioeconomic status affects survival in oropharyngeal cancer.

  17. Function of "nontrauma" surgeons in level I trauma centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, J W

    1997-06-01

    Although the general "trauma" surgeon is usually the team leader in level I trauma centers, the use of surgical subspecialists and nonsurgeons is frequently ill-defined. This study was done to gain data in regard to actual use of subspecialists in busy centers. First, a survey of the patterns of staffing in 140 trauma centers was elicited by mail questionnaire, supplemented by telephone cells. Second, records of 400 consecutive patients at the Elvis Presley Trauma Center were reviewed to determine the use of subspecialists during the first 24 hours of care of individual patients. There were differences in the use of surgical subspecialists and nonsurgeons at different centers: in receiving, admitting, operating, and critical care areas and in privileges for admission and attending of inpatients. Consultation "guidelines" are used for many specific injuries. At our center, a mean of 1.92 subspecialists, in addition to general surgeons, were involved in the early care of each patient. Problems exist in many centers regarding the use of subspecialists, especially for management of facial and chest injuries. In some centers nonsurgeons function in the intensive care unit, and as admitting and attending physicians of trauma patients.

  18. Epidemiological Study of Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Conjunctivitis in a Level III Neonatal Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conjunctivitis is one of the most frequently occurring hospital-acquired infections among neonates, although it is less studied than potentially life-threatening infections, such as sepsis and pneumonia. Objectives. The aims of our work were to identify epidemiologic characteristics, pathogens, and susceptibility patterns of bacterial hospital-acquired conjunctivitis (HAC in a level III neonatal unit. Materials and Methods. Data were collected retrospectively from patient charts and laboratory databases. Hospital-acquired conjunctivitis was defined in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN diagnostic criteria. Results. One or more episodes of HAC were diagnosed in 4,0% ( of 1492 neonates admitted during the study period. Most of the episodes involved premature (75,4% and low birth weight (75,4% neonates. Infection rates were higher among patients undergoing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (46,7%, parenteral nutrition (13,6%, and phototherapy (6,8%. Predominant pathogens included Serratia marcescens (27,9%, Escherichia coli (23%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%. Susceptibility patterns revealed bacterial resistances to several antibiotic classes. Gentamicin remains the adequate choice for empirical treatment of HAC in our NICU. Conclusion. It is important to know the local patterns of the disease in order to adjust prevention strategies. Our work contributes to the epidemiological characterization of a sometimes overlooked disease.

  19. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  20. Health Promotion Behaviours and Level of Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Elderly People in West Region of Tehran: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghil Habibi Sola

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As individuals live longer, health promotion behaviors get even more important, particularly with regard to maintaining functional independence and improving quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between health promotion behaviors and level of Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL among elderly people in west region of Tehran. Methods & Materials: This was a descriptive-correlational study. A multi-stage sample of 410 community residents who were over 60 years old were selected from west region of Tehran. Participants who consented to participate in the study were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 2-part; Health Promotion Behavior Checklist and questions related to status of physical functioning, which includes activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Descriptive statistics and T-test were used to data analysis. Results: The results of the study showed that there were significant relations between ADLs and ' exercise or walking', 'drinking milk, eating dairy and meat', 'eating vegetables and fruits', 'low salt diet' and 'low fat diet' (P<0.05. Furthermore there were significant relations between the IADLs and 'smoking cessation', 'alcohol abstinence', 'exercise or walking', 'drinking milk, eating dairy and meat', 'eating vegetables and fruits', 'low salt diet' and 'low fat diet' (P<0.05. Conclusion: Study showed, health promotion behaviors and level of ADL and IADL are related meaningfully. Health care professionals should enhance the physical functioning in elderly people by facilitating health promotion behaviors through formal health promotion programs which focus on regular diet, exercise, and regular physical check-ups which will maintain and increase a healthy and active life.

  1. A life uncertain – My baby’s vulnerability: Mothers’ lived experience of connection with their preterm infants in a Botswana neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinah K. Ncube

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm and low–birth weight infants are often separated from their mothers when admitted to neonatal units for stabilisation of body temperature and technological support. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of mothers regarding care of their hospitalised preterm infants in a neonatal unit in a public hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Method: This study utilised a qualitative exploratory and descriptive phenomenological study design. Mothers of hospitalised preterm infants were purposefully selected, with whom there was extensive engagement. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant (P. Results: Mothers were shocked by the sudden birth of a preterm infant and found the neonatal environment intimidating. This increased their fear and anxiety and delayed development of a relationship with their infants. Support from staff, other mothers in the neonatal unit and family members enabled the mothers to overcome their fear and to develop an emotional connection with their infants. Conclusion: On-going supportive communication with the mothers by healthcare professionals promotes their confidence and competence in caring for their preterm infants, which in turn promotes mother–infant attachment.

  2. A life uncertain - My baby's vulnerability: Mothers' lived experience of connection with their preterm infants in a Botswana neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Rosinah K; Barlow, Hilary; Mayers, Pat M

    2016-08-30

    Preterm and low-birth weight infants are often separated from their mothers when admitted to neonatal units for stabilisation of body temperature and technological support. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of mothers regarding care of their hospitalised preterm infants in a neonatal unit in a public hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. This study utilised a qualitative exploratory and descriptive phenomenological study design. Mothers of hospitalised preterm infants were purposefully selected, with whom there was extensive engagement. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant (P). Mothers were shocked by the sudden birth of a preterm infant and found the neonatal environment intimidating. This increased their fear and anxiety and delayed development of a relationship with their infants. Support from staff, other mothers in the neonatal unit and family members enabled the mothers to overcome their fear and to develop an emotional connection with their infants. On-going supportive communication with the mothers by healthcare professionals promotes their confidence and competence in caring for their preterm infants, which in turn promotes mother-infant attachment.

  3. Perceptions in the Mind Maps of Turkish Children Living in England at Primary Education Level about Their Home Country Turkey and the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Gülnur; Baysan, Sultan; Aydogan, Selcen

    2017-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the perceptions of Turkish children in their mind maps at the primary educational level living in the UK and parental views on these perceptions about the children's home country Turkey and the world. For this purpose, case study approach in qualitative research is preferred. The study group consists of 36…

  4. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  5. Response of Living Shorelines to Wave Energy and Sea Level rise: Short-term Resilience and Long-term Vulnerability in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, C.; Davis, J.

    2017-12-01

    A decade of research and monitoring of Living Shoreline sites in North Carolina identifies both resilient and vulnerable features of this approach to estuarine shoreline stabilization. We used a wave energy model to calculate representative wave energy along 1500 miles of estuarine shoreline, and observed a linear, negative relationship between wind-wave energy and the width of fringing salt marshes. Proximity to navigation channels (boat wakes) further reduced fringing marsh width. These results provide guidance for Living Shoreline design alternatives. Surface elevation tables (SETs) deployed at the lower edge of both natural fringing marshes and `Living Shoreline' marsh-sill sites demonstrated that while natural marshes were losing surface elevation at an average rate of 6 mm y-1, marsh surface elevation at Living Shoreline sites increased at an average of 3 mm y-1. Marsh vegetation at the lower edge of natural sites exhibited a decline in biomass, while Living Shoreline sites exhibited an increase in upper marsh species and an extension of lower marsh into previous mudflat habitat. These changes provide Living Shoreline (marsh-sill) sites with added resilience to sea level rise, though decreased inundation alters the delivery of other ecosystem services (fish habitat, nutrient cycling). North Carolina lagoonal estuaries have low suspended sediment supply and low topography, and modeling predicts that landward transgression is the primary means by which salt marsh acreage can be maintained under moderate to high sea level rise scenarios. In this region, bank erosion can be important source of sediment to wetland habitats. Further, the association of built infrastructure with Living Shoreline sites portends a future scenario of coastal squeeze, as marsh migration landward will be inhibited.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility mixed waste container storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, E.P.; Spry, M.J.; Stanisich, S.N.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for clean closure of the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility mixed waste container storage units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure requirements. Descriptions of the location, size, capacity, history, and current status of the units are included. The units will be closed by removing waste containers in storage, and decontamination structures and equipment that may have contacted waste. Sufficient sampling and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure. A tentative schedule is provided in the form of a milestone chart

  7. Middle Level Preservice Teachers Experience a Natural History Arts-Integrated Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carolyn A.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Curricular demands and best practices for middle school require interdisciplinary units. Arts integration can provide motivation and a new pathway to learning. This unit focused on inquiry into the natural history of artifacts and rocks recovered from the exposed subsoil of an area near Cedar Falls, Iowa that had been bulldozed as part of…

  8. Citizen Science in the Digital Age: examples of Innovative Projects that are Saving Lives across the United States and Internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Abdalati, W.; Akuginow, E.

    2017-12-01

    Citizen science and crowdsourcing can literally save lives, whether responding to natural or human-caused disasters, and their effectiveness is all the more enhanced when volunteer observers collaborate with professional researchers. The NSF-funded THE CROWD & THE CLOUD public television series premiered on PBS stations in April 2017, and is hosted by former NASA Chief Scientist Waleed Abdalati: it continues streaming at CrowdAndCloud.org. Its four episodes feature examples directly relevant to this session, vividly demonstrating the power and potential of "Citizen Science in the Digital Age." In "Citizens + Scientists" a peer-reviewed journal article, authored by a respected MD but based on Bucket Brigade citizen science data on air quality surrounding oil and gas developments, features prominently in New York State's ban on fracking. In the wake of the Flint disaster, Virginia Tech scientists support community monitoring of lead in Philadelphia's drinking water. Citizens begin to appreciate the arcane scientific and technical details of EPA's Lead and Copper Rule, and STEM is seen to be of vital, daily significance. In "Even Big Data Starts Small" OpenStreetMap volunteers digitize satellite data to help first responders following the devastating 2015 Nepal earthquake, and Public Lab members—enthusiastic Makers and Millennials—fly modified off-the-shelf cameras beneath balloons and kites to track the BP oil spill, continuing their environmental watchdog work up through the present. CoCoRaHS observers (the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network) submit high quality data that has come to be trusted by NOAA's NWS and other federal agencies, enhancing flash flood warnings while project volunteers begin to appreciate the extreme variabity of local weather. Today's citizen science is much more than birds, bees and butterflies, although all those are also being protected by volunteered citizen data that helps shape state and federal conservation policies

  9. Active living : the impact of renovating urban open spaces on increasing the level of physical activity among social groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The provision of active parks/public open space is the key factor in promoting active living, because people and specially low-income and elderlies are being more interested in doing non-organized/informal, and no-cost sports/physical activities in outdoor spaces in recent decades

  10. Grandparents Living with Children: State-Level Data from the American Community Survey. Research Brief. Publication #2012-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Cooper, Mae; Moore, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of grandparents in the U.S. are living with their grandchildren, and many grandparents are responsible for their care. These trends can be attributed to a number of factors, including increasing numbers of single-parent families, continued high rates of marriage dissolution, parents' incarceration, parental…

  11. Living with poverty and climate change – a study on vulnerability to climate-related shocks on household level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor

    , especially at high altitudes. As an effect of these increased risks, humanitarian disasters caused by weather-related shocks are likely to increase in both number and severity. In that sense, it is vital to understand how people living in disaster-prone areas are handling such changes, and how the risk...

  12. United States high-level radioactive waste management program: Current status and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    1992-01-01

    The inventory of spent fuel in storage at reactor sites in the United States is approximately 20,000 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM). It is increasing at a rate of 1700 to 2100 MTHM per year. According to current projections, by the time the last license for the current generation of nuclear reactors expires, there will be an estimated total of 84,000 MTHm. No commercial reprocessing capacity exists or is planned in the US. Therefore, the continued storage of spent fuel is required. The majority of spent fuel remains in the spent fuel pools of the utilities that generated it. Three utilities are presently supplementing pool capacity with on-site dry storage technologies, and four others are planning dry storage. Commercial utilities are responsible for managing their spent fuel until the Federal waste management system, now under development, accepts spent fuel for storage and disposal. Federal legislation charges the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) with responsibility for developing a system to permanently dispose of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. We are developing a waste management system consisting for three components: a mined geologic repository, with a projected start date of 2010; a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS), scheduled to begin waste acceptance in 1998; and a transportation system to support MRS and repository operations. This paper discusses the background and framework for the program, as well as the current status and plans for management of spent nuclear fuel at commercial utilities; the OCRWM's development of a permanent geologic repository, an MRS, and a transportation system; the OCRWM's safety approach; the OCRWM's program management initiatives; and the OCRWM's external relations activities

  13. GEOCHEMISTRY OF ROCK UNITS AT THE POTENTIAL REPOSITORY LEVEL, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Cloke, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    The compositional variability of the phenocryst-poor member of the 12.8-million-year Topopah Spring Tuff at the potential repository level was assessed by duplicate analysis of 20 core samples from the cross drift at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Previous analyses of outcrop and core samples of the Topopah Spring Tuff showed that the phenocryst-poor rhyolite, which includes both lithophysal and nonlithophysal zones, is relatively uniform in composition. Analyses of rock samples from the cross drift, the first from the actual potential repository block, also indicate the chemical homogeneity of this unit excluding localized deposits of vapor-phase minerals and low-temperature calcite and opal in fractures, cavities, and faults, The possible influence of vapor-phase minerals and calcite and opal coatings on rock composition at a scale sufficiently large to incorporate these heterogeneously distributed deposits was evaluated and is considered to be relatively minor. Therefore, the composition of the phenocryst-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff is considered to be adequately represented by the analyses of samples from the cross drift. The mean composition as represented by the 10 most abundant oxides in weight percent or grams per hundred grams is: SiO 2 , 76.29; Al 2 O 3 , 12.55; FeO, 0.14; Fe 2 O 3 , 0.97; MgO, 0.13; CaO, 0.50; Na 2 O, 3.52; K 2 O, 4.83; TiO 2 , 0.11; and MnO, 0.07

  14. [Stress level assessment of the nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-García, C; Ríos-Rísquez, M I; Martínez-Hurtado, R; Noguera-Villaescusa, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the work stress level among nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital and to analyse its relationship with the various sociodemographic and working variables of the studied sample. A study was designed using a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional approach. The target population of the study was the nursing staff selected by non-random sampling. The instrument used was the Job Content Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20. The mean, ranges and standard deviation for each of the variables were calculated. A bivariate analysis was also performed on the social and occupational variables of the sample. The participation rate was 80.90% (N=89). The mean of the Social support dimension was 3.13±0.397, for the Psychological demands at work dimension it was 3.10±0.384, with a mean of 2.96±0.436 being obtained for the Control over the work dimension. In the analysis of sociodemographic and work variables of the sample, only the professional category was significant, with nurses recording higher values in perception of job demands and control over their work compared to nursing assistants. In conclusion, there is a moderate perception of work stress in the analysed group of professionals. Among the sources of stress in the workplace was the low control in decision-making by practitioners, as well as the need to continually learn new things. On the other hand, the support received from colleagues is valued positively by the sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Neonatal pleural effusions in a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barbosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions are rare in the newborn. Still, being familiar with this condition is relevant given its association with a wide range of disorders. Only two large series of cases on this matter have been published, with no solid conclusions established. The aim of this study is to determine the etiology, management and prognosis of pleural effusions in a population of high-risk neonates.The authors performed a retrospective study in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of "Hospital de São João", Porto (Portugal, between 1997 and 2014, of all newborns with the diagnosis of pleural effusion, chylothorax, hemothorax, empyema, fetal hydrops or leakage of total parenteral nutrition (TPN.Eighty-two newborns were included, 48 males and 34 females. Pleural effusions were congenital in 19 (23.2% newborns and acquired in 63 (76.8%. Fetal hydrops was the most frequent cause (15 cases, 78.9% of congenital effusions while postoperative after intrathoracic surgery was the most common cause (39 cases, 61.9% of acquired effusions, followed by leakage of TPN (13 cases, 20.6%. Chylothorax was the most common type of effusion (41.5% of cases. Pleural effusions after intrathoracic surgery were mainly (64.1% chylothoraces. Regarding use of octreotide for treatment of acquired chylous effusions, the comparative analysis showed no statistical differences between the group of alive newborns who received octreotide and the group who did not. Twenty-seven (32.9% newborns died; the causes of death were related to underlying diseases and not to the pleural effusion. Clinical outcome is generally good, except in hydropic neonates. Blood albumin level appears to be predictive of prognosis and further investigation on its clinical significance should be encouraged.

  16. Diagnostic reference levels for X-ray investigations in pain management units in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtherte, S.; Le Polain de Waroux, B.

    2008-01-01

    X-rays are commonly used in pain treatment centres where infiltrative techniques are performed. Although X-rays are useful in increasing the precision of infiltrative techniques, their use puts patients and staff at risk of radiation exposure. As a result, medical staff now have to obtain a certificate of training on the use of X-rays before being allowed to use X-rays in practice. This analysis was based on 373 detailed registrations of procedure-related parameters in the six centres that participated in this study between January 2009 and July 2009. Examinations chosen for inclusion in this study were the most commonly performed fluoroscopic imaging-guided procedures in a pain management unit: epidural (cervical/lumbar), facet joint nerve blocks (cervical/lumbar) and trans-foraminal (cervical/lumbar). The sample size, the dose-area product (DAP) range for whole population, the mean and the third quartile DAP corrected for patient size (DAP corr ), the screening time range, the mean and the third quartile screening time are presented. The proposed DRLs for epidural, facet joint nerve blocks and trans-foraminal are 0.5, 2.5 and 3 Gy cm 2 for DAP values and 12, 60 and 50 s for screening times, respectively. In the absence of national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for pain management fluoroscopic procedures, these DAP and screening time values provide a possible way of establishing provisional DRLs for local use. The values for each examination type could be used as a baseline against which to monitor the effectiveness of dose reduction strategies as part of the optimisation process that is the goal of any quality control and patient dose monitoring system. (authors)

  17. A Cross-cultural Comparison of Interpersonal Violence in the Lives of College Students from Two Colleges from The Bahamas and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Fielding

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of studies that compare interpersonal violence cross nationally. This paper reports the findings of a cross-sectional study which compares and contrasts violence in the lives of 740 college students, as children and as adults, in The Bahamas and the United States of America. Overall, students in The Bahamas were subjected to more violence (more frequently spanked than their American counterparts. Frequency of spanking when the student was a preteen and teenager were linked to anger outbursts in adulthood, and higher numbers of anger outbursts were linked with violent behaviours of students. Although Bahamian students were exposed to more violence than the American students, this did not result in Bahamian students being more violent than American students in interpersonal relationships. However, Bahamian students were more likely than American students to anticipate using corporal punishment on their children and to condone violence in marital relationships.

  18. Work stress, occupational burnout and depression levels: a clinical study of paediatric intensive care unit nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Cheng, Su-Fen; Wu, Li-Min; Ou-Yang, Mei-Chen

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between work stress and depression; and investigate the mediating effect of occupational burnout among nurses in paediatric intensive care units. The relationships among work stress, occupational burnout and depression level have been explored, neither regarding occupational burnout as the mediating role that causes work stress to induce depression nor considering the paediatric intensive care unit context. A cross-sectional correlational design was conducted. One hundred and forty-four female paediatric intensive care unit nurses from seven teaching hospitals in southern Taiwan were recruited as the participants. Data were collected by structured questionnaires including individual demographics, the Nurse Stress Checklist, the Occupational Burnout Inventory and the Taiwan Depression Questionnaire. The results indicated that after controlling for individual demographic variables, the correlations of work stress with occupational burnout, as well as work stress and occupational burnout with depression level were all positive. Furthermore, occupational burnout may exert a partial mediating effect on the relationship between work stress and depression level. This study provides information about work stress, occupational burnout and depression level, and their correlations, as well as the mediating role of occupational burnout among paediatric intensive care unit nurses. It suggests government departments and hospital administrators when formulating interventions to prevent work stress and occupational burnout. These interventions can subsequently prevent episodes of depression in paediatric intensive care unit nurses, thereby providing patients with a safe and high-quality nursing environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clinical evaluation of monitor unit software and the application of action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Nyholm, Tufve; Olofsson, Joergen; Kjaer-Kristoffersen, Flemming; Schnekenburger, Bruno; Winkler, Peter; Nystroem, Hakan; Ahnesjoe, Anders; Karlsson, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was the clinical evaluation of an independent dose and monitor unit verification (MUV) software which is based on sophisticated semi-analytical modelling. The software was developed within the framework of an ESTRO project. Finally, consistent handling of dose calculation deviations applying individual action levels is discussed. Materials and methods: A Matlab-based software ('MUV') was distributed to five well-established treatment centres in Europe (Vienna, Graz, Basel, Copenhagen, and Umea) and evaluated as a quality assurance (QA) tool in clinical routine. Results were acquired for 226 individual treatment plans including a total of 815 radiation fields. About 150 beam verification measurements were performed for a portion of the individual treatment plans, mainly with time variable fluence patterns. The deviations between dose calculations performed with a treatment planning system (TPS) and the MUV software were scored with respect to treatment area, treatment technique, geometrical depth, radiological depth, etc. Results: In general good agreement was found between calculations performed with the different TPSs and MUV, with a mean deviation per field of 0.2 ± 3.5% (1 SD) and mean deviations of 0.2 ± 2.2% for composite treatment plans. For pelvic treatments less than 10% of all fields showed deviations larger than 3%. In general, when using the radiological depth for verification calculations the results and the spread in the results improved significantly, especially for head-and-neck and for thorax treatments. For IMRT head-and-neck beams, mean deviations between MUV and the local TPS were -1.0 ± 7.3% for dynamic, and -1.3 ± 3.2% for step-and-shoot IMRT delivery. For dynamic IMRT beams in the pelvis good agreement was obtained between MUV and the local TPS (mean: -1.6 ± 1.5%). Treatment site and treatment technique dependent action levels between ±3% and ±5% seem to be clinically realistic if a radiological depth

  20. Years of life lived with disease and years of potential life lost in children who die of cancer in the United States, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, Peter M de; Ostrom, Quinn T; Rouse, Chaturia; Wolinsky, Yingli; Kruchko, Carol; Salcido, Joanne; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and survival rates are commonly reported statistics, but these may fail to capture the full impact of childhood cancers. We describe the years of potential life lost (YPLL) and years of life lived with disease (YLLD) in children and adolescents who died of cancer in the United States to estimate the impact of childhood cancer in the United States in 2009. We examined mortality data in 2009 among children and adolescents <20 years old in both the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) datasets. YPLL and YLLD were calculated for all deaths due to cancer. Histology-specific YPLL and YLLD of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma were estimated using SEER. There were 2233 deaths and 153,390.4 YPLL due to neoplasm in 2009. CNS tumors were the largest cause of YPLL (31%) among deaths due to cancer and were the cause of 1.4% of YPLL due to all causes. For specific histologies, the greatest mean YPLL per death was due to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (78.0 years lost). The histology with the highest mean YLLD per death in children and adolescents who died of cancer was primitive neuroectodermal tumor (4.6 years lived). CNS tumors are the most common solid malignancy in individuals <20 years old and have the highest YPLL cost of all cancers. This offers the first histology-specific description of YPLL in children and adolescents and proposes a new measure of cancer impact, YLLD, in individuals who die of their disease. YPLL and YLLD complement traditional indicators of mortality and help place CNS tumors in the context of other childhood malignancies

  1. "The land of the sick and the land of the healthy": Disability, bureaucracy, and stigma among people living with poverty and chronic illness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Ranadive, Nikhil A; Turan, Janet M; Kushel, Margot; Weiser, Sheri D

    2017-10-01

    Disability benefits have become an increasingly prominent source of cash assistance for impoverished American citizens over the past two decades. This development coincided with cuts and market-oriented reforms to state and federal welfare programs, characteristic of the wider political-economic trends collectively referred to as neoliberalism. Recent research has argued that contemporary discourses on 'disability fraudsters' and 'malingerers' associated with this shift represent the latest manifestation of age-old stigmatization of the 'undeserving poor'. Few studies, however, have investigated how the system of disability benefits, as well as these stigmatizing discourses, shapes the lived experience of disabling physical illness in today's United States. Here we present qualitative data from 64 semi-structured interviews with low-income individuals living with HIV and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus to explore the experience of long-term, work-limiting disability in the San Francisco Bay Area. Interviews were conducted between April and December 2014. Participants explained how they had encountered what they perceived to be excessive, obstructive, and penalizing bureaucracy from social institutions, leading to destitution and poor mental health. They also described being stigmatized as disabled for living with chronic ill health, and simultaneously stigmatized as shirking and malingering for claiming disability benefits as a result. Notably, this latter form of stigma appeared to be exacerbated by the bureaucracy of the administrating institutions. Participants also described intersections of health-related stigma with stigmas of poverty, gender, sexual orientation, and race. The data reveal a complex picture of poverty and intersectional stigma in this population, potentiated by a convoluted and inflexible bureaucracy governing the system of disability benefits. We discuss how these findings reflect the historical context of neoliberal cuts and reforms to social

  2. Manganese and Mercury Levels in Water, Sediments, and Children Living Near Gold-Mining Areas of the Nangaritza River Basin, Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Merizalde, Max V; Menezes-Filho, José A; Cruz-Erazo, Claudia Teresa; Bermeo-Flores, Santos Amable; Sánchez-Castillo, María Obdulia; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Mora, Abrahan

    2016-08-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities performed in mountain areas of the Southern Ecuadorian Amazon have incorporated several heavy metals into the aquatic systems, thus increasing the risk of exposure in populations living in adjacent zones. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination levels of mercury (Hg) and manganese (Mn) in several rivers of the Nangaritza River basin and assess the exposure in school-aged children residing near the gold-mining zones. River water and sediment samples were collected from a highly contaminated (HEx) and a moderately contaminated (MEx) zones. Hair Mn (MnH) and urinary Hg (HgU) levels were determined in school-aged children living in both zones. High concentrations of dissolved Mn were found in river waters of the HEx zone (between 2660 and 3990 µg l(-1)); however, Hg levels, in general, were lower than the detection limit (DL; MnH in children of the HEx and MEx zones were 5.5 and 3.4 µg g(-1), respectively, whereas the median values of HgU concentrations in children living in the HEx and MEx zones were 4.4 and 0.62 µg g-creat(-1), respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between both biomarkers in children from the HEx and MEx zones. In addition, boys presented significantly greater MnH levels in both zones. The greater MnH values were found in children living in alluvial areas, whereas children living in the high mountain areas, where some ore-processing plants are located close to or inside houses and schools, had the greater HgU concentrations. In summary, the data reported in this paper highlights that artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities can not only produce mercurial contamination, that can also release other heavy metals (such as Mn) that may pose a risk to human health.

  3. Geographic Variation of District-Level Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Gender achievement gaps on national and state assessments have been a popular research topic over the last few decades. Many prior studies examine these gaps in different subjects (e.g., mathematics, reading, and science) and grades (typically kindergarten through eighth grade) for students living in various regions (typically states or countries)…

  4. Abriendo Puertas: Feasibility and Effectiveness a Multi-Level Intervention to Improve HIV Outcomes Among Female Sex Workers Living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Barrington, Clare; Donastorg, Yeycy; Perez, Martha; Galai, Noya

    2016-09-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately affected by HIV. Yet, few interventions address the needs of FSW living with HIV. We developed a multi-level intervention, Abriendo Puertas (Opening Doors), and assessed its feasibility and effectiveness among a cohort of 250 FSW living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. We conducted socio-behavioral surveys and sexually transmitted infection and viral load testing at baseline and 10-month follow-up. We assessed changes in protected sex and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) with logistic regression using generalized estimating equations. Significant pre-post intervention changes were documented for adherence (72-89 %; p sex (71-81 %; p sex (AOR 1.76; 95 % CI 1.09-2.84). Illicit drug use was negatively associated with both ART adherence and protected sex. Abriendo Puertas is feasible and effective in improving behavioral HIV outcomes in FSW living with HIV.

  5. Population-level consequences of herbivory, changing climate, and source-sink dynamics on a long-lived invasive shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klinken, R D; Pichancourt, J B

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived plant species are highly valued environmentally, economically, and socially, but can also cause substantial harm as invaders. Realistic demographic predictions can guide management decisions, and are particularly valuable for long-lived species where population response times can be long. Long-lived species are also challenging, given population dynamics can be affected by factors as diverse as herbivory, climate, and dispersal. We developed a matrix model to evaluate the effects of herbivory by a leaf-feeding biological control agent released in Australia against a long-lived invasive shrub (mesquite, Leguminoseae: Prosopis spp.). The stage-structured, density-dependent model used an annual time step and 10 climatically diverse years of field data. Mesquite population demography is sensitive to source-sink dynamics as most seeds are consumed and redistributed spatially by livestock. In addition, individual mesquite plants, because they are long lived, experience natural climate variation that cycles over decadal scales, as well as anthropogenic climate change. The model therefore explicitly considered the effects of both net dispersal and climate variation. Herbivory strongly regulated mesquite populations through reduced growth and fertility, but additional mortality of older plants will be required to reach management goals within a reasonable time frame. Growth and survival of seeds and seedlings were correlated with daily soil moisture. As a result, population dynamics were sensitive to rainfall scenario, but population response times were typically slow (20-800 years to reach equilibrium or extinction) due to adult longevity. Equilibrium population densities were expected to remain 5% higher, and be more dynamic, if historical multi-decadal climate patterns persist, the effect being dampened by herbivory suppressing seed production irrespective of preceding rainfall. Dense infestations were unlikely to form under a drier climate, and required net

  6. Tidally adjusted estimates of topographic vulnerability to sea level rise and flooding for the contiguous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Benjamin H; Ziemlinski, Remik; Weiss, Jeremy L; Overpeck, Jonathan T

    2012-01-01

    Because sea level could rise 1 m or more during the next century, it is important to understand what land, communities and assets may be most at risk from increased flooding and eventual submersion. Employing a recent high-resolution edition of the National Elevation Dataset and using VDatum, a newly available tidal model covering the contiguous US, together with data from the 2010 Census, we quantify low-lying coastal land, housing and population relative to local mean high tide levels, which range from ∼0 to 3 m in elevation (North American Vertical Datum of 1988). Previous work at regional to national scales has sometimes equated elevation with the amount of sea level rise, leading to underestimated risk anywhere where the mean high tide elevation exceeds 0 m, and compromising comparisons across regions with different tidal levels. Using our tidally adjusted approach, we estimate the contiguous US population living on land within 1 m of high tide to be 3.7 million. In 544 municipalities and 38 counties, we find that over 10% of the population lives below this line; all told, some 2150 towns and cities have some degree of exposure. At the state level, Florida, Louisiana, California, New York and New Jersey have the largest sub-meter populations. We assess topographic susceptibility of land, housing and population to sea level rise for all coastal states, counties and municipalities, from 0 to 6 m above mean high tide, and find important threat levels for widely distributed communities of every size. We estimate that over 22.9 million Americans live on land within 6 m of local mean high tide. (letter)

  7. Probabilistic safety assessment for a generic deep geological repository for high-level waste and long-lived intermediate-level waste in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resele, G.; Holocher, J.; Mayer, G.; Hubschwerlen, N.; Niemeyer, M.; Beushausen, M.; Wollrath, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the selection procedure for the search of a final site location for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the comparison and evaluation of different potentially suitable repository systems in different types of host rocks will be an essential and crucial step. Since internationally accepted guidelines on how to perform such quantitative comparisons between repository systems with regard to their long-term safety behaviour are still lacking, in 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection launched the project 'VerSi' (Vergleichende Sicherheitsanalysen - Comparing Safety Assessments) that aims at the development of a methodology for the comparison of long-term safety assessments. A vital part of the VerSi project is the performance of long-term safety assessments for the comparison of two repository systems. The comparison focuses on a future repository for heat-generating, i.e. high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Germany. Rock salt is considered as a potential host rock for such a repository, and one repository system in VerSi is defined similarly to the potential site located in the Gorleben salt dome. Another suitable host rock formation may be clay. A generic location within the lower Cretaceous clays in Northern Germany is therefore chosen for the comparison of safety assessments within the VerSi project. The long-term safety assessment of a repository system for heat-generating radioactive waste at the generic clay location comprises different steps, amongst others: - Identifying the relevant processes in the near-field, in the geosphere and in the biosphere which are relevant for the long-term safety behaviour. - Development of a safety concept for the repository system. - Deduction of scenarios of the long-term evolution of the repository system. - Definition of statistic weights, i. e. the likelihood of occurrence of the scenarios. - Performance of a

  8. Vision-Related Functional Burden of Diabetic Retinopathy Across Severity Levels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jeffrey R; Doan, Quan V; Gleeson, Michelle; Haskova, Zdenka; Ramulu, Pradeep; Morse, Lawrence; Cantrell, Ronald A

    2017-09-01

    Among adults with diabetes in the United States, severe forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are significantly associated with a greater vision-related functional burden. To assess the functional burden of DR across severity levels in the United States. This cross-sectional study was based on 1004 participants 40 years or older with diabetes and valid ocular and sociodemographic outcomes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (2005-2006 and 2007-2008). Diabetic retinopathy was based on fundus photograph grading, using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. The analysis was performed from October 15, 2016, to June 15, 2017. Functional difficulties secondary to vision were assessed during a household questionnaire in which participants self-reported difficulty with reading, visuospatial tasks (ie, close-up work or finding things on a crowded shelf), mobility (ie, walking down steps, stairs, or curbs), and driving. The main outcome measure was vision-related functional burden, which was defined as present for individuals reporting moderate or greater difficulty in any of the aforementioned tasks. Of the 1004 persons with diabetes analyzed for this study (mean age, 65.7 years [95% CI, 64.0-67.3 years]; 51.1% male [95% CI, 47.1-55.2] and 48.9% female [95% CI, 44.8-52.9]), the prevalence was 72.3% for no retinopathy, 25.4% for mild and moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 2.3% for severe NPDR or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The prevalence of vision-related functional burden was 20.2% (95% CI, 16.3%-24.1%) for those with no retinopathy, 20.4% (95% CI, 15.3%-27.8%) for those with mild and moderate NPDR, and 48.5% (95% CI, 25.6%-71.5%) for those with severe NPDR or PDR (P = .02). In multivariable analysis, the odds of vision-related functional burden were significantly greater among those with severe NPDR or PDR relative to those with no retinopathy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.59; 95

  9. Evaluation of noise level at intensive care units in selected hospitals of Sanandaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nammam Ali Azadi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: We found the noise levels were always above the EPA thresholds at all three hospitals both during the day and night. It is recommended to train hospital officials and staffs for keeping noise levels to an acceptable level.

  10. Gut Microbiota Differences in Children From Distinct Socioeconomic Levels Living in the Same Urban Area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Carolina S; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian S; Filho, Humberto B A; Melli, Lígia C F L; Tahan, Soraia; Pignatari, Antônio C C; de Morais, Mauro B

    2016-11-01

    To compare gut microbiota in impoverished children versus children of high socioeconomic status living in the same urban area in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate 100 children living in a slum and 30 children from a private school, ages between 5 and 11 years old, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To characterize the groups, data based on socioeconomic status, sanitation, and housing conditions were collected. Anthropometric measurements and neonatal data were obtained from both groups. Gut microbiota were quantified in fecal samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The children in the private school group had higher rates of cesarean delivery and premature birth than the children in the slum group. Staphylococcus aureus (90% vs 48.0%) and Clostridium difficile (100% vs 43.0%) were more commonly found in the children from the private school than in the impoverished children (P poverty, whereas higher counts of Salmonella spp., C difficile, and C perfringens were observed in the children living in satisfactory housing conditions (P poverty.

  11. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  12. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States: An overview of current commercial regulations and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States is regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under 10 CFR 61 (1991). This regulation was issued in 1981 after a lengthy and thorough development process that considered the radionuclide concentrations and characteristics associated with commercial low-level radioactive waste streams; alternatives for waste classification; alternative technologies for low-level radioactive waste disposal; and data, modeling, and scenario analyses. The development process also included the publication of both draft and final environmental impact statements. The final regulation describes the general provisions; licenses; performance objectives; technical requirements for land disposal; financial assurances; participation by state governments and Indian tribes; and records, reports, tests, and inspections. This paper provides an overview of, and tutorial on, current commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal regulations in the United States

  13. High levels of hair manganese in children living in the vicinity of a ferro-manganese alloy production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Filho, José A; Paes, Ciro R; Pontes, Angela M de C; Moreira, Josino C; Sarcinelli, Paula N; Mergler, Donna

    2009-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, but an effective toxic at high concentrations. While there is an extensive literature on occupational exposure, few studies have examined adults and children living near important sources of airborne Mn. The objective of this study was to analyze hair Mn of children living in the vicinity of a ferro-manganese alloy production plant in the Great Salvador region, State of Bahia, Brazil and examine factors that influence this bioindicator of exposure. We examined 109 children in the age range of 1-10 years, living near the plant. Four separate housing areas were identified a priori on the bases of proximity to the emission sources and downwind location. A non-exposed group (n=43) of similar socio-economic status was also evaluated. Mn hair (MnH) concentration was measured by graphite atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Possible confounding hematological parameters were also assessed. Mean MnH concentration was 15.20 microg/g (1.10-95.50 microg/g) for the exposed children and 1.37 microg/g (0.39-5.58 microg/g) for the non-exposed. For the former, MnH concentrations were 7.95+/-1.40 microg/g (farthest from the plant), 11.81+/-1.11 microg/g (mid-region), 34.43+/-8.66 microg/g (closest to the plant) and 34.22+/-9.15 microg/g (directly downwind). Multiple regression analysis on log transformed MnH concentrations for the exposed children derived a model that explained 36.8% of the variability. In order of importance, area of children's residence, gender (girls>boys) and time of mother's residence in the area at the birth of the child, were significantly associated with MnH. Post hoc analyses indicated two groupings for exposure areas, with those living closest to and downwind of the plant displaying higher MnH concentrations compared to the others. The contribution of the time the mother lived in the community prior to the child's birth to the children's current MnH suggests that in utero exposure may play a role. A study of

  14. Ageing out of place: The meaning of home among hispanic older persons living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Alicia; Martins, Diane C; Gillsjö, Catharina; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna

    2017-09-01

    To explore the meaning of home among older Hispanic immigrants who are "aging out of place." Emerging evidence supports the concept of older persons ageing in place. Nurse researchers have demonstrated that older person who age in place have better physical, psychological and cognitive outcomes. Less, however, is known about older persons who are "aging out of place," meaning out of their country of origin. With the growth of home health care, there is a need to understand the older immigrants' meaning of home when ageing out of their country of origin. An inductive, qualitative descriptive research design was used. Seventeen Hispanic participants, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Two major finding of the study focused on participants' descriptions of home in their country of origin and in the USA. The majority of participants described their home in their native country as the community, countryside or town (pueblo) and in the U.S.A. as family. The level of social isolation and loneliness among participants was evident. Older Hispanic immigrants who are "aging out of place" integrate their past experiences of sense of place in their native country with their present experiences of home in the USA. The need to understand the role of the community and the family in the provision of nursing care in the home may be more important than the physical structure or setting in which it is delivered. Further intra- and cross-national studies are needed to provide a framework for understanding the issues of ageing and immigration globally. Gerontological nurses need to recognise the complexity of family relationships for older Hispanic persons who are ageing out of place of origin and their risk of depression, social isolation, and loneliness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Relation between location of a motor unit in the human biceps brachii and its critical firing levels for different tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Haar Romeny, B.M. ter; Gon, J.J.D. van der

    1984-01-01

    Critical firing levels (CFLs) of single motor units (MUs) in the long head of the human biceps brachii muscle were determined in combinations of two isometric tasks: flexion of the elbow, supination of the lower arm, and exorotation of the humerus, as well as the corresponding antagonistic tasks.

  16. Determining Your Potential as an Entrepreneur. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 2. Research & Development Series No. 240BB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on determining one's potential as an entrepreneur, the second in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about…

  17. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program to Sustain a Culture of Inquiry for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Melnyk and Eileen Fineout-Overholt, who graciously and consistently support military nursing science. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program...Rosenberg W, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: What it is and what it isn’t. BMJ. 1996;312(7023):71-72.doi: http

  18. Literacy at All Levels. Proceedings of the Annual Study Conference of the United Kingdom Reading Assn. (8th, Manchester, 1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, Vera, Ed.

    Edited versions of selected major papers presented at the July 1971 study conference of the United Kingdom Reading Association, which had the theme "Literacy at All Levels," are included in this book. This group defines literacy as "the mastery of our native language in all its aspects, as a means of communication," and…

  19. 40 CFR 75.81 - Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Hg Mass Emission Provisions § 75.81 Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level. The owner or operator of the...

  20. Investigation of Pupils' Levels of MVPA and VPA during Physical Education Units Focused on Direct Instruction and Tactical Games Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Lindsey; Fairclough, Stuart; Savory, Louise; Kerr, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) levels of pupils during coeducational physical education units focused on direct instruction and tactical games models (TGM). Thirty-two children (11-12 years, 17 girls) were randomly assigned to either a direct instruction (control) or TGM…

  1. Planning the Marketing Strategy. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 6. Research & Development Series No. 240BB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on planning marketing strategy for a small business, the sixth in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about…

  2. Currently used dosage regimens of vancomycin fail to achieve therapeutic levels in approximately 40% of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Vitor Yuzo; Zacas, Carolina Petrus; Carrilho, Claudia Maria Dantas de Maio; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether currently used dosages of vancomycin for treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections in intensive care unit patients provided initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels and to examine possible factors associated with the presence of adequate initial vancomycin trough levels in these patients. A prospective descriptive study with convenience sampling was performed. Nursing note and medical record data were collected from September 2013 to July 2014 for patients who met inclusion criteria. Eighty-three patients were included. Initial vancomycin trough levels were obtained immediately before vancomycin fourth dose. Acute kidney injury was defined as an increase of at least 0.3mg/dL in serum creatinine within 48 hours. Considering vancomycin trough levels recommended for serious gram-positive infection treatment (15 - 20µg/mL), patients were categorized as presenting with low, adequate, and high vancomycin trough levels (35 [42.2%], 18 [21.7%], and 30 [36.1%] patients, respectively). Acute kidney injury patients had significantly greater vancomycin trough levels (p = 0.0055, with significance for a trend, p = 0.0023). Surprisingly, more than 40% of the patients did not reach an effective initial vancomycin trough level. Studies on pharmacokinetic and dosage regimens of vancomycin in intensive care unit patients are necessary to circumvent this high proportion of failures to obtain adequate initial vancomycin trough levels. Vancomycin use without trough serum level monitoring in critically ill patients should be discouraged.

  3. Level of independence in daily living and cognitive plasticity in old age - Nivel de independencia en la vida diaria y plasticidad cognitiva en la vejez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Navarro González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research provides evidence that anactive lifestyle is associated with a high level of plasticity,which in turn is related to a reduced probability of cognitivedeterioration and decline (Calero, Navarro &Muñoz, 2007. Activities of daily living (ADL constituteone of the variables currently considered to be anindicator of dependence/independence in old age andwhich is associated with cognitive and physical decline.The aim of the present study was to analyse the relationbetween ADL and cognitive plasticity in old age. Sixtythreeelderly participants were evaluated using diversemeasures of ADL levels and two techniques for evaluatinglearning potential. Results showed that a higherlevel of cognitive plasticity was associated with greaterfunctional independence in daily living.

  4. Large Item Disposal At The Drigg Low Level Waste Repository, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Steve

    2012-01-01

    suitable and the activity either sufficiently low or sufficiently short-lived, a recycling route has potential and also fits in with policy concerning opening up of alternative routes for very low level radioactive waste. Delay and decay to achieve this and or free-release criteria are met would potentially generate revenue that could partly offset the cost of the process itself and where the specific activity precludes this route the material could feasibly be recycled into packaging for other LLW (or even ILW) items destined for repository disposal, such that the additional activity burden of the recycled material would be negligible

  5. Built environment interventions aimed at improving physical activity levels in rural Ontario health units: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, Cara-Lee; Valaitis, Ruta K; Eyles, John D

    2015-05-03

    Few studies to date have explored the relationship between the built environment and physical activity specifically in rural settings. The Ontario Public Health Standards policies mandate that health units in Ontario address the built environment; however, it is unclear how public health practitioners are integrating the built environment into public health interventions aimed at improving physical activity in chronic disease prevention programs. This descriptive qualitative study explored interventions that have or are being implemented which address the built environment specifically related to physical activity in rural Ontario health units, and the impact of these interventions. Data were collected through twelve in-depth semi-structured interviews with rural public health practitioners and managers representing 12 of 13 health units serving rural communities. Key themes were identified using qualitative content analysis. Themes that emerged regarding the types of interventions that health units are employing included: Engagement with policy work at a municipal level; building and working with community partners, committees and coalitions; gathering and providing evidence; developing and implementing programs; and social marketing and awareness raising. Evaluation of interventions to date has been limited. Public health interventions, and their evaluations, are complex. Health units who serve large rural populations in Ontario are engaging in numerous activities to address physical activity levels. There is a need to further evaluate the impact of these interventions on population health.

  6. Process methods and levels of automation of wood pallet repair in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonghun Park; Laszlo Horvath; Robert J. Bush

    2016-01-01

    This study documented the current status of wood pallet repair in the United States by identifying the types of processing and equipment usage in repair operations from an automation prespective. The wood pallet repair firms included in the sudy received an average of approximately 1.28 million cores (i.e., used pallets) for recovery in 2012. A majority of the cores...

  7. Noise levels in a neonatal intensive care unit in the Cape metropole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Continuous noise exposure is potentially harmful to infants\\' auditory systems and wellbeing. Although the effects of noise on infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have been well researched overseas, limited studies have been conducted in South Africa. Aim. To conduct a detailed noise assessment ...

  8. Physical activity and its relationship with perceived environment among adults living in a region of low socioeconomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Alex Antonio; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira

    2013-05-01

    The environment has a great influence on people's lifestyles and their capacity to choose healthy habits. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived environment and physical activity among adults living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted with 890 people age 18 years or over. Physical activity was measured through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ; long version) and perceived environment was evaluated using the Neighborhood Walkability Scale (NEWS) adapted. Poisson's regression was used for statistical analyses and prevalence ratios were calculated. The outcome variable was the attainment of at least 150 minutes per week of physical activities. The independent variables consisted of perceived environment variables and control variables (sex, age, schooling, time living in the home, and number of cars per household). The perceived environment variables that explained physical activity were: receiving invitations from friends for activities (P = .012), low environmental pollution scores (p trend = 0.030) and high general safety scores (P-trend = 0.039). These results suggest that physical activity promotion in regions like this should be envisaged as a complex phenomenon and investments in public safety, prevention and combating of environmental pollution and social support networks are needed.

  9. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: Influence of contaminated fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.T. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liao, P.C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Su, H.J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.L. [Department of Industrial Safety and Health, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, 34 Chung Chie Rd. Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: hsiulin@sunrise.hk.edu.tw

    2006-05-15

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P < 0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. - Inhabitants living near a deserted PCP factory are exposed to high PCDD/F levels.

  10. Unit Level Variations And Peer Influences In Mental Health Diagnoses In The U.S. Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget...variations across units without unobserved time-invariant differences such as culture or leadership style , as well as effects of time-variant variables...Nanyang Technological University, 2008 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MANAGEMENT from the

  11. The Prosecution of State-Level Human Trafficking Cases in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Farrell; Monica J DeLateur; Colleen Owens; Stephanie Fahy

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to combat human trafficking, the United States federal government and all fifty states passed new laws that criminalise human trafficking and support the identification and prosecution of human trafficking perpetrators. Despite the passage of these laws, only a small number of human trafficking cases have been prosecuted in the last fifteen years. Guided by the notion that prosecutors seek to avoid uncertainty when making decisions to pursue criminal prosecution, we explore how h...

  12. State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

  13. A qualitative study of young people's perspectives of living with type 1 diabetes: do perceptions vary by levels of metabolic control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Cheryl; Mandleco, Barbara; Roper, Susanne; Dearing, Karen; Dyches, Tina; Freeborn, Donna

    2013-06-01

    To explore if young people with higher and lower levels of metabolic control of type 1 diabetes have different perceptions about their lives and illness. Adolescence through emerging adulthood is a developmental stage made more challenging when the person has type 1 diabetes. Little research has investigated if individuals with high and low levels of metabolic control in this age group perceive their disease differently. Qualitative descriptive. In this study, 14 participants, ages 11-22 years were interviewed in 2008 about their perceptions of living with type 1 diabetes. Through a process of induction, major themes were identified. Participants with high and low metabolic control levels reported similar themes related to reactions of others, knowledge about type 1 diabetes, and believed healthcare providers used authoritarian interactions. However, high metabolic control level participants believed type 1 diabetes would be cured; had negative initial responses to being diagnosed; rarely received parental support in managing their diabetes; and were negligent in self-care activities. Participants with low metabolic control levels did not believe a cure was imminent or have negative responses to being diagnosed; received parental support in managing diabetes; and were diligent in self-care activities. Nurses should give information to young people with type 1 diabetes beyond initial diagnosis and help and support this age group learn appropriate ways to manage their disease, develop positive relationships with healthcare professionals, and participate in interactions with others their age successfully managing type 1 diabetes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Functional level at admission is a predictor of survival in older patients admitted to an acute geriatric unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Lars E; Jepsen, Ditte B; Ryg, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Functional decline is associated with increased risk of mortality in geriatric patients.Assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) with the Barthel Index (BI) at admission wasstudied as a predictor of survival in older patients admitted to an acute geriatric unit. METHODS......: All first admissions of patients with age >65 years between January 1st 2005 and December31st 2009 were included. Data on BI, sex, age, and discharge diagnoses were retrieved fromthe hospital patient administrative system, and data on survival until September 6th 2010 wereretrieved from the Civil...... Personal Registry. Co-morbidity was measured with Charlson ComorbidityIndex (CCI). Patients were followed until death or end of study. RESULTS: 5,087 patients were included, 1,852 (36.4%) men and 3,235 (63.6%) women with mean age(SD) 82.0 (6.8) and 84.0 (7.0) years respectively. The median [IQR] length...

  15. EMG analysis tuned for determining the timing and level of activation in different motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S M; Miara, Maria de Boef; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M

    2011-08-01

    Recruitment patterns and activation dynamics of different motor units greatly influence the temporal pattern and magnitude of muscle force development, yet these features are not often considered in muscle models. The purpose of this study was to characterize the recruitment and activation dynamics of slow and fast motor units from electromyographic (EMG) recordings and twitch force profiles recorded directly from animal muscles. EMG and force data from the gastrocnemius muscles of seven goats were recorded during in vivo tendon-tap reflex and in situ nerve stimulation experiments. These experiments elicited EMG signals with significant differences in frequency content (p<0.001). The frequency content was characterized using wavelet and principal components analysis, and optimized wavelets with centre frequencies, 149.94 Hz and 323.13 Hz, were obtained. The optimized wavelets were used to calculate the EMG intensities and, with the reconstructed twitch force profiles, to derive transfer functions for slow and fast motor units that estimate the activation state of the muscle from the EMG signal. The resulting activation-deactivation time constants gave r values of 0.98-0.99 between the activation state and the force profiles. This work establishes a framework for developing improved muscle models that consider the intrinsic properties of slow and fast fibres within a mixed muscle, and that can more accurately predict muscle force output from EMG. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concomitant use of an oral live pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine with licensed parenteral pediatric vaccines in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Zoe M; Goveia, Michelle G; Stek, Jon E; Dallas, Michael J; Boslego, John W; DiNubile, Mark J; Heaton, Penny M

    2007-03-01

    A live pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV) containing 5 human-bovine (WC3) reassortants expressing human serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and P1A[8] was evaluated in a blinded, placebo-controlled study. Possible interactions between PRV and concomitantly administered licensed pediatric vaccines were investigated in a United States-based nested substudy (Concomitant Use Study) of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial. From 2002 to 2003, healthy infants approximately 6 to 12 weeks of age at entry were randomized to receive either 3 oral doses of PRV or placebo at 4- to 10-week intervals. Subjects were also to receive combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B vaccine (2 doses), diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (3 doses), inactivated poliovirus vaccine (2 doses) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (3 doses) on the same day; oral poliovirus vaccine was not administered. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring antibody responses to PRV and antigens contained in the licensed vaccines. Cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were defined by forceful vomiting and/or -3 watery or looser-than-normal stools within a 24-hour period, and detection of rotavirus antigen in the stool. Safety was assessed by reporting of adverse events using diary cards. The Concomitant Use Study enrolled 662 subjects in the PRV group and 696 subjects in the placebo group. For the 17 antigens in the concomitantly administered vaccines, antibody responses were similar in PRV and placebo recipients, except for moderately diminished antibody responses to the pertactin component of pertussis vaccine. Efficacy of PRV against rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity was 89.5% (95% CI = 26.5-99.8%). PRV was generally well tolerated when given concomitantly with the prespecified vaccines. In this study, antibody responses to the concomitantly administered vaccines were generally similar in PRV and placebo recipients. PRV was efficacious and well tolerated when given

  17. Unit Roots in Economic and Financial Time Series: A Re-Evaluation at the Decision-Based Significance Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H. Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-evaluates key past results of unit root tests, emphasizing that the use of a conventional level of significance is not in general optimal due to the test having low power. The decision-based significance levels for popular unit root tests, chosen using the line of enlightened judgement under a symmetric loss function, are found to be much higher than conventional ones. We also propose simple calibration rules for the decision-based significance levels for a range of unit root tests. At the decision-based significance levels, many time series in Nelson and Plosser’s (1982 (extended data set are judged to be trend-stationary, including real income variables, employment variables and money stock. We also find that nearly all real exchange rates covered in Elliott and Pesavento’s (2006 study are stationary; and that most of the real interest rates covered in Rapach and Weber’s (2004 study are stationary. In addition, using a specific loss function, the U.S. nominal interest rate is found to be stationary under economically sensible values of relative loss and prior belief for the null hypothesis.

  18. A Study on Determination of Proper Pressurizer Level for Kori Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Sup; Song, Dong Soo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    1. Determination of Proper Pressurizer Level. To determine operation level of pressurizer, LOFTRAN code is used with conservative model and assumption. 2. Performance Analysis. To simulate the plant, RETRAN computer code is used with realistic model and assumptions. The control and protection systems are fully credited. The turbine trip event is simulated at the condition of 47.62% of pressurizer level at full power. After that the same event as that with 55% of pressurizer level is simulated. And the FSAR requirements of pressurizer are verified with the new level setpoints. 3. Safety Analysis. As safety analyses, Loss of Normal Feedwater/Station Blackout which is significantly affected by the initial pressurizer water level is performed. Turbine Trip accident is also analyzed to verify if the peak primary side pressure is within the limit. LOFTRAN code is used with conservative mode and assumption. 3. Steam Generator Replacement. Relating to the steam generator replacement planed in 1998, safety analysis in terms of pressurizer level setpoint change. 4. Limit Condition for Operation. The LCO of pressurizer level is changed from 60% to 67.4% which is included pressurizer level uncertainty. (author). 13 refs., figs., tabs.

  19. Serum PCDDs/Fs levels for the residents living in the vicinity and workers of the municipal incinerators in Seoul, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Shin, D. [Inst. for environmental Research, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea); Lim, Y. [Dept. of Environmental Health, Seonam Univ., Namwon (Korea); Chang, Y. [School of Environmental Engineering, Pohang Univ., Pohang (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    PCDDs and PCDFs are detected routinely, as they are widely distributed in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Moreover, because human beings are at the top of food chain, a relatively high level of these compounds can be found in human adipose tissues, blood lipids, and breast milk fat. In Korea, the number of municipal and hazardous waste incinerators have increased since 1980. In addition, municipal waste incinerators are almost always located in residential areas. Therefore, the human health risks caused by dioxin is become an increasing public concern in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs in blood from individuals living in the vicinity area of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI), and to compare PCDDs/PCDFs levels in blood for residents living near the MSWI, workers at the MSWI and general population living in the urban area not including the MSWI. Analysis of the results was made in terms of sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, smoking habit, food consumption patters, and proximity to the MSWI.

  20. The Influence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Design on Sound Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Li Chen

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: The sound level measured in the enclosed space was quieter than in the open space. The design of bed space should be taken into consideration when building a new NICU. Besides the design of NICU architecture, continuous monitoring of sound level in the NICU is important to maintain a quiet environment.

  1. Assessment of ambient noise levels in the intensive care unit of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem O Qutub

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion : Some sources of environmental noise, such as the use of oxygen, suction equipment or respirators are unavoidable. Nevertheless, hospital ICUs should have measures to minimize the level of exposure to noise in the ICU. Further research in this area might focus on the noise level and other modifiable environmental stress factors in the ICU that affect patients as well as the staff.

  2. Former military officers from the Republic of Vietnam now living in the united states (US): exploring their perceptions of the US healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Elisabeth K; Nguyen, Phuong L; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Jatoi, Aminah

    2011-12-01

    Few studies have focused on perceptions of healthcare among Vietnamese who came to the United States (US) as refugees. A 48-item survey that included information on demographics, health status, and satisfaction with healthcare [including the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 (PSQ-18)] was sent to 49 former Vietnamese military officers, who are now living in the US, based on their current geographic residence. A total of 22 of 49 delivered questionnaires were completed and returned, yielding a response rate of 45%. The survey was sent in Vietnamese and English, and all except one was completed in Vietnamese. In response to "Language barriers have prevented me from accessing health care when I need it," 77% of respondents acknowledged that this was "sometimes" the case even today. Most respondents otherwise viewed the healthcare system favorably, but cost concerns were an issue: 28% strongly agreed or agreed with the statement, "I have to pay for more of my medical care than I can afford." In contrast, only 9% described that they would have strongly agreed or agreed to this statement upon first arriving to the US. Write-in comments revealed themes that centered on language barriers, favorable impressions of healthcare in the US, financial concerns, and patriotism towards the US. Further study of this aging population of Vietnamese Americans might help shed light on concerns faced by other refugee populations who have arrived more recently.

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Social networks and substance use among at-risk emerging adults living in disadvantaged urban areas in the southern United States: a cross-sectional naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Cheong, JeeWon; Chandler, Susan D; Crawford, Scott M; Simpson, Cathy A

    2015-09-01

    Substance use and risk-taking are common during emerging adulthood, a transitional period when peer influences often increase and family influences decrease. Investigating relationships between social network features and substance use can inform community-based prevention programs. This study investigated whether substance use among emerging adults living in disadvantaged urban areas was influenced by peer and family social network messages that variously encouraged and discouraged substance use. Cross-sectional, naturalistic field study. Lower-income neighborhoods in Birmingham, Alabama, USA with 344 participants (110 males, 234 females, ages 15-25 years; mean = 18.86 years), recruited via respondent-driven sampling. During structured interviews conducted in community locations, the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test assessed substance use and related problems. Predictor variables were network characteristics, including presence of substance-using peers, messages from friends and family members about substance use and network sources for health information. Higher substance involvement was associated with friend and family encouragement of use and having close peer network members who used substances (Ps Social networks appear to be important in both promoting and preventing substance use in disadvantaged young adults in the United States. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Are drug companies living up to their human rights responsibilities? The perspective of the former United Nations Special Rapporteur (2002-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hunt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: The human rights responsibilities of drug companies have been considered for years by nongovernmental organizations, but were most sharply defined in a report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, submitted to the United Nations General Assembly in August 2008. The "Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines" include responsibilities for transparency, management, monitoring and accountability, pricing, and ethical marketing, and against lobbying for more protection in intellectual property laws, applying for patents for trivial modifications of existing medicines, inappropriate drug promotion, and excessive pricing. Two years after the release of the Guidelines, the PLoS Medicine Debate asks whether drug companies are living up to their human rights responsibilities. Sofia Gruskin and Zyde Raad from the Harvard School of Public Health say more assessment is needed of such responsibilities; Geralyn Ritter, Vice President of Global Public Policy and Corporate Responsibility at Merck & Co. argues that multiple stakeholders could do more to help States deliver the right to health; and Paul Hunt and Rajat Khosla introduce Mr. Hunt's work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, regarding the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies and access to medicines.

  6. Frequency of Cannabis Use and Medical Cannabis Use Among Persons Living With HIV in the United States: Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Towe, Sheri L; Hobkirk, Andrea L; Nash, Denis; Goodwin, Renee D

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about cannabis use frequency, medical cannabis use, or correlates of use among persons living with HIV (PLWH) in United States nationally representative samples. Data came from 626 PLWH from the 2005-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Logistic regression identified characteristics associated with frequency of cannabis use. Chi-squares identified characteristics associated with medial cannabis use. Non-daily and daily cannabis use was reported by 26.9% and 8.0%. Greater perceived risk of cannabis use was negatively associated with daily and non-daily use. Younger age, substance use, and binge drinking were positively associated with non-daily cannabis use. Smoking and depression were associated with non-daily and daily use. One-quarter reported medical cannabis use. Medical users were more likely to be White, married, and nondrinkers. Cannabis use was common among PLWH. Findings help to differentiate between cannabis users based on frequency of use and medical versus recreational use.

  7. Live Streaming of the Moon's Shadow from the Edge of Space across the United States during the August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    On August 21, 2017 approximately 55 teams across the path of totality of the eclipse across America will use sounding balloon platforms to transmit, in real-time from an altitude of 90,000 feet, HD video of the moon's shadow as it crosses the U.S. from Oregon to South Carolina. This unprecedented activity was originally organized by the Montana Space Grant Consortium in order to 1) use the rare total eclipse event to captivate the imagination of students and encourage the development of new ballooning teams across the United States, 2) provide an inexpensive high bandwidth data telemetry system for real-time video streaming, and 3) establish the basic infrastructure at multiple institutions enabling advanced "new generation" student ballooning projects following the eclipse event. A ballooning leadership group consisting of Space Grant Consortia in Montana, Colorado, Louisiana, and Minnesota was established to support further development and testing of the systems, as well as to assist in training the ballooning teams. This presentation will describe the high bandwidth telemetry system used for the never before attempted live streaming of HD video from the edge of space, the results of this highly collaborative science campaign stretching from coast-to-coast, potential uses of the data telemetry system for other student science projects, and lessons learned that can be applied to the 2024 total solar eclipse.

  8. Are drug companies living up to their human rights responsibilities? The perspective of the former United Nations Special Rapporteur (2002-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul; Khosla, Rajat

    2010-09-28

    The human rights responsibilities of drug companies have been considered for years by nongovernmental organizations, but were most sharply defined in a report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, submitted to the United Nations General Assembly in August 2008. The "Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines" include responsibilities for transparency, management, monitoring and accountability, pricing, and ethical marketing, and against lobbying for more protection in intellectual property laws, applying for patents for trivial modifications of existing medicines, inappropriate drug promotion, and excessive pricing. Two years after the release of the Guidelines, the PLoS Medicine Debate asks whether drug companies are living up to their human rights responsibilities. Sofia Gruskin and Zyde Raad from the Harvard School of Public Health say more assessment is needed of such responsibilities; Geralyn Ritter, Vice President of Global Public Policy and Corporate Responsibility at Merck & Co. argues that multiple stakeholders could do more to help States deliver the right to health; and Paul Hunt and Rajat Khosla introduce Mr. Hunt's work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, regarding the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies and access to medicines.

  9. Trends Analysis of rhBMP2 Utilization in Single-Level Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Lifeng; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Buser, Zorica; Brodke, Darrel S; Yoon, S Tim; Youssef, Jim A; Park, Jong-Beom; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2018-04-01

    Retrospective case study. To evaluate the trends and demographics of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) utilization in single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) in the United States. Patients who underwent single-level ALIF from 2005 to 2011 were identified by searching ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes in the PearlDiver Patient Records Database (PearlDiver Technologies, Fort Wayne, IN), a national database of orthopedic insurance records. The year of procedure, age, gender, and region of the United States were analyzed for each patient. A total of 921 patients were identified who underwent a single-level ALIF in this study. The average rate of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 utilization increased (35%-48%) from 2005 to 2009, but sharply decreased to 16.7% in 2010 and 15.0% in 2011. The overall incidence of single-level ALIF without rhBMP2 (0.20 cases per 100 000 patients) was more than twice of the incidence of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 (0.09 cases per 100 000 patients). The average rate of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 utilization is highest in West (41.4%), followed by Midwest (33.3%), South (26.5%) and Northeast (22.2%). The highest incidence of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 was observed in the group aged less than 65 years (compared with any other age groups, P level ALIF increased from 2006 to 2009, but decreased in 2010 and 2011. The Northeast region had the lowest incidence of rhBMP2 utilization. The group aged less than 65 years trended to have the higher incidence of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 utilization.

  10. [Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a comparison of level of knowledge in three critical care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujante-Palazón, I; Rodríguez-Mondéjar, J J; Armero-Barranco, D; Sáez-Paredes, P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the level of knowledge of the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia guidelines of nurses working in three intensive care units (ICU) in 3 university hospitals in a Spanish region, and evaluate the relationship between this level of knowledge and years worked in the ICU. A descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional, multicentre study was conducted using a validated and reliable questionnaire, made up by 9 questions with closed answers drawn from the EVIDENCE study. A total of 98 questionnaires were collected from ICU nurses of the three university hospitals (A, B, and C) from January to April 2014. The sample from hospital A responded the most, in contrast with the sample from hospital B, which was the one with the less participation. The Pearson correlation was calculated in order to determine the relationship between nurse years worked in ICU and level of knowledge. Hospital A obtained in the best mean score in the questionnaire, 6.33 (SD 1.4) points, followed by hospital C with 6.21 (SD 1.4), and finally, the hospital B with 6.06 (SD 1.5) points. A p=.08 was obtained on relating years worked with the level of knowledge. The results showed a high level of knowledge compared other studies. There was a tendency between the years worked in the unit and the level of knowledge in ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  11. The Monthly Variations in the Blood Glucose Level of Capoeta capoeta capoeta (G.ldenstaedt, 1772) Living in Aras River

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Seyit

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the monthly variation in the blood glucose level of Capoeta capoeta capoeta caught from Aras between August 1995 and June 1996 was determined. The average blood glucose level was determined to be 112.04±5.19 mg/dl in males and 106.32±9.68 mg/dl in females and 110.06±4.19 mg/dl in the population. The blood glucose level was highest (141.07±13.67 mg/dl) in April, and lowest (69.14±9.75 mg/dl) in September. It was deter- mined that the level of blood glucose was related to tem...

  12. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  13. Results from probabilistic safety analysis level 2 for Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velev, V.; Mancheva, K.

    2006-01-01

    The study considers full power operation analysis results and impact of strategies and modernisation implementations of Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4. In this paper the following issues are discussed: the development of Severe Accident Management Guidelines and Symptom Based Emergency Operating Procedures, installation of brand new system as Emergency Filter Ventilation System, Passive Autocatalytic Hydrogen recombiners, etc. In order to respond to the objectives of the study, the analyses assets the impact of different initiating events on risk based on the frequencies of various plant damage states, the confinement failure and the radiological release frequencies and finally estimates the total risk as frequency of radiological releases

  14. Tract- and county-level income inequality and individual risk of obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2016-01-01

    We tested three alternative hypotheses regarding the relationship between income inequality and individual risk of obesity at two geographical scales: U.S. Census tract and county. Income inequality was measured by Gini coefficients, created from the 2000 U.S. Census. Obesity was clinically measured in the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The individual measures and area measures were geo-linked to estimate three sets of multi-level models: tract only, county only, and tract and county simultaneously. Gender was tested as a moderator. At both the tract and county levels, higher income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity. The size of the coefficient was larger for county-level Gini than for tract-level Gini; and controlling income inequality at one level did not reduce the impact of income inequality at the other level. Gender was not a significant moderator for the obesity-income inequality association. Higher tract and county income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity, indicating that at least at the tract and county levels and in the context of cross-sectional data, the public health goal of reducing the rate of obesity is in line with anti-poverty policies of addressing poverty through mixed-income development where neighborhood income inequality is likely higher than homogeneous neighborhoods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioisotope studies of steroid hormone levels of plasma in indigenous subjects living at high altitude and submitted to a low calorie diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, I.

    1975-08-01

    Radioimmunological techniques were applied to the evaluation of TSH and ACTH in the four groups of Ecuadorian subjects under investigation at Tocachi, Malchingui, Quito and Portoviejo, the first three populations living at a high altitude and the fourth at sea-level. This evaluation was of interest since previous studies had indicated that there were thyroid and adrenal hormone deficiency levels in individuals from Tocachi and Malchingui or, in other words, in populations from a high-altitude region, and also endemic goitre and caloric-protein malnutrition. Furthermore, the Tocachi group was composed of subjects suffering from chronic ''stress''. Parallel to the analysis of TSH and pituitary ACTH levels, the circadian rhythm in the production of these hormones in these subjects was studied. The basal values of TSH and ACHT for the studied groups were found to lie within the normal range. 131 I-TSH and 125 I-ACTH were used. As far as the nycthemeral TSH rhythm is concerned, the values tended to be lowest for the high-altitude populations, while for the groups living at sea-level, where there is also circadian variation, the higher values are found in the morning. Similarly, the circadian rhythm for ACTH was established, with a predominance of diurnal values at Tocachi, Malchingui and Portoviejo

  16. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Cochran, J.; Vorum, M.

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  17. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States. Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorum, Martin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  18. Theoretical parameter histories of dynamic tests during power commissioning of Mochovce units power level up to 100 % Nnom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagrik, J.; Mraz, M.; Rapant, M.; Stefanovic, P.; Kotasek, J.; Gieci, A.; Macko, J.; Mosny, J.

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical histories of selected parameters for dynamic tests carried out in the course of power commissioning of the Mochovce Unit 1 at the power level 100% N nom are shown in the report. The expected histories given were developed based on calculations performed by means of simulator in Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava, Inc., simulator in EGU Praha and simulator at the Mochovce plant, as well as based on similar tests at both Bohunice and Dukovany plants

  19. The Effect of One Session Low Level Laser Therapy of Extracted Follicular Units on the Outcome of Hair Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Tabaie, Seyed Mehdi; Berenji Ardestani, Hoda; Azizjalali, Mir Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Photobiostimulation with low level laser (LLL) has been used in medicine for a long time and its effects have been shown in many diseases. Some studies have evaluated the effect of LLL on androgenic alopecia. One of the most important limitations of the use of LLL in the treatment of alopecia is the requirement for multiple sessions, which is hardly accepted by patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the irradiation of extracted follicular hair units by LLL ...

  20. Long-lived legacy: Managing high-level and transuranic waste at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The document focuses on high-level and transuranic waste at the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Reviews some of the critical areas and aspects of the DOE waste problem in order to provide data and further analysis of important issues. Partial contents, High-Level Waste Management at the DOE Weapons Complex, are as follows: High-Level Waste Management: Present and Planned; Amount and Distribution; Current and Potential Problems; Vitrification; Calcination; Alternative Waste Forms for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Technologies for Pretreatment of High-Level Waste; Waste Minimization; Regulatory Framework; Definition of High-Level Waste; Repository Delays and Contingency Planning; Urgency of High-Level Tank Waste Treatment; Technologies for High-Level Waste Treatment; Rethinking the Waste Form and Package; Waste Form for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Releases to the Atmosphere; Future of the PUREX Plant at Hanford; Waste Minimization; Tritium Production; International Cooperation; Scenarios for Future HLW Production. Partial contents of Chapter 2, Managing Transuranic Waste at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex, are as follows: Transuranic Waste at Department of Energy Sites; Amount and Distribution; Waste Management: Present and Planned; Current and Potential Problems; Three Technologies for Treating Retrievably Stored Transuranic Waste; In Situ Vitrification; The Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Plan (RDDT ampersand E); Actinide Conversion (Transmutation); Waste Minimization; The Regulatory Framework; Definition of, and Standards for, Disposal of Transuranic Waste; Repository Delays; Alternative Storage and Disposal Strategies; Remediation of Buried Waste; The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; Waste Minimization; Scenarios for Future Transuranic Waste Production; Conditions of No-Migration Determination

  1. Seasonal forecasting of groundwater levels in natural aquifers in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Jonathan; Jackson, Christopher; Pachocka, Magdalena; Brookshaw, Anca; Scaife, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater aquifers comprise the world's largest freshwater resource and provide resilience to climate extremes which could become more frequent under future climate changes. Prolonged dry conditions can induce groundwater drought, often characterised by significantly low groundwater levels which may persist for months to years. In contrast, lasting wet conditions can result in anomalously high groundwater levels which result in flooding, potentially at large economic cost. Using computational models to produce groundwater level forecasts allows appropriate management strategies to be considered in advance of extreme events. The majority of groundwater level forecasting studies to date use data-based models, which exploit the long response time of groundwater levels to meteorological drivers and make forecasts based only on the current state of the system. Instead, seasonal meteorological forecasts can be used to drive hydrological models and simulate groundwater levels months into the future. Such approaches have not been used in the past due to a lack of skill in these long-range forecast products. However systems such as the latest version of the Met Office Global Seasonal Forecast System (GloSea5) are now showing increased skill up to a 3-month lead time. We demonstrate the first groundwater level ensemble forecasting system using a multi-member ensemble of hindcasts from GloSea5 between 1996 and 2009 to force 21 simple lumped conceptual groundwater models covering most of the UK's major aquifers. We present the results from this hindcasting study and demonstrate that the system can be used to forecast groundwater levels with some skill up to three months into the future.

  2. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial nea-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste disposal standards and techniques in the United States have evolved significantly since the early 1960's. Six commercial LLW disposal facilities(Barnwell, Richland, Ward Valley, Sierra Blanca, Wake County and Boyd County) operated and proposed between 1962 and 1997. This report summarizes each site's design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. These new standards and mitigating efforts at closed facilities (Sheffield, Maxey Flats, Beatty and West Valley) have helped to ensure that the public has been safely protected from LLW. 15 refs

  3. Corticosterone stress response and plasma metabolite levels during breeding and molt in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Tyler; Gow, Elizabeth A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2011-04-01

    Many birds face energetic trade-offs between different life history stages, such as reproductive effort, feather molt and the non-breeding period. Little is known about how physiological measures of condition (corticosterone, plasma metabolites) in free-living birds change from nesting stages to the post-breeding molt period or whether this is influenced by prior reproductive effort. We evaluated whether corticosterone (CORT) and plasma metabolite levels vary with date, nest stage and sex in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We also tested whether (1) baseline CORT levels early in the season were predictive of subsequent reproductive success and (2) whether prior reproductive effort influenced CORT levels and blood metabolites during molt. Baseline CORT levels decreased with date during both the incubation stage and nestling stage, but did not vary significantly across stage of breeding season. Stress-induced CORT declined with date during incubation and varied significantly across breeding stage, with lower levels during feather molt. Profiles of the metabolites of β-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, and triglyceride did not vary significantly with date or breeding stage. Only triglycerides varied significantly with sex, with females having higher levels than males. Reproductive output was highly variable (0-10 fledglings per season) but baseline CORT levels in females during the first incubation period of the season was not related to subsequent reproductive output. Prior reproductive effort, measured as the cumulative number of young hatched during the breeding season, was positively related to stress-induced CORT during molt. High reproductive effort in wood thrush appears to have physiological carry-over effects into the molt period which could potentially affect rate of molt and preparation for fall migration. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effective inundation of continental United States communities with 21st century sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Dahl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent, tidally driven coastal flooding is one of the most visible signs of sea level rise. Recent studies have shown that such flooding will become more frequent and extensive as sea level continues to rise, potentially altering the landscape and livability of coastal communities decades before sea level rise causes coastal land to be permanently inundated. In this study, we identify US communities that will face effective inundation—defined as having 10% or more of livable land area flooded at least 26 times per year—with three localized sea level rise scenarios based on projections for the 3rd US National Climate Assessment. We present these results in a new, online interactive tool that allows users to explore when and how effective inundation will impact their communities. In addition, we identify communities facing effective inundation within the next 30 years that contain areas of high socioeconomic vulnerability today using a previously published vulnerability index. With the Intermediate-High and Highest sea level rise scenarios, 489 and 668 communities, respectively, would face effective inundation by the year 2100. With these two scenarios, more than half of communities facing effective inundation by 2045 contain areas of current high socioeconomic vulnerability. These results highlight the timeframes that US coastal communities have to respond to disruptive future inundation. The results also underscore the importance of limiting future warming and sea level rise: under the Intermediate-Low scenario, used as a proxy for sea level rise under the Paris Climate Agreement, 199 fewer communities would be effectively inundated by 2100.

  5. [Knowledge level and professional attitudes to the Living Will: Differences between different professionals and provinces in the same autonomous community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo Contreras, M C; Valverde Bolívar, F J; Jiménez Rodríguez, J M; Gómez Calero, A; Huertas Hernández, F

    2015-04-01

    Primary: To determine the differences, by occupational category and province, in the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals on the Living Wills Document (LWD) in 4 Andalusian provinces: Cordoba, Jaen, Cadiz, and Granada. Secondary: To determine the number of documents prepared in these areas and the number consulted in terminal situations. Descriptive observational multicenter study, with 17 health areas in 4 Andalusian provinces. Family doctors, nurses and social workers of the areas studied (n=340). Interventions Validated self-administered questionnaire about advance directives. Descriptive and bivariate (×2) analysis of data was performed. Mean age 46±8.8 years, 53.2% women. Physicians 56.1%, nurses 41.1%, social workers 2.6%. The mean score (0-10) of their knowledge was 5.42±2.41, with 78.4% believing that LWD are regulated in Andalusia (provinces differences, P=.001). More than one-third (36.7%) had read the document (differences by occupation, P=.001). The mean score on the advantage of preparing a LWD for the patient was 8.27±2.16 (significant differences between provinces P=.02). Mean score about the practitioner would respect the wishes of a patient in a LWD was 9.14±1.64 (significant difference between provinces P=.03). The mean score of the question about expressing the desires of the professional on preparing their LWD in the following year was 4.85±3.74 (P=.02). There are different behaviors between professions on reading the LWD. There are differences between provinces in the following aspects: whether the documents are regulated, whether the professionals prepare the LWD, and whether the professionals respects the provisions of the LWD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Levels and Functions of HIV/AIDS Stigma within the Iranian Community Living in the Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia; Niknami, Shamsaddin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related stigma among the Iranian population and the factors that contribute to the formation of stigma within the study population. Design: A quantitative research design was used in this research whereby participants completed…

  7. Job satisfaction levels of physician assistant faculty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Evelyn C; Leafman, Joan S; Wallace, Lisa; Stewart, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Understanding job satisfaction in academia is important in order to recruit and retain faculty. Faculty members with greater job dissatisfaction are more likely to leave than faculty members who are satisfied. Physician assistant (PA) faculty job satisfaction needs to be assessed to determine which job facets are satisfying or dissatisfying. A quantitative descriptive study was done using a Web-based survey sent to PA faculty. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), a validated survey, was used to measure levels of job satisfaction. The means for each facet were calculated to indicate levels of satisfaction with the job overall, work, supervision, co-workers, pay, promotion, levels of stress, and trustworthiness in management. Correlations were run among demographic factors, salary, and overall job satisfaction. Of the 1,241 PA faculty that received the survey, 239 responses (19.3% response rate) met the criteria for study inclusion. The highest level of satisfaction was with one's co-workers (mean 46.83, range 0 to 54). The promotion facet received the lowest mean level of satisfaction with a 22.2 (range 0 to 54). A small correlation was found between job satisfaction and academic rank (r = -.153, P = .020). Job satisfaction is linked to increased productivity and performance. It is important to understand job satisfaction to make improvements in the appropriate areas. Overall, the results indicate that PA faculty are satisfied with their jobs. Further research is needed to understand the factors that contribute to satisfaction among PA faculty.

  8. Associations of patient safety outcomes with models of nursing care organization at unit level in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Carl-Ardy; D'amour, Danielle; Tchouaket, Eric; Clarke, Sean; Rivard, Michèle; Blais, Régis

    2013-04-01

    To examine the associations of four distinct nursing care organizational models with patient safety outcomes. Cross-sectional correlational study. Using a standardized protocol, patients' records were screened retrospectively to detect occurrences of patient safety-related events. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations of those events with four nursing care organizational models. Twenty-two medical units in 11 hospitals in Quebec, Canada, were clustered into 4 nursing care organizational models: 2 professional models and 2 functional models. Two thousand six hundred and ninety-nine were patients hospitalized for at least 48 h on the selected units. Composite of six safety-related events widely-considered sensitive to nursing care: medication administration errors, falls, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, unjustified restraints and pressure ulcers. Events were ultimately sorted into two categories: events 'without major' consequences for patients and events 'with' consequences. After controlling for patient characteristics, patient risk of experiencing one or more events (of any severity) and of experiencing an event with consequences was significantly lower, by factors of 25-52%, in both professional models than in the functional models. Event rates for both functional models were statistically indistinguishable from each other. Data suggest that nursing care organizational models characterized by contrasting staffing, work environment and innovation characteristics may be associated with differential risk for hospitalized patients. The two professional models, which draw mainly on registered nurses (RNs) to deliver nursing services and reflect stronger support for nurses' professional practice, were associated with lower risks than are the two functional models.

  9. Individual- and community-level determinants of social acceptance of people living with HIV in Kenya: results from a national population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Sambisa, William

    2009-09-01

    Using the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, we investigated the influence of individual- and community-level factors on accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLHIV) using three outcomes: (1) willingness to care for an infected household member, (2) willingness to buy vegetables from an infected vendor, and (3) willingness to allow an infected female teacher to continue teaching. In multilevel logistic regression models, we found that individuals who expressed greater acceptance of PLHIV were more likely to be male, older, more educated, high AIDS knowledge, and exposed to mass media. At the community level, differences in accepting attitudes were associated with community AIDS knowledge, community education, and community AIDS experience, but not for region, or place of residence. The findings suggest the important role of community factors in determining social acceptance of PLHIV. Programmatic strategies aimed at increasing these accepting attitudes should consider both individual- and community-level factors.

  10. Single-cycle immunodeficiency viruses provide strategies for uncoupling in vivo expression levels from viral replicative capacity and for mimicking live-attenuated SIV vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuate, Seraphin; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Haaft, Peter ten; Heeney, Jonathan; Ueberla, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the risks associated with live-attenuated immunodeficiency virus vaccines, single-cycle immunodeficiency viruses (SCIVs) were developed by primer complementation and production of the vaccine in the absence of vif in a vif-independent cell line. After a single intravenous injection of SCIVs into rhesus monkeys, peak viral RNA levels of 10 3 to 10 4 copies/ml plasma were observed, indicating efficient expression of SCIV in the vaccinee. After booster immunizations with SCIVs, SIV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were observed. Although the vaccine doses used in this pilot study could not protect vaccinees from subsequent intravenous challenge with pathogenic SIVmac239, our results demonstrate that the novel SCIV approach allows us to uncouple in vivo expression levels from the viral replicative capacity facilitating the analysis of the relationship between viral expression levels or viral genes and immune responses induced by SIV

  11. 24 CFR 81.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and prospective tenants). 81...—Income level definitions—family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and...-income families, where the unit is owner-occupied or, for rental housing, family size and income...

  12. The frequency and level of sweep in mixed hardwood saw logs in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood sawmills traditionally saw logs in a manner that either orients sawlines parallel to the log central axis (straight sawing) or the log surface (allowing for taper). Sweep is characterized as uniform curvature along the entire length of a log. For logs with sweep, lumber yield losses from straight and taper sawing increase with increasing levels of sweep. Curve...

  13. The Application of VARK Learning Styles in Introductory Level Economics Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah; Stokes, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The issues of developing strategies and approaches to teaching introductory level economics courses at university have been long standing. With the development of economics learning standards in Australia, this is a time to consider teaching and learning approaches to engage students and develop skills in economics. This paper considers that to…

  14. County-level job automation risk and health: Evidence from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pankaj C; Devaraj, Srikant; Hicks, Michael J; Wornell, Emily J

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have observed a positive association between automation risk and employment loss. Based on the job insecurity-health risk hypothesis, greater exposure to automation risk could also be negatively associated with health outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the county-level association between prevalence of workers in jobs exposed to automation risk and general, physical, and mental health outcomes. As a preliminary assessment of the job insecurity-health risk hypothesis (automation risk → job insecurity → poorer health), a structural equation model was used based on individual-level data in the two cross-sectional waves (2012 and 2014) of General Social Survey (GSS). Next, using county-level data from County Health Rankings 2017, American Community Survey (ACS) 2015, and Statistics of US Businesses 2014, Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS) regression models were fitted to predict county-level health outcomes. Using the 2012 and 2014 waves of the GSS, employees in occupational classes at higher risk of automation reported more job insecurity, that, in turn, was associated with poorer health. The 2SLS estimates show that a 10% increase in automation risk at county-level is associated with 2.38, 0.8, and 0.6 percentage point lower general, physical, and mental health, respectively. Evidence suggests that exposure to automation risk may be negatively associated with health outcomes, plausibly through perceptions of poorer job security. More research is needed on interventions aimed at mitigating negative influence of automation risk on health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program to Sustain a Culture of Inquiry for Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge-Sproat, Sara T; Throop, Meryia D; Raju, Dheeraj; Murphy, Deborah A; Loan, Lori A; Patrician, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of a dynamic educational and mentoring program, facilitated by unit-level mentors, to introduce, promote, and sustain an evidence-based practice (EBP) culture among nurses in a military healthcare setting. The need to identify gaps in practice, apply principles of EBP, and advance scientific applications in the pursuit of quality nursing care is as important to military healthcare as it is in the civilian sector. The Advancing Research through Close Collaboration Model guided the intervention and study. Three instruments were used: the Organizational Readiness for System-wide Integration of Evidence-Based Practice, EBP Beliefs, and EBP Implementation scales. The study took place in 3 military hospitals simultaneously undergoing facility and staff integration. Data were collected from staff nurses in the inpatient nursing units before and after a facilitated education and mentoring intervention. Three hundred sixty nurses (38%) completed baseline, and 325 (31%) completed follow-up surveys. Scores improved on all 3 measures following implementation of the program; however, the differences were statistically significant only for the Organizational Readiness for System-wide Integration of Evidence-Based Practice scale (70.96 vs 77.63, t = -3.95, P culture may diffuse among individuals in an organization, even while experiencing significant change. It also demonstrates that a unit-level mentored EBP program is sustainable despite changes in organizational structure and workforce composition.

  16. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics.

  17. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics. PMID:27222741

  18. Trends Analysis of rhBMP Utilization in Single-Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Lifeng; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Buser, Zorica; Brodke, Darrel S; Youssef, Jim A; Park, Jong-Beom; Yoon, S Tim; Wang, Jeffrey C; Meisel, Hans-Joerg

    2017-10-01

    Retrospective study. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been widely used in spinal fusion surgery, but there is little information on rhBMP-2 utilization in single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the trends and demographics of rhBMP-2 utilization in single-level PLIF. Patients who underwent single-level PLIF from 2005 to 2011 were identified by searching ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes in the PearlDiver Patient Records Database, a national database of orthopedic insurance records. The year of procedure, age, gender, and region of the United States were recorded for each patient. Results were reported for each variable as the incidence of procedures identified per 100 000 patients searched in the database. A total of 2735 patients had single-level PLIF. The average rate of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 maintained at a relatively stable level (28% to 31%) from 2005 to 2009, but decreased in 2010 (9.9%) and 2011 (11.8%). The overall incidence of single-level PLIF without rhBMP-2 (0.68 cases per 100 000 patients) was statistically higher ( P level PLIF with rhBMP-2 (0.21 cases per 100 000 patients). The average rate of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 utilization was the highest in West (30.1%), followed by Midwest (26.9%), South (20.5%), and Northeast (17.8%). The highest incidence of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 was observed in the age group level PLIF. There was a 3-fold increase in the rate of PLIF without rhBMP-2 compared to PLIF with rhBMP-2, with both procedures being mainly done in patients less than 65 years of age.

  19. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW [low-level radioactive waste] disposal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.O.

    1990-12-01

    Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers a barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g. clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry to waste and without institutional care. These various concepts are being assessed in six large (70ft x 45ft x 10ft each) lysimeters at Beltsville, Maryland. 6 refs., 20 figs.,

  20. Grasslands and Croplands Have Different Microbial Biomass Carbon Levels per Unit of Soil Organic Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P. McGonigle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primarily using cropped systems, previous studies have reported a positive linear relationship between microbial biomass carbon (MBC and soil organic carbon (SOC. We conducted a meta-analysis to explore this relationship separately for grasslands and croplands using available literature. Studies were limited to those using fumigation–extraction for MBC for field samples. Trials were noted separately where records were distinct in space or time. Grasslands were naturally occurring, restored, or seeded. Cropping systems were typical of the temperate zone. MBC had a positive linear response to increasing SOC that was significant in both grasslands (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76 and croplands (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.48. However, MBC increased 2.5-fold more steeply per unit of increasing SOC for grassland soils, as compared to the corresponding response in cropland soils. Expressing MBC as a proportion of SOC across the regression overall, slopes corresponded to 2.7% for grasslands and 1.1% for croplands. The slope of the linear relationship for grasslands was significantly (p = 0.0013 steeper than for croplands. The difference between the two systems is possibly caused by a greater proportion of SOC in grasslands being active rather than passive, relative to that in croplands, with that active fraction promoting the formation of MBC.

  1. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. This paper, presents example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. This approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. Presents the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO 2 , SO 2 , and O 3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. It is concluded that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. Pollutant data depicted in this analysis are limited to locationally specific data, and would be enhanced by utilizing spatial statistics, along with converging associated anthropogenic and climatological factors. Values used for critical levels were derived from current scientific knowledge. While not intended to be a definitive value, adjustments will occur as the scientific community gains new insight to pollutant/receptor relationships. We recommend future analysis to include a refinement of sensitive receptor data coverages and to report relative proportions of exceedances at varying grid scales. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. An Analysis of Purchasing Systems at the Ship Level in the United States and Hellenic Navies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    HNGS Hellenic Navy General Staff i-ENCON Incentivize Energy Conservation ISM Institute of Supply Management JIT just in time NAVICP Naval...level managers can effectively measure the results. Result controls can be an effective and inexpensive tool in increasing motivation and performance...if not well planned, however, they can lead to undesired behaviors. Moreover, result measures may not work successful with all types of employees

  3. A survey of nurse staffing levels in interventional radiology units throughout the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, A.; Robertson, I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To supplement previous surveys analysing provision of interventional radiology (IR), in-hours (IH) and out-of-hours (OOH), by specifically surveying the level of nursing support provided. Materials and methods: A web-based questionnaire was distributed to all British Society of Interventional Radiology (BSIR) members. This addressed several aspects of radiology nursing support for IR procedures, both IH and OOH. Results: Sixty percent of respondents indicated that they have a formal OOH service. Of these, all have a dedicated nursing rota, with the vast majority operating with one nurse. IH, 77% of respondents always have a scrubbed nurse assistant, but this reduces to 40% OOH. IH, 4% never have a scrubbed radiology nurse assistant, which rises to 25% OOH. IH, 75% of respondents always have a radiology nurse dedicated to patient monitoring, but this reduces to 20% OOH. IH, 3% never have a radiology nurse dedicated to patient monitoring, which rises to 42% OOH. Conclusion: A significant disparity exists in the level of IR nursing support between IH and OOH. The majority of sites provide a single nurse with ad hoc additional support. This is potentially putting patients at increased risk. Radiology nurses are integral to the safe and sustainable provision of IR OOH services and a greater focus is required to ensure adequate and safe staffing levels for 24/7 IR services. - Highlights: • A significant disparity exists between the level of nursing support provided in-hours and OOH. • This applies to both the availability of a nurse to scrub and to monitor the patient. • Having a dedicated 24/7 nursing rota is mandatory to providing a deliverable OOH service.

  4. Overview of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1994-01-01

    Disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is a critical part of the national infrastructure needed to maintain the health of American businesses, universities, and hospitals. Currently only 19 States (located in the Northwest and Southeast) have access to operating disposal facilities; all other States are storing their LLW until they open new disposal facilities on their own or in concert with other States through regional compact agreements. In response to recommendations from the National Governors Association, Congress assigned the burden for LLW disposal to all States, first in 1980 through Public Law 96-573, the open-quotes Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Actclose quotes, and again in 1986 through Public Law 99-240, the open-quotes Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985close quotes. As directed by Congress, the Department of Energy provides technical assistance to States and compact regions with this task. After almost 14 years, nine compact regions have been ratified by Congress; California, Texas, North Carolina, and Nebraska have submitted license applications; California has issued an operating license; and the number of operating disposal facilities has decreased from three to two

  5. Late spring ultraviolet levels over the United Kingdom and the link to ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Austin

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Erythemally-weighted ultraviolet (UVery levels measured over southern England, during anticyclonic weather between 30 April and 2 May, 1997, were almost 50 higher than normally expected for clear skies and were similar to mid-summer values for the first time since measurements began in 1990. Investigation of this episode suggests that a combination of both meteorological and chemical effects were responsible for generating record low ozone amounts for the time of year. Further, comparisons between the A band ultraviolet (315 to 400 nm wavelength amounts, and radiative calculations confirm that the high UVery was primarily due to the reduction in total ozone. These results are contrasted with a similar period for 1998, in which near climatological ozone amounts were measured. The prospects for enhanced UVery levels in future years are briefly reviewed in the light of expected increases in stratospheric halogen levels and greenhouse gases.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere · composition and chemistry · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; radiative processes

  6. The siting dilemma: Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act ushered in a new era in low-level waste disposal; one with vastly increased state responsibilities. By a 1985 amendment, states were given until January 1993 to fulfill their mandate. In this dissertation, their progress is reviewed. The focus then turns to one particularly intractable problem: that of finding technically and socially acceptable sites for new disposal facilities. Many lament the difficulty of siting facilities that are intended to benefit the public at large but are often locally unwanted. Many label local opposition as purely self-interested; as simply a function of the NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) syndrome. Here, it is argued that epithets such as NIMBY are unhelpful. Instead, to lay the groundwork for widely acceptable solutions to siting conflicts, deeper understanding is needed of differing values on issues concerning authority, trust, risk, and justice. This dissertation provides a theoretical and practical analysis of those issues as they pertain to siting low-level waste disposal facilities and, by extension, other locally unwanted facilities

  7. Late spring ultraviolet levels over the United Kingdom and the link to ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Austin

    Full Text Available Erythemally-weighted ultraviolet (UVery levels measured over southern England, during anticyclonic weather between 30 April and 2 May, 1997, were almost 50 higher than normally expected for clear skies and were similar to mid-summer values for the first time since measurements began in 1990. Investigation of this episode suggests that a combination of both meteorological and chemical effects were responsible for generating record low ozone amounts for the time of year. Further, comparisons between the A band ultraviolet (315 to 400 nm wavelength amounts, and radiative calculations confirm that the high UVery was primarily due to the reduction in total ozone. These results are contrasted with a similar period for 1998, in which near climatological ozone amounts were measured. The prospects for enhanced UVery levels in future years are briefly reviewed in the light of expected increases in stratospheric halogen levels and greenhouse gases.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere · composition and chemistry · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; radiative processes

  8. A descriptive study of noise in the neonatal intensive care unit: ambient levels and perceptions of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Ashley E; Hancock, Lauren E; Ware, Emily J

    2008-10-01

    To examine the baseline acoustic environment in several mid-Atlantic region neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and investigate the perceived factors contributing to noise levels in these NICUs. Quantitative data were collected from 3 urban, mid-Atlantic level IIIB and level IIIC NICUs. Qualitative data were collected via interview from 2 RNs employed in each of the study NICUs. This was an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a mixed-methods approach. A quantitative method was used for sound-level data collection, and a qualitative method was utilized during interviews with nurses to examine perceptions of factors contributing to noise. Ambient sound levels, measured in decibels, were taken at 5-minute intervals over a 2-hour period during both day and night shifts in a central location at each NICU. In addition, nurses were interviewed using a standardized interview questionnaire, and these interviews were then reviewed to determine themes regarding perceived factors contributing to sound levels. Hourly mean sound levels in each NICU ranged from 53.9 dB to 60.6 dB, with no statistically significant difference between noise levels recorded on day shift versus night shift, and no statistically significant difference among sites. Qualitative data showed that nurses' believed day shift to be louder than night shift and many perceived their own NICU as "pretty quiet." Key contributing factors to increased sound levels were stated as monitors or alarms, performing invasive procedures, presence of family, nurses or doctors giving report or rounds, and ringing phones. Noise levels were found to be above the American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended 45-dB level and often louder than the 50-dB level, which should not be exceeded more than 10% of the time. The recommended impulse maximum of 65 dB was also exceeded. Environmental Protection Agency recommendations for hospitals include sound levels no louder than 35 dB on night shift; this standard was also violated

  9. A descriptive study of noise in the neonatal intensive care unit. Ambient levels and perceptions of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Ashley E; Hancock, Lauren E; Ware, Emily J

    2008-06-01

    To examine the baseline acoustic environment in several mid-Atlantic region neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and investigate the perceived factors contributing to noise levels in these NICUs. Quantitative data were collected from 3 urban, mid-Atlantic level IIIB and level IIIC NICUs. Qualitative data were collected via interview from 2 RNs employed in each of the study NICUs. This was an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a mixed-methods approach. A quantitative method was used for sound-level data collection, and a qualitative method was utilized during interviews with nurses to examine perceptions of factors contributing to noise. Ambient sound levels, measured in decibels, were taken at 5-minute intervals over a 2-hour period during both day and night shifts in a central location at each NICU. In addition, nurses were interviewed using a standardized interview questionnaire, and these interviews were then reviewed to determine themes regarding perceived factors contributing to sound levels. Hourly mean sound levels in each NICU ranged from 53.9 dB to 60.6 dB, with no statistically significant difference between noise levels recorded on day shift versus night shift, and no statistically significant difference among sites. Qualitative data showed that nurses' believed day shift to be louder than night shift and many perceived their own NICU as "pretty quiet." Key contributing factors to increased sound levels were stated as monitors or alarms, performing invasive procedures, presence of family, nurses or doctors giving report or rounds, and ringing phones. Noise levels were found to be above the American Academy of Pediatrics--recommended 45-dB level and often louder than the 50-dB level, which should not be exceeded more than 10% of the time. The recommended impulse maximum of 65 dB was also exceeded. Environmental Protection Agency recommendations for hospitals include sound levels no louder than 35 dB on night shift; this standard was also violated

  10. Multi­-Threaded Algorithms for General purpose Graphics Processor Units in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Conde Mui\\~no, Patricia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    General purpose Graphics Processor Units (GPGPU) are being evaluated for possible future inclusion in an upgraded ATLAS High Level Trigger farm. We have developed a demonstrator including GPGPU implementations of Inner Detector and Muon tracking and Calorimeter clustering within the ATLAS software framework. ATLAS is a general purpose particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system consists of two levels, with level 1 implemented in hardware and the High Level Trigger implemented in software running on a farm of commodity CPU. The High Level Trigger reduces the trigger rate from the 100 kHz level 1 acceptance rate to 1 kHz for recording, requiring an average per­-event processing time of ~250 ms for this task. The selection in the high level trigger is based on reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the Calorimeter. Performing this reconstruction within the available farm resources presents a significant ...

  11. Changes in the levels of radioactive fall-out and the resulting radiation doses to man in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutit, J.F.; Marley, W.G.; Mayneord, W.V.; Russell, R.S.

    1960-01-01

    In the period covered by the Council's 1956 report, that is, up to the spring of 1956, the radioactive debris falling in the United Kingdom had arisen from a large number of small nuclear explosions, chiefly in Nevada, and from a few large nuclear explosions mainly in the Pacific, especially in March, 1954. It was recognized that the doses of radiation to persons from the deposition of debris arising from the smaller nuclear explosions would be far outweighed by those from the larger explosions. The material reaching the U.K. from the latter at that time was found to have an apparent age (determined from the ratio of strontium 89 to strontium 90 which ranged from 7 to 14 months. In these circumstances the dose contributed by the isotopes of relatively short life (say, two months or less) was much less important than the dose from the long-lived isotopes such as caesium 137 and strontium 90. From the autumn of 1956 the pattern of testing changed. A high proportion of the explosions carried out were of megaton size and took place in higher latitudes in the northern hemisphere. As a result the short-lived isotopes became relatively more important and, with the heavy testing of nuclear devices in the Arctic in October, 1958, the contribution of radioactive fall-out to the background dose-rate in air in the open rose in the spring of 1959 so that, for a period of a month or two, it amounted to some 30 per cent of the natural background. This rise in dose-rate can be attributed to two main causes, namely, the increase in the rate of testing and the shorter time during which the fission products from the tests in the autumn in northern latitudes, particularly in the Arctic, have remained airborne

  12. Changes in the levels of radioactive fall-out and the resulting radiation doses to man in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutit, J F; Marley, W G; Mayneord, W V; Russell, R S

    1960-12-01

    In the period covered by the Council's 1956 report, that is, up to the spring of 1956, the radioactive debris falling in the United Kingdom had arisen from a large number of small nuclear explosions, chiefly in Nevada, and from a few large nuclear explosions mainly in the Pacific, especially in March, 1954. It was recognized that the doses of radiation to persons from the deposition of debris arising from the smaller nuclear explosions would be far outweighed by those from the larger explosions. The material reaching the U.K. from the latter at that time was found to have an apparent age (determined from the ratio of strontium 89 to strontium 90 which ranged from 7 to 14 months. In these circumstances the dose contributed by the isotopes of relatively short life (say, two months or less) was much less important than the dose from the long-lived isotopes such as caesium 137 and strontium 90. From the autumn of 1956 the pattern of testing changed. A high proportion of the explosions carried out were of megaton size and took place in higher latitudes in the northern hemisphere. As a result the short-lived isotopes became relatively more important and, with the heavy testing of nuclear devices in the Arctic in October, 1958, the contribution of radioactive fall-out to the background dose-rate in air in the open rose in the spring of 1959 so that, for a period of a month or two, it amounted to some 30 per cent of the natural background. This rise in dose-rate can be attributed to two main causes, namely, the increase in the rate of testing and the shorter time during which the fission products from the tests in the autumn in northern latitudes, particularly in the Arctic, have remained airborne.

  13. Indoor radon concentration levels in Mexican caves, using nuclear track methodology, and the relationship with living habits of the bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Vega-Orihuela, E.; Morales-Malacara, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the results of a study of the radon levels in four caves in Mexico: Los Riscos Cave and El Judio Cave in the State of Queretaro, and Coyozochico Cave and Karmidas Cave in the State of Puebla. The measurements were made using the passive closed-end cup system, with CR-39 (Lantrack R ) as detection material, and following protocols established for the measurement of indoor radon, developed at the Dosimetry Applications Project of the Physics Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The radon concentration at one location with Karmidas Cave reached more than 60,000 Bq/m 3 , while concentrations in the other three caves varied from 83.1-1216.0 Bq/m 3 , was found. During the study was observed an interesting coincidence between the radon concentration distribution inside the caves, and the bat colonies location. In general, the bat colonies are located at the medium or low radon concentration levels zones. (author)

  14. Avian metapneumovirus SH gene end and G protein mutations influence the level of protection of live-vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Clive J; Ling, Roger; Edworthy, Nicole; Savage, Carol E; Easton, Andrew J

    2007-06-01

    A prototype avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccine (P20) was previously shown to give variable outcomes in experimental trials. Following plaque purification, three of 12 viruses obtained from P20 failed to induce protection against virulent challenge, whilst the remainder retained their protective capacity. The genome sequences of two protective viruses were identical to the P20 consensus, whereas two non-protective viruses differed only in the SH gene transcription termination signal. Northern blotting showed that the alterations in the SH gene-end region of the non-protective viruses led to enhanced levels of dicistronic mRNA produced by transcriptional readthrough. A synthetic minigenome was used to demonstrate that the altered SH gene-end region reduced the level of protein expression from a downstream gene. The genomes of the remaining eight plaque-purified viruses were sequenced in the region where the P20 consensus sequence differed from the virulent progenitor. The seven protective clones were identical, whereas the non-protective virus retained the virulent progenitor sequence at two positions and contained extensive alterations in its attachment (G) protein sequence associated with a reduced or altered expression pattern of G protein on Western blots. The data indicate that the efficacy of a putative protective vaccine strain is affected by mutations altering the balance of G protein expression.

  15. Measurements of quadrupole interaction frequencies of long-lived isomers with the level mixing spectroscopy (LEMS) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyens, G.; Nouwen, R.; S'heeren, G.; Bergh, M. van den; Coussement, R.

    1993-01-01

    The level mixing spectroscopy (LEMS) method has proven to be a very useful method to determine the quadrupole interaction frequency of an isomer in a solid host. Especially in the 'difficult' cases, e.g. when the isomeric lifetime is very long or its spin is very high, the method yields valuable information which is not accessible with other methods (such as TDPAD). Since the development of the method some years ago, many experiments have been performed on high spin isomers in the lead region. The static quadrupole moment of isomers with lifetimes ranging from 20 ns up to 13 ms and spins up to 65/2h have been determined in neutron deficient isotopes of Bi, At, Fr and Ra. (orig.)

  16. Water Consumption as Source of Arsenic, Chromium, and Mercury in Children Living in Rural Yucatan, Mexico: Blood and Urine Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Fargher, L F; Oceguera-Vargas, I; Noreña-Barroso, E; Yánez-Estrada, L; Alvarado, J; González, L; Moo-Puc, R; Pérez-Herrera, N; Quesadas-Rojas, M; Pérez-Medina, S

    2017-10-01

    Studies investigating the correlation between metal content in water and metal levels in children are scarce worldwide, but especially in developing nations. Therefore, this study investigates the correlation between arsenic, chromium, and mercury concentrations in drinking and cooking water and in blood and urine samples collected from healthy and supposedly non-exposed children from a rural area in Yucatan, Mexico. Mercury in water shows concentrations above the recommended World Health Organization (WHO) value for drinking and cooking water. Also, 25% of the children show mercury in urine above the WHO recommended value. Multivariate analyses show a significant role for drinking and cooking water as a vector of exposure in children. Also, the factor analysis shows chronic exposure in the case of arsenic, as well as an ongoing detoxification process through urine in the case of mercury. Further studies should be done in order to determine other potential metal exposure pathways among children.

  17. Cernavoda NPP Unit 1: Operating experience program and plant specific performance indicators (level 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodor, Vasile; Popa, Viorel

    1998-01-01

    The basis for the Operating Experience Program was set in place since early stages of the commissioning phase (1993), when a system based on the Canadian approach was implemented for reporting, reviewing, assessing and establishing of the necessary corrective action for unplanned events. This system provided excellent opportunity to train staff in unplanned event assessment methodology, and prepare the station for the formal reporting process following criticality in accordance with the licensing requirements. The formal process, set in place after criticality is described in Station Instruction Procedure SI-01365-P13 'Unplanned Event Report' and was developed under the supervision of Safety and Compliance Department. In parallel, a program for information exchange and trending of performance indicators was developed by Technical Services Department. The WANO recommendations following August 1997 Peer Review provided the opportunity for a better understanding and reconsideration of the Operating Experience Program. As a result, all the activities related to this topic were assigned to a new structure, within Safety and Compliance Department. As such an Operating Experience Group was created and a new program is now being developed in an integrated and centralized manner. The content of the paper is the following: - Overview; - Operating Experience Program; - Event Analysis (Unplanned Events Assessment System - UEIR Process- and Systematic Analysis of Operational Events - ACR Process); - Information Exchange Program; - Monitoring of Operating Experience - Plant Specific Performance Indicators; - Purpose; - Level 2 Performance Indicators. Four appendices are added containing: - A. Station performance indicators/targets (Level 2); - B. SPI (Station Performance Indicators - Level 2) - Graphics; - C. UEIR, LRS (Safety and Licensing Review Sheet), UEFR (Unplanned Event Follow-up Report), ACR and OPEX forms. (authors)

  18. Intrinsic component of resilience among entry level medical students in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehzabin Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundResilience is the capacity to recover and to cope successfullywith everyday challenges. Resilience has intrinsic andextrinsic components and an effort has been made to studythe intrinsic component and its association with sociodemographicfactors, among the entry level students of theIntegrated Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery(MBBS course.MethodThe present study was conducted in Gulf MedicalUniversity, using a self-administered questionnaire,comprising of two parts, distributed to all the students whoconsented to participate. The first part contained questionson socio-demographic details while the second partcontained questions on the intrinsic and extrinsiccomponents of resilience of the students. The datacollected was analysed using Predictive Analytic Software(PASW 18.0 using frequency, mean, SD and median.ResultsAmong the 58 students who participated 24 (41.4% weremales and 34 (58.6% females, of which 70.7% were 20years. The mean score for the intrinsiccomponent of resilience was 48.9 (SD, 5 and range 35–60.The median scores showed no significant variation (p<0.05with age, gender, religion, nationality, family structure,highest education among parents, the person they sharetheir feelings with or the number of friends. However,minimally higher scores were noted in the median scores ofstudents from nuclear families, with Western nationalityand those whose parents had a university level education,who shared their feelings with people of their owngeneration or outside their family and who have 5–9friends.ConclusionThe intrinsic component of resilience was found to bealmost uniform for the study group and the level is high. Astudy has to further look into its effect on coping with thestresses encountered during the academic year.

  19. Spatio-temporal manipulation of small GTPase activity at subcellular level and on timescale of seconds in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, Robert; Pohlmeyer, Christopher; Umeda, Nobuhiro; Ueno, Tasuku; Nagano, Tetsuo; Kuo, Scot; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-03-09

    Dynamic regulation of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with great spatiotemporal precision is essential for various cellular functions and events(1, 2). Their spatiotemporally dynamic nature has been revealed by visualization of their activity and localization in real time(3). In order to gain deeper understanding of their roles in diverse cellular functions at the molecular level, the next step should be perturbation of protein activities at a precise subcellular location and timing. To achieve this goal, we have developed a method for light-induced, spatio-temporally controlled activation of small GTPases by combining two techniques: (1) rapamycin-induced FKBP-FRB heterodimerization and (2) a photo-caging method of rapamycin. With the use of rapamycin-mediated FKBP-FRB heterodimerization, we have developed a method for rapidly inducible activation or inactivation of small GTPases including Rac(4), Cdc42(4), RhoA(4) and Ras(5), in which rapamycin induces translocation of FKBP-fused GTPases, or their activators, to the plasma membrane where FRB is anchored. For coupling with this heterodimerization system, we have also developed a photo-caging system of rapamycin analogs. A photo-caged compound is a small molecule whose activity is suppressed with a photocleavable protecting group known as a caging group. To suppress heterodimerization activity completely, we designed a caged rapamycin that is tethered to a macromolecule such that the resulting large complex cannot cross the plasma membrane, leading to virtually no background activity as a chemical dimerizer inside cells(6). Figure 1 illustrates a scheme of our system. With the combination of these two systems, we locally recruited a Rac activator to the plasma membrane on a timescale of seconds and achieved light-induced Rac activation at the subcellular level(6).

  20. Economics of defense high-level waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; McDonell, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense high-level wastes (DHLW) from U.S. defense activities using environmentally safe and cost-effective methods. In parallel with its technical programs, the DOE is performing economic studies to ensure that costs are minimized. To illustrate the cost estimating techniques and to provide a sense of cost magnitude, the DHLW costs for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are calculated. Since operations at SRP must be optimized within relatively fixed management practices, the estimation of incremental costs is emphasized. Treatment and disposal costs are shown to equally contribute to the incremental cost of almost $400,000/canister

  1. Geohydrologic problems at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.N.; Robertson, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Several commercial and US Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in the USA have not adequately contained the waste products. Studies of these sites indicate a number of causes for the problems, including water accumulation in filled trenches, breaches of trench cap integrity, erosion, high water table, hydrogeological complexity, flooding, complex leachate chemistry, and rapid radionuclide migration in groundwater. These problems can be avoided through the application of practical, comprehensive, and common sense earth-science guidelines discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Elevated levels of interleukin 17A and kynurenine in candidemic patients, compared with levels in noncandidemic patients in the intensive care unit and those in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Robert; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Salzer, Helmut J F; Valentin, Thomas; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prüller, Florian; Raggam, Reinhard; Meinitzer, Andreas; Prattes, Jürgen; Rinner, Beate; Strohmaier, Heimo; Quehenberger, Franz; Strunk, Dirk; Heidrich, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Hoenigl, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The interplay between Candida species and pattern recognition receptors, interleukins, kynurenine, and T cells has been studied in murine and ex vivo human studies, but data are lacking from patients with invasive fungal infections. Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is considered an important component in host defense against Candida infections and is modulated by Candida-induced impairment of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism. Dectin-1, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4 expression; regulatory T cell (Treg) percentages; and interleukin 6, interleukin 10, IL-17A, interleukin 22, interleukin 23, interferon γ, kynurenine, and tryptophan levels were determined in candidemic patients and compared to levels in noncandidemic patients who are in the intensive care unit (ICU) and receiving antibiotic therapy and those in healthy controls, both with and without Candida colonization. Candidemic patients had significantly higher IL-17A and kynurenine levels, compared with noncandidemic patients, including Candida-colonized ICU patients and healthy controls. Within candidemic patients, time-dependent elevation of IL-17A and kynurenine levels was detected. IL-17A areas under the curve for differentiation between patients with early candidemia and those without candidemia (ICU patients, including Candida-colonized patients, and healthy controls) were between 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], .89-.99) and 0.99 (95% CI, .99-1). Candidemic patients had significantly higher IL-17A and kynurenine levels, compared with noncandidemic patients. The statistically significant association between IL-17A and kynurenine levels and candidemia suggests their potential as biomarkers for anticipation of invasive candidiasis. NCT00786903. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Groundwater flow reference model of the Meuse/Haute-Marne region: implications on performance analysis of high and intermediate level and long lived radwaste repository in clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benabderrahmane, H.; Plas, F.; Yven, B.; Cornaton, F.; Perrochet, P.; Kerrou, J.; Stucki, J.; Caloz, P.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An integrated multi-scale hydrogeological conceptual model of the Paris basin and the Meuse/Haute-Marne sector was developed to study the groundwater flow and solute transport behaviour in the multi-layered aquifer system and around the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation as potential host for the French high and intermediate level and long lived radioactive waste. The Paris basin system (200000 km 2 ) consists of 27 aquiferous and semi-permeable (aquitard) hydrogeological units from Trias to Quaternary affected by 80 regional faults. It produces boundary conditions to the refined aquifer system of the 250 km 2 Meuse/Haute-Marne site, which includes 27 layers from Trias to Portlandian. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation is located at a mean depth of 500 m, with a minimum thickness of 130 m and hydraulic conductivity values of the order of 10-14 m/s. The numerical steady-state flow solution is calculated on a finite element mesh of about 3 million 2-D and 3-D linear elements (GEOS-CHYN 2009). At the top surface, the mesh refinement (250 m to 50 m) is locally constrained by the fault lineaments and the river network. At depth, it takes into account the 10 m to 500 m throw of the faults and the vertical flow through semi-permeable units. Triangular elements are used to represent a top surface layer that includes the weathered part of the outcropping formations, and quadrangular elements allow for the representation of the faults planes at depth. The layers are discretized into 6-nodded wedge elements, while 4-nodded tetrahedrons and 5-nodded pyramids are used to handle the pinching and the outcrop of the layers. The flow boundary conditions and source-sink terms are: - Specified hydraulic heads (Dirichlet) along the rivers and elsewhere on the top surface inflow fluxes (Neumann) derived from hydrological balance (with a mean inflow of 240 mm/year). - Specified hydraulic heads (Dirichlet) at the Manche coast side. - No

  4. Viability study for the implantation of an incineration unit for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Andre Wagner Oliani

    1995-01-01

    Incineration have been a world-wide accepted volume reduction technique for combustible materials due to its high efficiency and excellent results. This technique is used since the last century as an alternative to reduce cities garbage and during the last four decades for the hazardous wastes. The nuclear industry is also involved in this technique development related to the low level radioactive waste management. There are different types of incineration installations and the definition of the right system is based on a criterious survey of its main characteristics, related to the rad wastes as well technical, economical and burocratic parameters. After the autonomous Brazilian nuclear programme development and the onlook of the future intensive nuclear energy uses, a radwaste generation increase is expected. One of the installations where these radwastes volumes are awaited to be high is the Experimental Center of ARAMAR (CEA). Nuclear reactors for propulsion and power generation have been developed in CEA beyond other nuclear combustible cycle activities. In this panorama it is important to evaluate the incineration role in CEA installations, as a volume reduction technique for an appropriate radioactive wastes management implementation. In this work main aspects related to the low level radwaste incineration systems were up rised. This information are important to a coherent viability study and also to give a clear and impartial about a topic that is still non discussed in the national scenery. (author)

  5. Detailed description of a new management system for solid, short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective is to modify and extend the existing system at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) for handling of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW), short lived Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW-SL and ILW-SL). The ultimate aim is to reduce the risks and the influence on the personnel and the environment. According to the request from INPP, the modified system is based on the existence of an incineration plant. This system description describes treatment of non-combustible VLLW, LLW-SL and ILW-SL at a new waste handling facility (WHF) located in the future buildings 159/2 and 159/3 at the INPP. The new WHF is also handling Exempt Waste (EW), Reusable Material (RM) and Free Release Goods (FRG). The buildings 159/2 and 159/3 are future extensions of the existing building 159. (author)

  6. Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Magnesium Level to the Development of Delirium in Patients Under Sedation in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zümrüt Ela Aslan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Delirium is a state not to be neglected which can cause severe consequences that is related to critical illness in intensive care unit with acute cerebral dysfunction. Magnesium (Mg plays an important role in many physiological events affecting the brain. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the incidence of delirium development and its relationship with the serum Mg levels. Material and Method: Patients who admitted to intensive care unit (ICU were divided in to two groups according to their serum Mg levels (0.7 normomagnesemia. Delirium was assessed using Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale and Confusion Assessment Method for ICU. We identified the duration of mechanical ventilation, applied sedation, age, gender, sepsis, shock, malignancy, ICU requirement after operation, admission SOFA score, admission APACHE II score, admission of Mg and mean Mg levels as secondary outcome measures whether they affected delirium incidence. Results: A total of 178 patients were assessed, 72 of them were found delirium positive. The incidence of delirium was found 45% in patients with hypomagnesaemia; this was found 25% in patients with normomagnesaemia. Duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and mortality rate were found higher in patients with delirium than those in individuals without delirium. Conclusion: We retrospectively investigated delirium incidence in critically ill patients and the percentage was found remarkably high. Our findings were parallel with the other studies that, delirium has a negative impact on morbidity and mortality rates.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in foodstuffs collected from three locations from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Patel, Keyur; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Yun, Se Hun; Haffner, Darrah; Harris, T. Robert; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to provide updated measurements of PBDEs in US food, to estimate possible difference in levels from differing geographical regions, and to provide an improved estimate of current dietary intake. Methods: Thirty matched food samples for a total of 90 samples were collected from each of three cities (Los Angeles, California; Dallas, Texas; and Albany, New York) and were analyzed for 13 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, 183, 203, and 209). Dietary intake of PBDEs was estimated by food type, age, and sex. Results: In this pilot study, we did not note a statistically significant difference in total PBDE levels in food collected from the three locations. The median total PBDE levels (estimating non-detected values as half of the detection limit) in meat, dairy, eggs, and fish were 267 pg/g wet weight (ww) (range 102-3156 pg/g ww), 176 pg/g ww (range 41-954 pg/g ww), 637 pg/g ww (range 193-932 pg/g ww), and 243 pg/g ww (range 36-2161 pg/g ww). PBDE intake from food was estimated to range from 2.7 ng/kg/day for children 2 through 5 years of age to 0.8 ng/kg/day for women aged 60 years and older. This compares closely with our previous study where the intake estimate was 2.7 ng/kg/day for children 2 through 5 years of age and 0.9 ng/kg/day for women aged 60 years and older. Conclusion: We did not find a decrease of PBDEs in food since our previous studies which we expected to find due to the declining use of PBDEs in the USA. These findings could be consistent with food contamination from depot sources of PBDEs. A larger, more representative sampling of the US food supply is indicated based on our findings.

  9. Brief draft on surface and subsurface storage of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Spent fuels synthesis file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, C.; Jaecki, P.

    2002-01-01

    This document makes a synthesis of the results of two brief draft studies performed in 2002 about the surface and subsurface storage of spent fuels. These studies stress on the long duration aspect of the disposal: feasibility of a secular disposal facility, potential risks and safety level of such a facility, estimation of the initial investment and of operation and maintenance costs. The main points of the specifications and the input data are presented first, and then the subsurface and surface draft studies are described. Content: specifications (imposed design principles and options, dry corrosion, input data); subsurface storage (description and design options, thermal dimensioning and ventilation, geotechnical stability of the facility, subsurface water management, dry corrosion, infrastructure durability, safety, monitoring, security and physical protection, technical-economical aspects, case of Mox fuel, case of glass packages); surface storage (description and design options, thermal dimensioning and ventilation, mechanical dimensioning of the facility, dry corrosion, infrastructure durability, safety, monitoring, security and physical protection, technical-economical aspects, case of Mox fuel, case of glass packages); conclusions and perspectives. (J.S.)

  10. Multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading among women living with HIV in Kazakhstan: A neglected key population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; Primbetova, Sholpan; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Bilokon, Yelena; Chubukova, Lyubov; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors associated with sex trading among HIV-positive women. A total of 242 HIV-positive women were recruited in five regions in Kazakhstan. These women completed a survey containing items on socio-demographics, HIV stigma, intimate partner violence, and partner risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and sex trading after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Fifty-six (23.1%) women reported trading sex in the past 90 days. Women who reported recent sex trading were more likely than women who did not trade sex in the past 90 days to experience intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-4.73), to have been homeless in the past 90 days (AOR: 4.12; 95% CI: 1.19-14.29), and to know or suspect a male partner had a sexually transmitted infection (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.07-4.53), had sex with another partner (AOR: 4.53; 95% CI: 2.25-9.14), or injected drugs in the past year (AOR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.64-6.65). These findings underscore the need for comprehensive HIV prevention and intervention programs that address the multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading for women infected with HIV.

  11. Status of the United States' high-level nuclear waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is a remarkable piece of legislation in that there is general agreement on its key provisions. Nevertheless, this is a program intended to span more than a century, with some choices by Congress, states, Indian tribes and the nuclear power industry yet to be made. The crafters of the Act clearly recognized this. And further, the crafters recognized ''. . .that. . .state, Indian tribe and public participation in the planning and development of repositories is essential in order to promote public confidence in the safety of disposal of such waste and spent fuel . . . High-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel have become major subjects of public concern, and appropriate precautions must be taken to ensure that such waste and spent fuel do not adversely affect the public health and safety and the environment for this or future generations

  12. The third level trigger and output event unit of the UA1 data-acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; Fucci, A.; Haynes, W.; Martin, B.; Porte, J.P.; Sphicas, P.

    1989-01-01

    The upgraded UA1 experiment utilizes twelve 3081/E emulators for its third-level trigger system. The system is interfaced to VME, and is controlled by 68000 microprocessor VME boards on the input and output. The output controller communicates with an IBM 9375 mainframe via the CERN-IBM developed VICI interface. The events selected by the emulators are output on IBM-3480 cassettes. The usder interface to this system is based on a series of Macintosh personal computers connected to the VME bus. These Macs are also used for developing software for the emulators and for monitoring the entire system. The same configuration has also been used for offline event reconstruction. A description of the system, together with details of both the online and offline modes of operation and an evaluation of its performance are presented. (orig.)

  13. The third level trigger and output event unit of the UA1 data-acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; Fucci, A.; Haynes, W.; Martin, B.; Porte, J. P.; Sphicas, P.

    1989-12-01

    The upgraded UA1 experiment utilizes twelve 3081/E emulators for its third-level trigger system. The system is interfaced to VME, and is controlled by 68000 microprocessor VME boards on the input and output. The output controller communicates with an IBM 9375 mainframe via the CERN-IBM developed VICI interface. The events selected by the emulators are output on IBM-3480 cassettes. The user interface to this system is based on a series of Macintosh personal computer connected to the VME bus. These Macs are also used for developing software for the emulators and for monitoring the entire system. The same configuration has also been used for offline event reconstruction. A description of the system, together with details of both the online and offline modes of operation and an eveluation of its performance are presented.

  14. Design and operational experience of low level radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of at the Drigg near-surface disposal site for over 30 years. These are carried out under a disposal authorization granted by the UK Environment Agency. This is augmented by a three tier comprehensive system of waste controls developed by BNFL involving wasteform specification, consignor and waste stream qualification and waste consignment verification. Until 1988 wastes were disposed of into trench facilities. However, based on a series of integrated optioneering studies, new arrangements have since been brought into operation. Central to these is a wasteform specification based principally on high force compaction of wastes, grouting within 20 m 3 steel overpack containers to essentially eliminate associated voidage and subsequent disposal in concrete lined vaults. These arrangements ensure efficient utilisation of the Drigg site capacity and a cost-effective disposal concept which meets both national and international standards. (author). 7 figs

  15. An assessment of dioxin levels in processed ball clay from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [USEPA, Stennis Space Ctr. Mississippi (United States); Schaum, J. [USEPA, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction The presence of dioxin-like compounds in ball clay was discovered in 1996 as a result of an investigation to determine the sources of elevated levels of dioxin found in two chicken fat samples from a national survey of poultry. The investigation indicated that soybean meal added to chicken feed was the source of dioxin contamination. Further investigation showed that the dioxin contamination came from the mixing of a natural clay known as ''ball clay'' with the soybean meal as an anti-caking agent. The FDA subsequently discontinued the use of contaminated ball clay as an anti-caking agent in animal feeds. The source of the dioxins found in ball clay has yet to be established. A comparison of the characteristic dioxin profile found in ball clay to those of known anthropogenic sources from the U.S.EPA Source Inventory has been undertaken, and none of those examined match the features found in the clays. These characteristic features together with the fact that the geologic formations in which the clays are found are ancient suggest a natural origin for the dioxins. The plasticity of ball clays makes them an important commercial resource for a variety of commercial uses. The percentage of commercial uses of ball clay in 2000 included: 29% for floor and wall tile, 24% for sanitary ware, 10% pottery, and 37% for other industrial and commercial uses. The total mining of ball clay in the U.S. for 2003 was 1.12 million metric tons. EPA is examining the potential for the environmental release of dioxins from the processing/use of ball clays and evaluating potential exposure pathways. Part of this overall effort and the subject of this study includes the analysis of dioxin levels found in commercially available ball clays commonly used in ceramic art studios.

  16. A Bi-Level Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving Unit Commitment Problems with Wind-EVs Coordinated Dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Zhang, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the grid faces much more challenges caused by wind power and the accessing of electric vehicles (EVs). Based on the potentiality of coordinated dispatch, a model of wind-EVs coordinated dispatch was developed. Then, A bi-level particle swarm optimization algorithm for solving the model was proposed in this paper. The application of this algorithm to 10-unit test system carried out that coordinated dispatch can benefit the power system from the following aspects: (1) Reducing operating costs; (2) Improving the utilization of wind power; (3) Stabilizing the peak-valley difference.

  17. Fluoride Levels in Urine, Blood Plasma and Serum of People Living in an Endemic Fluorosis Area in the Thar Desert, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, T.; Shirin, K.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, M. H.; Soomro, F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride (F/sup -/) levels in the urine, blood plasma and serum samples of people living in a village in the Thar Desert have been analysed where fluorosis is endemic and groundwater contains fluoride as high as 9.76 mg/L. Average values of fluoride levels in these human specimens i.e. urine, blood plasma and serum have been found to be 12.98 mg/L, 0.61 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than the normal values reported from other parts of the world. It was observed that urinary fluoride levels increase with age of an individual but with an insignificant correlation (r = 0.116), however, fluoride levels in plasma and serum samples did not vary considerably with age in male and female subjects. It has been found that after the age of 50 years the urinary fluoride decreases with its concomitant increase in serum fluoride level. Since groundwater is the only available source of water for human consumption and it contains higher fluoride (av. 7.09 mg/L) than WHO limit (1.5 mg/L), therefore, it is the main cause of fluorosis in the area. (author)

  18. Correlation of drinking water nutritional element levels with body composition of women aged 55-70 years living in Batman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A growing interest in cellular targets of nutritional minerals and biochemical mechanisms has attracted the attentions of researchers towards their role in formation of obesity. However, there is no study investigating the effects of nutritional element levels of drinking water on body composition of the elderly. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of nutritional element levels in drinking water on body composition of women aged 55-70. Methods: The study population consisted of 80 participants in total, and was divided into three groups as overweight, obese and control women aged between 55-70. The bioelectric impedance device was used for measurements of body composition of the participants. Iron (Fe, copper (Cu, cobalt (Co, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn and selenium (Se levels of drinking water were measured via plasma mass spectrometry coupled inductively. Results: It was found that Se mineral content in drinking water correlated with the body mass index of the individuals living in Batman, Turkey. Moreover, it was found that Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Se levels of drinking water significantly correlated with the abdominal adiposity of women of 55-70. Conclusion: It may be suggested that the obesity risk may be higher in women who are between 55-70 and consume drinking water with high levels of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and especially Se.

  19. Generation of a novel live rabies vaccine strain with a high level of safety by introducing attenuating mutations in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Kento; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Mitake, Hiromichi; Okada, Kazuma; Yamaoka, Satoko; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Masatani, Tatsunori; Okadera, Kota; Ito, Naoto; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Makoto

    2017-10-09

    The current live rabies vaccine SAG2 is attenuated by only one mutation (Arg-to-Glu) at position 333 in the glycoprotein (G333). This fact generates a potential risk of the emergence of a pathogenic revertant by a back mutation at this position during viral propagation in the body. To circumvent this risk, it is desirable to generate a live vaccine strain highly and stably attenuated by multiple mutations. However, the information on attenuating mutations other than that at G333 is very limited. We previously reported that amino acids at positions 273 and 394 in the nucleoprotein (N273/394) (Leu and His, respectively) of fixed rabies virus Ni-CE are responsible for the attenuated phenotype by enhancing interferon (IFN)/chemokine gene expressions in infected neural cells. In this study, we found that amino acid substitutions at N273/394 (Phe-to-Leu and Tyr-to-His, respectively) attenuated the pathogenicity of the oral live vaccine ERA, which has a virulent-type Arg at G333. Then we generated ERA-N273/394-G333 attenuated by the combination of the above attenuating mutations at G333 and N273/394, and checked its safety. Similar to the ERA-G333, which is attenuated by only the mutation at G333, ERA-N273/394-G333 did not cause any symptoms in adult mice after intracerebral inoculation, indicating a low level of residual pathogenicity of ERA-N273/394-G333. Further examination revealed that infection with ERA-N273/394-G333 induces IFN-β and CXCL10 mRNA expressions more strongly than ERA-G333 infection in a neuroblastoma cell line. Importantly, we found that the ERA-N273/394-G333 stain has a lower risk for emergence of a pathogenic revertant than does the ERA-G333. These results indicate that ERA-N273/394-G333 has a potential to be a promising candidate for a live rabies vaccine strain with a high level of safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on separation, conversion and transmutation of long-living radionuclides. A contribution to advanced disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The future role and acceptance of nuclear energy will be decisively determined by the safe operation of existing and future facilities and by convincing solutions for nuclear waste management. With respect to the long half-lives of some radionuclides (actinides and fission products) and the related question as to whether the release of radionuclides from a repository can be prevented over very long periods of time, alternatives to the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels are discussed internationally. As a potential complementary solution, the technological option with partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered. This method separates and converts the long-lived radionuclides into stable, short-lived nuclides via neutron reactions in dedicated facilities. Against this background, the first main chapter of the present work looks at the chemical separation of actinides from high-level reprocessing wastes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the processes at the molecular level, basic investigations were also performed on separating actinides(III) via liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extraction. At the same time, reversible processes were developed and tested on the laboratory scale with the aid of mixer-settlers and centrifugal extractors. The subsequent chapter focuses on separating the long-lived fission product iodine-129 from radioactive wastes as well as from process effluents arising from reprocessing. As part of this work, different simple chemical and physical techniques were developed for complete recovery with respect to transmutation or conditioning in host matrices that are sufficiently stable for final storage. Its high mobility and radiological properties make iodine-129 relevant for the long-term safety assessment of final repositories. In addition, transmutation experiments on iodine-127/129 targets were performed using high-energy protons (145-2600 MeV). Due to the expected low cross sections (<100 mb), transmutation with protons

  1. Low-risk alternative waste forms for problematic high-level and long-lived nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Moricca, S.; Day, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The highest cost component the nuclear waste clean up challenge centres on high-level waste (HLW) and consequently the greatest opportunity for cost and schedule savings lies with optimising the approach to HLW cleanup. The waste form is the key component of the immobilisation process. To achieve maximum cost savings and optimum performance the selection of the waste form should be driven by the characteristics of the specific nuclear waste to be immobilised, rather than adopting a single baseline approach. This is particularly true for problematic nuclear wastes that are often not amenable to a single baseline approach. The use of tailored, high-performance, alternative waste forms that include ceramics and glass-ceramics, coupled with mature process technologies offer significant performance improvements and efficiency savings for a nuclear waste cleanup program. It is the waste form that determines how well the waste is locked up (chemical durability), and the number of repository disposal canisters required (waste loading efficiency). The use of alternative waste forms for problematic wastes also lowers the overall risk by providing high performance HLW treatment alternatives. The benefits tailored alternative waste forms bring to the HLW cleanup program will be briefly reviewed with reference to work carried out on the following: The HLW calcines at the Idaho National Laboratory; SYNROC ANSTO has developed a process utilising a glass-ceramic combined with mature hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) technology and has demonstrated this at a waste loading of 80 % and at a 30 kg HIP scale. The use of this technology has recently been estimated to result in a 70 % reduction in waste canisters, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass technology; Actinide-rich waste streams, particularly the work being done by SYNROC ANSTO with Nexia Solutions on the Plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield in the UK, which if implemented is forecast to result in substantial

  2. Vertical land motion controls regional sea level rise patterns on the United States east coast since 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, C. G.; Huybers, P. J.; Hay, C.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Little, C. M.; Ponte, R. M.; Tingley, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding observed spatial variations in centennial relative sea level trends on the United States east coast has important scientific and societal applications. Past studies based on models and proxies variously suggest roles for crustal displacement, ocean dynamics, and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. Here we perform joint Bayesian inference on regional relative sea level, vertical land motion, and absolute sea level fields based on tide gauge records and GPS data. Posterior solutions show that regional vertical land motion explains most (80% median estimate) of the spatial variance in the large-scale relative sea level trend field on the east coast over 1900-2016. The posterior estimate for coastal absolute sea level rise is remarkably spatially uniform compared to previous studies, with a spatial average of 1.4-2.3 mm/yr (95% credible interval). Results corroborate glacial isostatic adjustment models and reveal that meaningful long-period, large-scale vertical velocity signals can be extracted from short GPS records.

  3. Android and gynoid fat percentages and serum lipid levels in United States adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fat distribution is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of android and gynoid fat percentages with lipid profiles to determine whether android and/or gynoid fat percentages are associated with serum lipid levels. A population-based cross-sectional study. Five thousand six hundred and ninety-six adults (20 years and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. The regional body composition in the android and gynoid regions was defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The estimation of lipid risk profiles included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Regardless of gender, android and gynoid body fat percentages were positively and significantly correlated with BMI and waist circumference. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia and BMI, increases in android fat percentage were significantly associated with total cholesterol, TG and HDL cholesterol in males, and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in females. The gynoid fat percentages showed a positive correlation with total cholesterol in males, whereas gynoid fat accumulation in females showed a favourable association with TG and HDL cholesterol. The observed associations differed according to ethnic groups. Our results suggest that regional fat distribution in the android and gynoid regions have different effects on lipid profiles, and that fat in the android region, rather than the gynoid region, may be an important factor in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. State-level medical and absenteeism cost of asthma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmagambetov, Tursynbek; Khavjou, Olga; Murphy, Louise; Orenstein, Diane

    2017-05-01

    For medically treated asthma, we estimated prevalence, medical and absenteeism costs, and projected medical costs from 2015 to 2020 for the entire population and separately for children in the 50 US states and District of Columbia (DC) using the most recently available data. We used multiple data sources, including the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, Kaiser Family Foundation, Medical Statistical Information System, and Current Population Survey. We used a two-part regression model to estimate annual medical costs of asthma and a negative binomial model to estimate annual school and work days missed due to asthma. Per capita medical costs of asthma ranged from $1,860 (Mississippi) to $2,514 (Michigan). Total medical costs of asthma ranged from $60.7 million (Wyoming) to $3.4 billion (California). Medicaid costs ranged from $4.1 million (Wyoming) to $566.8 million (California), Medicare from $5.9 million (DC) to $446.6 million (California), and costs paid by private insurers ranged from $27.2 million (DC) to $1.4 billion (California). Total annual school and work days lost due to asthma ranged from 22.4 thousand (Wyoming) to 1.5 million days (California) and absenteeism costs ranged from $4.4 million (Wyoming) to $345 million (California). Projected increase in medical costs from 2015 to 2020 ranged from 9% (DC) to 34% (Arizona). Medical and absenteeism costs of asthma represent a significant economic burden for states and these costs are expected to rise. Our study results emphasize the urgency for strategies to strengthen state level efforts to prevent and control asthma attacks.

  5. Management of commercial high-level nuclear waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Act), enacted by the 97th Congress in December and signed into law on Jan 7, 1983, by President Reagan, brings a whole new perspective to the nation's nuclear waste management effort. An elaborate set of near-term requirements and actions have to be accomplished within the first 180 days of this Act. As an initial step, Secretary of Energy Donald P. Hodel has established a Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) project office. The director of the NWPA project office, Robert L. Morgan, is responsible for the department's initial activities to implement the Act until the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, established by Section 304 of the Act, is activated. The Act requires major efforts in two primary areas: disposal and storage of spent fuel and high-level waste. Efforts in the former area are to be financed by fees collected from utilities and placed into a Nuclear Waste Fund for disposal services. The Act provides for federal storage of up to 1900 tons of spent fuel for those utilities that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) determines cannot reasonably provide sufficient additional on-site storage. This federal storage is to be financed through utility-user fees that are placed into an Interim Storage Fund. The Act also provides for cooperative research, development, and demonstration activities at utility sites and federal sites. These activities are to be jointly funded by the utilities and the federal government. Lastly, there are generic research and development (RandD) activities in the spent fuel area that are funded from general appropriations. Mandated milestones have been established by the Act in the areas of gologic repository, fund management, monitored retrievable storage, and spent fuel storage

  6. The Effect of One Session Low Level Laser Therapy of Extracted Follicular Units on the Outcome of Hair Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaie, Seyed Mehdi; Berenji Ardestani, Hoda; Azizjalali, Mir Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Photobiostimulation with low level laser (LLL) has been used in medicine for a long time and its effects have been shown in many diseases. Some studies have evaluated the effect of LLL on androgenic alopecia. One of the most important limitations of the use of LLL in the treatment of alopecia is the requirement for multiple sessions, which is hardly accepted by patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the irradiation of extracted follicular hair units by LLL on the outcome of hair transplantation. We enrolled 10 patients with androgenic alopecia and after screening tests for infections and other diseases, we extracted hair follicular units. The hair units were divided in two groups. One group was irradiated by LLL 20 minutes before transplantation (660 nm, 80 Hz, 100 mW) and the other one was used as control. The containing plates were labeled as A and B and sent to the operation room. The surgeon was unaware of the therapy assigned to the plates and transplanted them randomly on the right or left side of the head. One hundred follicular units on each sides of the scalp were transplanted symmetrically. The follicles on both sides were evaluated at 3 and 6 months of transplantation for hair growth rate by another physician, blinded to the treatment assigned to each side. Ten patient with androgenic alopecia and mean (SD) age of 31.5 (6.6) years (range 25-45 years) completed the study. All patients had 100% hair growth at 3 and 6 months follow-up except one who had hair growth of 20% at three months of transplantation, which changed to 100% at sixth months. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding hair growth (P > 0.8). One session of LLL irradiation has no significant effect on the outcome of transplanted hair follicles. Studies with larger sample size are needed to draw a definite conclusion.

  7. Perceptions in the Mind Maps of Turkish Children Living in England at Primary Education Level about their Home Country Turkey and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülnur AYDIN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the perceptions of Turkish children in their mind maps at the primary educational level living in the UK and parental views on these perceptions about the children’s home country Turkey and the world. For this purpose, case study approach in qualitative research is preferred. The study group consists of 36 children aged 8-10 years and 17 parents living in England, Nottingham and selected through a maximum diversity sampling. As a data collection tool, students' personal information form, interviews made with parents and mind maps for children's perception of the world and Turkey were used. Content analysis is applied to analyse the data obtained from the mind maps. The data were coded for the detected themes and presented in tables with frequency values. In the analysis of the data obtained from the parental interviews, typological analysis was used. Opinions about the subject were given directly, without intervention. As a result of the research, while the Turkish children who live in Nothingham have information about the beauties of their home country and its localities, the Turkish flag, food, politics, the coup and terrorist incidents, their parents reported that they told the information about Turkey to their children and they go to Turkey once a year or once in two years. In the children’s mind maps about the world, there is the US President Donald Trump, people with different colours and races, wars, creatures, countries. Parents expressed that they think that it is better to avoid bad information / news sources because the events that happen in the world (war, terror etc. break the psychology of their children. In addition, children's mind maps for world perceptions are more diverse than the mind maps for perception of Turkey, also the children show bilingual characteristics in their mind maps.

  8. Gender and Age Differences in Levels, Types and Locations of Physical Activity among Older Adults Living in Car-Dependent Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Procter-Gray, E; Churchill, L; Crouter, S E; Kane, K; Tian, J; Franklin, P D; Ockene, J K; Gurwitz, J

    2017-01-01

    A thorough understanding of gender differences in physical activity is critical to effective promotion of active living in older adults. To examine gender and age differences in levels, types and locations of physical activity. Cross-sectional observation. Car-dependent urban and rural neighborhoods in Worcester County, Massachusetts, USA. 111 men and 103 women aged 65 years and older. From 2012 to 2014, participants were queried on type, frequency and location of physical activity. Participants wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Compared to women, men had a higher mean daily step count (mean (SD) 4385 (2122) men vs. 3671(1723) women, p=0.008). Men reported higher frequencies of any physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and a lower frequency of physical activity inside the home. Mean daily step counts and frequency of physical activity outside the home decreased progressively with age for both men and women. Women had a sharper decline in frequencies of self-reported physical activity. Men had a significant decrease in utilitarian walking, which women did not (p=0.07). Among participants who reported participation in any physical activity (n=190), more women indicated exercising indoors more often (59% vs. 44%, p=0.04). The three most commonly cited locations for physical activity away from home for both genders were streets or sidewalks, shopping malls, and membership-only facilities (e.g., YMCA or YWCA). The most common types of physical activity, performed at least once in a typical month, with over 40% of both genders reporting, included light housework, brisk walking, leisurely walking, and stretching. Levels, types and location preferences of physical activity differed substantially by gender. Levels of physical activity decreased progressively with age, with greater decline among women. Consideration of these gender differences is necessary to improve the effectiveness of active living promotion programs among older adults.

  9. Knowledge Levels and Attitudes of People Living in the City Centre of Nevşehir on Organ Donation and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Mehmet Akif; Açıkgöz, Mehmet Barış

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the knowledge levels and attitudes of people living in Nevşehir on organ donation (OD) and transplantation. Methods Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to 414 people residing in Nevşehir between February and May 2016. The primary and secondary endpoints of the present study were to determine the attitudes and knowledge levels of participants on OD and transplantation, respectively. Results Four hundred and fourteen people between the ages 20 and 65 years participated. In total, 8.9% of the participants correctly answered the question ‘What is necessary for donating an organ?’ and 31.4% of them correctly answered the question ‘What is brain death?’ Moreover, 53.1% of the participants stated that they wanted to receive reliable information on OD from OD centres. There was a close relationship between high education level and the willingness to donate organs (pdonate organs: 22.9% of them explained that their decision was because of their religious beliefs and 19.6% stated that their families did not allow it. It was observed that people who accepted organs from others were more willing to donate organs to their relatives (p<0.05). Conclusion People living in Nevşehir do not have sufficient knowledge on OD; they had various concerns on the issue and wanted to receive information from OD centres. Exemplification and internalisation methods can be used in educational schedules to increase the OD. PMID:27909606

  10. Feasibility and utility of mapping disease risk at the neighbourhood level within a Canadian public health unit: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigaratne Susitha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted spatial analyses to determine the geographic variation of cancer at the neighbourhood level (dissemination areas or DAs within the area of a single Ontario public health unit, Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph, covering a population of 238,326 inhabitants. Cancer incidence data between 1999 and 2003 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry and were geocoded down to the level of DA using the enhanced Postal Code Conversion File. The 2001 Census of Canada provided information on the size and age-sex structure of the population at the DA level, in addition to information about selected census covariates, such as average neighbourhood income. Results Age standardized incidence ratios for cancer and the prevalence of census covariates were calculated for each of 331 dissemination areas in Wellington-Duf