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Sample records for living stained calcareous

  1. Living (stained calcareous benthic foraminifera from recent sediments off Concepción, central-southern Chile (~36° S Foraminíferos bentónicos calcáreos vivos (teñidos en sedimentos recientes de Concepción, Chile centro-sur (~36° S

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    RAÚL TAPIA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines onshore-offshore and vertical distribution of living (Rose Bengal stained benthic foraminifera (> 180 μm fraction from three sediment stations along a bathymetric transect off Concepción, Chile (station 18 = 88 m water depth, station 26 = 120 m, station 40 = 1,030 m, within and below the oxygen minimum zone. All cores were collected in austral winter. Calcareous foraminifera dominated the three stations. The species composition, living foraminifera density, and vertical distribution patterns within the sediment changed in accordance with bottom water dissolved oxygen concentration and food availability. Onshore-offshore pattern revealed overall highest living foraminiferal densities at shelf stations 18 and 26 where bottom water dissolved oxygen was lowest (~ 0.2 mL-1 and content in labile organic matter highest. Within the sediment, maximum relative abundances (50-60 % of living organisms were found in the 0-1 cm interval at the organic-rich and oxygen-poor shelf stations 18 and 26. In the well-oxygenated (2.7 mL-1 slope station 40, 70 % of living foraminifera were observed deeper than the first centimeter. The number of species and the contribution of the > 250 μm fraction to the total fauna larger than 180 μm increased offshore. Nonionella auris (d'Orbigny dominated at stations 18 and 26 while a more diverse foraminifera fauna was found at station 40. This study provides the first quantitative data on living benthic foraminifera in the area; seasonal and interannual changes are not addressed.Este estudio examina la distribución costa-océano y vertical de los foraminíferos bentónicos calcáreos (fracción > 180 im vivos (teñidos en tres estaciones a lo largo de un transecto batimétrico frente al área de Concepción, Chile (estación 18 = 88 m, estación 26 = 120 m, estación 40 = 1.030 m de profundidad, dentro y bajo la zona mínima de oxígeno. Todos los testigos de sedimento fueron recolectados durante el per

  2. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

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    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  3. Fluorescence staining of the actin cytoskeleton in living cells with 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phallacidin.

    OpenAIRE

    Barak, L S; Yocum, R R; Nothnagel, E A; Webb, W W

    1980-01-01

    An active fluorescent derivative of the actin-binding mushroom toxin phallacidin has been synthesized. Convenient methods were developed to stain actin cytoskeletal structures in living and fixed cultured animal cells and actively streaming algal cells. Actin binding specificity was demonstrated by competitive binding experiments and comparative staining of well-known structures. Large populations of living animal cells in culture were readily stained by using a relatively mild lysolecithin p...

  4. Combination of Small Molecule Microarray and Confocal Microscopy Techniques for Live Cell Staining Fluorescent Dye Discovery

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    Attila Bokros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new fluorochromes is significantly advanced by high-throughput screening (HTS methods. In the present study a combination of small molecule microarray (SMM prescreening and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM was developed in order to discover novel cell staining fluorescent dyes. Compounds with high native fluorescence were selected from a 14,585-member library and further tested on living cells under the microscope. Eleven compartment-specific, cell-permeable (or plasma membrane-targeted fluorochromes were identified. Their cytotoxicity was tested and found that between 1–10 micromolar range, they were non-toxic even during long-term incubations.

  5. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

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    Benedetta Bottari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Yeast viability and fermentation activities were evaluated during seven fermentation cycles of an artisanal pilsner beer. Yeast inoculated with higher viability performed generally better in fermentation, resulting in faster sugar consumption, faster ethanol production and stability. Handling yeast and serial repitching based on Live/Dead viability measurements, could be the key way to ensure reliable manufacture of high quality beer and to improve process standardization particularly for microbreweries, where variability of production can be a challenging point.

  6. Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell staining and sorting with the live-cell fluorescence imaging probe CDy1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-Young; Yun, Seong-Wook; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Park, Sung-Jin; Chang, Young-Tae

    2011-06-30

    Detecting and isolating specific types of cells is crucial to understanding a variety of biological processes, including development, aging, regeneration and pathogenesis; this understanding, in turn, allows the use of cells for therapeutic purposes, for which stem cells have emerged recently as invaluable materials. The current methods of isolation and characterization of stem cells depend on cell morphology in culture or on immunostaining of specific markers. These methods are, however, time consuming and involve the use of antibodies that may often make the cells unsuitable for further study. We recently developed a fluorescent small molecule named CDy1 (compound of designation yellow 1) that selectively stains live embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). This protocol describes detailed procedures for staining ESC and iPSC in live conditions and for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of ESC using CDy1. Cell staining, image acquisition and FACS can be done within 6 h.

  7. Tracking living decapod larvae: mass staining of eggs with neutral red prior to hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øresland, V; Horobin, R W

    2012-04-01

    Mass staining of decapod females carrying eggs, with subsequent identification of hatched larvae in the environment, is a research tool with great potential for field ecologists wishing to track the movements of larvae. For this to be achieved, however, numerous requirements must be met. These include adequate dye solubility, short staining time, dye penetration through different tissues, dye retention within the organism, absence of toxic and behavioral effects, low visibility to predators of stained larvae, no loss of staining owing to preservatives and low cost. The dye, neutral red, appears to meet most of these requirements. This dye was used in aliquots of 0.7 g/770 ml seawater applied to the females of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and European lobster (Homarus gammarus) for 10 min. This procedure stained lobster eggs and embryos so that hatched larvae could be distinguished easily by fluorescence microscopy from larvae that hatched from unstained eggs. Stained larvae that were preserved in 4% formaldehyde in seawater were still stained after 1 year. Larvae should not come in contact with ethanol, because it extracts the dye rapidly.

  8. Living (Rose-Bengal-Stained) benthic foraminifera along the Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea), environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Anna; Morigi, Caterina; Lucchi, Renata G.; de Vittor, Cinzia; Bazzano, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    The distribution and composition of benthic foraminiferal fauna in the Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) were studied in three depositional settings identified on the basis of surface depositional structures, sediment types and present ecosystem characteristics. Sediment samples were collected during the CORIBAR cruise (Hanebuth et al., 2013) aimed at drilling glacigenic sediments in a palaeo-ice stream depositional system in the western Barents Sea. In particular, we report the quantitative data of the living benthic foraminiferal density, biodiversity and vertical distribution in three box-core sediment samples (0-10 cm) collected in two inner trough sites, the drift area and the channel/fault area and one outer shelf site. Rose-Bengal-stained foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two different size fractions (63-150 and >150 micrometres). In the drift area, the living benthic foraminiferal assemblage is characterized by the presence of oxygen-depleted environmental taxa with low foraminiferal density and biodiversity. This area appears a stagnant environment, strongly affected by low-oxygen, stressed environmental conditions in which foraminifera developed a life strategy aimed to increase the efficiency of food utilization and maximum resistance to ecological stress. As a further support to this interpretation, all the sediments recovered in the drift area are rich in organic matter and in Siboglinid-like tubes together with pockmark evidences on the surface of the box-corer. The sedimentation in the channel/fault area is very similar to that described for the drift area, evidencing stressed environmental conditions. Opportunistic species dominate the benthic foraminiferal fauna. The species distribution of the internal trough sites is consistent with the lithology and with data of quantity and biochemical composition (in terms of phytopigment, protein, lipid, carbohydrate and biopolymeric carbon) of the organic matter. Values of biopolymeric carbon

  9. FluoroMyelin™ Red is a bright, photostable and non-toxic fluorescent stain for live imaging of myelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Paula C; Brown, Anthony

    2012-08-15

    FluoroMyelin™ Red is a commercially available water-soluble fluorescent dye that has selectivity for myelin. This dye is marketed for the visualization of myelin in brain cryosections, though it is also used widely to stain myelin in chemically fixed tissue. Here we have investigated the suitability of FluoroMyelin™ Red as a vital stain for live imaging of myelin in myelinating co-cultures of Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons. We show that addition of FluoroMyelin™ Red to the culture medium results in selective staining of myelin sheaths, with an optimal staining time of 2h, and has no apparent adverse effect on the neurons, their axons, or the myelinating cells at the light microscopic level. The fluorescence is bright and photostable, permitting long-term time-lapse imaging. After rinsing the cultures with medium lacking FluoroMyelin™ Red, the dye diffuses out of the myelin with a half life of about 130 min resulting in negligible fluorescence remaining after 18-24h. In addition, the large Stokes shift exhibited by FluoroMyelin™ Red makes it possible to readily distinguish it from popular and widely used green and red fluorescent probes such as GFP and mCherry. Thus FluoroMyelin™ Red is a useful reagent for live fluorescence imaging studies on myelinated axons.

  10. Calcareous sponges of the Netherlands (Porifera, Calcarea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolwijk, van Th.

    1982-01-01

    The taxonomy of calcareous sponges occurring in the Netherlands is reviewed, using field observations of live individuals, microscopical examination of individual skeletons and study of the breeding cycle. This led to the conclusion that a new species had to be erected and other species reidentified

  11. Spatial distribution of living (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera in the Loire estuary (western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahid, M.; Geslin, E.; Coynel, A.; Gorse, L.; Vella, C.; Davranche, A.; Zozzolo, L.; Blanchet, L.; Bénéteau, E.; Maillet, G.

    2016-12-01

    Ninety-seven surface sediment samples were collected in September 2012 from intertidal and subtidal areas along the Loire estuary (western France). The main objective of this work is to study the spatial distributional patterns of living benthic foraminifera and their link to the environmental parameters (distance to sea, elevation, grain size, total organic carbon, trace metals, sedimentary carbonates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the Loire estuary. Foraminiferal analysis was also extended to the dead assemblages in thirty-three surface samples from the lower inner estuary. The highest absolute densities of living benthic foraminifera are found in the lower inner estuary within the polyhaline domain. This is attributed to the presence of mudflats with abundant food source, i.e. microphytobenthos. The low densities found in the outer estuary (euhaline domain) are attributed partly to the sandy nature of the sediments and the food source inhabiting this substrate. The near absence of foraminifera in the inner estuary (mesohaline and polyhaline domains) is inferred to the physical disturbance resulting from the regular dredging of the navigation channel. The living assemblages are dominated by three typical estuarine species: Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica in the intertidal mudflats of the lower inner estuary and Cribroelphidium excavatum in the sandy subtidal sediments of the lower inner and outer estuary. In the Loire estuary, H. germanica has an unusual intermediate geographical distribution along the estuary between A. tepida and C. excavatum while in most temperate estuaries this species is present upstream in the mesohaline domain. This is most likely the result of the regular dredging of the navigation channel damaging its natural habitat. This might be also the explanation for the total absence of agglutinated species usually dominating the oligohaline domain. The canonical correspondence analysis shows that elevation (and its link to time

  12. Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition

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    Jogdand Prajakta S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. Methods Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI assay. Results Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP

  13. Comparisons of the ecology and stable isotopic compositions of living (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Sulu and South China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathburn, A. E.; Corliss, B. H.; Tappa, K. D.; Lohmann, K. C.

    1996-10-01

    Significant differences are observed between living (Rose Bengal stained) deep-sea benthic foraminifera found in 14 box cores (510-4515 m) from the thermospheric (> 10°C) environments of the Sulu Sea and the psychrospheric ( 2‰ range and are similar to those presented by previous workers, but have no consistent relationship with microhabitat preferences. Vertical distribution patterns and carbon isotope compositions of species, however, reflect microhabitat preferences and are consistent with previous observations from other regions. Epifaunal species (0-1 cm interval) such as Cibicidoides pachyderma, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Hoeglundina elegans and Anomalinoides colligera, have higher δ13C values than taxa which have the ability to live deeper within the sediments. Infaunal taxa that live in the upper 2-3 cm, including Uvigerina peregrina, Uvigerina proboscidea, and Bulimina mexicana, have lower δ13C values than epifaunal species, and the deep infaunal species, Chilostomella oolina, has the lowest δ13C. Cibicidoides bradyi and Oridorsalis umbonatus are found between 0 and ˜ 4 cm and have lower carbon isotope values (by > 1.4‰ in some cores) than epifaunal Cibicidoides species. Exceptions to this pattern include the aragonitic species, Gavelinopsis lobatulus, (0-4 cm) which produces significantly lower δ13C values than deep infaunal taxa, and the shallow infaunal species, Ceratobulimina pacifica (also aragonitic) and Bolivinopsis cubensis (deep infaunal), which yield higher carbon isotopic values than epifaunal taxa. These exceptions are found primarily in only one core, and additional samples are needed to confirm the relationship between their distribution patterns and isotopic compositions. Each of the species examined has a relatively consistent δ13C value throughout its distribution within the sediments that may result from heterogeneity of microhabitats within the intervals sampled. Intrageneric differences in δ13C of Cibicidoides, and possibly

  14. The development of fluorescence turn-on probe for Al(III) sensing and live cell nucleus-nucleoli staining

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    Saini, Anoop Kumar; Sharma, Vinay; Mathur, Pradeep; Shaikh, Mobin M.

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of nucleus and nucleolus is powerful indicator of physiological and pathological conditions. The specific staining of nucleolus recently gained much attention due to the limited and expensive availability of the only existing stain “SYTO RNA-Select”. Here, a new multifunctional salen type ligand (L1) and its Al3+ complex (1) are designed and synthesized. L1 acts as a chemosensor for Al3+ whereas 1 demonstrates specific staining of nucleus as well as nucleoli. The binding of 1 with nucleic acid is probed by DNase and RNase digestion in stained cells. 1 shows an excellent photostability, which is a limitation for existing nucleus stains during long term observations. 1 is assumed to be a potential candidate as an alternative to expensive commercial dyes for nucleus and nucleoli staining. PMID:27721431

  15. Living (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Mozambique Channel (eastern Africa): Exploring ecology of deep-sea unicellular meiofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanier, C.; Garnier, E.; Brandily, C.; Dennielou, B.; Bichon, S.; Gayet, N.; Eugene, T.; Rovere, M.; Grémare, A.; Deflandre, B.

    2016-09-01

    Live (Rose-Bengal stained) deep-sea foraminiferal faunas have been studied at four stations between 530 and 3200-m depth in the Mozambique Channel (eastern Africa) to understand how complex environmental conditions (e.g., organic matter, oxygenation) control their ecological structure (i.e., diversity, density, and microhabitats). Two upper-slope stations, located at 530- and 780-m depth off Madagascar, are bathed by well-oxygenated bottom waters. They are characterized by fine sediments enriched in highly degraded organic matter (low amino-acid bio-availability and reduced chlorophyllic freshness). Mineralization of organic compounds results in relatively moderate oxygen penetration depth (i.e., 15 and 30 mm) in sediment. Interestingly, foraminiferal species richness (S) is exceptionally high at both sites. The highest densities are observed in the 780-m deep station, where peculiar sedimentary facies of organic matter are recorded (OC >2.0% DW). Redox conditions and sedimentary organic matter control the composition and the vertical distribution (i.e. microhabitat) of benthic faunas at both upper-slope sites. Bolivina alata, Bulimina marginata, Haplophragmoides bradyi and Nouria compressa are relevant bio-indicators of enhanced burial of organic matter prevailing at the 780-m deep station (i.e., eutrophic conditions), whereas Uvigerina hispida and Uvigerina semiornata are dominant at the 530-m deep station (i.e., relatively mesotrophic conditions). Two other stations are located on well-ventilated terraces from the deep-sea canyons of Tsiribihina and Zambezi (>3000-m depth). They are characterized by carbonate ooze, which is depleted in degraded organic matter and, where oxygen penetration depth is relatively deep (i.e.,>80 mm). Because of food scarcity, S and densities are relatively low, and agglutinated and organic-walled taxa dominate foraminiferal faunas. Hospitella fulva, a foraminiferal species belonging to Allogromiida, occupies very deep infaunal

  16. Living (Rose Bengal stained benthic foraminiferal faunas along a strong bottom-water oxygen gradient on the Indian margin (Arabian Sea

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    C. Caulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal stained foraminiferal assemblages were analysed along a five-station bathymetric transect across the core and the lower part of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea. Sediment cores were collected using the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 during RV Yokosuka cruise YK08-11 in the post-monsoon season (October 2008 at water depths ranging from 535 to 2000 m, along a gradient from almost anoxic to well-oxygenated (0.3 to 108 μM bottom waters. Stained foraminiferal densities were very high in the OMZ core (535 m and decreased with depth. The faunas were dominated (40–80% by non-calcareous taxa at all stations. These were mainly species of Reophax and Lagenammina but also included delicate monothalamous taxa (organic-walled "allogromiids", agglutinated saccamminids, psammosphaerids and tubular forms. These new data from the Indian margin are compared to previous studies from the Murray Ridge, the Pakistan margin and the Oman margin. The fact that similar species were found at sites with comparable bottom-water oxygen concentrations but with very different surface water productivity suggests that, within the strongly developed Arabian Sea OMZ, bottom-water oxygen concentration, and not the organic flux to the sea floor, is the main factor controlling the species composition of the foraminiferal communities. Several foraminiferal species (e.g. Praeglobobulimina sp. 1, Ammodiscus sp. 1, Bolivina aff. dilatata were confined to the core of the OMZ and are presently known only from the Arabian Sea. Because of their association with extremely low-oxygen concentration, these species may prove to be good indicators of past OMZ variability in the Arabian Sea.

  17. Calcareous Fens - Source Feature Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Pursuant to the provisions of Minnesota Statutes, section 103G.223, this database contains points that represent calcareous fens as defined in Minnesota Rules, part...

  18. Live (Rose-bengal stained) foraminifera from deep-sea anoxic salt brine in the Eastern Mediterranean: toward understanding limit of life for single-celled eukaryotes (foraminifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, H.; Ohkawara, N.; Iwasaki, A.; Nomaki, H.; Akoumianaki, I.; Tokuyama, H.

    2012-04-01

    What is a limit of life for the eukaryotes? Eukaryotes are thought to adapt and evolve under oxic environmental conditions. Recently, there are many exceptions for this hypothesis, as many eukaryotes including metazoan groups are found in anoxic environmental conditions. We found many rose-bengal stained foraminifera from a deep-hypersaline anoxic basin (DHAB) in the eastern Mediterranean. During KH06-04 cruise, we conducted oceanographic research at Medée Lake, the largest DHAB, that is located 100km southwest of Crete Island in the eastern Mediterranean. The lake situates at 2920m in water depth. Depth of saline water is 120m in maximum. Both water and sediment samplings were carried out both with Niskin bottles and multiple corer attached to camera watching sampling system at three sites, inside of the lake (CS), the edge of the lake (OMS) and the normal deep-sea floor (RS). Temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen concentrations at central saline lake are 15.27 oC, 328PSU, and 0.0 ml/L, respectively. Strong smell of hydrogen sulfide was detected from the lake sediment. Subsamples were conducted for multiple core samples using 3 subcores(φ 2.9cm) from each core tube (φ 8.2cm). Sediment samples were fixed with 4% formalin Rose Bengal solution on board. In laboratory, samples were washed with 32μm sieve. Rose Bengal stained specimens were picked under binocular stereomicroscope (Zeiss Stemi SV11) for surface 0.5cm layer, and identified with inverted microscope (Nikon ECLIPSE TE300). In total, 26 species belonging to 9 genera were identified from three sites. Six species belonging to two genera were identified in the center of the salt brine. Only a few species are common among three sites, even though the numbers of common species were 10 between OMS and RS sites. In DHAB, spherical organic-walled species, such as allogromiid and psammosphaerid, are dominant. In contrast, tube-like chitinous foraminifera, such as Resigella, Conicotheca and Nodellum, are

  19. CellTracker Green labelling vs. Rose Bengal staining: CTG wins by points in distinguishing living from dead anoxia-impacted copepods and nematodes

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    M. Grego

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and anoxia have become a key threat to shallow coastal seas. Much is known about their impact on macrofauna, less on meiofauna. In an attempt to shed more light on the latter group, in particular from a process-oriented view, we experimentally induced short-term anoxia (1 week in the Northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean, and examined the two most abundant meiofauna taxa – harpacticoid copepods and nematodes. Both taxa also represent different ends of the tolerance spectrum, with copepods being the most sensitive and nematodes among the most tolerant. We compared two methods: CellTracker Green (CTG – new labelling approach for meiofauna – with the traditional Rose Bengal (RB staining method. CTG binds to active enzymes and therefore colours live organisms only. The two methods show considerable differences in the number of living and dead individuals of both meiofauna taxa. Generally, RB will stain dead but not yet decomposed copepods and nematodes equally as live ones. Specifically, RB significantly overestimated the number of living copepods in all sediment layers in anoxic samples, but not in any normoxic samples. In contrast, for nematodes, the methods did not show such a clear difference between anoxia and normoxia. Surprisingly, RB overestimated the number of living nematodes in the top sediment layer of normoxic samples, which implies an overestimation of the overall live nematofauna. For monitoring and biodiversity studies, the RB method might be sufficient, but for more fine-scaled (days, hours, tipping points studies, especially on hypoxia and anoxia where it is necessary to resolve the course of events, CTG labelling is a better tool. Moreover, it clearly highlights the surviving species within the copepod or nematode community. As already accepted for foraminiferal research, we demonstrate that the CTG labelling is also valid for other meiofauna groups.

  20. CellTracker Green labelling vs. rose bengal staining: CTG wins by points in distinguishing living from dead anoxia-impacted copepods and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grego

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and anoxia have become a key threat to shallow coastal seas. Much is known about their impact on macrofauna, less on meiofauna. In an attempt to shed more light on the latter group, in particular from a process-oriented view, we experimentally induced short-term anoxia (1 week in the northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean and examined the two most abundant meiofauna taxa – harpacticoid copepods and nematodes. Both taxa also represent different ends of the tolerance spectrum, with copepods being the most sensitive and nematodes among the most tolerant. We compared two methods: CellTracker Green (CTG – new labelling approach for meiofauna – with the traditional rose bengal (RB staining method. CTG binds to active enzymes and therefore colours live organisms only. The two methods show considerable differences in the number of living and dead individuals of both meiofauna taxa. Generally, RB will stain dead but not yet decomposed copepods and nematodes equally as it does live ones. Specifically, RB significantly overestimated the number of living copepods in all sediment layers in anoxic samples, but not in any normoxic samples. In contrast, for nematodes, the methods did not show such a clear difference between anoxia and normoxia. RB overestimated the number of living nematodes in the top sediment layer of normoxic samples, which implies an overestimation of the overall live nematofauna. For monitoring and biodiversity studies, the RB method might be sufficient, but for more precise quantification of community degradation, especially after an oxygen depletion event, CTG labelling is a better tool. Moreover, it clearly highlights the surviving species within the copepod or nematode community. As already accepted for foraminiferal research, we demonstrate that the CTG labelling is also valid for other meiofauna groups.

  1. Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jogdand, Prajakta S; Singh, Susheel K; Christiansen, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays...... asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination...

  2. A blue fluorescent labeling technique utilizing micro- and nanoparticles for tracking in LIVE/DEAD® stained pathogenic biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinger-Strobel M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mareike Klinger-Strobel,1,2,* Julia Ernst,3,* Christian Lautenschläger,4 Mathias W Pletz,1,2 Dagmar Fischer,3,5 Oliwia Makarewicz1,2 1Center for Infectious Diseases and Infection’s Control, 2Center for Sepsis Control and Care, Jena University Hospital, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 4Department of Internal Medicine IV, Jena University Hospital, 5Jena Center for Soft Matter (JCSM, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Strategies that target and treat biofilms are widely applied to bacterial cultures using popular live/dead staining techniques with mostly red or green fluorescent markers (eg, with SYTO® 9, propidium iodide, fluorescein. Therefore, visualizing drugs or micro- and nanoparticulate delivery systems to analyze their distribution and effects in biofilms requires a third fluorescent dye that does not interfere with the properties of the live/dead markers. The present study establishes and evaluates a model for tracking polymeric particles in fluorescently stained biological material. To this end, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA-based micro- and nanoparticles were used as well-established model systems, which, because of their favorable safety profiles, are expected to play important future roles with regard to drug delivery via inhalation. PLGA was covalently and stably labeled with 7-amino-4-methyl-3-coumarinylacetic acid (AMCA, after which blue fluorescent poly(ethylene glycol-block-PLGA (PEG-PLGA particles were prepared using a mixture of fluorescent AMCA-PLGA and PEG-PLGA. Because chitosan is known to reduce negative surface charge, blue fluorescent PEG-PLGA-particles with chitosan were also prepared. These micro- and nanoparticles were physicochemically characterized and could be clearly distinguished from live/dead stained bacteria in biofilms using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Keywords: 7-amino-4

  3. The effects of α-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen isotope variation in live and dead trees†

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, N.B.; McDowell, N.G.; Allen, C.D.; Mora, C.

    2011-01-01

    Tree-ring carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from live and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the δ13C and δ18O values of whole wood obscuring the isotopic signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and α-cellulose from live and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if α-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of isotopic compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the δ13C or δ18O values of α-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both live and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of α-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the δ13C (up to 0.4‰) and δ18O (up to 1.2‰) of α-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the δ13C and δ18O of whole wood or α-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and α-cellulose δ13C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between δ18O of whole wood and α-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of isotopic patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States.

  4. Calcareous tubeworms of the Phanerozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinn, Olev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological similarities indicate that Palaeozoic problematic tubeworms, e.g. tentaculitids, cornulitids, microconchids, trypanoporids, Anticalyptraea, and Tymbochoos, form a monophyletic group. This group may also include hederelloids. Members of this group share affinities with lophophorates and their evolution could have partly been driven by predation. The extinction of Palaeozoic tubeworms in the Middle Jurassic was possibly at least partly caused by the ecological pressure by serpulid and sabellid polychaetes. The input of Palaeozoic tubeworms to the general ocean biocalcification system may have been smaller in the Ordovician to Jurassic than that of calcareous polychaetes in the Late Triassic to Recent. There seems to have been some correlation between the aragonite–calcite seas and the skeletal mineralogy of Triassic–Recent polychaete tubeworms.

  5. Survival rate of wine-related yeasts during alcoholic fermentation assessed by direct live/dead staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Patrícia; Monteiro, Margarida; Moura, Patrícia; Albergaria, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Real-time detection of microorganisms involved in complex microbial process, such as wine fermentations, and evaluation of their physiological state is crucial to predict whether or not those microbial species will be able to impact the final product. In the present work we used a direct live/dead staining (LDS) procedure combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously assess the identity and viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (Hg) during fermentations performed with single and mixed cultures. The population evolution of both yeasts was determined by plating and by LDS combined with species-specific FISH-probes labeled with Fluorescein. Since the FISH method involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane prior to hybridization and that it may influence the free diffusion of PI in and out of the cells, we optimized the concentration of this dye (0.5 μg of PI per 10(6) cells) for minimal diffusion (less than 2%). Fluorescent cells were enumerated by hemocytometry and flow cytometry. Results showed that the survival rate of Sc during mixed cultures was high throughout the entire process (60% of viable cells at the 9th day), while Hg began to die off at the 2nd day, exhibited 98% of dead cells at the 3rd day (45 g/l of ethanol) and became completely unculturable at the 4th day. However, under single culture fermentation the survival rate and culturability of Hg decreased at a much slower pace, exhibiting at the 7th day (67 g/l of ethanol) 8.7×10(4) CFU/ml and 85% of dead cells. Thus, our work demonstrated that the LDS-FISH method is able to simultaneously assess the viability and identity of these wine-related yeast species during alcoholic fermentation in a fast and reliable way. In order to validate PI-staining as a viability marker during alcoholic fermentation, we evaluated the effect of ethanol on the membrane permeability of Sc and Hg cells, as well as their capacity to recover membrane

  6. [Jan Stephan Van Calcar, a valuable and unrecognized collaborator of Vesalius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, J

    1996-01-01

    Numerous and legitimate homages have been paid to Andreas Vesalius, eminent personality of the medical Renaissance. At that time scientific anatomy was inseparable from artistic one. As soon as 1535, Vesalius then 21 years old taught in Padova and at the University of Venice, a town harbouring many artists. It has been suggested that he had obtained the collaboration of Titian himself, but this hypothesis has not been confirmed. In fact "Lives of the best painters, sculptors and architects" G. Vasari expresses his admiration for the prints drawn by Calcar: "the illustrations conceived by Vesalius for his Fabrica and drawn by the outstanding flemish painter Jan Stephan Calcar are of an excellent style". For Carel van Mander nicknamed the "Vasari of the ancient Netherlands", it is to Calcar we owe Vesalius' anatomical plates. The reasons which have led this Flemish born around 1510 in Kalkar, a small town of the Cleves dukedom, to settle in Venice are both general and personal. Pupil of Titian, Calcar was an excellent portrait-painter who assimilated so well his master's style that he was adopted by the Italians calling him Giovanni Calcar. This valuable collaborator of Vesalius and brilliant pupil of Titian went to Naples for unknown reasons and stayed there until his premature death around 1546.

  7. Port-Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth > For Parents > Port-Wine Stains Print ... Manchas de vino de oporto What Are Port-Wine Stains? A port-wine stain is a type ...

  8. AE Test of Calcareous Sands with Particle Rushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Fengyi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The particle of calcareous sands was forced to crush, then the energy from the crushing was released by the form of sound waves. Therefore the AE technique was used to detect the calcareous sands AE signal when it crushed. by to study the AE characteristics, the mechanics of calcareous sands was studied. Study showed that: (1 there was the AE activities on the low confining pressure condition at the beginnig of test, (2 there was more and more AE activities with the continuing of test until to the end, (3 the calcareous sands’ AE activities was on the whole testing, (4 the calcareous sands’ particle crushing and mutual friction played different roles for its AE activities. Then the AE model based on the calcarous sands’ particle crushing was discussed.

  9. Hardwood biochar influences calcareous soil physicochemical and microbiological status

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of biochar application to calcareous soils are not well documented. In a laboratory incubation study, a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar was applied (0, 1, 2, and 10% by weight) to a calcareous soil. Changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, and microbial com...

  10. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  11. Port-wine stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many treatments have been tried for port-wine stains, including freezing, surgery, radiation, and tattooing. Laser therapy is most successful in eliminating port-wine stains. It is the only method that can destroy the tiny blood vessels in the skin ...

  12. Pericardial fluid Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staining a sample of fluid taken from the pericardium. This is the sac surrounding the heart to ... sample of fluid will be taken from the pericardium. This is done through a procedure called pericardiocentesis . ...

  13. The sterols of calcareous sponges (Calcarea, Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Andrea; Voigt, Oliver; Wörheide, Gert; Thiel, Volker

    2008-11-01

    Sponges are sessile suspension-feeding organisms whose internal phylogenetic relationships are still the subject of intense debate. Sterols may have the potential to be used as independent markers to test phylogenetic hypotheses. Twenty representative specimens of calcareous sponges (class Calcarea, phylum Porifera) with a broad coverage within both subclasses Calcinea and Calcaronea were analysed for their sterol content. Two major pseudohomologous series were found, accompanied by some additional sterols. The first series encompassing conventional C(27) to C(29)Delta(5,7,22) sterols represented the major sterols, with ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol, C(28)Delta(5,7,22)) being most prominent in many species. The second series consisted of unusual C(27) to C(29)Delta(5,7,9(11),22) sterols. Cholesterol occurred sporadically, mostly in trace amounts. The sterol patterns did not resolve intraclass phylogenetic relationships, namely the distinction between the subclasses, Calcinea and Calcaronea. This pointed towards major calcarean lipid traits being established prior to the separation of subclasses. Furthermore, calcarean sterol patterns clearly differ from those found in Hexactinellida, whereas partial overlap occurred with some Demospongiae. Hence, sterols only partly reflect the phylogenetic separation of Calcarea from both of the other poriferan classes that was proposed by recent molecular work and fatty acid analyses.

  14. Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage record of the late Paleocene and early Eocene (Cicogna section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnini, Claudia; Spofforth, David J. A.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Rio, Domenico; Pälike, Heiko; Backman, Jan; Muttoni, Giovanni; Dallanave, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    We present records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across an 81 m thick section of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks now exposed along the Cicogna Stream in northeast Italy. The studied stratigraphic section represents sediment accumulation in a bathyal hemipelagic setting from approximately 57.5 to 52.2 Ma, a multi-million-year time interval characterized by perturbations in the global carbon cycle and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The bulk carbonate δ13C profile for the Cicogna section, once placed on a common timescale, resembles that at several other locations across the world, and includes both a long-term drop in δ13C and multiple short-term carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). This precise correlation of widely separated δ13C records in marine sequences results from temporal changes in the carbon composition of the exogenic carbon cycle. However, diagenesis has likely modified the δ13C record at Cicogna, an interpretation supported by variations in bulk carbonate δ18O, which do not conform to expectations for a primary signal. The record of CaCO3 content reflects a combination of carbonate dilution and dissolution, as also inferred at other sites. Our detailed documentation and statistical analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages show major differences before, during and after the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Other CIEs in our lower Paleogene section do not exhibit such a distinctive change; instead, these events are sometimes characterized by variations restricted to a limited number of taxa and transient shifts in the relative abundance of primary assemblage components. Both long-lasting and short-lived modifications to calcareous nannofossil assemblages preferentially affected nannoliths or holococcoliths such as Discoaster, Fasciculithus, Rhomboaster/Tribrachiatus, Sphenolithus and Zygrhablithus, which underwent distinct variations in

  15. leaves extracts as counter stain in gram staining reaction 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Aqueous Extract, Dyes, Henna, Counter-Staining. INTRODUCTION ... is a stain with color contrasting to the principal stain, making the .... different solutions of ethanol extracts were prepared .... this plant a true natural dye. Saponins ...

  16. Mobile nickel content in calcareous black soils of Rajac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Aleksandar R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of mobile Ni contents in various subtypes of calcareous black soils from the area of the mountain massif of Rajac, is given in the present paper. A hundred soil samples were analysed in all, originating from four subtypes of calcareous black soil (organogenic, organo-mineral, brownized and loessivized black soils. The extraction of mobile Ni was carried out with 1.0 N HCl and its content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The obtained results indicate that mobile Ni content in the investigated soils varies within a wide range, from 5.0 to 251.3 mg/kg that it is very seldom (only in 3% of the investigated samples within the range from 5 to 7 mg/kg, that in over 90% of the 100 investigated samples it is higher than 10 mg/kg, and in almost 3/5 of the samples it is higher than 20 mg/kg. Calcareous black soils of Rajac massif have much higher mobile Ni content than previously investigated black soils from calcareous massif of Rtanj, which is, by all means, only partly due to their more severe dealkalization and acidification. In addition, here is undoubtedly apparent the influence of the geological substrate, i.e. of serpentine rocks that border the calcareous massif of Rajac.

  17. Stained Glass and Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-01

    Dr. Robert Webster, an Emeritus member of the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, discusses his cover art story on stained glass and influenza.  Created: 2/1/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/1/2017.

  18. Stained-Glass Pastels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The author has always liked the look of stained-glass windows. Usually the designs are simplified and the shapes are easier for younger students to draw. This technique seemed to be the perfect place for her fifth-graders to try their hand at color mixing. The smaller spaces and simple shapes were just what she needed for this group. Her students…

  19. Stained Glass and Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-01

    Dr. Robert Webster, an Emeritus member of the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, discusses his cover art story on stained glass and influenza.  Created: 2/1/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/1/2016.

  20. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  1. Fragmentation, Fusion, and Genetic Homogeneity in a Calcareous Sponge (Porifera, Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, André; Leocorny, Pedro; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Klautau, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates living on hard substrata usually present strategies such as size variations, longer life spans, fragmentation and fusion to occupy and compete for space. Calcareous sponges are usually small and short-lived, and some species are known to undergo frequent fragmentation and fusion events. However, whether fusion occurs only between genetically identical individuals remains unclear. We investigated the occurrence of chimaeras in the calcareous sponge Clathrina aurea by following the dynamics of fragmentation and fusion of 66 individuals in the field for up to 18 months and determined size variations and the life span of each individual. Microsatellites were used to determine whether fusion events occur among genetically different individuals. Growth and shrinkage of individuals were frequently observed, showing that size cannot be associated with age in C. aurea. The life span of the species ranged from 1 to 16 months (mean: 4.7 months). Short life spans and variable growth rates have been observed in other species of the class Calcarea. Fragmentation and fusion events were observed, but fusion events always occurred between genetically identical individuals, as has been suggested by graft experiments in adult Demospongiae and other Calcarea. These results suggest that at least C. aurea adults may have some mechanism to avoid chimaerism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Temporal variability of live (stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas in a river-dominated shelf - Faunal response to rapid changes of the river influence (Rhône prodelta, NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goineau, A.; Fontanier, C.; Jorissen, F.; Buscail, R.; Kerhervé, P.; Cathalot, C.; Pruski, A. M.; Lantoine, F.; Bourgeois, S.; Metzger, E.; Legrand, E.; Rabouille, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of the French research project CHACCRA (Climate and Human-induced Alterations in Carbon Cycling at the River-seA connection), living (rose Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera were investigated at two stations (24 and 67 m depth) in the Rhône prodelta (NW Mediterranean, Gulf of Lions). The aim of this study was to precise the response of benthic foraminiferal faunas to temporal changes of the Rhône River inputs (e.g. organic and terrigeneous material). Each site was sampled in April 2007, September 2007, May 2008 and December 2008, permitting to observe foraminiferal faunas of the 63-150 and >150 μm size fractions under a wide range of environmental conditions. Obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition were observed during the four investigated periods at the shallowest Station A located in the close vicinity of the Rhône River mouth. After major Rhône River flood events, different colonisation stages were observed with foraminiferal faunas responding with an opportunistic strategy few days to weeks after the creation of a peculiar sedimentary environment (Leptohalysis scottii, May 2008) or high organic matter supplies (Ammonia tepida, December 2008). Under more stable conditions, relatively diverse and equilibrated faunas grew in the sediments. Species benefited from noticeable input of riverine phytodetritus to the sediment during spring bloom conditions (April 2007; e.g. Bolivina dilatata, Nonionella stella, Stainforthia fusiformis), or high amounts of still bio-available organic matter under more oligotrophic conditions (September 2007; e.g. Ammonia tepida, Psammosphaera fusca). The reduced influence of the Rhône River input at the farther Station N led to less contrasted environmental conditions during the four sampling periods, and so to less obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition. During reduced riverine influence (i.e. low Rhône discharge), species able to feed on fresh phytodetritus (e.g. Clavulina

  3. Production of Calcareous Nannofossil Ooze for Sedimentological Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buls, Toms; Anderskouv, Kresten; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    on this subject. However, the use of modern calcareous nannofossil ooze as an analogue for Cretaceous ooze is associated with a number of disadvantages such as generally higher noncarbonate content and smaller coccolith size of modern oozes. Here, we document a preparation method for the production of calcareous...... nannofossil ooze for the purpose of physical experiments, based on disaggregation of Upper Cretaceous chalk through repeated freezing and thawing. We further document the textural characteristics of the ooze compared to the original chalk, based on quantitative backscatter scanning electron image analysis...

  4. Prospects of damaged calcareous spring systems in temperate Europe : Can we restore travertine-marl deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, Ab; Bulte, Marc; Wolejko, Leslaw; Pakalne, Mara; Dullo, Bikila; Eck, Nelly; Fritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Calcareous mires are peat forming systems fed by calcareous groundwater that regularly deposit travertine (CaCO3) on the soil surface or in small pools that are present in such mires. At present almost all calcareous mires in Poland are degraded, most often by land use, which has led to disturbances

  5. Endogenous and bioaugmented sulphate reduction in calcareous gypsiferous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaya, F.; Cuenca-Sanchez, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Gypsiferous soils have a high agricultural value, but their utilization is limited by the presence of gypsum that can induce hardpan and vertical crusting. This paper reports on sulphate reduction in this soil type as a basis of a bioremediation technology to remove the gypsum content of calcareous

  6. Highly calcareous lacustrine soils in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, de T.

    1971-01-01

    The Great Konya Basin is in the south of the Central Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. It is a depression without outlet to the sea. The central part of the Basin is the floor of a former Pleistocene lake, the Ancient Konya Lake. This area, called the LacustrinePlain, has highly calcareous clayey sedimen

  7. Organic matter dynamics in coarse sandy calcareous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Reuler, van H.

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in coarse sandy calcareous soils (beach sand) is thought to be much higher than in acid fine sandy soils but relatively little research is performed on these soils. Laboratory incubation experiments in which the release of soil carbon (C) is determined may overest

  8. Temporal variability of live (stained benthic foraminiferal faunas in a river-dominated shelf – faunal response to rapid changes of the river influence (Rhône prodelta, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goineau

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the French research project CHACCRA (Climate and Human-induced Alterations in Carbon Cycling at the River–seA connection, living (rose Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera were investigated at two stations (24 and 67 m depth in the Rhône prodelta (NW Mediterranean, Gulf of Lions. The aim of this study was to precise the response of benthic foraminiferal faunas to temporal changes of the Rhône River inputs (e.g. organic and terrigeneous material. Each site was sampled in April 2007, September 2007, May 2008 and December 2008, permitting to observe foraminiferal faunas of the 63–150 and >150 μm size fractions under a wide range of environmental conditions. Obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition were observed during the four investigated periods at the shallowest Station A located in the close vicinity of the Rhône River mouth. Different colonisation stages were observed after major Rhône River flood events, foraminiferal faunas responding with an opportunistic strategy few days to weeks after the creation of a peculiar sedimentary environment (Leptohalysis scottii, May 2008 or high amounts of organic matter supplied by a river flood (Ammonia tepida, December 2008. Under more stable conditions, relatively diverse and equilibrated faunas grew in the sediments. Species benefited from noticeable input of riverine phytodetritus to the sediment during spring bloom conditions (April 2007; e.g. Bolivina dilatata, Nonionella stella, Stainforthia fusiformis, or high amounts of still bio-available organic matter under more oligotrophic conditions (September 2007; e.g. Ammonia tepida, Psammosphaera fusca. The reduced influence of the Rhône River input at the farther Station N led to less contrasted environmental conditions during the four sampling periods, and so to less obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition. During reduced riverine influence (i.e. low

  9. Blood stain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, O; Kunz, S N; Rothschild, M A; Mützel, E

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) refers to the collection, categorization and interpretation of the shape and distribution of bloodstains connected with a crime. These kinds of stains occur in a considerable proportion of homicide cases. They offer extensive information and are an important part of a functional, medically and scientifically based reconstruction of a crime. The following groups of patterns can essentially be distinguished: dripped and splashed blood, projected blood, impact patterns, cast-off stains, expirated and transferred bloodstains. A highly qualified analysis can help to estimate facts concerning the location, quality and intensity of an external force. A sequence of events may be recognized, and detailed questions connected with the reconstruction of the crime might be answered. In some cases, BPA helps to distinguish between accident, homicide and suicide or to identify bloodstains originating from a perpetrator. BPA is based on systematic training, a visit to the crime scene or alternatively good photographic documentation, and an understanding and knowledge of autopsy findings or statements made by the perpetrator and/or victim. A BPA working group has been established within the German Society of Legal Medicine aiming to put the knowledge and practical applications of this subdiscipline of forensic science on a wider basis.

  10. Several staining techniques to enhance the visibility of Acanthamoeba cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Hikal, Wafaa Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Acanthamoeba is one of the most common free-living amoebae. It is widespread in the environment and can infect humans causing keratitis. Delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis leads to extensive corneal inflammation and profound visual loss. Therefore, accurate and rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis is essential for successful treatment and good prognosis. This study was designed to use different staining techniques to facilitate the identification of Acanthamoeba cysts. Acanthamoeba cysts were isolated by cultivation of either corneal scraping specimens or tap water samples onto non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli. Subcultures were done from positive cultures until unique cysts were isolated. Acanthamoeba cysts were stained temporarily using iodine, eosin, methylene blue, and calcofluor white (CFW) stains and as permanent slides after processing for mounting using modified trichrome, Gimenez and Giemsa staining. These stains were compared on the basis of staining quality including clarity of morphological details, differentiation between cytoplasm and nuclei, color and contrast, and also other characteristics of the staining techniques, including ease of handling, time taken for the procedure, and cost effectiveness. The cysts of Acanthamoeba were recognized in the form of double-walled cysts: the outer wall (ectocyst) that was being differentiated from the variably stained surrounding background and the inner wall (endocyst) that was sometimes stellated, polygonal, round, or oval and visualized as separate from the spherical, sometimes irregular, outline of the ectocyst. Regarding the temporary stains, it was found that they were efficient for visualizing the morphological details of Acanthamoeba cysts. In CFW staining, Acanthamoeba cysts appeared as bluish-white or turquoise oval halos although the internal detail was not evident. On the other hand, the results of permanent-stained slides showed the most consistent stain for identification of

  11. Relationship between 'live' and dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the abyssal NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoudis, Paris V.; Bett, Brian J.; Gooday, Andrew J.

    2017-03-01

    Dead foraminiferal assemblages within the sediment mixed layer provide an integrated, time-averaged view of the foraminiferal fauna, while the relationship between dead and live assemblages reflects the population dynamics of different species together with taphonomic processes operating over the last few hundred years. Here, we analysed four samples for 'live' (Rose-Bengal-stained) and dead benthic foraminifera (0-1 cm sediment layer, >150 μm) from four sites in the area of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory (PAP-SO; NE Atlantic, 4850 m water depth). Two sites were located on abyssal hills and two on the adjacent abyssal plain. Our results indicate that the transition from live to dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages involved a dramatic loss of delicate agglutinated and organic-walled tests (e.g. Lagenammina, Nodellum, Reophax) with poor preservation potential, and to a lesser extent that of some relatively fragile calcareous tests (mostly miliolids), possibly a result of dissolution. Other processes, such as the transport of tests by bottom currents and predation, are unlikely to have substantially altered the composition of dead faunas. Positive live to dead ratios suggest that some species (notably Epistominella exigua and Bolivina spathulata) may have responded to recent phytodetritus input. Although the composition of live assemblages seemed to be influenced by seafloor topography (abyssal hills vs. plain), no such relation was found for dead assemblages. We suggest that PAP-SO fossil assemblages are likely to be comparable across topographically contrasting sites, and dominated by calcareous and some robust agglutinated forms with calcitic cement (e.g. Eggerella).

  12. Lower Cretaceous calcareous nannofossils from the Southern Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Vulc

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Lower Cretaceous calcareous nannofossils from Southern Apuseni Mts. The studied section from Bucium Cerbu quarry is characterized by flysch deposits (rhythmical interbedded marls and sandstones, which were assigned to the Căbeşti Formation. The studied nannofossil assemblages yielded a high diversity. The Early Aptian age of the studied deposits was assigned based on both the Tethyan and Boreal calcareous nannofossil zonations. Several reworked Valanginian nannofossils were also observed in the Early Aptian in situ nannofloras. The nannofloras are dominated by tethyan and cosmopolitan species. Besides Boreal species are also present. The presence of boreal taxa (e.g. Kokia borealis, K. stelatta in the Tethyan Realm reflects the palaeobiogeographical distribution and the biotic changes between Tethys and Boreal Realms in the Southern Apuseni Mts. In the studied assemblages, the dominant species are Diazomatolithus lehmanii and Watznaueria barnesiae, which can reflect a high fertility in the surface water masses.

  13. Malacofauna of Holocene freshwater calcareous deposits of Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanko, Aleksander; Vainorius, Julius; Melešytė, Monika

    2010-12-01

    The malacofauna of freshwater calcareous deposits of Lithuania was studied. Sections of the Mūšos Tyrelis and Pabaliai peatbogs near the town of Šiauliai, as well as Dubičiai section (three sites) in SE Lithuania and Dūkštos in Central Lithuania were investigated. Freshwater calcareous deposits are attributed to three groups of facies - lacustrine, valley-hollow-peatbog and terrestrial. Each group of facies consists of sub-facies (freshwater lime, "gazha" (limno-calcite), peat-tufa, calcareous tufa, "mada") varying the formation conditions, composition and other characteristics. The mollusc fauna in the lacustrine facies group (Mūšos Tyrelis and Pabaliai sections) is represented by lacustrine species containing euryecological freshwater molluscs. Terrestrial and rheophilous species are rare or absent in the lacustrine group. Deposits of valley-hollow-peatbog facies contain shells of euryecological freshwater and lacustrine molluscs together with rheophyl shells, sometimes with abundant terrestrial shells, as was observed in the Dubičiai-4 section. A characteristic feature of the terrestrial facies group deposits is the occurrence of solely terrestrial mollusc shells (Dūkštos section).

  14. A first paleomagnetic and rock magnetic investigation of calcareous nodules from the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Hyodo, M.; Yang, Z.; Sun, Z.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic investigation was carried out on calcareous nodule layers embed-ded in the loess-paleosol sequences near Baoji city, southern Chinese Loess Plateau. The anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility confirms that calcareous nodules retain the primary sedimentary fabric of original de-posits. Rock magnetic properties demonstrate that calcareous nodules have the same mineralogy and grain sizes as loess-paleosol deposits. Characteristic remanent magnetizations of calcareous nodules have directions consis-tent with those of adjacent loess and paleosol deposits. The Punaruu event, previously found from loess deposits in the upper part of loess unit L13 in Weinan, southern Chinese Loess Plateau, is observed at the corresponding stratigraphic level in the calcareous nodule layer. These observations indicate that the calcareous nodule layers preserve primary remanent magnetizations of original deposits before calcification, and that they can contribute to paleomagnetic studies in the Chinese Loess Plateau.

  15. Size fraction characterization of highly-calcareous fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itskos, Grigorios; Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 357-359 Mesogeion Avenue, GR-152 31, Halandri, Athens (Greece); Itskos, Socrates [Department of Chemical Technology and the Environment, Steam Electric Station of Amynteon-Filotas, Public Power Corporation of Greece, GR-532 00, Amynteon (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of lignite fly ash (FA) varies as a function of the prevalent conditions in both the processes of power production and lignite mining. The differentiation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the highly-calcareous lignite fly ash, as a function of its particle size distribution, is verified in this paper. According to the results of the conducted research, a fine-grained fraction of considerable amount presents properties that obstruct the sustainable exploitation of calcareous lignite fly ash in cement industry applications. On the other hand, the same grain fraction (because of its hydraulic properties) can be utilized in other sort of applications, based on different criteria, i.e. in road constructions. The coarse-grained fraction (which reflects a low proportion to the total fly ash output) presents the same undesired characteristics as well. Rather, the intermediate grain fraction (75-150 {mu}m) presents the highly desirable properties when fly ash is utilized as a pozzolanic additive. In addition, the mechanism of the formation of the intermediate grain fraction strongly prevents the factors that cause the variation of fly ash-quality. It is therefore the optimum part of the whole amount of lignite FA, to be utilized as additive in cement manufacturing. The outcomes of this paper will hopefully contribute towards the crucial goal of the expansion of the utilization of calcareous lignite fly ash by proposing a more effective way of using this material, basically by taking advantage of its fundamental chemical and mineralogical properties. (author)

  16. The True Portrayed Living World of Yi People in Liangshan Analyzing the Novel DARK STAIN ON THICK WALL%凉山彝人生存世界的真实再现——论《厚墙裂痕》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗紫元

    2012-01-01

    马德清的长篇小说《厚墙裂痕》从凉山彝族地区天然景观和凉山彝族民间婚姻、丧葬、礼仪等习俗两个方面再现了凉山彝人生存的真实世界,具有民族志的书写特征。%Ma Deqing's novel" thick wall cracks" portrayed the true living world of Liangshan Yi People from Liangshan natural landscape and the Liangshan Yi Minority,which contains ethnography writing lea- tulles.

  17. Kinetics of Cd Release from Some Contaminated Calcareous Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi Tabar, S.; Jalali, M., E-mail: jalali@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Contamination of soils with heavy metals may pose long-term risk to groundwater quality leading to health implications. Bioavailability of heavy metals, like cadmium (Cd) is strongly affected by sorption and desorption processes. The release of heavy metals from contaminated soils is a major contamination risks to natural waters. The release of Cd from contaminated soils is strongly influenced by its mobility and bioavailability. In this study, the kinetics of Cd desorption from ten samples of contaminated calcareous soils, with widely varying physicochemical properties, were studied using 0.01 M EDTA extraction. The median percentage of Cd released was about 27.7% of the total extractable Cd in the soils. The release of Cd was characterized by an initial fast release rate (of labile fractions) followed by a slower release rate (of less labile fractions) and a model of two first-order reactions adequately describes the observed release of Cd from the studied soil samples. There was positive correlation between the amount of Cd released at first phase of release and Cd in exchangeable fraction, indicating that this fraction of Cd is the main fraction controlling the Cd in the kinetic experiments. There was strongly negative correlation between the amount of Cd released at first and second phases of release and residual fraction, suggesting that this fraction did not contribute in Cd release in the kinetic experiments. The results can be used to provide information for evaluation of Cd potential toxicity and ecological risk from contaminated calcareous soils.

  18. Crystallographic orientation and concentric layers in spicules of calcareous sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, André Linhares; Ribeiro, Bárbara; Lemos, Moara; Werckmann, Jacques; Borojevic, Radovan; Fromont, Jane; Klautau, Michelle; Farina, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the crystallography of calcareous sponges (Porifera) spicules and the organization pattern of the concentric layers present in their inner structure were investigated in 10 species of the subclass Calcaronea and three species of the subclass Calcinea. Polished spicules had specific concentric patterns that varied depending on the plane in which the spicules were sectioned. A 3D model of the concentric layers was created to interpret these patterns and the biomineralization process of the triactine spicules. The morphology of the spicules was compared with the crystallographic orientation of the calcite crystals by analyzing the Kikuchi diffraction patterns using a scanning electron microscope. Triactine spicules from the subclass Calcinea had actines (rays) elongated in the 〈210〉 direction, which is perpendicular to the c-axis. The scale spicules of the hypercalcified species Murrayona phanolepis presented the c-axis perpendicular to the plane of the scale, which is in accordance with the crystallography of all other Calcinea. The triactine spicules of the calcaronean species had approximately the same crystallographic orientation with the unpaired actine elongated in the ∼[211] direction. Only one Calcaronea species, whose triactine was regular, had a different orientation. Three different crystallographic orientations were found in diactines. Spicules with different morphologies, dimensions and positions in the sponge body had similar crystallographic directions suggesting that the crystallographic orientation of spicules in calcareous sponges is conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cylinders and seances : Elise van Calcar and the spirit of Froebel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses the life and work of Elise van Calcar (18221904), a writer and maternal feminist who introduced Froebel's kindergarten in the Netherlands. Van Calcar also was the leader of a Christian branch of spiritualism. The focus is pointed at parallels between her reading of Froebel and

  20. Long-term after-effects of fertilisation on restoration of calcareous grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, N.A.C.; Bobbink, R.; Willems, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Question: What are the long-term implications of former fertilisation for the ecological restoration of calcareous grasslands? Location: Gerendal, Limburg, The Netherlands. Methods: In 1970, ten permanent plots were established in just abandoned agricultural calcareous grassland under a regime of an

  1. Cylinders and seances : Elise van Calcar and the spirit of Froebel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses the life and work of Elise van Calcar (18221904), a writer and maternal feminist who introduced Froebel's kindergarten in the Netherlands. Van Calcar also was the leader of a Christian branch of spiritualism. The focus is pointed at parallels between her reading of Froebel and o

  2. Cylinders and Seances: Elise van Calcar and the Spirit of Froebel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses the life and work of Elise van Calcar (1822-1904), a writer and maternal feminist who introduced Froebel's kindergarten in the Netherlands. Van Calcar also was the leader of a Christian branch of spiritualism. The focus is pointed at parallels between her reading of Froebel and of "messages" from spirits in the…

  3. Calcareous nannofossil events in the pre-evaporitic Messinian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Alessandra; Lozar, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    During the Messinian (7.2 to 5.3 Ma) the Mediterranean area experienced fast and deep climatic and eustatic structural changes. The stratigraphic framework for this interval is relatively well constrained and the beginning of the Messinian salinity crisis dated at 5.97 Ma determine a duration of at least 1.2 Ma for the pre-evaporitic Messinian that is object of this study. Several sites (Faneromeni, Pissouri, Polemi Fanantello borehole, Lemme, Pollenzo, Govone, Moncalvo; Wade and Bown, 2006; Kouwenhoven et al 2006, Morigi et al 2007, Lozar et al 2010, Dela Pierre et al 2011) show similar calcareous nannofossil record behavior, with several Sphenolithus spp. peaks recognised at different quotes in each of the sections. Aim of the present work is to compare the calcareous nannofossil data achieved in the above mentioned sections: interestingly, the occurrence of strongly oligotypic assemblages related to high salinity and unstable environments, appear to correlate precisely among the investigated sites and occur immediately before the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis, then offering the possibility to use them as bioevents for regional correlation. References Dela Pierre, F., Bernardi, E., Cavagna, S., Clari, P., Gennari, R., Irace, A., Lozar, F., Lugli, S., Manzi, V., Natalicchio, M., Roveri, M., Violanti, D., 2011. The record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy): The Alba section revisited. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 310, 238-255. Kouwenhoven, T.J., Morigi, C., Negri, A., Giunta, S., Krijgsman, W., Rouchy, J.M., 2006 Paleoenvironmental evolution of the eastern Mediterranean during the Messinian: Constraints from integrated microfossil data of the Pissouri Basin (Cyprus). Marine Micropaleontology 60, 17-44. Lozar, F., Violanti, D., Dela Pierre, F., Bernardi, E., Cavagna, S., Clari, P., Irace, A., Martinetto, E., Trenkwalder, S., 2010. Calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers herald the Messinian

  4. Multispectral Enhancement towards Digital Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky A. Bautista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Digital staining can be considered as a special form of image enhancement wherein the concern is not only to increase the contrast between the background objects and objects of interest, but to also impart the colors that mark the objects’ unique reactions to a specific stain. In this paper, we extended the previously proposed multispectral enhancement methods such that the colors of the background pixels can also be changed.

  5. DAPI Staining of Drosophila Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Wendy F; Sullivan, William

    2007-10-01

    INTRODUCTIONDrosophila embryos can be stained with specific fluorescent probes or antibodies through either direct or indirect immunofluorescence. In particular, several effective probes exist for visualizing DNA. 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is a commonly used DNA-binding dye. Because it is specific for double-stranded DNA, no prior RNase treatment is required. While the embryo staining method described here uses DAPI, other fluorescent DNA probes can be processed similarly.

  6. The Micro-mechanism Involved and Wollastonite Signature in the Calcareous Precipitates of Marine Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayu, K; Iyer, Nagesh R; Annaselvi, M; Ramachandra Murthy, A

    2016-03-01

    Micro-mechanical studies connecting the influence of extrinsic factors over intrinsic factors on 30 calcareous isolates obtained from marine sediment biofilms of the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) revealed that the fate of calcareous crystal precipitation is highly dependent on factors like extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), organic carbon and nutrition. Further studies exemplified that EPS and the organic carbon secreted by the isolates controlled the dissemination of the calcareous crystals precipitated. From the study, it is evident that an EPS concentration of 7-15 mg l(-1) was found to enhance the dissemination of the calcareous crystals. Atomic force micrographs explain the nucleation behaviour and morphology of the calcareous crystals precipitated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) showed that the crystals were mainly composed of calcite and partially wollastonite.

  7. Computational Visual Stress Level Analysis of Calcareous Algae Exposed to Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilssen, Ingunn; Eide, Ingvar; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Marcia Abreu; de Souza Tâmega, Frederico Tapajós; Nattkemper, Tim W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a machine learning based approach for analyses of photos collected from laboratory experiments conducted to assess the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water rhodolith-forming calcareous algae. This pilot study uses imaging technology to quantify and monitor the stress levels of the calcareous algae Mesophyllum engelhartii (Foslie) Adey caused by various degrees of light exposure, flow intensity and amount of sediment. A machine learning based algorithm was applied to assess the temporal variation of the calcareous algae size (∼ mass) and color automatically. Measured size and color were correlated to the photosynthetic efficiency (maximum quantum yield of charge separation in photosystem II, ΦPSIImax) and degree of sediment coverage using multivariate regression. The multivariate regression showed correlations between time and calcareous algae sizes, as well as correlations between fluorescence and calcareous algae colors. PMID:27285611

  8. The effect of elevated CO2 and N on decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous and non calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razavi Darbar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of plant residue in soils is considered as an important agricultural practice for maintaining soil fertility in sustainable agricultural system. CO2 levels, nitrogen fertilization and plant residues are factors which highly affect decomposition of added organic matter to soil. In this research controlled chambers were used to investigate the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 vs. 760 CO2 ppm under two N fertilization levels (0 vs. 500 kg N ha-1 and two replicates on decomposition of wheat and alfalfa residues in two calcareous (32.66 % CaCO3 and non calcareous soils (3.4 % CaCO3 at 6 times (0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 under laboratory condition. Soil moistures were adjusted at 70% of field capacity. The results showed that elevated CO2 significantly increased decomposition of residues in both calcareous and non calcareous soils. In the samples that received N fertilizer, decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues increased in both soils. From the obtained results, we concluded that in all treatments the amount of decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous soil were higher than non calcareous soils.

  9. Aptamer Stainings for Super-resolution Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Maria Angela Gomes; Rammner, Burkhard; Opazo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an invaluable tool to visualize molecules in their biological context with ease and flexibility. However, studies using conventional light microscopy have been limited to the resolution that light diffraction allows (i.e., ~200 nm). This limitation has been recently circumvented by several types of advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, which have achieved resolutions of up to ~10 nm. The resulting enhanced imaging precision has helped to find important cellular details that were not visible using diffraction-limited instruments. However, it has also revealed that conventional stainings using large affinity tags, such as antibodies, are not accurate enough for these imaging techniques. Since aptamers are substantially smaller than antibodies, they could provide a real advantage in super-resolution imaging. Here we compare the live staining of transferrin receptors (TfnR) obtained with different fluorescently labeled affinity probes: aptamers, specific monoclonal antibodies, or the natural receptor ligand transferrin. We observed negligible differences between these staining strategies when imaging is performed with conventional light microscopy (i.e., laser scanning confocal microscopy). However, a clear superiority of the aptamer tag over antibodies became apparent in super-resolved images obtained with stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy.

  10. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  11. Improved Whole-Blood-Staining Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian; Paul, Bonnie; Melton, Shannon; Guess, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Dramatic improvements have been made in NASA s Whole Blood Staining Device (WBSD) since it was last described in "Whole-Blood-Staining Device," NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10 (October 1999), page 64. The new system has a longer shelf life, a simpler and more effective operational procedure, improved interface with instrumentation, and shorter processing time. More specifically, the improvements have targeted bag and locking clip materials, sampling ports, and air pocket prevention. The WBSD stains whole blood collected during spaceflight for subsequent flow cytometric analysis. In short, the main device stains white blood cells by use of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to various fluorochromes, followed by lysing and fixing of the cells by use of a commercial reagent that has been diluted according to NASA safety standards. This system is compact, robust, and does not require electric power, precise mixing, or precise incubation times. Figure 1 depicts the present improved version for staining applications, which is a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) bag with a Luer-lock port and plastic locking clips. An InterLink (or equivalent) intravenous- injection port screws into the Luer-lock port. The inflatable/collapsible nature of the bag facilitates loading and helps to minimize the amount of air trapped in the fully loaded bag. Some additional uses have been identified for the device beyond whole blood staining. The WBSD has been configured for functional assays that require culture of live cells by housing sterile culture media, mitogens, and fixatives prior to use [Figure 2(a)]. Simple injection of whole blood allows cell-stimulation culture to be performed in reduced gravity conditions, and product stabilization prior to storage, while protecting astronauts from liquid biohazardous materials. Also, the improved WBSD has reconstituted powdered injectable antibiotics by mixing them with diluent liquids [Figure 2(b)]. Although such mixing can readily be performed on

  12. Isotopic composition of sulfate accumulations, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Alps are characterised by the presence of three main tectonic units, such as the Lower, Middle and Upper Austroalpine, which overlie the Penninicum (Tollmann, 1977). The Upper Austroalpine unit consists of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) overlying the Greywacke zone and corresponding to the Graz Paleozoic, Murau Paleozoic and the Gurktal Nappe. Evaporitic rocks are lacking in the later ones. The Northern Calcareous Alps are a detached fold and thrust belt. The sedimentation started in the Late Carboniferous or Early Permian, the age of the youngest sediments being Eocene. The NCA are divided into the Bajuvaric, Tirolic and Juvavic nappe complexes. The evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation occurs in connection with the Juvavic nappe complex at the base of the Tirolic units (Leitner et al., 2013). The Haselgebirge Formation consists mainly of salt, shales, gypsum and anhydrite and includes the oldest sediments of the NCA. The age of the Haselgebirge Formation, established by using spors and geochronological data, is Permian to Lower Triassic. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, the mineralogy of sulphate accumulations consists mainly of gypsum and anhydrite and subordonates of carbonates. The carbonates as magnesite, dolomite and calcite can be found either as singular crystals or as small accumulations within the hosting gypsum. Sulfides (sphalerite, galena, pyrite), sulfarsenides (enargite, baumhauerite) and native sulphur enrichments are known from several deposits (Kirchner, 1987; Postl, 1990). The investigated samples were selected from various gypsum and halite rich deposits of the Northern Calcareous Alps. A total of over 20 samples were investigated, and both oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition were determined for anhydrite, gyps, polyhalite, blödite and langbeinite. The sulfur isotopic values vary between 10.1 to 14 ‰ (CDT), with three values higher than 14 ‰. The Oxygen isotopic values show a range from 9 to 23 ‰ (SMOW). The sulfur

  13. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahidzadeh, N.; Schut, M.F.L.; Desarnaud, J.; Prat, M.; Bonn, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls, but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, deicing of

  14. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahidzadeh, N.; Schut, M.F.L.; Desarnaud, J.; Prat, M.; Bonn, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls, but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, deicing of airplan

  15. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukunda, Archana; Narayan, T V; Shreedhar, Balasundhari; Shashidhara, R; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson's, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  16. Calcareous nannofossil paleofluxes as proxy for pCO2 during the Aptian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Tiraboschi, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The Aptian (~121 to ~113 Ma) has been characterized by super-greenhouse climate and profound environmental perturbations, including the early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE 1) a, an episode of widespread organic matter burial in oxygen-depleted oceans. The OAE 1a is thought to be related to the emplacement of the Ontong Java Plateau which probably introduced in the atmosphere a large amount of CO2 with consequent impact on biota, climate and ocean chemistry. The major perturbation of the carbon cycle is mirrored by the carbon isotopic record which shows a negative shift at the beginning of OAE 1a followed by a positive excursion which persisted also after the event. The aim of this study is to reconstruct variations in biogenic carbonate production of calcareous nannofossils through the Aptian in order to detect if and how it has been affected by high pCO2. Calcareous nannoplankton is an excellent proxy for reconstructing present and paste surface water conditions, being extremely sensitive to changes in physical and chemical conditions of the oceans (pH). Calcareous nannoplankton act both as biological and carbonate pump, thus changes in nannoplankton assemblages affect the organic and inorganic carbon cycles. This makes coccolithophores key-organisms for understanding the biological pump and adsorption of atmospheric CO2 into the oceans. Experiments on living coccolithophores indicates that coccolith type, abundance and degree of mineralization depend on chemical-physical-trophic conditions as well as on pCO2. Production of dwarf/malformed coccoliths has been documented in the geological record through OAE 1a. Here we present quantitative analyses of nannofossil micrite in thin sections, reconstructing nannofossil absolute abundances and calcite paleofluxes in three drill sites: the Cismon core (Northern Italy), Piobbico core (Central Italy) and DSDP Site 463 in the mid-Pacific Mountains. In these sites, nannofossil absolute abundances and paleofluxes show a

  17. Extraction and quantification of microphytobenthic Chl a within calcareous reef sands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hannides, Angelos K; Glazer, Brian T; Sansone, Francis J

    2014-01-01

    Calcareous reef sands are characterized by high concentrations of photosynthetic pigments that extend well below the sediment surface, as well as by high variability in concentrations between study sites...

  18. Endolithic fungi from deep sea calcareous substrata: isolation and laboratory studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.; Sharma, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    Fungi were isolated from calcareous animal shells at 100-860 m depth in the Bay of Bengal. All the species isolated were terrestrial ones, Aspergillus restrictus Smith being the most common. The behaviour of this fungus at various hydrostatic...

  19. Etika Berbusana Mahasiswa Stain Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Suryani Wijaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is about behavior of human being, such as which one is right or wrong. The ethics is always affecting the human life. The ethics gives people orientation how he/she do manything every time every day. Islamic ethics consists of the way how someone interact each other; how someone should do or not to do, how to sit, how to walk, how to eat or drink, how to sleep, or how to get dressed. Al-Qur’an uses three terms to define about dressing, they are: libas, tsiyah, and sarahi. Dressing has a function as covering the body, as assessoris, as the way to do Islamic taqwa, and as an identiy. Dressing ethics of the female students of STAIN Samarinda has been regulated by the rector regulation No 19 of the year 2002 about relation and dressing ethics for the students of STAIN Samarinda.

  20. [Giemsa stain's 100th year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-Sasiaín, José

    2003-03-01

    Research work associated with the development of Giemsa stain is revived, with emphasis on the methylene blue polychromes. A short biographical sketch of Dr. Berthold Gustav Carl Giemsa is presented, along with the composition of his original formulation and its mec. HPLC analyses of his azur II indicated the following composition: methylene blue 63.6%, azur B 28.6%, azur A 4.4%, azur C 1.4%, thionin 1.9%. Azur I was not "pure", but rather a mixture of thionin and all of its 3 and 7 N-methylated derivatives. Lillie inferred that it was probably prepared by an acid oxidation process. Applications of Giemsa stain reported in the last 32 years are tabulated.

  1. The calcar femorale: a tale of historical neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, R L

    1997-01-01

    The term calcar femorale (originally referring to a bony spur projecting into the cancellous tissue of the base of the femoral neck) differs from most anatomical terms in that it has developed separate meanings in different areas of use. In particular, its present meaning for most orthopedic surgeons differs from its classical anatomical significance. This work shows that the classical, "textbook" anatomical interpretation-usually attributed to Merkel (1874, cited by Harty, 1957, J. Bone Joint Surg. [Am.] 39:625-630)-is not entirely correct, being based on an incomplete appreciation of the true nature of the three-dimensional structure of the upper end of the femur. Though Humphry (1858, A Treatise on the Human Skeleton, Cambridge, England: Macmillan) was aware of the importance of the third dimension, it was the largely neglected work of Dixon (1910, J. Anat. Physiol., 44:223-230), itself published to draw attention to the ideas of Krause (1909, in Bardeleben's Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, Jena: Gustav Fischer), which indicated the true nature of the calcar femorale and the limitations of Merkel's view. Dixon's work has been developed and consolidated by others such as Garden (1961, J. Bone Joint Surg. [Br.] 43:576-589), who was apparently unaware of Dixon, just as Dixon himself appears to have been unaware of the work of Bigelow (1875, published in Bigelow, 1900, The Mechanisms of Dislocations and Fracture of the Hip, Boston: Little, Brown), which pre-empted one of his major concepts. Even earlier work by Bigelow (1869, published in Bigelow; 1900, The Mechanisms of Dislocations and Fracture of the Hip, Boston: Little, Brown) appears to have pre-empted that of Merkel. The adoption of the three-dimensional, "Dixon concept" of the bony anatomy of the upper end of the femur leads to an entirely different set of structural engineering analogies from those two-dimensional ones which have become commonplace since the work of Ward (1838, cited by Garden, 1961, J

  2. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  3. Calcareous microfossil-based orbital cyclostratigraphy in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Rachel; DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Microfaunal and geochemical proxies from marine sediment records from central Arctic Ocean (CAO) submarine ridges suggest a close relationship over the last 550 thousand years (kyr) between orbital-scale climatic oscillations, sea-ice cover, marine biological productivity and other parameters. Multiple paleoclimate proxies record glacial to interglacial cycles. To understand the climate-cryosphere-productivity relationship, we examined the cyclostratigraphy of calcareous microfossils and constructed a composite Arctic Paleoclimate Index (API) "stack" from benthic foraminiferal and ostracode density from 14 sediment cores. Following the hypothesis that API is driven mainly by changes in sea-ice related productivity, the API stack shows the Arctic experienced a series of highly productive interglacials and interstadials every ∼20 kyr. These periods signify minimal ice shelf and sea-ice cover and maximum marine productivity. Rapid transitions in productivity are seen during shifts from interglacial to glacial climate states. Discrepancies between the Arctic API curves and various global climatic, sea-level and ice-volume curves suggest abrupt growth and decay of Arctic ice shelves related to climatic and sea level oscillations.

  4. Calcareous microfossil-based orbital cyclostratigraphy in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Rachel E.; DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.

    2016-10-01

    Microfaunal and geochemical proxies from marine sediment records from central Arctic Ocean (CAO) submarine ridges suggest a close relationship over the last 550 thousand years (kyr) between orbital-scale climatic oscillations, sea-ice cover, marine biological productivity and other parameters. Multiple paleoclimate proxies record glacial to interglacial cycles. To understand the climate-cryosphere-productivity relationship, we examined the cyclostratigraphy of calcareous microfossils and constructed a composite Arctic Paleoclimate Index (API) "stack" from benthic foraminiferal and ostracode density from 14 sediment cores. Following the hypothesis that API is driven mainly by changes in sea-ice related productivity, the API stack shows the Arctic experienced a series of highly productive interglacials and interstadials every ∼20 kyr. These periods signify minimal ice shelf and sea-ice cover and maximum marine productivity. Rapid transitions in productivity are seen during shifts from interglacial to glacial climate states. Discrepancies between the Arctic API curves and various global climatic, sea-level and ice-volume curves suggest abrupt growth and decay of Arctic ice shelves related to climatic and sea level oscillations.

  5. The fatty acids of calcareous sponges (Calcarea, Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Andrea; Wörheide, Gert; Thiel, Volker

    2006-09-01

    Twenty-nine specimens of calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea, Phylum Porifera), covering thirteen representative species of the families Soleneiscidae, Leucaltidae, Levinellidae, Leucettidae, Clathrinidae, Sycettidae, Grantiidae, Jenkinidae, and Heteropiidae were analysed for their fatty acids. The fatty acids of Calcarea generally comprise saturated and monounsaturated linear (n-), and terminally methylated (iso-, anteiso-) C(14)-C(20) homologues. Furthermore, polyunsaturated C(22) fatty acids and the isoprenoic 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid were found. The most prominent compounds are n-C(16), iso-C(17), iso-C(18), n-C(18), n-C(20). In addition, a high abundance of the exotic 16-methyloctadecanoic acid (anteiso-C(19)) appears to be a characteristic trait of Calcarea. Long-chain 'demospongic acids', typically found in Demospongiae and Hexactinellida, are absent in Calcarea. The completely different strategy of calcarean fatty acid synthesis supports their phylogenetic distinctiveness from a common Demospongiae/Hexactinellida taxon. Both intraspecific and intraclass patterns of Calcarea showed great similarity, suggesting a conserved fatty acid composition that already existed in the last common ancestor of Calcinea and Calcaronea, i.e. before subclasses diverged.

  6. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Mukunda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson′s, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Results: Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  7. Common Genetic Denominators for Ca++-Based Skeleton in Metazoa: Role of Osteoclast-Stimulating Factor and of Carbonic Anhydrase in a Calcareous Sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E. G.; Wang, Xiaohong; Grebenjuk, Vlad A.; Korzhev, Michael; Wiens, Matthias; Schloßmacher, Ute; Schröder, Heinz C.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-based matrices serve predominantly as inorganic, hard skeletal systems in Metazoa from calcareous sponges [phylum Porifera; class Calcarea] to proto- and deuterostomian multicellular animals. The calcareous sponges form their skeletal elements, the spicules, from amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). Treatment of spicules from Sycon raphanus with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) results in the disintegration of the ACC in those skeletal elements. Until now a distinct protein/enzyme involved in ACC metabolism could not been identified in those animals. We applied the technique of phage display combinatorial libraries to identify oligopeptides that bind to NaOCl-treated spicules: those oligopeptides allowed us to detect proteins that bind to those spicules. Two molecules have been identified, the (putative) enzyme carbonic anhydrase and the (putative) osteoclast-stimulating factor (OSTF), that are involved in the catabolism of ACC. The complete cDNAs were isolated and the recombinant proteins were prepared to raise antibodies. In turn, immunofluorescence staining of tissue slices and qPCR analyses have been performed. The data show that sponges, cultivated under standard condition (10 mM CaCl2) show low levels of transcripts/proteins for carbonic anhydrase or OSTF, compared to those animals that had been cultivated under Ca2+-depletion condition (1 mM CaCl2). Our data identify with the carbonic anhydrase and the OSTF the first two molecules which remain conserved in cells, potentially involved in Ca-based skeletal dissolution, from sponges (sclerocytes) to human (osteoclast). PMID:22506035

  8. Common genetic denominators for Ca++-based skeleton in Metazoa: role of osteoclast-stimulating factor and of carbonic anhydrase in a calcareous sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Grebenjuk, Vlad A; Korzhev, Michael; Wiens, Matthias; Schlossmacher, Ute; Schröder, Heinz C

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-based matrices serve predominantly as inorganic, hard skeletal systems in Metazoa from calcareous sponges [phylum Porifera; class Calcarea] to proto- and deuterostomian multicellular animals. The calcareous sponges form their skeletal elements, the spicules, from amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). Treatment of spicules from Sycon raphanus with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) results in the disintegration of the ACC in those skeletal elements. Until now a distinct protein/enzyme involved in ACC metabolism could not been identified in those animals. We applied the technique of phage display combinatorial libraries to identify oligopeptides that bind to NaOCl-treated spicules: those oligopeptides allowed us to detect proteins that bind to those spicules. Two molecules have been identified, the (putative) enzyme carbonic anhydrase and the (putative) osteoclast-stimulating factor (OSTF), that are involved in the catabolism of ACC. The complete cDNAs were isolated and the recombinant proteins were prepared to raise antibodies. In turn, immunofluorescence staining of tissue slices and qPCR analyses have been performed. The data show that sponges, cultivated under standard condition (10 mM CaCl(2)) show low levels of transcripts/proteins for carbonic anhydrase or OSTF, compared to those animals that had been cultivated under Ca(2+)-depletion condition (1 mM CaCl(2)). Our data identify with the carbonic anhydrase and the OSTF the first two molecules which remain conserved in cells, potentially involved in Ca-based skeletal dissolution, from sponges (sclerocytes) to human (osteoclast).

  9. Common genetic denominators for Ca++-based skeleton in Metazoa: role of osteoclast-stimulating factor and of carbonic anhydrase in a calcareous sponge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E G Müller

    Full Text Available Calcium-based matrices serve predominantly as inorganic, hard skeletal systems in Metazoa from calcareous sponges [phylum Porifera; class Calcarea] to proto- and deuterostomian multicellular animals. The calcareous sponges form their skeletal elements, the spicules, from amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC. Treatment of spicules from Sycon raphanus with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl results in the disintegration of the ACC in those skeletal elements. Until now a distinct protein/enzyme involved in ACC metabolism could not been identified in those animals. We applied the technique of phage display combinatorial libraries to identify oligopeptides that bind to NaOCl-treated spicules: those oligopeptides allowed us to detect proteins that bind to those spicules. Two molecules have been identified, the (putative enzyme carbonic anhydrase and the (putative osteoclast-stimulating factor (OSTF, that are involved in the catabolism of ACC. The complete cDNAs were isolated and the recombinant proteins were prepared to raise antibodies. In turn, immunofluorescence staining of tissue slices and qPCR analyses have been performed. The data show that sponges, cultivated under standard condition (10 mM CaCl(2 show low levels of transcripts/proteins for carbonic anhydrase or OSTF, compared to those animals that had been cultivated under Ca(2+-depletion condition (1 mM CaCl(2. Our data identify with the carbonic anhydrase and the OSTF the first two molecules which remain conserved in cells, potentially involved in Ca-based skeletal dissolution, from sponges (sclerocytes to human (osteoclast.

  10. Sperm viability assessment in marine invertebrates by fluorescent staining and spectrofluorimetry: A promising tool for assessing marine pollution impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Boni, Raffaele; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2017-09-06

    The viability of spermatozoa is a crucial parameter to evaluate their quality that is an important issue in ecotoxicological studies. Here, a new method has been developed to rapidly determine the viability of spermatozoa in three marine invertebrates: the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis. This method employed the dual DNA fluorescent staining coupled with spectrofluorimetric analysis. The dual fluorescent staining used the SYBR-14 stained live spermatozoa and propidium iodide stained degenerated cells that had lost membrane integrity. Stain uptake was assessed by confocal microscopy and then the percentage of live and dead spermatozoa was quantified by spectrofluorimetric analysis. The microscopic examination revealed three populations of spermatozoa: living-SYBR-14 stained, dead-PI stained, and dying-doubly stained spermatozoa. The fluorescence emission peak values recorded in a spectrofluorimeter provide the portion of live and dead spermatozoa showing a significant negative correlation. The stain combination was further validated using known ratios of live and dead spermatozoa. The present study demonstrated that the dual DNA staining with SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was effective in assessing viability of spermatozoa in marine invertebrates and that spectrofluorimetric analysis can be successfully employed to evaluate the percentage of live and dead spermatozoa. The method develop herein is simple, accurate, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective, so it could be a useful tool by which marine pollutants may be screened for spermiotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transformation of Applied Phosphorus in a Calcareous Fluvisol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUSHU-XIN; GUOZHI-FEN; 等

    1993-01-01

    A new inorganic phosphorus(IP) fractionation scheme developed by Jiang and Gu wasused in an incubation experiment to investigate the transformation of applied P in a calcareous fluvisol.The results show that after addition of common superphosphate (CSP),the Ca2-P in the soil decreased gradually and transformed largely to the less available Fe-P,Al-P and Ca8-P,rather than to the unavailable forms of Ca10-P and O-P.The different IP fractions ranked in the following order with respect to the increment by addition of CSP after 120 days of incubation:Fe-P>Al-P>Ca8-P>Ca2-P.After addition of pig manure,the content of Ca2-P in the soil increased rapidly at first and then decreased slowly,and the amount of different IP fractions accumulated after 120 days of incubation ranked in the following order:Ca2-P>Fe-P>Ca8-P>Al-P.Evidently,the variation in content of Ca2-P and the order of increase in different IP fractions in incubation induced by application of pig manure were quite different from that of CSP.The increase in IP fractions in the incubation of broad bean green manure (BBGM) for 120 days was in the rank of Fe-P>Ca2-P>Ca8-P;but because organic phosphorus(OP)of BBGM degraded relatively slowly,the increment in IP fractions was lower than that of pig manure.Wheat straw was difficult to mineralize and induced a strong biological fixation of soil P,resulting in a decrease of the content of Ca2-P,even Ca8-P,Fe-P and Al-P.

  12. Boron and Zinc Transport Through Intact Columns of Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. MAHMOOD-UL-HASSAN; M. S. AKHTAR; G. NABI

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) can be significant in some pedomorphic conditions, which can cause contamination of shallow groundwater and economic losses. Boron and Zn adsorption and transport was studied using 8.4 cm diameter ×28 cm long intact columns from two calcareous soil series with differing clay contents and vadose zone structures:Lyallpur soil series, clay loam (fine-silty, mixed, hyperthermic Ustalfic Haplargid), and Sultanpur soil series, sandy loam (coarse-silty, mixed, hyperthermic Ustollic Camborthid). The adsorption isotherms were developed by equilibrating soil with 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 aqueous solution containing varying amounts of B and Zn and were fitted to the Langmuir equation. The B and Zn breakthrough curves were fitted to the two-domain convective-dispersive equation. At the end of the leaching experiment, 0.11 L 10 g L-1 blue dye solution was also applied to each column to mark the flow paths.The Lyallpur soil columns had a slightly greater adsorption partition coefficient both for B and Zn than the Sultanpur soil columns. In the Lyallpur soil columns, B arrival was immediate but the peak concentration ratio (the concentration in solution at equilibrium/concentration applied) was lower than that in the Sultanpur soil columns. The breakthrough of B in the Sultanpur soil columns occurred after about 10 cm of cumulative drainage in both the columns; the rise in effluent concentration was fast and the peak concentration ratio was almost 1. Zinc leaching through the soil columns was very limited as only one column from the Lyallpur soil series showed Zn breakthrough in the effluent where the peak concentration ratio was only 0.05. This study demonstrates the effect of soil structure on B transport and has implications for the nutrient management in field soils.

  13. Silicomolybdenum Blue Colorimetric Determination of Available Si in Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUGUOHUA; ZHENGWENJUAN; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the determination of available Si content in calcareous soils with Mo blue colorimetric analysis method.The experimental results showed that two acid reagents of sodium acetate buffering solution (pH 4) and 0.025 mol/L citric acid generally had a strong ability of extracting soil available Si,and theri soil filtrates were colorless,On the contrary,two alkaline extractants of 20 mg/mL sodium carbonate and 0.5 mol/L sodium bicarbonate only got a relevantly lower soil avaiable Si and theri extracts appeared deep color of organic and other pigments,which could be decolorized by adding certain amounts of P-free activated charcoal (about 0.1g/g soil),Int the procedure of Mo blue colorimetry,adding proper amount of oxalic acid and K(SbO)C4H4O6 could eliminate the interference of P to Si and Si to P,respectively.The concentration of acids was not the major factor suppressing the interferences between P and Si in the colorimetric analysis.In the medium of 0.2-0.8mole H×+/L sulfuric acid,the intensity of the silicomolybdate blue color did not vary with acidity,no matter whether(NH4)2 Fe(SO4)2 or ascorbic acid was used as reductive reagent.About 10 minutes was needed to from a fully blue complex at 20-25°C,After 30 minutes,the blue color would slowly change into light one,and hence,the colorimetric process should be finished within a short time.

  14. Safranin O staining using a microwave oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Z; Minbay, F Z; Cavusoglu, L

    2000-11-01

    We investigated the effects of microwave irradiation on a safranin O staining method for paraffin sections of formalin fixed rabbit larynx. The control sections were stained according to the conventional method, and the experimental sections were stained in microwave oven for 10 sec at 360 W in Weigert's iron hematoxylin, and for 30 sec at 360 W in fast green and 0.1% safranin O staining solutions. Light microscopic examination of the sections revealed that the microwave heating did not adversely affect the staining properties of cartilage tissue compared to the conventional staining method. Small differences such as darker staining of the matrix and shrinkage of the cytoplasm was observed in some microwave treated sections. The present study revealed that microwave application can be used safely for the safranin O method with the advantage of reduced staining time.

  15. A Neogene seawater sulfur isotope age curve from calcareous pelagic microfossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, James W.; Arthur, Michael A.; Richardson, Mark

    1989-09-01

    Until now, our knowledge of the sulfur isotopic composition of seawater through geologic time has depended on stable isotopic analysis of sulfate from evaporites. Owing to the sporadic occurrence of evaporites through time, the secular sulfur isotope age curve contains many gaps with little or no data. In order to fill in some of these gaps, particularly the Neogene, we have analyzed the sulfur isotopic composition of carbonate-associated sulfate in carbonate tests of planktonic foraminifera. Other investigators have shown that sulfate may occur in biogenic calcites either lattice-bound, as micro-fluid inclusions, in adsorbed phases, or as protein polysaccharides. Whatever the origin, the sulfur isotopic composition of this sulfate appears to be representative of that of the water in which the organism lived, as shown by results on recent calcareous foraminifera and macrofossils. Using this approach for study of Miocene to Recent pelagic marine sediments supplemented by new data for Miocene marine evaporites from the Gulf of Suez, we have found that the δ 34S of seawater has decreased about 2.5‰ over the past 25 m.y. and that most of the decrease has occurred over the past 5 m.y., parallelling a decrease in the δ 13C of dissolved oceanic bicarbonate from the same interval. Sedimentary redox models based on isotope records suggest that organic carbon and sulfide burial have both decreased over the past 5 m.y. Alternatively, an increase in weathering rates over the past 5 m.y. would not require a decrease in organic carbon or sulfide burial as long as the isotopic effect of the increased river input exceeds the isotopic effect of the burial of the reduced species. In either case, the net result would be a decrease in atmospheric p O 2.

  16. Rock composition and origin of the Duwi Formation calcareous rocks, Upper Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baioumy H.M.; Attia A.M.; Boulis S.N.; Hassan M.S.; Helmy M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Upper Cretaceous phosphorite beds of the Duwi Formation, Upper Egypt, are intercalated with limestone, sandy limestone, marl, calcareous shales, and calcareous sandstone. Calcareous intercalations were subjected to field and detailed petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical investigations in order to constrain their rock composition and origin.Mineralogically, dolomite, calcite, quartz, francolite and feldspars are the non-clay minerals. Smectite, kaolinite and illite represent the clay minerals. Major and trace elements can be classified as the detrital and carbonate fractions based on their sources. The detrital fraction includes the elements that are derived from detrital sources, mainly clay minerals and quartz, such as Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K, Ba, V, Ni, Co, Cr, Zn, Cu, Zr, and Mo. The carbonate fraction includes the elements that are derived from carbonates, maily calcite and dolomite, such as Ca, Mg and Sr. Dolomite occurs as being dense, uniform, mosaic, very fine-to-fine, non-ferroan, and non-stoichiometrical suggesting its early diagenetic formation in a near-shore oxidizing shallow marine environment. The close association and positive correlation between dolomite and smectite indicates the role of clay minerals in the formation of dolomite as a source of Mg 2+-rich solutions.Calcareous rocks were deposited in marine, oxidizing and weakly alkaline conditions, marking a semi-arid climatic period. The calcareous/argillaceous alternations are due to oscillations in clay/carbonate ratio.

  17. Calcareous sponges from abyssal and bathyal depths in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Hans Tore; Janussen, Dorte; Tendal, Ole S.

    2011-03-01

    Calcareous sponges have traditionally been regarded as shallow-water organisms, a persistent myth created by Hentschel (1925), partly supported by the problematic question of calcareous skeletal secretion under high partial CO 2-pressure below the CCD in the abyss. Up to now, only few species world-wide of the sponge class Calcarea have been described from depths below 2000 m. By far, the largest number of records of Antarctic Calcarea is known from shelf areas between 50 and 400 m depth. They have only been sporadically recorded on the lower shelf and the upper slope from depths between 570 and 850 m. From abyssal depths in the Antarctic there are no previous records of calcareous sponges. It was therefore a big surprise when the first true deep-sea Calcarea from the Antarctic were collected at depths between 1120 and 4400 m during the ANDEEP I, II and III expeditions ( Janussen et al., 2006). To date, five calcareous sponge species have been found, including three species new to science. The three new species belong to the genera Ascaltis, Clathrina and Leucetta. Although calcareous sponges are rare in the Antarctic deep sea, they seem to constitute a constant component of the fauna. Antarctic Calcarea shows all the characteristics of need for revision and further collection and investigation. Still, many new species are likely to be discovered in the Antarctic deep-sea.

  18. Collembolan species diversity of calcareous canyons in the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buşmachiu, Galina; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The study of collembolan communities from the Vîşcăuți canyon in Moldova revealed 63 species belonging to 41 genera and 12 families, including four species new for the fauna of the Republic of Moldova. A checklist of collembolan species identified in the five calcareous canyons sampled so far in Moldova is included, with data on habitats, life form, occurrence and comments of distribution of most remarkable species. Of the 98 recognized species of these calcareous canyons, only 38 were shared by Vîşcăuți and the other canyons. The richness of calcareous habitats together with the high heterogeneity in faunal composition suggests that further significant increase in the species richness of the region may be expected.

  19. BIO-DIAGNOSTICS OF STABILITY OF BROWN CALCAREOUS SOIL OF UTRISH NATURAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikov S. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have presented a number of modeling experiments to investigate the chemical pollution of brown calcareous soil. It assesses the stability of brown calcareous soil of a nature reserve called Utrish to contamination with heavy metals in biological parameters. Pollution of brown calcareous soil with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil causes a significant reduction in biological parameters. The degree of reduction depends on the nature of the contaminant and its concentration in the soil. The study showed that the indicators used in the biological condition of the soil, could be recommended for use for diagnosis, monitoring, and regulation of chemical pollution of brown soil. According to the degree of resistance to chemical contamination, the brown soils of Russia form the following series: typical brown - brown carbonate - brown leached

  20. HIGH RESOLUTION CALCAREOUS PLANKTON BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE SERRAVALLIAN SUCCESSION OF THE TREMITI ISLANDS (ADRIATIC SEA, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA M. FORESI

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannofossil content of two Middle Miocene sections of the Tremiti Islands (Southern Adriatic Sea have been studied. The two sections are composed of marly limestones rich in calcareous plankton which show cyclic alternations of indurated (higher carbonate content whitish and less indurated grey or reddish beds. The two sections represent a succession with a total thickness of 38 m. Samples have been collected at a mean spacing of 10-15 cm; qualitative analyses were performed on one sample per meter but quantitative analyses were made for each sample. The abundance fluctuations of several marker species proved to be a very useful tool to correlate the two sections. The astronomical calibration of the sedimentary cycles provided absolute ages for all the recognised calcareous plankton bioevents. 

  1. Comparison of three preservation techniques for slowing dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic rich sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Self-Trail, Jean; Schultz, Arthur P.

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to halt or reduce dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic and/or pyrite-rich sediments, three different methods of short-term storage preservation were tested for efficacy: vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, and buffered water. Abundance counts of calcareous nannofossil assemblages over a six month period showed that none of the three preservation methods were consistently effective in reducing assemblage loss due to dissolution. In most cases, the control slides made at the drill site had more abundant calcareous nannofossil assemblages than those slides made from sediments stored via vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, or buffered water. Thin section and XRD analyses showed that in most cases, dissolution, even in carbonate-rich sediments.

  2. Staining tomato fruit cuticle and exocarp tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E T

    1997-05-01

    Immature fruit of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Celebrity), was examined to observe the cuticle, its interface with the epidermis, and the general histology of the outer exocarp. Paraffin sections were stained first with Bismarck brown Y. Structures already stained in various hues of brown were stained again with either azure B, aluminum hematoxylin and alcian blue SGX, or the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. Bismarck brown-azure B displayed the cuticle in strong contrast with subjacent tissue; however, nuclei were not easily identified at low magnification. Bismarck brown-hematoxylin-alcian blue produced a sharply contrasted combination of yellow cuticle, bright blue cell walls and purple nuclei. Nuclei stained purple with hematoxylin were easily identified at x100. Bismarck brown-PAS stained the cuticle golden brown and subjacent tissues mageta red. Surprisingly, epidermal cells stained specifically and intensely with PAS while pretreatment with an aldehyde blockade and omission of periodic acid prevented staining of all other tissues.

  3. TRIASSIC AND JURASSIC CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS OF THE PIZZO MONDELLO SECTION: A SEM STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEREO PRETO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pizzo Mondello is a ca. 500 m thick pelagic-hemipelagic succession cropping out in Sicily consisting of a nodular cherty limestone facies association of late Carnian to late Norian age. The uppermost portion was attributed to the Rhaetian and is represented by the plane-bedded Portella Gebbia Limestone. The section has been proposed as the stratotype for the base of the Norian stage. The calcareous nannofossil content of limestones was studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM in two portions of the Pizzo Mondello section, one within 'La Cava' that encompasses all the proposed horizons for the base of the Norian, and one within the Portella Gebbia Limestone in the uppermost part of the section.Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the first portion display low diversity, being constituted exclusively by calcispheres, that may constitute up to 40% of the sediment volume. Species richness increases in the upper portion. Initially, samples are dominated by Prinsiosphaera triassica, a nannolith of unknown taxonomic affinity. Rare calcareous dinocysts (Thoracosphaera cf. geometrica and coccoliths are present in few samples. Uppermost samples are still dominated by "calcispheres" comparable to Thoracosphaera, but also yield a variety of coccoliths and nannoliths.Calcareous nannofossil distribution was calibrated with conodont and radiolarian biostratigraphy. On the basis of this integrated work, specimens attributed to cf. Thoracosphaera, observed in the lower portion of the section, are late Carnian to early Norian, while samples dominated by Prinsiosphaera, with rare Thoracosphaera and coccoliths are Rhaetian. The calcareous nannofossil assemblage of the uppermost samples, along with radiolarians and the absence of conodonts, point to a Jurassic age (Pliensbachian for the uppermost Portella Gebbia Limestone at Pizzo Mondello. In conclusion, the age of the uppermost part of the Pizzo Mondello section is Jurassic, i.e., younger than previously

  4. A landscape approach for the study of calcareous grassland plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahy G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation is the principal threat on biodiversity in semi-natural habitats. The consequences of fragmentation for biodiversity may be studied within the framework of landscape ecology. In this context, three paradigms have generated hypotheses that need to be tested in field situations: the insular biogeography paradigm, the small population paradigm and the metapopulation paradigm. Examination of two case studies showed that Belgian calcareous grasslands have undergone a drastic fragmentation process during the last century. Size of patches is shown to be the most important determinant for species richness, species composition and probability of presence of characteristic species in a fragmented system of calcareous grasslands in Calestienne, Belgium.

  5. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by roots could increase the bioavailability of Zn and P in calcareous soils. Methods White lupin was grown in nutrient solution and in two calcareous soils in a rhizobox. Rhizosphere soil solution wa...

  6. Influence of Sweet Crude Oil on Nucleation and Corrosion Resistance of Calcareous Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinieh, S. M.; Shahrabi, T.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Farrokhi Rad, M.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of sweet crude oil on calcareous scale deposition under cathodic protection of carbon steel in artificial seawater was investigated using chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In the presence of crude oil, calcareous deposit formation is influenced in terms of both kinetic and nucleation mostly in high volume concentrations. It is indicated that the CaCO3 deposition is hindered by absorption of active surface compounds present in oil on to the surface mainly due to strong covalent bonding of aromatic compounds.

  7. Janus Green B as a rapid, vital stain for peripheral nerves and chordotonal organs in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, J E

    1993-08-01

    Effective staining of peripheral nerves in live insects is achieved with the vital stain Janus Green B. A working solution of 0.02% Janus Green B in saline is briefly applied to the exposed peripheral nervous system. The stain is then decanted and the dissection flooded with fresh saline, resulting in whole nerves being stained dark blue in contrast to surrounding tissues. This simple and reliable technique is useful in describing the distribution of nerves to their peripheral innervation sites, and in locating small nerve branches for extracellular physiological recordings. The stain is also shown to be useful as a means of enhancing the contrast between scolopale caps and surrounding tissues in chordotonal organs, staining chordotonal organ attachment strands, and the crista acustica (tympanal organ) of crickets and katydids. The advantages of Janus Green B over traditional peripheral nerve strains, in addition to its shortcomings, are discussed.

  8. Acetic orcein staining of prefixed tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-05-01

    Acetic orcein stains formol- and Carnoy-fixed tissues, coloring mast cells, nuclei, basophilic cytoplasm, cerebral corpora amylacea, and cartilage strongly; keratin and erythrocytes moderately; muscle and collagen weakly. Guinea pig Brunner gland and rat colonic goblet cell mucins did not stain. The red nuclear stain contrasts well with the Prussian blue reaction of hemosiderin and the ferric ferricyanide (Turnbull's blue) reaction of enterochromaffin. A weak (0.01%) fast-green FCF stain changes collagen and sometimes smooth muscle to green, without impairing nucleic acid or mast cell staining. Picroindigocarmine gives blue collagen, yellow muscle, and red elastin, nucleic acids and mast cells. Picro-methyl blue tends to override the red nuclear stain. Carnoy fixation is somewhat better for nuclei, formol for basophil cytoplasms.

  9. Tissue Staining (Chromoscopy of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Brian Fennerty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue staining, or chomoscopy, is used as an adjunctive technique during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Chemical agents are applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface to identify specific epithelia or to enhance the mucosal surface characteristics of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This aids in the recognition of subtle lesions (ie, polyps or allows directed targeting of biopsies (ie, sprue or Barrett’s esophagus to increase the yield of endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. The four endoscopic tissue-staining techniques in use are vital staining, contrast staining (chromoscopy, reactive staining and tattooing. Some of the agents used for endoscopic tissue staining and the uses of chromoscopy in identifying pathology of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon during endoscopy are discussed.

  10. Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage records for the Cicogna section: toward a detailed template of late Paleocene and early Eocene global carbon cycle and nannoplankton evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnini, C.; Spofforth, D. J. A.; Dickens, G. R.; Rio, D.; Pälike, H.; Backman, J.; Muttoni, G.; Dallanave, E.

    2015-09-01

    We present records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across an 81 m thick section of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks now exposed along Cicogna Stream in northeast Italy. The studied stratigraphic section represents sediment accumulation in a bathyal hemipelagic setting from approximately 57.5 to 52.2 Ma, a multi-million-year time interval characterized by perturbations in the global carbon cycle and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The bulk carbonate δ13C profile for the Cicogna section, once placed on a common time scale, resembles that at several other locations across the world, and includes both a long-term drop in δ13C, and multiple short-term carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). This precise correlation of widely separated δ13C records in marine sequences results from temporal changes in the carbon composition of the exogenic carbon cycle. However, diagenesis has likely modified the δ13C record at Cicogna, an interpretation supported by variations in bulk carbonate δ18O, which do not conform to expectations for a primary signal. The record of CaCO3 content reflects a combination of carbonate dilution and dissolution, as also inferred at other sites. Our detailed documentation and statistical analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages show major differences before, during and after the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum. Other CIEs in our lower Paleogene section do not exhibit such a distinctive change; instead, these events are sometimes characterized by variations restricted to a limited number of taxa and transient shifts in the relative abundance of primary assemblage components. Both long-lasting and short-lived modifications to calcareous nannofossil assemblages preferentially affected nannoliths or holococcoliths such as Discoaster, Fasciculithus, Rhomboaster/Tribrachiatus, Spenolithus and Zygrhablithus, which underwent distinct variations in

  11. Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage records for the Cicogna section: toward a detailed template of late Paleocene and early Eocene global carbon cycle and nannoplankton evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Agnini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across an 81 m thick section of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks now exposed along Cicogna Stream in northeast Italy. The studied stratigraphic section represents sediment accumulation in a bathyal hemipelagic setting from approximately 57.5 to 52.2 Ma, a multi-million-year time interval characterized by perturbations in the global carbon cycle and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The bulk carbonate δ13C profile for the Cicogna section, once placed on a common time scale, resembles that at several other locations across the world, and includes both a long-term drop in δ13C, and multiple short-term carbon isotope excursions (CIEs. This precise correlation of widely separated δ13C records in marine sequences results from temporal changes in the carbon composition of the exogenic carbon cycle. However, diagenesis has likely modified the δ13C record at Cicogna, an interpretation supported by variations in bulk carbonate δ18O, which do not conform to expectations for a primary signal. The record of CaCO3 content reflects a combination of carbonate dilution and dissolution, as also inferred at other sites. Our detailed documentation and statistical analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages show major differences before, during and after the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum. Other CIEs in our lower Paleogene section do not exhibit such a distinctive change; instead, these events are sometimes characterized by variations restricted to a limited number of taxa and transient shifts in the relative abundance of primary assemblage components. Both long-lasting and short-lived modifications to calcareous nannofossil assemblages preferentially affected nannoliths or holococcoliths such as Discoaster, Fasciculithus, Rhomboaster/Tribrachiatus, Spenolithus and Zygrhablithus, which underwent

  12. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  13. Evidence For Different Reaction Pathways For Liquid And Granular Micronutrients In A Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefits of Mn and Zn fluid fertilizers over conventional granular products in calcareous sandy loam soils have been agronomically demonstrated. We hypothesized that the differences in the effectiveness between granular and fluid Mn and Zn fertilizers is due to different Mn ...

  14. Gravimetric Determination of Inorganic Carbon in Calcareous Soils Using the Carbonate-Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic carbon affects many important physical, chemical and microbiological soil properties. In calcareous soils, the inorganic carbon has to be measured and subtracted from the total carbon to obtain organic carbon. Our objective was to develop a gravimetric technique to quantify inorganic carbon ...

  15. Consolidation and strength properties of calcareous sediments from Kaneohe and Kailua Bays, Hawaii

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Brandes, H.G.; Khadge, N; Nakayama, D.D

    -carbonate sediments do not seem to have a large effect on consolidation and triaxial behavior. Due to contrasting mineralogies between the land-derived volcanic soils and the calcareous sediment of marine origin, carbonate content is a useful property that serves...

  16. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  17. Community structure and palaeoecological implications of calcareous encrusters on artificial substrates across a Mexican Caribbean reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, L. J.; Blanchon, P.; Murphy, G.; Cousins, L.; Perry, C. T.

    2015-03-01

    Calcareous encrusters stabilize and bind reef framework and contribute significantly to reef function and biodiversity. Their calcareous skeletons have good preservation potential which, together with well-constrained habitat preferences, makes them useful indicators of past environmental conditions. However, our knowledge of environmental tolerances and spatial distribution trends of encrusters remains limited. Here, we determine the distributional trends and environmental tolerances of calcareous encrusters and delineate the relevance of particular species/genera for palaeoecological reconstructions. Artificial microhabitats were created to mimic exposed, partially cryptic, and cryptic habitats in various orientations for periods of 1 and 2 yr. Calcareous encruster coverage was high, especially in cryptic habitats (95 %), and clear successional trends were observed over time. Total encruster carbonate production was intermediate (range 72.8-476.3 g m-2 yr-1). Encruster species and growth morphology exhibited a defined zonation in response to reef sub-environment, microhabitat, and environmental factors such as light and wave exposure. Linear regression identified three coralline algae genera, as well as Homotrema rubrum, Planorbulina spp., and cemented bivalves as those most likely to occur in particular habitats. Therefore, the presence of these species may be used with greater confidence in distinguishing palaeomicroenvironments.

  18. Biosuper as a phosphate fertilizer in a calcareous soil with low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... applying sulphur at different rates of 10, 15 and 20% and inoculated with ... of measured parameters were obtained from biofertilizers with ... growth in calcareous and alkali soils is the use of acidify- .... Values followed by different letters are different (P = 0.05), using the .... Jones J, Wolf B, Mills HA (1991).

  19. A simple, gravimetric method to quantify inorganic carbon in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total carbon (TC) in calcareous soils has two components: inorganic carbon (IC) as calcite and or dolomite and organic carbon (OC) in the soil organic matter. The IC must be measured and subtracted from TC to obtain OC. Our objective was to develop a simple gravimetric technique to quantify IC. Th...

  20. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Holm, P E; Nejrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Sparsely encrusted hardground in the Darriwilian calcareous sandstone of Cape Pakri, NW Estonia (Baltica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of echinoderm and ptilodictyid bryozoan holdfasts on the surface of Darriwilian calcareous sandstone in northwestern Estonia indicates that it was lithified before encrustation. Pelmatozoans outnumber the bryozoans and cover a larger area of the hardground although both are very sparse. The hardground is very sparsely encrusted (0.37% of the total area studied and lacks signs of bioerosion.

  2. Conservation of sandy calcareous grassland: what can be learned from the land use history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Madelen Ödman

    Full Text Available Understanding the land use history has proven crucial for the conservation of biodiversity in the agricultural landscape. In southern Sweden, very small and fragmented areas of the disturbance-dependent habitat xeric sand calcareous grassland support a large number of threatened and rare plants and animals. In order to find out if historical land use could explain variation in present-day habitat quality, the land use on eight such sites was traced back to the 18th century and compared with key factors such as the amount of bare sand, lime content and P availability. There was no support for the common explanation of the decline in xeric sand calcareous grassland being caused by abandonment of agricultural fields during the last century. Instead, fertilization history was the main explanation for the difference in depletion depth of CaCO3 seen between the sites. The decline in xeric sand calcareous grassland since the 18th century is most probably the result of the drastic changes in land use during the 19th century, which put an end to the extensive sand drift. Since cultivation was shown to have played an important role in the historical land use of xeric sand calcareous grassland, grazing alone may not be the optimal management option for these grasslands. Instead more drastic measures are needed to restore the high calcium content and maintain proper disturbance levels.

  3. Evidence For Different Reaction Pathways For Liquid And Granular Micronutrients In A Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefits of Mn and Zn fluid fertilizers over conventional granular products in calcareous sandy loam soils have been agronomically demonstrated. We hypothesized that the differences in the effectiveness between granular and fluid Mn and Zn fertilizers is due to different Mn ...

  4. Living in Living Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of current and potential applications of living technology to urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, while solutions involving living technology are reviewed. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed.

  5. Use of calcareous algae and monensin in Nellore cattle subjected to an abrupt change in diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ferreira Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Additives are used in high concentrate diets to prevent metabolic disorders in cattle. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of calcium sources and monensin on the control of ruminal acidosis in Nellore cattle that were abruptly shifted to a high (92.3% concentrate diet. Eight cannulated steers were randomly assigned to two contemporary 4x4 Latin square. Treatments involved the addition of a calcium source, either limestone (LI or a product derived from calcareous algae (CA, to the basic diet with or without the presence of monensin. Calcareous alga (Lithothamnium calcareum is a natural and renewable product and a source of calcium carbonate. The quantity of added limestone, calcareous algae and monensin was 7.1g kg-1, 7.4g kg-1 and 30mg kg-1 DM, respectively. There was no effect of calcium source (P=0.607 or monensin (P=0.294 on feed intake or on the concentration of short chain fatty acids. Treatments with calcareous algae resulted in a higher mean ruminal pH (P=0.039, a shorter amount of time with the ruminal pH under 5.2 (P<0.001 and a better control of blood pH (P=0.006. Treatments with monensin also resulted in a shorter amount of time with the ruminal pH below 5.2 (P=0.023. Calcareous algae were shown to be effective in controlling adverse changes in the rumen and in blood variables for Nellore cattle that were subjected to an abrupt change to a high concentrate diet.

  6. Properties of blue-stained wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Humar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-stain fungi. Among them Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila are reported as the most important staining organism. In previous researches, it was generally considered that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. However, there were some opposite results published as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two blue stain fungi A. pullulans and S. pithyophila for periods between two and eight weeks. FTIR, weight, colour and non-destructive modulus of elasticity measurements were performed before and after exposure. The results showed that blue stain fungi, besides considerable discoloration, do not cause any significant damage to wood. Surprisingly the non-destructive MoE analysis showed that modulus of elasticity even slightly increase after fungal exposure.

  7. Structure and Properties of Nanomaterials: From Inorganic Boron Nitride Nanotubes to the Calcareous Biomineralized Tubes of H. dianthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanur, Adrienne Elizabeth

    Several nanomaterials systems, both inorganic and organic in nature, have been extensively investigated by a number of characterization techniques including atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The first system consists of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) synthesized via two different methods. The first method, silica-assisted catalytic chemical vapour deposition (SA-CVD), produced boron nitride nanotubes with different morphologies depending on the synthesis temperature. The second method, growth vapour trapping chemical vapour deposition (GVT-CVD), produced multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs). The bending modulus of individual MWBNNTs was determined using an AFM three-point bending technique, and was found to be diameter-dependent due to the presence of shear effects. The second type of nanomaterial investigated is the biomineralized calcareous shell of the serpulid Hydroides dianthus. This material was found to be an inorganic-organic composite material composed of two different morphologies of CaCO3, collagen, and carboxylated and sulphated polysaccharides. The organic components were demonstrated to mediate the mineralization of CaCO3 in vitro. The final system studied is the proteinaceous cement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. The secondary structure of the protein components was investigated via FTIR, revealing the presence of beta-sheet conformation, and nanoscale rod-shaped structures within the cement were identified as beta-sheet containing amyloid fibrils via chemical staining. These rod-shaped structures exhibited a stiffer nature compared with other structures in the adhesive, as measured by AFM nanoindentation.

  8. New observations on Permocalculus gosaviensis SCHLAGINTWEIT, 1991 (calcareous alga from the Upper Cretaceous of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Gosau Group, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schlagintweit

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available New thin-sections from the Upper Cretaceous Gosau Group of Brandenberg, Tyrol, Austria, yielded well-preserved specimens of the calcareous alga Permocalculus gosaviensis Schlagintweit. Microfacies are foraminiferal-algal wackestones; stratigraphy is Upper Turonian (?Lower Coniacian. It is shown that the original description was based on oblique sections leading to the incorrect assumption of a piriform segment morphology. Instead, P. gosaviensis is a representative of Permocalculus of the group with constrictions/swellings along the segments (waxing-and-waning type. Permocalculus nikolapantici Radoičić from the Upper Turonian of Serbia is considered a junior synonym of Permocalculus gosaviensis Schlagintweit.

  9. Phallacidin stains the kinetochore region in the mitotic spindle of the green algae Oedogonium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, K; Pickett-Heaps, J D

    2001-01-01

    We found previously that in living cells of Oedogonium cardiacum and O. donnellii, mitosis is blocked by the drug cytochalasin D (CD). We now report on the staining observed in these spindles with fluorescently actin-labeling reagents, particularly Bodipy FL phallacidin. Normal mitotic cells exhibited spots of staining associated with chromosomes; frequently the spots appeared in pairs during prometaphase-metaphase. During later anaphase and telophase, the staining was confined to the region between chromosomes and poles. The texture of the staining appeared to be somewhat dispersed by CD treatment but it was still present, particularly after shorter (Oedogonium spp. The previous observations on living cells suggest that it is a functional component of the kinetochore-MT complex involved in the correct attachment of chromosomes to the spindle.

  10. DNA DIFFERENTIAL STAINING AND ITS CLINICAL APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄维城; 潘瑞彭; 欧阳仁荣; 杜心垿; 蒋莉芳; 陈小龙; 宣政华; 奚志红

    1992-01-01

    DNA differential stain is a simple method distinguishing cells of proliferative from quiescent stage. Double stranded DNA in quiescent cells is easily denatured by weak acid into single strand. As double stranded nucleic acid combined with methyl green and single stranded nucleic acid with pyronin, we make use of methyl green pyronin staining method to the cells treated with weak acid to distinguish proliferating from quiescent cells. This paper reports the observation of leukemia cells in the bone marrow smears of 100 cases of untreated acute leukemia by DNA differential staining method. The percentage of Go cells was lowest in ALL and highest in APL.

  11. Surface staining of small intestinal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1977-01-01

    Small intestinal biopsies are most often by routine examined under a stereo-microscope, prior to embedding for histological examination. This is done in order to get a view of the appearance of the mucosal pattern, especially villus configuration. The distinctness of the surface pattern however......, is improved considerably if the biopsies are stained with Alcian Green and/or PAS before they are examined. In the present paper a detailed description is given of staining of small intestinal biopsies as whole mounts. The difference between the unstained and the stained biopsies is illustrated by a few...

  12. Living and dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages from bathyal environment in the Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Letizia; Frezza, Virgilio; Ingrassia, Michela; Latino Chiocci, Francesco; Martorelli, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    The western Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), located about 30 km away from the Italian Peninsula, is composed of three volcanic islands (Ponza, Palmarola and Zannone). Sedimentological and micropaleontological characterization of the infralittoral and circalittoral zones in the Pontine Archipelago was already been studied, whereas it is lacking for deeper environments. The present study shows the preliminary micropaleontological results carried out on samples collected in the bathyal zone (at 500 mwd) in the Ventotene basin. Sediment samples, high resolution multibeam bathymetry, biological and video data were acquired in order to characterise both the morphological and biological features of study area, during the research cruise "BOLLE 2014" carried out on June 2014 aboard to the R/V Urania. Sediment samples were collected with a multi-corer, that allowed sampling of the upper decimetre of the sediments column. Successively, each core was sliced horizontally every 1 cm from the top to the bottom. For micropaleontological analyses, all samples were stained with Rose Bengal to distinguish living and dead assemblages. For each interval of the core all living specimens and 200 dead benthic foraminifera were classified and counted. Diversity index (α-Fisher, Shannon indices) and Faunal Density (specimens/gr) were calculated to define the structure of the assemblage. A variable number of living benthic foraminifera (Rose Bengal-stained) were found in all core-intervals (7-155 tests), with the Faunal Density ranging from 3 to 82 specimens/gr. A total of 77 species are recognised from living benthic foraminiferal assemblages, with a range of 4-31 species found in each core-interval. The α-Fisher index ranges between 3.88 and 43.45, whereas Shannon index shows a more limited variability (1.28-2.92). Among the living foraminifera, calcareous imperforate tests are very abundant, with percentages ranging between 33.3 and 100%; perforate species are subordinate

  13. Simplified heavy metal staining techniques demonstrated with Fast Plant leaf tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HARRISJOSEPHB; THOMASG.GUILLIAMS; 等

    1992-01-01

    Fast Plant (Brassica rapa,Cruciferae)leaf tissue fixed in glutaradehyde-acrolein and post-fixed in osmium,was examined for response to several easilyprepared heavy metal stains.Lead and uranium,separately and in combination,gave typical results across the spectrum of cell orgeanelles.As s single stain following osmium,bismuth produced images seemingly equivalent to lead and uranium.Phosphotungstic acid produced very good membrane delineation but produced a washed-out background image similar to that from lead staining .Carbohydrate compounds were especially responsive to ruthenium;the cytoplasm and the matrix of all organelles were also stained very well.The procedures were no more demanding than traditional staining methods and may be easily used in research and teaching .Fast Plant materials are a reliable,quick nand easy source of living material.

  14. A supravital cytodiagnostic stain for urinary sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternheimer, R

    1975-02-24

    A mixture of aqueous solutions of National fast blue, a copper-phthalocyanine dye, and pyronin B, a red xanthene dye, when added to fresh urinary sediment, supravitally stains benign or malignant cells and the various types of casts and their inclusions. The stain facilitates identification of the formed elements and particularly aids in the differentiation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from lymphocytes, histiocytes, plasma cells, and renal tubular cells. A variable staining of casts and their inclusions has been observed. Tumor cells may be recognized by nuclear abnormalities or, in case of hyperchromatic tendency, by a very rapid and early uptake of dye preceding that of the surrounding cells. The staining method is rapid and simple enough for routine urinalysis and screening procedures.

  15. Calcareous scales formed by cathodic protection—an assessment of characteristics and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Anne; Morizot, Arnaud P.

    2002-09-01

    An electrochemical technique using the assessment of the rate of oxygen reduction at a rotating disk electrode has been used in conjunction with surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study the first layer formation of calcareous deposits under cathodic protection in various solutions. The study has shown that the electrochemical technique is an effective means of monitoring scale formation and that the existing models which predict scale formation by a basal layer of Mg(OH) 2 followed by CaCO 3 are over-simplified. The advantages of using an integrated approach of electrochemical analysis and a surface sensitive analysis technique in characterising the initial scale as a function of the solution composition are presented and discussed and revised models describing the temporal development of calcareous layers in saline solutions are suggested.

  16. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF PALEOCENE TO MIDDLE EOCENE SUCCESSIONS (TERTIARY FLYSCH AUCTT. OF THE NORTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA CATANZARITI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An accurate biostratigraphic study of the Paleocene-middle Eocene calcareous nannofossils was performed on the turbiditic successions that characterize the Northern Apennines Mt. Caio, Farini d’Olmo, Mt. Sporno and Mt. Penice Units, belonging to the “Tertiary Flysch Auctt.” and referable to the External Ligurides. This geologic complex accumulated in a link key area, located between the oceanic Ligure-Piedmontese domain and the Adria continental margin. The reference biostratigraphic scheme used in the study is the recently published calcareous nannofossil biozonation proposed for the Paleogene by Agnini et al. (2014. The obtained biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic data suggest that further investigation is needed to clarify the tectono-sedimentary evolution and to unravel the complex architecture of the External Ligurides.

  17. Biot's coefficient as an indicator of strength and porosity reduction: Calcareous sediments from Kerguelen Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Borre, Mai Kirstine; Fabricius, Ida Lykke;

    2010-01-01

    Biot's coefficient, β. In calcareous ooze, β is one. Mechanical compaction reduces porosity, but only leads to a minor decrease in β. Recrystallization renders particles smoother, but does not lead to reduction in β unless it gives rise to pore stiffening cementation. Pore stiffening cementation causes......Chalk develops as a result of diagenesis of pelagic calcareous ooze. In a newly deposited ooze sediment, porosity ranges from 60% to 80% but porosity reduces with burial. We studied how different porosity reduction mechanisms change the strength of these deep sea carbonate-rich sediments and effect...... β to fall, even when porosity remains constant. Biot's coefficient correlates with strength-indicating properties: compressional and shear modulus, oedometer modulus, yield strength, strain from direct loading and creep strain. Our data indicate that β may be used for predicting the diagenetic...

  18. Medial Calcar Erosion Is Associated With Synovial Thickness in Patients With ASR XL Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Rami; Rolfson, Ola; Donahue, Gabrielle S; Hussey, Daniel K; Potter, Hollis G; Wallace, Robert; Muratoglu, Orhun K; Malchau, Henrik

    2016-11-01

    Medial calcar erosion is considered a late finding in patients with severe adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) with dual modular neck stems. Although calcar erosion has been associated with dual modular neck stems, one would expect similar findings in standard stems owing to analogous corrosion at the taper junction. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether medial calcar erosion is also associated with ALTR in patients with standard stems in metal-on-metal (MoM) THA. A total of 96 patients (108 hips) with MoM THA had radiographs and a magnetic resonance imaging of the hip performed at a mean time of 5.7 years after surgery. Calcar erosion was assessed from radiographs. ALTR Anderson grade, diameter, volume, and synovial thickness were assessed from magnetic resonance imaging. Calcar erosion was present in 54 hips (50%) and was associated with ALTR synovial thickness but not with Anderson grade, diameter, or volume. Most of the hips with calcar erosion (n = 45) had an ALTR (positive predictive value 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.92). The relative risk of having a synovial thickness > 3 mm increased by a factor of 3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.3-6.5) if calcar erosion was observed. Subtle erosions of the medial calcar after MoM THA may be an early indicator of an adverse reaction to wear particles warranting cross-sectional imaging. Synovial thickness may also be more relevant than absolute size in the classification of ALTR severity and collateral tissue damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New Grocott Stain without Using Chromic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiogama, Kazuya; Kitazawa, Kayo; Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Onouchi, Takanori; Inada, Ken-Ichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established a new "ecological" Grocott stain for demonstrating fungi, based upon a 4R principle of refusal, reduction, reuse, and recycle of waste management. Conventional Grocott stain employs environmentally harsh 5% chromic acid for oxidization. Initially, we succeeded in reducing the concentration of chromic acid from 5% to 1% by incubating the solution at 60°C and using five-fold diluted chromic acid solution at which point it was reusable. Eventually, we reached the refusal level where 1% periodic acid oxidization was efficient enough, when combined with preheating of sections in the electric jar, microwave oven, or pressure pan. For convenience sake, we recommend pressure pan heating in tap water for 10 min. Stainability of fungi in candidiasis and aspergillosis was comparable with conventional Grocott stain, while Mucor hyphae showed enhanced staining. The modified sequence was further applicable to detecting a variety of mycotic pathogens in paraffin sections. Our environmentally-friendly Grocott stain also has the advantage of avoiding risk of human exposure to hexavalent chromium solution in the histopathology laboratory. The simple stain sequence is can be easily applied worldwide.

  20. Repeated use of ion-exchange resin membranes in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the consistency of nutrient extraction among repeated cycles of ion-exchange resin membrane use. Two sandy calcareous soils and different equilibration temperatures were tested. No single nutrient retained consistent values from cycle to cycle in all treatments, although both soil source and temperature conferred some influence. It was concluded that the most conservative use of resin membranes is single-use.

  1. The calcar screw in angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmen Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With new minimally-invasive approaches for angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures, the need for the placement of oblique inferomedial screws ('calcar screw' has increasingly been discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of calcar screws on secondary loss of reduction and on the occurrence of complications. Methods Patients with a proximal humeral fracture who underwent angular stable plate fixation between 01/2007 and 07/2009 were included. On AP views of the shoulder, the difference in height between humeral head and the proximal end of the plate were determined postoperatively and at follow-up. Additionally, the occurrence of complications was documented. Patients with calcar screws were assigned to group C+, patients without to group C-. Results Follow-up was possible in 60 patients (C+ 6.7 ± 5.6 M/C- 5.0 ± 2.8 M. Humeral head necrosis occurred in 6 (C+, 15.4% and 3 (C-, 14.3% cases. Cut-out of the proximal screws was observed in 3 (C+, 7.7% and 1 (C-, 4.8% cases. In each group, 1 patient showed delayed union. Implant failure or lesions of the axillary nerve were not observed. In 44 patients, true AP and Neer views were available to measure the head-plate distance. There was a significant loss of reduction in group C- (2.56 ± 2.65 mm compared to C+ (0.77 ± 1.44 mm; p = 0.01. Conclusions The placement of calcar screws in the angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures is associated with less secondary loss of reduction by providing inferomedial support. An increased risk for complications could not be shown.

  2. Sunlight-enhanced calcareous deposition on cathodic stainless steel in natural seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Eashwar, M.; SathishKumar, P.; Ravishankar, R.; Subramanian, G.

    in seawater, cathodic protection, calcareous deposits, biofilms, photosynthesis, coral calcification. ---------------------------- *Corresponding Author: E-mail: meashwar1960@yahoo.in 2 Introduction Practised throughout the world and particularly... aragonite calcification through an enhancement of the photosynthesis carried out by symbiotic organisms known as the zooxanthellae. Indeed, coral calcification is known to occur 3 to 5 times faster in day-time than at night (Moya et al. 2006...

  3. A landscape approach for the study of calcareous grassland plant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Mahy G.; Bisteau E.

    2005-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is the principal threat on biodiversity in semi-natural habitats. The consequences of fragmentation for biodiversity may be studied within the framework of landscape ecology. In this context, three paradigms have generated hypotheses that need to be tested in field situations: the insular biogeography paradigm, the small population paradigm and the metapopulation paradigm. Examination of two case studies showed that Belgian calcareous grasslands have undergone a dras...

  4. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on tropical fleshy and calcareous algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Dorothy Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the heightened awareness of ocean acidification (OA effects on marine organisms, few studies empirically juxtapose biological responses to CO2 manipulations across functionally distinct primary producers, particularly benthic algae. Algal responses to OA may vary because increasing CO2 has the potential to fertilize photosynthesis but impair biomineralization. Using a series of repeated experiments on Palmyra Atoll, simulated OA effects were tested across a suite of ecologically important coral reef algae, including five fleshy and six calcareous species. Growth, calcification and photophysiology were measured for each species independently and metrics were combined from each experiment using a meta-analysis to examine overall trends across functional groups categorized as fleshy, upright calcareous, and crustose coralline algae (CCA. The magnitude of the effect of OA on algal growth response varied by species, but the direction was consistent within functional groups. Exposure to OA conditions generally enhanced growth in fleshy macroalgae, reduced net calcification in upright calcareous algae, and caused net dissolution in CCA. Additionally, three of the five fleshy seaweeds tested became reproductive upon exposure to OA conditions. There was no consistent effect of OA on algal photophysiology. Our study provides experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that OA will reduce the ability of calcareous algae to biomineralize. Further, we show that CO2 enrichment either will stimulate population or somatic growth in some species of fleshy macroalgae. Thus, our results suggest that projected OA conditions may favor non-calcifying algae and influence the relative dominance of fleshy macroalgae on reefs, perpetuating or exacerbating existing shifts in reef community structure.

  5. Validation of alternative marine calcareous skeletons as recorders of global climate changes (CALMARS): final report

    OpenAIRE

    Willenz, P.; Berry, L.; Dehairs, F.A.; Baeyens, W.F.J.; Gillikin, D. P.; E. Keppens; Ridder, F.; André, L.; Verheyden, S.; A. Lorrain; Dubois, Ph.; Ranner, H.; Blust, R.; Mubiana, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding environmental proxies stored in biogenic carbonates has become a major task and a multidisciplinary endeavour. The CALMARs project (CALcareous MARine Skeletons as recorders of global climate changes) involved reading these records stored in biogenic carbonates and aimed at validating the skeletons of sclerosponges, bivalves and echinoderms as environmental proxies. The first aim was to determine the growth rates of two hyper calcified sponges: Ceratoporella nicholsoni and Petrob...

  6. Geochemistry and hydrology of a calcareous fen within the Savage Fen wetlands complex, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komor, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Savage Fen is a wetlands complex at the base of north-facing bluffs in the Minnesota River Valley. The complex includes 27.8 hectares of calcareous fen that host rare calciphile plants whose populations are declining in Minnesota. Water and sediment compositions in the calcareous fen were studied to gain a better understanding of the hydrologie System that sustains the rare vegetation. Groundwater in the fen is a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate type with circumneutral pH values. The groundwater composition is the resuit of interactions among water, dissolved and gaseous carbon species, carbonates, and ion exchangers. Shallow groundwater is distinguished from deep groundwater by smaller concentrations of chloride, sulfate, magnesium, and sodium, and larger concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonium. Magnesian calcite is the prevalent carbonate in unconsolidated sedimentary fill beneath the fen and is an important source and sink for dissolved calcium, magnesium, and inorganic carbon. Calcite concentrations just below the water table are small because aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of organic matter increase the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), decrease pH, and cause calcite to dissolve. Thick calcite accumulations just above the water table, in the root zone of calciphile plants, result from water table fluctuations and attendant changes in PCO2. Groundwater beneath Savage Fen recharges in lakes and ponds south of the fen and upwells to the surface within the fen. Water at the water table is a mixture of upwelling groundwater and water near the surface that flows downslope from higher elevations in the fen. Changes in oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of shallow groundwater indicate that the proportion of upwelling groundwater in shallow groundwater decreases downgradient in the calcareous fen. Encroachment of reed grasses into the calcareous fen may reflect human-caused disturbances in the recharge area.

  7. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE) IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. RUSINA

    2003-01-01

    The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly w...

  8. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on tropical fleshy and calcareous algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maggie Dorothy; Price, Nichole N; Smith, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the heightened awareness of ocean acidification (OA) effects on marine organisms, few studies empirically juxtapose biological responses to CO2 manipulations across functionally distinct primary producers, particularly benthic algae. Algal responses to OA may vary because increasing CO2 has the potential to fertilize photosynthesis but impair biomineralization. Using a series of repeated experiments on Palmyra Atoll, simulated OA effects were tested across a suite of ecologically important coral reef algae, including five fleshy and six calcareous species. Growth, calcification and photophysiology were measured for each species independently and metrics were combined from each experiment using a meta-analysis to examine overall trends across functional groups categorized as fleshy, upright calcareous, and crustose coralline algae (CCA). The magnitude of the effect of OA on algal growth response varied by species, but the direction was consistent within functional groups. Exposure to OA conditions generally enhanced growth in fleshy macroalgae, reduced net calcification in upright calcareous algae, and caused net dissolution in CCA. Additionally, three of the five fleshy seaweeds tested became reproductive upon exposure to OA conditions. There was no consistent effect of OA on algal photophysiology. Our study provides experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that OA will reduce the ability of calcareous algae to biomineralize. Further, we show that CO2 enrichment either will stimulate population or somatic growth in some species of fleshy macroalgae. Thus, our results suggest that projected OA conditions may favor non-calcifying algae and influence the relative dominance of fleshy macroalgae on reefs, perpetuating or exacerbating existing shifts in reef community structure.

  9. Effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Yessica; Boehmer, Hans Juergen; Wagner, Helene H

    2014-04-01

    Response to habitat fragmentation may not be generalized among species, in particular for plant communities with a variety of dispersal traits. Calcareous grasslands are one of the most species-rich habitats in Central Europe, but abandonment of traditional management has caused a dramatic decline of calcareous grassland species. In the Southern Franconian Alb in Germany, reintroduction of rotational shepherding in previously abandoned grasslands has restored species diversity, and it has been suggested that sheep support seed dispersal among grasslands. We tested the effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland specialist plants and whether the response of plant populations to shepherding was limited to species dispersed by animals (zoochory). Specifically, we tested competing dispersal models and source and focal patch properties to explain landscape connectivity with patch-occupancy data of 31 species. We fitted the same connectivity models to patch occupancy and nuclear microsatellite data for the herb Dianthus carthusianorum (Carthusian pink). For 27 species, patch connectivity was explained by dispersal by rotational shepherding regardless of adaptations to zoochory, whereas population size (16% species) and patch area (0% species) of source patches were not important predictors of patch occupancy in most species. [Correction made after online publication, February 25, 2014: Population size and patch area percentages were mistakenly inverted, and have now been fixed.] Microsite diversity of focal patches significantly increased the model variance explained by patch occupancy in 90% of the species. For D. carthusianorum, patch connectivity through rotational shepherding explained both patch occupancy and population genetic diversity. Our results suggest shepherding provides dispersal for multiple plant species regardless of their dispersal adaptations and thus offers a useful approach to restore plant

  10. A Study of Calcareous Deposits on Cathodically Protected Mild Steel in Artificial Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous deposits were formed on steel under conditions of cathodic protection in artificial seawater at applied constant current densities ranging from 50 to 400 mA·m−2. The calcareous layers were characterized using a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG SEM in conjunction with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. At cathodic current densities of 50–100 mA·m−2 where corrosion was still occurring, a clear correlation existed between the iron containing corrosion product and the overlying magnesium hydroxide layer. This revealed that the mapping of magnesium rich areas on a steel surface can be used in the identification of local corrosion sites. At current densities of 150–200 mA·m−2, a layered deposit was shown to occur consisting of an inner magnesium-containing layer and an outer calcium-containing layer. At current densities of 300–400 mA·m−2, intense hydrogen bubbling through macroscopic pores in the deposits gave rise to cracking of the deposited film. Under such conditions deposits do not have a well-defined double layer structure. There is also preferential formation of magnesium-rich compounds near the steel surface at the early stages of polarisation and within the developing pores and cracks of calcareous deposits later on. Based on SEM/EDX investigation of calcareous depositions the impedance model was proposed and used to monitor in situ variations in steel corrosion resistance, and to calculate the thickness of formed deposits using the length of oxygen diffusion paths.

  11. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE) IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rusina, S.

    2003-01-01

    The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associa...

  12. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  13. Calcareous Sodic Soil Reclamation as Affected by Corn Stalk Application and Incubation:A Laboratory Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fa-Hu; R.KEREN

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory lysimeter experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of forage corn (Zea mays L.) stalk application on the CO2 concentration in soil air and calcareous sodic soil reclamation.The experimental treatments tested were soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) levels of 1,11,and 19,added corn stalk contents of 0 to 36 g kg-1,and incubation durations of 30 and 60 days.The experimental results indicated that corn stalk application and incubation significantly increased CO2 partial pressure in soil profile and lowered pH value in soil solution,subsequently increased native CaCO3 mineral dissolution and electrolyte concentration of soil solution,and finally significantly contributed to reduction on soil sodicity level.The reclamation efficiency of calcareous sodic soils increased with the added corn stalk.When corn stalks were added at the rates of 22 and 34 g kg-1 into the soil with initial ESP of 19,its ESP value was decreased by 56% and 78%,respectively,after incubation of 60 days and the leaching of 6.5 pore volumes (about 48 L of percolation water) with distilled water.Therefore,crop stalk application and incubation could be used as a choice to reclaim moderate calcareous sodic soils or as a supplement of phytoremediation to improve reclamation efficiency.

  14. The small-scale species mobility in calcareous grasslands - example from southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Bąba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the different measures of species mobility to describe the fine small-scale dynamics of calcareous grassland built mainly by perennial species and developed in the highly heterogeneous habitat of calcareous rocks. The community showed the low dynamics on a plot-scale (100 m2 and a high one on the scale of 1 m2. However, the studied species differed greatly in calculated indices: turnover rate, (T; 6-64, residence time (RT; 0.5-21.8 y and carousel time (CT; 4-420 y as well as the observed tendency to persistence on the spots (PERSIST and their re-colonisation (AGAIN. This allowed to distinguish the three groups of species: (1 "core species" characterized by high frequency and low T and high CT and RT values, which determine the low dynamics of a community on the plot scale, (2 species with intermediate mobility rate and (3 the group with high mobility rate. The observed cumulative frequencies of all the studied species (CFobs were much lower than expected under the random re-assignation model (CFRR. Moreover, they were also lower than those predicted by random immigration model (CFRI. The results showed that the "complex carousel" model rather than "single carousel" one explained better the small-scale dynamics of calcareous grasslands.

  15. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Julie K. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Copenhagen Recycling Center, Selinevej 2, DK-2300 Kobenhavn S (Denmark)], E-mail: jje@life.ku.dk; Holm, Peter E. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Nejrup, Jens [Copenhagen Recycling Center, Selinevej 2, DK-2300 Kobenhavn S (Denmark); Larsen, Morten B. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Borggaard, Ole K. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2009-03-15

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber uptakes. Despite high concentrations of cadmium ({>=}80 mg/kg) and zinc ({>=}3000 mg/kg) in leaves of willow grown on strongly polluted soil with up to 18 mg Cd/kg, 1400 mg Cu/kg, 500 mg Pb/kg and 3300 mg Zn/kg, it is unsuited on strongly polluted soils because of poor growth. However, willow proved promising on moderately polluted soils (2.5 mg Cd/kg and 400 mg Zn/kg), where it extracted 0.13% of total Cd and 0.29% of the total Zn per year probably representing the most mobile fraction. Cu and Pb are strongly fixed in calcareous soils. - Willow is suited for remediation of moderately heavy metal polluted calcareous soils.

  16. Effects of drought on cadmium accumulation in peanuts grown in a contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shenglan; Wang, Xvming; Su, Genqiang; Shi, Gangrong

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of drought stress on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in contaminated calcareous soils. Five peanut cultivars were grown in a calcareous soil spiked with 4 mg Cd kg(-1) soil (dry weight) under well-watered, mild drought, and severe drought conditions. The biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation in plant tissues were determined. The five cultivars significantly differed from each other in biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation. The effect of drought on Cd accumulation in peanuts varies with plant tissues, cultivars, and developmental stages. Drought decreased root Cd concentrations in seedlings of the two high Cd-accumulating cultivars (Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3), which is associated with increasing leaf active Fe content. However, for the mature plants, drought stress caused an increase in Cd accumulation in roots, pod walls, and seeds depending on peanut cultivars. Negative correlations were found between seed Cd concentration and biomasses in both preflowering seedlings and mature plants. The seed Cd concentration in mature plants was also observed to be positively correlated with the shoot Cd concentration in preflowering seedlings. The increased Cd concentration in seeds of drought-stressed peanut plants grown in Cd-contaminated calcareous soils might be attributed to the drought-induced decrease of biomass production.

  17. Diversity, distribution, and new phylogenetic information of calcareous dinoflagellates from the China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Feng GU; Zhao-He LUO; Yan WANG; Dong-Zhao LAN

    2011-01-01

    Calcareous dinoflagellates have been recorded from subarctic to tropical areas, inhabiting both neritic and oceanic regions. In the present study we analyse 12 sediment samples from the China Sea to establish the existence of calcareous dinoflagellates in this area. A total of 11 calcareous dinoflagellate species were recorded,among them, three genera (Calciodinellum, Leonella, Posoniella) and seven species (Calciodinellum albatrosianum,C. levantinum, C. operosum, Leonella granifera, Posoniella tricarinelloides, Scrippsiella irregularis, and S. regalis)were reported from the China Sea for the first time. Cysts of S. irregularis and S. precaria are identical, with a mesoepicystal archeopyle, representing the loss of 2-4' and 1-3a paraplates; however, their thecal plates vary slightly and differ from each other in 78 positions of the internal transcribed spacer sequence. Scrippsiella trochoidea is dominant in coastal areas, whereas Calciodinellum albatrosianum is the most abundant offshore. Scrippsiella irregularis is distributed widely along the coast of China, whereas S. precaria is recorded only in northern China.Leonella granifera is the second most abundant species offshore, comprising 15-40% of the cyst assemblage.

  18. Application of immunohistochemical staining to detect antigen destruction as a measure of tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onul, Abdullah; Colvard, Michael D; Paradise, William A; Elseth, Kim M; Vesper, Benjamin J; Gouvas, Eftychia; Deliu, Zane; Garcia, Kelly D; Pestle, William J; Radosevich, James A

    2012-09-01

    Electrocautery and directed energy devices (DEDs) such as lasers, which are used in surgery, result in tissue damage that cannot be readily detected by traditional histological methods, such as hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alternative staining methods, including 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) to stain live tissue, have been reported. Despite providing superior detection of damaged tissue relative to the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method, the MTT method possesses a number of drawbacks, most notably that it must be carried out on live tissue samples. Herein, we report the development of a novel staining method, "antigen destruction immunohistochemistry" (ADI), which can be carried out on paraffin-embedded tissue. The ADI method takes advantage of epitope loss to define the area of tissue damage and provides many of the benefits of live tissue MTT staining without the drawbacks inherent to that method. In addition, the authors provide data to support the use of antibodies directed at a number of gene products for use in animal tissue for which there are no species-specific antibodies commercially available, as well as an example of a species-specific direct antibody. Data are provided that support the use of this method in many tissue models, as well as evidence that ADI is comparable to the live tissue MTT method.

  19. CALCAR PRESERVING OSTEOTOMY IN CEMENTED BIPOLAR HEMIARTHROPLASTY FOR UNSTABLE TROCHANTERIC FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Intertrochanteric fractures in osteoporotic bones which are grossly comminuted are highly unstable and difficult to treat. Conservative treatment with traction and prolonged immobilisation lands up with many complications and often fatality. Rate of failure with internal fixation has been found to be high, especially in osteoporotic bones. Revision osteosynthesis is technically demanding and it leads to complications, a second surgical procedure for revision synthesis, arthroplasty or removal of a symptomatic implant is again a risky procedure in elderly patients with lot of comorbidities. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty with calcar preserving intracapsular osteotomy in the management of unstable trochanteric fractures in elderly patients with osteoporosis. Hemiarthroplasty in unstable trochanteric fractures have been described in the past with varying outcome. The reasons for poor outcome were shortening, varus positioning and abductor insufficiency. This was mainly due to the deficient medial support due to the removal of lesser trochanter and calcar. Recently, free calcar grafting excised from the removed neck for medial support was reported, but in our technique we are preserving the calcar and lesser trochanter with all its soft tissue and muscle attachments. MATERIALS AND METHODS 52 patients with mean age 71.4 (range from 65 to 89 who underwent cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty with calcar preserving osteotomy for unstable intertrochanteric fractures were prospectively evaluated. Posterior approach was used in all patients. Harris hip score was used for the clinical evaluation. The mean followup period was 5 years. RESULT In our study, which was done on 52 cases which had a mean age 71.4 years. The average Harris hip score was 81. Excellent to fair results were obtained at followup in 50 (96% cases, and in 2(4% cases the results were poor. Average hospital stay was 14

  20. Immunoperoxidase staining of cervicovaginal smears after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, M S; Thaler, H T; Gangi, M D; Hajdu, S I

    1992-01-01

    Cervicovaginal smears from 2 women with postirradiation dysplasia, 4 women with postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 30 women with irradiation atypia and 5 healthy, nonirradiated women were stained immunohistochemically with six keratin antibodies. For four of the antibodies--CK19 (BA17), EMA, PKK-1 and CAM 5.2--squamous cells showing irradiation atypia, postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma were more likely to stain positively than were nonirradiated squamous cells. For three of the antibodies in which multiple squamous cells stained positively, the proportion of squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma staining strongly was equal to or greater than the corresponding overall proportion for squamous cells showing irradiation atypia. This was statistically significant with only one antibody, PKK-1. No statistically significant differences were seen in staining of irradiated and nonirradiated squamous cells by MAK-6 and AE1:AE3. The data show that some keratin antigens are more often expressed in the irradiated groups and that there may be differences in the degree of antigen expression between squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma and squamous cells showing irradiation atypia.

  1. Intravital staining with methylene blue in tympanoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Sarfaty, Shlomo; Gavriel, Haim; Kraus, Moshe; Kaplan, Daniel; Puterman, Max

    2010-09-01

    Objective of the study is to investigate usefulness of the methylene blue staining for the operation of tympanoplasty in surgical training process with randomized, controlled trial. Two hospitals were involved: Department of Otolaryngology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, and Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Soroka University Medical Center. Tympanoplasty with graft placement was performed by young surgeons on 30 patients (30 ears) with anterior perforations using intraoperative staining of tympanoplasty grafts with methylene blue (Group 1). The same number of patients/ears was operated by the young surgeons without intraoperative staining (Group 2). 76 patients operated without staining by experienced surgeons served as a control group. Results showed tympanic membrane healing (graft take) in 30 (100%) cases in Group 1 and in 26 (86.66%) cases in Group 2. The pure-tone audiogram testing revealed significant improvement of hearing in all successful cases (p < 0.05). No side immediate or postponed effects were detected. We conclude that intravital staining with methylene blue in tympanoplasty simplifies the operation and could assist in better visualization and proper placement of the graft. This technique could be most useful in a training process for resident surgeons.

  2. The application of image cytometry to viability assessment in dual fluorescence-stained fish spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajshans, Martin; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2004-01-01

    The viability of spermatozoa has been assessed using SYBR 14 staining for DNA of living cells and propidium iodide staining for DNA of degenerate cells. This dual staining was performed on four fish species (Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii; common carp, Cyprinus carpio; tench, Tinca tinca and wels, Silurus glanis) and the proportions of live and dead spermatozoa were assessed by epifluorescence microscopy and image cytometry. Ten phase contrast and epifluorescent images were recorded per sample, corresponding images were overlaid, and the blended images were evaluated for live and dead spermatozoa, represented by green and red fluorescence signals. Live/dead proportions were assessed, after dual thresholding, by imaging software that counted absolute numbers of objects and computed their frequencies. All sperm heads were found to be labelled, emitting either green or red light. Mean numbers of spermatozoa per image were in the ranges 32-113, 61-105, 48-104 and 29-91 for Siberian sturgeon, common carp, tench and wels, respectively. The corresponding proportions of live spermatozoa were in the ranges 83.56-94.59%, 93.92-97.02%, 76.14-97.76% and 79.45-83.76%. Standard deviations did not exceed 5% of the means. The image cytometric system using dual staining with SYBR 14 and propidium iodide was clearly suitable for assessing the viability of freshwater fish spermatozoa.

  3. The Language of Stained-Glass Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Charl Anne

    2010-01-01

    The splendor and beauty of stained glass punctuates any room. In this article, the author describes a cross-curriculum project which incorporated the French classes' research and written study of France in the Middle Ages. For the project the author suggested Sainte-Chapelle which is considered a reliquary and was built by Louis IX to house the…

  4. Corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lapid-Gortzak; C.P. Nieuwendaal; A.R. Slomovic; L. Spanjaard

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report a case of corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline. Methods: A patient with crystalline keratopathy caused by Streptococcus viridans after corneal transplantation was treated topically with tetracycline eye drops, based on results of

  5. Autofluorescence of routinely hematoxylin and eosin- stained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... histological method, and staining by this dying method is dependant partly upon ... procedure that is specific for it, or for the chemical group to which it belongs ... Hematoxylin was found to have no effect on the inten- ... Hair pulp. -. - Inner root ... Autofluorescence of interstitial tissue makes structures such as ...

  6. STAINING OF VACCINIA ANTIGEN BY IMMUNOURANIUM TECHNIQUE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    An attempt to follow morphologically the development of vaccinia antigen in helium-lanthanum ( HeLa ) cells is reported. The conversion of rabbit...antisera to vaccinia virus and the preparation of vaccinia-infected HeLa cells for electron microscopy are described. With specific staining, viral

  7. The Language of Stained-Glass Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Charl Anne

    2010-01-01

    The splendor and beauty of stained glass punctuates any room. In this article, the author describes a cross-curriculum project which incorporated the French classes' research and written study of France in the Middle Ages. For the project the author suggested Sainte-Chapelle which is considered a reliquary and was built by Louis IX to house the…

  8. Photoacoustic imaging of port-wine stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Roy G.M.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Leeuwen, van Ton G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. - Study Design/Materials and Methods: PAI uses puls

  9. Isolation and identification of ferric reducing bacteria and evaluation of their roles in iron availability in two calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, N.; Lakzian, A.; Haghnia, G. H.; Karimi, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Iron is an essential element for all organisms which plays a crucial role in important biochemical processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. Iron deficiency seems to be an important problem in many calcareous soils. Biological dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction increases iron availability through reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and evaluate some bacterial isolates for their abilities to reduce Fe(III) in two calcareous soils. Three bacterial isolates were selected and identified from paddy soils by using 16S rRNA amplification and then inoculated to sterilized and non-sterilized calcareous soils in the presence and absence of glucose. The results showed that all isolates belonged to Bacillus genus and were capable of reducing Fe(III) to Fe(II) in vitro condition. The amount of Fe(III) reduction in sterilized calcareous soils was significantly higher when inoculated with PS23 isolate and Shewanella putrefaciens ( S. putrefaciens) (as positive control) compared to PS16 and PS11 isolates. No significant difference was observed between PS11 and PS16 isolates in the presence of indigenous microbial community. The results also revealed that glucose had a significant effect on Fe(III) reduction in the examined calcareous soil samples. The amount of Fe(III) reduction increased two-fold when soil samples were treated with glucose and inoculated by S. putrefaciens and PS23 in non-sterilized soils.

  10. Delimitation of the Thoracosphaeraceae (Dinophyceae), including the calcareous dinoflagellates, based on large amounts of ribosomal RNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschling, Marc; Soehner, Sylvia; Zinssmeister, Carmen; John, Uwe; Plötner, Jörg; Schweikert, Michael; Aligizaki, Katerina; Elbrächter, Malte

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the Dinophyceae (Alveolata) are not sufficiently resolved at present. The Thoracosphaeraceae (Peridiniales) are the only group of the Alveolata that include members with calcareous coccoid stages; this trait is considered apomorphic. Although the coccoid stage apparently is not calcareous, Bysmatrum has been assigned to the Thoracosphaeraceae based on thecal morphology. We tested the monophyly of the Thoracosphaeraceae using large sets of ribosomal RNA sequence data of the Alveolata including the Dinophyceae. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The Thoracosphaeraceae were monophyletic, but included also a number of non-calcareous dinophytes (such as Pentapharsodinium and Pfiesteria) and even parasites (such as Duboscquodinium and Tintinnophagus). Bysmatrum had an isolated and uncertain phylogenetic position outside the Thoracosphaeraceae. The phylogenetic relationships among calcareous dinophytes appear complex, and the assumption of the single origin of the potential to produce calcareous structures is challenged. The application of concatenated ribosomal RNA sequence data may prove promising for phylogenetic reconstructions of the Dinophyceae in future.

  11. Species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany depends on litter cover and landscape structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephanie; Huber, Birgit; Stahl, Silvia; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Species diversity depends on, often interfering, multiple ecological drivers. Comprehensive approaches are hence needed to understand the mechanisms determining species diversity. In this study, we analysed the impact of vegetation structure, soil properties and fragmentation on the plant species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands, therefore, in a comparative approach. We determined plant species diversity of 18 calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany including all species and grassland specialists separately. Furthermore, we analysed the spatial structure of the grasslands as a result of fragmentation during the last 150 years (habitat area, distance to the nearest calcareous grassland and connectivity in 1830 and 2013). We also collected data concerning the vegetation structure (height of the vegetation, cover of bare soil, grass and litter) and the soil properties (content of phosphorous and potassium, ratio of carbon and nitrogen) of the grassland patches. Data were analysed using Bayesian multiple regressions. We observed a habitat loss of nearly 80% and increasing isolation between grasslands since 1830. In the Bayesian multiple regressions the species diversity of the studied grasslands depended negatively on cover of litter and to a lower degree on the distance to the nearest calcareous grassland in 2013, whereas soil properties had no significant impact. Our study supports the observation that vegetation structure, which strongly depends on land use, is often more important for the species richness of calcareous grasslands than fragmentation or soil properties. Even small and isolated grasslands may, therefore, contribute significantly to the conservation of species diversity, when they are still grazed.

  12. Fluorescent vital staining of plant sexual cell nuclei with DNA—specific fluorochromes and its application in gametoplast fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGHONGYUAN; XINLIWU; 等

    1993-01-01

    DNA-binding fluorochromes are often used for vital staining of plant cell nuclei.However,it is not always sure whether the cells after staining still remain in living state.We chose several criteria to estimate the validity of real vital staining for sexual cell nuclei.These were:the cytoplasmic streaming in pollen tubes whose nuclei were stined,the simultaneous visualization of fluorochromatic reaction and nucleus staining in isolated generative cells,and the capability of isolated.prestained generative or sperm cells to fuse with other protoplasts.The results confirmed that 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole(DAPI),Hoechst 33258 and mithramycin could be used as real vital stains,though their efficiency varied from case to case;among them DAPI showed best effect.The fluo rescent vital staining technique offered a useful means foridentification and selection of heterokaryons in gametoplast manipulation studies.

  13. Wheat-Exuded Organic Acids Influence Zinc Release from Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. A. MAQSOOD; S. HUSSAIN; T. AZIZ; M. ASHRAF

    2011-01-01

    Rhizosphere drives plant uptake of sparingly soluble soil zinc (Zn).An investigation with three experiments was conducted to study organic acid exudation by two contrasting wheat genotypes (Sehar-06 and Vatan),Zn fractious in 10 different calcareous soils from Punjab,Pakistan,and release of different soil Zn fractions by organic acids.The two genotypes differed significantly in biomass production and Zn accumulation under deficient and optimum Zn levels in nutrient solution.At a deficient Zn level,Sehar-06 released more maleic acid in the rhizosphere than Vatan.Ten soils used in the present study had very different physicochemical properties; their total Zn and Zn distribution among different fractions varied significantly.Zinc release behaviour was determined by extracting the soils with 0.005 mol L-1 citric acid or maleic acid.The parabolic diffusion model best described Zn release as a function of time.Parabolic diffusion model fitting indicated more maleic acid-driven than citric acid-driven soil Zn mobility from different fractions.Cumulative Zn release in six consecutive extractions during 24 h ranged from 1.85 to 13.58 mg kg-1 using maleic acid and from 0.37 to 11.84 mg kg-1 using citric acid.In the selected calcareous soils,the results of stepwise linear regression indicated significant release of Fe-Mn oxide-bounded soil Zn by maleic acid and its availability to the Zn-efficient genotype.Hence,release of maleic acid by plants roots played an important role in phytoavailability of Zn from calcareous soils.

  14. Calcareous forest seepages acting as biodiversity hotspots and refugia for woodland snail faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsák, Michal; Tajovská, Eva; Horsáková, Veronika

    2017-07-01

    Land-snail species richness has repeatedly been found to increase with the increasing site calcium content and humidity. These two factors, reported as the main drivers of land-snail assemblage diversity, are also among the main habitat characteristics of calcareous seepages. Here we explore local species richness and compositional variation of forest spring-fed patches (i.e. seepages), to test the hypothesis that these habitats might act as biodiversity hotspots and refugia of regional snail faunas. In contrast to treeless spring fens, only little is known about land snail faunas inhabiting forest seepages. Studying 25 isolated calcareous forest seepages, evenly distributed across the White Carpathians Protected Landscape Area (SE Czech Republic), we found that these sites, albeit spatially very limited, can harbour up to 66% of the shelled land-snail species known to occur in this well-explored protected area (in total 83 species). By comparing land snail assemblages of the studied seepages with those occurring in the woodland surroundings of each site as well as those previously sampled in 28 preserved forest sites within the study area, we found the seepages to be among the most species rich sites. Although the numbers of species did not statistically differ among these three systems, we found highly significant differences in species composition. Seepage faunas were composed of many species significantly associated with spring sites, in contrast to the assemblages of both surrounding and preserved forest sites. Our results highly support the hypothesis that calcareous forest seepages might serve as refugia and biodiversity hotspots of regional land snail faunas. Protection of these unique habitats challenges both conservation plans and forest management guidelines as they might act as sources for the recolonization and restoration of forest snail assemblages particularly in areas impoverished by harvesting and clearcutting.

  15. EARLY TO LATE OLIGOCENE CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOEVENTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN (UMBRIA-MARCHE BASIN, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRIZIA MAIORANO

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been investigated by means of quantitative analyses in three Oligocene pelagic sections located in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (Central Italy. The studied sections mainly consist of marly limestones and marls belonging to the Scaglia Cinerea Formation, and include the interval between NP23 and NP25 representing a time interval of about 3.5 Ma. Biostratigraphic resolution is extremely low and only two standard bioevents are known, which are the FO of Sphenolithus ciperoensis and the LO of Sphenolithus distentus. The distribution patterns of poorly known or recently described calcareous nannofossils provided a valuable tool for improving the current biostratigraphic framework. The studied interval is characterized by significant changes in the calcareous nannofossil assemblages and by several extinction events. The last occurrence (LO and/or the last common occurrence (LCO here proposed are: the LO of Sphenolithus akropodus, the LO of Reticulofenestra circus, the LCO of Helicosphaera ethologa, the LCO of Helicosphaera compactathe LO of Discoaster tanii nodifer. The reversal in abundance between Sphenolithus predistentus and S. distentus provided an additional biostratigraphic constraint at the NP23-NP24 transition. In addition biometric criteria enabled the recognition of the first common occurrence (FCO of Cyclicargolithus abisectus > 12 mm as potential bioevent within NP24. The quantitative distribution of Sphenolithus distentus suggests to rely on the LCO of the species rather than on the LO, for the identification of NP24-NP25 boundary. The identified bioevents is a first step towards the improvement of the present Mediterranean biostratigraphic framework of the Oligocene geological record. A preliminary correlation of the bioevents to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale is presented.

  16. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    species, Ammonia batavus and two agglutinating species, Ammoscalaria pseudospiralis and Ammotium cassis. The test (shell) material of the latter two species was sand grains (quartz). It was inferred that the gastropods avoid agglutinating foraminiferans as food. Many calcareous but not agglutinating...... purposes. It might, in species like Ammonia batavus, have become a kind of antipredatory device or mimicry. A predator might conceive such a species as an agglutinating species and neglect it. The secondary test is a delicate structure in most species and is easily destroyed by the rough sampling...

  17. The calcareous mires in South-East Poland are home to two rare Anthracoidea species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piątek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The new collections of Anthracoidea buxbaumii Kukkonen on Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. and Anthracoidea hostianae B.Lindeb. ex Nannf. on Carex lepidocarpa Tausch recorded in the calcareous mires in South-East Poland are described, illustrated and discussed. The holotype of the latter smut is also re-examined, described and illustrated in detail. Anthracoidea buxbaumii is reported for the second time from Poland on a new host plant. Anthracoidea hostianae is new to Poland. The variability of spore sizes of both species is discussed. The conspecificity of Anthracoidea buxbaumii and A. hostianae suggested in the literature is analyzed.

  18. Structure and composition of calcareous sponge spicules: a review and comparison to structurally related biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethmann, Ingo; Wörheide, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 19th century, the skeletons of calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea) with their mineralized spicules have been investigated for their morphologies, structures, and mineralogical and organic compositions. These biomineral spicules, up to about 10mm in size, with one to four rays called actines, have various specific shapes and consist mainly of magnesium-calcite: in only one case has an additional phase of stabilized amorphous CaCO3 (ACC) been discovered. The spicules are invariably covered by a thin organic sheath and display a number of intriguing properties. Despite their complex morphologies and rounded surfaces without flat crystal faces they behave largely as single crystal individuals of calcite, and to some degree crystallographic orientation is related to morphology. Despite their single-crystalline nature, most spicules show nearly isotropic fracture behaviour, not typical for calcite crystals, indicating enhanced fracture resistance. These unusual morphological and mechanical properties are the result of their mechanism of growth. Each spicule is formed by specialized cells (sclerocytes) that supply mineral ions or particles associated by organic macromolecules to extracellular cavities, where assembly and crystallization in alignment with an initial seed crystal (nucleus) takes place. As a result of discontinuous mineral deposition, cross-sections of larger spicules display concentric layering that mantles a central calcitic rod. On a smaller scale, the entire spicule displays a 'nano-cluster' structure with crystallographically aligned and putatively semicoherent crystal domains as well as a dispersed organic matrix intercalated between domain boundaries. This ultrastructure dissipates mechanical stress and deflects propagating fractures. Additionally, this nano-cluster construction, probably induced by intercalated organic substances, enables the formation of complex crystal morphologies independent of crystal faces. In this review

  19. Contribution of Iron Phosphate in Calcareous Paddy Soils to Phosphorus Nutrition of Rice Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOZHI-FEN; TUSHU-XIN; 等

    1995-01-01

    A study was carried out on contribution of iron phosphate to phosphorus nutrition of rice plant under waterlogged and moist conditions,respectively,by use of synthetic Fe32 PO4.nH2O,tagging directly the iron phophate in calcareous paddy soils.Results showed that under waterlogged condition,similar to iron phosphate in acidic paddy soils.that in clacareous paddy soils was an important source of phosphorus to rice plant ,and the amount of phosphorus originated from it generally constituted 30-65% of the total phosphorus absorbed by rice plant.

  20. APTIAN TO CAMPANIAN CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY FROM THE BOTTACCIONE SECTION, GUBBIO, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO TREMOLADA

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Aptian-Campanian biostratigraphic investigations performed on calcareous nannofossils provided a refined stratigraphic resolution  of the Scisti a Fucoidi and Scaglia Formations in the Bottaccione section (Umbria-Marche Basin, Central italy. Additional bioevents such as the Last Occurrence (LO of both Assipetra infracretacea larsonii and Rucinolithus terebrodentarius youngii and the First Occurrences (FOs of Pararhabdolithus achlyostaurion and large Biscutum constans were detected and might be used to refine the Late Aptian-Albian biostratigraphy at low latitudes.   

  1. Photodynamic therapy for port wine stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junheng

    1998-11-01

    Previous therapies for port wine stains usually cause unacceptable scarring or obtain poor effect. Because port wine is a congenital vasculopathy consisting of an abnormal network of capillaries in the upper dermis with an overlying normal epidermis and the researchers found the tumor blood vessels were occluded accompanying the necrosis of the tumor after PDT. The author and his colleagues started a series of animal and clinical studies since 1991 about photodynamic therapy for port wine stain an they established the method of PDT for PWS. The clinical studies of over 1500 cases proved that PWS can be cured by PDT without scar formation because there is no thermal effect involved. No relapse was found within a maximum follow-up of six years.

  2. Standardized Relative Quantification of Immunofluorescence Tissue Staining

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Oriol Arqués, Irene Chicote, Stephan Tenbaum, Isabel Puig & Héctor G. Palmer ### Abstract The detection of correlations between the expression levels or sub-cellular localization of different proteins with specific characteristics of human tumors, such as e.g. grade of malignancy, may give important hints of functional associations. Here we describe the method we use for relative quantification of immunofluorescence staining of tumor tissue sections, which allows us to co...

  3. Laser treatment of port-wine stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brightman LA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lori A Brightman,1 Roy G Geronemus,1 Kavitha K Reddy2 1Laser and Skin Surgery Center of New York, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Port-wine stains are a type of capillary malformation affecting 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Port-wine stains present at birth as pink to erythematous patches on the skin and/or mucosa. Without treatment, the patches typically darken with age and may eventually develop nodular thickening or associated pyogenic granuloma. Laser and light treatments provide improvement through selective destruction of vasculature. A variety of vascular-selective lasers may be employed, with the pulsed dye laser being the most common and well studied. Early treatment produces more optimal results. Advances in imaging and laser treatment technologies demonstrate potential to further improve clinical outcomes. Keywords: laser, port-wine stain, capillary vascular malformation, vascular birthmark, selective photothermolysis, photodynamic therapy, intense pulsed light

  4. MAASTRICHTIAN TO EOCENE CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY FROM THE TABIAGO SECTION, BRIANZA AREA, NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO TREMOLADA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic investigations have been carried out on samples collected from the Tabiago section, Brianza, northern Italy. This section records early Maastrichtian (CC23b nannofossil zone to early Eocene (NP10 nannofossil zone calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The Cretaceous-Tertiary transition is characterized by major changes in sedimentation rates and two likely stratigraphic gaps. The Cretaceous Brenno Formation was deposited with a high sedimentation rate (~20 m/m.y., whilst the Tabiago Formation of Paleogene age records a drastic decrease (~10 m/m.y.. The absence of the CC26 zonal marker Micula prinsii may indicate a stratigraphic hiatus or an extremely condensed level in the latest Maastrichtian. However, only two samples have been collected and analyzed in this interval due to low exposure of the outcrop, and the absence of M. prinsii could be the result of diagenetic overprint or insufficient sampling. A stratigraphic hiatus or a very condensed interval corresponds to the upper part of NP1 nannofossil zone and PƒÑ foraminiferal Zone and P1a Subzone in the early Paleocene. The poor exposure of the outcrop prevents to precisely locate the zonal boundaries between NP4 and NP5 and between NP9 and NP10 and impedes the documentation of possible further stratigraphic gaps or condensed intervals.    

  5. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  6. A regional reconstruction of debris-flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Emily; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Neumann, Mathias

    2011-09-01

    Dendrogeomorphic dating of historical debris-flow events is a highly valuable tool for improving historical records in the field of natural hazard management. Previous dendrogeomorphic investigations generally have focused on case studies of single torrents; however, regional investigations may offer a more accurate reconstruction of regional patterns of activity and therefore may have an advantage over individual cases. The aim of the study is to provide a regional reconstruction of debris-flow events for a site in the Northern Calcareous Alps of western Austria (Gamperdonatal, Vorarlberg) and to document spatial and temporal morphological changes in individual and neighboring torrents. Analysis of 442 trees (268 Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, 164 Picea abies, and 10 Abies alba) allowed identification of 579 growth disturbances corresponding to 63 debris-flow events since A.D. 1839. The majority of growth disturbances were in the form of growth suppression or release (76%) owing to the nature of both the deposited material and the process characteristics. Regional patterns of event frequency indicated a paucity of activity in the early to mid-twentieth century and increased activity since A.D. 1948, whereby large events were followed by subsequent years of continued activity of smaller magnitude. Patterns of frequency could be attributed primarily to spatiotemporal changes in channel morphology, but may also be reflective of changes in transport conditions within the valley. This study provides the first regional investigation in the Austrian Alps and contributes to the documentation of tree responses to geomorphic disturbances in calcareous material.

  7. Microbial isotopic signatures in calcareous tufa from Punta Mita coastal vents, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, C.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Melgarejo, J. C.; Reyes, A.

    2002-12-01

    Numerous small calcareous mounds accompanied by Ba, Hg and Tl mineralization occur in shallow submarine hydrothermal manifestations on the sea bottom, at 10 m depth, in Punta Mita (Western coast of Mexico). The formation of calcite mounds in these coastal vents provides an uncommon example of calcareous tufa deposits in a submarine hydrothermal environment. The hydrothermal activity consists in water and gas (essentially nitrogen and methane) venting at 85°C, through a 100 m fissure hosted in basaltic rocks and partially covered by unconsolidated sediments. The mounds consist of travertine-like metre-sized calcite aggregates that develop around the main submarine hot springs. Barite, sulphides (mostly pyrite and cinnabar) and phosphates (carbonate-hydroxylapatite) are also present in these mounds. Two main calcite types are texturally distinguished: firstly an earlier radial-fibrous generation, and a later fine-grained calcite generation that cements the detrital grains and fills the pore spaces. Stable isotope analyses were performed in calcite from these mounds. The δ13C measured values show a strong depletion in 13C, with values as low as -39.2 per mil (PDB). These values agree with a microbially mediated calcite mineralization process, by means of bacterial oxidation of vent derived methane. In contrast to most known cases of microbial methane oxidation, in Punta Mita this process took place under hydrothermal conditions.

  8. Recharge in northern clime calcareous sandy soils: soil water chemical and carbon-14 evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, E. J.; Mozeto, A. A.; Fritz, P.

    1980-11-01

    Chemical analyses were performed on soil water extracted from two cores taken from a sandy calcareous soil near Delhi, Ontario. Calcite saturation is attained within the unsaturated zone over short distances and short periods of time, whereas dolomite undersaturation persists to the groundwater table. The progressive dissolution of dolomite by soil water, within the unsaturated zone, after calcite saturation is reached results in calcite supersaturation. Deposition of iron and manganese oxyhydroxide phases occurs at the carbonate leached/unleached zone boundary. This is a result of soil water neutralization due to carbonate dissolution during infiltration but may also reflect the increased rate of oxidation of dissolved ferrous and manganous ions at higher pH's. The role of bacteria in this process has not been investigated. The depth of the carbonate leached/unleached zone boundary in a calcareous soil has important implications for 14C groundwater dating. The depth of this interface at the study site (-2 m) does not appear to limit 14C diffusion from the root zone to the depth at which carbonate dissolution occurs. Thus, soil water achieves open system isotopic equilibrium with the soil CO 2 gas phase. It is calculated that in soils with similar physical properties to the study soil but with depths of leaching of 5 m or more, complete 14C isotopic equilibration of soil water with soil gas would not occur. Soil water, under these conditions would recharge to the groundwater exhibiting some degree of closed system 14C isotopic evolution.

  9. Dried gamma-irradiated sewage solids use on calcareous soils: crop yeilds and heavy metals uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaslin, B.D.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments designed to examine gamma-radiation effects on extractable and plant-available sludge elements and to examine the response of crops to sludge applications on two typical, calcareous soils in New Mexico are summarized. Information has been given indicating that the radiation process of reducing pathogens in sewage products being developed by Sandia Laboratories, does not significantly increase the chemical extractability and plant uptake of a broad range of nutrients and heavy metals. However, radiation treatment greatly facilitates handling sewage for experimentation, because pathogen contamination precautions are eliminated and weed seeds killed. Studies on the effects of sludge irradiation on plant nutrient uptake revealed no concentration increases, agreeing with results presented herein. Sewage products may have special potential for use on calcareous soils, such as in New Mexico. For instance, in New Mexico the lack of potassium in sewage products is not a problem and the naturally high pH of New Mexico soil greatly reduces plant availability of many problem heavy metals. Dramatic increases in yield are typified by the greenhouse and field results presented herein, especially for the known micronutrient deficient soils of New Mexico. Results indicate that sewage sludge is an excellent Zn and Fe fertilizer. More research needs to be done before the economics of sludge application can be calculated and more field information is needed before irradiated sewage products are used indiscriminately. (ERB)

  10. Enhanced levels of nicotianamine promote iron accumulation and tolerance to calcareous soil in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozoye, Tomoko; Kim, Suyoen; Kakei, Yusuke; Takahashi, Michiko; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient in both plants and humans. Fe deficiency on calcareous soil with low Fe availability is a major agricultural problem. Nicotianamine (NA) is one of the Fe chelator in plants, which is involved in metal translocation into seeds, and serves as an antihypertensive substance in humans. In this study, soybean plants overexpressing the barley NA synthase 1 (HvNAS1) gene driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic soybean showed no growth defect and grew normally. The NA content of transgenic soybean seeds was up to four-fold greater than that of non-transgenic (NT) soybean seeds. The level of HvNAS1 expression was positively correlated with the amount of NA, and a high concentration of NA was maintained in the seeds in succeeding generations. The Fe concentration was approximately two-fold greater in transgenic soybean seeds than in NT soybean seeds. Furthermore, the transgenic soybeans showed tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soil. Our results suggested that increasing the NA content in soybean seeds by the overexpression of HvNAS1 offers potential benefits for both human health and agricultural productivity.

  11. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RUSINA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly with soil reaction (Ellenberg indicator values for soil pH range from 6.0 to 7.6, but conditions of moisture and fertility are similar among the variants. The calcareous grassland vegetation in Latvia represents transition vegetation between the c1asses Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Festuco-Brometea. However, ecologically and floristically, these communities are closer to the class Festuco-Brometea and could be assigned to the order Brometalia. For designation to alliance and associations, more data is required. The results are compared with similar communities in other European countries.

  12. Application of Taguchi method for the characterization of calcareous deposits formed by pulse cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamanzade, M.; Shahrabi, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran); Gharacheh, E.A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, the Taguchi method, a powerful tool to design optimization for quality, is used to find the optimal process parameters of pulse cathodic protection system for the calcareous deposits' formation. An orthogonal array, main effect and the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio are employed to investigate the process parameters in order to achieve optimum final current density. Through this study also the main process parameters that affect the calcareous deposits' formation can be found. Experiments were carried out to confirm the effectiveness of this approach. From the results, chronoamperometric measurements have been used to evaluate the influence of pulse cathodic protection on decreasing the required cathodic current for protection and also decreasing the surface coverage. The morphology of the formed deposits has been evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis of the formed deposits has been performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the different environmental conditions, i.e., Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Mg{sup 2+} concentration, rotation speed, and temperature significantly affect the final required current density of the pulse cathodic protection. The optimum levels of parameters at different frequencies are also presented. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. XAS study of lead speciation in a central Italy calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaschi, Tatiana; Meneghini, Carlo; Businelli, Daniela; Mobilio, Settimio; Businelli, Mario

    2011-05-01

    The Pb absorption processes on a heavy textured calcareous soil, typical of central Italy, were studied using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in order to probe, at molecular scale, the structure and chemical nature of Pb in contaminated soils and achieve precise description of Pb ions localization into these contaminated soils. In order to distinguish the role of the different components of soils in Pb retention, samples were prepared from the original soils removing the carbonate fractions, the organic matter, the metal oxides, or selecting the clay fractions. Then these samples were fortified with Pb simulating the natural interactions processes of heavy metal solutions with soils. The quantitative analysis of near edge (XANES) as well extended (EXAFS) regions of Pb L(III) edge absorption spectra, in comparison with Pb XAS data of selected reference compounds, allowed the precise determination of local structure and chemical environment of Pb ions in these soil samples. Four components were individuated as the major responsible of Pb retention in calcareous soils: the carbonates, the metal oxide surfaces, the organic matter, and the colloidal inorganic surfaces containing clay components. The structural analysis suggests that, within these experimental conditions, the Pb adsorbed on the soil is generally present as Pb hydroxide with poor crystallization degree. However, the presence of carbonates (CaCO3) induces the co-precipitation of PbCO3-like phases with some degree of crystallinity.

  14. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of three Mediterranean species through calcareous and siliceous soils in natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño, E.; Fernandez, C.; Bousquet-Mélou, A.; Greff, S.; Morin, E.; Robles, C.; Vila, B.; Bonin, G.

    Little is known about terpene emissions released by plants in response to abiotic factors, except for climate-related factors. Standard emissions ( ES) of monoterpenes ( ESM) and sesquiterpenes ( ESS) of Rosmarinus officinalis, Pinus halepensis and Cistus albidus in siliceous and calcareous sites were examined. Their dependency on some nutrients in these soils was also analyzed. The study was carried out in the south of France at the end of March, when C. albidus exhibited a leaf growth state, while the other two species exhibited a pre-budbreak state. The results revealed that ES of all major monoterpenes released by R. officinalis and ES of α-pinene and α-humulene of P. halepensis were higher in plants growing in calcareous soils. In contrast, for C. albidus, ESM and ES of β-bourbonene and α-humulene were higher in siliceous soils. ESM of all species was mainly correlated with nitrogen ( N) and available phosphorous (P A), while dependency on Ca 2+ or K + was variable. None of these nutrients was significantly correlated with ESS, suggesting that sesquiterpene synthesis pathway requires different nutrient supplies. While higher soil nutrient content stimulated ESM of R. officinalis and P. halepensis, it had a negative effect on ESM of C. albidus, probably because C. albidus exhibited a different phenological state. Considering the soil nature, and particularly N and P A as inputs in plant terpene inventories could hence contribute to obtain more accurate terpene estimates.

  15. Trochanter/calcar preserving reconstruction in tumors involving the femoral head and neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwan Seong; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the results of hip reconstruction with extensive excision for tumor confined to the femoral head and neck. METHODS: We designed a resection preserving the greater trochanter and lower portion of calcar femorale, and utilized conventional total hip prosthesis. We retrospectively reviewed 7 patients, who underwent a wide resection and reconstruction using conventional hip prosthesis. There were 3 men and 4 women and their mean age was 42.5 years (22 to 65 years). The histologic diagnosis of each patient was low-grade osteosarcoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, liposclerosing myxofibroma, intraosseous lipoma, chondroblastoma, giant cell tumor and focal intramedullary fibrosis. RESULTS: One patient with lymphoma died due to disease dissemination at 10 mo postoperatively and the remaining 6 patients were followed for a mean of 4.7 years (3 to 6 years). All patients were able to return to their daily activities and no patient had local recurrence. No radiographic signs of loosening, wear, and osteolysis were found at the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Trochanter/calcar-preserving resection of the proximal femur and reconstruction using conventional total hip prosthesis, is a satisfactory treatment for tumors confined to the femoral head and neck. PMID:27458555

  16. Physiological Responses of Some Iranian Grape Cultivars to Iron Chelate Application in Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron chlorosis is considered to be one of the most important nutritional disorders in grapevines, particularly in calcareous soils that under these conditions fruit yield and quality is depressed in the current year and fruit buds poorly develop for following year. Symptoms of iron chlorosis in orchards and vineyards are usually more frequent in spring when shoot growth is rapid and bicarbonate concentration in the soil solution buffers soil pH in the rhizosphere and root apoplast. Several native grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential, are widely cultivated in Iran. Cultivated plants differ as to their susceptibility to Fe deficiency in calcareous soils, some being poorly affected while others showing severe leaf chlorotic symptoms. Selection and the use of Fe-efficient genotypes is one of the important approaches to prevent this nutritional problem. In this research the response of three local grapevine cultivars was evaluated to iron chelate consumption in a calcareous soil (26% T.N.V. Materials and Methods: Well rooted woody cuttings of three autochthonous varieties (Rasha, Qezel uzum, Keshmeshi Qermez were cultivated in pots filled with a calcareous soil with iron chelate consumption at three rates (0, 7.5 and 15 mg Fe/ Kg soil. The study was conducted with two factors (cultivar and iron chelate and 3 replicates in a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design. Plant parameters including vegetative growth, chlorophyll index and leaf area were monitored during the growth period. At the end of the treatment, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were determined. The concentrations of macro and micro elements in the leaves were assayed using an atomic absorption and spectrophotometer. One-way-ANOVA was applied comparing the behavior of the cultivars growing. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that chlorophyll

  17. Uptake of 137Cs by Leafy Vegetables and Grains from Calcareous Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C; Kehl, S

    2004-04-19

    Cesium-137 was deposited on Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll in 1954 as a result of nuclear testing and has been transported and cycled in the ecosystem ever since. Atoll soils are of marine origin and are almost pure CaCO{sub 3} with high concentrations of organic matter in the top 40 cm. Data from previous experiments with mature fruit trees show very high transfer factors (TF's), [Bq g{sup -1} plant/ Bq g{sup -1} soil, both in dry weight] into fruits from atoll calcareous soil. These TF's are much higher than reported for continental, silica-based soils. In this report TF's for 5 types of leafy vegetable crops and 2 types of grain crops are provided for use in predictive dose assessments and for comparison with other data from other investigators working with other types of soil in the IAEA CRP ''The Classification of Soil Systems on the Basis of Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants''. Transfer factors for plants grown on calcareous soil are again very high relative to clay-containing soils and range from 23 to 39 for grain crops and 21 to 113 for leafy vegetables. Results from these experiments, in this unique, high pH, high organic content, low potassium (K) soil, provide a boundary condition for models relating soil properties to TF.

  18. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RUSINA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly with soil reaction (Ellenberg indicator values for soil pH range from 6.0 to 7.6, but conditions of moisture and fertility are similar among the variants. The calcareous grassland vegetation in Latvia represents transition vegetation between the c1asses Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Festuco-Brometea. However, ecologically and floristically, these communities are closer to the class Festuco-Brometea and could be assigned to the order Brometalia. For designation to alliance and associations, more data is required. The results are compared with similar communities in other European countries.

  19. Phosphorus retention in calcareous soils and the effect of organic matter on its mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wandruszka Ray

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A survey of the interactions between phosphorus (P species and the components of calcareous soils shows that both surface reactions and precipitation take place, especially in the presence of calcite and limestone. The principal products of these reactions are dicalcium phosphate and octacalcium phosphate, which may interconvert after formation. The role of calcium carbonate in P retention by calcareous soils is, however, significant only at relatively high P concentrations – non-carbonate clays play a more important part at lower concentrations. In the presence of iron oxide particles, occlusion of P frequently occurs in these bodies, especially with forms of the element that are pedogenic in origin. Progressive mineralization and immobilization, often biological in nature, are generally observed when P is added as a fertilizer. Manure serves both as a source of subsurface P and an effective mobilizing agent. Blockage of P sorption sites by organic acids, as well as complexation of exchangeable Al and Fe in the soil, are potential causes of this mobilization. Swine and chicken manure are especially rich P sources, largely due the practice of adding the element to the feed of nonruminants. Humic materials, both native and added, appear to increase recovery of Olsen P. In the presence of metal cations, strong complexes between inorganic P and humates are formed. The influence of humic soil amendments on P mobility warrants further investigation.

  20. Incorporation of calcium into the soft tissues and calcareous corpuscles of larval Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brand, T; Weinbach, E C

    1975-12-11

    Larval Taenia taeniaeformis in vivo accumulates 45Ca2+ in soft tissues and calcareous corpuscles. Radioactivity was demonstrable in the corpuscles six months after a single dose of 45Ca2+ was administered to the host by means of a stomach tube. Ca2+ also was taken up by isolated larvae. Accumulation in vitro was more rapid then in vivo and was correlated with the external Ca2+ concentration. Temperature variation, oxygen availability, and metabolic inhibitors had little effect on the Ca2+ uptake, indicating that active transport of Ca2+ is unlikely in this parasite. Variations in the external Pi concentrations had no effect on Ca2+ accumulation or on its distribution. Addition of 5% CO2 increased the uptake of Ca2+ by the calcareous corpuscles under anaerobic conditions. Radioactivity from NaH14CO3 also was accumulated in soft tissues and corpuscles of T. taeniaeformis. Assuming that the 14C taken up by the corpuscles was in the form of 14CO3(2-), the ratio of Ca2+ to CO3(2-) accumulation in the corpuscles approximates the ratio of these constituents in dolomite: CaMg(CO3)2.

  1. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

    2011-08-01

    Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere.

  2. A simple technique for staining of platyhelminths with the lactophnol cotton blue stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henedi, Adawia A M; El-Azazy, Osama M E

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for staining of flatworms using lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB). The staining was tested on 2 trematode species: Heterophyes heterophyes and Mesostephanus appendiculatus, and one cestode: Diplopylidium acanthotetra, which were collected from the intestine of stray cats in Kuwait. The specimens were mounted in a small amount of the LPCB stain on a clean slide for 2-3 minutes before covering with a cover slip. The technique rapidly and clearly differentiated the internal structures of the helminthes. Its speed and simplicity are advantages over other staining methods. It is easily used in wide-scale surveys where a large number of platyhelminths have to be identified and it is suitable for field studies.

  3. Isolation, Culture, and Staining of Single Myofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallot, Yann Simon; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Mann, Aman K.; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle regeneration is orchestrated by a specialized population of adult stem cells called satellite cells, which are localized between the basal lamina and the plasma membrane of myofibers. The process of satellite cell-activation, proliferation, and subsequent differentiation that occurs during muscle regeneration can be recapitulated ex vivo by isolation of single myofibers from skeletal muscles and culturing them under suspension conditions. Here, we describe an improved protocol to evaluate ex vivo satellite cells activation through isolation of single myofibers from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of mice and culturing and staining of myofiber-associated satellite cells with the markers of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation.

  4. Detecting the apoptosis of dopamine neurons with immunohistochemical staining and double-staining technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiguo Zhang; Jing Zhang; Feng Zhang; Yunsheng Gao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is proved that the onset of Parkinson disease companies with neuronal apoptosis of dopamine in substantia nigra of midbrain. Previous researches on neuronal apoptosis of dopamine were analyzed on their consecutive tissue sections with immunohistochemical single-labeling method, immunofluorescence and electron microscope, and there are significant differences.OBJECTIVE: To observe the feasibility of neuronal apoptosis of dopamine with in situ end labeling and tyrosine-hydroxylase antibody immunohistochemical double-labeling staining technique.DESIGN: Controlled study.SETTING: College of Pharmacology of Taishan Medical College; College of Management of Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS: Wistar rats with 2 weeks old and of clean grade were provided by the Animal Center of Taishan Medical College. In situ end labeling kit (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, mixed reactive solution of nucleotide, transfusion-POD), monoclonal antibody of rat antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (Boehriuser).METHODS: The experiment was completed at the Pharmacological Laboratory of Taishan Medical College from February to December 2005. Tissue from midbrain of rats was taken out to make paraffin sections to observe the neuronal apoptosis of dopamine under microscope with in situ end labeling and tyrosine-hydroxylase antibody immunohistochemical double-labeling staining technique.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuronal apoptosis of dopamine with in situ end labeling and tyrosine-hydroxylase antibody immunohistochemical double-labeling staining technique.RESULTS:① After double-labeling staining,two kinks of positive products were observed in neurons of dopamine which were suffered from apoptosis. One stained with tyrosine hydroxylase was hyacinthine, and the other stained with in situ end labeling was buffy. Cells of positive products stained with in situ end labeling shaped as strap and bend and was distributed in clustering.Cytoplasm was hyacinthine, staining was symmetrical

  5. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2010-09-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoceanography that favoured the cooling of the climate and culminated in the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The basis for the development of the modern deepwater circulation pattern, e.g. thermohaline circulation, was hereby established. Tectonic events played a key role in the progressing Miocene oceanography, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990) and the possible linked changes in North Atlantic Deep Water formation (Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. Within this study, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 12 Ma, when NADW production increased (e.g. Wright et al. 1992), we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts. This might be related to enhanced productivity or to better carbonate preservation. At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input occurs. This could be a signal for the initiation of the Amazon River as a transcontinental river with the development of the Amazon fan (11.8 - 11.3 Ma; Figueiredo et al. 2009) in relation to Andean tectonism. References: Duque-Caro, H. (1990): Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and palebiology in Northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology

  6. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Milani

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP and urea using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS. Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO42.2H2O and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4PO4 species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be

  7. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Kirby, Jason K; Beak, Douglas G; Stacey, Samuel P; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the same

  8. Magnetic anisotropy of Silurian organic-rich shale rocks and calcareous concretions from Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezabitowska, Dominika; Szaniawski, Rafał

    2017-04-01

    The research has been performed on Wenlockian shales of Pelplin formation from the Pomerania region located in Northern Poland. These organic-rich marine shales were deposited on the western shelf of the Baltica paleo-continent and currently they constitute the cover of East European Platform. The studied shales lie almost completely flat without signs of tectonic deformations. Rock magnetic studies were carried out with the aim of recognizing ferro- and paramagnetic minerals in shales and thus fully understanding the origin of the magnetic anisotropy. The typical dark shales and spherical calcareous concretions from two boreholes were sampled. Based on deflection of shales beds bordered with a concretions, we deduce that such concretions were formed in the early stage of diagenesis, before the final compaction and lithification of surrounding shales. We obtained similar rockmagnetic results for both of rock types. The results of thermal variation of magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loops show that the magnetic susceptibility is mainly controlled by paramagnetic minerals, due to domination of phyllosilicate minerals, with a smaller impact of ferromagnetic phase. The results of the hysteresis studies documented the domination of low coercivity ferromagnetic minerals, that is magnetite and pyrrhotite. The deposition alignment of flocculated phyllosilicates and further compaction determine distinct bedding parallel foliation of the AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility) in the both drill cores. In one of the drill core the maximal AMS axes are almost randomly distributed in the bedding plane and show only a weak tendency for grouping. In the second drill core the magnetic lineation is better defined. In the case of concretions the bedding parallel magnetic foliation is also evident but it is much weaker than in shales. In turn, the magnetic lineation in the both drill cores is well developed and the maximal AMS axes are well grouped. In both of the cores

  9. Organic Carbon Stabilization of Soils Formed on Acidic and Calcareous Bedrocks in Neotropical Alpine Grassland, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Songyu; Cammeraat, Erik; Jansen, Boris; Cerli, Chiara; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence shows that Neotropical alpine ecosystems are vulnerable to global change. Since soils in the alpine grasslands of the Peruvian Andean region have large soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, profound understanding of soil organic matter (OM) stabilization mechanisms will improve the prediction of the feedback between SOC stocks and global change. It is well documented that poor-crystalline minerals and organo-metallic complexes significantly contribute to the OM stabilization in volcanic ash soils, including those in the Andean region. However, limited research has focused on non-ash soils that also express significant SOC accumulation. A pilot study of Peruvian Andean grassland soils suggests that lithology is a prominent factor for such carbon accumulation. As a consequence of contrasting mineral composition and pedogenic processes in soils formed on different non-volcanic parent materials, differences in OM stabilization mechanisms may be profound and consequently may respond differently to global change. Therefore, our study aims at a further understanding of carbon stocks and OM stabilization mechanisms in soils formed on contrasting bedrocks in the Peruvian Andes. The main objective is to identify and compare the roles that organo-mineral associations and aggregations play in OM stabilization, by a combination of selective extraction methods and fractionations based on density, particle size and aggregates size. Soil samples were collected from igneous acidic and calcareous sedimentary bedrocks in alpine grassland near Cajamarca, Peru (7.17°S, 78.63°W), at around 3700m altitude. Samples were taken from 3 plots per bedrock type by sampling distinguishable horizons until the C horizons were reached. Outcomes confirmed that both types of soil accumulate large amounts of carbon: 405.3±41.7 t/ha of calcareous bedrock soil and 226.0±5.6 t/ha of acidic bedrock soil respectively. In addition, extremely high carbon contents exceeding 90g carbon per

  10. Calcareous sinter from ancient aqueducts as a source of data in paleoclimate, tectonics and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmelihindi, G.; Passchier, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    During the lifetime the Roman Empire (300BC-400AD), about 1200 major aqueducts were built to supply cities in the Mediterranean with drinking water. The ruins of many of these channels contain sinter (calcium carbonate), which was deposited at a rate of 0.5-5 mm/year over the life of the aqueduct, usually 50-200 but up to 1000 years. Calcareous sinter inside the ancient aqueduct channels can give important insight into paleoclimatology in the form of temperature and rainfall, reflect palaeohydrology of water, water chemistry, flow rate, bacterial activity and source area of the water. This type of data is important to build climate models and to understand earthquake and flood patterns in the Mediterranean, and can be a new, additional source of information besides speleothems, travertine and tufa deposits. In our study we focus on Mediterranean climate patterns, and selected four aqueduct sites from Southern Turkey, Greece and Italy. The calcareous sinter deposits may reflect annual or subannual lamination characterized by alternating light, dense, coarse-grained and dark, porous, microcrystalline layers which are thought to represent winter and summer conditions respectively. Moreover, abrupt changes in the sequence of lamination can be a signal of natural hazards such as earthquakes or flood events. Deposits from the aqueduct of Patara (Southern Turkey) show 40-50 laminae couples, which may be annual layers. δ18O and δ 13C stable isotope data indicate high cyclicity within the sinter samples from Patara during the Roman period. Higher δ18O values correspond with dark, porous layers and lower values with light, dense layers. Major geochemical analyses show similar seasonal changes. Electron microprobe study shows that within dark laminae, detrital Fe, Mg, K, Al and Si are enriched whereas the light layers have high Ca content. Trace element analyses by LA-ICP-MS also indicate higher Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values in the dark layers, which can be interpreted in terms

  11. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Kirby, Jason K.; Beak, Douglas G.; Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Mike J.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ–XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ–XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the

  12. Future prospects for the rare, late-flowering Gentianella germanica and Gentianopsis ciliata in Dutch nutrient-poor calcareous grasslands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Luijten, S.H.; Ellis-Adam, A.C.; den Nijs, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the population biology of two calcareous grassland gentians, Gentianella germanica and Gentianopsis ciliata, in relation to the habitat management currently practiced in The Netherlands. There, at the margin of their range, both species are rare. Gentianella germanica persists on six rema

  13. Influence of Blended Cements with Calcareous Fly Ash on Chloride Ion Migration and Carbonation Resistance of Concrete for Durable Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał A. Glinicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the possible use of new blended cements containing calcareous fly ash in structural concrete, potentially adequate for structural elements of nuclear power plants. The investigation included five new cements made with different contents of non-clinker constituents: calcareous fly ash, siliceous fly ash, ground granulated blastfurnace slag, and a reference cement—ordinary Portland cement. The influence of innovative cements on the resistance of concrete to chloride and carbonation exposure was studied. Additionally, an evaluation of the microstructure was performed using optical microscopy on concrete thin sections. Test results revealed a substantial improvement of the resistance to chloride ion penetration into concrete containing blended cements. The resistance was higher for increased clinker replacement levels and increased with curing time. However, concrete made with blended cements exhibited higher depth of carbonation than the Portland cement concrete, except the Portland-fly ash cement with 14.3% of calcareous fly ash. The thin sections analysis confirmed the values of the carbonation depth obtained from the phenolphthalein test. Test results indicate the possible range of application for new cements containing calcareous fly ash.

  14. Biochar and manure effects on net nitrogen mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions from calcareous soil under corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application on net N mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated, calcareous soil; yet such applications are hypothesized as a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality. We fall-applie...

  15. Ocean Acidification: Investigation and Presentation of the Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels on Seawater Chemistry and Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buth, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification refers to the process by which seawater absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, producing aqueous carbonic acid. Acidic conditions increase the solubility of calcium carbonate, threatening corals and other calcareous organisms that depend on it for protective structures. The global nature of ocean acidification and the…

  16. Zanclean/Piacenzian transition on Cyprus (SE Mediterranean): calcareous nannofossil and Sea Surface Temperatures evidence of sapropel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Maria; Triantaphyllou, Maria; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Dimiza, Margarita; Gogou, Alexandra; Klein, Vincent; Parinos, Constantine; Theodoroyu, George

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative analyses of calcareous nannofossils in the sediments of Pissouri South section on the island of Cyprus have produced a paleoceanographic record reflecting the paleoclimatic conditions during Zanclean/Piacenzian transition. According to the performed calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy the studied section is correlated with MNN14/15 and MNN16 calcareous nannofossil biozones and is astronomically dated between 4.065 and 3.217 Ma. Intervals of increased organic carbon content along with the positive values of Florisphaera profunda, Helicosphaera sellii, Discoaster spp. and the subsequent increase of stratification S-index correspond to the sapropel deposition during periods of wetter climate and intense continental runoff especially from the river Nile. These layers are alternating with grey marly intervals, featured by the increased values of small placoliths of Reticulofenestra and Gephyrocapsa species, which are indicative of eutrophic conditions during intense surface waters mixing. Pissouri South section comprises a SSTs sequence using alkenone unsaturation index (Uk 37) providing with the first continuous record from SE Mediterranean covering the Zanclean/Piacenzian (Pliocene) transition (~ 4.1-3.2 Ma). Correlation of the total alkenone concentration to the calcareous nannofossil assemblage and especially representatives among Noelaerhabdaceae family revealed that Pseudoemiliania lacunosa probably had similar temperature sensitivity to that of Emiliania huxleyi, currently producing alkenones in present day oceans.Our data support the prevalence of a generally warm phase characterized by the absence of high-frequency climate variations in the southeastern Mediterranean during the Zanclean/Piacenzian (Early/Late Pliocene) transition.

  17. Ocean Acidification: Investigation and Presentation of the Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels on Seawater Chemistry and Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buth, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification refers to the process by which seawater absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, producing aqueous carbonic acid. Acidic conditions increase the solubility of calcium carbonate, threatening corals and other calcareous organisms that depend on it for protective structures. The global nature of ocean acidification and the…

  18. ENDOMYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF DASIPHORA FLORIBUNDA, A NATIVE PLANT OF CALCAREOUS WETLANDS IN EASTERN NEW YORK STATE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of endomycorrhizal colonization of Dasiphora floribunda was measured in 8 calcareous wetlands in eastern New York State, USA. Environmental parameters (pH, conductivity, water-table depth, soil moisture, soil organic matter, soil NH4 , soil available P, and porewater ...

  19. Effect of Additional Carbonates on CO2 Emission from Calcareous Soil During the Closed-Jar Incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yan-Jie; CAI Miao; LIANG Bin; ZHOU Jian-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The closed-jar incubation method is widely used to estimate the mineralization of soil organic C.There are two C pools (i.e.,organic and inorganic C) in calcareous soil.To evaluate the effect of additional carbonates on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation,three incubation experiments were conducted by adding different types (CaCO3 and MgCO3) and amounts of carbonate to the soil.The addition of carbonates significantly increased CO2 emission from the soil; the increase ranged from 12.0% in the CaCO3 amended soil to 460% in the MgCO3 amended soil during a 100-d incubation.Cumulative CO2 production at the end of the incubation was three times greater in the MgCO3 amended soil compared to the CaCO3 amended one.The CO2 emission increased with the amount of CaCO3 added to the soil.In contrast,CO2 emission decreased as the amount of MgCO3 added to the soil increased.Our results confirmed that the closed-jar incubation method could lead to an overestimate of organic C mineralization in calcareous soils.Because of its effect on soil pH and the dissolution of carbonates,HgC12 should not be used to sterilize calcareous soil if the experiment includes the measurement of soil CO2 production.

  20. Mechanical robustness of the calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans: warming mitigates the adverse effects of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoyi; Meng, Yuan; He, Chong; Chan, Vera B S; Yao, Haimin; Thiyagarajan, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of antifouling strategies requires knowledge of how fouling organisms would respond to climate change associated environmental stressors. Here, a calcareous tube built by the tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was used as an example to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of ocean acidification (OA), warming and reduced salinity on the mechanical properties of a tube. Tubeworms produce a mechanically weaker tube with less resistance to simulated predator attack under OA (pH 7.8). Warming (29°C) increased tube volume, tube mineral density and the tube's resistance to a simulated predatory attack. A weakening effect by OA did not make the removal of tubeworms easier except for the earliest stage, in which warming had the least effect. Reduced salinity (27 psu) did not affect tubes. This study showed that both mechanical analysis and computational modeling can be integrated with biofouling research to provide insights into how fouling communities might develop in future ocean conditions.

  1. Morphology and phylogeny of Pentapharsodinium jinhaense sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) producing a calcareous resting cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H. H.; LI, Z.; Youn, J. Y.; Kim, E. S.

    2016-02-01

    A new species, Pentapharsodinium jinhaense sp. nov., was established by incubating resting cysts, which were collected from trap samples from Jinhae-Masan Bay, Korea. The resting cysts of P. jinhaense were spherical or ovoidal, with a large reddish pigment body and a thick wall covered by numerous needle-shaped calcareous crystals. The size, shape and plate tabulation of motile cells that germinated from the resting cysts were similar to those of Pentapharsodinium tyrrhenicum and Ensiculifera carinata; however, the motile cells had a spine located in the anterior sulcal plate, and many pores and spines on the thecal surface. Molecular phylogenetic analysis using internal transcribed spacer and 5.8s rDNA showed that P. jinhaense was closely related to P. tyrrhenicum. Large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences also revealed that P. jinhaense was nested within Pentapharsodinium and formed a strongly supported clade with P. dalei and P. tyrrhenicum.

  2. SPRINGS WITH CALCAREOUS TUFA IN THE VALLEY OF THE JAMNE CREEK IN GORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Krause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study gives a detail characteristic of a hard water springs habitat with the communities of Cratoneurion commutati (habitat code of Nature 2000: 7220, localized within Nature 2000 protected area Ostoja Gorczańska PLH120018, in an upper part of the valley of Jamne creek. The plants are described along with the main habitat parameters, namely: altitude, exposition, slope gradient, insolation, type of bedrock, water flow regime and the spring outflow efficiency. The temperature, pH, electrical conductivity were measured in the field, the concentrations of Ca and Mg in spring water were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The investigated headwater areas are small (0.7–80 m2 and highly differentiated by the intensity of calcareous tufa precipitation and the degree of plant cover development.

  3. REMEDIATION OF POLLUTED SOILS BY UTILIZING HYDROTHERMALLY TREATED CALCAREOUS FLY ASHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Moutsatsou; V. Protonotarios

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates a treated fly ash to act as a synthetic zeolite to remediate soils polluted with heavy metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Mn). Four types of such 'zeolites' were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of a calcareous fly ash derived from Greek lignite-fired power plants: two with excess of sodium hydroxide in a a former mining site at Lavrion, Greece. Mobilization and transfer of metals to the retention agents was effected by using HCl aq 1M, with satisfactory results with respect to As, Pb, Cu, Mn and Cd. The great variety of metal complexes in soil was found to be of major importance for the effectiveness of the overall process. The final products were solidified either on their own, or by using additives such as lime and cement.

  4. Calcareous nannofossil evidence for the existence of the Gulf Stream during the late Maastrichtian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, D.K.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Upper Maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil assemblages, from eight cores on the South Carolina Coastal Plain (onshore set) and three deep sea drilling sites from the continental slope and abyssal hills (offshore set), were analyzed by correlation and principal component analysis to examine the ancient surface water thermal structure. In addition, a temperature index derived from independently published paleobiogeographic information was applied to the sample data. All three methods indicate a strong separation of the samples into onshore and offshore sets, with the offshore data set exhibiting significantly warmer paleotemperatures. The great disparity between these two sample sets indicates that there was a strong thermal contrast between the onshore and offshore surface water masses that persisted throughout the late Maastrichtian despite evident shortterm changes in fertility, productivity, and community structure. This suggests the Gulf Stream was present as a major oceanographic feature during the late Maastrichtian. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Estimation of the Biological Methods of Assessing Soil N-Supplying Capacity in Calcareous Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Fa-hui; LI Shi-qing; LU Hong-ling; LI Sheng-xiu

    2007-01-01

    Although many biological methods are used to determine soil nitrogen supplying capacity, there are certain differences in the results for different types of soils and various ways of measurement due to the complexity of soil N conformation, the high variance of soil and microorganism, and the difference of environment. Therefore, it is not clear about which biologic incubation method is better for calcareous soil. In this study, pot experiments were performed by using 25 different calcareous surface soil samples on the Loess Plateau and taking the N uptake of wheat and corn with leaching soil initial nitrate and without leaching in pot experiments as the control to investigate the difference of eight biological incubation methods for reflecting soil nitrogen supply capacity. The eight biological methods are waterlogged incubation, aerobic incubation for 2 weeks and for 4 weeks, dry-wet alternation aerobic incubation for 2 weeks, long-term alternate leaching aerobic incubation (and N mineralization potential, N0), short-term leaching aerobic incubation, microbial biomass carbon (BC), and microbial biomass nitrogen (BN) method, respectively. Among these methods, the dry-wet alternation aerobic incubation and aerobic incubation for 4 weeks were the modification of the method of aerobic incubation for 2 weeks according to the actual farmland moisture. The results showed that the correlation coefficients between these methods and crop uptake N with leaching soil initial nitrate were 0.530, 0.700, 0.777, 0.768, 0.764 (and 0.790, N0), 0.650, 0.555, and 0.465, respectively (r0.05 = 0.369, r0.01 = 0.505). While without leaching soil initial nitrate, their coefficients were 0.351, 0.963, 0.962, 0.959, 0.825 (and 0.812, N0), 0.963, 0.289, and 0.095, respectively (r0.05=0.369, r0.01 =0.505). In conclusion,excluding the soil initial nitrate, the correlation coefficients between the eight methods and crop uptake N were, from high to low, N0, aerobic incubation for 4 weeks, dry

  6. Ozone pollution affects flower numbers and timing in a simulated BAP priority calcareous grassland community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Felicity; Williamson, Jennifer; Mills, Gina

    2012-04-01

    Mesocosms representing the BAP Priority habitat 'Calcareous Grassland' were exposed to eight ozone profiles for twelve-weeks in two consecutive years. Half of the mesocosms received a reduced watering regime during the exposure periods. Numbers and timing of flowering in the second exposure period were related to ozone concentration and phytotoxic ozone dose (accumulated stomatal flux). For Lotus corniculatus, ozone accelerated the timing of the maximum number of flowers. An increase in mean ozone concentration from 30ppb to 70ppb corresponded with an advance in the timing of maximum flowering by six days. A significant reduction in flower numbers with increasing ozone was found for Campanula rotundifolia and Scabiosa columbaria and the relationship with ozone was stronger for those that were well-watered than for those with reduced watering. These changes in flowering timing and numbers could have large ecological impacts, affecting plant pollination and the food supply of nectar feeding insects.

  7. Sinemurian–Pliensbachian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and organic carbon isotope stratigraphy in the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peti, Leonie; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Clemence, Marie-Emilie

    2017-01-01

    carbon isotope excursions are identified and defined in the Paris Basin including the well-documented Sinemurian–Pliensbachian boundary event. One positive excursion is further defined in the Pliensbachian interval. Our calibration of high-resolution calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy to ammonite...... organic carbon isotope curve based on 385 data points. The main bioevents, i.e. the first occurrences of Parhabdolithus liasicus, Crepidolithus pliensbachensis, Crepidolithus crassus, Mitrolithus lenticularis, Similiscutum cruciulus sensu lato, Lotharingius hauffii, Crepidolithus cavus and Lotharingius...... sigillatus as well as the last occurrence of Parhabdolithus robustus, have been identified. However, we show that a large number of standard biostratigraphic markers show inconsistent occurrences at the base and top of their range, possibly accounting for some of the significant discrepancies observed...

  8. Colour change evaluation on UV radiation exposure for Păun-Repedea calcareous geomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelin, V.; Sandu, I.; Munteanu, M.; Iurcovschi, C. T.; Gurlui, S.; Sandu, AV; Vasilache, V.; Brȃnzilă, M.; Sandu, I. G.

    2016-06-01

    When talking about the preservation treatments that can be applied to natural stones used in different constructions, the surface hydrophobization plays an important part, especially when referring to porous surfaces like the calcareous oolithic stones specific to Repedea area, Iasi County, Romania. The present paper presents a method that evaluates the hydrophobization efficiency of two types of pellicles, involving UV artificial ageing and colorimetric analysis of the treated surfaces. The evaluation was done through continuous colorimetric monitoring and by comparing the evolution of the chromatic modifications of the two treated surfaces with the original colorimetric values and with the witness area, which was exposed to UV radiations under the same conditions, but left chemical untreated. The techniques used during this experiment were: CIE L*a*b* colorimetry, OM, SEM-EDX, UV radiation exposure and Spectrum Irradiance Measurement.

  9. Influence of perennial plants on chemical properties of arid calcareous soils in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian, N.; Razmi, K. (Shiraz Univ. (Iran))

    1990-10-01

    The authors conducted a study in Bajgah to determine the influence of perennial plants on some selected properties of soils formed on the highly calcareous parent material. The major plant genera were determined to be Agropyron, Artemisia, Astragalus, Dianthus, Eryngium, Peganum, Polygonum, Stipa, and Thymus. Tops of plants genera were found to be significantly different in ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn, and Cu; the concentration of Fe was not significantly different. The authors found the plants to differ significantly in their influence on soil properties. Peganum caused an accumulation of organic matter (OM) as high as 7% in the soil, in an environment where the soils typically contain less than 1% OM. Soil concentrations of P, K, Mn, Zn, and Cu were also found to vary significantly beneath different plant genera. They suggest these differences in OM accumulation were caused by plant litter. Concentration of Fe in the soils formed beneath different plant genera was statistically unchanged.

  10. Integrated biostratigraphy and sealevel dynamics at the Santonian - early Campanian Schattau section - Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgring, Erik; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Schattau section displays a Santonian to early Campanian transgressive sequence with a rich micro- and macro fossil fauna. A framework based on planktonic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, ammonite, echinoid and crinoid biostratigraphy provides the foundation for a high resolution assessment of palaeoecologic changes in planktonic and benthic foraminiferal communities and local biostratigraphy (see Wagreich et al., 2009). The Santonian Hochmoos Formation (representing shallow water environments with the Sandkalkbank Member at the top of this unit) is overlain by the Santonian to Campanian Bibereck Formation (recording a distinct increase in water depth). The stratigraphically older subsections of the outcrop yield abundant miliolids and some rotaliid foraminiferal taxa (Quinqueloculina sp., Spiroloculina fassistomata, Hoeglundia spp., Gavellina spp.) and the larger benthic foraminifer Nummofallotia cretacea. A transgressive episode is recorded in the uppermost Hochmoos Formation's Sandkalkbank Member - consequently larger benthic foraminifera disappear and miliolids become a rare -, planktonic foraminifera an abundant element in deposits assigning to the stratigraphically youngest part of the Schattau section, the Bibereck Formation. Globotruncanids and marginotruncanids are frequently found. The planktonic/benthic foraminifera ratio rises from zero to ~50%. The benthic foraminiferal fauna is characterised by tubular and bi- and triserial agglutinated foraminifera (e.g. Ammobaculites spp., Dorothia spp., Gaudryina spp., Tritaxia spp.) as well as spiral calcareous benthic foraminifera (Gavellina spp., Lenticulina spp.). Accordingly, the younger deposits at the Schattau section record an outer neritic to upper slope environment. Planctonic foraminifera indicate the Dicarinella asymetrica and the lowest Globotruncanita elevata biozone: The top of the Schattau section records the last appearance of the planktonic foraminifera Dicarinella asymetrica and

  11. Spatial and seasonal reef calcification in corals and calcareous crusts in the central Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Anna; Roder, Cornelia; Röthig, Till; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-06-01

    The existence of coral reef ecosystems critically relies on the reef carbonate framework produced by scleractinian corals and calcareous crusts (i.e., crustose coralline algae). While the Red Sea harbors one of the longest connected reef systems in the world, detailed calcification data are only available from the northernmost part. To fill this knowledge gap, we measured in situ calcification rates of primary and secondary reef builders in the central Red Sea. We collected data on the major habitat-forming coral genera Porites, Acropora, and Pocillopora and also on calcareous crusts (CC) in a spatio-seasonal framework. The scope of the study comprised sheltered and exposed sites of three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient and over four seasons of the year. Calcification of all coral genera was consistent across the shelf and highest in spring. In addition, Pocillopora showed increased calcification at exposed reef sites. In contrast, CC calcification increased from nearshore, sheltered to offshore, exposed reef sites, but also varied over seasons. Comparing our data to other reef locations, calcification in the Red Sea was in the range of data collected from reefs in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific; however, Acropora calcification estimates were at the lower end of worldwide rates. Our study shows that the increasing coral cover from nearshore to offshore environments aligned with CC calcification but not coral calcification, highlighting the potentially important role of CC in structuring reef cover and habitats. While coral calcification maxima have been typically observed during summer in many reef locations worldwide, calcification maxima during spring in the central Red Sea indicate that summer temperatures exceed the optima of reef calcifiers in this region. This study provides a foundation for comparative efforts and sets a baseline to quantify impact of future environmental change in the central Red Sea.

  12. Young calcareous soil chronosequences as a model for ecological restoration on alkaline mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Adam T; Lambers, Hans

    2017-12-31

    Tailings are artificial soil-forming substrates that have not been created by the natural processes of soil formation and weathering. The extreme pH environment and corresponding low availability of some macro- and micronutrients in alkaline tailings, coupled with hostile physical and geochemical conditions, present a challenging environment to native biota. Some significant nutritional constraints to ecosystem reconstruction on alkaline tailings include i) predominant or complete absence of combined nitrogen (N) and poor soil N retention; ii) the limited bioavailability of some micronutrients at high soil pH (e.g., Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu); and iii) potentially toxic levels of biologically available soil phosphorus (P) for P-sensitive plants. The short regulatory time frames (years) for mine closure on tailings landforms are at odds with the long time required for natural pedogenic processes to ameliorate these factors (thousands of years). However, there are similarities between the chemical composition and nutrient status of alkaline tailings and the poorly-developed, very young calcareous soils of biodiverse regions such as south-western Australia. We propose that basic knowledge of chronosequences that start with calcareous soils may provide an informative model for understanding the pedogenic processes required to accelerate soil formation on tailings. Development of a functional, stable root zone is crucial to successful ecological restoration on tailings, and three major processes should be facilitated as early as possible during processing or in the early stages of restoration to accelerate soil development on alkaline tailings: i) acidification of the upper tailings profile; ii) establishment of appropriate and resilient microbial communities; and iii) the early development of appropriate pioneer vegetation. Achieving successful ecological restoration outcomes on tailings landforms is likely one of the greatest challenges faced by restoration ecologists and the

  13. Spatial and seasonal reef calcification in corals and calcareous crusts in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna Krystyna

    2015-12-14

    The existence of coral reef ecosystems critically relies on the reef carbonate framework produced by scleractinian corals and calcareous crusts (i.e., crustose coralline algae). While the Red Sea harbors one of the longest connected reef systems in the world, detailed calcification data are only available from the northernmost part. To fill this knowledge gap, we measured in situ calcification rates of primary and secondary reef builders in the central Red Sea. We collected data on the major habitat-forming coral genera Porites, Acropora, and Pocillopora and also on calcareous crusts (CC) in a spatio-seasonal framework. The scope of the study comprised sheltered and exposed sites of three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient and over four seasons of the year. Calcification of all coral genera was consistent across the shelf and highest in spring. In addition, Pocillopora showed increased calcification at exposed reef sites. In contrast, CC calcification increased from nearshore, sheltered to offshore, exposed reef sites, but also varied over seasons. Comparing our data to other reef locations, calcification in the Red Sea was in the range of data collected from reefs in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific; however, Acropora calcification estimates were at the lower end of worldwide rates. Our study shows that the increasing coral cover from nearshore to offshore environments aligned with CC calcification but not coral calcification, highlighting the potentially important role of CC in structuring reef cover and habitats. While coral calcification maxima have been typically observed during summer in many reef locations worldwide, calcification maxima during spring in the central Red Sea indicate that summer temperatures exceed the optima of reef calcifiers in this region. This study provides a foundation for comparative efforts and sets a baseline to quantify impact of future environmental change in the central Red Sea.

  14. Phytoavailability of Copper, Zinc and Cadmium in Sewage Sludge-Amended Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiong; GUO Xue-Yan; XU Xing-Hua; ZUO Yu-Bao; WEI Dong-Pu; MA Yi-Bing

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of trace elements (TEs),such as copper (Cu),zinc (Zn),and cadmium (Cd),often restrict land application of sewage sludge (SS) and there was little information about soil-plant transfer of TEs in SS from field experiments in China.In this study pot and field experiments were carried out for 2 years to investigate the phytoavailability of TEs in calcareous soils amended with SS.The results of the pot experiment showed that the phytoavailability of Zn and Cu in the SS was equal to 53.4%-80.9% and 54.8%-91.1% of corresponding water-soluble metal salts,respectively.The results from the field experiment showed that the contents of total Zn,Cu,and Cd in the soils increased linearly with SS application rates.With increasing SS application rates,the contents of Zn and Cu in the wheat grains initially increased and then reached a plateau,while there was no significant change of Cd content in the maize grains.The bioconcentration factors of the metals in the grains of wheat and maize were found to be in the order of Zn > Cu > Cd,but for the straw the order was Cd > Cu > Zn.It was also found that wheat grains could accumulate more metals compared with maize grains.The results will be helpful in developing the critical loads of sewage sludge applied to calcareous soils.

  15. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF UPPER CALLOVIAN-LOWER BERRIASIAN SUCCESSIONS FROM THE SOUTHERN ALPS, NORTH ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA EMANUELA CASELLATO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy was investigated in uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian sections from Southern Alps, previously detected through magnetostratigraphy, in order to achieve an integrated stratigraphic framework valid at low latitudes. Nannofossil investigations were carried out on smear slides and ultra-thin sections, revealing generally scarce to common abundances and poor-moderate preservation of nannofloras. An exhaustive taxonomic revision was performed to unambiguously separate forms which are transitional between two species and better delineate rapidly evolving groups. Four new species have been described: Zeugrhabdotus fluxus, Nannoconus puer, Nannoconus erbae, Hexalithus geometricus. Particular attention was paid to taxonomical aspects of primitive nannoconids, appearing and evolving across the early-late Tithonian transition and the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary intervals; the revision was also verified at DSDP Site 534A from Atlantic Ocean. Fourty-eight nannofossil bioevents were detected and the results help to increase potential stratigraphic resolution in this interval. Thirty-seven nannofossil bioevents in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Berriasian interval have been directly correlated to magnetostratigraphy (CM22-CM17 revealing a systematically older stratigraphic occurrence of these taxa than previously reported. A revised and partly new Tethyan calcareous nannofossil zonation scheme is here proposed for the uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian interval. It consists of seven bio-zones and eight subzones based on thirty-one bioevents, thirteen of them related to dissolution resistant taxa assuring highest reproducibility even in sections with high diagenetic overprint. The proposed biostratigraphic scheme gives higher resolution than previous zonations, especially for the Callovian-Kimmeridgian interval, where no biozonation was available for the Tethyan Realm. 

  16. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS AT THE TRIASSIC/JURASSIC BOUNDARY: STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEOCEANOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CINZIA BOTTINI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, calcareous nannofossils are identified for the first time in the uppermost Triassic sequence of the Lombardy Basin (Southern Calcareous Alps, Italy. Two zones are recognized, namely the NT2b (latest Triassic and the NJT1 (earliest Jurassic. Two species resulted to be good markers to constrain the TJB interval: Prinsiosphaera triassica and Schizosphaerella punctulata. Nannofossil data are calibrated with C isotopic chemostratigraphy obtained for carbonate and organic matter. Size reduction of P. triassica and a decline in the abundance of Triassic nannofossils are detected soon after the “precursor Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE and culminated during the “initial negative CIE” characterized by lowest nannofossil abundances and small-sized P. triassica. The extinction of Triassic nannofossils occurred in distinctive steps within the “initial negative CIE”, while the Jurassic S. punctulata is first observed at the base of the “main negative CIE”. The latest Triassic nannofossil decline in abundance, size reduction and extinctions, represent a progressive deterioration associated to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP volcanism. Our findings are consistent with nannofossil changes at supraregional scale and indicate that the massive CAMP flood basalts were preceded by initial volcanic pulses. We speculate that a combination of climate change, fertilization and ocean acidification started to influence the calcification process prior to the “initial negative CIE”. Nannoplankton extinctions were not simultaneous and might imply limited capacity for adaptation in the early stages of evolutionary history. However, originations of new taxa soon after the disappearance of Triassic forms suggest the ability to rapidly overcame extreme stressing conditions.

  17. Do vineyards in contrasting landscapes contribute to conserve plant species of dry calcareous grasslands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Zottini, Michela; Ivan, Diego; Casagrande, Valentina; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    The increasing development of vineyards in Mediterranean areas worldwide is considered a major driver of conversion of several habitats of conservation concern, including calcareous dry grasslands that are targeted for biodiversity conservation by the European Union, according to Natura 2000 policies. Here, we aim at evaluating the potential of extensive vineyards located in contrasting landscapes (semi-natural vs crop-dominated) for providing suitable habitat conditions to plant species associated with dry grasslands. This study was carried out in one of the economically most important winemaking districts of Italy, characterized by a hilly landscape with steep slope vineyards. We compared plant communities of vineyards in contrasting landscapes with those of the remnants of dry grasslands. Our study demonstrates that landscape composition strongly affects local plant communities in vineyards, with a positive effect of semi-natural habitats bordering the cultivated areas. Our findings thus supply an additional tool for improving the effectiveness of viticultural landscapes for nature conservation. In particular, our results indicate that vineyards on steep slopes could provide moderate chance for the conservation of plant specialists inhabiting calcareous dry grasslands, depending on the landscape composition: vineyards embedded in semi-natural landscapes have more potential for conservation than those in crop-dominated landscapes. Our study also indicates that conservation efforts should aim at (a) decreasing the current management intensity that likely hampers the beneficial effects of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape on local plant assemblages, and (b) strictly conserving the remnants of dry grasslands that are irreplaceable refugia for habitat specialists and species of conservation concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of phosphate fertilization on the bioavailability of iron in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, A. R.; del Campillo, M. C.; Barrón, V.; Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    Iron (Fe) chlorosis is the most important nutritional problem in sensitive plant species cultivated in calcareous soils, its main symptoms being interveinal yellowing in the younger leaves due to lack of chlorophyll and reduced growth. Fe chlorosis has been related to the content of poorly crystalline Fe oxides in soil. The effect of other nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), is, however, a matter of debate. In this work we examined whether fertilization with P alters the availability of Fe to sensitive plants growing in two different Fe chlorosis-inducing calcareous soils. Phosphate at rates of 0 (control), 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg P kg-1 soil was applied to pots where six-months-old olive trees cv. Arbequina were grown. The experiment lasted three years and took place in a shaded house. Chlorophyll concentration in the young leaves was estimated with the SPAD value (using a Minolta apparatus) three-four times per year. Furthermore, shoot length, dry weight of annual pruning and mineral element concentration were measured at the end of each year. In one of the soils, SPAD and leaf Fe concentration decreased with increasing P dose. However in the other soil, SPAD was not correlated with the rate of applied P. In both soils, potassium and zinc concentrations in plants fertilized with P were lower than those in the control plants. This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Projects: AGL 2005-06691-C02-01 and AGL 2008-05053-C02-02, and the European Regional Development Funds. ARSR acknowledges the finnancial support from the Spanish Ministry of Education as a fellow of the program "Training of University Teachers" (Formación del Profesorado Universitario, AP2008-04716)

  19. Net transformation of phosphorus forms applied as inorganic and organic amendments to a calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The forms of phosphorus (P) in animal manure composts are different from that of synthetic P fertilizers, and this could affect how soil P chemistry will be altered when they are used as P amendments. The objective of this study was to analyze the net changes in the nature and dynamics of plant available P forms applied either as inorganic P (KH2PO4) or turkey litter compost (TLC) in calcareous soil with and without plant growth. Forms of TLC-P were characterized by x-ray diffraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. The amounts of various P forms in soils were measured by a sequential fractionation method after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks incubation. Brushite (Ca-P) and newberyite (Mg-P) were the major forms of inorganic P, and phosphate monoester was the major form of organic P present in TLC. The addition of inorganic P fertilizer increased the labile/moderately labile P, whereas the compost increased the moderately labile P extractable with weak acid (pH 4.2). Even though the amount of the labile P fraction in the compost-treated soil was smaller than that in the fertilizer-treated soils, ryegrass growth and plant P uptake were greater. The net transformation of the labile/moderately labile P was slower in the compost-treated soil without plant growth, however it was faster with plant growth. This study showed that P applied either as an inorganic or an organic amendment was recovered in different P fractions in a calcareous soil, and therefore it is expected that the P source would affect soil P chemistry. A weak acid extractable inorganic P fraction should be considered as plant available P especially in the compost-treated soil, that is converted into plant available P through direct and/or indirect root-induced acidification in the rhizosphere.

  20. Provenance of Holocene calcareous beach-dune sediments, Western Eyre Peninsula, Great Australian Bight, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Bone, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    Much of western Eyre Peninsula adjacent to the Great Australian Bight is veneered with siliceous and calcareous Quaternary aeolian dunes. The lengthy coastline adjacent to this cool-water carbonate factory is a series of Precambrian crystalline bedrock-Pleistocene aeolianite headlands that separate many long, sweeping, Holocene carbonate sand beaches and their backbeach dunes. Incessant SW waves, rolling swells, and onshore winds have resulted in > 350 km of semi-continuous calcareous strandline aeolian sands. The sediment is composed of quartz grains, Cenozoic limestone clasts, and relict particles (extraclasts) but the deposits are overwhelmingly dominated by contemporaneous biofragments from offshore. These skeletal grains are, in order of relative abundance, molluscs > benthic foraminifers > coralline algae > bryozoans, and echinoids. Benthic foraminifers are mostly small (especially rotaliids and miliolids) but the large relict symbiont-bearing protistMarginopora vertebralis, which grew in the latter stages of MIS 2, is present locally. There are no significant onshore-offshore trends within individual beach-dune complexes. There is, however, a prominent spatial partitioning, with extraclast-rich sediments in the north and biofragment-rich deposits in the south. This areal trend is interpreted to result from more active seafloor carbonate production in the south, an area of conspicuous seasonal nutrient upwelling and profound nektic and benthic biological productivity. The overall system is strikingly similar to Holocene and Pleistocene aeolianites along the inboard margin of the Lacepede Shelf and Bonney Coast some 500 km to the southeast, implying a potential universality to the nature of cool-water carbonate aeolianite deposition. The composition of these cool-water aeolianites is more multifaceted than those formed on warm-water, shallow flat-topped platforms, largely because of the comparatively deep, temperate shelf, the high-energy wave and swell

  1. Improving phosphorus uptake and wheat productivity by phosphoric acid application in alkaline calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad; Yaqub, Muhammad; Naeem, Asif; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hernandez, Vicente Espinosa

    2016-08-01

    Low phosphorus (P) efficiency from existing granular fertilisers necessitates searching for efficient alternatives to improve wheat productivity in calcareous soil. Multi-location trials have shown that phosphoric acid (PA) produced 16% higher wheat grain over commercial P fertilisers, i.e. diammonium phosphate (DAP) and triple superphosphate (TSP). Methods of P application significantly influenced grain yield and the efficiency of methods was observed in the order: PA placement below seed > PA, DAP or TSP fertigation > DAP or TSP broadcast. The sub-surface application of PA produced highest grain yields (mean of all rates), i.e. 4669, 4158 and 3910 kg ha(-1) in Bagh, Bhalwal and Shahpur soil series, respectively. Phosphoric acid at 66 kg P2 O5 ha(-1) was found more effective in increasing gain yield over that of control. Trend in grain P uptake was found similar to that observed for grain yield. Maximum P uptake by grain was recorded at the highest P rate and the lowest at zero P. The significant increase in P uptake with P rates was generally related to the increase in yield rather than its concentration in grain. Phosphorus agronomic efficiency (PAE) and phosphorus recovery efficiency (PRE) were found higher at lower P rate (44 kg P2 O5 ha(-1) ) and decreased with P application. However, PA applied by the either method resulted in higher PAE and PRE compared to DAP and TSP. Phosphoric acid is suggested as an efficient alternative to commercial granular P fertilisers for wheat production in alkaline calcareous soils. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of three Electron Shuttles on Bioreduction of Ferric Iron in two Acidic and Calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Sharifi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron cycle is one of the most important biogeochemical processes which affect the availability of iron in soils. Ferric iron oxides are the most abundant forms of iron in soils and sediments. Ferric iron is highly insoluble at circumneutral pH. Present investigations have shown that the structural ferric iron bound in clay minerals is reduced by some microorganisms. Anaerobic bacteria reduce ferric iron which bound to soil clay minerals under anaerobic conditions. They have the ability to use ferric iron as a terminal electron acceptor. Many studies presented that dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB mediate the transfer of electrons from small organic molecules like acetate and glucose to various humic materials (electron shuttles which then pass electrons abiotically to ferric iron oxyhydroxide and phyllosilicate minerals. Electron shuttles like AQDS, a tricyclic quinone, increase the rate of iron reduction by iron reducing bacteria on sites of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides. By increasing the rate of bioreduction of ferric iron, the solubility and availability of iron enhanced meaningfully. Royer et al. (2002 showed that bioreduction of hematite (common iron mineral in soils increased more than three times in the presence of AQDS and Shewanella putrefaciens comparedto control treatments. Previous works have mostly used synthetic minerals as electron acceptor in bioreduction process. Furthermore, the effect of quinones as electron acceptor for microorganisms were studied with poorly crystalline ferric iron oxides . The main objective of this study was to study the effect of AQS, humic acid and fulvic acid (as electron shuttle and Shewanella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, on bioreduction of native ferric iron in two acidic and calcareous soils. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications in vitro condition. The soil samples collected

  3. The Role of Organic Acids on the Release of Phosphorus and Zinc in a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Nezami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P and zinc (Zn fixation by soil minerals and their precipitation is one of the major constraints for crop production in calcareous soils. Recent Studies show that root exudates are effective for the extraction of the large amounts of nutrients in calcareous soils. A part of the root exudations are Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids (LMWOAs. LMWOAs are involved in the nutrients availability and uptake by plants, nutrients detoxification, minerals weathering and microbial proliferation in the soil. At nutrients deficiency conditions citric and oxalic acids are released by plants root in large quantities and increase nutrient solubility like P, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu in the rhizosphere. These components are the large portion of the carbon source in the soil after exudations are mineralized by microorganisms, quickly. In addition, soil surface sorption can affect their half-life and other behaviors in the soil. In order to study the effect of oxalic and citric organic acids on the extraction of phosphorus and zinc from a calcareous soil, an experiment was conducted. Materials and Methods: Studied soil was calcareous and had P and Zn deficiency. Soil sample was collected from A horizon (0-30 cm of Damavand region. 3 g of dried soil sample was extracted with 30 ml of oxalic and citric acids extraction solutions at different concentrations (0.1, 1 and 10 mM and different time periods (10, 60, 180 and 360 minutes on an orbital shaker at 200 rev min-1.The soil extracts then centrifuged for 10 minutes (16000g. After filtering, the pH of the extractions was recorded and then phosphorus, calcium and zinc amounts were determined. Soil extraction with distilled water was used as control. Each treatment was performed in 3 replications. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA test followed by the Bonferroni method significant level adjustments due to multiple comparisons. Results and Discussion: The results of variance analysis showed

  4. Port wine stain on a child's face (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port wine stains are always present at birth. In an infant, they are flat, pink, vascular lesions. Common locations ... may be present anywhere on the body. Port wine stains may appear in association with other syndromes.

  5. Comparison between Giemsa and Van Geison stains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka

    2016-09-14

    Sep 14, 2016 ... identification of collagen fibers of great importance. Stains such as Van ... Both cation and anion contain ... already large molecules, solutions of neutral stains are ... Differentiate in 2% aqueous ferric chloride until elastic tissue.

  6. Laser therapy in plastic surgery: decolorization in port wine stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peszynski-Drews, Cezary; Wolf, Leszek

    1996-03-01

    For the first time laserotherapy is described as a method of port wine stain decolorization in plastic surgery. The authors present their 20-year experience in the treatment of port wine stains with the argon laser and dye laser.

  7. Scrub typhus hepatitis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Hoon Chung; Sung-Chul Lim; Na-Ra Yun; Sung-Heui Shin; Choon-Mee Kim; Dong-Min Kim

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (O.tsutsugamushi).We report herein the case of a woman who presented with fever and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and who was definitively diagnosed with scrub typhus by histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimens,serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction.Immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-O.tsutsugamushi antibody showed focally scattered positive immunoreactions in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes.This case suggests that scrub typhus hepatitis causes mild focal inflammation due to direct liver damage without causing piecemeal necrosis or interface hepatitis.Thus,scrub typhus hepatitis differs from acute viral hepatitis secondary to liver damage due to host immune responses,which causes severe Iobular disarray with diffuse hepatocytic degeneration,necrosis and apoptosis as well as findings indicative of hepatic cholestasis,such as hepatic bile plugs or brown pigmentation of hepatocytes.

  8. Dye purity and dye standardization for biological staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2002-01-01

    for separating, identifying and assaying dye components. In the second part of the review, descriptions are given of the standardized staining method approach using standard staining methods for assessing stains, and practical responses to stain impurity including commercial quality control, third-party quality...... control and standardization of reagents, protocols and documentation. Finally, reference is made to the current state of affairs in the dye field....

  9. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in solutions used in staining cells and tissues for diagnostic... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and...

  10. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. below color grade cotton...

  11. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  12. Ultrastructural characters of a Physarum melleum on living leaves of Dendrobium candidum in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A known species, Physarum melleum, was found fruiting on living leaves of Dendrobium candidum, which was collected in China in 2004. Its morphological characters were revealed by light microscopy (LM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Character variations were distinguished by its olive-yellow peridium and its always thinner capillitium containing globulose granular material between the large calcareous nodes. The calcium carbonate granules, deposited on stalks, peridium and hypothallus as well as within stalks, were globose and smooth.

  13. Actinomyces-like organisms in the cervical Papanicolaou-stained smears of intrauterine device (IUD) users

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    p. 159 - 164 The prevalence of Actinomyces-like organisms in cervicovaginal smears of 2,347 Brazilian women, including 151 (6.4%) intrauterine devices (IUD) users for at least six months and as controls 2,196 (93.6%) non-wearers of similar age using hormonal, barrier, or other contraceptive methods or none, living in Salvador, Bahia, has been investigated. Cervical smears were stained by the Papanicolaou method for the microscopic examination of Actinomyces-like organisms. The ...

  14. Automated single-slide staining device. [in clinical bacteriology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    An automatic single-slide Gram staining device is described. A timer-actuated solenoid controls the dispensing of gentian violet, Gram iodine solution, decolorizer, and 1% aqueous safranin in proper sequence and for the time required for optimum staining. The amount of stain or reagent delivered is controlled by means of stopcocks below each solenoid. Used stains and reagents can be flushed automatically or manually. Smears Gram stained automatically are equal in quality to those prepared manually. The time to complete one Gram cycle is 4.80 min.

  15. Simulation of Zinc Release Affected by Microbial Inoculation and Salinity Levels in a non-sterile Calcareous Soil Using kinetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza boostani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc (Zn is an important nutrient element for humans and plants that controls many biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. Zinc deficiency is common in high pH, low organic matter, carbonatic, saline and sodic soils. Salinity is a major abiotic environmental stresses that limits growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Bioavailability of Zn is low in calcareous and saline soils having high levels of pH and calcium. Desorption of Zinc (Zn from soil as influenced by biological activities is one of the important factors that control Zn bioavailability. Few reports on the effects of salinity on the availability and desorption kinetics of Zn are available. Rupa et al. (2000 reported that increasing the salt concentration led to increase Zn desorption from soil due to ion competition on soil exchangeable sites. Different kinetic equations have been used to describe the release kinetics of nutrients. Reyhanitabar and Gilkes (2010 found that the power function model was the best equation to describe the release of Zn from some calcareous soil of Iran, whereas Baranimotlagh and Gholami (2013 stated that the best model for describing Zn desorption from 15 calcareous soils of Iran was the first-order equation.less attention has been paid to kinetics of Zn release by DTPA extractant over time by inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae fungi in comination with soil salinity.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and mycorrhizae fungi (MF inoculation on release kinetic of Zn in a calcareous soil at different salinity levels after in cornplantation Materials and Methods: A composite sample of bulk soil from the surface horizon (0-30 cm of a calcareous soil from southern part of Iran was collected, air dried, passed through 2 mm sieve, and thoroughly mixed. Routine soil analysis was performed to determine some

  16. Erbium doped stain etched porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Diaz-Herrera, B. [Departamento de Energia Fotovoltaica, Instituto Tecnologico de Energias Renovables (ITER), Poligono Industrial de Granadilla, 38611 S/C Tenerife (Spain); Guerrero-Lemus, R. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: rglemus@ull.es; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Rodriguez, V.D. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Experimental Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Rodriguez, C. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, C-XII, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    In this work a simple erbium doping process applied to stain etched porous silicon layers (PSLs) is proposed. This doping process has been developed for application in porous silicon solar cells, where conventional erbium doping processes are not affordable because of the high processing cost and technical difficulties. The PSLs were formed by immersion in a HF/HNO{sub 3} solution to properly adjust the porosity and pore thickness to an optimal doping of the porous structure. After the formation of the porous structure, the PSLs were analyzed by means of nitrogen BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) area measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the PSLs were immersed in a saturated erbium nitrate solution in order to cover the porous surface. Then, the samples were subjected to a thermal process to activate the Er{sup 3+} ions. Different temperatures and annealing times were used in this process. The photoluminescence of the PSLs was evaluated before and after the doping processes and the composition was analyzed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy.

  17. Thermoclastic and cryoclastic action on calcareous building stone: durability to artificial ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinario, Luigi; Andriani, Gioacchino Francesco; Laviano, Rocco

    2014-05-01

    Short and long-term climate changes are a critical factor of stone decay even in temperate Mediterranean areas, when the combined fluctuations of temperature and moisture lead to thermoclastism and cryoclastism. The effects of weathering are of particular concern in the conservation field, for the assessment of the vulnerability of outdoor-exposed stone materials in the historical built heritage. An example of this outline is Apulia, a region of southern Italy characterized by warm, dry summers and mild, rather rainy winters that can bring sub-zero temperatures; here, climate-driven decay can seriously affect the state of conservation of the local calcareous stone used in the monumental heritage, especially the most porous and softest materials. The dynamic behavior of the Apulian calcareous stone in response to thermo-hygrometric stresses was studied here by means of an artificial accelerated ageing test, focusing on a single local stone variety known as "pietra gentile". It is a fine-grained, soft and porous calcarenite, which is exploited in the Murge area from the outcrops of the "Calcare di Caranna" Fm. (late Campanian?-Maastrichtian). The quarrying activity is concentrated in the territory of Valle d'Itria and mainly of Ostuni, touristically known as "the White Town", where the stone is widely used for the sacred and civil architecture. The ageing test was programmed according to the typical climatic characteristics of the considered area, following the historical recordings by the official Apulian monitoring institute (Struttura di Monitoraggio Meteoclimatico, Centro Funzionale Regionale); in order to simulate the seasonal climatic changes, the extreme temperatures were considered, while the possible insolation effects for higher temperatures were also taken into account. So, samples of "pietra gentile" were subjected to 100 temperature cycles from 60 to -5 °C, in a climatic chamber with a maximum relative humidity of 60%. Before the ageing, the samples

  18. On the nature of the calcareous substrate of a ferromanganese crust from the Vityaz Fracture Zone, Central Indian Ridge: Inferences on palaeoceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Banerjee, R.; Mergulhao, L.

    Pliocene age has been assigned to the calcareous substrate. Among the nannoplankton, discoasters outnumber coccoliths and show signs of dissolution. The presence of certain species of benthic Foraminifera such as Uvigerina, Lenticulina, Bulimina...

  19. Productivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedert, M.; Stoll, H. M.; Kroon, D.; Shimizu, N.; Kanamaru, K.; Ziveri, P.

    2012-05-01

    The Early Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) at ~53.7 Ma is one of multiple hyperthermal events that followed the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma). The negative carbon excursion and deep ocean carbonate dissolution which occurred during the event imply that a substantial amount (103 Gt) of carbon (C) was added to the ocean-atmosphere system, consequently increasing atmospheric CO2(pCO2). This makes the event relevant to the current scenario of anthropogenic CO2 additions and global change. Resulting changes in ocean stratification and pH, as well as changes in exogenic cycles which supply nutrients to the ocean, may have affected the productivity of marine phytoplankton, especially calcifying phytoplankton. Changes in productivity, in turn, may affect the rate of sequestration of excess CO2 in the deep ocean and sediments. In order to reconstruct the productivity response by calcareous nannoplankton to ETM2 in the South Atlantic (Site 1265) and North Pacific (Site 1209), we employ the coccolith Sr/Ca productivity proxy with analysis of well-preserved picked monogeneric populations by ion probe supplemented by analysis of various size fractions of nannofossil sediments by ICP-AES. The former technique of measuring Sr/Ca in selected nannofossil populations using the ion probe circumvents possible contamination with secondary calcite. Avoiding such contamination is important for an accurate interpretation of the nannoplankton productivity record, since diagenetic processes can bias the productivity signal, as we demonstrate for Sr/Ca measurements in the fine (productivity during ETM2. This high productivity phase is probably the result of enhanced nutrient supply either from land or from upwelling. The ion probe results show that calcareous nannoplankton productivity was not reduced by environmental conditions accompanying ETM2 at Site 1265, but imply an overall sustained productivity and potentially a small productivity increase during the extreme

  20. Origin of Methane Entrapped in Calcareous Glacial Sediments of the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, M. H.; Zhu, B.; Henneberger, R.; Zeyer, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. It was recently discovered entrapped in proglacial sediments of the Swiss Alps, specifically in sediments derived from calcareous bedrock. This CH4 can be released upon mechanical impact or acidification. However, amount and distribution of entrapped CH4, its origin, as well as its fate in the proglacial environment are yet unknown. Entrapped CH4 may be of modern origin from ongoing or recent biogenic CH4 production (methanogenesis). In contrast, entrapped CH4 in calcareous sediments may also be ancient and of thermogenic origin. We present results of a study conducted in the catchment of Wildstrubel Glacier, Canton Valais, Switzerland. Our main goal was to assess the origin of CH4 entrapped in pro- and subglacial sediments of this catchment using multiple lines of evidence. In addition, we wanted to elucidate the potential occurrence of methanogenesis in subglacial and recently deglaciated, water-logged sediments of this Alpine glacial system. We performed geochemical analyses (CH4 content, gas wetness ([C1]/[C2-C3] alkanes), CH4 stable C- and H-isotopes, TOC) on proglacial sediment samples collected from well-aerated and water-logged locations, as well as on subglacial sediment samples. Geochemical analyses were also conducted on rock specimen collected from different geologic formations present in the catchment. In addition, sediment samples were collected for batch incubations and for molecular analyses targeting the mcrA gene, which encodes the α-subunit of the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase, catalyzing the final step in methanogenesis. Substantial amounts of CH4 were found to be entrapped in all sediment samples. Results of gas-wetness and stable-isotope analyses provided strong evidence that entrapped CH4 was largely of thermogenic origin. These findings agreed with geochemical analyses of rock specimen. Conversely, batch incubations of sediments from proglacial water-logged zones (collected in the vicinity

  1. CALCAREOUS PLANKTON HIGH RESOLUTION BIO-MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY FOR THE LANGHIAN OF THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATA DI STEFANO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution quantitative and qualitative analyses of the planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannofossil content have been carried out on three Middle Miocene sections, from the Mediterranean area. Such sections (Cretaccio section, Tremiti Islands, Southern Italy; Moria section, Marche Region, Central Italy; DSDP Site 372 succession, Balearic Basin, all well known in the literature, have been chosen because of their high-quality biostratigraphic potential.Remarkable magnetostratigraphic data were provided by the Site 372 succession where all chrons and subchrons of the interval C5Br-C5AAn have been recognised.The investigated interval falls between the First Occurrence (FO of Praeorbulina glomerosa sicana and the Last Occurrence (LO of Sphenolithus heteromorphus and Globorotalia peripheroronda. The LO of S. heteromorphus was detected in the uppermost part of the investigated sequence of Site 372 at the same stratigraphic level of the G. peripheroronda LO. A drastic decrease in abundance of S. heteromorphus (Last Common Occurrence -LCO was detected slightly below its last occurrence; this event is well correlatable with the same event astronomically calibrated at Ras-il Pellegrin section (Malta Island, which has been recently ratified as the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP for the base of the Serravallian by the International Union of Geological Sciences.The stratigraphic correlation of the studied sections is based on first and last occurrences, abundance fluctuations of selected taxa and additional biohorizons. In particular the peculiar distribution pattern of some taxa, e.g. Paragloborotalia siakensis and Helicosphaera waltrans, offered the opportunity to increase the biostratigraphic resolution of the Langhian interval. The resulting integrated calcareous plankton bio-magnetostratigraphic scheme represents the downward extension of that one previously established for the Serravallian-Tortonian interval.The biostratigraphic

  2. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazif, W. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Marzouk, E.R. [Division of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Suez Canal University, North Sinai 45516 (Egypt); Perveen, S. [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Crout, N.M.J. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Young, S.D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with {sup 70}Zn{sup 2+}; comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO{sub 3} and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na{sub 2}-EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1 + F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO{sub 3} was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO{sub 3}. This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (PCO{sub 2} controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent ‘adsorption’ model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO{sub 3}. The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn{sup 2+}) data, although the apparent value of log{sub 10} Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO{sub 3}). - Highlights: • Isotopically exchangeable Zn in the calcareous soils of Peshawar is extremely low. • There is no evidence of topsoil enrichment from the use of wastewater for irrigation. • Solubility

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns in community structure of macroinvertebrates inhabiting calcareous periphyton mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, S.E.; Trexler, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Calcareous floating periphyton mats in the southern Everglades provide habitat for a diverse macroinvertebrate community that has not been well characterized. Our study described this community in an oligotrophic marsh, compared it with the macroinvertebrate community associated with adjacent epiphytic algae attached to macrophytes in the water column, and detected spatial patterns in density and community structure. The floating periphyton mat (floating mat) and epiphytic algae in the water column (submerged epiphyton) were sampled at 4 sites (???1 km apart) in northern Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park (ENP), in the early (July) and late (November) wet season. Two perpendicular 90-m transects were established at each site and ???100 samples were taken in a nested design. Sites were located in wet-prairie spikerush-dominated sloughs with similar water depths and emergent macrophyte communities. Floating mats were sampled by taking cores (6-cm diameter) that were sorted under magnification to enumerate infauna retained on a 250-??m-mesh sieve and with a maximum dimension >1 mm. Our results showed that floating mats provide habitat for a macroinvertebrate community with higher densities (no. animals/g ash-free dry mass) of Hyalella azteca, Dasyhelea spp., and Cladocera, and lower densities of Chironomidae and Planorbella spp. than communities associated with submerged epiphyton. Densities of the most common taxa increased 3x to 15x from early to late wet season, and community differences between the 2 habitat types became more pronounced. Floating-mat coverage and estimated floating-mat biomass increased 20 to 30%, and 30 to 110%, respectively, at most sites in the late wet season. Some intersite variation was observed in individual taxa, but no consistent spatial pattern in any taxon was detected at any scale (from 0.2 m to 3 km). Floating mats and their resident macroinvertebrate communities are important components in the Everglades food web. This

  4. Soil formation on reddish-brown calcareous till under herbaceous vegetation during forty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reintam, Loit

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A special experiment was established in 1963 and initiated in 1964 at Eerika, Tartu County, Estonia (58°22¢ N, 26°36¢ E to study pedogenesis and its continuous development under grass-herbaceous vegetation on reddish-brown calcareous till which was practically free from organic carbon (0.6 g kg–1 and nitrogen (0.2 g kg–1. The results of the study of three earlier decades have been discussed earlier. This paper deals with the processes of synchronous production and soil formation as well as with pedogenetic activity during the fourth decade of the experiment and during the total period of 40 years. An intensive humus-accumulative process, wavy and cyclic in intensity, has continued, accompanied by the breakdown of skeletal carbonates, partial leaching of products, formation and accumulation of amorphous and crystalline nonsiliceous products of weathering, progress of argillization in situ, and slight lessivage of fine silt and clay within the thin top of enriched humus solum. Net accumulation of organic carbon and nitrogen was obtained by nearly equivalent amounts of humifiable issues of the production process. As these are temporally dynamic, the temporal periodicity of mineralization and humification relationships is also characteristic of synchronous pedogenesis. The low C : N ratio indicates an excellent quality of the humus formed since the beginning of primary soil formation. Against the background of the decadewise dynamic fulvicity of the humus and evident decrease in its total solubility, the transformation of Ca-humates into humins and the formation of R2O3-humic-fulvic complexes at the expense of RO-humic-fulvic complexes already during the third decade were ascertained. Intensification of the bonds of the humic-fulvic complexes with inactive sesquioxides and clay minerals and decrease in the amount of fulvic acids in the interlayeral structure of clay progressed during the fourth decade. Due to the weathering of sand fractions

  5. Productivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dedert

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Early Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 at ~53.7 Ma is one of multiple hyperthermal events that followed the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma. The negative carbon excursion and deep ocean carbonate dissolution which occurred during the event imply that a substantial amount (103 Gt of carbon (C was added to the ocean-atmosphere system, consequently increasing atmospheric CO2(pCO2. This makes the event relevant to the current scenario of anthropogenic CO2 additions and global change. Resulting changes in ocean stratification and pH, as well as changes in exogenic cycles which supply nutrients to the ocean, may have affected the productivity of marine phytoplankton, especially calcifying phytoplankton. Changes in productivity, in turn, may affect the rate of sequestration of excess CO2 in the deep ocean and sediments. In order to reconstruct the productivity response by calcareous nannoplankton to ETM2 in the South Atlantic (Site 1265 and North Pacific (Site 1209, we employ the coccolith Sr/Ca productivity proxy with analysis of well-preserved picked monogeneric populations by ion probe supplemented by analysis of various size fractions of nannofossil sediments by ICP-AES. The former technique of measuring Sr/Ca in selected nannofossil populations using the ion probe circumvents possible contamination with secondary calcite. Avoiding such contamination is important for an accurate interpretation of the nannoplankton productivity record, since diagenetic processes can bias the productivity signal, as we demonstrate for Sr/Ca measurements in the fine (<20 μm and other size fractions obtained from bulk sediments from Site 1265. At this site, the paleoproductivity signal as reconstructed from the Sr/Ca appears to be governed by cyclic changes, possibly orbital forcing, resulting in a 20–30% variability in Sr/Ca in dominant genera as obtained by ion probe. The ~13 to 21

  6. Zebrafish embryology and cartilage staining protocols for high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emran, Farida; Brooks, Jacqueline M; Zimmerman, Steven R; Johnson, Susan L; Lue, Robert A

    2009-06-01

    The Life Sciences-Howard Hughes Medical Institute Outreach Program at Harvard University supports high school science education by offering an on-campus program for students and their teachers to participate in investigative, hands-on laboratory sessions. The outreach program has recently designed and launched a successful zebrafish embryology protocol that we present here. The main objectives of this protocol are to introduce students to zebrafish as a model research organism and to provide students with direct experience with current techniques used in embryological research. The content of the lab is designed to generate discussions on embryology, genetics, fertilization, natural selection, and animal adaptation. The protocol produces reliable results in a time-efficient manner using a minimum of reagents. The protocol presented here consists of three sections: observations of live zebrafish larvae at different developmental stages, cartilage staining of zebrafish larvae, and a mutant hunt involving identification of two zebrafish mutants (nacre and chokh). Here, we describe the protocol, show the results obtained for each section, and suggest possible alternatives for different lab settings.

  7. Late Oligocene calcareous nannofossils from Albanian-Thessalian intramontane basin (Bozdovec Section, Albania – a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina-Elena Kallanxhi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses of calcareous nannofossils were performed on samples collected from Bozdovec Section (Albanian-Thessalian intramontane basin, Albania. The calcareous nannofossil assemblages are dominated by: small reticulofenestrids, Cycligargolithus floridanus, Coccolithus pelagicus, Sphenolithus spp., Reticulofenestra scrippsae, Helicosphaera spp., Clausicoccus spp., Reticulofenestra bisecta, Cycligargolithus abisectus. Biostratigraphically, the studied outcrop is assigned to the Late Oligocene NP25 - Sphenolithus ciperoensis Zone. In the Mediterranean area, this interval can be correlated with the MNP25a - Sphenolithus ciperoensis Zone, while according to the zonation for low to middle latitudes the investigated material would belong to the CNO5 - Sphenolithus ciperoensis TZ. High amounts of small reticulofenestrids and sphenoliths point to warm well stratified paleoenvironment.

  8. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    Paralic carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous shelf sediments have seldom been investigated. During the early Eocene, calcareous and siliciclastic sediments were deposited on a wide shelf in front of low-reliefed hinterland in the Al Khawd region in NE Oman. The siliciclastic-calcareous sediments originated from strongly reworked debris of the Arabic Shield. The underlying Semail Ophiolite did not act as a direct source of debris but provided some heat to increase the maturity of carbonaceous rocks and modify the isotope signal of the calcareous minerals in the Rusayl Formation. A multidisciplinary approach involving sedimentology, mineralogy, chemistry, coal petrography and paleontology resulted in the establishment of nine stratigraphic lithofacies units and provides the reader with a full picture from deposition of the mixed carbonaceous-calcareous-siliciclastic rocks to the most recent stages of post-depositional alteration of the Paleogene formations. The calcareous Jafnayn Formation (lithofacies unit I) developed in a subtidal to intertidal regime, influenced episodically by storms. Deepening of the calcareous shelf towards younger series was ground to a halt by paleosols developing on a disconformity (lithofacies unit II) and heralding the onset of the Rusayl Formation. The stratigraphic lithofacies units III and IV reflect mangrove swamps which from time to time were flooded through washover fans from the open sea. The presence of Spinozonocolpites and the taxon Avicennia, which today belong to a coastal marsh vegetational community, furnish palynological evidence to the idea of extensive mangrove swamps in the Rusayl Formation [El Beialy, S.Y., 1998. Stratigraphic and palaeonenvironmental significance of Eocene palynomorphs from the Rusayl Shale Formation, Al Khawd, northern Oman. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 102, 249-258]. During the upper Rusayl Formation (lithofacies units V through VII) algal mats episodically flooded by marine

  9. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  10. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  11. Thermal Sprayed Aluminium for Subsea Heat Exchanger Surfaces : Effect of Temperature on Protection Current Requirement and Calcareous Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Håvard

    2014-01-01

    More and more equipment in the Oil and Gas Industry are being placed Subsea. Thisincludes subsea coolers with high internal temperatures. With high temperatures comewith challenges within material selection and corrosion. Traditional material choices like carbon steel and organic coatings with cathodic protection (CP) is not an option for subsea coolers. This is due to insulating properties to the organic coatings and the dense calcareous deposits which form on the surface of the steel.Therma...

  12. Creation of micro-topographic features: a new tool for introducing specialist species of calcareous grassland to restored sites?

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Markus; Bullock, James M.; Hulmes, Lucy; Hulmes, Sarah; Peyton, Jodey; Amy, Sam R.; Savage, Joanna; Tallowin, Jerry B.; Heard, Matthew S.; Pywell, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Questions: What types of pre-sowing disturbance are most suitable to establish specialist forbs of calcareous grassland at previously agriculturally improved restored sites? What impact does management regime have on post-establishment abundance-dynamics? Location: Pegsdon Hills, Bedfordshire, UK. Methods: We set up a 4-yr experiment using a split-plot design to combine pre-sowing disturbance treatments at sub-plot level (undisturbed control, glyphosate spraying, harrowing, and creati...

  13. Impact of rock materials and biofertilizations on P and K availability for maize (Zea Maize) under calcareous soil conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-el-Seoud, I.I.; Abdel-Megeed, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work evaluated the synergistic effects of soil fertilization with rock P and K materials and co-inoculation with P and K-dissolving bacteria [PDB (Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum) and KDB (Bacillus mucilaginosus and B. subtilis)] on the improvement of P and K uptake, P and K availability and growth of maize plant grown under limited P and K soil conditions (calcareous soil). The experiment was establishment with eight treatments: without rock P and K materials or bacteria in...

  14. IgG Subclass Staining in Routine Renal Biopsy Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, Jessica; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Satoskar, Anjali; Brodsky, Sergey V; Nadasdy, Tibor

    2016-05-01

    Immunofluorescence staining plays a vital role in nephropathology, but the panel of antibodies used has not changed for decades. Further classification of immunoglobulin (Ig)G-containing immune-type deposits with IgG subclass staining (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) has been shown to be of diagnostic utility in glomerular diseases, but their value in the evaluation of renal biopsies has not been addressed systematically in large renal biopsy material. Between January 2007 and June 2014, using direct immunofluorescence, we stained every renal biopsy for the IgG subclasses if there was moderate to prominent glomerular IgG staining and/or IgG-predominant or IgG-codominant glomerular staining. The total number of biopsies stained was 1084, which included 367 cases of membranous glomerulonephritis, 307 cases of lupus nephritis, 74 cases of fibrillary glomerulonephritis, 53 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits, and 25 cases of antiglomerular basement membrane disease, among others. We found that monoclonality of IgG deposits cannot always be reliably determined on the basis of kappa and lambda light chain staining alone, particularly if concomitant (frequently nonspecific) IgM staining is present. In IgG heavy and heavy and light chain deposition disease (3 cases), subclass staining is very helpful, and in proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits subclass staining is necessary. IgG subclass staining is useful in differentiating primary from secondary membranous glomerulonephritis. In proliferative glomerulonephritis with polyclonal IgG deposition, IgG1 dominance/codominance with concomitant IgG3 and IgG2 but weak or absent IgG4 staining favors an underlying autoimmune disease. IgG subclass staining is a very useful diagnostic method in a selected cohort of renal biopsies, particularly in biopsies with glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits.

  15. Upper Cenomanian – Lower Turonian (Cretaceous calcareous algae from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: taxonomy and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I. Bucur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An assemblage of calcareous algae (dasycladaleans and halimedaceans is described from the Upper Cenomanian to Lower Turonian of the Galala and Maghra el Hadida formations (Wadi Araba, northern Eastern Desert, Egypt. The following taxa have been identified: Dissocladella sp., Neomeris mokragorensis RADOIČIĆ & SCHLAGINTWEIT 2007, Salpingoporella milovanovici RADOIČIĆ 1978, Trinocladus divnae RADOIČIĆ 2006, Trinocladus cf. radoicicae ELLIOTT 1968, and Halimeda cf. elliotti CONARD & RIOULT, 1977. Most of the species are recorded from the first time from Egypt. Three of the identified algae (T. divnae, S. milovanovici and H. elliotti also occur in Cenomanian limestones of the Mirdita zone, Serbia, suggesting a trans-Tethyan distribution of these taxa during the early Late Cretaceous. The abundance and preservation of the algae suggest an autochthonous occurrence which can be used for the characterization of the depositional environment. The recorded calcareous as well as the sedimentologic and palaeontologic context of the Galala Formation support an open-lagoonal (non-restricted, warm-water setting. The Maghra el Hadida Formation was mainly deposited in a somewhat deeper, open shelf setting. Calcareous algae (Halimeda cf. elliotti CONARD & RIOULT are restricted to one level in the uppermost Lower Turonian which indicates a brief return to shallow-water deposition after a significant deepening with maximum flooding during the early Early Turonian.

  16. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations in the west of Kopet-Dagh Basin, Sheikh Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Mahanipour

    2015-05-01

    The Kopet-Dagh Basin is located in the north and north east of Iran, within the border triangle of Iran, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. Sediments of Cretaceous age are well exposed in this basin. Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations belong to the Cretaceous age in this basin and have the highest thickness in the west of the basin. Calcareous nannofossil investigation at the Sheikh section (in the west of the Kopet-Dagh Basin lead to the recognition of 84 species from 35 genera which are belonging to 16 families. According to the index calcareous nannofossils, the upper part of NC5 Zone (Watznaueria oblonga Zone, NC6 Zone (Chiastozygus litterarius Zone and the lower part of NC7a biozone (Rhagodiscus angustus Zone are recognized at the Sarcheshmeh Formation and NC7a biozone (Rhagodiscus angustus Zone is recognized at the basal part of Sanganeh Formation. Based on the calcareous nannofossils data, the age of Sarcheshmeh Formation is Late Barremian-early Late Aptian and the age of Sanganeh Formation is early Late Aptian -?Late Aptian.

  17. Reactivity and effectiveness of traditional and novel ligands for multi-micronutrient fertilization in a calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eLópez-Rayo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effectiveness of multi-micronutrient formulations containing Fe, Mn, and Zn with traditional (EDTA, DTPA, HEEDTA, EDDHAm or novel chelates (o,p-EDDHA, S,S-EDDS, IDHA and natural complexing agents (gluconate and lignosulfonate. The stability and reactivity of the formulations were studied on batch experiments with calcareous soil and by speciation modeling. Formulations containing traditional ligands maintained higher Mn but lower Zn concentration in soil solution than the novel ligands. The gluconate and lignosulfonate maintained low concentrations of both Mn and Zn in soil solution. Selected formulations were applied into calcareous soil and their efficacy was evaluated in a pot experiment with soybean. The formulation containing DTPA led to the highest Zn concentration in plants, as well as the formulation containing S,S-EDDS in the short-term, which correlated with its biodegradability. The application of traditional or novel ligands in formulations did not result in sufficient plant Mn concentrations, which was related to the low Mn stability observed for all formulations under moderate oxidation conditions. The results highlight the need to consider the effect of metals and ligands interactions in multi-nutrient fertilization and the potential of S,S-EDDS to be used for Zn fertilization. Furthermore, it is necessary to explore new sources of Mn fertilization for calcareous soils that have greater stability and efficiency, or instead to use foliar fertilization.

  18. Crop Yield and Soil Properties in the First 3 Years After Biochar Application to a Calcareous Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Feng; LI Gui-tong; LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong

    2014-01-01

    It remains unclear whether biochar applications to calcareous soils can improve soil fertility and crop yield. A long-term ifeld experiment was established in 2009 so as to determine the effect of biochar on crop yield and soil properties in a calcareous soil. Five treatments were: 1) straw incorporation; 2) straw incorporation with inorganic fertilizer; 3), 4) and 5) straw incorporation with inorganic fertilizer, and biochar at 30, 60, and 90 t ha-1, respectively. The annual yield of either winter wheat or summer maize was not increased signiifcantly following biochar application, whereas the cumulative yield over the ifrst 4 growing seasons was signiifcantly increased. Soil pH, measured in situ, was increased by a maximum of 0.35 units after 2 yr following biochar application. After 3 yr, soil bulk density signiifcantly decreased while soil water holding capacity increased with adding biochar of 90 t ha-1. Alkaline hydrolysable N decreased but exchangeable K increased due to biochar addition. Olsen-P did not change compared to the treatment without biochar. The results suggested that biochar could be used in calcareous soils without yield loss or signiifcant impacts on nutrient availability.

  19. EDTA and HCl leaching of calcareous and acidic soils polluted with potentially toxic metals: remediation efficiency and soil impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2012-07-01

    The environmental risk of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) in soil can be diminished by their removal. Among the available remediation techniques, soil leaching with various solutions is one of the most effective but data about the impact on soil chemical and biological properties are still scarce. We studied the effect of two common leaching agents, hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a chelating agent (EDTA) on Pb, Zn, Cd removal and accessibility and on physico-chemical and biological properties in one calcareous, pH neutral soil and one non-calcareous acidic soil. EDTA was a more efficient leachant compared to HCl: up to 133-times lower chelant concentration was needed for the same percentage (35%) of Pb removal. EDTA and HCl concentrations with similar PTM removal efficiency decreased PTM accessibility in both soils but had different impacts on soil properties. As expected, HCl significantly dissolved carbonates from calcareous soil, while EDTA leaching increased the pH of the acidic soil. Enzyme activity assays showed that leaching with HCl had a distinctly negative impact on soil microbial and enzyme activity, while leaching with EDTA had less impact. Our results emphasize the importance of considering the ecological impact of remediation processes on soil in addition to the capacity for PTM removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reactivity and effectiveness of traditional and novel ligands for multi-micronutrient fertilization in a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Nadal, Paloma; Lucena, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of multi-micronutrient formulations containing iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) with traditional (EDTA, DTPA, HEEDTA, and EDDHAm) or novel chelates (o,p-EDDHA, S,S-EDDS, and IDHA) and natural complexing agents (gluconate and lignosulfonate). The stability and reactivity of the formulations were studied on batch experiments with calcareous soil and by speciation modeling. Formulations containing traditional ligands maintained higher Mn but lower Zn concentration in soil solution than the novel ligands. The gluconate and lignosulfonate maintained low concentrations of both Mn and Zn in soil solution. Selected formulations were applied into calcareous soil and their efficacy was evaluated in a pot experiment with soybean. The formulation containing DTPA led to the highest Zn concentration in plants, as well as the formulation containing S,S-EDDS in the short-term, which correlated with its biodegradability. The application of traditional or novel ligands in formulations did not result in sufficient plant Mn concentrations, which was related to the low Mn stability observed for all formulations under moderate oxidation conditions. The results highlight the need to consider the effect of metals and ligands interactions in multi-nutrient fertilization and the potential of S,S-EDDS to be used for Zn fertilization. Furthermore, it is necessary to explore new sources of Mn fertilization for calcareous soils that have greater stability and efficiency, or instead to use foliar fertilization.

  1. Movement of Phosphorus in a Calcareous Soil as Affected by Humic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zhen-Yu; WANG Qing-Hua; LIU Fang-Chun; MA Hai-Lin; MA Bing-Yao; S.S.MALHI

    2013-01-01

    When humic acid (HA) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer are simultaneously applied to soil,HA may affect the movement of P.A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of a commercial HA product co-applied with monocalcium phosphate (MCP) on the distance of P movement and the concentration of P in various forms at different distances from the P fertilizer application site in a calcareous soil from northern China.Fertilizer MCP (at a rate equivalent to 26.6 kg P ha-1) was applied alone or in combination with HA (at 254.8 kg HA ha-1) to the surface of soil packed in cylinders (150 mm high and 50 mm internal diameter),and then incubated at 320 g kg-1 moisture content for 7 and 28 d periods.Extraction and analysis of each 2 mm soil layer in columns showed that the addition of HA to MCP increased the distance of P movement and the concentrations of water-extractable P,acid-extractable P and Olsen P in soil.The addition of HA to MCP could enhance P availability by increasing the distance of P movement and the concentration of extractable P in soil surrounding the P fertilizer.

  2. Effectiveness of Arbuscular Mycrrhizal Fungi in Phytoremediation of Zinc Contaminated Calcareous Soil by Vetiver Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahraminia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in phytoremediation of zinc contaminated calcareous soil by vetiver grass. Experiment was a factorial arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Two factors consisted of Zn levels (10, 150, 300 and 600 mg kg-1 as ZnSO4.7H2O and AM fungi (control, Glomus intraradices, Glomus versiforme. Shoot and root dry weights decreased as Zn levels increased. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased those plant measured parameters compared to those of control. With increasing Zn levels, and mycorrhizal inoculation, Zn uptake of shoot and root increased. Root colonization with mycorrhizal inoculation increased, but decreased as Zn levels increased. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased zinc extraction, uptake and translocation efficiencies. Zinc translocation factor decreased as Zn levels increased, however inoculation with AM fungi increased it. Zinc extraction and uptake efficiencies of G. intraradices were more than G. versiforme,while zinc translocation efficiency and factor were vice versa.

  3. [Effects of different tillage methods on phospholipid fatty acids and enzyme activities in calcareous cinnamon soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xue-Xia; Dang, Jian-You; Zhang, Ding-Yi; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing

    2014-08-01

    In order to study changes of physical and chemical characteristics and microbial activities in soil under different tillage methods, effects of four tillage methods, rotary tillage (RT), subsoil tillage (ST), conventional tillage (CT) with corn straw returned to soil, and rotary tillage with no corn straw returned to soil (CK), on phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) characteristics and hydrolase enzymes activities in calcareous cinnamon soil were investigated. The results showed that soil hydrolase enzymes activities, nutrient contents, microbial diversity varied greatly with the different tillage methods. Returning corn straw to soil increased the kinds, amount of soil total PLFAs, bacteria PLFAs and actonomycetes PLFAs, while decreased the fungi PLFAs, indicating that fungi was more adaptable than bacteria to an infertile environment. ST and CT resulted in higher amounts of total PLFAs, which were 74.7% and 53.3% higher than that of CK, indicating they were more beneficial to the growth of plants. They could also improve soil physical and chemical properties, increase alk-phosphatase, protease and urease activities, which would provide a favorable soil condition for high and stable crop yields.

  4. Time-Dependent Zinc Desorption in Some Calcareous Soils of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.BARANIMOTLAGH; M.GHOLAMI

    2013-01-01

    Desorption of zinc (Zn) from soil is an important factor governing Zn concentration in the soil solution and Zn availability to plants.Batch experiments were performed to study the kinetics of Zn desorption by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) from 15 calcareous soil samples taken from Golestan Province in northern Iran.Soils were equilibrated with 0.005 mol L-1 DTPA solutions for 0.25 to 192 h.The results showed that the extraction process consisted of rapid extraction in the first 2 h followed by much slower extraction for the remainder of the experiment.Desorption kinetic data was fitted to pseudo-first-order kinetic model.The experimental data were found to deviate from the straight line of the pseudo-first-order plots after 2 h.The model of two first-order reactions was fitted to the kinetic data and allowed to distinguish two pools for Zn:a labile fraction (Q1),quickly extracted with a rate constant k1,and a slowly labile fraction (Q2),more slowly extracted with a rate constant k2.The applicability of pseudo-second-order model in describing the kinetic data of Zn desorption was also evaluated.

  5. Photoacoustic monitoring of water transport process in calcareous stone coated with biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Crespo, J.; Ortega-Morales, B. O.; Camacho-Chab, J. C.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Gonzalez-García, G.; Reyes-Estebanez, M.; Chan-Bacab, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Moisture is a critical control of chemical and physical processes leading to stone deterioration. These processes can be enhanced by microbial biofilms and associated exopolymers (EPS). There is limited current understanding of the water transport process across rocks covered by EPS. In the present work, we employed the photoacoustic technique to study the influence of three biopolymers (xanthan, microbactan and arabic gum) in the water transport process of two types of limestone rock of similar mineralogy but contrasting porosity. Both controls of RL (low porosity) and RP (high porosity) presented the higher values of water diffusion coefficient ( D) than biopolymer-coated samples, indicating that biopolymer layers slowed down the transport of water. This trend was steeper for RP samples as water was transported seven times faster than in the more porous rock. Important differences of D values were observed among samples coated by different biopolymers. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy showed that surface topography was different between both types of rocks; adherence of coatings was seen predominantly in the less porous rocks samples. FTIR and NMR analysis showed the presence of pyruvate and acetate in microbactan and xanthan gum, suggesting their participation on adherence to the calcareous surfaces, sealing surface pores. These results indicate that water transport at rock interfaces is dependent on the chemistry of biopolymer and surface porosity. The implications for reduced water transport in stone conservation under the influence of biopolymers include both enhanced and lower deterioration rates along with altered efficiency of biocide treatment of epilithic biofilms.

  6. Rock glacier development in the Northern Calcareous Alps at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Andrew P.; Ivy Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Kerschner, Hanns

    2016-11-01

    Relict rock glaciers provide information on past discontinuous permafrost and former mean annual air temperatures. A lack of records showing former permafrost distribution along the northern Alpine fringe prompted the investigation and numerical dating of a belt of relict rock glaciers in the Karwendel Mountains of the Northern Calcareous Austrian Alps. In two neighbouring cirques that were still glaciated during the early Younger Dryas, eleven 36Cl exposure ages from boulder surfaces were obtained. The ages imply the onset of rock glacier activity around ~ 12.3 ka with subsequent stabilization and permafrost melt out no later than ~ 10.1 ka. Hence, rock glacier formation coincided with glacier retreat in the cirques around the mid-Younger Dryas and continued into the early Holocene. As permafrost induced features, the rock glacier termini indicate the local past lower limit of discontinuous permafrost in open cirque floors at ~ 2000 m asl, which is around 400 m lower than during the mid-twentieth century at comparable locations in the Karwendel Mountains. Thus, a mean annual air temperature reduction of ~- 2.6 to - 3.8 °C relative to the mid-twentieth century is inferred. Based on a minimum glacier equilibrium line altitude in the cirques, a summer temperature reduction of less than - 2.6 to - 1.8 °C is shown, suggesting an increased seasonality at the time of rock glacier activity.

  7. The use of point load test for Dubai weak calcareous sandstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr Farouk Elhakim

    2015-01-01

    Intact rock is typically described according to its uniaxial compressive strength (UCS). The UCS is needed in the design of geotechnical engineering problems including stability of rock slopes and design of shallow and deep foundations resting on and/or in rocks. Accordingly, a correct measure-ment/evaluation of the UCS is essential to a safe and economic design. Typically, the UCS is measured using the unconfined compression tests performed on cylindrical intact specimens with a minimum length to width ratio of 2. In several cases, especially for weak and very weak rocks, it is not possible to extract intact specimens with the needed minimum dimensions. Thus, alternative tests (e.g. point load test, Schmidt hammer) are used to measure rock strength. The UCS is computed based on the results of these tests through empirical correlations. The literature includes a plethora of these correlations that vary widely in estimating rock strength. Thus, it is paramount to validate these correlations to check their suitability for estimating rock strength for a specific location and geology. A review of the available correlations used to estimate the UCS from the point load test results is performed and summarized herein. Results of UCS, point load strength index and Young’s modulus are gathered for calcareous sandstone specimens extracted from the Dubai area. A correlation for estimating the UCS from the point load strength index is proposed. Furthermore, the Young’s modulus is correlated to the UCS.

  8. The use of point load test for Dubai weak calcareous sandstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Farouk Elhakim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intact rock is typically described according to its uniaxial compressive strength (UCS. The UCS is needed in the design of geotechnical engineering problems including stability of rock slopes and design of shallow and deep foundations resting on and/or in rocks. Accordingly, a correct measurement/evaluation of the UCS is essential to a safe and economic design. Typically, the UCS is measured using the unconfined compression tests performed on cylindrical intact specimens with a minimum length to width ratio of 2. In several cases, especially for weak and very weak rocks, it is not possible to extract intact specimens with the needed minimum dimensions. Thus, alternative tests (e.g. point load test, Schmidt hammer are used to measure rock strength. The UCS is computed based on the results of these tests through empirical correlations. The literature includes a plethora of these correlations that vary widely in estimating rock strength. Thus, it is paramount to validate these correlations to check their suitability for estimating rock strength for a specific location and geology. A review of the available correlations used to estimate the UCS from the point load test results is performed and summarized herein. Results of UCS, point load strength index and Young's modulus are gathered for calcareous sandstone specimens extracted from the Dubai area. A correlation for estimating the UCS from the point load strength index is proposed. Furthermore, the Young's modulus is correlated to the UCS.

  9. Bacteria transport and retention in intact calcareous soil columns under saturated flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhian Firouzi Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of bacterial transport and retention in soil is important for various environmental applications such as groundwater contamination and bioremediation of soil and water. The main objective of this research was to quantitatively assess bacterial transport and deposition under saturated conditions in calcareous soil. A series of leaching experiments was conducted on two undisturbed soil columns. Breakthrough curves of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Cl were measured. After the leaching experiment, spatial distribution of bacteria retention in the soil columns was determined. The HYDRUS-1D one- and two-site kinetic models were used to predict the transport and deposition of bacteria in soil. The results indicated that the two-site model fits the observed data better than one-site kinetic model. Bacteria interaction with the soil of kinetic site 1 revealed relatively fast attachment and slow detachment, whereas attachment to and detachment of bacteria from kinetic site 2 was fast. Fast attachment and slow detachment of site 1 can be attributed to soil calcium carbonate that has favorable attachment sites for bacteria. The detachment rate was less than 0.02 of the attachment rate, indicating irreversible attachment of bacteria. High reduction rate of bacteria was also attributed to soil calcium carbonate.

  10. Distributions of carbon in calcareous soils under different land uses in western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sepahvand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Natural stable and unstable carbon in ecosystems have been used extensively to help to understand a wide range of soil processes and functions. This study was conducted to explore the effects of land use changes on different carbon fractions (F1, F2, F3 and F4, permanganate oxidizable carbon (POXC, soil organic carbon (SOC and total organic carbon (TOC associated with soils in calcareous soils of western Iran. Four popular land uses in the selected site including natural forest, range land, dryland farming and irrigated farming systems were employed as the basis of soil sampling. The results showed a strong relationship between land use conversion and SOC stocks changes. The greatest mean values for carbon content and the least mean values of CaCO3 in bulk topsoil (0–15 cm in the forest land were observed. Dryland farming had the least both active and passive pools of C in comparison with the other land uses. The positive and significant correlations was observed between SOC, Total C and POXC contents and different C fractions. Taking C and POXC pools into account, a more definitive picture of the soil C is obtained than when only total C is measured. The influence of land use changes on overall soil carbon stocks could be helpful for making management decision for farmers and policy makers in the future, for enhancing the potential of C sequestration in western Iran.

  11. Structural complexity at and around the Triassic-Jurassic GSSP at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, M.; Pálfy, J.; Sasvári, Á.

    2017-02-01

    One of the key requirements for a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is the absence of tectonic disturbance. The GSSP for the Triassic-Jurassic system boundary was recently defined at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. New field observations in the area of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary GSSP site demonstrate that the overturned, tight, and almost upright Karwendel syncline was formed at semibrittle deformation conditions, confirmed by axial planar foliation. Tight to isoclinal folds at various scales were related to a tectonic transport to the north. Brittle faulting occurred before and after folding as confirmed by tilt tests (the rotation of structural data by the average bedding). Foliation is ubiquitous in the incompetent units, including the Kendlbach Formation at the GSSP. A reverse fault (inferred to be formed as a normal fault before folding) crosscuts the GSSP sections, results in the partial tectonic omission of the Schattwald Beds, and thus makes it impossible to measure a complete and continuous stratigraphic section across the whole Kendlbach Formation. Based on these observations, the Kuhjoch sections do not fulfil the specific requirement for a GSSP regarding the absence of tectonic disturbances near boundary level.

  12. Hydrated calcareous oil-shale ash as potential filter media for phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Ago; Vohla, Christina; Mõtlep, Riho; Mander, Ulo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2008-02-01

    The P-retention in hydrated calcareous ash sediment from oil-shale burning thermal power plants in Estonia was studied. Batch experiments indicate good (up to 65 mg P g(-1)) P-binding capacity of the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment, with a removal effectiveness of 67-85%. The high phosphorus sorption potential of hydrated oil-shale ash is considered to be due to the high content of reactive Ca-minerals, of which ettringite Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26H2O and portlandite Ca(OH)2 are the most important. The equilibrium dissolution of ettringite provides free calcium ions that act as stable nuclei for phosphate precipitation. The precipitation mechanism of phosphorus removal in hydrated ash plateau sediment is suggested by Ca-phosphate formation in batch experiments at different P-loadings. Treatment with a P-containing solution causes partial-to-complete dissolution of ettringite and portlandite, and precipitation of Ca-carbonate and Ca-phosphate phases, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)-EDS studies. Thus, the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment can be considered as a potential filtration material for P removal in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment.

  13. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings.

  14. CALCAREOUS ALGAE FROM THE LOWER OLIGOCENE GORNJI GRAD BEDS OF NORTHERN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVIDE BASSI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first systematic account of calcareous algae from the limestones of the Lower Oligocene Gornji Grad beds of northern Slovenia. These bioclastic limestones are dominated by different coralline algal assemblages as well as corals, large and small benthic foraminifera as well as bivalves. The taxonomy and growth-forms of eleven species of seven non-geniculate coralline algal genera are described: Lithoporella, Neogoniolithon, Spongites, Lithothamnion, Mesophyllum, Sporolithon, Subterraniphyllum,. Additionally, the genera Polystrata (Peyssonneliaceae Halimeda (Halimedaceae, and Cymopolia (Dasycladaceae are present. The taxonomic interpretation of fossil coralline material in a manner consistent with generic and specific concepts currently in use for Recent material is, at present, difficult. In the absence of comparative studies on type material, only limited comparisons are possible, and in most cases definitive taxonomic conclusions cannot be reached. Most of the species designations are thus made following and open nomenclature, pending the rigorous taxonomic revision of historically established, fossil coralline algal species. The present study reveals a considerable variation of growth-form morphologies at both genus and species levels. This demonstrates the difficulties in using this feature as a diagnostic character in the identification of fossil coralline red algal taxa. 

  15. Directed dispersal by rotational shepherding supports landscape genetic connectivity in a calcareous grassland plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Yessica; Holderegger, Rolf; Boehmer, Hans Juergen; Wagner, Helene H

    2014-02-01

    Directed dispersal by animal vectors has been found to have large effects on the structure and dynamics of plant populations adapted to frugivory. Yet, empirical data are lacking on the potential of directed dispersal by rotational grazing of domestic animals to mediate gene flow across the landscape. Here, we investigated the potential effect of large-flock shepherding on landscape-scale genetic structure in the calcareous grassland plant Dianthus carthusianorum, whose seeds lack morphological adaptations to dispersal to animals or wind. We found a significant pattern of genetic structure differentiating population within grazed patches of three nonoverlapping shepherding systems and populations of ungrazed patches. Among ungrazed patches, we found a strong and significant effect of isolation by distance (r = 0.56). In contrast, genetic distance between grazed patches within the same herding system was unrelated to geographical distance but significantly related to distance along shepherding routes (r = 0.44). This latter effect of connectivity along shepherding routes suggests that gene flow is spatially restricted occurring mostly between adjacent populations. While this study used nuclear markers that integrate gene flow by pollen and seed, the significant difference in the genetic structure between ungrazed patches and patches connected by large-flock shepherding indicates the potential of directed seed dispersal by sheep across the landscape.

  16. Free Oxide Distribution in Poorly and Well Drained Soils Developed on Calcareous Alluvial Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. K. MOUSTAKAS; P. E. BAROUCHAS

    2003-01-01

    A study on the distribution of free iron and manganese oxides was conducted in soils developed on calcareous alluvial deposits under subhumid climatic conditions, in Western Greece. Soil samples from two well drained soils and from two poorly drained soils, classified as Alfisols, were collected and used in this study. After certification of soil homogeneity the acid ammonium oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate methods were used to extract free iron and manganese oxides from the samples. Iron oxides extracted by the dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate method (Fed) were significantly higher than the iron oxides extracted by the ammonium oxalate method (Feo), indicating that a considerable fraction is present in crystalline forms,independent of drainage status. A confirmation of free iron oxides and fine clay was detected. The ratios Feo/Fed and (Fed-Feo)/total Fe (Fet) could not be used to distinguish the well drained soils from the poorly drained soils. Manganese movement in a soluble form is independent of the fine clay.

  17. LOWER CARNIAN FORAMINIFERS FROM THE TYPE LOCALITY OF THE CALCARE DELPREDIL (RAIBL GROUP, NORTHEASTERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO RETTORI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Foraminiferal content from the type section of the Calcare del Predil, Early Carnian in age, is here firstly reported. Dolomites, dololimestones and blackish limestones alternate black shales, marls and marly limestones; in addition turbiditic deposits and debris flow consisting of calcirudites and thin to coarse calcarenites occur in the stratigraphical unit. The bottom of the Rio del Lago Formation was also investigated from a micropaleontological point of view. Nineteen taxa were classified; they are mainly represented by Aulotortinae Zaninetti, Lamelliconinae Zaninetti et al., Triadodiscinae Zaninetti, Turriglomininae Zaninetti and Ophthalmidiidae Wiesner. Furthermore, some Ammodiscidae Reuss, "Trochamminidae" Schwager, Piallinidae Rettori & Zaninetti, Duostominidae Brotzen and rare Lagenina Delage & Hérouard have been recorded. Undetermined encrusting foraminifers also occur. The specimens referable to the superfamily Involutinacea Btschli are dominant and represent the 4O% of the finely grained laminas inside the black limestones. The turriglominas occurring in the muddy lithotypes pertain to the morphogroup which is considered as typical of basinal environment. The occurrence almost constant in the micritic limestones of the ophthalmidiid Gsolbergella spiroloculiformis (Oravecz-Scheffer (few specimens leed to suggest this species as inhabitant basinal environment also. Two Julic species of the Austriacum zone are firstly reported from the Aon zone (Cordevolian Auct. and the suprageneric position of the genus Prorakusia di Bari & Laghi is also discussed. 

  18. Life-cycle traits of Paraleucilla magna, a calcareous sponge invasive in a coastal Mediterranean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Longo

    Full Text Available The calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna, originally observed along the Brazilian coast (Atlantic Ocean, is the only allochthonous invasive species of Porifera reported in the Mediterranean Sea. A 1-year investigation of the population dynamics and life-cycle of this exotic species in the Mar Piccolo di Taranto (southern Italy, central Mediterranean Sea has provided a good opportunity to test how environmental variations can influence its life-cycle and to ascertain what strategy can be adopted to successfully colonize a new environment. In the Mar Piccolo di Taranto, P. magna exhibits marked temporal changes in biomass. The studied specimens reproduce almost all year round, showing a seasonal pattern that peaks during warm months. This prolonged sexual activity allows P. magna to continuously produce young specimens, with repeated recruitment events taking place throughout the year, thus offsetting the seasonal mortality of adult specimens. This r-strategy enables the non-indigenous sponge to achieve a high degree of maintenance over relatively long periods (ten years at least.

  19. Long-range crystalline order in spicules from the calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna (Porifera, Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andre L; Campos, Andrea P C; Barroso, Madalena M S; Klautau, Michelle; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Borojevic, Radovan; Farina, Marcos; Werckmann, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the ultrastructure and crystallographic orientation of spicules from the calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna (subclass Calcaronea) by transmission and scanning electron microscopy using two different methods of sample preparation: ultramicrotomy and focused ion beam (FIB). It was found that the unpaired actine from the spicules was oriented in the [211] zone axis. The plane that contains the unpaired actine and divides symmetrically the paired actines is the (-120). This plane is a mirror plane of the hexagonal lattice system. All the spicule types analyzed presented the same crystallographic orientation. Electron nanodiffraction maps from 4μm×4μm regions prepared by FIB showed disorientation of <2° between diffraction patterns obtained from neighbor regions, indicating the presence of a unique, highly aligned calcite crystalline phase. Among the eight FIB sections obtained, four presented high pore density. In one section perpendicular to the actine axis pores were observed only in the center of the spicule aligned in a circular pattern and surrounded by a faint circular contour with a larger radius. The presence of amorphous carbon representative of organic molecules detected by electron energy loss spectroscopy was correlated neither with porosity nor with specific lattice planes.

  20. Influence of dissolved oxygen on the protectiveness and morphological characteristics of calcareous deposits with galvanostatic polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjie; Du, Min; Gao, Rongjie

    2017-04-01

    The influence of dissolved oxygen on calcareous deposits formed under galvanostatic polarization mode was studied. When the dissolved oxygen concentration was less than 7 mg L-1, the cathodic protection potential showed a plateau at the initial polarization, and then quickly shifted negatively. While the dissolved oxygen was more than 9 mg L-1, the potential shifted negatively in a linear form. After 168 h of polarization, the final protection potential shifted negatively with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration. The deposition progress was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and only one single loop was found in Nyquist diagram, indicating deposits of ineffective protectiveness precipitation under the experimental conditions. The protection factor of deposits increased with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration which was detected by linear polarization resistance technique. The cathodic electrochemical reaction could change very shortly from oxygen reduction to hydrogen evolution after cathodic protection under very low dissolved oxygen concentration, such as 1 mg L-1, resulting in the hydrogen bubbling from the metallic surface and the decrease of deposits protection factor. Observation by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the deposits were mainly of calcite under the experimental conditions, and that dissolved oxygen had no effect on the crystalline types of calcium carbonate.

  1. Efficacy test of a toothpaste in reducing extrinsic dental stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustanti, A.; Ramadhani, S. A.; Adiatman, M.; Rahardjo, A.; Callea, M.; Yavuz, I.; Maharani, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    This clinical trial compared the external dental stain reduction achieved by tested toothpaste versus placebo in adult patients. In this double-blind, parallel, randomised clinical trial, 45 female volunteers with a mean age of 20 years old were included. All study subjects front teeth were topically applicated with Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) to create external dental stains. Subjects were randomized into test (n=22) and control (n=23) groups. Toothpastes were used for two days to analyse the effects of removing external stains on the labial surfaces of all anterior teeth. VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 was used to measure dental extrinsic stains changes. The analysis showed statistically significant efficacy of the tested toothpaste in reducing external dental stain caused by SDF, comparing to the placebo toothpaste, after one and two days of usage. The tested toothpaste was effective in reducing dental stain.

  2. Post-staining electroblotting for efficient and reliable peptide blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Post-staining electroblotting has been previously described to transfer Coomassie blue-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gel onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. Actually, stained peptides can also be efficiently and reliably transferred. Because of selective staining procedures for peptides and increased retention of stained peptides on the membrane, even peptides with molecular masses less than 2 kDa such as bacitracin and granuliberin R are transferred with satisfactory results. For comparison, post-staining electroblotting is about 16-fold more sensitive than the conventional electroblotting for visualization of insulin on the membrane. Therefore, the peptide blots become practicable and more accessible to further applications, e.g., blot overlay detection or immunoblotting analysis. In addition, the efficiency of peptide transfer is favorable for N-terminal sequence analysis. With this method, peptide blotting can be normalized for further analysis such as blot overlay assay, immunoblotting, and N-terminal sequencing for identification of peptide in crude or partially purified samples.

  3. AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN PAP STAIN IN THE SPUTUM OF SUSPECTED PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND COMPARE WITH OTHER AFB STAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affect lungs and can also affect intestine, meninges, bones and Joints, lymph node, skin and other tissues of the body. There are various methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, such as sputum examination of tubercular bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, demonstration of tubercular bacilli by Auramine–Rhodamine staining and culture in LJ medium. Papanicolaou stain is widely used in routine cytological evaluation of samples derived from the respiratory tract and eosin to be responsible for the autofluorescence. MATERIAL AND METHOD Present study was done clinically suspected tubercular patients from January to July 2015. On all received samples ZN stain, fluorescent stain and PAP stain was applied. RESULT Among the clinically suspected patients 650 (35.35% was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Male-to-female ratio was 2.76:1, Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 315 (16.75% cases with Ziehl-Neelsen staining with fluorescent staining in 611 (32.79% cases and Autofluorescence in 650 (35.35% cases. CONCLUSION In present study, fever was chief clinical complaint. Males are more diagnosed with tuberculosis than females. Autofluorescent staining is slightly more sensitive than the Auramine–Rhodamine and more ZN staining in demonstration of AFB in the samples.

  4. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Olesen, Anne Braae; Leonardi-Bee, Jo;

    2011-01-01

    Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of various lasers and light...... sources makes it difficult to decide which equipment is the best for treating port-wine stains....

  5. Efficient staining of actinomycetoma and eumycetoma grains using henna extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakout, Y M; Batran, S E

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural, nontoxic, convenient and eco-friendly dyes for histopathological diagnosis avoids some of the synthetic dyes' hazards. I used an aqueous extract of henna at a concentration of 20 g/ml and acidified with acetic acid to stain mycetoma grains. Henna stained mycetoma grains orange-red to brown. The engulfed mycetoma grains within inflammatory cells stained well with henna extract compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and hexamine silver.

  6. TREATMENTS TO MINIMIZE EXTRACTIVES STAIN IN WESTERN RED CEDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Stirling,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Under certain conditions involving uneven exposure to weather, stains related to the extractives can reduce the aesthetic appeal of western red cedar in exterior applications such as fence boards, siding, and sidewall shingles. Selected chemical treatments were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the formation of extractives stain. DDACarbonate, alkyl amine oxide, and combinations thereof delayed extractives stain formation in an accelerated field test, with higher loadings having greater effect.

  7. 3D reconstruction of multiple stained histology images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Three dimensional (3D tissue reconstructions from the histology images with different stains allows the spatial alignment of structural and functional elements highlighted by different stains for quantitative study of many physiological and pathological phenomena. This has significant potential to improve the understanding of the growth patterns and the spatial arrangement of diseased cells, and enhance the study of biomechanical behavior of the tissue structures towards better treatments (e.g. tissue-engineering applications. Methods: This paper evaluates three strategies for 3D reconstruction from sets of two dimensional (2D histological sections with different stains, by combining methods of 2D multi-stain registration and 3D volumetric reconstruction from same stain sections. Setting and Design: The different strategies have been evaluated on two liver specimens (80 sections in total stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E, Sirius Red, and Cytokeratin (CK 7. Results and Conclusion: A strategy of using multi-stain registration to align images of a second stain to a volume reconstructed by same-stain registration results in the lowest overall error, although an interlaced image registration approach may be more robust to poor section quality.

  8. Histopathological evaluation of ocular microsporidiosis by different stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on comparing stains in the detection of microsporidia in corneal biopsies. Hence we wanted to evaluate various stains for their ability to detect microsporidia in corneal tissue sections. Methods Four cases diagnosed with microsporidiosis on Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff's stained sections of the corneal button between January 2002 and December 2004, were included. Further sections were prospectively stained with calcofluor white, Gram, Giemsa, Masson's trichrome, acridine orange, Gomori's methenamine silver, Gram's chromotrope and modified acid fast stain. The stained sections were analyzed for the spore characteristics in terms of size, shape, color contrast, cell wall morphology, waist band in cytoplasm and ease of detection. Results All sections showed microsporidial spores as 3 – 5 μm, oval bodies. 1% acid fast, Gram's chromotrope and GMS stains provided a reliable diagnosis of microsporidia as diagnostic waist band could be identified and good contrast helped distinguish the spores from inflammatory debris. Conclusion Considering the ease of performance, cost effectiveness and rapidity of the technique, 1% acid fast stain and Gram's chromotrope stain are ideal for the detection of microsporidia.

  9. Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL, acrosome-intact dead (AID, acrosome-lost live (ALL and acrosome-lost dead (ALD sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used to fertilize in vitro matured oocytes. The data obtained confirm that there is a strong “bull effect” in buffalo species, with differences in the percentage of AIL sperm at thawing, in cleavage and blastocyst rates among bulls. Interestingly, it was found that this staining technique can be used for a preliminary screening to select semen to use for IVF, as shown by the correlation existent between the percentages of acrosome-intact viable sperm cells at thawing and the blastocyst yields for 4/6 bulls.

  10. Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.

    2014-05-01

    The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from

  11. Paleoclimate and paleoecology of the mid Cretaceous traced by calcareous nannofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The Aptian - early Turonian time interval was marked by major environmental changes at regional to global scale. Specifically, it was a time of super-greenhouse conditions and the climate-ocean system experienced phases of stability perturbed by transient, sometimes prolonged, anomalies of the global carbon cycle. Several regional to global episodes occurred over this time interval: the early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a, the early Albian OAE 1b, the latest Albian OAE 1d, the Mid-Cenomanian Event (MCE I) and the Cenomanian - Turonian OAE 2. Decades of multidisciplinary research focused on OAEs since they constitute ideal case-histories for the understanding of our planet functioning during perturbations of the C cycle. They were, in fact, characterized by excess CO2, intense volcanism, and altered climate and oceanic chemistry. A useful tool for reconstructing the marine ecosystem dynamics of the past, is calcareous nannoplankton, since it is extremely sensitive to changes in surface waters parameters like temperature and nutrient content and interacts with the C cycle through biological processes and production of calcareous oozes. Here, we gathered new quantitative nannofossil data for the Tethys Ocean (Umbria Marche Basin, Italy) to derive climatic fluctuations and changes in ocean fertility during the late Albian - early Turonian. Over this time interval, the Tethys Ocean was characterized by phases of rhythmic black shale deposition controlled by orbital forcing. The Pialli Level is the Tethyan sedimentary expression of the latest Albian OAE 1d, characterized by large-scale occurrence of black shales and a δ13C positive excursion recognized in several deep-marine settings. The other prominent δ13C anomaly coincides with the OAE 2 represented, in Italy, by the Bonarelli Level. Between these two main C-isotopic excursions, a double-spiked minor anomaly identifies the MCE I, lithologically represented by a shift to black shales and black chert bands

  12. Methods of staining and visualization of sphingolipid enriched and non-enriched plasma membrane regions of Arabidopsis thaliana with fluorescent dyes and lipid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blachutzik Jörg O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterols and Sphingolipids form lipid clusters in the plasma membranes of cell types throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. These lipid domains provide a medium for protein signaling complexes at the plasma membrane and are also observed to be principal regions of membrane contact at the inception of infection. We visualized different specific fluorescent lipophilic stains of the both sphingolipid enriched and non-sphingolipid enriched regions in the plasma membranes of live protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Lipid staining protocols for several fluorescent lipid analogues in plants are presented. The most emphasis was placed on successful protocols for the single and dual staining of sphingolipid enriched regions and exclusion of sphingolipid enriched regions on the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. A secondary focus was placed to ensure that these staining protocols presented still maintain cell viability. Furthermore, the protocols were successfully tested with the spectrally sensitive dye Laurdan. Conclusion Almost all existing staining procedures of the plasma membrane with fluorescent lipid analogues are specified for animal cells and tissues. In order to develop lipid staining protocols for plants, procedures were established with critical steps for the plasma membrane staining of Arabidopsis leaf tissue and protoplasts. The success of the plasma membrane staining protocols was additionally verified by measurements of lipid dynamics by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique and by the observation of new phenomena such as time dependent lipid polarization events in living protoplasts, for which a putative physiological relevance is suggested.

  13. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Olesen, Anne Braae; Leonardi-Bee, Jo;

    2011-01-01

    Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of various lasers and light...

  14. THIONIN STAINING OF PARAFFIN AND PLASTIC EMBEDDED SECTIONS OF CARTILAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULSTRA, SK; DRUKKER, J; KUIJER, R; BUURMAN, WA; VANDERLINDEN, AJ

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of thionin for staining cartilage sections embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA) and the effect of decalcification on cartilage sections embedded in paraffin and GMA were assessed. Short decalcification periods using 5% formic acid or 10% EDTA did not influence the staining properties

  15. Hematoxylin and safranin O staining of frozen sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D; Golick, M; Rabinovitz, H; Rivlin, D; Elgart, G; Nordlow, B

    2000-03-01

    Currently the hematoxylin and eosin staining procedure is the most popular among Mohs surgeons for histology. However, safranin O, a cheaper and relatively safer stain which is predominantly used for plant histology, should be considered as it offers similar or improved accuracy in the diagnosis of frozen sections of basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

  16. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2011-01-01

    In the 10th issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meeting of ISO/TC 212/WG 1 held in London, UK, on 16-17 November 2009. Furthermore, the it...

  17. THIONIN STAINING OF PARAFFIN AND PLASTIC EMBEDDED SECTIONS OF CARTILAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULSTRA, SK; DRUKKER, J; KUIJER, R; BUURMAN, WA; VANDERLINDEN, AJ

    The usefulness of thionin for staining cartilage sections embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA) and the effect of decalcification on cartilage sections embedded in paraffin and GMA were assessed. Short decalcification periods using 5% formic acid or 10% EDTA did not influence the staining properties

  18. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  19. The effect of selected staining techniques on bull sperm morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, Dorota; Andraszek, Katarzyna; Czubaszek, Magdalena; Biesiada-Drzazga, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Sperm morphometry has some value as an indicator of reproductive capacity in males. In laboratory practice a variety of slide-staining methods are used during morphological evaluation of semen to predict male fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of staining of semen using four different techniques on the morphometry of the bull sperm cell. The material for the study consisted of semen collected from test bulls of the Black-and-White variety of Holstein-Friesians. The results obtained in the study indicate differences in the dimensions of bull sperm heads when different slide staining techniques were used. The most similar results for sperm head dimensions were obtained in the case of SpermBlue(®) and eosin+gentian violet complex, although statistically significant differences were found between all the staining techniques. Extreme values were noted for the other staining techniques - lowest for the Papanicolaou and highest for silver nitrate, which may indicate more interference in the cell by the reagents used in the staining process. However, silver nitrate staining was best at identifying the structures of the sperm cell. Hence it is difficult to determine which of the staining methods most faithfully reveals the dimensions and shape of the bull sperm.

  20. Pyogenic granuloma, port-wine stain and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodins, Karl; Gramp, Dallas; James, Daniel; Kumar, Sandeep

    2011-11-01

    We present a novel case of pyogenic granuloma occurring within a port-wine stain in two sequential pregnancies at different sites. There was no history of precipitating events such as trauma. We discuss why a pyogenic granuloma may occur within a port-wine stain and how pregnancy may increase the likelihood of this occurring.

  1. Ocean acidification alters the calcareous microstructure of the green macro-alga Halimeda opuntia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizemann, André; Meyer, Friedrich W.; Hofmann, Laurie C.; Wild, Christian; Westphal, Hildegard

    2015-09-01

    Decreases in seawater pH and carbonate saturation state ( Ω) following the continuous increase in atmospheric CO2 represent a process termed ocean acidification, which is predicted to become a main threat to marine calcifiers in the near future. Segmented, tropical, marine green macro-algae of the genus Halimeda form a calcareous skeleton that involves biotically initiated and induced calcification processes influenced by cell physiology. As Halimeda is an important habitat provider and major carbonate sediment producer in tropical shallow areas, alterations of these processes due to ocean acidification may cause changes in the skeletal microstructure that have major consequences for the alga and its environment, but related knowledge is scarce. This study used scanning electron microscopy to examine changes of the CaCO3 segment microstructure of Halimeda opuntia specimens that had been exposed to artificially elevated seawater pCO2 of ~650 µatm for 45 d. In spite of elevated seawater pCO2, the calcification of needles, located at the former utricle walls, was not reduced as frequent initiation of new needle-shaped crystals was observed. Abundance of the needles was ~22 % µm-2 higher and needle crystal dimensions ~14 % longer. However, those needles were ~42 % thinner compared with the control treatment. Moreover, lifetime cementation of the segments decreased under elevated seawater pCO2 due to a loss in micro-anhedral carbonate as indicated by significantly thinner calcified rims of central utricles (35-173 % compared with the control treatment). Decreased micro-anhedral carbonate suggests that seawater within the inter-utricular space becomes CaCO3 undersaturated ( Ω micro-anhedral carbonate accretion. Less-cemented segments of H. opuntia may impair the environmental success of the alga, its carbonate sediment contribution, and the temporal storage of atmospheric CO2 within Halimeda-derived sediments.

  2. Drought and detritivores determine leaf litter decomposition in calcareous streams of the Ebro catchment (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Silvia; Menéndez, Margarita; Basaguren, Ana; Pérez, Javier; Elosegi, Arturo; Pozo, Jesús

    2016-12-15

    Drought, an important environmental factor affecting the functioning of stream ecosystems, is likely to become more prevalent in the Mediterranean region as a consequence of climate change and enhanced water demand. Drought can have profound impacts on leaf litter decomposition, a key ecosystem process in headwater streams, but there is still limited information on its effects at the regional scale. We measured leaf litter decomposition across a gradient of aridity in the Ebro River basin. We deployed coarse- and fine-mesh bags with alder and oak leaves in 11 Mediterranean calcareous streams spanning a range of over 400km, and determined changes in discharge, water quality, leaf-associated macroinvertebrates, leaf quality and decomposition rates. The study streams were subject to different degrees of drought, specific discharge (Ls(-1)km(-2)) ranging from 0.62 to 9.99. One of the streams dried out during the experiment, another one reached residual flow, whereas the rest registered uninterrupted flow but with different degrees of flow variability. Decomposition rates differed among sites, being lowest in the 2 most water-stressed sites, but showed no general correlation with specific discharge. Microbial decomposition rates were not correlated with final nutrient content of litter nor to fungal biomass. Total decomposition rate of alder was positively correlated to the density and biomass of shredders; that of oak was not. Shredder density in alder bags showed a positive relationship with specific discharge during the decomposition experiment. Overall, the results point to a complex pattern of litter decomposition at the regional scale, as drought affects decomposition directly by emersion of bags and indirectly by affecting the functional composition and density of detritivores.

  3. Effects of flow scarcity on leaf-litter processing under oceanic climate conditions in calcareous streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Aingeru; Pérez, Javier; Molinero, Jon; Sagarduy, Mikel; Pozo, Jesús

    2015-01-15

    Although temporary streams represent a high proportion of the total number and length of running waters, historically the study of intermittent streams has received less attention than that of perennial ones. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of flow cessation on litter decomposition in calcareous streams under oceanic climate conditions. For this, leaf litter of alder was incubated in four streams (S1, S2, S3 and S4) with different flow regimes (S3 and S4 with zero-flow periods) from northern Spain. To distinguish the relative importance and contribution of decomposers and detritivores, fine- and coarse-mesh litter bags were used. We determined processing rates, leaf-C, -N and -P concentrations, invertebrate colonization in coarse bags and benthic invertebrates. Decomposition rates in fine bags were similar among streams. In coarse bags, only one of the intermittent streams, S4, showed a lower rate than that in the other ones as a consequence of lower invertebrate colonization. The material incubated in fine bags presented higher leaf-N and -P concentrations than those in the coarse ones, except in S4, pointing out that the decomposition in this stream was driven mainly by microorganisms. Benthic macroinvertebrate and shredder density and biomass were lower in intermittent streams than those in perennial ones. However, the bags in S3 presented a greater amount of total macroinvertebrates and shredders comparing with the benthos. The most suitable explanation is that the fauna find a food substrate in bags less affected by calcite precipitation, which is common in the streambed at this site. Decomposition rate in coarse bags was positively related to associated shredder biomass. Thus, droughts in streams under oceanic climate conditions affect mainly the macroinvertebrate detritivore activity, although macroinvertebrates may show distinct behavior imposed by the physicochemical properties of water, mainly travertine precipitation, which can

  4. Phosphorus Changes and Sorption Characteristics in a Calcareous Soil Under Long-Term Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Sheng-Li; DANG Ting-Hui; HAO Ming-De

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of phosphorus (P) behavior in long-term fertilized soils is essential for programming fertilization practices and for sustaining environmental quality.The long-term (1984-1997) effects of various fertilization treatments on P changes and sorption isotherms as well as the relationship of soil properties to P sorption and P forms were evaluated in an Ustic Isohumisol,a calcareous soil,on the Loess Plateau,China.Compared to 1984,after 13 years of crop production,total soil P in the no-P treatments (control and N treatment) decreased by 5%-7%,but in the phosphorus fertilizer alone (P),nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in combination (NP),manure alone (M),and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and manure in combination (NPM) treatments,it increased by 22%,19%,28%,and 58%,respectively.Residual fertilizer P was found mainly in NH4Ac-soluble P (Cas-P),followed by NaHCO3-sohible P (NaHCO3-P),and NH4F-soluble P (Al-P).Phosphorus sorption in the soils with different fertilization practices fit the Langmuir equations.Phosphorus sorption capacity in the no-P treatments increased,whereas it decreased in the P-included treatments (P,NP,and NPM treatments).Phosphorus sorption maximum (Qm) was significantly and negatively correlated to inorganic P including Na4CO3-P,Cas-P,NaOH-Na2CO3-soluble P (Fe-P),and AI-P (P ≤ 0.01).Moreover,long-term fertilization increased soil organic carbon in the NP,M,and NPM treatments and decreased pH in the NP and NPM treatments.Thus,the ability of the soil to release sorbed P to the environment increased under long-term P fertilization.

  5. Dynamics of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in a temperate calcareous forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morier, Isabelle; Guenat, Claire; Siegwolf, Rolf; Védy, Jean-Claude; Schleppi, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In temperate forest ecosystems, soil acts as a major sink for atmospheric N deposition. A (15)N labeling experiment in a hardwood forest on calcareous fluvisol was performed to study the processes involved. Low amounts of ammonium ((15)NH(4)(+)) or nitrate ((15)NO(3)(-)) were added to small plots. Soil samples were taken after periods ranging from 1 h to 1 yr. After 1 d, the litter layer retained approximately 28% of the (15)NH(4)(+) tracer and 19% of (15)NO(3)(-). The major fraction of deposited N went through the litter layer to reach the soil within the first hours following the tracer application. During the first day, a decrease in extractable (15)N in the soil was observed ((15)NH(4)(+): 50 to 5%; (15)NO(3)(-): 60 to 12%). During the same time, the amount of microbial (15)N remained almost constant and the (15)N immobilized in the soil (i.e., total (15)N recovered in the bulk soil minus extractable (15)N minus microbial (15)N) also decreased. Such results can therefore be understood as a net loss of (15)N from the soil. Such N loss is probably explained by NO(3)(-) leaching, which is enhanced by the well-developed soil structure. We presume that the N immobilization mainly occurs as an incorporation of deposited N into the soil organic matter. One year after the (15)N addition, recovery rates were similar and approximately three-quarters of the deposited N was recovered in the soil. We conclude that the processes relevant for the fate of atmospherically deposited N take place rapidly and that N recycling within the microbes-plants-soil organic matter (SOM) system prevents further losses in the long term.

  6. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, W; Marzouk, E R; Perveen, S; Crout, N M J; Young, S D

    2015-06-15

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with (70)Zn(2+); comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO3 and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na2-EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1+F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO3 was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO3. This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO3)2 (PCO2 controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent 'adsorption' model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO3. The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn(2+)) data, although the apparent value of log10 Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO3).

  7. Manure and nitrogen application enhances soil phosphorus mobility in calcareous soil in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengjuan; Chen, Shuo; Li, Junliang; Alva, Ashok; Chen, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Over many years, high phosphorus (P) loading for intensive vegetable cropping in greenhouses of North China has contributed to excessive P accumulation, resulting in environmental risk. In this study, the influences of manure and nitrogen (N) application on the transformation and transport of soil P were investigated after nine years in a greenhouse tomato double cropping system (winter-spring and autumn-winter seasons). High loading of manure significantly increased the soil inorganic P (Pi), inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP), mobile P and P saturation ratio (PSR, >0.7 in 0-30 cm depth soil; PSR was estimated from P/(Fe + Al) in an oxalate extract of the soil). The high rate of N fertilizer application to the studied calcareous soil with heavy loading of manure increased the following: (i) mobile organic P (Po) and Pi fractions, as evidenced by the decrease in the ratio of monoesters to diesters and the proportion of stable Pi (i.e., HCl-Pi) in total P (Pt) in 0-30 cm depth soil; (ii) relative distribution of Po in the subsoil layer; and (iii) P leaching to soil depths below 90 cm and the proportion of Po in Pt in the leachate. More acidic soil due to excessive N application increased P mobility and leaching. The increase in Ox-Al (oxalate-extractable Al) and the proportion of microbe-associated Po related to N application at soil depths of 0-30 cm suggested decrease in the net Po mineralization, which may contribute to downward transport of Po in the soil profile.

  8. [Gastropods associated with the calcareous alga Halimeda opuntia (Udoteaceae) in Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Soto-Santiago, Francisco J; Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J; Medina-Hernández, Javier R

    2008-12-01

    Gastropod communities associated with the calcareous green alga Halimeda opuntia are described and compared for two Puerto Rico coral reefs: one in the northeast with front tradewinds (windward zone) and one in the southwest (leeward zone). We analyzed the content of 21 lots (2432 g) of H. opuntia from leeward zone and 15 lots (2448 g) from the windward zone. In total we recovered 526 gastropods (prosobranchs) classified in 54 taxa. Thirteen species of gastropods represented 79.6% of the community. Differences between species richness and mean density values were not significant (p > 0.100). Forty species were identified from leeward and thirty one (31) species from windward. Gastropod mean density was 13.9/100 g of algae in leeward and 7.6/100 g in windward. Significant differences were found for the Simpson Diversity Index (0.91 in the leeward and 0.82 in the windward community; t = 3.44, alpha = 0.005). We found no correlation between the weight of the algae and the frequency of the gastropods (R2 = 0.0893 in leeward, 0.0249 windward and 0.0923 for both). The relationship between species composition in lots of windward and leeward study sites was explored via polar ordination and no segregation was found. When compared, the gastropod communities found in H. opuntia collected in coral reefs in Puerto Rico were more similar within them than any other communities found in other genera of seaweed and in other environments. Our results agree with the hypothesis that H. opuntia offers the interstitial community a protected microhabitat from water movement impact. H. opuntia creates more homogenous conditions than those of the habitat where we found the algae.

  9. The impact of the Maastrichtian cooling on the marine nutrient regime -- Evidence from midlatitudinal calcareous nannofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnert, Christian; Engelke, Julia; Wilmsen, Markus; Mutterlose, Jörg

    2016-06-01

    The latest Campanian-earliest Maastrichtian interval is well known as a period of intense climate cooling. This cooling caused a distinctive bipolar biogeographic distribution of calcareous nannofossil assemblages: High-latitude settings were dominated by newly evolving endemic taxa, former cosmopolitan species disappeared at the same time, and equatorial communities experienced an invasion of cool water taxa. The impact of this cooling on northern midlatitude assemblages is, however, less well known. In order to overcome this gap we studied the Kronsmoor section (northwest Germany). This section provides a continuous upper Campanian -- lower Maastrichtian succession with moderately to well preserved nannofossils. Uppermost Campanian assemblages are dominated by Prediscosphaera cretacea; other common taxa include Prediscosphaera stoveri, Watznaueria barnesiae, and Micula staurophora. The lower Maastrichtian is characterized by lower numbers of P. cretacea and frequent Kamptnerius magnificus, Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis, and Cribrosphaerella ehrenbergii. These changes reflect, in part, the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary cooling since some successful taxa (e.g., K. magnificus) are related to cool surface waters. Other shifts in the nannofossil communities were perhaps the result of a changing nutrient regime. Stronger latitudinal gradients may have increased wind velocities and thus the eolian input of ferruginous dust required by N-fixing bacteria. The enhanced high-latitude deep water formation probably changed the bottom water environment in disfavor of denitrificating organisms. A decline of chemical weathering and fluviatile transport may have reduced the amount of bioavailable phosphate. These processes led to an increased nitrate and a decreased phosphate content shifting the nutrient regime from nitrate toward phosphate limitation.

  10. The chemical characteristics of soil which determine phosphorus partitioning in highly calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA TOPALOVIC

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fractions from three highly calcareous soils (average, 24.9 ± 4.8 %CO32- from sampling sites with aMediterranean climate were isolated by sequential extraction. In order to provide a more reliable basis for the definition of the obtained P-fractions, principal component analysis was applied and from the chemical characteristics of the 14 investigated soils, those characteristics which define the content and association features of the P-fractions were assessed. The soils are characterized by a relatively high pH (8.0 – 8.2 and by significantly differing contents of organic mater, acid-soluble Mg and total P. These differences affected the various association features of the P-fraction with the soil constituents. The NH4F–P fraction (isolated with 0.5 M NH4F, pH 8.2 is defined by the contents of the main metals of the oxide–hydroxide–clay associations (Al, Fe,Mn or by the the redox potential (Eh of Mn. The accumulation of NaOH–phosphorus (extractable with 0.1M NaOH depended on the constituents of the oxide–hydroxide–clay association, the humic substances and Eh-related factors. In those soils in whichNaOH–Pis defined by the oxide–hydroxide–clay assoiation, the participation of Fe as a bridge-forming metal is proposed. The main part of total P, i.e., DP = TP – (NH4F–P + NaOH–P is defined by the status of Mn– and Fe–humic complexes or by the concentration of hydroxyl-ions.

  11. Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Soil Chemical Properties on Vineyard Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Karažija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizers are an important contribution of organic matter that modify the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil. The aim of investigation was to determine the effect of different organic fertilization on soil chemical properties on vineyard calcareous soil. Two-year fertilization trial was carried out in the Plešivica wine-growing region, in a 10-year old vineyard, cv. Sauvignon White grafted on Kobber 5BB rootstock, planted on soil with quite high pH for grapevine growing. The trial was performed according to randomize complete block design with 6 treatments (unfertilized, farmyard manure 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1, peat 20 000 L ha-1 and 40 000 L ha-1, NPK 5-20-30 500 kg ha-1+200 kg UREA ha-1 in 4 repetitions. Statistically significant differences in soil reaction (pH in plowing layer (0-30 cm were found among fertilization treatments in the second year of studies. In the plowing layer (0-30 cm in both years of the study significant differences between the values of average total nitrogen content and available phosphorus as well were found, while there were no significant differences in the subplowing layer (30-60cm. Regarding to average value of fertilization treatment, statistically significant difference in the content of available potassium in plowing layer were found in the both investigated years, while in subplowing layer statistical differences were found in the first year of investigation only. Therefore, fertilization with different organic fertilizers significantly influenced the most of studied chemical properties of the soil, especially in plowing layer (0-30 cm.

  12. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Voigt

    Full Text Available Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae. According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in

  13. Effects of Common Ions on Zn Sorption in Some Calcareous Soils of Western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. JALALI; N. AHMADI MOHAMMAD ZINLI

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential to plant growth and relatively mobile in soils.This study was conducted to assess the effect of common ions (Ca2+,K+,Na+,NH4+,Cl-,NO3-,and H2PO4-) on sorption of Zn in surface samples of ten calcareous soils from western Iran using 10 mmol L-1 KCl,KNO3,KH2PO4,Ca(NO3)2,NaNO3,and NH4NO3 solutions as background electrolytes.The results indicated that both NH4+,K+,and Ca2+ equally decreased Zn sorption as compared to Na+.Zinc sorption was decreased by H2PO4- as compared to NO3- and Cl-.The Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted closely to the sorption data of all ions.The Langmuir maximum,bonding energy constant,and Freundlich distribution coefficient for Zn sorption differed among the various ionic background electrolytes.Langmuir sorption parameters showed that the presence of H2PO4- decreased the maximum Zn adsorbed,but increased the bonding energy.Although K+ and NH4+ equally influenced maximum Zn adsorbed,they differed in their effect on the distribution coefficient of Zn in soils.Values of saturation index calculated using Visual MINTEQ indicated that at the low Zn concentration,Zn solubility was controlled by sorption reactions and at the high Zn concentration,it was mainly controlled by sorption and mineral precipitation reactions,such as precipitation of Zn3 (PO4)2·4H2O,Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2,and ZnCO3.For most ionic background electrolytes,soil pH,CaCO3,and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly correlated with sorption parameters.

  14. Molecular Phylogenetic Evaluation of Classification and Scenarios of Character Evolution in Calcareous Sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Wülfing, Eilika; Wörheide, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU) rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU) rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae) and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae) and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae). According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in desperate need of a

  15. Response of Tomato on Calcareous Soils to Different Seedbed Phosphorus Application Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Sheng; LIAO Hong; CHEN Qing; P. CHRISTIE; LI Xiao-Lin; ZHANG Fu-Suo

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted with five rates (0, 75, 150, 225, and 450 kg P2O5 ha-1) of seedbed P fertilizer application to investigate the yield of tomato in response to fertilizer P rate on calcareous soils with widely different levels of Olsen P (13-142 mg kg-1) at 15 sites in some suburban counties of Beijing in 1999. Under the condition of no P fertilizer application, tomato yield generally increased with an increase in soil test P levels, and the agronomic level for soil testing P measured with Olsen method was 50 or 82 mg kg-1 soil to achieve 85% or 95% of maximum tomato yield, respectively. With regard to marketable yield, in the fields where Olsen-P levels were < 50 mg kg-1, noticeable responses to applied P were observed. On the basis of a linear plateau regression, the optimum seedbed P application rate in the P-insufficient fields was 125 kg P2O5 ha-1 or about 1.5-2 times the P removal from harvested tomato plants. In contrast, in fields with moderate (50 < Olsen P < 90 mg kg-1) or high (Olsen P > 90 mg kg-1) available P, there was no marked effect on tomato fruit yield. Field survey data indicated that in most fields with conventional P management, a P surplus typically occurred. Thus, once the soil test P level reached the optimum for crop yield, it was recommended that P fertilizer application be restricted or eliminated to minimize negative environmental effects.

  16. CaCO3 and SrCO3 bioprecipitation by fungi isolated from calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianwei; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Paton, Graeme Iain; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    The urease-positive fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. and Myrothecium gramineum, isolated from calcareous soil, were examined for their properties of CaCO3 and SrCO3 biomineralization. After incubation in media amended with urea and CaCl2 and/or SrCl2 , calcite (CaCO3 ), strontianite (SrCO3 ), vaterite in different forms [CaCO3 , (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 ] and olekminskite [Sr(Sr,Ca)(CO3 )2 ] were precipitated, and fungal 'footprints' were observed on mineral surfaces. The amorphous precipitate mediated by Pestalotiopsis sp. grown with urea and equivalent concentrations of CaCl2 and SrCl2 was identified as hydrated Ca and Sr carbonates by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Liquid media experiments showed M. gramineum possessed the highest Sr(2+) removal ability, and ∼ 49% of supplied Sr(2+) was removed from solution when grown in media amended with urea and 50 mM SrCl2 . Furthermore, this organism could also precipitate 56% of the available Ca(2+) and 28% of the Sr(2+) in the form of CaCO3 , SrCO3 and (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 when incubated in urea-amended media and equivalent CaCl2 and SrCl2 concentrations. This is the first report of biomineralization of olekminskite and coprecipitation of Sr into vaterite mediated by fungi. These findings suggest that urease-positive fungi could play an important role in the environmental fate, bioremediation or biorecovery of Sr or other metals and radionuclides that form insoluble carbonates.

  17. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Wülfing, Eilika; Wörheide, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU) rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU) rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae) and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae) and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae). According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in desperate need of a

  18. Modification of the USLE K factor for soil erodibility assessment on calcareous soils in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovari, Yaser; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Bahrami, Hossein-Ali; Naderi, Mehdi; Dematte, Jose Alexandre M.; Kerry, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of soil erodibility (K) in the field is tedious, time-consuming and expensive; therefore, its prediction through pedotransfer functions (PTFs) could be far less costly and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to develop new PTFs to estimate the K factor using multiple linear regression, Mamdani fuzzy inference systems, and artificial neural networks. For this purpose, K was measured in 40 erosion plots with natural rainfall. Various soil properties including the soil particle size distribution, calcium carbonate equivalent, organic matter, permeability, and wet-aggregate stability were measured. The results showed that the mean measured K was 0.014 t h MJ- 1 mm- 1 and 2.08 times less than the estimated mean K (0.030 t h MJ- 1 mm- 1) using the USLE model. Permeability, wet-aggregate stability, very fine sand, and calcium carbonate were selected as independent variables by forward stepwise regression in order to assess the ability of multiple linear regression, Mamdani fuzzy inference systems and artificial neural networks to predict K. The calcium carbonate equivalent, which is not accounted for in the USLE model, had a significant impact on K in multiple linear regression due to its strong influence on the stability of aggregates and soil permeability. Statistical indices in validation and calibration datasets determined that the artificial neural networks method with the highest R2, lowest RMSE, and lowest ME was the best model for estimating the K factor. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.81, n = 40, p < 0.05) between the estimated K from multiple linear regression and measured K indicates that the use of calcium carbonate equivalent as a predictor variable gives a better estimation of K in areas with calcareous soils.

  19. Phytoavailability and fractions of iron and manganese in calcareous soil amended with composted urban wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lara, Francisco; Azcón, Mariano; Polo, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of applying composted urban wastes on the phytoavailability and distribution of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) among chemical fractions in soil. In order to study this concern several experiments in pots containing calcareous soil were carried out. The received treatments by adding separately two rates (20 and 80 Mg ha-1) of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and/or municipal solid waste and sewage sludge (MSW-SS) co-compost. The cropping sequence was a lettuce crop followed by a barley crop. It was observed that treatments amended with composted urban wastes tended to promote slight increases in lettuce yield compared to the control. The highest Fe levels in lettuce were found when higher rates of MSW-SS co-compost were applied; these values were significant compared to those obtained in the other treatments. In all cases, the application of organic materials increased the concentration and uptake of Mn in lettuce compared to the control; however, these increases were significant only when higher rates of MSW compost were applied. The organic amendments had beneficial delayed effects on barley yields, showing, in most cases, significant increases compared to the control. In this context, treatments with MSW compost were found to be more effective than the equivalent treatments amended with MSW-SS co-compost. Compared to the control, composted urban wastes increased Fe concentration in straw and rachis, and decreased Fe concentration in barley grain. Similarly, a decreased concentration of Mn in the dry matter of barley crop grown in soils treated with composted urban wastes was observed.

  20. Micronutrient Availability in Relation to Selected Soil Properties and landscape Position in Calcareous Soils of Golpayegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Fathi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Variety of soil reactions govern the distribution of metal micronutrients that includes complexation with organic and inorganic ligands, ion exchange, adsorption and desorption processes, precipitation and dissolution of solids and acid-based equilibria. The relative importance of these reactions depends on many factors such as soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties and the nature of metal ions. Environmental factors such as climate, physiographic position, and soil development may affect variability of some soil properties and thereby nutrient availability. The present research was conducted to find relationships between Iron, manganese, zinc, and copper availability and some major soil properties, physiographic condition and soil development. Materials and Methods: Golpayegan region is located in northwest of Isfahan province in central Iran. The mean elevation of the studied area is 1790 above sea level. Annual precipitation was about 244mm and mean monthly temperature ranges from -6 in January to 34°C in August. The soils were developed on different physiographic conditions including piedmont plains, alluvial-fan, plateaus, and flood plains belonging to Entisols and Aridisols. Soil samples (0–60 cm were collected from 98 grid points with 2000m distance in the agricultural area of Golpayegan. Particle size distribution, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, available potassium and phosphorus of the soils were measured by SWRI standard methods. Available Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe were determined by addition of 10 g soil to 20mL 0.005M diethylentriaminepentacetic‏. The solutions were shaken for 2 h at 25°C, centrifuged, filtered, and Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu concentrations were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results Discussion: Studied soils were developed on calcareous material and about 60% of samples have more than 20% of calcium carbonate. Available Fe ranged from 1.4 to 6.5 mg kg-1 (mean 15.8 mg kg-1

  1. Staining in firearm barrels after experimental contact shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, C; Bauer, K; Brünig, J; Courts, C; Madea, B

    2017-02-10

    After contact shots to the head biological traces inside firearm barrels can be found. This study was conducted to simulate and to evaluate such staining. Five current handguns of four inch barrel length in the calibre .22 long rifle, 7.65mm Browning, 9mm Luger and .38 special were used to perform 24 contact shots on silicone coated, gelatine filled box models using the triple contrast method. The staining was documented by endoscopy and swabs gathered from both ends of the barrel were analysed by quantitative PCR. With the exception of the .22 revolver, all firearms showed distinct staining which decreased from the muzzle to the rear end of the barrel. The pattern was varied, showing droplets, elongated forms or stripes. In 14 of 24 shots, staining reached the chamber. The staining results were comparable to real suicide cases.

  2. Identification and quantification of microplastics using Nile Red staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Won Joon; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi

    2016-12-15

    We investigated the applicability of Nile Red (NR), a fluorescent dye, for microplastic analysis, and determined the optimal staining conditions. Five mg/L NR solution in n-hexane effectively stained plastics, and they were easily recognized in green fluorescence. The NR staining method was successfully applied to micro-sized polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, polyurethane, and poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate), except for polyvinylchloride, polyamide and polyester. The recovery rate of polyethylene (100-300μm) spiked to pretreated natural sand was 98% in the NR stating method, which was not significantly (p<0.05) different with FT-IR identification. The NR staining method was suitable for discriminating fragmented polypropylene particles from large numbers of sand particles in laboratory weathering test samples. The method is straightforward and quick for identifying and quantifying polymer particles in the laboratory controlled samples. Further studies, however, are necessary to investigate the application of NR staining to field samples with organic remnants.

  3. Mapping stain distribution in pathology slides using whole slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI offers a novel approach to digitize and review pathology slides, but the voluminous data generated by this technology demand new computational methods for image analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report a method that recognizes stains in WSI data and uses kernel density estimator to calculate the stain density across the digitized pathology slides. The validation study was conducted using a rat model of acute cardiac allograft rejection and another rat model of heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was conducted to label ED1 + macrophages in the tissue sections and the stained slides were digitized by a whole slide scanner. The whole slide images were tessellated to enable parallel processing. Pixel-wise stain classification was conducted to classify the IHC stains from those of the background and the density distribution of the identified IHC stains was then calculated by the kernel density estimator. Results: The regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient of 0.8961 between the number of IHC stains counted by our stain recognition algorithm and that by the manual counting, suggesting that our stain recognition algorithm was in good agreement with the manual counting. The density distribution of the IHC stains showed a consistent pattern with those of the cellular magnetic resonance (MR images that detected macrophages labeled by ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide or micron-sized iron-oxide particles. Conclusions: Our method provides a new imaging modality to facilitate clinical diagnosis. It also provides a way to validate/correlate cellular MRI data used for tracking immune-cell infiltration in cardiac transplant rejection and cardiac ischemic injury.

  4. Homogeneous luminescent stain etched porous silicon elaborated by a new multi-step stain etching method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajji, M., E-mail: mhajji2001@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopôle de Borj-Cédria BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Institut Supérieur d’Electronique et de Communication de Sfax, route Menzel Chaker Km 0.5, BP 868, Sfax 3018 (Tunisia); Khalifa, M.; Slama, S. Ben; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopôle de Borj-Cédria BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method to produce porous silicon which derived from the conventional stain etching (SE) method. But instead of one etching step that leads to formation of porous layer, the substrate is subjected to an initial etching step with a duration Δt{sub 0} followed by a number of supplementary short steps that differs from a layer to another. The duration of the initial step is just the necessary time to have a homogenous porous layer on the whole surface of the substrate. It was found that this duration is largely dependent of the doping type and level of the silicon substrate. The duration of supplementary steps was kept as short as possible to prevent the formation of bubbles on the silicon surface during silicon dissolution which leads generally to inhomogeneous porous layers. It is found from surface investigation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that multistep stain etching (MS-SE) method allows to produce homogeneous porous silicon nanostructures compared to the conventional SE method. The chemical composition of the obtained porous layers has been evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows that porous layers produced by SE and MS-SE methods have comparable spectra indicating that those layers are composed of nanocrystallites with comparable sizes. But the intensity of photoluminescence of layer elaborated by MS-SE method is higher than that elaborated by the SE method. Total reflectance characteristics show that the presented method allows the production of porous silicon layers with controllable thicknesses and optical properties. Results for porous silicon layers elaborated on heavily doped n-type silicon show that the reflectance can be reduced to values less than 3% in the major part of the spectrum.

  5. Assisted Living

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    ... term care and institutional living. Sheltered Housing Sheltered housing is often in a home that offers personal-care support, housekeeping services, and meals. Social work services and coordination for activities can be ...

  6. Assisted Living

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    ... if needs change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or their families usually pay for it. Health and long-term care insurance policies may cover ...

  7. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . HIV Treatment Works Get In Care HIV 101 Locate a ... Sharing Your Status Stay In Care Understanding Care HIV Treatment Cost of HIV Treatment Related Health Conditions Live ...

  8. OsIRO2 is responsible for iron utilization in rice and improves growth and yield in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Itai, Reiko N; Kobayashi, Takanori; Aung, May Sann; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2011-04-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency, a worldwide agricultural problem on calcareous soil with low Fe availability, is also a major human nutritional deficit. Plants induce Fe acquisition systems under conditions of low Fe availability. Previously, we reported that an Fe-deficiency-inducible basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, OsIRO2, is responsible for regulation of the genes involved in Fe homeostasis in rice. Using promoter-GUS transformants, we showed that OsIRO2 is expressed throughout a plant's lifetime in a spatially and temporally similar manner to the genes OsNAS1, OsNAS2 and TOM1, which is involved in Fe absorption and translocation. During germination, OsIRO2 expression was detected in embryos. OsIRO2 expression in vegetative tissues was restricted almost exclusively to vascular bundles of roots and leaves, and to the root exodermis under Fe-sufficient conditions, and expanded to all tissues of roots and leaves in response to Fe deficiency. OsIRO2 expression was also detected in flowers and developing seeds. Plants overexpressing OsIRO2 grew better, and OsIRO2-repressed plants showed poor growth compared to non-transformant rice after germination. OsIRO2 overexpression also resulted in improved tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soil. In addition to increased Fe content in shoots, the overexpression plants accumulated higher amounts of Fe in seeds than non-transformants when grown on calcareous soil. These results suggest that OsIRO2 is synchronously expressed with genes involved in Fe homeostasis, and performs a crucial function in regulation not only of Fe uptake from soil but also Fe transport during germination and Fe translocation to grain during seed maturation.

  9. Phase relations and dehydration behaviour of calcareous sediments at P-T conditions of accretionary wedge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonne, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    In a recent paper (Eur. J. Mineral. 20), Massonne and Willner (2008) presented P-T pseudosections for common rocks involved in accretionary wedge systems and argued that the dehydration of psammopelitic rocks could be an essential process for the formation of these systems. These authors assumed that this dehydration process leads to softening of the sedimentary cover of oceanic crust during early subduction so that this material can be scraped off the basic crust. Since many accretionary wedge systems contain metamorphosed calcareous sediments it was tested which influence carbonates, ignored by Massonne and Willner (2008), could have on the dehydration behaviour of these sediments. For this purpose, P-T pseudosections were calculated for a calcareous greywacke and a marly limestone in the system Na-Ca-K-Fe-Mn-Mg-Al-Si-Ti-C-O-H with the PERPLEX software package (Connolly, 2005) for the pressure-temperature range 1-25 kbar and 150-450°C. In addition to the thermodynamic data and solid solution models already used by Massonne and Willner (2008), a newly created quaternary (Ca-Mn-Mg-Fe2+) solid solution model was applied to carbonate with calcite structure together with an existing dolomite-ankerite model. Aragonite was considered as a pure phase. The Mn end-member was added to the previously used stilpnomelane model in order to calculate the P-T conditions of garnet formation at high pressure. Along a low geotherm of 10-12°C/km, the dehydration behaviour of a calcareous greywacke resembles that of the previously studied psammopelite. However, the relevant dehydration event (release of about 1 wt% H2O) occurs in the temperature interval 270-330°C and, thus, at temperatures about 30°C higher than in an ordinary psammopelite. The calculated compositions of fluids generated at low geotherms (

  10. CO(2-driven ocean acidification alters and weakens integrity of the calcareous tubes produced by the serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bin San Chan

    Full Text Available As a consequence of anthropogenic CO(2-driven ocean acidification (OA, coastal waters are becoming increasingly challenging for calcifiers due to reductions in saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3 minerals. The response of calcification rate is one of the most frequently investigated symptoms of OA. However, OA may also result in poor quality calcareous products through impaired calcification processes despite there being no observed change in calcification rate. The mineralogy and ultrastructure of the calcareous products under OA conditions may be altered, resulting in changes to the mechanical properties of calcified structures. Here, the warm water biofouling tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was reared from larva to early juvenile stage at the aragonite saturation state (Ω(A for the current pCO(2 level (ambient and those predicted for the years 2050, 2100 and 2300. Composition, ultrastructure and mechanical strength of the calcareous tubes produced by those early juvenile tubeworms were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and nanoindentation. Juvenile tubes were composed primarily of the highly soluble CaCO(3 mineral form, aragonite. Tubes produced in seawater with aragonite saturation states near or below one had significantly higher proportions of the crystalline precursor, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC and the calcite/aragonite ratio dramatically increased. These alterations in tube mineralogy resulted in a holistic deterioration of the tube hardness and elasticity. Thus, in conditions where Ω(A is near or below one, the aragonite-producing juvenile tubeworms may no longer be able to maintain the integrity of their calcification products, and may result in reduced survivorship due to the weakened tube protection.

  11. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  12. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI Stations is limited.

  13. Silver and Cyanine Staining of Oligonucleotides in Polyacrylamide Gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhong Tang

    Full Text Available To explore why some oligonucleotides in denaturing polyacrylamide gel could not be silver-stained, 134 different oligonucleotides were analyzed using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis stained with silver and asymmetric cyanine. As a result, we found that the sensitivity of oligos (dA, (dC, (dG and (dT to silver staining could be ranged as (dA > (dG > (dC > (dT from high to low. It was unexpected that oligo (dT was hard to be silver-stained. Moreover, the silver staining of an oligonucleotide containing base T could be partially or completely inhibited by base T. The inhibition of silver staining by base T was a competitive inhibition which could be affected by the amounts of the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, the cis-distance between the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, and the gel concentration. The changes of the intensity of an oligonucleotide band caused by the changes of DNA base composition were diverse and interesting. The intensity of some oligonucleotide bands would significantly change when the changes of DNA base composition accumulated to a certain extent (usually ≥ 4 nt. The sensitivity of cyanine staining of ≤ 11-nt long oligonucleotides could be enhanced about 250-fold by fixing the gels with methanol fixing solution.

  14. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, B M

    2015-01-01

    The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI) Stations is limited.

  15. Effects of moisture and carbonate additions on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanJie DONG; Miao CAI; JianBin ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    Calcareous soil contains organic and inorganic carbon (C) pools, which both contribute to CO2 emission during closed-jar incubation. The mineralization of organic C and dissolution of inorganic C are both related to soil moisture, but the exact effect of water content on CO2 emission from calcareous soil is unclear. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of soil water content (air-dried, 30%, 70%, and 100%water-holding capacity (WHC)), carbonate type (CaCO3 or MgCO3), and carbonate amount (0.0, 1.0%, and 2.0%) on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation. Soil CO2 emission increased significantly as the water content in-creased to 70%WHC, regardless of whether or not the soil was amended with carbonates. Soil CO2 emission re-mained the same or increased slowly as the soil water content increased from 70%WHC to 100%WHC. When the water content was≤30%WHC, soil CO2 emission from soil amended with 1.0%inorganic C was greater than that from unamended soil. When the soil water content was 70%or 100%WHC, CO2 emission from CaCO3 amended soil was greater than that from the control. Furthermore, CO2 emission from soil amended with 2.0%CaCO3 was greater than that from soil amended with 1.0%CaCO3. Soil CO2 emission was higher in the MgCO3 amended soil than from the unamended soil. Soil CO2 emission decreased as the MgCO3 content increased. Cumulative CO2 emission was 3-6 times higher from MgCO3 amended soil than from CaCO3 amended soil. There was significant interaction effect between soil moisture and carbonates on CO2 emission. Soil moisture plays an important role in CO2 emission from calcareous soil because it affects both biotic and abiotic processes during the closed-jar incu-bation.

  16. PRIMARY CEMENTED BIPOLAR HEMIARTHROPLASTY WITH TROCHANTERIC AND CALCAR RECONSTRUCTION IN UNSTABLE INTERTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES IN ELDERLY: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Ranga Vital

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : To avoid the complications and morbidity associated with attempted Osteosynthesis of the so called Unstable inter - trochanteric fractures in the elderly population, Primary Cemented Bipolar hemiarthroplasty been around for over three decades now. But, hardly any emphasis been given over the technical aspects to i mprove the functional outcome. Present study is one such, following reconstructive attempts ( O f primary cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty with trochanter and calcar reconstruction in the elderly population to reduce the risk of unstable Hemiarthroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 20 cases of elderly patients with mean age of 73.5 years (Age range 66 to 82 yr who sustained multifragmentary/communited inter - trochanteric femur fracture treated with Primary cemented bipolar hemiar throplasty with trochanteric and calcar reconstruction to emphasize the importance of restoration soft tissue tension to reduce the risk of unstable Hemiarthroplasty. Essential Technical steps include Figure of eight / multiple wire loop technique of recons truction ( with or without K ‘wires of greater trochanter/ abductor mechanism and calcar reconstruction either by wiring Lesser trochanteric fragment and or insertion of cortical piece of bone graft (medially under the collar of the prosthesis harvested f rom head and neck fragment. The patients were followed up at six week, three month, six month and one year postoperatively and assessed using Harris Hip Score (HHS. RESULTS: The mean HHS score was 85 (range 69 to 91 at the end of one year. The main clini cal measures were early post - operative full weight bearing, post - operative complication & functional outcome. The time to full weight bearing, the rate of post - operative complications & functional outcome was significantly better in cemented bipolar arthro plasty group. CONCLUSION: The authors strongly believe that primary cemented bipolar

  17. C4d staining as immunohistochemical marker in inflammatory myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis of an inflammatory myopathy is often established based on basic histologic studies. Additional immunohistochemical studies are sometimes required to support the diagnosis and the classification of inflammatory myopathies. Staining for major histocompatibility complex 1 (MHC1) often shows increased sarcolemmal labeling in inflammatory myopathies. Endomysial capillary staining C5b-9 (membrane attack complex) is a feature that is reported as frequently associated with dermatomyositis. Immunohistochemical staining for C4d is widely used for various applications including the assessment of antibody-mediated rejection after solid organ transplantation. In the context of dermatomyositis, C4d staining has been described in skin biopsies but not in muscle biopsies. A total of 32 muscle biopsy specimens were examined. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were reviewed, and immunohistochemical studies for MHC1, C5b-9, and C4d were conducted. The staining observed for C5b-9 and C4d was compared. Overall, the staining pattern for C4d mirrored the one observed for C5b-9 in the examined muscle biopsy specimens. There was high and statistically significant (P<0.0001) correlation between the staining seen with these 2 antibodies. Both antibodies labeled the cytoplasm of degenerating necrotic myofibers. In addition, both antibodies showed distinct endomysial capillary labeling in a subset of dermatomyositis. Areas with perifascicular atrophy often exhibited the most prominent vascular labeling for C4d and C5b-9. In conclusion, C4d and C5b-9 show similar expression patterns in muscle biopsies of patients with inflammatory myopathies and both highlight the presence of vascular labeling associated with dermatomyositis. C4d antibodies are widely used and may offer an alternative for C5b-9 staining.

  18. Fate and Transport of Road Salt During Snowmelt Through a Calcareous Fen: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.; Pufall, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most ecologically diverse calcareous lake-basin fen in Massachusetts. Situated within a 4.7 km2 drainage basin, the open fen (approx. 20 acres) consists of a floating mat of sedges (incl. Carex aquatilis and Cladium mariscoides) that overlie peat and lake clay deposits. Mineral weathering of marble bedrock within the drainage basin supplies highly alkaline ground and surface waters to the fen basin. The natural chemistry has been greatly altered by road salt runoff from the Massaschusetts Turnpike, and in question is whether disturbance from the Turnpike and a gas pipline has facilitated aggressive growth by the invasive species Phragmites australis. Considered to be one of the most significant rare species habitats in the state, Massachusetts has designated Kampoosa Bog an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, and a committee representing several local, regional, and state agencies, organizations, and citizens manages the wetland. The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrologic and chemical response of the wetland during snowmelt events to understand the fate and movement of road salt (NaCl). Concentrations of Na and Cl in the fen groundwater are greatest close to the Turnpike. Concentrations decrease with distance downstream but are still greatly elevated relative to sites upstream of the Turnpike. During snowmelt events, the fen's outlet shows a sharp rise in Na and Cl concentrations at the onset of melting that is soon diluted by the added meltwater. The Na and Cl flux, however, is greatest at peak discharge, suggesting that high-flow events are significant periods of export of dissolved salts from the fen. Pure dissolution of rock salt produces an equal molar ratio between Na and Cl, and sodium and chloride imbalances in stream and ground waters suggest that ~20% of the Na is stored on cation exchange sites within the peat. The largest imbalances between Na and Cl occur deeper within the peat, where the peat is

  19. Origin and Distribution of Methane Entrapped in Calcareous Alpine Proglacial Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Biqing; Schroth, Martin H.; Henneberger, Ruth; Kübler, Manuel; Zeyer, Josef

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The atmospheric methane concentration has been increasing in recent years, which is caused by imbalance between sources and sinks. Methane has been recently discovered to be entrapped in calcareous Swiss Alpine proglacial soil. This CH4 can be released upon mechanical impact and acidification. However, the amount, distribution and environmental fate of this entrapped CH4 in proglacial environment remain unknown. The entrapped CH4 in proglacial soil may be of modern or ancient origin. Modern origin includes ongoing or recent microbial CH4 production (methanogenesis) in subglacial or proglacial environments. An ancient origin mainly refers to CH4 produced thermogenically. This soil entrapped CH4 might be a common phenomenon along the entire glacial forefield, or it might only be present at few locations and depth. We present results of studies from two Swiss Alpine Glacier catchments, Wildstrubel Glacier (Canton Valais) and the Griessfirn Glacier (Canton Uri). Our main goals were 1) to assess the origin of CH4 entrapped in various glacial environments (subglacial, proglacial and supraglacial, soil and bedrocks) using geochemical and microbiological evidence; 2) to assess the spatial distribution of entrapped CH4. We performed geochemical analysis (CH4 content, gas wetness ([C1]/[C2-C3] alkane ratio), CH4 stable 13C- and 2H-isotopes, TOC) on subglacial, proglacial, and supraglacial soil samples collected from well-aerated and water-logged locations. Geochemical analysis was also selectively conducted on pore-water samples and on rock samples collected from different geological formations along the catchments. We also performed batch incubations on soil samples collected from subglacial, proglacial water-logged and supraglacial zones. In addition, for the aforementioned three types of samples, we also performed molecular analyses targeting the mcrA gene, which encodes the α-subunit of the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase

  20. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  1. Changes in soil CO2 efflux of organic calcaric soils due to disturbance by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Katzensteiner, K.

    2012-04-01

    Disturbances such as windthrow or insect infestations are supposed to have a significant influence on the soil carbon balance of affected forests. Increasing soil temperatures and changes in the soil moisture regime, caused by the removed tree layer, are expected to change soil CO2 efflux, also known as soil respiration. Beside an anticipated stimulation of the carbon mineralization, the main part of root allocated CO2 is offset due to the blown down trees. On mountain forest sites of the Northern Limestone Alps, where highly active organic soils above calcareous parent material are characteristic (Folic Histosols and Rendzic Leptosols), an increase of the mineralization rate of carbon may contribute to enormous humus losses. Serious site degradation can be the consequence, especially on south exposed slopes where extreme climatic conditions occur. The present study tries to give insights to disturbance induced changes in temporal and spatial behaviour of soil respiration for a montane mountain forest located in the Northern Limestone Alps of Upper Austria. Soil respiration, soil temperature and volumetric water content were measured on two windthrow areas (blow down dates were 2007 and 2009 respectively) as well as in an adjacent mature mixed forest during the vegetation periods of 2010 and 2011. Soil respiration in both years was mainly driven by soil temperature, which explained up to 90 % of the concerning temporal variation. Volumetric water content had a significant influence as additional temporal driver. After removing the temperature trend, significant differences in basal soil respiration rates were found for the disturbance area and the forest stand. Inter seasonal declines in soil respiration were ascertained for the mature stand as well as for the recent windthrow. Particular decreases are related to drought stress in summer 2011 and a proceeded decomposition of labile soil carbon components at the windthrow site. An interaction between soil type and

  2. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  3. anolyte as an alternative bleach for stained cotton fabrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    anolyte, colour change, sodium hypochlorite, bleach, stain ... Cotton is a natural fibre that is high in demand worldwide. ... various dyes are commonly used in the processing and .... prepared an hour before any test was carried out whereby ...

  4. The electrical conduction variation in stained carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Jye; Wei Fan, Jun; Lin, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes become stained from coupling with foreign molecules, especially from adsorbing gas molecules. The charge exchange, which is due to the orbital hybridization, occurred in the stained carbon nanotube induces electrical dipoles that consequently vary the electrical conduction of the nanotube. We propose a microscopic model to evaluate the electrical current variation produced by the induced electrical dipoles in a stained zigzag carbon nanotube. It is found that stronger orbital hybridization strengths and larger orbital energy differences between the carbon nanotube and the gas molecules help increasing the induced electrical dipole moment. Compared with the stain-free carbon nanotube, the induced electrical dipoles suppress the current in the nanotube. In the carbon nanotubes with induced dipoles the current increases as a result of increasing orbital energy dispersion via stronger hybridization couplings. In particular, at a fixed hybridization coupling, the current increases with the bond length for the donor-carbon nanotube but reversely for the acceptor-carbon nanotube.

  5. Solute concentration-dependent contact angle hysteresis and evaporation stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Feng; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2014-07-08

    The presence of nonvolatile solutes in a liquid drop on a solid surface can affect the wetting properties. Depending on the surface-activity of the solutes, the extent of contact angle hysteresis (CAH) can vary with their concentration and the pattern of the evaporation stain is altered accordingly. In this work, four types of concentration-dependent CAH and evaporation stains are identified for a water drop containing polymeric additives on polycarbonate. For polymers without surface-activity such as dextran, advancing and receding contact angles (θa and θr) are independent of solute concentrations, and a concentrated stain is observed in the vicinity of the drop center after complete evaporation. For polymers with weak surface-activity such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), both θa and θr are decreased by solute addition, and the stain pattern varies with increasing PEG concentration, including a concentrated stain and a mountain-like island. For polymers with intermediate surface-activity such as sodium polystyrenesulfonate (NaPSS), θa descends slightly, but θr decreases significantly after the addition of a substantial amount of NaPSS, and a ring-like stain pattern is observed. Moreover, the size of the ring stain can be controlled by NaPSS concentration. For polymers with strong surface-activity such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), θa remains essentially a constant, but θr is significantly lowered after the addition of a small amount of PVP, and the typical ring-like stain is seen.

  6. News from the Biological Stain Commission, No. 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2016-01-01

    In the 17(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the 20(th) meeting of ISO/TC 212 Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test sys...... systems held on October 15 - 17, 2014 in Toronto, Canada, and from the 29(th) meeting of CEN/TC 140 In vitro diagnostic medical devices held on February 3, 2015 in Berlin, Germany....

  7. Optimalization Of Port-Wine Stain Treatment With Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaye, C. T.; van Gemert, M. J.; Henning, J. P. H.

    1985-03-01

    To optimalize laser-parameters for therapy of port-wine stains temperature calculations have been performed on a skin model. The optimal values of these numerically evaluated variables are: wavelength λ= 415,577 or 540 nm., pulse-time t1 a few milliseconds and beam radius wi> 0.1 mm. Based on these theoretical results some experiments have been carried out which confirm the calculations. Thus laser-therapy for port-wine stains can be ameliorated.

  8. Spatial Variability and Geostatistical Prediction of Some Soil Hydraulic Coefficients of a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moosavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saturated hydraulic conductivity and the other hydraulic properties of soils are essential vital soil attributes that play role in the modeling of hydrological phenomena, designing irrigation-drainage systems, transportation of salts and chemical and biological pollutants within the soil. Measurement of these hydraulic properties needs some special instruments, expert technician, and are time consuming and expensive and due to their high temporal and spatial variability, a large number of measurements are needed. Nowadays, prediction of these attributes using the readily available soil data using pedotransfer functions or using the limited measurement with applying the geostatistical approaches has been receiving high attention. The study aimed to determine the spatial variability and prediction of saturated (Ks and near saturated (Kfs hydraulic conductivity, the power of Gardner equation (α, sorptivity (S, hydraulic diffusivity (D and matric flux potential (Фm of a calcareous soil. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on the soil series of Daneshkadeh located in the Bajgah Agricultural Experimental Station of Agricultural College, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (1852 m above the mean sea level. This soil series with about 745 ha is a deep yellowish brow calcareous soil with textural classes of loam to clay. In the studied soil series 50 sampling locations with the sampling distances of 16, 8 , and 4 m were selected on the relatively regular sampling design. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, near saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs, the power of Gardner equation (α, sorptivity (S, hydraulic diffusivity (D and matric flux potential (Фm of the aforementioned sampling locations was determined using the Single Ring and Droplet methods. After, initial statistical processing, including a normality test of data, trend and stationary analysis of data, the semivariograms of each studied hydraulic attributes were

  9. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  10. Calcareous microfossil biostratigraphy of the uppermost cenozoic formations distributed in the coast of the Japan Sea (Part 1). Niigata area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tokiyuki; Takayama, Toshiaki; Kato, Michio; Kudo, Tetsuro

    1987-05-01

    Eleven calcareous nannofossil biohorizons were established in the Quaternary sequences at six sites drilled in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during DSDP-IPOD Leg 94. Correlation of these biohorizons with the magnetostratigraphy was established and ages of all datums were estimated. As the results, the applicability to the Japan Sea sedimentary basin was confirmed. The Nishiyama and Haizume formations distributed in the Oginome area, near the type locality of the Hashizume Formation in Niigata district were surveyed as the representative formation of the uppermost Cenozoic formation distributed in the coast of the Japan Sea; and five calcareous nannofossil biohorizons were recognized. Based on the above results of DSDP-IPOD, the middle Nishiyama through the Hashizume formations were Peistocene in age and could be correlated with interval between the Olduvai and Jaramillo events of the magnetostratigraphy. This age assignment agreed neither with magnetostratigraphic interpretations nor with fission track datings which were obtained in the Oguni area 25 km south of the present area. (23 refs, 11 figs)

  11. CALCAREOUS PLANKTON BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND AGE OF THE MIDDLE MIOCENE DEPOSITS OF LONGANO FORMATION (EASTERN MATESE MOUNTAINS, SOUTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO LIRER

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The integrated calcareous plankton biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils and an accurate fieldwork, allowed us the reconstruction of the sedimentary evolution of the Longano Formation (Orbulina Marls. In particular the correlation between the bioevents recognised in the Orbulina Marls sequence and those recorded in astronomically calibrated Middle Miocene sections, offered the possibility to date the passage from the shallow-water Cusano Formation to the deep-water deposits of the Longano Formation at about 13.21 Ma and the successive onset of terrigenous deposits of the Pietraroia Formation at 10.54 Ma. In addition, an high resolution study of the terrigenous sequence, showed that this sedimentary event is not abrupt but it is characterised by a progressive increase, bed by bed, of the siliciclastic fraction up to the deposition of the sandstones. The recognition in all the studied sections of the base of the first Acme (AB1 of Paragloborotalia siakensis dated at 13.21 Ma, just above the phosphate-rich interval (this interval marks the transition between Cusano and Longano Formations, proved that the transgression which led to the deposition of the Orbulina Marls was synchronous in all the south-eastern Matese Mountains. 

  12. Improving the relationship between soil characteristics and metal bioavailability by using reactive fractions of soil parameters in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; van Oort, Folkert; González, Concepción; Quintana, José R; Lafuente, Antonio L; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the nature instead of the total content of soil parameters relevant to metal bioavailability in lettuce was tested using a series of low-polluted Mediterranean agricultural calcareous soils offering natural gradients in the content and composition of carbonate, organic, and oxide fractions. Two datasets were compared by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis: total concentrations (TC dataset) of main soil parameters (constituents, phases, or elements) involved in metal retention and bioavailability; and chemically defined reactive fractions of these parameters (RF dataset). The metal bioavailability patterns were satisfactorily explained only when the RF dataset was used, and the results showed that the proportion of crystalline Fe oxides, dissolved organic C, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu and Zn, and a labile organic pool accounted for 76% of the variance. In addition, 2 multipollution scenarios by metal spiking were tested that showed better relationships with the RF dataset than with the TC dataset (up to 17% more) and new reactive fractions involved. For Mediterranean calcareous soils, the use of reactive pools of soil parameters rather than their total contents improved the relationships between soil constituents and metal bioavailability. Such pool determinations should be systematically included in studies dealing with bioavailability or risk assessment.

  13. Oxygen and carbon isotope records of calcareous nannofossils for the past 1 Ma in the southern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic analyses have been carried out on calcareous nannofossils from ODP Site 1143 in the southern South China Sea. The results demonstrate that the δ18O values of calcareous nannofossils for the past 1 Ma vary systematically with those of planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the same site. But the average δ18O value of nannofossils is 1.869‰ higher than that of planktonic foraminifera, and is 3.855‰ lower than that of benthic foarminifera. There are systematic differences between the δ13C values of nannofossils, planktonic foarminifera and benthic foraminifera. The average δ13C of nannofossils is 0.756‰ higher than that of benthic foraminifera, and is 0.460‰ lower than that of planktonic foraminifera. The δ13C values of nannofossils exhibit a significant positive shift beginning near isotope stage 14 and lasting until stage 8. This study also finds that there is a close ralationship between the δ13C of nannofossils and the percentage of Florisphaera profunda. This implies that the δ13C of nannofossils can be used as an indicator of sea water surface paleoproductivity.

  14. Evidence of compositional and ultrastructural shifts during the development of calcareous tubes in the biofouling tubeworm, Hydroides elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vera Bin San; Vinn, Olev; Li, Chaoyi; Lu, Xingwen; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B; Schopf, J William; Shih, Kaimin; Zhang, Tong; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2015-03-01

    The serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, is an ecologically and economically important species whose biology has been fairly well studied, especially in the context of larval development and settlement on man-made objects (biofouling). Nevertheless, ontogenetic changes associated with calcareous tube composition and structures have not yet been studied. Here, the ultrastructure and composition of the calcareous tubes built by H. elegans was examined in the three early calcifying juvenile stages and in the adult using XRD, FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Ontogenetic shifts in carbonate mineralogy were observed, for example, juvenile tubes contained more amorphous calcium carbonate and were predominantly aragonitic whereas adult tubes were bimineralic with considerably more calcite. The mineral composition gradually shifted during the tube development as shown by a decrease in Sr/Ca and an increase of Mg/Ca ratios with the tubeworm's age. The inner tube layer contained calcite, whereas the outer layer contained aragonite. Similarly, the tube complexity in terms of ultrastructure was associated with development. The sequential appearance of unoriented ultrastructures followed by oriented ultrastructures may reflect the evolutionary history of serpulid tube biominerals. As aragonitic structures are more susceptible to dissolution under ocean acidification (OA) conditions but are more difficult to be removed by anti-fouling treatments, the early developmental stages of the tubeworms may be vulnerable to OA but act as the important target for biofouling control.

  15. Black Stain and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Żyła

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain.

  16. Early-middle Eocene transition in calcareous nannofossil assemblages at IODP Site U1410 (Southeast Newfoundland Ridge, NW Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Carlotta; Agnini, Claudia; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2017-04-01

    The early-middle Eocene interval documents the shift from the warmest greenhouse conditions occurred during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 52-50 Ma) to the beginning of the cooling phase which led to the Oligocene icehouse regime. This important transition is well expressed as a reversal in the global oxygen and carbonate isotope trends (Zachos et al., 2001). Moreover, this interval was a time of remarkable transformation in the marine biosphere. Communities of calcareous nannoplankton, marine calcifying algae at the base of the oceans food chain, experienced transient and permanent profound changes. Calcareous nannofossil are regarded as remarkable tools both in biostratigraphy and paleoecology, with several taxa that show different responses to changes in physical parameters of surface waters. Here, we aim to document calcareous nannoplankton assemblage changes across the early-middle Eocene transition, in order to upset the biostratigraphic framework and to increase comprehension of how phytoplankton communities responded to paleoenvironmental changes at that time. The sedimentary successions recovered at IODP Site U1410 (Exp. 342; 41˚ 19.6987'N; 49˚ 10.1995'W, Norris et al., 2012) on the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge (NW Atlantic) offer an expanded record of the early-middle Eocene interval that is marked by an increase in accumulation rate related to sedimentation of clay-rich nannofossil oozes. Quantitative analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages was conducted, encompassing calcareous nannofossil Zones NP12 -NP15 or CNE4-CNE10 (Martini, 1971; Agnini et al., 2014). The study interval records the appearance and proliferation of Noelaerhabdaceae family (i.e, Reticulofenestra/Dictyococcites group), which can be considered one of the most significant shifts in the assemblage structure of the Paleogene. This change was probably favored by modifications in surface water chemistry. The middle Eocene clay-rich sediments contain well preserved

  17. Determination of Complement-Mediated Killing of Bacteria by Viability Staining and Bioluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Marko; Lineri, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Pasi; Karp, Matti; Peltonen, Karita; Nuutila, Jari; Lilius, Esa-Matti

    1998-01-01

    Complement-mediated killing of bacteria was monitored by flow cytometric, luminometric, and conventional plate counting methods. A flow cytometric determination of bacterial viability was carried out by using dual staining with a LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit. In addition to the viable cell population, several other populations emerged in the fluorescence histogram, and there was a dramatic decrease in the total cell count in the light-scattering histogram in the course of the complement reaction. To permit luminometric measurements, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were made bioluminescent by expressing an insect luciferase gene. Addition of substrate after the complement reaction resulted in bioluminescence, the level of which was a measure of the viable cell population. All three methods gave essentially the same killing rate, suggesting that the bacteriolytic activity of serum complement can be measured rapidly and conveniently by using viability stains or bioluminescence. In principle, any bacterial strain can be used for viability staining and flow cytometric analysis. For the bioluminescence measurements genetically engineered bacteria are needed, but the advantage is that it is possible to screen automatically a large number of samples. PMID:9464386

  18. Outdoor Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  19. An approach to measure ciliate grazing on living heterotrophic nanoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, K.; González, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    . Here we present an approach for the assessment of ciliate grazing on living heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Stationary phase cultures of a heterotrophic nanoflagellate (Cafeteria sp.) were live-stained by allowing them to take up fluorescently labelled macromolecules. Controls revealed that this label...

  20. Mathematical analysis of mis-estimation of cell subsets in flow cytometry: viability staining revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunkina, A M; Harrison, R A P

    2011-05-31

    Many research projects in cell biology now use flow cytometry for analysis or for isolation of specific cell types. In such studies, cell viability is obviously a crucial issue. However, many studies appear to rely upon light-scattering characteristics to identify and gate out non-viable cells, despite the fact that reliable identification of such cells can only be achieved through staining with impermeable fluorescent nuclear dyes such as propidium iodide or 7-amino actinomycin. In this paper we apply mathematical analysis to the theoretical problem of quantifying cell sub-populations labeled with two or more fluorescent markers, comparing situations in which dead cells have been identified with those in which cell viability has not been assessed. We demonstrate that in all cases in which dead cells are present within the population, percentages of live sub-populations in different subsets are mis-estimated. In cases where the pattern of marker expression differs greatly between live and dead cells, or where the proportion of dead cells is high, this mis-estimation will be aggravated; the subsets pattern will therefore be biased in a population selected only on the basis of light-scatter behavior. The importance of accurately detecting and gating out dead cells is illustrated by an experimental example accompanying the mathematical analysis. To conclude, identification of dead cells by means of viability stains should be an absolute routine in practical flow cytometry, so as to avoid mis-estimation in sorting or analysis.

  1. Stress corrosion-controlled rates of mode I fracture propagation in calcareous bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtlaender, Anne; Leith, Kerry; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Surface bedrock on natural rock slopes is subject to constant and cyclic environmental stresses (wind, water, wave, ice, seismic or gravitational). Studies indicate that these stresses range up to several hundred kPa, generally too low to cause macroscopic changes in intact rock, although clear evidence of fracture generation, crack propagation and weathering of bedrock illustrates the effect of environmental stresses at the Earth's surface. We suggest that material degradation and its extent, is likely to be controlled by the rate of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Stress corrosion is a fluid-material reaction, where fluids preferentially react with strained atomic bonds at the tip of developing fractures. Stress corrosion in ferrous and siliceous materials is often accepted as the fracture propagation and degradation rate-controlling process where materials are subject to stresses and fluids. Although evidence for chemical weathering in propagating bedrock fractures is clear in natural environments, the physical system and quantification of stress corrosion in natural rocks is yet to be addressed. Here, we present preliminary data on the relationship between stresses at levels commonly present on natural rock slopes, and material damage resulting from stress corrosion under constant or cyclic tensile loading. We undertake single notch three-point bending tests (SNBT) on fresh calcareous bedrock specimens (1100x100x100mm) over a two-month period. Two beams containing an artificial notch are stressed to 75% of their ultimate strength, and a constant supply of weak acid is applied at the notch tip to enhance chemical reactions. A third, unloaded, beam is also exposed to weak acid in order to elucidate the contribution of stress corrosion cracking to the material degradation. Stresses at the tip of propagating cracks affect the kinetics of the chemical reaction in the specimen exposed to both loading and corrosion, leading to an increase in degradation, and greater

  2. Chemical denudation rates of a small torrential catchment in the Northern Calcareous Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Georg; Robl, Jörg; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Hilberg, Sylke; Schmidt, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding on the decay of alpine landscapes and the pace of landscape adjustment to climatic or tectonic changes rely on catchment wide erosion rates. In general, these data stem from cosmogenic isotope dating of quartz grains and are therefore only applicable at catchments providing suitable bedrock. However, denudation caused by the dissolution of rocks is not explicitly considered by this method. In the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) crystalline rocks are missing and intensive karstification suggests that chemical denudation is an important player for destroying topography. In this study we present chemical denudation rates derived from measuring the dissolved load of an alpine catchment located in the country of Salzburg, Austria. The catchment has a drainage area of about 7 km2 and is predominantly covered by limestone rich glacial deposits and carbonatic rocks as characteristic for the NCA. In order to obtain catchment wide chemical denudation rates we have integrated discharge time series that where measured by a permanent water gauge of the Austrian Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control to compute the total discharge of the investigated catchment over a period of one year. During the same period samples were taken at several campaigns to consider variations of the dissolved load. Samples were taken at high and low run-off conditions to study the effect of precipitation and at different locations along the tributaries to account for lithological variations of the river beds on the dissolved load. The concentrations of various cations in water samples were measured by the ICP-MS facility at the University of Graz. For the investigation period of one year 3.02 ∗ 106m3 of discharge was measured at the catchment outlet. The summed cation-concentration is varying between about 85 mg/l for dry-conditions and 75 mg/l for rainy-conditions at the gauge and consists predominantly of Ca+ cations. Based on the total discharge of the river integrated over a

  3. VITRAIL: Acquisition, Modeling, and Rendering of Stained Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikachalam, Niranjan; Baboulaz, Loic; Prandoni, Paolo; Trumpler, Stefan; Wolf, Sophie; Vetterli, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Stained glass windows are designed to reveal their powerful artistry under diverse and time-varying lighting conditions; virtual relighting of stained glass, therefore, represents an exceptional tool for the appreciation of this age old art form. However, as opposed to most other artifacts, stained glass windows are extremely difficult if not impossible to analyze using controlled illumination because of their size and position. In this paper, we present novel methods built upon image based priors to perform virtual relighting of stained glass artwork by acquiring the actual light transport properties of a given artifact. In a preprocessing step, we build a material-dependent dictionary for light transport by studying the scattering properties of glass samples in a laboratory setup. We can now use the dictionary to recover a light transport matrix in two ways: under controlled illuminations the dictionary constitutes a sparsifying basis for a compressive sensing acquisition, while in the case of uncontrolled illuminations the dictionary is used to perform sparse regularization. The proposed basis preserves volume impurities and we show that the retrieved light transport matrix is heterogeneous, as in the case of real world objects. We present the rendering results of several stained glass artifacts, including the Rose Window of the Cathedral of Lausanne, digitized using the presented methods.

  4. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2014-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... of the social world pushes questions about education and life, disregarding being educated as human control of nature....

  5. Evolution and Production of Calcareous Nannoplankton During the Cretaceous as Proxies of LIP-induced Oceanic Fertilization, Acidification and Anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, E.; Bottini, C.; Tiraboschi, D.

    2008-12-01

    Through the Phanerozoic, biota have been intimately linked to Earth's degassing inducing major changes in composition and structure of the ocean-atmosphere system. Emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) has been the primary natural source of atmCO2 with dramatic consequences on climate and ecosystems. During the mid-Cretaceous the Ontong Java-Manihiki and Caribbean Plateaus LIPs are recognized as responsible of pCO2 as high as 2000 ppm. Coeval biocalcification crises occurred in pelagic and neritic settings, suggesting a causal link between high concentrations of carbon dioxide and drops in benthic and planktonic calcifiers' efficiency. Within the oceanic biosphere, calcareous nannoplankton play a key-role as: (1) is widespread and consists of cosmopolitan and endemic taxa; (2) has a 220 My-long evolutionary history; (3) is one the most effective calcite producers; (4) is relevant for the C cycle; (5) is extremely sensitive to environmental variations. Diversity pulses of Cretaceous calcareous nannoplankton are grossly coeval with LIP construction, climate and sea-level changes, variations in ocean structure and composition, suggesting that evolutionary patterns are closely linked to environmental modifications. We explored time-intervals of LIP formation marked by nannoplankton adaptation/evolution, quantifying evolutionary rates, species richness, abundance, calcite production and morphometry. High-resolution investigations of the initial phase of both early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1a and latest Cenomanian OAE 2 pointed out major evolutionary changes, decreases in heavily calcified nannoliths and occurrence of dwarf coccoliths. Nannoplankton calcification crises and dwarfism is here interpreted as forced by rapidly increasing pCO2 during formation of the Ontong Java-Maniniki and Caribbean Plateaus. Alternatively or concurrently, calcification crash and dwarfism might result from enhanced fertility associated to OAE1a and OAE2 regardless of ocean

  6. Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts from the Tithonian - Valanginian Vaca Muerta Formation in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Daria K.; Kietzmann, Diego A.

    2017-08-01

    The Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous marine sediments of the Andean region show an excellent record of different calcareous microfossils, among which calcareous dinoflagellate cysts stand out. Detailed micropaleontological studies of Vaca Muerta Formation (Early Tithonian - Early Valanginian) in the southern Mendoza Neuquén Basin from three sections are conducted with the aim of establishing a major presence of microfossil representatives from different microfossil groups. The analysis of several thin sections from the outcrops reveals a relatively rich micropaleontological assemblage of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts, as well as levels with poor preserved calpionellids and benthic foraminifera. Particularly, calcareous dinoflagellate cyst includes 24 known species (two of them with two subspecies). Some species with biostratigraphic value of the Tethyan region have been identified also in the Andean region: 1) Committosphaera pulla (Borza) and Parastomiosphaera malmica (Borza) are species known only from Lower Tithonian; 2) Colomisphaera tenuis (Nagy) appears in the latest Early Tithonian; 3) Colomisphaera fortis Řehánek and Stomiosphaerina proxima Řehánek are important markers for the latest Late Tithonian - middle Late Berriasian interval; 4) Stomiosphaera wanneri Borza appears in the middle Late Berriasian; 5) Colomisphaera conferta Řehánek and Colomisphaera vogleri (Borza) appear in the Late Berriasian and marked the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary interval; 6) Carpistomiosphaera valanginiana Borza is a marker for the Lower/Upper Valanginian. More detailed studies of these groups will allow their correlation with Tethyan biozones, and contribute to improve biostratigraphic schemes in the Neuquén Basin.

  7. How a Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog changed into a calcareous fen : the unique Holocene history of a Slovak spring-fed mire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajkova, Petra; Grootjans, A. B.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Rybnickova, Eliska; Madaras, Mikulas; Opravilova, Vera; Michaelis, Dierk; Hajek, Michal; Joosten, Hans; Wolejko, Leslaw; Rybníčková, Eliška; Madaras, Mikuláš; Opravilová, Věra; Wołejko, Lesław; Hajkova, T.

    2012-01-01

    In general, mires develop by autogenic succession from more groundwater-fed to more rainwater-fed. This study from a calcareous mire in the West Carpathians (Slovakia) describes a similar development in the Early Holocene, followed by a reverse development in the Middle and Late Holocene. Pollen, ma

  8. Two fern species new to New Hampshire, with comments on the generation of calcareous-like habitat by base-poor rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott W. Bailey

    2013-01-01

    Incidental to other field investigations, I happened upon small populations of two fern species not previously reported from New Hampshire: Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link and Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. Both species are typically associated with calcareous habitats, although limestone and marble are nearly absent from New...

  9. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth in a calcareous soil by penicillium oxalicum P4 and aspergillus niger P85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere as the over-application of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in C...

  10. Astronomical calibration of upper Campanian–Maastrichtian carbon isotope events and calcareous plankton biostratigraphy in the Indian Ocean (ODP Hole 762C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Husson, Dorothée; Harlou, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    An integrated framework of magnetostratigraphy, calcareous microfossil bio-events, cyclostratigraphy and d13C stratigraphy is established for the upper Campanian–Maastrichtian of ODP Hole 762C (Exmouth Plateau, Northwestern Australian margin). Bulk-carbonate d13C events and nannofossil bio-events...

  11. Dynamics of phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere of fababean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Li, Haigang; Leffelaar, P.A.; Shen, J.; Zhang, F.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of soil phosphorus (P) fractions were investigated, in the rhizosphere of fababean (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils. Plants were grown in a mini-rhizotron with a thin (3 mm) soil layer, which was in contact with the root-mat, and considered as r

  12. Two new species of calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea) from the deep Antarctic Eckstrom Shelf and a revised list of species found in Antarctic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Hans Tore; Göcke, Christian; Tendal, Ole Secher;

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports on two new species of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) from the Antarctic Weddell Sea, Clathrina brandtae sp. nov. and Leucetta delicata sp. nov., collected at 600 m depth during the ANT XXIV/2-SYSTCO expedition in January 2008. The new species are described based...

  13. Are phenolic compounds released from the Mediterranean shrub Cistus albidus responsible for changes in N cycling in siliceous and calcareous soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva Castells; Josep Peñuelas; David W. Valentine

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effects of Cistus albidus leaf leachates on nitrogen-cycling processes in two siliceous soils (granite and schist) and one calcareous soil. We compared those effects with gross N-transformation rates in soils sampled underneath Cistus. Our results show that although phenolic compounds leached from green foliage...

  14. Carboniferous calcareous algae and their associations in the San Emiliano and Lois-Ciguera Formations (Prov. León, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rácz, L.

    1965-01-01

    This study of the calcareous algae in the limestone deposits of the two formations (San Emiliano and Lois-Ciguera) in NW Spain is based on field observations and microscopical study. It was possible in the field to divide almost all the limestone members into smaller units on the basis of physical,

  15. Reconsideration of the so-called Oligocene fauna in the asphaltic deposits of Buton (Malay Archipelago) — 2. Young-Neogene Foraminifera and calcareous Algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, F.G.

    1952-01-01

    Miopliocene marls from the island of Buton yield a large marine foraminiferal fauna and some calcareous algae. Three-hundred and thirthy-three species have been identified. Two genera, twenty-three species and four varieties are described as new. The existence of mud-volcanoes in young neogene time

  16. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced...... a number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay...... may itself kill sperm, which is likely to confound many common experimental designs in addition to producing artificially low estimates of sperm viability. I further suggest that sperm number should be routinely measured in sperm viability studies, as it may be an important but overlooked source...

  17. A cytokeratin- and calretinin-negative staining sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtuk, Michael G; Carbone, Michele

    2004-01-01

    Malignant Mesothelioma, or mesothelioma, is a mesothelial-based malignancy that may occur in the pleura, pericardium and peritoneum. Mesothelioma is a very aggressive cancer with limited treatment, and a median survival of about 1 year. At times, the diagnosis of mesothelioma may be problematic. The final diagnosis of mesothelioma relies on histology and often is dependent upon immunohistochemistry. It is generally assumed that mesotheliomas must stain positive for cytokeratin and calretinin and negative staining for these markers would rule out the diagnosis. We encountered a patient with a pleural-based, cytokeratin- and calretinin-negative sarcomatoid malignancy. These negative stainings would rule out the diagnosis of mesothelioma but, after careful consideration of the patient's clinical records, and additional histological and immunohistochemical studies, we conclude that this patient suffered from mesothelioma of the sarcomatoid type.

  18. MEGARA Optics: stain removal in PBM2Y prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Aguirre, D.; Izazaga-Pérez, R.; Villalobos-Mendoza, B.; Carrasco, E.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias, J.

    2017-01-01

    MEGARA is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the GTC. For medium and high resolution, the dispersive elements are volume phase holographic gratings, sandwiched between two flat windows and two prisms of high optical precision. The prisms are made of Ohara PBM2Y optical glass. After the prisms polishing process, some stains appeared on the surfaces. For this, in this work is shown the comparative study of five different products (muriatic acid, paint remover, sodium hydroxide, aqua regia and rare earth liquid polish) used for trying to eliminate the stains of the HR MEGARA prisms. It was found that by polishing with the hands the affected area, and using a towel like a kind of pad, and polish during five minutes using rare earth, the stains disappear completely affecting only a 5% the rms of the surface quality. Not so the use of the other products that did not show any apparent result.

  19. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas; Westbrook, Carol

    2013-04-09

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  20. A Staining Protocol for Identifying Secondary Compounds in Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan A. Retamales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Here we propose a staining protocol using toluidine blue (TBO and ruthenium red to reliably identify secondary compounds in the leaves of some species of Myrtaceae. Methods and Results: Leaves of 10 species representing 10 different genera of Myrtaceae were processed and stained using five different combinations of ruthenium red and TBO. Optimal staining conditions were determined as 1 min of ruthenium red (0.05% aqueous and 45 s of TBO (0.1% aqueous. Secondary compounds clearly identified under this treatment include mucilage in the mesophyll, polyphenols in the cuticle, lignin in fibers and xylem, tannins and carboxylated polysaccharides in the epidermis, and pectic substances in the primary cell walls. Conclusions: Potential applications of this protocol include systematic, phytochemical, and ecological investigations in Myrtaceae. It might be applicable to other plant families rich in secondary compounds and could be used as a preliminary screening method for extraction of these elements.

  1. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas; Westbrook, Carol

    2013-04-09

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  2. Platinum blue staining of cells grown in electrospun scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Millas, Ana Luiza G; Estandarte, Ana Katrina C; Bhella, Gurdeep K; McKean, Robert; Bittencourt, Edison; Robinson, Ian K

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast cells grown in electrospun polymer scaffolds were stained with platinum blue, a heavy metal stain, and imaged using scanning electron microscopy. Good contrast on the cells was achieved compared with samples that were gold sputter coated. The cell morphology could be clearly observed, and the cells could be distinguished from the scaffold fibers. Here we optimized the required concentration of platinum blue for imaging cells grown in scaffolds and show that a higher concentration causes platinum aggregation. Overall, platinum blue is a useful stain for imaging cells because of its enhanced contrast using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the future it would be useful to investigate cell growth and morphology using three-dimensional imaging methods.

  3. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Marjanovic, Marina; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Chaney, Eric J.; Zhao, Youbo; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Xu, Bingwei; Dantus, Marcos; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods have a long history of development, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time- and labour-intensive. Here, we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic-crystal fibre source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses. We demonstrate the collection of optical signatures of the tumour microenvironment, including evidence of mesoscopic biological organization, tumour cell migration and (lymph-) angiogenesis collected directly from fresh ex vivo mammary tissue. Acquisition of these optical signatures and other cellular or extracellular features, which are largely absent from histologically processed and stained tissue, combined with an adaptable platform for optical alignment-free programmable-contrast imaging, offers the potential to translate stain-free molecular histopathology into routine clinical use.

  4. The role of the Giemsa stain in cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, M

    2011-04-01

    In just half a century since the human diploid chromosome number was correctly identified as 46, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of both the genetic foundation of normal human development and the development of various constitutional and acquired abnormalities. The ability to detect numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities was made possible by the Giemsa stain. Despite the recent advent of powerful molecular-based cytogenetic techniques (e.g., fluorescence in situ hybridization, array-based comparative genomic hybridization), Giemsa-based chromosomal banding and staining techniques retain their crucial role in cytogenetics.

  5. Positive staining for cellulose in oral pulse granuloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virkkunen, Sirke; Wolff, Henrik; Haglund, Caj

    2017-01-01

    the hyaline rings contain cellulose. Study Design: Using a newly developed staining method for cellulose, we studied 18 histologic samples diagnosed as OPG, in addition to 3 samples originally diagnosed as "normal" foreign body reactions. In our study, visualization of cellulose is based on its specific...... binding to the carbohydrate binding module of β-1,4-glycanase. Results: All samples diagnosed as OPG were positive for cellulose staining localized in hyaline rings. In addition, 1 lesion (of 3), first diagnosed as a foreign body reaction without the presence of hyaline rings, was positive for cellulose...

  6. Optical Monte Carlo modeling of a true portwine stain anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Welch, Ashley J.; Smithies, Derek J.; Nelson, Jerry; van Gemert, Martin J.

    1998-04-01

    A unique Monte Carlo program capable of accommodating an arbitrarily complex geometry was used to determine the energy deposition in a true port wine stain anatomy. Serial histologic sections taken from a biopsy of a dark red, laser therapy resistant stain were digitized and used to create the program input for simulation at wavelengths of 532 and 585 nm. At both wavelengths, the greatest energy deposition occurred in the superficial blood vessels, and subsequently decreased with depth as the laser beam was attenuated. However, more energy was deposited in the epidermis and superficial blood vessels at 532 nm than at 585 nm.

  7. Predicting the yield and quality of winter wheat grown on calcareous chernozem in the lower Don Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Biryukova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies have revealed a system of indicators for predicting the yield of winter wheat grown on a calcareous chernozem. It has been established that the prediction and integrated assessment of the yield and quality of grain should be performed with consideration for the balance of macro- and micronutrients in the grain and the above-ground biomass of plants. It has been shown that the contents of protein and gluten in winter wheat grain are mainly determined by the supply of plants with nitrogen and its balance with Mn, Р, Fe, Zn, and K. Possibility of predicting the contents of macro- and micronutrients in wheat grain from the chemical composition of plants at the shooting stage has been revealed.

  8. Age of the Tananwan Formation in Northern Taiwan: A Reexamination of the Magnetostratigraphy and Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorng-Shern Horng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, the succession strata of the Tananwan Formation exposed horizontally on the Linkou Tableland in northwestern Taiwan has been either dated to a short time interval of 0.9 - 0.7 Ma or assigned to a vague long period within the Matuyama Epoch covering probably both the Olduvai and Jaramillo normal events. In this study, a reexamination of magnetostratigraphy and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of this formation was carried out. The results show that the strata with stable remanent magnetizations have reversed magnetic polarities only, and the layers with marine sedimentary facies consistently contain specimens of large Gephyrocapsa. These updated results suggest that the Tananwan Formation was deposited within the interval of 1.46 - 1.24 Ma, corresponding to a short period of reversed magnetic polarity of the Matuyama Epoch.

  9. Effects of roads on adjacent plant community composition and ecosystem function: An example from three calcareous ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark A; Davies, Linda; Power, Sally A

    2012-04-01

    Roads and exhaust emissions can affect plant communities directly, for example via direct foliar uptake of exhaust products, or indirectly via changes to soil biogeochemistry and hydrology. A transect study adjacent to roads of different traffic densities was carried out at three species-rich calcareous grasslands in south eastern England. Measured annual NO(2) concentrations and modelled NH(3) concentrations increased towards the roads and with higher traffic densities, and there was evidence of increased soil moisture, pH and heavy metal concentrations at roadsides. Increases in the abundance of nitrogen (N) tolerant species and grasses at roadsides were associated with N enrichment from vehicle exhausts at two of the sites. In contrast plant species richness, the abundance of forb and moss species declined at roadside locations. As vehicle usage spreads across the world, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of road traffic on adjacent ecosystems to inform traffic and conservation management policies.

  10. Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the upper Miocene to Pliocene Shimajiri Group on Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ryo; Sato, Tokiyuki; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of the Shimajiri Group in two exploratory wells (depths, 1243 and 1800 m) drilled on southern Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. Three late Miocene to Pliocene datum planes were identified: the first occurrence of Amaurolithus spp. (7.42 Ma), the last occurrence of Discoaster quinqueramus (5.59 Ma), and the first occurrence of Ceratolithus rugosus (5.12 Ma). These datum planes were also identified in two other deep wells on southern Okinawa-jima. Nutrient levels (reconstructed from the relative abundances of small Reticulofenestra spp., and the relative abundances of Discoaster spp. plus Sphenolithus abies) suggest that deposition of the Shimajiri Group (<8.29-3.50 Ma) occurred under conditions of increasing eutrophication. The eutrophication was likely caused by shallowing of the sedimentary basin, but a stepwise shift was associated with an abrupt eutrophication event that occurred in the northwestern Pacific Ocean at 5 Ma.

  11. Calcareous nannofossils and sedimentary facies in the Upper Cretaceous Bozeş Formation (Southern Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Balc

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The lithology, sedimentology and biostratigraphy of the Bozes Formation, which crop out in the SE Metaliferi Mountains (Apuseni Mts. have been investigated in order to establish the age of the deposits and the depositional environment. The sedimentary structures and facies are interpreted as indicating a deep-water depositional environment, representing part of a submarine fan lobe. Three facies assemblages have been identified and described. Calcareous nannofossils were used to determine the age of the investigated deposits. The presence of Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii and Calculites obscurus indicates the CC17 biozone, while UC13 Zone is pointed out by the continuous occurrence of Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis and the absence of Broinsonia parca parca. Thus, the age of the studied deposits is Late Santonian -?Early Campanian.

  12. Methodology for the elaboration of Natura 2000 sites designation acts in the Walloon Region (Belgium: calcareous grasslands in the Lesse-and-Lomme area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahy G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Walloon Region (Belgium, 239 sites have been selected to be included in the Natura 2000 network. The next step is to write designation acts in order to legally protect these 221,000 ha. In this pilot study, a designation act was elaborated for a Natura 2000 site of 2,569 ha and located in the Lesse-and-Lomme area within the Calestienne region. Although the site includes 40 ha of calcareous grasslands, characterised by an exceptional flora and fauna, this habitat is very threatened by abandonment and fragmentation.The methodology used to elaborate the designation act is presented with respect to calcareous grassland. Firstly, in spring and summer 2003, an accurate map of natural habitats was produced, with every single patch of calcareous grassland being mapped. Information was also collected in order to evaluate conservation status. Based on this information, conservation status was then assessed with respect to three different criteria: (1 integrity of the cortege species, (2 habitat structure and (3 degradations. Thirdly, the site was divided into objective zones according to the different habitats and species of Community interest found in the site. Hence, an objective zone was delineated for calcareous grasslands. This objective zone was then divided in several management units. Finally, at these different spatial levels (site, objective zone, management unit, management measures were suggested. As a result, in the draft designation act, the target is to maintain or restore 230 ha of calcareous grassland, instead of the existing 40 ha. This ambitious target requires large-scale restoration and an efficient grazing scheme. These will need important resources for their successful implementation

  13. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2014-01-01

    of the involved actors at the border. By doing so, the study underlines a forgotten, yet important, role of this edge zone – being a zone of commonality between the house and city, between indoors and outdoors, between the man at home and the man at the street. The city of Copenhagen promotes porous borders...... is a collection of material from the case study of an ongoing PhD study titled: LIVING EDGE - The Architectural and Urban Prospect of Domestic Borders. The paper includes a description of the problem analysis, research question, method, discussion and conclusion....

  14. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falace, Annalisa; Kaleb, Sara; Curiel, Daniele; Miotti, Chiara; Galli, Giovanni; Querin, Stefano; Ballesteros, Enric; Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko

    2015-01-01

    Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM) clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders) characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.). Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus) is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat model outputs

  15. Genome-wide analysis of the sox family in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum: multiple genes with unique expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunato Sofia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox genes are HMG-domain containing transcription factors with important roles in developmental processes in animals; many of them appear to have conserved functions among eumetazoans. Demosponges have fewer Sox genes than eumetazoans, but their roles remain unclear. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the early evolutionary history of the Sox gene family by identification and expression analysis of Sox genes in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum. Methods Calcaronean Sox related sequences were retrieved by searching recently generated genomic and transcriptome sequence resources and analyzed using variety of phylogenetic methods and identification of conserved motifs. Expression was studied by whole mount in situ hybridization. Results We have identified seven Sox genes and four Sox-related genes in the complete genome of Sycon ciliatum. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that five of Sycon Sox genes represent groups B, C, E, and F present in cnidarians and bilaterians. Two additional genes are classified as Sox genes but cannot be assigned to specific subfamilies, and four genes are more similar to Sox genes than to other HMG-containing genes. Thus, the repertoire of Sox genes is larger in this representative of calcareous sponges than in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. It remains unclear whether this is due to the expansion of the gene family in Sycon or a secondary reduction in the Amphimedon genome. In situ hybridization of Sycon Sox genes revealed a variety of expression patterns during embryogenesis and in specific cell types of adult sponges. Conclusions In this study, we describe a large family of Sox genes in Sycon ciliatum with dynamic expression patterns, indicating that Sox genes are regulators in development and cell type determination in sponges, as observed in higher animals. The revealed differences between demosponge and calcisponge Sox genes repertoire highlight the need to

  16. Identification and pharmacological induction of autophagy in the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus: an active catabolic process in calcareous corpuscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Julia A; Caparros, Pedro A; Nicolao, María Celeste; Denegri, Guillermo M; Cumino, Andrea C

    2014-06-01

    Autophagy is a fundamental catabolic pathway conserved from yeast to mammals, but which remains unknown in parasite cestodes. In this work, the pharmacological induction of autophagy was cellularly and molecularly analysed in the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus. Metacestode sensitivity to rapamycin and TORC1 expression in protoscoleces and metacestodes were shown. Ultrastructural studies showed that treated parasites had an isolation membrane, autophagosomes and autolysosomes, all of which evidenced the autophagic flux. Genes coding for key autophagy-related proteins were also identified in the Echinococcus genome. These genes were involved in autophagosome formation and transcriptional over-expression of Eg-atg5, Eg-atg6, Eg-atg8, Eg-atg12, Eg-atg16 and Eg-atg18 was shown in presence of rapamycin or arsenic trioxide. Thus, Echinococcus autophagy could be regulated by non-transcriptional inhibition through TOR and by transcription-dependent up-regulation via FoxO-like transcription factors and/or TFEB proteins. An increase in the punctate pattern and Eg-Atg8 polypeptide level in the tegument, parenchyma cells and excretory system of protoscoleces and in vesicularised parasites was detected after rapamycin treatment. This suggests the occurrence of basal autophagy in the larval stages and during vesicular development. In arsenic-treated protoscoleces, high Eg-Atg8 polypeptide levels within the free cytoplasmic matrix of calcareous corpuscles were observed, thus verifying the occurrence of autophagic events. These experiments also confirmed that the calcareous corpuscles are sites of arsenic trioxide accumulation. The detection of the autophagic machinery in this parasite represents a basic starting point to unravel the role of autophagy under both physiological and stress conditions which will allow identification of new strategies for drug discovery against neglected parasitic diseases caused by cestodes.

  17. [Effects of long-term fertilization on pH buffer system of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Dong; Qi, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Ning, Yun-Wang; Xu, Xian-Ju; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Hong-Bo

    2012-04-01

    Soil samples (0-80 cm) were collected from a 30-year fertilization experimental site in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province of East China to study the variations of the pH, calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, and pH buffer capacity of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil under different fertilization treatments. Thirty-year continuous application of different fertilizers accelerated the acidification of topsoil (0-20 cm), with the soil pH decreased by 0.41-0.70. Under different fertilization, the soil pH buffer capacity (pHBC) varied from 15.82 to 21.96 cmol x kg(-1). As compared with no fertilization, single N fertilization decreased the pHBC significantly, but N fertilization combined with organic fertilization could significantly increase the pHBC. The soil pHBC had significant positive correlations with soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, but less correlation with soil organic matter content and soil cation exchange capacity, suggesting that after a long-term fertilization, the sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil was still of an elementary calcium carbonate buffer system, and soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity contributed little to the buffer system. The soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents were greater in 0-40 cm than in 40-80 cm soil layer. Comparing with soil calcium carbonate, soil active calcium carbonate was more sensitive to reflect the changes of soil physical and chemical properties, suggesting that the calcium carbonate buffer system could be further classified as soil active calcium carbonate buffer system.

  18. Soil pH management by calcareous and siliceous minerals: effect on N2O yield in nitrification and denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Amelioration of soil pH by liming is necessary and common practice in vast areas of crop production. It is well known that pH is one of the most pervasive factors controlling rates and product stoichiometries in microbially mediated N transformations, including N2O emissions. While liming of acid soils appears to increase N2O reductase activity in denitrification (resulting in less N2O relative to N2), sudden pH raise may boost nitrification and hence N2O emission from ammonia oxidation. Thus, the net effect of liming on N2O emissions is not straightforward, which probably explains why soil pH management has not been embraced as a strategy for mitigating N2O emissions so far. Here we report laboratory incubations in which we determined potential rates and N2O yields in soils from an ongoing field experiment, comparing traditional calcareous limes (calcite, dolomite) with mafic minerals (olivine, different types of plagioclase). The experiment is in its second year, and shows strong pH increase (0.7-1.5, units) in plots with calcareous limes, a weak pH increase (~ 0.2 unit) in the olivine treatment and no measurable pH increase with the plagioclases. Potential nitrification rates correlated positively with effective soil pH as did the N2O yield, measured as N2O accumulation rate over NO2- + NO3- accumulation rate. The N2O yield increased in the order, control automated field flux robot (using fast box technique) in the same liming experiment.

  19. High-resolution calcareous nannoplankton palaeoecology as a proxy for small-scale environmental changes in the Early Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2014-09-01

    Within a 5.5-m-thick succession of upper Burdigalian (CNP-zone NN4) shallow neritic sediments from the North Alpine Foreland Basin in Lower Austria a high-resolution section of finely laminated sediment with a thickness of 940.5 mm was logged. The section was continuously sampled, resulting in 100 samples, covering a thickness of ~ 10 mm each. An integrated approach was applied to these samples in order to study proxy records including calcareous nannoplankton, geochemical and geophysical data. Multivariate statistics on the autochthonous assemblage were used to evaluate the ecological preferences of each taxon and to rule out possible contamination of the signal by taphonomic processes. In order to assess changes in the assemblage composition throughout the section, three taphogroups were defined using both the autochthonous and allochthonous nannofossils. Based on the distribution of these taphogroups five distinct intervals were defined that are indicative of centennial to decadal changes in palaeoenvironmental conditions. Combining these results with other proxies (geochemistry, geophysics) we were able to reconstruct short-term, small-scale variations in terms of temperature, primary productivity, bottom water oxygenation, organic matter flux, freshwater influx and changes in relative sea level in a highly dynamic shallow marine setting. This study represents the first such high-resolution analysis performed on a marine succession of late Burdigalian age. It is also a first attempt to analyse outcrop data on such a high-resolution, sub-Milankovitch scale, with respect to calcareous nannoplankton in conjunction with geochemical and sedimentological data.

  20. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Falace

    Full Text Available Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.. Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat

  1. Effect of Straw Amendment on Soil Zn Availability and Ageing of Exogenous Water-Soluble Zn Applied to Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanlong; Cui, Juan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zhao, Aiqing; Li, Meng; Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Xiushaung; Jia, Zhou; Liu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc), which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1) and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1) were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents. However, adding exogenous Zn plus straw increased the DTPA-Zn abundance by about 5-fold and had the similar results to adding exogenous Zn alone, corresponding to the increased Zn fraction loosely bounded to organic matter, which had a more dominant presence in Zn reaction than soil other constituents such as carbonate and minerals in calcareous soil. The higher relative amount of ineffective Zn (~50%) after water soluble Zn addition also occurred, and at the days of 120–165 and 180–210when the natural temperature and rainfall changed mildly, the ageing process of exogenous Zn over time was well evaluated by the diffusion equation, respectively. Consequently, combining crop residues with exogenous water soluble Zn application is promising strategy to maximize the availability of Zn in calcareous soil, but the higher ageing rate of Zn caused by the higher Zn mobility should be considered. PMID:28081179

  2. Discrimination of p53 immunohistochemistry-positive tumors by its staining pattern in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry staining of p53 is a cheap and simple method to detect aberrant function of p53. However, there are some discrepancies between the result of immunohistochemistry staining and mutation analysis. This study attempted to find a new definition of p53 staining by its staining pattern. Immunohistochemistry staining of p53 and TP53 gene mutation analysis were performed in 148 gastric cancer patients. Also SNP-CGH array analysis was conducted to four cases. Positive staining of p...

  3. Standardization in biological staining. The influence of dye manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of biological staining is to obtain specimens of biological material that can be assessed in the microscope. These specimens are influenced by all processes from removal from the intact organism to mounting on the microscopic slide. To achieve comparable results with various technique...

  4. MODELING OF ALKANE EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD STAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a fu...

  5. ENHANCED DAPI STAINING FOR CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN WATER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Method 1623 is used to detect and quantify the presence of {ital Cryptosporidium} spp. oocysts in water. The protocol consists of concentrating a sample, staining this concentrate with a fluorescent antibody, and examining the sample mi...

  6. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; Horobin, R W

    2012-01-01

    of Regulatory Affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the opening session of the meeting of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems held on 2-4 June 2010 in Seoul, Republic...

  7. The Stained Glass Paintings of Nigeria's Prime Artists, YCA Grillo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    appear as coordinates in complementary and analogous relationships. Grillo's ... boldly define the geometric rhomboid planes, the palette colours simply flow like many ..... In fact, taking its life from the here and now, the diachronic dimension is .... 3: Stained glass Painting, St. Dominic's Catholic Church Yaba, Lagos,Yusuf.

  8. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods have a long history of development, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time- and labour...

  9. Amalgam stained dentin: a proper substrate for bonding resin composite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the use of dental amalgam is mostly abandoned and substituted by tooth colored resin composites that can be bonded to teeth tissues by adhesive techniques. The aim of this thesis was to find out whether dark stained dentin, as often observed after removal of amalgam restorations and attribu

  10. Amalgam stained dentin: a proper substrate for bonding resin composite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the use of dental amalgam is mostly abandoned and substituted by tooth colored resin composites that can be bonded to teeth tissues by adhesive techniques. The aim of this thesis was to find out whether dark stained dentin, as often observed after removal of amalgam restorations and

  11. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, Hans O

    2013-01-01

    In the 14(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) the BSC's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meetings of ISO/TC 212/WG 3, In vitro diagnostic products, and from the final plenary meeting of ISO/TC 212, Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diag...

  12. Ultrastructural characters of a Physarum melleum on living leaves of Dendrobium candidum in China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-ze; Liu, Lu-ning; Fiore-Donno, Anna-Maria; Xu, Tong

    2007-01-01

    A known species, Physarum melleum, was found fruiting on living leaves of Dendrobium candidum, which was collected in China in 2004. Its morphological characters were revealed by light microscopy (LM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Character variations were distinguished by its olive-yellow peridium and its always thinner capillitium containing globulose granular material between the large calcareous nodes. The calcium carbonate granules, deposited on stalks, peridium and hypothallus as well as within stalks, were globose and smooth. PMID:18257124

  13. Serviced Living

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2006-01-01

    @@ As recently as ten years ago,the term serviced apartment made no sense to most people living in Beijing and residing in hotels was the only options for foreign visitors. But since then, serviced apartments have begun to appear in big cities all around China. In Beijing alone, it is estimated that there are more than 30,000service apartments spread across dozens of properties occupying a space of more than I million square meters. Concentrating in the Financial Street, the Central Business District and Zhongguancun, also known as China's Silicon Valley, the explosion in service apartments in the city continues to be fueled by the influx of overseas and domestic business people.

  14. Live CMS

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    CMS live from Facebook. The Pixel Tracker (or Pixel Detector) is the innermost instrument in the very heart of the CMS apparatus, installed around the LHC beampipe. This is the very point where new particles, such as the Higgs boson, are produced by the energy of the proton proton collisions, and so the Pixel detector receives the largest particle-flux of any sub-component of CMS. The new component is made up of two “parts”: a central barrel region (called BPIX), made of two cylindrical halves, and forward discs on either side of the collision point (FPIX). The new BPIX was manufactured by a consortium of European institutes from Switzerland, Italy and Germany, supported by CERN. The new FPIX was manufactured by 14 institutes in the USA.

  15. Development of a preparation and staining method for fetal erythroblasts in maternal blood : Simultaneous immunocytochemical staining and FISH analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; van den Burg, MJM; Beverstock, GC; Bernini, LF; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Kanhai, HHH; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    In order to detect fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in maternal blood, a protocol was developed which aimed at producing a reliable staining method for combined immunocytochemical and FISH analysis. The technique had to be suitable for eventual automated screening of slides. Chorionic villi w

  16. Ophiolitic detritus in Kimmeridgian resedimented limestones and its provenance from an eroded obducted ophiolitic nappe stack south of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlick Hans-Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes for the Middle to Late Jurassic tectonic processes in the Northern Calcareous Alps are still controversially discussed. There are several contrasting models for these processes, formerly designated “Jurassic gravitational tectonics”. Whereas in the Dinarides or the Western Carpathians Jurassic ophiolite obduction and a Jurassic mountain building process with nappe thrusting is widely accepted, equivalent processes are still questioned for the Eastern Alps. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, an Early Cretaceous nappe thrusting process is widely favoured instead of a Jurassic one, obviously all other Jurassic features are nearly identical in the Northern Calcareous Alps, the Western Carpathians and the Dinarides. In contrast, the Jurassic basin evolutionary processes, as best documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps, were in recent times adopted to explain the Jurassic tectonic processes in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Whereas in the Western Carpathians Neotethys oceanic material is incorporated in the mélanges and in the Dinarides huge ophiolite nappes are preserved above the Jurassic basin fills and mélanges, Jurassic ophiolites or ophiolitic remains are not clearly documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps. Here we present chrome spinel analyses of ophiolitic detritic material from Kimmeridgian allodapic limestones in the central Northern Calcareous Alps. The Kimmeridgian age is proven by the occurrence of the benthic foraminifera Protopeneroplis striata and Labyrinthina mirabilis, the dasycladalean algae Salpingoporella pygmea, and the alga incertae sedis Pseudolithocodium carpathicum. From the geochemical composition the analysed spinels are pleonastes and show a dominance of Al-chromites (Fe3+–Cr3+–Al3+ diagram. In the Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+ vs. Cr/(Cr+ Al diagram they can be classified as type II ophiolites and in the TiO2 vs. Al2O3 diagram they plot into the SSZ peridotite field. All together this points to a harzburgite

  17. On the term “calcar femorale” in Chinese%“股骨距”还是“股骨矩”?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅炯

    2016-01-01

    The word “calcar femorale” is an old term in western medicine. In 1874, Von Fr. Merkel described the calcar femorale in German literature, as “der Schenkelsporn”, that is “femoral spur”. In 1942, Henry Morris referred to the calcar femorale as follows: “A nearly vertical plate of compact tissue, the calcar femorale projects into the neck of the bone from the inferior cervical region toward the greater trochanter”. This may be an earlier description of the term “calcar femorale”. In the case of the Chinese description of the term, Chinese surgeon, Dr. Zhang Jiayu, translated it into “股骨 ( femur )根 (gēn )” in 1952. And then, many professionals, including Prof. Guo Bangfu, Prof. Dai Kerong, et al. used “股骨距 ( jù )” in their papers. Ever since 1980s, the term “股骨矩 (jǔ )” began to appear in textbooks and some orthopedic journals, the two terms, “股骨矩” and “股骨距”, have appeared simultaneously for a long time. Which after all is, or, are both, right? The word “calcar”, the Latin term for “spur”, isdeifned as: “1. spur; 2. a spur-shaped structure” in many English dictionaries. In The Chinese Xinhua Dictionary, the word “距” has the meaning of calcar, but the word “矩” lacks such a deifnition. Therefore, the Chinese translation “距” is appropriate. So far as in the author’s view, the ifrst misuse of the Chinese character “矩” should have appeared in the surgery teaching material ( the 1st edition ) of the national universal textbook of surgery. Its text used the word “股骨矩”, and at the same time, in the relevant icon annotation and footnote explanation, the Chinese word “股骨距” appeared over 10 times. It is concluded that the “股骨矩” in the ifrst edition of textbook of Surgery probably was a printing error. This printing error has been widely accepted because of the authority of the textbook.

  18. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tony J; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei; Andrews, David W

    2015-11-01

    A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose-response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds.

  19. Application of a microplate scale fluorochrome staining assay for the assessment of viability of probiotic preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakomi, H-L; Mättö, J; Virkajärvi, I; Saarela, M

    2005-07-01

    Cell viability in probiotic preparations is traditionally assessed by the plate count technique. Additionally, fluorescent staining combined with epifluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry has been developed for the viability assessment, but the currently available assays are either laborious or require highly sophisticated equipment. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of a microplate scale fluorochrome assay for predicting the cell state of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis preparations. In addition to viability assessment with LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit, DiBAC(4)3 stain was used for the kinetic measurement of changes in bifidobacterial cell membrane functions during exposure to low pH. The microplate scale fluorochrome assay results on the viability and cell numbers of probiotic preparations correlated well with the results obtained with the culture-based technique and (with few exceptions) with epifluorescence microscopy. The assay was applicable also for the viability assessment of stressed (acid-treated) cells provided that the cell density in treatments was adjusted to the optimal measurement level of the fluorometer. The microplate scale fluorochrome assay offers a rapid and robust tool for the viability assessment of probiotic preparations, and enables also kinetic measurements.

  20. News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2012-01-01

    In this 12(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meetings of ISO/TC 212/WG 1 Quality and competence in the medical laboratory and ISO....../TC 212/WG 3 In vitro diagnostic products both held on 2 - 3 June 2010, plus information on the second plenary meeting of ISO/TC 212 Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems held on 4 June 2010. All meetings took place in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Finally, information is provided...... concerning the 25(th) meeting of CEN/TC 140 In vitro diagnostic medical devices held on 23 June 2010 in Berlin, Germany....

  1. Selection of Ovine Oocytes by Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep oocytes derived from the ovaries collected from the slaughterhouse are often used for research on in vitro embryo production, animal cloning, transgenesis, embryonic stem cells, and other embryo biotechnology aspects. Improving the in vitro culture efficiency of oocytes can provide more materials for similar studies. Generally, determination of oocyte quality is mostly based on the layers of cumulus cells and cytoplasm or cytoplasm uniformity and colors. This requires considerable experience to better identify oocyte quality because of the intense subjectivity involved (Gordon (2003, Madison et al. (1992 and De Loos et al. (1992. BCB staining is a function of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity, an enzyme synthesized in developing oocytes, which decreases in activity with maturation. Therefore, unstained oocytes (BCB− are high in G6PD activity, while the less mature oocytes stains are deep blue (BCB+ due to insuffcient G6PD activity to decolorize the BCB dye.

  2. Properties of nucleic acid staining dyes used in gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Alicia M; Tobe, Shanan S; Kobus, Hilton J; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid staining dyes are used for detecting nucleic acids in electrophoresis gels. Historically, the most common dye used for gel staining is ethidium bromide, however due to its toxicity and mutagenicity other dyes that are safer to the user and the environment are preferred. This Short Communication details the properties of dyes now available and their sensitivity for detection of DNA and their ability to permeate the cell membrane. It was found that GelRed™ was the most sensitive and safest dye to use with UV light excitation, and both GelGreen™ and Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye were sensitive and the safer dyes using blue light excitation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Indocyanine green staining for the triple corneal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akira; Segawa, Yoji; Nishimura, Akira; Shirao, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the triple corneal procedure, successful completion of capsulorhexis is of the utmost importance. Another use of indocyanine green dye for better visualization of the anterior lens capsule of mature cataract during the triple corneal procedure is described. Four consecutive patients (mean age, 69.5 years) with both mature cataracts and corneal opacity underwent the triple corneal procedure. After trephination of the recipient cornea, the anterior capsule of the lens was stained with indocyanine green. A continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) was performed, after which conventional triple corneal procedures were followed. In all four cases, this technique markedly improved visualization of the lens capsule and resulted in successful and easy manipulation of the CCC and subsequent removal of residual lens cortex. Staining of the anterior capsule of mature cataract in the triple corneal procedure clearly defines the border of the capsule, thus allowing easy and complete execution of CCC.

  4. Three phenotypes of glucosephosphate isomerase in sheep: improved staining recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, C; Baker, C M; Graydon, R J

    1985-01-01

    Contrary to results published recently, we observe three, rather than two, phenotypes for the enzyme glucosephosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9) from sheep. The phenotypic electrophoretic patterns conform to the patterns observed for this dimeric enzyme in other species. Genotype frequencies in a flock of Southdowns do not deviate significantly from those predicted under the assumption of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A remarkable observation is that the electrophoretically distinct phenotypes of GPI are largely or entirely obliterated by the addition of 1-10 mmol/l MgCl2 to the electrophoretic buffers. Modification of the usual staining recipe for GPI result in greater resolution and shorter staining times.

  5. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia developing within a port wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Robert N; Itinteang, Tinte; de Jong, Sophie; Brasch, Helen D; Tan, Swee T

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male with a port wine stain on the base of his neck presented with a 5-month history of gradual thickening of the involved skin which interfered with clothing and caused repeated bleeding. The lesion was excised and histopathologic examination revealed angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) arising from the pre-existing port wine stain - a rare finding with only one previously reported case. Additionally the lesion was associated with elevated serum renin levels which virtually normalized following excision of the lesion. We further demonstrated the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptors 1 and 2 by the lesion and discuss the possible role of the renin-angiotensin system in this condition.

  6. Standard test method for determination of resistance to staining

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method is intended to determine the resistance to staining of ceramic tile surfaces. 1.2 The resistance to staining is determined by maintaining test solutions in contact with ceramic tile surfaces for a specified period of time. After exposure, the surface is cleaned in a defined manner, and the test specimens are inspected visually for change. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...... results on the abundance, size distribution and bacterial colonization of ABSP therefore reflect general patterns of TEP. The abundance of ABSP in the size range 3-162 urn and retained by 3 um pore size filters averaged 3.6 ± 2.49 x 10s ml"1 (± SD), which is among the highest concentrations reported...... for comparable size spectra of TEP. On average, 35 % of ABSP (by number) were colonized by bacteria and 8.6 x 105 bacteria ml"1 lake water were attached to ABSP, which corresponds to 7% of the total bacterial abundance....

  8. An Eco-friendly, Scaled-down Gram Stain Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Gyure

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, flushing large volumes of Gram stain reagents into sanitary sewage systems is no longer acceptable. These chemical wastes are highly regulated and must be collected, labeled, and disposed of in a responsible manner, usually by paying a commercial service to remove them to an authorized off-site facility. Such services are costly and, as expected, costs are proportional to volume of collected waste. This “old” method of Gram staining, even if effluent is collected, generates a high volume of liquid waste which is unnecessarily diluted with additional large volumes of water from the rinsing steps. The purpose of using this scaled-down and eco-friendly protocol is to dramatically reduce the amount of liquid waste produced without sacrificing quality of results. This protocol is flexible, practical, and easy to implement. It does not require students to work at a bench sink, reduces user cost, and lowers environmental impact overall.

  9. Imaging port wine stains by fiber optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shiyong; Gu, Ying; Xue, Ping; Guo, Jin; Shen, Tingmei; Wang, Tianshi; Huang, Naiyan; Zhang, Li; Qiu, Haixia; Yu, Xin; Wei, Xunbin

    2010-05-01

    We develop a fiber optical coherence tomography (OCT) system in the clinical utility of imaging port wine stains (PWS). We use our OCT system on 41 patients with PWS to document the difference between PWS skin and contralateral normal skin. The system, which operates at 4 frames/s with axial and transverse resolutions of 10 and 9 μm, respectively, in the skin tissue, can clearly distinguish the dilated dermal blood vessels from normal tissue. We present OCT images of patients with PWS and normal human skin. We obtain the structural parameters, including epidermal thickness and diameter and depth of dilated blood vessels. We demonstrate that OCT may be a useful tool for the noninvasive imaging of PWS. It may help determine the photosensitizer dose and laser parameters in photodynamic therapy for treating port wine stains.

  10. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    OpenAIRE

    B.M. van den Berg

    2015-01-01

    The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few ...

  11. Modeling the effect of flow homogeneity on the fate of Cd, Pb and Zn in a calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Spadini, Lorenzo; Delolme, Cécile; Galvez, Rosa; Winiarski, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    The fate of pollutants in the vadose zone depends on flow pathways. It is generally assumed that homogeneous flow will allow pollutants to reach most of the sorption sites, whereas preferential flow will transport pollutants through restricted zones and prohibit pollutants to reach sorption sites in more stagnant water (e.g. Lassabatere et al., 2004). However, this hypothesis has so far not been validated nor experimentally nor numerically. Experimental validation would require, in a unique soil, to establish heterogeneous and homogeneous flow conditions for the similar hydric (water content) and hydraulic (flow rate) conditions, which is almost impossible to achieve. Eventually, variations in flow heterogeneity may be obtained by varying hydric and hydraulic conditions. But straightforward conclusions on flow heterogeneity cannot be expected from such multi-variable experimental assets. This study investigates numerically the effect of flow heterogeneity on the fate of three heavy metals in calcareous environments. The solute transport code considers MIM model (mobile-immobile model) for describing flow heterogeneity. Water is divided into mobile water and immobile water fractions. Solutes are transported by convection and dispersion in mobile water and diffuse at the interfaces between mobile and immobile water fractions. The speciation code considers metal dissolution/precipitation of carbonates, and complexation on calcite surfaces and cationic exchange on Fe-oxyhydroxides particles (clay). The numerical code is applied to the experimental results obtained for a calcareous soil in contact with three trace elemental cations (Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II)) under both static (batch experiments) and dynamic conditions (column experiments) (Lassabatere et al., 2007). The model reconstructs accurately the experimental results and then simulates varying contact times (in batches), injection flow rates (in columns), and concentration conditions. Then, the model is used to

  12. Réparation des pieux battus dans les sables carbonatés Repair of Driven Piles in Calcareous Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauroy J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les formations carbonatées rencontrées en de nombreuses zones d'activités pétrolières en mer posent de difficiles problèmes de dimensionnement et de mise en place des pieux. Sur plusieurs sites de sable carbonaté, la capacité portante des pieux battus se révèle beaucoup plus faible que prévu et des techniques de réparation doivent être étudiées. Dans ce contexte, l'ARGEMA (Association de Recherche en Géotechnique Marine, groupement français d'organismes de recherche, de compagnies pétrolières et de contracteurs offshore, a expérimenté une réparation d'un pieu expérimental de 30 cm de diamètre et 23 m de long battu dans un sable carbonaté. Le frottement latéral de ce pieu mobilisé juste après battage était très faible. La réparation a consisté à injecter du coulis de ciment à partir d'un forage situé à 40 cm du pieu. Cet article décrit les procédures et les caractéristiques des injections réalisées et leurs conséquences sur la capacité portante du pieu. Le frottement entre le pieu et le terrain s'accroît avec le volume de ciment injecté; les valeurs maximales obtenues sont du même ordre de grandeur que celles observées avec un pieu foré-cimenté. The calcareous formations encountered in many zones of offshore petroleum activity raise difficult problems for designing and installing foundation piles. On several sites with calcareous sands, the bearing capacity of driven piles proves to be much less than had been planned, and repair techniques have to be examined. Within this context, ARGEMA (Association de Recherche en Géotechnique Marine, a french group of research organizations, oil companies and offshore contractors, has tested a repair of an experimental pile 30 cm in diameter and 23 m long driven into a calcareous sand. The skin friction of this pile, mobilized just after driving, was found to be very low. The repair-job consisted in injecting grout from a drilled borehole located at some tens

  13. Voided stain on paper method for analysis of mouse urination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Y; Kanematsu, A; Hayashi, Y; Haga, H; Yoshimura, N; Yoshimura, K; Ogawa, O

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a quantification method using filter paper for analyzing minute voided urine of the mouse. Voided stain on paper (VSOP) method; the correlation between area of stained spot on a filter paper and amount of applied liquid was calculated. Voiding behavior of the mice was analyzed by placing the animal above the same filter paper and recording voided time and area over 2 hr. The usefulness of the VSOP method was tested in analysis of the voiding behavior of five female 7-week-old ddY mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CPM, 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and five control ones, in comparison with the histology of CPM-induced cystitis. Further, the voided volume of male and female ddY mouse ranging from 2 to 13 weeks was assessed. There was a linear correlation between liquid volume and stained area on the filter paper (y = 16.472x - 22.411, R(2) = 0.9981). Between control mice and those with histologically proven CPM cystitis, there was a significant difference in voided volume (362.7 +/- 51.9 and 127.8 +/- 100.0 microl, VSOP method is a useful tool for evaluating voiding behavior of the mouse, including those with small bladder capacity.

  14. Meibomian orifices and Marx's line. Studied by triple vital staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, M

    1985-12-01

    The ciliary margins of the lower lids have been vital stained by the lipid-specific Sudan III powder, fluorescein 0.1% and the bottom of the lacrimal river (Marx's line) by lissamine green 1% in 100 cases. The Meibomian orifices are situated in a straight row just in front of the Marx's line in the lipid phase. With increasing age (greater than 50 years) the orifices are more often displaced and also discharge their lipid in the depth of the aqueous phase. The number averaged 21.5 in the lipid phase and 1.7 in the aqueous phase. Active orifices staining with lipid were found in 45% of all orifices in normals, independent of age, and were increased in conjunctivitis in the lipid phase. Lissamine green-stained orifices were independent of age, phase and diagnosis. The anterior edge of Marx's line may run an irregular course in elderly normals (greater than 50 years), significantly more often in conjunctivitis and blepharitis.

  15. Immunohistochemical staining of radixin and moesin in prostatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becich Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some members of the Protein 4.1 superfamily are believed to be involved in cell proliferation and growth, or in the regulation of these processes. While the expression levels of two members of this family, radixin and moesin, have been studied in many tumor types, to our knowledge they have not been investigated in prostate cancer. Methods Tissue microarrays were immunohistochemically stained for either radixin or moesin, with the staining intensities subsequently quantified and statistically analyzed using One-Way ANOVA or nonparametric equivalent with subsequent Student-Newman-Keuls tests for multiple comparisons. There were 11 cases of normal donor prostates (NDP, 14 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 23 cases of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN, 88 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa, and 25 cases of normal tissue adjacent to adenocarcinoma (NAC analyzed in the microarrays. Results NDP, BPH, and HGPIN had higher absolute staining scores for radixin than PCa and NAC, but with a significant difference observed between only HGPIN and PCa (p = Conclusions To our knowledge, these studies represent the first reports on the expression profiles of radixin and moesin in prostatic adenocarcinoma. The current study has shown that there were statistically significant differences observed between HGPIN and PCa and HGPIN and NAC in terms of radixin expression. The differences in the moesin profiles by tissue type were not statistically significant. Additional larger studies with these markers may further elucidate their potential roles in prostatic neoplasia progression.

  16. Technique and Feasibility of a Dual Staining Method for Estrogen Receptors and AgNORs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Günther

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A new staining method for dual demonstration of Estrogen receptors (ER and argyrophilc Nucleolus‐Organizer Regions (AgNORs was developed. To rule out possible reciprocal effects, serial slides of 10 invasive ductale breast cancers were stained with either the single staining method or the simultaneous ER/AgNOR‐staining method and investigated comparatively. By measuring the slides with the image analysis system AMBA, reciprocal effects could be excluded. It was proven that dual staining of both markers results in a reproducible and specific staining result. We concluded that it is justified to measure AgNORs in immunohistochemically stained cells.

  17. Uniform staining of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal smears by a modified safranin technique with microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvesvara, G S; Moura, H; Kovacs-Nace, E; Wallace, S; Eberhard, M L

    1997-03-01

    Cyclospora, a coccidian protist, is increasingly being identified as an important, newly emerging parasite that causes diarrhea, flatulence, fatigue, and abdominal pain leading to weight loss in immunocompetent persons with or without a recent travel history as well as in patients with AIDS. Modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain is the most commonly used stain to identify the oocyst of this parasite in fecal smears. Oocysts of Cyclospora stain variably by the modified acid-fast procedure, resulting in the possible misidentification of this parasite. We examined fecal smears stained by six different procedures that included Giemsa, trichrome, chromotrope, Gram-chromotrope, acid-fast, and safranin stains. We report on safranin-based stain that uniformly stains oocysts of Cyclospora a brilliant reddish orange, provided that the fecal smears are heated in a microwave oven prior to staining. This staining procedure, besides being superior to acid-fast staining, is fast, reliable, and easy to perform in most clinical laboratories.

  18. The effect of corrosion on stained glass windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laissner, Johanna

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Stained glass windows belong to the most important cultural heritage of Europe. Within the last decades a disastrous deterioration took place. The wonderful stained glass windows and their glass paintings as pieces of art are acutely menaced by environmental corrosive influences. This corrosion process is a very complex reaction which is not only influenced by temperature and humidity changes but also by gaseous pollutants like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or ozone, by dust and air, microorganisms as well as synergetic interactions. Strongly affected by these environmental attacks are medieval stained glasses due to their chemical composition. They have a low content in silica and high contents of modifier ions (e.g. potassium and calcium. The corrosion phenomena can range from predominantly pitting on the surface to the formation of thick corrosion crusts which are turning the panel opaque and thus reducing strongly the transparency of the windows. In order to set up a conservation and restoration concept, it is necessary to know about the environmental conditions to which the stained glass windows are exposed. For this purpose very corrosion sensitive model glasses (so called glass sensors were developed which have a similar chemical composition as historic stained glasses. They exhibit the same corrosion reactions but react much faster, and are now widely used to estimate corrosive stresses on stained glass windows to give basic information about the corrosive impacts which work on the historic glasses. In this paper principle corrosion mechanisms of stained glass windows and their enhancing factors are discussed. For the evaluation of the environmental impact, the application of glass sensors is demonstrated.

    Las vidrieras coloreadas pertenecen al legado cultural más importante de Europa. En las últimas décadas se ha producido en ellas un desastroso deterioro. Las maravillosas vidrieras coloreadas y sus policromías est

  19. Occurrence of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii (Lankester, 1880) (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) in a calcareous lake in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,William Marcos; Roche, Kennedy Francis

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii (=sowerbyi) Lankester, 1880 was recorded in April 2006 in the Lagoa Misteriosa water body, a calcareous lake (doline) in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Only Rotifera composed the zooplankton community was composed only of Rotifera and the environment was meso-eutrophic system. The nomenclature of C. sowerbii is discussed with regard to the use of the correct spelling and an alternative one. The distributions of C. sowerbii i...

  20. A new hypogean Trechus Clairville (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechini) discovered in a non-calcareous Superficial Subterranean Habitat of the Iberian System (Central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Vicente M; Cuesta, Eva; Gilgado, José D; Ledesma, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    A new hypogean species of Trechus Clairville, Trechus arrecheai sp. nov., is described from the Iberian Peninsula. It was captured by subterranean pitfall traps in a non-calcareous Superficial Subterranean Habitat from the Moncayo Massif (Zaragoza, Spain). Data on the accompanying fauna are provided and the biogeographical implications of this discovery are discussed. A synthesis of the data about the known distribution of the Trechus angusticollis species group is provided.

  1. Spatial distribution of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts in surface sediments of the Atlantic Ocean between 13 degrees N and 36 degrees S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld; Brune; Willems

    2000-09-01

    To enhance the limited information available about the palaeo-ecological significance of calcareous dinoflagellates, we have studied their lateral distribution in surface sediments of the equatorial and south Atlantic between 13 degrees N and 36 degrees S. Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts appear to be widely distributed throughout the studied area. In the surface sediments, concentrations (cyst per gram dry sediment) of the vegetative stage Thoracosphaera heimii are generally higher than that of the (presumably) calcareous resting cysts. Distribution patterns in surface sediments of Orthopithonella granifera (Fütterer) Keupp and Versteegh, Rhabdothorax spp. Kamptner., Sphaerodinella albatrosiana (Kamptner) Keupp and Versteegh S. albatrosiana praratabulated, Sphaerodinella tuberosa var. 1 (Kamptner) Keupp and Versteegh and S. tuberosa var. 2 and the ratios between these species have been compared with temperature, salinity, density and stratification gradients in the upper water column. Rhabdothorax spp. is characteristically present in sediments of more temperate regions characterized by high seasonality. Dinoflagellates producing these cysts are able to tolerate high nutrient concentrations, and mixing of the water column. S. albatrosiana is abundant in regions characterized by high sea surface temperatures and oligotrophic surface water conditions. In contrast, the distribution of S. tuberosa var. 2 is negatively related to temperature. The other cyst species did not show a characteristic pattern in relation to the studied environmental gradients.The ratio of Sphaerodinella tuberosa var. 2 to Orthopithonella granifera can be used for reconstructing the presence of stratification in the upper 50m of the water column, whereas the ratios of S. tuberosa var. 2 to Sphaerodinella albatrosiana and of O. granifera to Rhabdothorax spp. might be used for palaeotemperature reconstructions. Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts are abundant in oligotrophic areas and may be useful

  2. Distributions and fluorochrome-staining properties of submicrometer particles and bacteria in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieracki, Michael E.; Viles, Charles L.

    1992-11-01

    Sub-micrometer particles have recently been shown to exist in marine water at concentrations exceeding 10 7 particles ml -1. Their presence has important implications for ocean optics, global biogeochemical models and trophic relationships in the microbial food web. Small particles that were stainable by Acridine Orange (AO) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) were enumerated and sized using a quantitative fluorescence microscopy imaging system along an onshore-offshore transect from the mouth of Chesapeake Bay to the Sargasso Sea. The particles were characterized by staining with DAPI, a stain specific for double-stranded DNA and generally indicative of a living cell or viral particle, and AO, a more general bio-polymer stain indicative of organic matter. Two distinct particle populations were measured in the 0.2-1.0 μm size range: (1) typical bacteria; and (2) abundant small, dimly fluorescing (SD) particles. Surface concentrations of organic (AO-staining), SD particles ranged from 3×10 7 ml -1 near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay to 4×10 6 ml -1 in the Sargasso Sea. A variable proportion of the SD particles were DAPI-positive, probably very small bacteria and viruses. The DAPI-positive SD particles constituted 9-29% of the total organic SD particles at coastal and shelf stations, and 25-61% in a vertical profile in oligotrophic waters. The vertical distribution of SD particles in oligotrophic waters showed higher numbers in the surface layer and lower numbers below the sub-surface chlorophyll maximum, suggesting an association of the particles with biological productivity. Our carbon estimates, based on measured particle size spectra and abundances, and reasonable values for particle carbon density, agree with recent measurements of bulk elemental particulate carbon in the 0.2-0.7 μm size fraction in the Sargasso Sea. The particle volume ml -1 of the total SD particles ranged from equal to twice the bacterial biovolume ml -1, indicating a significant carbon

  3. Living Nanomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  4. Environmental perturbations at the early Eocene ETM2, H2, and I1 events as inferred by Tethyan calcareous plankton (Terche section, northeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Roberta; Luciani, Valeria; Fornaciari, Eliana; Giusberti, Luca; Boscolo Galazzo, Flavia; Dallanave, Edoardo; Westerhold, Thomas; Sprovieri, Mario; Telch, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    Several early Eocene hyperthermals have been recently investigated and characterized in terms of temperature anomalies and oceanographic changes. The effects of these climatic perturbations on biotic communities are much less constrained. Here we present new records from the Terche section (northeastern Italy) that, for the first time, integrates data on planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils across three post-Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). The biomagnetostratigraphic framework generated at Terche allows us to confidently relate such CIEs to the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2), H2, and I1 events. Each of these events coincides with lithological anomalies characterized by significantly lower calcium carbonate content (marly units, MUs). We interpret these MUs as mainly linked to an effect of increased terrigenous dilution, as dissolution proxies do not display significant variations. Calcareous plankton assemblages change significantly across these events and radiolarians increase. Observed changes suggest that transient warming and environmental perturbations, though more intense during ETM2, occurred during each of the three investigated perturbations. Variations among calcareous plankton suggest increase in surface-water eutrophication with respect to the pre-event conditions, coupled with a weakening of the upper water-column thermal stratification. Higher nutrient discharge was related to intensification of the hydrological cycle as a consequence of the warmer climate. These conditions persisted during the early CIE recovery, implying slower recovery rates for the environment and biota than for the carbon cycle.

  5. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  6. Field application of mycorrhizal bio-inoculants affects the mineral uptake of a forage legume (Hedysarum coronarium L.) on a highly calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, S; Jeddi, F Ben; Tisserant, B; Yousfi, M; Sanaa, M; Dalpé, Y; Sahraoui, A Lounès-Hadj

    2015-05-01

    The efficiency of two mycorrhizal bio-inoculants on the mineral uptake during the growth stages of a Mediterranean forage legume sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) was studied in the field on a highly calcareous soil. The first inoculum (Mm) was made up of a mixture of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolated from calcareous soils: Septoglomus constrictum, Funneliformis geosporum, Glomus fuegianum, Rhizophagus irregularis and Glomus sp. The second was a commercial inoculum (Mi) containing one AMF species: R. irregularis. Both mycorrhizal inoculants increased total and arbuscular colonization of sulla roots. Inoculation with Mm showed a positive effect on sulla shoot dry weight (SDW) when compared to Mi and non-inoculated plants (control). Mineral contents (P, Mg, Mn, Fe) were higher in the shoots of sulla plants cultivated on mycorrhiza-inoculated plots compared to non-inoculated ones. This enhancement was observed during the flowering stage for P, Mg and Mn and during the rosette stage for Fe. An increase in P content of 50 % in plants inoculated with Mm compared to non-inoculated ones may be explained by the induction of root alkaline and acid phosphatase activities. Higher efficiency of native AMF species adapted to calcareous soils opens the way towards the development of mycorrhiza bio-fertilizers targeted to improve sustainable fertilization management in such soils.

  7. Accumulation of FlAsH/Lumio Green in active mitochondria can be reversed by beta-mercaptoethanol for specific staining of tetracysteine-tagged proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorst, Matthias F; Genisyuerek, Selda; Stuermer, Claudia A O

    2006-06-01

    Recent advances in the field of small molecule labels for live cell imaging promise to overcome some of the limitations set by the size of fluorescent proteins. We tested the tetracysteine-biarsenical labeling system in live cell fluorescence microscopy of reggie-1/flotillin-2 in HeLa and N2a cells. In both cell types, the biarsenical staining reagent FlAsH/Lumio Green accumulated in active mitochondria and led to mitochondrial swelling. This is indicative of toxic side effects caused by arsenic, which should be considered when this labeling system is to be used in live cell imaging. Mitochondrial accumulation of FlAsH/Lumio Green was reversed by addition of low concentrations of thiol-containing reagents during labeling and a subsequent high stringency thiol wash. Both ethanedithiol and beta-mercaptoethanol proved to be effective. We therefore established a staining protocol using beta-mercaptoethanol as thiol binding site competitor resulting in a specific staining of tetracysteine-tagged reggie-1/flotillin-2 of adequate signal to noise ratio, so that the more toxic and inconvenient ethanedithiol could be avoided. Furthermore, we show that staining efficiency was greatly enhanced by introducing a second tetracysteine sequence in tandem.

  8. Last occurrence of Abathomphalus mayaroensis (Bolli foraminiferid index of the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary: the calcareous nannofossil proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kędzierski Mariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Gaj section (Polish Carpathians, Skole Nappe, Ropianka Formation, the Late Maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy is compared with foraminiferal zonation based on the occurrence of the planktonic foraminiferid index species Abathomphalus mayaroensis. It appears that the LO of A. mayaroensis, which has been used previously in the studied section as the possible K/Pg boundary indicator is located below the boundary. The disappearance of A. mayaroensis along with other planktonic foraminiferids before the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K/Pg boundary mass extinction event may be a consequence of the Late Maastrichtian rapid warming pulses. Moreover, the Paleogene age cannot be supported by the FO of the benthic foraminiferid Rzehakina fissistomata, because it first appears together with the nannofossil Ceratolithoides kamptneri (zonal marker for the latest Maastrichtian UC20cTP Zone. According to the present study, the whole studied section represents the lower Upper to the upper Upper Maastrichtian UC20bTP and UC20cTP nannofossil zones, so that it corresponds to the lower-middle part of the planktonic foraminiferal A. mayaroensis Zone, which, according to the scheme by Caron (1985, should extend up to the K/Pg boundary.

  9. Biostratigrafia a foraminiferi del Cretaceo Superiore della successione di Parco Priore (Calcare di Altamura, Piattaforma Apula, Italia Meridionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Spalluto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the biostratigraphic analysis of an Upper Cretaceous 57 m-thick stratigraphicsedimentary succession outcropping in a quarry at Parco Priore, near the city of Altamura in theMurge (Southern Italy.In the studied area the Upper Cretaceous shallow water carbonate successions represent restrictedfacies deposited in inner shelf settings within the Apulian Platform (sensu D’Argenio, 1974. Duringthe Mesozoic, the Apulian Platform was one of the peri-adriatic platforms (D’Argenio, 1974 localizedalong the southern margin of the Tethys. These platforms have been often compared to the presentdayBahamas islands for their general shape, size, subsidence rates as well as their inner platformarchitecture (Bernoulli, 2001.The studied sedimentary succession, belonging to the Calcare di Altamura formation, is mainlycharacterised by bedded white-reddish bioclastic, often re-crystallised or dolomitised, mudstones/wackestones. White-grey calcarenitic and calcisiltitic bedded limestones and thin bedded palaeosoillevels are also present. The micropalaeontological assemblage is dominated by benthic foraminifers(Accordiella conica, Cuneolina pavonia, Moncharmontia apenninica, Minouxia conica, Rotorbinellascarsellai, Dicyclina schlumbergeri, Murgeina apula, Cuneolina spp., Pseudolituonella sp.,Aeolisaccus kotori, miliolids, textularids and dasycladacean algae (mainly Thaumatoporellaparvovesiculifera.This benthic association allows to refer the Parco Priore succession to the Coniacian‒lowerCampanian time interval. Sedimentological, lithological and micropalaeontological characteristicsof the studied succession point to a low-energy inner carbonate platform setting with occasional subaerialexposures.

  10. Assessing the mobility of lead, copper and cadmium in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-11-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu.

  11. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

  12. Interactions between plant species and earthworm casts in a calcareous grassland under elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaller, J.G.; Arnone, J.A. III [Univ. Basel (Switzerland). Botanisches Inst.

    1999-04-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that the spatial proximity of a plant species to nutrient-rich earthworm casts (e.g., 100% more ammonium and 30% more phosphate than in adjacent soil) is an important determinant of a plant`s responsiveness to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. In 1995 the authors mapped the location of both earthworm surface casts and plants in each of 16 1.2-m{sup 2} plots in a species-rich calcareous grassland in northwestern Switzerland. Eight plots have been maintained under current ambient CO{sub 2} concentrations and eight have been maintained at elevated CO{sub 2} since March 1994. In addition, total ramet production of each species, as a measure of performance, and cumulative cast production at each location (cell) were recorded at peak community biomass in 1995. Plant species within functional groups differed markedly in their degree of association with casts; however, after two growing seasons elevated CO{sub 2} had no effect on plant species or functional group associations with casts. No statistically significant relationship could be demonstrated between plant-species response to elevated CO{sub 2} and the degree of association with casts within any of the functional groups. However, a positive relationship was observed between the mean response of graminoid species to elevated CO{sub 2} and their mean degree of association with surface casts at ambient CO{sub 2}.

  13. EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of contaminated calcareous soils: heavy metal bioavailability, extractability, and uptake by maize and sesbania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Vishandas; Memon, Kazi Suleman; Mahmood-ul-Hassan, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Natural and chemically enhanced phytoextraction potentials of maize (Zea mays L.) and sesbania (Sesbania aculeata Willd.) were explored by growing them on two soils contaminated with heavy metals. The soils, Gujranwala (fine, loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Udic Haplustalf) and Pacca (fine, mixed, hyperthermic Ustollic Camborthid), were amended with varying amounts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelating agent, at 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mM kg(-1) soil to enhance metal solubility. The EDTA was applied in two split applications at 46 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). The plants were harvested at 75 DAS. Addition of EDTA significantly increased the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in roots and shoots, uptake, bioconcentration factor, and phytoextraction rate over the control. Furthermore, addition of EDTA also significantly increased the soluble fractions of Pb and Cd in soil over the controls; the maximum increase of Pb and Cd was 13.1-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, with addition of 5.0 mM EDTA kg(-1)soil. Similarly, the maximum Pb and Cd root and shoot concentrations, translocation, bioconcentration, and phytoextraction efficiency were observed at 5.0 mM EDTA kg(-1) soil. The results suggest that both crops can successfully be used for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated calcareous soils.

  14. Pyrite and pyritic mill tailing as a source of iron in a calcareous iron-deficient soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrau, E.M.; Berg, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mill wastes from ore processing, particularly acid-forming pyrites, often pose disposal problems. This greenhouse study evaluated pyrite and a pyritic mill tailing as Fe sources on an Fe-deficient calcareous soil. Pyrite and tailing <0.1 mm in diameter were applied at rates of 45 and 135 metric ton/ha. Controls, 200 and 600 ppM Fe as Fe/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ and 5 and 15 ppM Fe as FeEDDHA, were used as standards. The treatments were seeded with sudangrass (Sorghum vulgare sudanense) and six successive crops were harvested. Sudangrass yields increased 160 to 200% with pyrite and tailing treatments; these yields were significantly greater than the control and were comparable to yields from the other Fe sources. The 5 ppM FeEDDHA treatment, however, increased yield for only the first two crops. Plant-available soil Fe measured by DTPA extraction increased with all Fe treatments, while the levels of DTPA-extractable Zn and Mn remained the same or increased slightly. DTPA-extractable Cu doubled with the high rate of pyrite addition. The concentration of Fe in the plants remained the same or increased slightly with the Fe treatments, while concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn all decreased.

  15. AUthigenic feldspar as an indicator of paleo-rock/water interactions in Permian carbonates of the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotl, C.; Kralik, M.; Kunk, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Dolostones interbedded with Upper Permian evaporites at the base of the Northern Calcareous Alps contain abundant authigenic K-feldspar. Two petrographically, structurally, and isotopically distinct generations of K-feldspar can be distinguished: crystals composed of an inclusion-rich core and a clear rim, and optically unzoned, transparent crystals. Both feldspar types have essentially identical K-feldspar end-member compositions with ??? 99.5 mole % Or component. Low oxygen isotope ratios (+16.1??? to +18.1??? SMOW) suggest precipitation from 18O-enriched, saline fluids at temperatures in excess of ??? 140??C. 40Ar/39Ar plateau-age spectra of five samples range from 145 ?? 1 to 144 ?? 1 Ma (Early Berriasian) and suggest that both types of feldspar were formed within an interval that did not exceed ??? 2 m.y. Rb/Sr model ages range from 152 to 140 Ma, assuming that the burial diagenetic regime was buffered with respect to strontium by the associated marine Permian evaporites. Authigenic K-feldspar records two distinct events of hot brine flow, most likely triggered by tectonic movements (detachment) and by an increase in the subsurface temperature in response to thrust loading.

  16. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbain Fifi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb, copper (Cu and Cadmium (Cd during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti. Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax, the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu.

  17. Laboratory studies on the consolidation and protection of calcareous materials in the Cathedral of Oviedo. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, Carlota

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of some consolidating and protecting products, to be applied to the deteriorated calcareous stones of the Cathedral of Oviedo, is presented. A proposed procedure and methodology for evaluating that suitability is also described. The studied stones, limestones and dolomites, have been experimentally subjected in laboratory to some treatment products: ethyl silicate, oligomeric silane and silicon resin. Some physical properties of those stones were evaluated before and after the treatments with the mentioned products. Those properties (porosity, water absorption, compressive strength and deformability, mechanical microfissuration threshold, acoustic emission, etc. were selected according to the significative role they play on the process of stone alteration or in supporting the proposed conclusions.

    Se presenta una metodología de trabajo encaminada a evaluar la idoneidad de ciertos productos consolidantes y protectores aplicados a piedras monumentales deterioradas. Para ello, en esta 1.ª parte, se determinan una serie de propiedades físicas, antes y después de aplicar los tratamientos. Dichas propiedades han sido seleccionadas por su incidencia en los mecanismos de alteración. Las piedras ensayadas proceden de la Catedral de Oviedo, son rocas calcáreas: calizas y dolomías. Los productos de tratamiento empleados han sido: silicato de etilo, silano oligomérico y resina silicónica. Se concluye con la comparación de las variaciones en las propiedades determinadas, antes y después del tratamiento, según el producto empleado.

  18. The Understanding of the Metazoan Skeletal System, Based on the Initial Discoveries with Siliceous and Calcareous Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E. G. Müller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by studies on the mechanism of formation of the skeletons of the evolutionary oldest still extant multicellular animals, the sponges (phylum Porifera have provided new insights into the mechanism of formation of the Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite skeleton of vertebrate bone. Studies on the formation of the biomineral skeleton of sponges revealed that both the formation of the inorganic siliceous skeletons (sponges of the class of Hexactinellida and Demospongiae and of the calcareous skeletons (class of Calcarea is mediated by enzymes (silicatein: polymerization of biosilica; and carbonic anhydrase: deposition of Ca-carbonate. Detailed studies of the initial mineralization steps in human bone-forming cells showed that this process is also controlled by enzymes, starting with the deposition of Ca-carbonate bio-seeds, mediated by carbonic anhydrases-II and -IX, followed by non-enzymatic transformation of the formed amorphous Ca-carbonate deposits into amorphous Ca-phosphate and finally hydroxyapatite crystals. The required phosphate is provided by enzymatic (alkaline phosphatase-mediated degradation of an inorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP, which also acts as a donor for chemically useful energy in this process. These new discoveries allow the development of novel biomimetic strategies for treatment of bone diseases and defects.

  19. The Understanding of the Metazoan Skeletal System, Based on the Initial Discoveries with Siliceous and Calcareous Sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E. G.; Schröder, Heinz C.; Wang, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Initiated by studies on the mechanism of formation of the skeletons of the evolutionary oldest still extant multicellular animals, the sponges (phylum Porifera) have provided new insights into the mechanism of formation of the Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite skeleton of vertebrate bone. Studies on the formation of the biomineral skeleton of sponges revealed that both the formation of the inorganic siliceous skeletons (sponges of the class of Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) and of the calcareous skeletons (class of Calcarea) is mediated by enzymes (silicatein: polymerization of biosilica; and carbonic anhydrase: deposition of Ca-carbonate). Detailed studies of the initial mineralization steps in human bone-forming cells showed that this process is also controlled by enzymes, starting with the deposition of Ca-carbonate bio-seeds, mediated by carbonic anhydrases-II and -IX, followed by non-enzymatic transformation of the formed amorphous Ca-carbonate deposits into amorphous Ca-phosphate and finally hydroxyapatite crystals. The required phosphate is provided by enzymatic (alkaline phosphatase-mediated) degradation of an inorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP), which also acts as a donor for chemically useful energy in this process. These new discoveries allow the development of novel biomimetic strategies for treatment of bone diseases and defects. PMID:28604622

  20. The Understanding of the Metazoan Skeletal System, Based on the Initial Discoveries with Siliceous and Calcareous Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Wang, Xiaohong

    2017-06-12

    Initiated by studies on the mechanism of formation of the skeletons of the evolutionary oldest still extant multicellular animals, the sponges (phylum Porifera) have provided new insights into the mechanism of formation of the Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite skeleton of vertebrate bone. Studies on the formation of the biomineral skeleton of sponges revealed that both the formation of the inorganic siliceous skeletons (sponges of the class of Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) and of the calcareous skeletons (class of Calcarea) is mediated by enzymes (silicatein: polymerization of biosilica; and carbonic anhydrase: deposition of Ca-carbonate). Detailed studies of the initial mineralization steps in human bone-forming cells showed that this process is also controlled by enzymes, starting with the deposition of Ca-carbonate bio-seeds, mediated by carbonic anhydrases-II and -IX, followed by non-enzymatic transformation of the formed amorphous Ca-carbonate deposits into amorphous Ca-phosphate and finally hydroxyapatite crystals. The required phosphate is provided by enzymatic (alkaline phosphatase-mediated) degradation of an inorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP), which also acts as a donor for chemically useful energy in this process. These new discoveries allow the development of novel biomimetic strategies for treatment of bone diseases and defects.

  1. Effects of organic amendments and irrigation waters on the physical and chemical properties of two calcareous soils in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, E; Grieve, I C; Madany, I M

    1994-04-01

    The present investigation studies the effects of cow and chicken manure and sewage sludge at different rates of addition and with two irrigation waters of different salinities on two major calcareous soils in Bahrain. The aim was to quantify potential improvements in soil quality, the accumulation of trace metals, and quality of leachates.From the pot experiments it was found that soil waterholding capacity did not change significantly after addition of organic amendments, except in the case of sewage sludge. Total organic carbon and total Kjeldhal nitrogen content increased in the 0-5 cm layer. Low salinity water and sewage applications improved aggregate stability. Extractable phosphorus was enhanced by the chicken manure treatment more than others. Addition of different organic amendments did not affect exchangeable cations. pH values did not show appreciable changes and soils were neutral. Trace metals studied were present at non-toxic levels in the 0-5 cm layer. Zinc and copper were the only metal showing a tendency to leach to the lower soil layer. In all cases metal levels in the surface layer were proportional to the quantities added in the amendments and their levels in the leachate were very low.

  2. Linkage between N2O emission and functional gene abundance in an intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ju, Xiaotang

    2017-02-01

    The linkage between N2O emissions and the abundance of nitrifier and denitrifier genes is unclear in the intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soils of the North China Plain. We investigated the abundance of bacterial amoA for nitrification and narG, nirS, nirK, and nosZ for denitrification by in situ soil sampling to determine how the abundance of these genes changes instantly during N fertilization events and is related to high N2O emission peaks. We also investigated how long-term incorporated straw and/or manure affect(s) the abundance of these genes based on a seven-year field experiment. The overall results demonstrate that the long-term application of urea-based fertilizer and/or manure significantly enhanced the number of bacterial amoA gene copies leading to high N2O emission peaks after N fertilizer applications. These peaks contributed greatly to the annual N2O emissions in the crop rotation. A significant correlation between annual N2O emissions and narG, nirS, and nirK gene numbers indicates that the abundance of these genes is related to N2O emission under conditions for denitrification, thus partly contributing to the annual N2O emissions. These findings will help to draw up appropriate measures for mitigation of N2O emissions in this ‘hotspot’ region.

  3. Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae—Mediated Uptake and Translocation of P and Zn by Wheat in Calcareous Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUSHIHUA; T.B.GOH; 等

    1997-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal(VMA) fungi have been credited with improving the growth and mineral nutritons of many host plants but these effects are moderated by soil factors and nutrient balance.The combined effects of VAM,Zn and P application on the growth and translocation of nutrients in wheat were investigated using a calcareous soil marginal in P and Zn concentrations.Wheat was grown in a growth chamber under various combinations of VAM,P and Zn with measurements done at heading stage and maturity,Vegetative dry matter accumlation was increased by P application and reduced by VAM treatments.Both P and VAM increased grain yield.Zince oncentration and uptake were generally reduced by P addition and VAM infection,There were no antagonistic effects of Zn on P acquisition in the plant,The role of VAM in enhancing the translocation of Zn and P from root to grain would be beneficial to seed setting and yield.

  4. A study on zinc distribution in calcareous soils for cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) and barely ( Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Maleki, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Compared to other cereals, such as wheat and barley cultivars which have low sensitivity to Zn deficiency, cowpea is sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency, however it extensively grows even in soils with deficient in Zn. A 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of cowpea and barely to Zn in calcareous soils with different DTPA- Zn. The soil samples were taken from soil surface up to 0.3 m in which their DTPA- Zn ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 mg kg-1. Shoot dry matter, concentration and uptake of Zn were found to be significantly correlated with soil DTPA- Zn in cowpea and barely. Critical deficiency level of Zn in cowpea was 1.3 mg kg-1 in soil and 28.5 mg kg-1 in shoot dry matter, however, to barely symptoms of Zn deficiency was not observed and concentration of Zn was higher than the critical level reported in literatures. Organic carbon (OC), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), pH and field capacity soil moisture content(FC) were significantly correlated with plant responses to Zn which were the most influenced characteristics to Zn uptake by plants.

  5. Optimizing Available Phosphorus in Calcareous Soils Fertilized with Diammonium Phosphate and Phosphoric Acid Using Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms ( were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L−1 were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with . Moreover, at all the levels of , P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L−1, compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation.

  6. Optimizing available phosphorus in calcareous soils fertilized with diammonium phosphate and phosphoric acid using Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Asif; Akhtar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aC(b/a)) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L(-1)) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L(-1), compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation.

  7. Effect of Long-Term Fertilization on Organic Nitrogen Forms in a Calcareous Alluvial Soil on the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to illustrate the change of nitrogen (N) supply capacity after long-term application of manure and chemical fertilizer, as well as to properly manage soil fertility through fertilizer application under the soil-climatic conditions of the North China Plain, organic N forms were quantified in the topsoil with different manure and chemical fertilizer treatments in a 15-year fertilizer experiment in a Chinese calcareous alluvial soil Soil total N (TN) and various organic N forms were significantly influenced by long-term application of chemical fertilizer and manure. TN, total hydrolysable N, acid-insoluble N, amino acid N and ammonium N in the soil increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing manure and fertilizer N rates, but were not influenced by increasing P rates. Also, application of manure or N fertilizer or P fertilizer did not significantly influence either the quantity of amino sugar N or its proportion of TN. Application of manure significantly increased (P < 0.05) hydrolysable unknown N, but adding N or P did not. In addition, application of manure or N fertilizer or P fertilizer did not significantly influence the proportions of different soil organic N forms.

  8. IMPACT OF MECONIUM STAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID ON EARLY NEONATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To find out the incidence, neonatal outcome and associated maternal antepartum & intrapartum risk factors of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF. DESIGN: Prospective St udy. SETTINGS: Neonatal Unit of Hospital and PNC Ward. SUBJECTS & METHODS: Prospective Study was conducted including 100 babies born with meconium stained amniotic fluid who are admitted in NICU and with mother in PNC ward in a period of six months (April 2012 - October 2012 excluding those who born with congenital abnormalities. Detail history of babies and mother with MSAF noted with emphasis on antepartum and intrapartum risk factors and outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Incidence of M SAF in the study was 8. 98%. Out of 100, 24 babies were admitted to NICU with most common indications being birth asphyxia (16% and Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS (6%. Majority babies were delivered through thin Meconium Stained Liquor (MSL (44% fo llowed by thick (35% and moderate (21%. Total number of deaths were 9 and all these babies had thick meconium with severe birth asphyxia. Ninety one babies were born at >37 weeks of gestation and 57 had birth weight over 2. 5 Kg. Nineteen percent were no n vigorous requiring tracheal suctioning and positive pressure ventilation at birth. Common mode of delivery was emergency Cesarean in 83% patients. Common maternal and fetal risk factors were fetal distress (30% followed by Oligohydramnios (30%, Pregnan cy induced hypertension (PIH (24%, anemia (14%, severe anemia (5%, Antepartum hemorrhage (4% and Antepartum eclampsia (4%. CONCLUSIONS: Oligohydramnios, PIH, anemia and fetal distress were common antenatal and intranatal factors associated with MSAF. Major morbidity and indication for NICU admission was Birth asphyxia and non vigorous babies. Mortality rate was 9% which is commonly associated with thick meconium and severe birth asphyxia.

  9. Composite resin susceptibility to red wine staining after water sorption

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Color stability of restorative materials is essential for longevity of esthetic composite restoration over time. The aim of this investigation was assess the effect of prior water immersion on the color stability of a composite resin to red wine staining. Seventy disc-shaped specimens (6 mm x 1.5 mm) were carried out and randomized in 7 groups (n = 10), according to distilled water immersion time at 0 (control), 24, 48, 72,120,192, and 240 h. Baseline color was measured according to the CIE L...

  10. Machine vision system for automated detection of stained pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tom C.

    1995-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to separate stained pistachio nuts, which comprise of about 5% of the California crop, from unstained nuts. The system may be used to reduce labor involved with manual grading or to remove aflatoxin contaminated product from low grade process streams. The system was tested on two different pistachio process streams: the bi- chromatic color sorter reject stream and the small nut shelling stock stream. The system had a minimum overall error rate of 14% for the bi-chromatic sorter reject stream and 15% for the small shelling stock stream.

  11. DAPI staining and fluorescence microscopy techniques for phytoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Nancy M; Arismendi, Nolberto L

    2013-01-01

    The 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stain technique is a simple method that was developed for confirming the presence of phytoplasmas in hand-cut or freezing microtome sections of infected tissues. DAPI binds AT-rich DNA preferentially, so that phytoplasmas, localized among phloem cells, can be visualized in a fluorescence microscope. The procedure is quick, easy to use, inexpensive, and can be used as a preliminary or quantitative method to detect or quantify phytoplasma-like bodies in infected plants.

  12. Indirect porcelain veneer technique for restoring intrinsically stained teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, S T

    1992-01-01

    Indirect porcelain veneers are often the ideal restoration for intrinsically stained teeth. This article details a step-by-step procedure for esthetically restoring discolored teeth. Porcelain laminate veneers are often indicated when teeth bleaching or direct composite bonding procedures cannot provide the desired esthetic result. Veneers are more appealing to many patients than full coverage crowns because of the more conservative tooth preparation required. If technique details are followed meticulously and cases are appropriately selected, porcelain veneers are not only durable but also promote marvelous gingival health and may be the most esthetic anterior dental restoration.

  13. Improved avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattoretti, G; Berti, E; Schiró, R; D'Amato, L; Valeggio, C; Rilke, F

    1988-02-01

    A considerable intensification of the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex staining system (ABC) was obtained by sequentially overlaying the sections to be immunostained with an avidin-rich and a biotin-rich complex. Each sequential addition contributed to the deposition of horseradish peroxidase on the immunostained site and allowed the subsequent binding of a complementary complex. With this technique a higher dilution of the antisera could be used and minute amounts of antigen masked by the fixative could be demonstrated on paraffin sections.

  14. Photodynamic therapy of port wine stain: preliminary clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. Stuart

    1993-07-01

    The broad, long term objective of this work is the development of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for application in the clinical management of patients with port wine stain (PWS). PDT involves the use of an exogenous drug which is concentrated in a targeted tissue. When irradiated at wavelengths specifically absorbed by the drug, selective destruction of the targeted tissue, without the production of heat, occurs. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate in human PWS patients that a photosensitizer, such as PHOTOFRINR, activated by red light at the appropriate therapeutic wavelength, can cause destruction of subsurface blood vessels in the skin with a high degree of specificity, and further study appears warranted.

  15. Introduction of impermeable actin-staining molecules to mammalian cells by optoporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Kamal; Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2014-10-15

    The selective insertion of foreign materials, such as fluorescent markers or plasmids, into living cells has been a challenging problem in cell biology due to the cell membrane's selective permeability. However, it is often necessary that researchers insert such materials into cells for various dynamical and/or drug delivery studies. This problem becomes even more challenging if the study is to be limited to specific cells within a larger population, since other transfection methods, such as viral transfection and lipofection, are not realizable with a high degree of spatial selectivity. Here, we have used a focused femtosecond laser beam to create a small transient hole in the cellular membrane (optoporation) in order to inject nanomolar concentrations of rhodamine phalloidin (an impermeable dye molecule for staining filamentous actin) into targeted living mammalian cells (both HEK and primary cortical neurons). Following optoporation, the dye bound to the intracellular actin network and rise in fluorescence intensity was observed. Theoretical dynamics of the dye's diffusion is discussed, and numerical simulations of diffusion time constants are found to match well with experimental values.

  16. 钙质砂颗粒内孔隙的结构特征分析%Microscopic characterization of intra-pore structures of calcareous sands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱长歧; 陈海洋; 孟庆山; 汪稔

    2014-01-01

    钙质砂是一种碳酸钙含量达50%以上的海洋生物成因的颗粒状材料。从微观结构上来看,钙质砂颗粒棱角度高、形状不规则、强度低、易破碎,且颗粒含有内孔隙。内孔隙的存在深刻影响着钙质砂的压缩、剪切和破碎等力学性能。利用激光技术对南沙群岛永暑礁环礁泻湖的未胶结钙质砂颗粒进行飞秒切割,通过光学显微镜探查并获取了颗粒的内孔隙图像,借助MATLAB图像处理软件,对钙质砂颗粒的内孔隙进行了定量分析。结果表明:较大颗粒钙质砂的内孔隙断面孔隙度相对较大,小孔隙数量较多,而大孔隙所占空间则较大;对于1 mm以上的钙质砂,缝隙状内孔隙含量远低于等轴或不等轴孔隙,等轴与不等轴内孔数量大致相等。%Calcareous sands are consisted of marine biogenic granular materials with carbonate content often greater than 50%. From the microscopic viewpoint, calcareous sand grains demonstrate highly angular and irregular in shapes and contain intra-pores. This unique intra-pore structure of calcareous sand particle is prone to crush under stress. Therefore, the calcareous sand has a relatively low strength. The intra-pore structure has a significant effect on the geotechnical properties of calcareous sands. Calcareous sand samples from the lagoon of Yongshu Reef atoll, Nansha Islands, were cut by femtosecond laser for the optical microscopic studies. The intra-pore structures were quantitatively analyzed throughout the MATLAB digital image process tool. The results indicate that, larger porosity can be found on the breakage section of larger size calcareous sand and a larger number of small pores with small total volume are in the intra-pore structure. For sand grains with a size greater than one millimeter, the number of slit shape intra-pores is far less than the number of intra-voids with equiaxed or unequal axed pores. The amount of the equiaxed and

  17. Visualizing peripheral nerve regeneration by whole mount staining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-peng Dun

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis, in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries.

  18. Common leukocyte antigen staining of a primitive sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J M; Beschorner, W E; Kuhajda, F P; deMent, S H

    1987-04-15

    A 4-year-old boy presented with symptoms of tracheal obstruction and was found to have a polypoid tracheal mass, which was studied by biopsy. Light microscopy showed a tumor composed of small cells with round to oval dark nuclei, clumped chromatin, one to two nucleoli, and small, variable amounts of indistinct pink cytoplasm. In other areas the tumor had a loose, spindle appearance, with some cells showing more elongated nuclei, and fibrillar pink cytoplasm consistent with strap cells. Cross striations were not found. Electron microscopy showed desmosomes and 7 to 10 nm cytoplasmic filaments forming dense bodies. The findings are most consistent with a primitive sarcoma, probably rhabdomyosarcoma. Immunoperoxidase with three monoclonal antibodies for common leukocyte antigen showed diffuse membraneous staining with fresh-frozen tissue. All other lymphocyte and monocyte marker studies were negative. We believe that this case of anticommon leukocyte antigen staining, a rhabdomyosarcoma, represents the first report of a false positive reaction with monoclonal antibody to common leukocyte antigen.

  19. Color stability and staining of silorane after prolonged chemical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Nata Luiz; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia;

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged chemical challenges on color stability and staining susceptibility of a silorane-based composite material when compared to methacrylate-based composites. Methods: Cylindrical specimens (n=24) were fabricated from...... methacrylate (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE; Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE; Master Fill, Biodinâmica) or silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) composite materials. Initial color was registered in a spectrophotometer. Specimens were divided in four groups and individually stored at 37°C in 0.02N citric acid, 0.02N phosphoric...... acid, 75% ethanol or distilled water (control) for 7, 14, 21, and 180 days, when new measurements were performed. A staining test was performed (n=12) after 21 days of chemical challenge by immersion in coffee during 3 weeks at 37°C. Color changes (¿E) were characterized using the CIEL*a*b* color...

  20. Analysis of surface stains on modern gold coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.; Cruz, J.

    2013-07-01

    It is a mandatory practice in the European Mint Houses to provide a certificate of guarantee of their products specially when issuing commemorative gold or silver coins. This practise should assure satisfaction and trust both for the mint house and for the demanding numismatic collector. For these reasons the Mint Houses follow a strict quality control in all the production steps in order to ensure a no-defect, fully supervised output. In spite of all the undertaken precautions, different surface stains with diverse origin on gold coins recently minted in Europe were observed. Those were compositionally studied by means of IBA techniques at the end-stage nuclear microprobe installed at IST/ITN. From this study it was possible to identify several possible sources for these stains. The presence of defects at the surface of these commemorative coins address the need of improving the quality control system and the results here presented point out where these improvements should occur, in order to reduce/eliminate them and give the customer a product that with time probably will be revalued.