WorldWideScience

Sample records for living habits diet

  1. DIETS/DIETARY HABITS AND CERTAIN GASTROINTESTINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiology Department, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State ... of diet and dietary habits including fibres, food additives and preservatives on the aetiology of gastric cancers ... beneficial effects on the G.I tract (Howe et al, ...... Food poisoning: Diseases due to .... Obakpite, P. O., Onuminya, J. E., Nwana, E. J..

  2. Living place significance for Kaunas first year university student habits

    OpenAIRE

    Pajarskaitė, Dovilė

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study: Investigate students eating habits and availability for healthy nutrition. Objectives: Compare students nutritional habits by comparing their place of living; Find out students nutritional habits that are living in student flats. also eat nearby catering places; Evaluate students that live in Kaunas city of students flats possibility to prepare meals. Methods. Data from 2010 Kohortinis European students living habits was used for Nutritional habits comparison by livi...

  3. Habitability Concept Models for Living in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrino, M.

    2002-01-01

    As growing trends show, living in "space" has acquired new meanings, especially considering the utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) with regard to group interaction as well as individual needs in terms of time, space and crew accommodations. In fact, for the crew, the Spaced Station is a combined Laboratory-Office/Home and embodies ethical, social, and cultural aspects as additional parameters to be assessed to achieve a user centered architectural design of crew workspace. Habitability Concept Models can improve the methods and techniques used to support the interior design and layout of space architectures and at the same time guarantee a human focused approach. This paper discusses and illustrates some of the results obtained for the interior design of a Habitation Module for the ISS. In this work, two different but complementary approaches are followed. The first is "object oriented" and based on Video Data (American and Russian) supported by Proxemic methods (Edward T. Hall, 1963 and Francesca Pregnolato, 1998). This approach offers flexible and adaptive design solutions. The second is "subject oriented" and based on a Virtual Reality environment. With this approach human perception and cognitive aspects related to a specific crew task are considered. Data obtained from these two approaches are used to verify requirements and advance the design of the Habitation Module for aspects related to man machine interfaces (MMI), ergonomics, work and free-time. It is expected that the results achieved can be applied to future space related projects.

  4. Eating habits of university students living at, or away from home in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Hondros, George; A Scott, Jane; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of living away from, or in, the family home on the dietary habits of a group of Greek undergraduate University students. Eighty-four undergraduates at Athens Agricultural University, aged 20-24, completed a single, self-administered food habits questionnaire that asked about their current food practices and their food practices before they started University. Students living at home did not show major changes in their eating habits since starting University. Although students living away from the family home had made some positive changes, they decreased their weekly consumption of fresh fruit, cooked and raw vegetables, oily fish, seafood, pulses and olive oil, and increased their sugar, wine, alcohol and fast food intake. Between group comparisons of dietary changes showed that since starting University, students living away from home had developed more unfavourable eating habits than students living at the family home. These findings suggest that moving away from the family home and assuming responsibility for food preparation and purchasing for the first time affect dietary habits in this sample of Greek University students. Nutrition interventions in this young population should be encouraged to promote healthier diets and lifestyles, as well as adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  5. Oral health status and diet habit of institutionalized elder group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the oral health status and diet habits of institutionalized elders in Lagos, Nigeria Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized elders in Lagos State, Nigeria. Age and sex matched non-institutionalized elderly were also ...

  6. Dietary habits in Parkinson's disease: Adherence to Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Erica; Barichella, Michela; Ferri, Valentina; Pinelli, Giovanna; Iorio, Laura; Bolliri, Carlotta; Caronni, Serena; Faierman, Samanta A; Mottolese, Antonia; Pusani, Chiara; Monajemi, Fatemeh; Pasqua, Marianna; Lubisco, Alessandro; Cereda, Emanuele; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Petroni, Maria L; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2017-09-01

    Our objective is to describe the dietary habits, food preferences and adherence to Mediterranean diet (MeDi) of a large sample of Italian Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients compared to a group of controls. Dietary habits of 600 PD patients from throughout Italy and 600 controls matched by gender, age, education, physical activity level and geographical residence, were collected using the ON-GP Food Frequency Questionnaire. Then, we compared patients by disease duration and the presence of swallowing disturbances. Overall, adherence of PD patients (males, 53.8%; mean disease duration, 9.2 ± 7.0 years) to MeDi was similar to controls (score, 4.8 ± 1.7 vs. 4.9 ± 1.6; P = 0.294). Patients consumed less alcohol and fish and drank significantly less water, coffee, and milk which resulted also in lower total fluids intake. On the contrary, they ate more fruit, cooked vegetables, cereals and baked items, more dressings and more sweets in general. Disease duration was associated with increased intake of several food groups but it was not associated with changes in MeDi score (P = 0.721). Patients with swallowing disturbances (n = 72) preferred softer and more viscous food but preferences did not result in differences in dietary pattern. However, patients with dysphagia drank less fluids (P = 0.043). PD patients presented different dietary habits and food preferences compared to the general population and adherence to MeDi was not associated with disease duration. Self-reported dysphagia was associated with reduced intake of fluids. These aspects may be amenable to change in order to improve the management of nutritional issues in this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to diet priming images as cues to reduce the influence of unhealthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Shoji

    2017-02-01

    A key barrier to changing unhealthy eating habits is the current food-rich environment. Today, there are many palatable food cues that trigger unhealthy eating habits, and once a habit is strongly engrained, it becomes very difficult to change. This research examined the effects of diet priming that is a type of cueing intervention that activates a dieting goal in a tempting situation and thus reduces unhealthy eating behavior in line with the dieting goal. This research was conducted both in a laboratory and in two field experiments. In the three experiments, participants were randomly assigned to conditions where they were either primed by an image of a slim model associated with dieting (priming condition) or were presented with an image of an animal unrelated to dieting (control condition). The dependent variable was the number of snacks that participants took in the laboratory in Study 1 and the number of snacks consumed within the next two weeks in a daily setting in Study 2 and 3. The three studies showed that unhealthy eating habits strongly affect general eating behavior. However, in this research, diet priming changed the influence of unhealthy eating habits and resulted in the decrease of unhealthy eating. Exposure to diet priming cues moderated the influence of unhealthy eating habits triggered by palatable food cues in today's food-rich environment. These findings suggest that diet priming can change habitual reactions to temptations associated with unhealthy eating. Implications for diet priming as an intervention for unhealthy eating habits are discussed herein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional habits of primary school teachers and their attitudes to healthy diet

    OpenAIRE

    Premoš, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    A number of factors have an impact on eating habits of individuals. The most examined ones are social, economic, ethical and cultural elements of society in addition to the level of education of an individual and the accessibility and price of food. The master's thesis explores the eating habits of teachers who convey knowledge about diet and related content and help their students develop a healthy attitude towards healthy eating. The teacher's knowledge can also influence the dietary behavi...

  9. Diet and scavenging habits of the smooth skate Dipturus innominatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, J S; Dunn, M R

    2012-04-01

    The diet of smooth skate Dipturus innominatus was determined from examination of stomach contents of 321 specimens of 29·3-152·0 cm pelvic length, sampled from research and commercial trawlers at depths of 231-789 m on Chatham Rise, New Zealand. The diet was dominated by the benthic decapods Metanephrops challengeri and Munida gracilis, the natant decapod Campylonotus rathbunae and fishes from 17 families, of which hoki Macruronus novaezelandiae, sea perch Helicolenus barathri, various Macrouridae and a variety of discarded fishes were the most important. Multivariate analyses indicated the best predictors of diet variability were D. innominatus length and a spatial model. The diet of small D. innominatus was predominantly small crustaceans, with larger crustaceans, fishes and then scavenged discarded fishes increasing in importance as D. innominatus got larger. Scavenged discards were obvious as fish heads or tails only, or skeletal remains after filleting, often from pelagic species. Demersal fish prey were most frequent on the south and west Chatham Rise, in areas where commercial fishing was most active. Dipturus innominatus are highly vulnerable to overfishing, but discarding practices by commercial fishing vessels may provide a positive feedback to populations through improved scavenging opportunities. © 2012 NIWA. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Diets/dietary habits and certain gastrointestinal disorders in the tropics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Against the background that what one eats affects the gastrointestinal tract (G.I T), the role of diet and dietary habits including fibres, food additives and preservatives on the aetiology of gastric cancers, colorectal cancers and other G.I disorders in the tropics are herein reviewed. Carcinomas of the gut believed to be on the ...

  11. Television Habits in Relation to Overweight, Diet and Taste Preferences in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, Lauren; Lanfer, Anne; Gwozdz, Wencke

    2012-01-01

    . The IDEFICS baseline survey was conducted at examination centers in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, and Spain. 15,144 children aged 2–9 completed the basic protocol, including anthropometry and parental questionnaires on their diets and television habits. A subsample of 1...

  12. Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Costa, Rui M

    2017-11-20

    What is a habit? One problem with the concept of habit has been that virtually everyone has their own ideas of what is meant by such a term. Whilst not eschewing folk psychology, it is useful to re-examine dictionary definitions of 'habit'. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines habit as "a settled or regular tendency or practice, especially one that is hard to give up" and also "an automatic reaction to a specific situation". The latter, reassuringly, is not too far from what has come to be known as stimulus-response theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant status and smoking habits: relationship with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Agrawal, B K; Varma, M; Jadhav, A A

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the association between smoking, dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in male smokers (cigarette and bidi smokers). The study sample consisted of 100 healthy men, including 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers, who were subclassified into 25 cigarette smokers and 25 bidi smokers, aged 18-55 years. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma ascorbic acid were measured as antioxidants and erythrocyte malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress index, by colorimetric methods. Smokers ate less fruits and vegetables than non-smokers, leading to them having a lower antioxidant level. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in cigarette smokers (0.193 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.05) and bidi smokers (0.169 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (0.231 U/mgP). Plasma ascorbic acid was also significantly lower in cigarette smokers (1.45 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (1.38 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (1.73 mg/100 ml). There was a significant increase in erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration levels in cigarette smokers (171.47 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (231.04 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (127.30 micromol/gHb). These results provide enough evidence of increased oxidative stress and a compromised antioxidant defence system in smokers, and they are more profound in bidi smokers than in those smoking cigarettes. This study also revealed that the diet and nutrient intake of smokers are different from that of non-smokers.

  14. Will seasonal and climatic conditions influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that nuclear accident are affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeverstam, U.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses to which extent climatic and seasonal effects can influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that consequences of a nuclear accident might be affected. A number of examples from Sweden are given, related to dwellings (building standards and location), diet, seasonal effects in agriculture and tourism. The reindeer are discussed separately. Although climate and season do change man's habits in a way relevant to accident consequences, the conclusion of this paper is that in most cases this mechanism is severely mixed with other, sometimes more important ones

  15. Length of migration and eating habits of Portuguese university students living in London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Sofia; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Caraher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have pointed adverse effects of long term migration on eating habits. Research is needed to understand if this effect occurs also with a short length of migration, as is the case of international students. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of short and long term migration on eating habits of Portuguese university students. Participants were 46 English and 55 Portuguese students from universities in London, United Kingdom. The findings from this study highlight the difficulties that Portuguese students faced in maintaining a traditional Mediterranean diet after moving to a Northern European environment.

  16. Need of improvement of diet and life habits among university student regardless of religion professed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Prado, Silvia; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Perona, Javier S; Montero-Alonso, Miguel A; López-Bueno, Marta; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2017-07-01

    At present, few studies have assessed the possible influence of culture and religion on healthy eating habits among the university population. The aim of this study was to identify differences in healthy and eating habits among university students of different religions. A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample population of 257 students (22.4 ± 4.76 y) at the campus of the University of Granada in Melilla (Spain). The quality of diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet by a validated score (MDS). There were a higher prevalence of overweight in Christian boys and girls compared to Muslims. Muslim students omit breakfast and dinner more often than Christians. Significant differences in sodium intake (p students of Christian faith. Likewise, there were no significant differences in the quality of the diet as assessed by HEI, this being of poor, together with a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet in both groups. Muslim university students have a lower risk of drinking alcohol (OR = 7.88, 95% CI = 4.27, 14.54). Few differences were found between girls and boys in both religions although the Mediterranean Diet Score was lower for girls. In conclusion, Melilla university students eat low quality foods and have little adherence to the Mediterranean diet regardless of the religion professed or gender, although Christians tend to drink more alcohol and to smoke more cigarettes and Muslims skip some meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Obesogenic habits among children and their families in response to initiation of gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levran, Neriya; Wilschanski, Michael; Livovsky, Jessica; Shachar, Edna; Moskovitz, Moti; Assaf-Jabrin, Lama; Shteyer, Eyal

    2018-06-01

    Initiation of a lifelong, gluten-free diet (GFD) in children with celiac disease (CD) influences the child's life in many ways. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of GFD on the child and his/her family's eating habits and lifestyle behaviors. To study this, we asked children and their parents completed the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ) at the time of diagnosis of CD and at least 6 months after initiation of GFD and a questionnaires assessing symptoms related to CD and adherence to the GFD diet. We analyzed questionnaires from 40 children with CD and their families. There were 21 females, ranging in age from 4 to 15.7 years (median age 7.4 years±2.8 years). The control group comprised 15 healthy children. After initiation of GFD the family ate more junk food including snacks and candies (p = 0.05), with the significant change reported by children and fathers (p = 0.001 and 0.03 respectively). All family members in the control group had significantly less snacks. Parents and children reported a significant increase in obesogenic eating styles, such as eating from the cooking pot and eating while doing other activities (mothers, p = 0.001; fathers, 0.02; and children, 0.02 respectively). Our study shows that initiation of GFD in children with CD leads to changes in eating habits and staple food eating that may lead to a more obesogenic environment. Care givers, pediatricians, gastroenterologists, and dieticians alike should be aware of these implications and educate families towards a healthier lifestyle and diet beyond the GFD itself. What's Known: • Gluten-free diet has been shown to affect various psychosocial aspects of children with celiac disease. • Obesity and celiac are associated. What is New: • Initiation of gluten-free diet led to increased eating of junk food both in the patient and his/her family. • After initiation of GFD pro-obesogenic eating habits is increased.

  18. Sex Differences in Metabolic Morbidities: Influenced by Diet or Exercise Habits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We implemented a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan to compare the physical and biochemical parameters, diet and exercise lifestyles, and prevalences of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension between males and females, and to clarify the determinants of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional study, 7,578 subjects were selected from the general population by stratified random sampling for the Surveillance of Taiwanese Civil Health in 2002. Blood samples were taken and information on body composition, demographics, exercise and dietary habits, and medical and drug histories were obtained from structured interviews administered by well-trained interviewers. A total of 6,600 subjects (87.1%, aged 15.6–95.0 years old, completed the survey. The overall prevalences of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension were 9.9%, 22.8%, and 15.7%, respectively, and hyperlipidemia (27.0% and hypertension (19.2% were more prevalent in males. Males were more likely to have high-fat and high-cholesterol diets, compared with females. Although there were differences in the prevalences of hyperlipidemia and hypertension between the sexes, adjusted logistic regression analysis demonstrated little contribution of diet and exercise habits to the risks of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or hypertension after adjusting for age, sex, waist-to-hip ratio, serum blood sugar levels, cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, creatinine, uric acid, and blood pressure.

  19. Azolla as a component of the space diet during habitation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kishida, Yoshiro; Liu, Chung-Chu; Watanabe, Iwao; Wada, Hidenori; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We evaluate a candidate diet and specify its space agricultural requirements for habitation on Mars. Rice, soybean, sweet potato and a green-yellow vegetable have been selected as the basic vegetarian menu. The addition of silkworm pupa, loach, and Azolla to that basic menu was found to meet human nutritional requirements. Co-culture of rice, Azolla, and loach is proposed for developing bio-regenerative life support capability with high efficiency of the usage of habitation and agriculture area. Agriculture designed under the severe constraints of limited materials resources in space would make a positive contribution toward solving the food shortages and environmental problems facing humans on Earth, and may provide an effective sustainable solution for our civilization.

  20. Living with the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Based on New Nordic Cuisine and Nordic dietary recommendations, the research centre OPUS has developed a healthy, sustainable and tasty New Nordic Diet (NND) with the goal of improving public health in Denmark. In order to determine the health potential of the NND, a six-month, controlled...... dietary intervention trial was conducted, in which participants procured NND foods at a specially designed intervention supermarket and prepared and consumed NND meals in their homes. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative sociological study was conducted among...... indicate that while the taste of the NND is likely to appeal to wider groups of consumers, the tasks of food procurement and preparation are likely to constitute barriers to its adoption. The strictly controlled intervention setting enabled participants to learn how to comply with dietary composition...

  1. Zones of comfortable living of habitants on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Temperature in the sunflower point on Mercury +480 °C; before sunrise, the temperature at the equator drops to-183 °C. In this regard, after arrival on the surface of Mercury, a person immediately needs to protect himself from extreme temperatures and radiation, hiding, for example, under the surface. Temperature fluctuations observed on the surface of the Earth too, very slowly propagate into the depth of the soil. 228 years ago by the French scientist Antoine Lavoisier proved that the temperature in the mine under the surface at a depth of 28 m in the territory of the Paris Observatory year-round is constant and equal to +11.7 C. For Kiev this constant temperature is always + 9°Ð¡. Solving a similar problem for Mercury, we obtained at latitudes |70-90 deg.| that the temperature below the surface at depths of 3-30 m will be guaranteed constant in range of +15-25 C. The area of settlements with comfort temperatures for the biological life form at subsurface subpolar regions is more than three million km2. Thus, under the surface (endo) of Mercury at depths of 3-30 m tens of endo-settlements can be located. It remains only to provide people in these settlements - water and specialized spacesuits. This will enable people to live there for a long time, and will allow them to extract mineral resources on Mercury. Therefore, now it is necessary to work on the creation of special symbiotic "cocoons", which can themselves be buried. This will ensure the long-term existence of endoplanetary stations on Mercury.

  2. The Habitation Lab: Using a Design Approach to Foster Innovation for Sustainable Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Femenías

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a first step towards a strategy for using living labs as a means to foster innovation and develop new concepts of sustainable living from an architectural point of view. The overall aim is to enable truly sustainable living through radically reduced energy and resource use thus addressing both environmental and social aspects of sustainability. Earlier research has shown that contemporary housing developments, including those with a sustainable profile, do not profoundly question modern lifestyles and consumption, which is a necessity to overcome limitations of a technological focus on environmental efficiency in construction. Thus, we see an opportunity for the discipline of architecture to engage in current investments in living lab facilities in order to push innovation in the field of sustainable housing. We introduce the concept of a "Habitation Lab", which will provide an arena for radical and high-risk design experimentation between users, building-sector actors, and academia, and we describe a case study of a planned Habitation Lab within a living lab facility where traditional solutions for daily living and habitation are questioned and new architectural innovations are explored and evaluated. The idea of using experimental activities in the field of housing is not new, and we argue that new investments should build on earlier experiences to avoid perpetuating misconceptions and repeating past failures. Furthermore, to ensure the dissemination and uptake of results, the design of the Habitation Lab should consider the innovation and learning trajectories of the building sector. We propose a transdisciplinary setting to provide a neutral arena for value creation and to increase the distribution of experiences.

  3. Home food availability, parental dietary intake, and familial eating habits influence the diet quality of urban Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-10-01

    The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Hispanic children, 10-14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had "good" scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that "need improvement" (HEI, 51-80), and 14% had "poor" scores (HEI, food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health.

  4. Smoking Conditions and the Relationships Between Smoking Habits and Such Factors as Exercise Habits and Morning Diet among Male Students Aged 16 to 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo, HASHIZUME; Yukinori, KUSAKA; Masayuki, IKI; Kazuo, KAWAHARA; Faculty of Education, Toyama University; Department of Environmental Health, Fukui Medical School; Department of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine; Community Health, Health Promotion and Nutrition Division, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen-to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that : the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  5. Smoking conditions and the relationships between smoking habits and such factors as exercise habits and morning diet among male students aged 16 to 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Kazuo; Kusaka, Yukinori; Iki, Masayuki; Kawahara, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen- to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that: the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  6. Feeding habit and mode of living of benthic organisms, in relation to the radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikoshi, Masuoki

    1975-01-01

    The type of feeding habit, size spectrum (megalo-, macro-, meio-, and micro-benthos), life form (epi-, and endo-biose) and other modes of living of benthic organisms on and within the bottom sediments are briefly mentioned. Knowledge hitherto obtained concerning radio-ecology is also briefly reviewed in relation to those items mentioned above. Special attention is given to the relationship between the stratification and the mixing of bottom deposits, and the reworking and feeding activities of benthic animals. (auth.)

  7. Lifestyle Habits: Diet, physical activity and sleep duration among Omani adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits-physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)-of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15-18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m(2)). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents.

  8. Profiling Physical Activity, Diet, Screen and Sleep Habits in Portuguese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1 describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2 identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3 estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41, and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72 were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84. Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05.

  9. Marshall Islands: a study of diet and living patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.; Greenhouse, N.A.; Knight, G.; Craighead, E.C.

    1980-07-01

    This study summarizes information on diet and living patterns for the Marshallese. The data was derived from literature, answers to questionnaires, personal observations while living with the Marshallese for periods extending from months to years, and from direct participation in their activities. The results reflect the complex interactions of many influences, such as, the gathering of local foods the receipt of food aid through programs, such as, school-lunch, typhoon-relief, food distributed to populations displaced as a result of nuclear testing, and in recent times the availability of cash for the purchase of imported foods. The results identify these influences and are therefore restricted to local food diets while recognizing that the living patterns are changing as local food gathering is replaced by other food supplies. The data will therefore provide the necessary information for input into models that will assess the radiological impacts attributable to the inhabitation of the Marshall Islands. It is recommended that this study should be continued for at least two to three years in order to more accurately identify trends in local food consumption and living patterns

  10. Eating habits and factors affecting food choice of adolescents living in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiota, Alexandra; Pelekanou, Maria; Tsitouras, Andreas; Koukoulis, Georgios N

    2013-01-01

    To establish factors that affect food choices among adolescents living in rural areas and to identify their food choices. A random sample of adolescents living in a Greek rural area (n=382) aged 12-18 years were individually interviewed. Food consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED questionnaire. Information was collected regarding self-perceived body size, dieting, dietary knowledge, parental control, meal and snack frequency, eating out of home, eating takeaways and precooked meals, eating from the school canteen. Body image concerns, dieting, education about food, parental control, maternal education level and eating with family and peers are factors that were found to affect food choices in this group of Greek adolescents. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low (KIDMED index was 4.5±2.7). Regular family meals at home were frequent in this group and 99% of the adolescents ate lunch daily at home. Eating out with peers and eating from the school canteen was related with higher consumption of 'junk type of food'. Girls and younger adolescents and those whose mothers had a higher education level seem to make healthier choices. Factors such as personal issues, family and peer pressure significantly affect food choices among adolescents living in a Greek rural area and highlight the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescents.

  11. A survey of habits of people living close to the Sellafield nuclear processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.H.; Fulker, M.J.; Jones, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey has been carried out of the habits of people living within 3 km of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. The survey included estimates of consumption rates of foodstuffs for a range of ages and of time spent indoors, outdoors and away from home. A high proportion of those interviewed were farmers and they provided additional data on time spent in the various farming activities. A comparison is made of the food consumption rates and generalised values recommended for critical groups by the NRPB and MAFF. (author)

  12. Engagement in New Dietary Habits-Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Christina; Hammarström, Anne; Sandberg, Susanne; Lindahl, Bernt; Olsson, Tommy; Larsson, Christel; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine

    2016-02-01

    Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time. The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles. A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase". We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in

  13. Dietary intake and habits of South Asian immigrants living in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, Madison N; Stevens, June

    2017-06-01

    Previous reviews have indicated that immigration from South Asian to Western countries leads to unhealthy changes in diet; however, these reviews have been limited by the methods used in some included studies. This critical narrative review summarizes findings from original research articles that performed appropriate statistical analyses on diet data obtained using culturally appropriate diet assessment measures. All studies quantitatively compared the diets of South Asian immigrants with those of residents of Western or South Asian countries or with those of South Asian immigrants who had varying periods of time since immigration. Most studies examined total energy and nutrient intake among adults. Total energy intake tended to decrease with increasing duration of residence and immigrant generation, and immigrants consumed less protein and monounsaturated fat compared with Westerners. However, findings for intakes of carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and micronutrients were mixed. Studies that examine food group intake and include South Asians living in South Asia as a comparison population are needed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A study on women's junior college students' eating habits (Part 3) : The difference of eating habits in student living style

    OpenAIRE

    山岸, 恵美子; 牛越, 静子

    1992-01-01

    We examined the difference of eating habits in the life styles of 397 students of Nagano Prefectual Women’s Junior College.The results are as follows.(1) Talking of breakfast, commuting students eat at about 7 o’clock, but boarding and dormitory students including those who cook for themselves about 8.The rising time through breakfast time is 21 and 34 minutes respectively.Both students have lunch at noon, but boarding and dormitory students have supper at about six thirty, and students who c...

  15. Comparison of eating habits in obese and non-obese Filipinas living in an urban area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chu Hyang; Saito, Emiko

    2015-04-01

    This study compares eating habits among obese and non-obese Filipinas living in an urban area of Japan. We used self-report questionnaires to study 635 Filipinos. Body mass index (BMI) and eating/lifestyle habits were noted. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Seventeen percent (24/140) were obese. Results of the age-adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis show that the following responses were associated with obesity: "frequency of eating high green and yellow vegetables" (every day: 0, not every day: 1) [OR 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-14.8] and "frequency of eating high fruits" (every day: 0, not every day: 1) (OR .2; 95% CI .1-.7). We suggest strategies to prevent obesity and improve eating habits among this Filipina population.

  16. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (pdifferences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (pdiffered according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These factors should be considered when planning studies and analysing data concerning appetite sensations.

  17. Diet composition and feeding habits of the eyespot skate, Atlantoraja cyclophora (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae, off Uruguay and northern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago A. Barbini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The eyespot skate, Atlantoraja cyclophora, is an endemic species from the southwestern Atlantic, occurring from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to northern Patagonia, Argentina. The feeding habits of this species, from off Uruguay and north Argentina, were evaluated using a multiple hypothesis modelling approach. In general, the diet was composed mainly of decapod crustaceans, followed by teleost fishes. Molluscs, mysidaceans, amphipods, isopods, lancelets and elasmobranchs were consumed in lower proportion. The consumption of shrimps drecreased with increasing body size of A. cyclophora. On the other hand, the consumption of teleosts increased with body size. Mature individuals preyed more heavily on crabs than immature individuals. Teleosts were consumed more in the south region (34º - 38ºS and crabs in the north region (38º - 41ºS. Shrimps were eaten more in the warm season than in the cold season. Prey size increased with increasing body size of A. cyclophora , but large individuals also consumed small teleosts and crabs. Atlantoraja cyclophora has demersal-benthic feeding habits, shifts its diet with increasing body size and in response to seasonal and regional changes in prey availability and distribution.

  18. Diet-Microbiota Interactions and Their Implications for Healthy Living

    OpenAIRE

    Ian B. Jeffery; Paul W. O'Toole

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that diet influences the health of an individual and that a diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. What has been unclear until recently is the large contribution of the gut microbiota to this effect. As well as providing basic nutritional requirements, the long-term diet of an animal modifies its gut microbiota. In adults, diets that have a high proportion of fruit and vegetables and a low consumptio...

  19. Predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches among adults living in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Leske

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of research comparing why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted. A greater understanding of reasons underlying dieting and non-dieting attempts will help to identify target beliefs for interventions to support and motivate adults to attempt whatever approach they are willing and/or able to pursue. We investigated the predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches in Australian adults using predictors that were identified in a previous qualitative study. Methods We conducted a prospective study, with two waves of data collection occurring 4 weeks apart. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire assessing constructs drawn from the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, and self-efficacy, past behaviour, non-planning, attributions for dieting failure, weight control beliefs, and dieting and non-dieting intentions. We used path modelling to analyse responses. Results At baseline, 719 adults (52.2% male aged between 18 and 76 completed the questionnaire. Four weeks later, 64% of participants (n = 461 reported on their dieting and non-dieting behaviour in the past month. Past behaviour, attitude, subjective norm, and self-identity significantly predicted dieting intentions. Dieting intentions and past behaviour significantly predicted dieting behaviour, while non-planning and self-efficacy did not. The model explained 74.8% of the variance in intention and 52.9% of the variance in behaviour. While most findings were similar for the non-dieting model, subjective norms and self-identity did not predict intention, while self-efficacy and self-identity both predicted non-dieting behaviour directly. The non-dieting model explained 58.2% of the variance in intention and 37.5% of the variance in behaviour. Conclusions The findings from this study provide support for the application of TPB and identity theory constructs in the context of both dieting and non-dieting behaviour

  20. Fashioning Episodes Through Virtual Habit: The Efficacy of Pre-Lived Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna E. West

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In MS 620 (1909, C. S. Peirce crafts his ultimate statement regarding habit-formation. Here he defines and illustrates the influence of specific vivid virtual habits with the objective of changing future beliefs/actions. The specificity of the protoplans as deter-minations invites immediate implementation of action interventions, or recommenda-tions to change action approaches. In this way, virtual habits transcend mere possibility for implementation of the action strategy; their vividity and specificity uniquely qualify them as soon to be actualized episodes.

  1. Diet, Environments, and Gut Microbiota. A Preliminary Investigation in Children Living in Rural and Urban Burkina Faso and Italy

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    Carlotta De Filippo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the main factors that affects the composition of gut microbiota. When people move from a rural environment to urban areas, and experience improved socio-economic conditions, they are often exposed to a “globalized” Western type diet. Here, we present preliminary observations on the metagenomic scale of microbial changes in small groups of African children belonging to the same ethnicity and living in different environments, compared to children living on the urban area of Florence (Italy. We analyzed dietary habits and, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, gut microbiota profiles from fecal samples of children living in a rural village of Burkina Faso (n = 11, of two groups of children living in different urban settings (Nanoro town, n = 8; Ouagadougou, the capital city, n = 5 and of a group of Italian children (n = 13. We observed that when foods of animal origin, those rich in fat and simple sugars are introduced into a traditional African diet, composed of cereals, legumes and vegetables, the gut microbiota profiles changes. Microbiota of rural children retain a geographically unique bacterial reservoir (Prevotella, Treponema, and Succinivibrio, assigned to ferment fiber and polysaccharides from vegetables. Independently of geography and ethnicity, in children living in urban areas these bacterial genera were progressively outcompeted by bacteria more suited to the metabolism of animal protein, fat and sugar rich foods, similarly to Italian children, as resulted by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, a predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene. Consequently, we observed a progressive reduction of SCFAs measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, in urban populations, especially in Italian children, respect to rural ones. Our results even if in a limited number of individuals point out that dietary habit modifications

  2. Feeding habits of omnivorous Asplanchna: comparison of diet composition among Asplanchna herricki, A. priodonta and A. girodi in pond ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi NAKANO

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and the diet composition of Asplanchna species were studied in 18 water bodies in Matsuyama, Japan. The abundance of Asplanchna and other rotifers, crustaceans, phytoplankton and microbial plankton, together with basic environmental parameters, were determined between October and December 2006, and the distribution and diet composition of Asplanchna species were estimated. Three species of Asplanchna, A. herricki, A. priodonta and A. girodi were found in the present study, but A. herricki was rather less abundant than the other two species. Their diet composition was different among the species, showing that A. herricki consumed only particulate matter while the diet of A. priodonta included mainly phytoplankton, dominated by dinoflagellates. In contrast, A. girodi was rather carnivorous, and included other rotifers in its diet. Their different food habits are not explained by their morphotypes and trophi structures, suggesting this difference might be related to their feeding abilities. For A. girodi, prey selectivity (Chesson's α for rotifer prey was negative, except for Keratella cochlearis. The amount of rotifers consumed was also low at a mean prey number of less than 3 per A. girodi gut. The result suggests that the predation impact of Asplanchna as a top-down controller of rotifer populations is species-specific and can be apparent only when Asplanchna population reaches high density in these ponds. From the present results, three Asplanchna species were found to belong to basically different feeding groups, A. herricki is detritivore while A. priodonta and A. girodi are omnivores; but A. girodi is more predacious.

  3. Diet and dietary habits of the fish Schilbe mystus (Siluriformes: Schilbeidae in two artificial lakes in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedolapo Ayoade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet and dietary habits of African Butter Catfish Schilbe mystus (Linne, 1766, an economically important fish in Oyan and Asejire lakes (Southwest Nigeria were examined between July 2000 and December 2001. Stomach contents were analysed using the numerical, frequency of occurrence and points methods. The fish is predatory but the diet differs among lakes and seasons. Insects were more important in the diet of small (La dieta y los hábitos alimenticios de Schilbe mystus (Linne, 1766, un pez de importancia comercial en los lagos de Oyan y Asejire (Nigeria, fueron examinados desde diciembre del 2000 a diciembre del 2001. Se realizaron análisis de contenido estomacal utilizando métodos numéricos, de frecuencia de presencia y puntuales. Existe variación estacional en los organismos seleccionados para alimento y los insectos son más importantes para peces pequeños (<18 cm. También hay diferencias en la cantidad de alimento encontrado en los estómagos de machos con respecto a las hembras de S. mystus en ambos hábitats. El patrón de selección y consumo de alimento en estas especies es distinto en los dos lagos.

  4. Diet-Microbiota Interactions and Their Implications for Healthy Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that diet influences the health of an individual and that a diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. What has been unclear until recently is the large contribution of the gut microbiota to this effect. As well as providing basic nutritional requirements, the long-term diet of an animal modifies its gut microbiota. In adults, diets that have a high proportion of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of meat are associated with a highly diverse microbiota and are defined by a greater abundance of Prevotella compared to Bacteroides, while the reverse is associated with a diet that contains a low proportion of plant-based foods. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly clear that the effect of the microbial ecology of the gut goes beyond the local gut immune system and is implicated in immune-related disorders, such as IBS, diabetes and inflamm-ageing. In this review, we investigate the evidence that a balanced diet leads to a balanced, diverse microbiota with significant consequences for healthy ageing by focusing on conditions of interest.

  5. A linear programming model of diet choice of free-living beavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; VanderVeer, PJ; Evers, EGJ; Ottenheim, MM

    1995-01-01

    Linear programming has been remarkably successful in predicting the diet choice of generalist herbivores. We used this technique to test the diet choice of free-living beavers (Castor fiber) in the Biesbosch (The Netherlands) under different Foraging goals, i.e. maximization of intake of energy,

  6. Do eating habits of the population living in Roma settlements differ from those of the majority population in Slovakia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijová, Emília; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Babinská, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Living in Roma settlements is associated with worse health in comparison with the majority population; this might be partially explained by socioeconomic disadvantages as well as cultural differences, including lifestyle. Eating habits represent an important part of lifestyle closely related to primary causes of morbidity and mortality, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases or cancers. The eating habits of the population living in Roma settlements in comparison with those of the majority population were explored using the cross-sectional epidemiological HepaMeta study conducted in 2011. A representative sample of Roma (n = 452, mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and non-Roma (n = 403, mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) aged 18-55 years living in the Kosice region were asked about breakfasting and recent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, meat products, meat, farinaceous dishes, and soft drinks. A logistic regression model was used separately for male and female participants. The population living in Roma settlements reported the recent consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy products significantly less frequently in comparison with the majority population. Moreover, Roma females, in comparison with non-Roma females, reported significantly more frequently the consumption of meat and soft drinks. No differences were found between Roma and non-Roma in the consumption of meat products and farinaceous dishes. The population living in Roma settlements reported more frequently unhealthy eating habits in comparison with the majority population; this might contribute to worse health status of this population. The differences might be attributed to cultural differences between ethnic as well as socioeconomic groups, reduced availability of certain food items due to segregation or poverty and lower health literacy.

  7. Sex Differences in Metabolic Morbidities: Influenced by Diet or Exercise Habits?

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Wen Chiu; Chia-Tsuan Huang; Hung-Yi Chuang; Yu-Tsz Chang; Ming-Tsang Wu; Hong-Wen Liu

    2009-01-01

    We implemented a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan to compare the physical and biochemical parameters, diet and exercise lifestyles, and prevalences of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension between males and females, and to clarify the determinants of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional study, 7,578 subjects were selected from the general population by stratified random sampling for the Surveillance of Taiwanese Civil Health in 2002. Bl...

  8. Measures of the constitutive immune system are linked to diet and roosting habits of neotropical bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Schneeberger

    Full Text Available Ecological and social factors are central in the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases, thus bearing the potential for shaping a species' immune functions. Although previous studies demonstrated a link between social factors and the cellular immune system for captive mammals, it is yet poorly understood how ecological factors are connected with the different branches of the immune system in wild populations. Here, we tested how variation in aspects of the constitutive cellular and humoral immune system of free ranging bats is associated with two ecological factors that likely influence the putative risk of species to become infected by parasites and pathogens: diet and shelter. We found that white blood cell counts of 24 syntopic Neotropical bat species varied with the species' diet and body mass. Bats that included at least partially vertebrates in their diet exhibited the highest white blood cell counts, followed by phytophagous and insectivorous species, which is in agreement with the assumption that the immune system varies with the pathogen transmission risk of a trophic level. The soluble part of the constitutive immune response, assessed by an in vitro bacterial killing assay, decreased with increasing roost permanence. Our results suggest that the ecology is an important factor in the evolution of the immune system in bats and probably also other mammals.

  9. Diet and gut microbiota of two supralittoral amphipods Orchestia montagui and Talitrus saltator living in different microhabitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrhman, Khaled F. A.; Bacci, Giovanni; Nistri, Annamaria; Mengoni, Alessio; Ugolini, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Talitrus saltator (Montagu) and Orchestia montagui Audouin live in different microhabitats of the same supralittoral belt. T. saltator can be found in the damp sand of beaches with scarce or absent wracked material near the water line. O. montagui is frequently found in the Posidonia banquettes or under wracked material, often in contact with the substrate. This study investigates the effect of diet on species-specific gut microbiota patterns in these talitrid species. Adults were collected and fed with artificial food (commercial fish food and pieces of blotting paper) for 51 days. Gut microbiota were analyzed at five time intervals (0 h, 24 h, 7, 23 and 51 days) by 16S rRNA gene metagenomic analysis and by estimating the relative abundance of cellulases (glycosyl hydrolase gene family 48, GHF48) gene copies. The gut microbiota of O. montagui was more affected than that of T. saltator by diet shift. Although the taxonomic profile of the gut microbiota varied with time in both species, with an increase of Protobacteria in O. montagui and of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes in T. saltator, genes involved in cellulose degradation (GHF48 family) showed a large-scale increase in O. montagui but not in T. saltator. We conclude that the diet variation has different influence on the composition of gut microbiota in the two talitrid species in accordance with their different alimentary habits: the more generalist T. saltator (detritivore, grazer, and scavenger) showed less changes in its gut microbiota composition than the more specialist O. montagui (detritivore and grazer), which strongly modified its gut microbiota composition by the captivity diet.

  10. Changes in dietary habits and eating practices in adolescents living in urban South Africa: the birth to twenty cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Alison; Musenge, Eustasius; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2012-07-01

    To assess changes in the dietary habits and eating practices of a longitudinal cohort of adolescents over a 5-y period living in Soweto and Johannesburg. An interviewer-assisted questionnaire was used to gather data on the dietary habits and eating practices across three environments: in the home, in the school, and in the community. Participants (n = 1451, 49.1% male, 89% black, and 11% with mixed ancestry) 13, 15, and 17 y old with complete data were included in the analyses. The weekday breakfast consumption decreased over the 5-y period, from 76% to 65% (P breakfast during the weekend more regularly but this also decreased with age. Snacking while watching television increased with age, from 3.6 ± 4.6 to 6.7 ± 5.9 snacks/week, with female subjects consistently consuming more snacks than male subjects (P portion/week over the 5 y and confectionery consumption stayed the same, around 9 items/week in male subjects and 10 items/week in female subjects (P < 0.02). Lunch box usage decreased with age; conversely, the number of tuck shop purchases increased. Poor eating habits in all three environments were found; the participants' propensity for foods that were energy dense and micronutrient poor was high. This study also found that dietary patterns are well established by 13 y of age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the amount of 210Po ingested by the Spanish population and its relation to their diet habit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Francés, I.; García-Tenorio, R.; Mantero, J.; Manjón, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the contribution of 210 Po to the committed effective dose via ingestion received by the Spanish population have been evaluated, by determining the 210 Po activity concentrations in an ample set of samples which can be considered representatives of the diet consumed in Spain. The obtained results show a quit high variability, preventing the possibility to fix a representative value for the 210 Po contribution to the ingestion doses received by the Spanish population, but in general these values, due exclusively to 210 Po, are higher than the average value assigned by UNSCEAR to the annual committed effective dose received by the worldwide population due to the ingestion of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. Knowing the diet habits of the Spanish population and the 210 Po bioaccumulative behavior in the marine trophic chain, which implies enhanced concentration of 210 Po in the sea food in comparison with the obtained ones in other components of the diet, the variable and generally higher ingestion doses due to 210 Po received by the Spanish population can be associated to the variable and rich consumption of marine products. The Spanish population has the seafood as an essential component of his diet. Although the 210 Po levels in the edible parts of a great variety of marine organisms can be found in the literature in general the great majority of these determinations corresponds to raw edible products. But little is known about the effects of cooking on the 210 Po content of seafood which are normally cooked for human consumption. Then it is important to check if cooking can alter the 210 Po content in the seafood in order to refine the dose estimates to human consumers. Trying to cover this gap, and at the same time trying to confirm the key role of the seafood in the 210 Po ingestion doses received by the Spanish population, we have also analyzed the 210 Po content in the edible parts of several seafood products bought in commercial markets

  12. Similar Mediterranean diet adherence but greater central adiposity is observed among Greek diaspora adolescents living in Istanbul, compared to Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Maraki, Maria I; Giannopoulou, Despoina; Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Sidossis, Labros S; Tsigga, Maria

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to compare Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence and anthropometry between Greek diaspora adolescents living in Istanbul and Greek adolescents, inhabitants of Athens. A total of 206 adolescents (103 from each site), aged 10.0-19.0 years old, all of Greek origin, were recruited from schools in Athens and minority schools in Istanbul, for the present case-control study. Participants at each site were age and sex-matched. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and diet adherence was assessed with the KIDMED score. Breakfast skipping, decreased dairy and increased commercially baked good/pastries consumption for breakfast, fast-food intake and consumption of several sweets each day was more prevalent in Istanbul, but, on the other hand, students from Athens reported eating fewer fruit, vegetables and nuts. The adoption of unhealthy eating habits in each site was counterbalanced by a more 'healthy' dietary element, resulting in an overall similar MD adherence between both sites. Additionally, although weight status was indifferent between the two cities, higher rates of abdominal obesity were recorded in Istanbul, when the weight-to-height ratio was used for diagnosis. Differences in several domains of the KIDMED score were recorded among cities, possibly as results of food availability and prices. However, MD adherence and weight status appeared similar, indicating that the dietary transition and acculturation experienced by the remnants is actually very slow and minimal during the 93 years since population exchange.

  13. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in Haematococcus algal extract: the effects of timing of diet and smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yumika; Ishikura, Masaharu; Maoka, Takashi

    2009-09-01

    Astaxanthin is a caroteonid that possesses strong antioxidant activity. Recently, many studies on biological activity have been reported. In general, the absorption of carotenoids is affected greatly by diet and by smoking. In this report, we investigated astaxanthin pharmacokinetics after administration of Haematococcus algal extract, a source of astaxanthin, to smokers and nonsmokers before and after a meal; astaxanthin was given before the meal to nonsmokers (n = 7), after the meal to nonsmokers (n = 6), and after the meal to smokers (n = 7), then serum samples were analyzed. The timing of administration greatly affected astaxanthin bioavailability including the area under the curve (AUC(0-168), 2,968 + or - 959 microg h/l in the before-meal group vs. 7,219 + or - 3,118 microg h/l in the after-meal group), indicating high availability in the after-meal group. Smoking also affected the pharmacokinetic parameters and reduced the half-life (t(1/2)) of astaxanthin elimination significantly.

  14. Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriá Beatriz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibre is both preventive and therapeutic for bowel functional diseases. Soluble cocoa products are good sources of dietary fibre that may be supplemented with this dietary component. This study assessed the effects of regularly consuming two soluble cocoa products (A and B with different non-starch polysaccharides levels (NSP, 15.1 and 22.0% w/w, respectively on bowel habits using subjective intestinal function and symptom questionnaires, a daily diary and a faecal marker in healthy individuals. Methods A free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention was carried out in 44 healthy men and women, between 18-55 y old, who had not taken dietary supplements, laxatives, or antibiotics six months before the start of the study. In the four-week-long intervention stages, separated by a three-week-wash-out stage, two servings of A and B, that provided 2.26 vs. 6.60 g/day of NSP respectively, were taken. In each stage, volunteers' diet was recorded using a 72-h food intake report. Results Regularly consuming cocoa A and B increased fibre intake, although only cocoa B significantly increased fibre intake (p Conclusions Regular consumption of the cocoa products increases dietary fibre intake to recommended levels and product B improves bowel habits. The use of both objective and subjective assessments to evaluate the effects of food on bowel habits is recommended.

  15. Associations between oral hygiene habits, diet, tobacco and alcohol and risk of oral cancer: A case-control study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Bray, Freddie; Kumar, Narinder; Johnson, Newell W

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the association between the incidence of oral cancer in India and oral hygiene habits, diet, chewing and smoking tobacco, and drinking alcohol. We also assessed the effects of oral hygiene habits with oral cancer risk among chewers versus never chewers. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Pune, India, based on face-to-face interviews, anthropometry, and intra-oral examinations conducted for 187 oral cancer cases and 240 controls. Poor oral hygiene score was associated with a significant risk of oral cancer (adjusted OR=6.98; 95%CI 3.72-13.05). When stratified by tobacco-chewing habit, the poor oral hygiene score was a significant risk factor only among ever tobacco chewers (adjusted OR=14.74; 95%CI 6.49-33.46) compared with never chewers (adjusted OR=0.71; 95%CI 0.14-3.63). Dental check-ups only at the time of pain by ever-chewers with poor oral hygiene was associated with an elevated risk (adjusted OR=4.22; 95%CI 2.44-7.29), while consumption of green, yellow, and cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits was protective. A linear dose-response association was observed between oral cancer and chewing tobacco in terms of age at initiation, duration, and frequency of chewing per day (P25 years (adjusted OR=2.31; 95%CI 1.14-4.71) elevated the risk of oral cancer. Good oral hygiene habits - as characterized by healthy gums, brushing more than once daily, use of toothpaste, annual dental check-ups, and a minimal number of missing teeth - can reduce the risk of oral cancer significantly. In addition to refraining from chewing/smoking tobacco, a diet adequate in fruits and vegetables may protect against the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of older adults living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja

    2017-09-07

    The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status of protein, iron and vitamins of B 2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional

  17. [Relationship between the attitudes towards improving eating habits and prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Data from the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey and the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiko; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sato, Shinichi; Ando, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the constructive attitudes towards improving eating habits and their relationship with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (2005) and the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (2005). Individuals aged >30 years (N=3084) were enrolled in this study. Exploratory factor analyses were performed to examine the constructive attitudes towards improving eating habits by using 14 parameters. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis was performed and the Cronbach α value was calculated. Furthermore, the relationship between attitudes towards improving eating habits and MetS prevalence was examined according to gender by using multinomial logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, number of members in a household, exercise habits, and rest by sleeping. Two factors were extracted: balanced diet (BD) and control of food intake (CFI) (Cronbach α, 0.82 and 0.75, respectively). The goodness of fit model, based on the structural equation models, was adequate (goodness of fit, 0.96). No relationship was noted between BD and MetS prevalence. The MetS prevalence differed according to gender: "Strongly suspected MetS (sure MetS)", 16.3% (male, 24.4%; female, 10.7%), "Preliminary MetS (pre MetS)", 15.2% (male, 24.1%; female, 8.9%), "non-suspected MetS (non MetS)", 68.5% (male, 51.5%; female, 80.5%). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for pre MetS and sure MetS were 0.57 (0.42-0.78) and 0.52 (0.38-0.71) in males and 0.36 (0.25-0.53) and 0.39 (0.27-0.56) in females, respectively, when non MetS was used as a reference. The results of this study indicated that the attitudes towards improving eating habits primarily focused on BD and CFI. Therefore, improving eating habits towards in terms of better CFI would be effective in preventing MetS in both genders.

  18. Rationale and design of feeding America's bravest: Mediterranean diet-based intervention to change firefighters' eating habits and improve cardiovascular risk profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Cash, Sean B; Christophi, Costas A; Folta, Sara; Moffatt, Steven; Muegge, Carolyn; Korre, Maria; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kales, Stefanos N

    2017-10-01

    Among US firefighters, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of on-duty death. Poor diet contributes to this burden, but effective strategies to encourage healthy eating in the fire service are not established. "Feeding America's Bravest" motivates firefighters and their families to modify their food culture and reduce cardiometabolic risk profiles by adopting Mediterranean diet principles. Feeding America's Bravest is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial within the 44 stations of the Indianapolis Fire Department, including about 1000 firefighters. It compares a Mediterranean Diet Nutritional Intervention (MDNI) (group 1) vs. usual care (group 2) for 12months; followed by 12months of self-sustained continuation phase in the group 1 and cross-over to Mediterranean Diet Nutritional Intervention in group 2. Group 2 will receive the MDNI for 6months to test the efficacy of a shorter intervention followed by 6months of self-sustained phase. The intervention includes behavioral and environmental components. The primary outcome is 12-month change in Mediterranean diet score comparing group 1 vs. group 2; we will also assess 12- and 24-month change in group 1, and 6- and 12-month change in group 2, from baseline. Secondary outcomes are changes in body weight, body composition and other cardiometabolic risk markers; and correlations between self-reported dietary habits and biomarkers of dietary adherence. This innovative trial tests a novel worksite approach to introduce Mediterranean diet among US firefighters, through multi-pronged MDNI combining evidence-based behavior change strategies with economic incentives, family and peer support and environmental changes, informing recommendations for the US fire service and potentially other similar workforces. NCT02941757. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Live performance and processing yields of broilers fed diets with tiamulin and salinomycin combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combined application of tiamulin (TIA and salinomycin (SAL in broiler diets fed from 1 to 42 d of age. One thousand and two hundred Cobb x Cobb 500 male broilers were housed in 48 floor pens and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 66 ppm of SAL combined or not with TIA at 30 or 20 and 20 or 15 ppm, respectively, in the starter (1-21 d and grower feeds (22-42 d; however, TIA was withdrawn from the feeds 7 days before slaughter. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 treatments and 16 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were weekly evaluated for live performance whereas carcass yield, abdominal fat and commercial cuts were assessed at 42 d using 6 birds randomly taken from each pen. Results obtained at the end of the study demonstrated that body weight gain was not affected (P > 0.05 by the treatments, whereas feed intake was reduced (P 0.05 by the treatments. Live performance and post-slaughter yields data obtained in this study did not indicate that combinations of TIA with SAL could be detrimental. In fact, an improvement in feed conversion was observed at the lowest dose of TIA.

  20. [Scientific foundations for medical treatment based on modifying diet, lifestyle habits, and patient attitudes in chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csendes, Attila; Burdiles, Patricio

    2007-02-01

    In most patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, treatment is medical. Among the main elements involved in treatment are general dietary measures, lifestyle habits, and patients' attitudes to symptom control. The present article summarizes the scientific foundations that support these measures: head elevation during nighttime sleep, smoking cessation, losing weight, avoiding rigorous exercise, and reducing or eliminating alcohol consumption. Dietary therapy is mainly based on avoiding fatty foods, chocolate, coffee, mint, and irritating fizzy drinks. Although each patient's response to these measures is highly individual, the mechanisms through which symptoms are reproduced is gradually becoming clearer: a large percentage of patients with uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease will gain considerable relief simply by eliminating some of these habits.

  1. Eating habits of students

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Silvestra; Zupančič, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with eating habits of students. Its purpose was to ascertaineating habits of students living outside their primary home and are under different forms of stress. Methods: the pattern is represented by students living in student homer where they can cook and prepare their own meals. In the research, 81 students living in the students home on Cesta v Mestni log in Ljubljana. The inquiry was composed from 34 questions. The data were processed with Microsoft Excel. Body mass inde...

  2. The associations between metals/metalloids concentrations in blood plasma of Hong Kong residents and their seafood diet, smoking habit, body mass index and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan Yan; Leung, Clement Kai Man; Lin, Che Kit; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-09-01

    The concentrations of metals/metalloids in blood plasma collected from 111 healthy residents (51 female, 60 male) in Hong Kong (obtained from the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, from March to April 2008) were quantified by means of a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Results showed that concentrations of these toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb in Hong Kong residents were not serious when compared with other countries. Males accumulated significantly higher (p diet habit, body mass index (BMI), and age. More intensive studies involving more samples are needed before a more definite conclusion can be drawn, especially on the causal relationships between concentrations of metals/metalloids with dietary preference and lifestyle of the general public.

  3. Evaluation of vitamins A, C and E content in diets of adolescents living in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Piekot, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins such as alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and beta-carotene (provitamin A), play a significant role in protecting the body from an excess of free radicals. The vitamin content of the diet is thus very important. To assess whether the dietary intake of vitamins A, C and E is adequate in a selected group of adolescents living in Warsaw. The mean vitamin consumption was estimated using three-day dietary records whilst vitamin contents of selected foodstuffs were obtained from Food Composition Tables. Both were related to Polish nutrition standards applied to adolescents; i.e. EAR (Estimated Average Requirement) for vitamins A and C and AI (Adequate Intake) for vitamin E. Dietary vitamin C in adolescents and vitamin E in girls were around 18-25% lower than that recommended. Diets that were deficient in vitamins C and E were recorded in 47% to 67% adolescents. It is therefore necessary to increase the consumption of vegetables and fruit which provide a valuable dietary source for these vitamins.

  4. Replacing of live food with artificial diet on growth and survival rates of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani Vagheie, R.; Matinfar, A.; Aeinjamshid, Kh.; Hafezieh, M.; Ghorbani, R.

    2011-01-01

    Replacing live food with artificial diets in aquatic larviculture, especially in shrimp larvae not only is caused convenience feeding, but also in economical view is very important. With this object, in this survey, a density of 100.L -1 white leg shrimp larvae in 9 nutritional treatments each with three replicates were cultured in 20L tanks each one was held with 10L of 30% salty water using one air stone. The larvae were fed 4 times.day-1 with different diets, including live foods (Cheatoce...

  5. Diet composition and food habits of demersal and pelagic marine fishes from Terengganu waters, east coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bachok, Z.; Mansor, M.I.; Noordin, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Fish stomachs from 18 demersal and pelagic fishes from the coast of Terengganu in Malaysia were examined. The components of the fishesÆ diets varied in number, weight, and their frequency of occurrence. The major food items in the stomachs of each species were determined using an Index of Relative Importance. A "conceptualö food web structure indicates that fish species in the study area can be classified into three predatory groups: (1) predators on largely planktivorous or pelagic species; ...

  6. Effects of living alone versus with others and of housemate type on smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical activity among elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seungmin; Cho, Sung Il

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences in health behaviors between elderly people living alone and with others; it also investigated whether the effect of living with others differs according to housemate type, namely a spouse and/or younger generations. Gender-stratified data from the 2013 Korea Community Health Survey for individuals aged 60 to 74 living in Seoul were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was conducted to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the outcome variables (smoking, drinking, eating salty foods, inactive lifestyle) for the variables of interest (living alone/with others, housemate type). Models were adjusted for confounding variables including history of medical conditions, employment type, and adjusted household income. Analysis involved 1,814 men and 2,199 women. Risk of smoking was 1.80 times (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.67) higher for men living alone than living with others. Risk of eating salty foods was 0.78 times lower (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98) for men living with a spouse than a spouse and younger generations. Risk of inactive lifestyle was 1.47 times higher (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.92) for women living alone. Risk of smoking was higher for women living alone (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.92) or with younger generations (OR, 9.12; 95% CI, 2.04 to 40.80) than with a spouse and younger generations. Living alone was associated with smoking in men and physical activity in women; housemate type was associated with dietary habits in men and smoking in women. These gender-specific findings can help identify groups of individuals vulnerable to risky health behaviors and to develop policies.

  7. Effects of living alone versus with others and of housemate type on smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical activity among elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmin Jeong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examined differences in health behaviors between elderly people living alone and with others; it also investigated whether the effect of living with others differs according to housemate type, namely a spouse and/or younger generations. METHODS Gender-stratified data from the 2013 Korea Community Health Survey for individuals aged 60 to 74 living in Seoul were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was conducted to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of the outcome variables (smoking, drinking, eating salty foods, inactive lifestyle for the variables of interest (living alone/with others, housemate type. Models were adjusted for confounding variables including history of medical conditions, employment type, and adjusted household income. RESULTS Analysis involved 1,814 men and 2,199 women. Risk of smoking was 1.80 times (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.67 higher for men living alone than living with others. Risk of eating salty foods was 0.78 times lower (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98 for men living with a spouse than a spouse and younger generations. Risk of inactive lifestyle was 1.47 times higher (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.92 for women living alone. Risk of smoking was higher for women living alone (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.92 or with younger generations (OR, 9.12; 95% CI, 2.04 to 40.80 than with a spouse and younger generations. CONCLUSIONS Living alone was associated with smoking in men and physical activity in women; housemate type was associated with dietary habits in men and smoking in women. These gender-specific findings can help identify groups of individuals vulnerable to risky health behaviors and to develop policies.

  8. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  9. GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH Danio rerio FED A PROCESSED DIET, LIVE FOOD, OR THE COMBINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a popular and important model for scientific research, the capability to rear larval zebrafish to adulthood is of great importance. Recently research examining the effects of diet (live versus processed) have been published. In the cu...

  10. Maintenance of a gluten free diet in coeliac disease: The roles of self-regulation, habit, psychological resources, motivation, support, and goal priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Kirby; Halmos, Emma P; Knowles, Simon; Mullan, Barbara; Tye-Din, Jason A

    2018-06-01

    A strict lifelong gluten free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Theory-based research has focused predominantly on initiation, rational, and motivational processes in predicting adherence. The aim of this study was to evaluate an expanded collection of theoretical constructs specifically relevant to the maintenance of behaviour change, in the understanding and prediction of GFD adherence. Respondents with CD (N = 5573) completed measures of GFD adherence, psychological distress, intentions, self-efficacy, and the maintenance-relevant constructs of self-regulation, habit, temptation and intentional and unintentional lapses (cognitive and behavioural consequences of lowered or fluctuating psychological resources and self-control), motivation, social and environmental support, and goal priority, conflict, and facilitation. Correlations and multiple regression were used to determine their influence on adherence, over and above intention and self-efficacy, and how relationships changed in the presence of distress. Better adherence was associated with greater self-regulation, habit, self-efficacy, priority, facilitation, and support; and lower psychological distress, conflict, and fewer self-control lapses (e.g., when busy/stressed). Autonomous and wellbeing-based, but not controlled motivations, were related to adherence. In the presence of distress, the influence of self-regulation and intentional lapses on adherence were increased, while temptation and unintentional lapses were decreased. The findings point to the importance of considering intentional, volitional, automatic, and emotional processes in the understanding and prediction of GFD adherence. Behaviour change interventions and psychological support are now needed so that theoretical knowledge can be translated into evidence-based care, including a role for psychologists within the multi-disciplinary treatment team. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eating and drinking habits of young London-based Irish men: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Aidan; Ciclitira, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study is based on interviews with young Irish men living in London about their diets and their views on healthy eating. The data were analysed using combined thematic and discourse analysis. Interviewees gave various reasons for not adopting healthy eating habits, including the cost of healthy foods, their lack of time and ability to cook, and their prioritisation of drinking. Views about the status of different foods also affected their eating habits: they considered red mea...

  12. Elderly Healthy Eating Diet-2005 Index Living in Urban Areas of Iran`s Markazi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aghanuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to assess elderly “healthy eating diet” -2005 (HED-2005 quality and its relationship to their socio-demographic variables in healthy subjects aged 60 years and over who live in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province. Methods & Materials: This study was a descriptive-analytic survey that included 165 elderly in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province. Data were obtained via a general questionnaire and three 24-hours recalls. Results: The mean of overall HEI-2005 was 54.08. Ninty-three point three percent (93.3% of subjects consumed grains, 70.9% fruits, 84.2% whole fruit, 47.9% vegetables, 12.7% dark-orange vegetables and legumes, 37% dairy products, 40% meats, 18.8% oils, 40% saturated fats, 1.8% sodium and 1.2% discretionary calories (from solid fat and added sugar in optimal levels. Besides, none of the elderly people had a sufficient intake of whole grains. The HEI-2005 total score enhanced along with the increases in education level (P<0.05, income (P<0.01 and TV watching time (P<0.05. But, age and the HEI-2005 total score had an inverse relationship (P<0.001. Conclusion: Because the diet quality of elderly people in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province is low, they will benefit from the improvement of their diet quality. Also, they need to increase intakes of whole grains, dark-orange vegetables and legumes and plant oils, and reduce intakes of sodium and their energy levels from saturated fat and simple sugar. It should be pointed out that the government can help with the achievement of these objectives through some plans such as promoting their literacy level, income and nutritional knowledge.

  13. Assessment of lifestyle and eating habits among undergraduate students in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Silvia; Bagordo, Francesco; Stefanati, Armando; Grassi, Tiziana; Piccinni, Lucia; Bergamini, Mauro; De Donno, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Dietary habits of university students were analyzed in order to investigate any differences between students living at and away from home. Two hundred and fifty-eight undergraduate students attending University of Ferrara completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic characteristics, food frequency consumption habits and body weight perception. Students living at home practiced more sport and consumed more frequently raw and cooked vegetables, fish, meat and poultry, fresh fruit, eggs, bread/cereals. Conversely, students living away from home consumed more often packaged/ready food, beer and spirits, milk and chips. The majority of students living alone reported a modification of dietary habits since leaving family. Furthermore they perceived to have a weight condition different from normal in a greater extent than students living with family. Students living alone encountered more difficulties in adopting a healthy diet so it would be desirable to adopt nutritional educational interventions on university students, usually neglected by these measures.

  14. Improvement in diet habits, independent of physical activity helps to reduce incident diabetes among prediabetic Asian Indian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Jagannathan; Selvam, Sundaram; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Nanditha, Arun; Simon, Mary; Shetty, Ananth Samith; Godsland, Ian F; Johnston, Desmond G; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2014-12-01

    To assess the beneficial effects of the components of lifestyle intervention in reducing incidence of diabetes in Asian Indian men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in India. This analysis was based on a 2 year prospective, randomized controlled primary prevention trial in a cohort of Asian Indian men with IGT (n=537) (Clinical Trial No: NCT00819455). Intervention and control groups were given standard care advice at baseline. Additionally, the intervention group received frequent, mobile phone based text message reminders on healthy lifestyle principles. Dietary intake and physical activity habits were recorded by validated questionnaires. The lifestyle goals were: reductions in consumption of carbohydrates, oil, portion size and body mass index of at least 1 unit (1 kg/m(2)) from baseline and maintenance of good physical activity. The association between diabetes and lifestyle goals achieved was assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Changes in insulin sensitivity (Matsuda's insulin sensitivity index) and oral disposition index during the follow-up were assessed. At the end of the study, 123 (23.8%) participants developed diabetes. The mean lifestyle score was higher in the intervention group compared with control (2.59 ± 1.13 vs. 2.28 ± 1.17; P=0.002). Among the 5 lifestyle variables, significant improvements in the 3 dietary goal were seen with intervention. Concomitant improvement in insulin sensitivity and oral disposition index was noted. Higher lifestyle score was associated with lower risk of developing diabetes (odds ratio: 0.54 [95% CI: 0.44-0.70]; P<0.0001). Beneficial effects of intervention were associated with increased compliance to lifestyle goals. The plausible mechanism is through improvement in insulin sensitivity and beta cell preservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Family Diet Study: a cross-sectional study into the associations between diet, food habits and body weight status in Malay families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W Y; Burrows, T; MacDonald-Wicks, L; Williams, L T; Collins, C E; Chee, W S S

    2016-08-01

    Childhood obesity is becoming more common as Malaysia experiences rapid nutrition transition. Current evidence related to parental influences on child dietary intake and body weight status is limited. The present study aimed to report, among Malay families, the prevalence of energy mis-reporting and dietary relationships within family dyads. The cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236) was conducted at five primary schools in central of Peninsular Malaysia. Each family consisted of a Malay child, aged 8-12 years, and their main caregiver(s). Information on socio-demographics, dietary intake and anthropometry were collected. Correlations and regression analyses were used to assess dietary relationships within family dyads. Approximately 29.6% of the children and 75.0% parents were categorised as being overweight or obese. Intakes of nutrients and food groups were below the national recommended targets for majority of children and adults. A large proportion of energy intake mis-reporters were identified: mothers (55.5%), fathers (40.2%) and children (40.2%). Children's body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with parental BMI (fathers, r = 0.37; mothers, r = 0.34; P Malaysia. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  17. AHA Scientific Statement Population Approaches to Improve Diet, Physical Activity, and Smoking Habits A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Afshin, Ashkan; Benowitz, Neal L.; Bittner, Vera; Daniels, Stephen R.; Franch, Harold A.; Jacobs, David R.; Kraus, William E.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Krummel, Debra A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Zakai, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor lifestyle, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. Methods and Results For this American Heart Association Scientific Statement, the writing group systematically reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for effective population approaches to improve dietary habits, increase physical activity, and reduce tobacco use. Strategies were considered in 6 broad domains: (1) media and education campaigns; (2) labeling and consumer information; (3) taxation, subsidies, and other economic incentives; (4) school and workplace approaches; (5) local environmental changes; and (6) direct restrictions and mandates. The writing group also reviewed the potential contributions of healthcare systems and surveillance systems to behavior change efforts. Several specific population interventions that achieved a Class I or IIa recommendation with grade A or B evidence were identified, providing a set of specific evidence-based strategies that deserve close attention and prioritization for wider implementation. Effective interventions included specific approaches in all 6 domains evaluated for improving diet, increasing activity, and reducing tobacco use. The writing group also identified several specific interventions in each of these domains for which current evidence was less robust, as well as other inconsistencies and evidence gaps, informing the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to evaluate population programs and policies. Conclusions This systematic review identified and graded the evidence for a range of population-based strategies to promote lifestyle change. The findings provide a framework for policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, clinicians, communities, and other

  18. Perception of change in living conditions and diet among rural Latino immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroly Hermosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen percent of the total population of the United States (US is composed of immigrants. Mexicans accounted for about three-quarters of the increase in the Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010. The social and economic problems facing this population in their countries of origin are fueling migration to the US, in search of new opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the changes in living conditions (housing, health, education and the dietary intake (ex - ante and ex - post of the Latino immigrant population that emigrated from rural areas in Mexico. The participants were attendees of the Purdue Extension Learning Network of Clinton County, who filled out a questionnaire with open and closed questions. The results evidenced the perception of improved quality of life variables related to housing, access to utilities and education, and a change with a tendency for increases in their consumption of fast food, processed food and soda, generating negative effects in terms of an increase in being overweight and obesity, and particularly a lowered consumption of products from their traditional diet.

  19. Living with a Red Dwarf: A Chandra Archival Study of dM Star Activity and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Scott

    2017-09-01

    We propose to analyze 6 archival Chandra visits, not pointed at, but serendipitously including 3 dM stars of known age. GJ 669 AB are a common proper motion pair, each are resolved and detected in 3 exposures, and LHS 373 is a much older dM star also detected on 3 exposures. Photometry (by us) of GJ 669 AB began 5 years ago, is ongoing, and has precisely determined rotation rates for both stars and evidence of frequent flaring from GJ 669 B. We will analyze the multiple exposures, derive an accurate mean level of X-ray activity from the targets, and also separate out and individually analyze and model any observed X-ray flares. This proposal will provide highly accurate coronal properties for the targets, but also very useful data for stellar evolution and planetary habitability studies.

  20. Assessment of iodine in the diet of people living around a nuclear reprocessing plant. Dose-related consequences of an intake of 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.; Berard, P.; Malarbet, J.L.; Exmelin, L.; Royer, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is important that in radioiodine dosimetry for low levels of daily intake, allowance must be made for the normal daily intake of stable iodine. This intake varies from one region to another, and variations are observed from one person to the next within a region, depending on eating habits. Measuring iodine in the urine over 24 hours can indirectly assess these variations. Analysis of the total iodine in the urine was carried out for 69 French people living in a temperate maritime region on in mainland France. This study justifies individual assessment of the coefficient of iodine transfer to the thyroid by means of this survey based on the urinary iodine analysis. The consequences for man of the release of 129 I around a nuclear reprocessing plant were analyzed by applying the methodology published previously by the authors. A software program based on the iodine biokinetic model recommended by the ICRP was used to calculate the daily urine excretion of 129 I for five different diets of total iodide in a ratio of 10 -4 for 129 I/ 127 I. This model makes it possible to set a practical detection limit of 20 mBq (0.003 μg). This approach is important from a practical point of view for health physicists involved in routine monitoring of workers in the nuclear field and members of the public exposed to radioiodine released into the environment. (author)

  1. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  2. Parental education and living environmental influence on physical development, nutritional habits as well as level of physical activity in Polish children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical development and nutritional status, the nutrition habits as well as level of physical activity of boys and girls in relation to the socio-economic status of their families. The study was conducted on a group of 529 boys and 535 girls aged 7-16 years from Swietokrzyskie Province in Poland. Boys and girls from high SES families had the greatest body height, BMI, upper arm muscle area, as well as upper arm fat tissue area, while the lowest values of these features occurred among those studied coming from families of a low SES. The higher the family SES, the higher habitual frequency of consuming vegetables and fruit as well as fish. The diet of children coming from higher SES families was also linked with a higher total protein content as well as animal protein, all analysed minerals and some vitamins, but there were no significant differences of energetic value in daily food rations as well as fat content. The longer time spent on some sedentary activities was connected with a higher family SES. The girls coming from a high status families also declared a higher level of physical activity, whereas such relationship was not observed among boys. A more rational set of nutritional habits observed among children from a higher SES families can be the basic reason for their higher advancement in development. A shorter time devoted to sedentary activities is assumed to be the main cause of a smaller relative body mass and less obesity among girls and boys from low SES families.

  3. Obesity prevalence and nutritional habits among Indian women: a comparison between Punjabi women living in India and Punjabi migrants in Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Maryam; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Indian women living in Punjab, India and in Vienna, Austria. A series of 115 women ageing between 17 and 80 years (x = 38.7 yrs; +/- 14.5) was enrolled in the present study. 65 women lived in the district of Jalandhar in Punjab, 50 Punjabi women lived in as migrants in Vienna Austria. Data collection comprised an anthropometric analysis including stature height, body weight and the body mass index (BMI). For classification of the weight status the Indian BMI cutoffs defined by the WHO for Asian Indians were used. Data concerning dietary patterns and lifestyle parameters were collected by structured interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Among both subgroups overweight and obesity were highly prevalent. Underweight (18.5%) was significantly more prevalent in Punjab than in Vienna (6.0 %), while overweight and obesity were more frequently found among Punjabi women in Vienna (26.0%; 54.0%) than among Punjabi women in India (9.2%; 24.6 %). Analysing lifestyle and dietary patterns it turned out that energy dense meals were preferred and fat and sugar were used frequently among both subsamples. A statistically significant relationship between dietary habits and weight status could not be proved.

  4. 13C evidence for dietary habits of prehistoric man in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, H.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 C fractionation pattern which is affected by the type of metabolism used by plants to fix CO 2 and differs in marine and terrestrial plants, has been used to investigate the dietary habits of prehistoric man in northwestern Europe. The results show that whereas Danish Mesolithic man lived on a diet dominated by sea food, in the Neolithic the human diet consisted predominantly of terrestrial food. (U.K.)

  5. Hygiene habits through time

    OpenAIRE

    Kalan, Petra

    2013-01-01

    In this work I did a research about hygiene habits of people and their home environment. The work presents how the hygiene habits changed in people home environment through time. The work presents changes of the body hygiene standards adopted by people from the middle ages onward. Todays customs are quite different from the ones we had some time ago. Moreover, hygiene of living environment has also changes which resulted into lower death rate and death illness related to bad hygiene among pop...

  6. Living with coeliac disease and a gluten-free diet: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadas, M; Dubois, S; MacIsaac, K; Cantin, I; Rashid, M; Roberts, K C; La Vieille, S; Godefroy, S; Pulido, O M

    2013-02-01

    Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is the only treatment for coeliac disease. The gluten-free diet is complex, costly and impacts on all activities involving food, making it difficult to maintain for a lifetime. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the difficulties experienced, the strategies used and the emotional impact of following a gluten-free diet among Canadians with coeliac disease. A questionnaire was mailed to all members (n = 10 693) of both the Canadian Celiac Association and the Fondation québécoise de la maladie cœliaque in 2008. The overall response rate was 72%. Results are presented for the 5912 respondents (≥18 years) reporting biopsy-confirmed coeliac disease and/or dermatitis herpetiformis. Two-thirds never intentionally consumed gluten. Women reported significantly greater emotional responses to a gluten-free diet but, with time, were more accepting of it than men. Difficulties and negative emotions were experienced less frequently by those on the diet for >5 years, although food labelling and eating away from home remained very problematic. Frustration and isolation because of the diet were the most common negative emotions experienced. The present study quantifies the difficulties experienced, the strategies used and the emotional impact of following a gluten-free diet. It highlights the need to improve the training and education of dietitians, other health providers and the food service industry workers about coeliac disease and a gluten-free diet, with the aim of better helping individuals improve their adherence to a gluten-free diet and their quality of life. © 2012 Canadian Celiac Association and Food Directorate Health Canada Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Quantitative habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L; Holland, Melanie E

    2007-12-01

    A framework is proposed for a quantitative approach to studying habitability. Considerations of environmental supply and organismal demand of energy lead to the conclusions that power units are most appropriate and that the units for habitability become watts per organism. Extreme and plush environments are revealed to be on a habitability continuum, and extreme environments can be quantified as those where power supply only barely exceeds demand. Strategies for laboratory and field experiments are outlined that would quantify power supplies, power demands, and habitability. An example involving a comparison of various metabolisms pursued by halophiles is shown to be well on the way to a quantitative habitability analysis.

  8. Habit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  9. Habit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  10. Island bat diets: does it matter more who you are or where you live?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlock, Jodi L; Krüger, Frauke; Clare, Elizabeth L

    2014-08-01

    Differences in body size, echolocation call frequency and location may result in diet partitioning among bat species. Comparisons between island populations are one way to evaluate these competing hypotheses. We conducted a species-level diet analysis of three Rhinolophus and one Hipposideros species on the Philippine islands of Cebu, Bohol and Siquijor. We identified 655 prey (MOTUs) in the guano from 77 individual bats. There was a high degree of overlap among species' diets despite differences in body size and call frequency. For example, the diet of the 3 g-Hipposideros pygmaeus (mean CF = 102 kHz) exhibited a diet overlap higher than expected by chance with all three Rhinolophus species, even the 13 g-Rhinolophus inops (mean CF = 54 kHz). We observed more convergence in diet between Rhinolophus species and H. pygmaeus than between Rhinolophus species themselves, which may be explained by the broad diet of H. pygmaeus. There was less dietary overlap between Rhinolophus virgo from two islands than between R. virgo and congeners from Cebu. These data suggest that location causes convergence in diet, but specific species characteristics may drive niche specialization. The complex interplay between location and the perceptual ability of each species leads to a situation where simple explanations, for example body size, do not translate into predictable prey partitioning. In particular, our observations raise interesting questions about the foraging strategy and adaptability of the tiny H. pygmaeus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Investigating the associations between Mediterranean diet, physical activity and living environment with childhood asthma using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphantonogeorgos, George; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Grigoropoulou, Dimitra; Yfanti, Konstantina; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Bakoula, Chryssa; Priftis, Kostas N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of the Mediterranean diet and physical activity with relation to living environment and childhood asthma. 1125 children (529 boys), 10 to 12 years old were recruited either in an urban environment (Athens, n = 700) or rural environment (n = 425) in Greece. A path analytic model was developed to assess the causal relation between urban environment and asthma prevalence (standardized ISAAC questionnaire), through the mediation of the Mediterranean diet (evaluated by the KIDMED food frequency questionnaire) and physical activity (evaluated by the PALQ physical activity questionnaire). The proposed model had a very good fit (χ2/df ratio =1.05, RMSEA=0.007, 90% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.046, p=0.97, CFI = 0.98). A significant total positive effect was found between urban environment and asthma symptoms (standardized beta= 0.09, penvironment - asthma relation (standardized beta=-0.029, penvironment on childhood asthma.

  12. Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities / Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

  13. [Control of Chagas' disease in Guarani communities: knowledge and hygiene habits within the Project to Improve Living Conditions in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, J; Ruiz, M T

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify knowledge and control of vectorial transmission (Triatoma infestans, known as vinchuca) of Chagas' disease in Guaraní Communities in Bolivia. We performed a descriptive study of a series of 98 individuals through a semi-structured questionnaire. Interviewees were asked about their familiarity with vinchuca, whether they thought vinchuca produced disease, the name of the disease and its consequences, as well as behavior related to eliminating the domestic insect vectors, such as cleaning of the home, backyard and corral.The insect vector was sufficiently well known (98%), although the name of the disease was identified by only 14.3% of the interviewees. Although the dwellings favored insect proliferation, they were not frequently cleaned: 28.6% cleaned their homes while and 42.9% cleaned the backyard and 7.1% cleaned the corral. Gender differences were found in the division of labor: women cleaned the homes and backyards, while men clean the corral. Experience has shown that the usefulness of projects for building healthy living areas and for health education depends on the value given to these projects by the community. Women are probably the best target group, because they perform a greater number of preventive tasks and seldom leave the community for extended periods of time.

  14. Difficulties related to compliance with gluten-free diet by patients with coeliac disease living in Upper Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ferster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Compliance with gluten-free diet is the basic method for controlling coeliac disease in patients regardless of their age. It may be, however, challenging to follow in daily life. The prevalence of the disease (approx. 1% of European population is affected makes it an important public health problem. Aim of the study: Investigating the difficulties and obstacles related to compliance with gluten-free diet by children and adult patients living in Upper Silesia region. Material and method: The study included 30 mothers of children with coeliac disease (Group I and 30 adult coeliac disease patients (Group II. The patients kept a gluten-free diet. Data were obtained in an anonymous survey drawn up for the purpose of this study, conducted in 2010. Results: The respondents reported a very limited access to gluten-free meals in mass-catering establishments (76.7% of the participants in Group II, and 70% children at nurseries, kindergartens and schools, lack of adequate food product labelling (93% in both groups, difficulties experienced in social life (60% in Group II, difficulties experienced when travelling within Poland (76.7% in Group II and abroad (83.3% in Group II, and no existing reimbursement plan for the high diet costs (16.7% in Group I vs. 26.7% in Group II. Conclusions: 1 The necessity of compliance with gluten-free diet causes a lot of difficulties in everyday life to patients with coeliac disease and parents of children suffering from coeliac disease. Proper treatment requires their identification by the attending physician. 2 Improved food labelling as regards gluten content as well as inclusion of gluten-free meals in the menu of food-serving establishments will contribute to improved quality of life of children and adults suffering from coeliac disease. 3 Associations of patients on a gluten-free diet should continue their efforts to have high costs of this diet refunded.

  15. Effect of the DASH Diet on Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensive Individuals in a Free-Living Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Malloy-McFall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH has been shown to successfully reduce systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP when evaluated in clinically controlled environments but there is a lack of information regarding the efficacy of the original DASH diet when it is applied in a free-living environment. Purpose To provide descriptive data as to the changes in blood pressure individuals could expect to achieve when following the DASH diet in a free-living environment for 4-weeks with no additional behavioral modifications. Methods Twenty, pre- and stage 1 hypertensive participants were randomly split into 2 groups; DASH (males N = 5, females N = 5, age = 38.5 ± 10.8 and control (males N = 7, females N = 3, age = 38.1 ± 11.1. The DASH group was instructed on how to follow the DASH diet on their own for 4-weeks while the control group continued their normal diet. SBP, DBP, body weight, 3-day food diaries and physical activity recall questionnaire data were collected pre and post intervention using a traditional person-to-person instructional technique. Results Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that there was a significant group (DASH, control by time (pre, post interaction for SBP ( P = 0.003 and no significant effects for DBP. The interaction was due to a significant reduction ( P < 0.001 in SBP in the DASH group (pre: 141.3 ± 11.3 mmHg vs. post: 130.7 ± 9.1 mmHg over the course of the intervention with no change in SBP in the control group (pre: 133.5 ± 6.6 mmHg vs. post: 131.9 ± 8.9 mmHg. Pearson's correlation analyses revealed that changes in potential moderators of blood pressure including body weight, BMI, sodium intake and total kilocalories were each not associated with changes in SBP (r ≤ 0.14, P ≥ 0.5 or DBP (r < 0.10, P ≥ 0.6 pre- to post-treatment. Chi-square demonstrated no significant differences in the number of participants per group (n = 4 DASH, n = 1 control who indicated increasing physical activity

  16. The Feeding Habits of Mesosauridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rivaldo R.; Ferigolo, Jorge; Bajdek, Piotr; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2017-03-01

    Mesosauridae comprises the oldest known aquatic amniotes which lived in Gondwana during the Early Permian. Previous work in the Uruguayan mesosaur-bearing Mangrullo Formation suggested that mesosaurids lived in an inland water body, inferred as moderately hypersaline, with exceptional preservational conditions that justified describing these strata as a Fossil-Lagerstätte. Exquisitely preserved articulated mesosaur skeletons, including gastric content and associated coprolites, from the Brazilian Iratí Formation in the State of Goiás (central-western Brazil) indicate excellent conditions of preservation, extending the Konservat-Lagerstätte designation to both units in the Paraná Basin. The near-absence of more resistant fossil remains, like actinopterygian and temnospondyl bones, demonstrates the faunistic poverty of the mesosaur-bearing “salty sea”. Our studies of the alimentary habits of mesosaurids through the use of stereoscopic microscopy, light and electronic microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry suggest that the diet of mesosaurids was predominantly composed of pygocephalomorph crustaceans (possibly not exceeding 20 mm in length). However, the presence of bones and bone fragments of small mesosaurs in the gastric content, cololites, coprolites, and possible regurgitalites may also indicate cannibalistic and/or scavenging habits. Cannibalism is relatively common among vertebrates, particularly during conditions of environmental stress, like food shortage. Likewise, the apparent abundance of pygocephalomorph crustacean fossils in the Iratí and Mangrullo Formations, outside and within the studied gastric, cololite, and coprolite contents, might have to do with environmental stress possibly caused by volcanic activity, in particular ash spread into the basin during the Early Permian. In this context, casual necrophagy on the dead bodies of small mesosaurs and large pygocephalomorphs might have been an alternative alimentary behavior adopted for survival

  17. Living gluten-free: adherence, knowledge, lifestyle adaptations and feelings towards a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, J A; Weiten, D; Graff, L A; Walker, J R; Duerksen, D R

    2016-06-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) requires tremendous dedication, involving substantive changes to diet and lifestyle that may have a significant impact upon quality of life. The present study aimed io assess dietary adherence, knowledge of a GFD, and the emotional and lifestyle impact of a GFD. Community dwelling adults following a GFD completed a questionnaire with items related to reasons for avoiding gluten, diagnostic testing, GFD adherence, knowledge and sources of information about a GFD, the Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and the effect of a GFD diet on lifestyle, feelings and behaviours. Strict GFD adherence among the 222 coeliac disease (CD) patients was 56%. Non-CD individuals (n = 38) were more likely to intentionally ingest gluten (odds ratio = 3.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.4-9.4). The adverse impact of a GFD was modest but most pronounced in the social domain. Eating shifted from the public to the domestic sphere and there were feelings of social isolation. Affective responses reflected resilience because acceptance and relief were experienced more commonly than anxiety or anger. Non-CD respondents were less knowledgeable and less likely to consult health professionals. They experienced less anger and depression and greater pleasure in eating than CD respondents. The findings obtained in the present suggest there is good potential for positive adaptation to the demands of a GFD; nevertheless, there is a measurable degree of social impairment that merits further study. The GFD may be a viable treatment option for conditions other than CD; however, education strategies regarding the need for diagnostic testing to exclude CD are required. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Diet, life-style and cardiovascular morbidity in the rural, free living population of Elafonisos island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. Kapelios

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are about 70 small islands in the Aegean and Ionian Sea, of less than 300 Km2 and 5000 inhabitants each, comprising a total population of more than 75,000 individuals with geographical and socioeconomic characteristics of special interest. The objective of the present study was to assess lifestyle characteristics and the state of cardiovascular risk of the population of a small Eastern Mediterranean island, Elafonisos. Methods PERSEAS (Prospective Evaluation of cardiovascular Risk Surrogates in Elafonisos Area Study is an ongoing, population-based, longitudinal survey of cardiovascular risk factors, life-style characteristics and related morbidity/mortality performed in a small and relatively isolated island of the Aegean Sea, named Elafonisos. Validated, closed-ended questionnaires for demographic, socio-economic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics were distributed and analyzed. The MedDietScore, a validated Mediterranean diet score was also calculated. In addition, all participants underwent measurement of anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and a full blood panel for glucose and lipids. Results The analysis included 596 individuals who represented 74.5% of the target population. The mean age of the population was 49.5 ± 19.6 years and 48.2% were males. Fifty participants (8.4% had a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The rates of reported diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were 7.7%, 30.9% and 30.9% respectively, with screen-detection of each condition accounting for an additional 4.0%, 12.9%, and 23.3% of cases, respectively. Four hundred and seven individuals (68.3% were overweight or obese, 25% reported being physically inactive and 36.6% were active smokers. The median MedDietScore was 25 [interquartile range: 6, range 12–47] with higher values significantly associated with older age, better education, increased physical activity, absence of history of diabetes and known

  19. Promoting a healthy diet and physical activity in adults with intellectual disabilities living in community residences: Design and evaluation of a cluster-randomized intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wihlman Ulla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults with intellectual disabilities have poor dietary habits, low physical activity and weight disturbances. This study protocol describes the design and evaluation of a health intervention aiming to improve diet and physical activity in this target group. In Sweden, adults with intellectual disabilities often live in community residences where the staff has insufficient education regarding the special health needs of residents. No published lifestyle interventions have simultaneously targeted both residents and staff. Methods/Design The intervention is designed to suit the ordinary work routines of community residences. It is based on social cognitive theory and takes 12-15 months to complete. The intervention includes three components: 1 Ten health education sessions for residents in their homes; 2 the appointment of a health ambassador among the staff in each residence and formation of a network; and 3 a study circle for staff in each residence. The intervention is implemented by consultation with managers, training of health educators, and coaching of health ambassadors. Fidelity is assessed based on the participation of residents and staff in the intervention activities. The study design is a cluster-randomised trial with physical activity as primary outcome objectively assessed by pedometry. Secondary outcomes are dietary quality assessed by digital photography, measured weight, height and waist circumference, and quality of life assessed by a quality of life scale. Intermediate outcomes are changes in work routines in the residences assessed by a questionnaire to managers. Adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities living in community residences in Stockholm County are eligible for inclusion. Multilevel analysis is used to evaluate effects on primary and secondary outcomes. The impact of the intervention on work routines in community residences is analysed by ordinal regression analysis. Barriers and

  20. Collaborative Evaluation of the Healthy Habits Program: An Effective Community Intervention to Improve Mobility and Cognition of Chinese Older Adults Living in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, C; Reid, K F; Wong, K F; Chin, R J; Botto, T J; Eliasziw, M; Bermudez, O I; Fielding, R A

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing demand to reduce ethnic health disparities. The Healthy Habits Program (HHP) was implemented to provide a community-based physical activity and education intervention for Chinese older adults living in Boston, Massachusetts. This study evaluated the HHP by assessing outcomes that are critical for maintaining independence of older persons. Quantitative evaluation was performed on 50 Chinese older adults enrolled in the HHP. The community members were trained in data collection and management. Cognition (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test and Complex Walking Task), mobility (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and maximal gait speed), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), perceived disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment 2.0), nutritional status (Mini Nutrition Assessment®), and strength (grip and leg strength) were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. All tests were translated into Chinese. Of the 50 participants (mean age 68.4 years; 68% female), 78% achieved the goal of performing exercise ≥3 times/week. After 6 months, clinically meaningful improvements were observed in mobility (mean SPPB score changed from 10.3 to 11.1 points; p=0.01) and cognition (mean MMSE score changed from 26.0 to 27.8 points; p=0.001). There were also statistically significant improvements in executive function, depressive symptoms and perceived disability (p<0.05). Culturally sensitive community interventions, such as the HHP, are effective for improving mobility and cognition of Chinese older adults. This reveals the potential of promoting successful aging in minority populations through community settings, and should be advocated to reduce ethnic health disparities in the U.S.

  1. Habitable Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Dohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N, an ocean (H and O, and a landmass (supplier of nutrients accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  2. Mixed crude glycerin in laying hen diets: live performance and egg quality and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRA Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance and the quality and fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets containing mixed crude glycerin (MCG; 80% vegetable fat + 20% animal fat. A total of 240 39-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments consisting of graded MCG dietary inclusion levels (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5%, with five replicates of eight birds each. Feed intake linearly decreased (p<0.05 with increasing MCG inclusion levels. The percentages of myristic, palmitic, and α-linolenic acids in the eggs linearly decreased as MCG dietary levels increased (p<0.05, while α-linoleic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and ω-6/ω-3 ratio linearly increased. Excreta moisture linearly increased with increasing levels of MCG inclusion (p<0.05. MCG may be included in up to 7.5% in layer feeds without impairing performance or egg quality, but levels up to 5.54% reduce SFA egg content. However, the inclusion of MCG in layer diets increases ω-6/ω-3 ratio in the eggs.

  3. Living with Advanced MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diet, Exercise & Healthy Behaviors Diet & Nutrition Exercise Heat & Temperature Sensitivity Sleep Vaccinations Women's Health Unhealthy Habits Managing ... as well as other resources in your area. Learning to redefine control and independence Sometimes MS symptoms ...

  4. The Dual Burden of Malnutrition and Associated Dietary and Lifestyle Habits among Lebanese School Age Children Living in Orphanages in North Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germine El-Kassas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood is a crucial period affecting physical and intellectual development. Although children living in orphanages are among the most vulnerable groups at risk of malnutrition, there is scarcity of data concerning their nutritional status in Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including a sample of 153 institutionalized children aged 5–14 years from all orphanages in Tripoli. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric, clinical, and dietary tools. Interpretation of anthropometric data showed that 13.8% were stunted while the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 9.2% according to the World Health Organization (WHO reference criteria. Physical signs suggesting nutritional deficiencies were detected in about 25% of the sample. Dietary intake evaluation showed that about half of the participants had inadequate dietary intakes of proteins, fruits, and vegetables and 92% had inadequate milk and dairy intakes recommended for their age specific needs. Multivariate regression analysis revealed statistically significant positive association of age, skipping breakfast, and increased screen time with stunting while it showed statistically significant negative association of inadequate protein intake with overweight/obesity. The coexistence of under- and overnutrition among institutionalized children calls for implementation of comprehensive intervention strategies committed to reducing undernutrition while simultaneously preventing overnutrition through improving diet quality and physical activity of these children.

  5. The Dual Burden of Malnutrition and Associated Dietary and Lifestyle Habits among Lebanese School Age Children Living in Orphanages in North Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2017-01-01

    Childhood is a crucial period affecting physical and intellectual development. Although children living in orphanages are among the most vulnerable groups at risk of malnutrition, there is scarcity of data concerning their nutritional status in Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including a sample of 153 institutionalized children aged 5-14 years from all orphanages in Tripoli. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric, clinical, and dietary tools. Interpretation of anthropometric data showed that 13.8% were stunted while the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 9.2% according to the World Health Organization (WHO) reference criteria. Physical signs suggesting nutritional deficiencies were detected in about 25% of the sample. Dietary intake evaluation showed that about half of the participants had inadequate dietary intakes of proteins, fruits, and vegetables and 92% had inadequate milk and dairy intakes recommended for their age specific needs. Multivariate regression analysis revealed statistically significant positive association of age, skipping breakfast, and increased screen time with stunting while it showed statistically significant negative association of inadequate protein intake with overweight/obesity. The coexistence of under- and overnutrition among institutionalized children calls for implementation of comprehensive intervention strategies committed to reducing undernutrition while simultaneously preventing overnutrition through improving diet quality and physical activity of these children.

  6. Perception of change in living conditions and diet among rural Latino immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosa, Maroly; Tineo, María; Aranda, Yesid; Posada, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the total population of the United States (US) is composed of immigrants. Mexicans accounted for about three-quarters of the increase in the Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010. The social and economic problems facing this population in their countries of origin are fueling migration to the US, in search of new opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the changes in living conditions (housing, health, education) and the dietary intake (ex - an...

  7. Effects of exercise training and a hypocaloric diet on female monozygotic twins in free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Schmidt, Walter F J

    2011-10-24

    This paper aims to examine the similarities in effects of exercise training and a hypocaloric diet within overweight female monozygotic twin pairs and to assess differences in twin partners' responses depending on the timing of exercise bouts and main meals. Six previously untrained twin pairs (aged 20-37 years, body fat 35.8±6.3%) performed an identical exercise program (12 bouts endurance and 8 bouts resistance training) and took part in a nutrition counseling program for a period of 28 days. They pursued one identical goal: to lose body weight and fat. Each twin partner was randomly assigned to one of the two intervention groups: "exercise after dinner" (A) and "exercise before dinner" (B). Subjects followed a hypocaloric diet, supervised by a nutritionist, in free-living conditions. Reductions in body weight, waist and hip circumference, glucose tolerance, mean daily %fat intake, changes in morning resting energy rate and resting metabolic rate showed great variation between twin pairs, but only small variation within twin pairs. Thus, the genetic influence on the changes in most of the examined anthropometric and physiological variables was high. There was no influence of the specific timing on the dependent variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of diet supplementation with live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, caecal ecosystem and health of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Belhassen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance, caecal ecosystem and overall health of growing rabbits. A control diet was formulated (crude protein: 15.9%; neutral detergent fibre: 31.6% and another diet obtained by supplementing the control diet with 1 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (6.5×109 colony-forming units per kg of diet. Ninety 35-d old rabbits were allotted into 3 groups: TT (rabbits offered the supplemented diet from 17 d of age onwards, CT (rabbits offered supplemented diet from 35 d and CC (rabbits fed non-supplemented diet. Body weight (BW and feed intake were measured weekly and mortality was controlled daily. At 35, 42 and 77 d of age, 6 rabbits from each group were slaughtered and digestive physiological traits, serum clinical chemistry parameters, fermentation traits, and the composition of caecal microbiota examined. At 42 and 56 d of age, 10 rabbits from each group were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μg/animal of ovalbumin and blood samples were collected for examination of plasma immunological parameters. Throughout the experiment (5-11 wk, weight gain and feed intake (37.8 and 112.6 g/d, on av. were not affected by yeast, except for weight gain in the first week after weaning, which was the highest in TT animals among the 3 groups (48.1 vs. 43.9 and 44.2 g/d for TT, CC and CT, respectively; P=0.012. This may be due to the increased trend in feed intake (P=0.072 in the TT group (96.4 g/d compared to the others. Mortality (5/90 was low and did not differ among the 3 groups. Treatments had no effect on slaughter traits at the 3 sampling dates (35, 42 and 77 d. Only the weight of the empty caecum (% BW was higher (P=0.02 in CC (2.2% and CT (2.3% than in TT group (1.8% at 77 d of age. Treatments did not overtly affect the caecal microbiota, although the number of total anaerobic bacteria and Bacteroides were lower (108 and 107/g caecal digesta

  9. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  10. Promoting healthy diets and active lives to hard-to-reach groups: market research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Maloney, S K

    1990-01-01

    Continued progress over the next decade in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from chronic disease will require that health communication efforts target a significant proportion of the American public that has not been influenced by the health promotion efforts of the 1980s. Focus groups conducted with members of the hard-to-reach American public showed that while being healthy seemed to be important to participants, and they were generally aware of what to do to stay healthy, they had a different operational definition of health than that used in health promotion programs. Participants seemed to believe that better health behaviors would build their resistance to acute illnesses, that is, keep them healthy, but that chronic diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, were due to fate and heredity and beyond their individual control. The focus group results show that participants had not made the link between chronic disease prevention and the importance of diet, exercise, and weight control. Although most of them seemed to express a genuine interest in "doing better," they were not able to supply more than superficial examples of how such changes might be made. Surprisingly, there were more similarities than differences in participants' attitudes and beliefs, with the similarities cutting across boundaries of race-ethnicity, age, and sex. Interest in changing behaviors was only slightly more pronounced among female rather than male, and older rather than younger, participants. However, there was not much evidence from the participants that they were actively seeking health information or trying to reconcile conflicting knowledge and beliefs.

  11. Caregivers' perception of factors associated with a healthy diet among people with intellectual disability living in community residences: A Concept mapping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Marte Pilskog; Raanaas, Ruth Kjærsti; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-12-01

    Many people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in community-based residences have been found to have unhealthy diet and weight disturbances. In Norway, a majority of people with ID live in such residences. The aim of the study was to examine factors affecting the caregivers' opportunity to promote a healthy diet among the residents. A concept mapping methodology was adopted, including group-based brainstorming, idea synthesising, sorting, rating and analysis of the results. Informants were caregivers in four different community residences for people with mild to moderate ID in the southeast of Norway. A total of 13 informants were recruited (12 females and 1 male), and 10 informants completed two sessions. Eight clusters were identified as affecting the caregivers' ability to promote a healthy diet: "Availability and accessibility", "Guidance and autonomy", "Competence among staff", "Planning and involvement", "Customization", "External conditions affecting staff", "Legislation, rules and structure" and "Everyday challenges", each including both barriers and facilitators. Multiple factors affect the caregivers' ability to promote a healthy diet. Caregivers' opportunity to promote a healthy diet is complex. Availability and accessibility of healthy food is crucial, but a healthy diet also requires time and competence among the caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further...

  13. Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  14. Impact of Mediterranean diet education versus posted leaflet on dietary habits and serum cholesterol in a high risk population for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Broer, Jan; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; Hulshof, Karin F. A. M.; May, Jo F.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    Objective: To investigate the impact of intensive group education on the Mediterranean diet on dietary intake and serum total cholesterol after 16 and 52 weeks, compared to a posted leaflet with the Dutch nutritional guidelines, in the context of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  15. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  16. Effects of a school based intervention to promote healthy habits in children 8-11 years old, living in the lowland area of Bologna Local Health Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, R; Dallolio, L; Musti, M A; Guberti, E; Garulli, A; Beltrami, P; Castellazzi, F; Centis, E; Zenesini, C; Coppini, C; Rizzoli, C; Sardocardalano, M; Leoni, E

    2015-01-01

    A school based health promotion intervention was performed with the aim of increasing physical activity and improving the dietary habits of primary school pupils, using integrated educational strategies involving schools, families, public bodies, sports associations and public health operators. The intervention concerned 11 classes during 3 school years from 2009-10 (231 third-year school children) to 2011-12 (234 fifth-year school children). Information was collected both before and after the intervention about the dietary habits and the physical activities practised by the children, using the questionnaires of the project !OKkio alla Salute! which were administered to both children and parents. At the same time anthropometric measurements were taken (height, weight, BMI) and motor skills were assessed using standardized tests: Sit & Reach, medicine-ball forward throw, standing long jump, 20 m running speed, and forward roll. At the end of the intervention 12 different expected outcomes were assessed (5 about dietary habits, 5 about motor habits, 1 about anthropometric characteristics, 1 about motor skills). At baseline, 35.8% of the children show excess weight (23.4% overweight; 12.4% obese); this percentage falls to 29.3% (25.3% overweight; 4% obese) after the intervention (p habits improve from the pre- to the post-intervention: there is a rise in the percentage of children who receive an adequate mid-morning snack (p habits do not improve in the same way, since there is the increasing tendency with age to skip from a regular daily practice of physical exercise to favour of the occasional practice of a sport. The motor performances, compared after normalization for modifications due to the process of growth, improve between the third and fifth years of primary school, but with no significant differences. To achieve this objective more focused measures are necessary in the administration of moderate to intense physical exercise. The results point to a positive

  17. Inclusion of live yeast and mannan-oligosaccharides in high grain-based diets for sheep: Ruminal parameters, inflammatory response and rumen morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Garcia Diaz

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mannan-oligosaccharides and the combination of these additives on the inflammatory response, ruminal parameters and rumen morphology of sheep fed a high grain-based diet. Thirty-Two Dorper x Santa Ines crossbred lambs with an average weight of 24±2 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were housed in individual stalls and fed ad libitum. Diet treatments were: Control (without additive; LY (2 g/kg DM of live yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MOS (2 g/kg DM of mannan-oligosaccharides and LY+MOS (2 g/kg DM of LY + 2 g/kg DM of MOS. The experiment lasted 42 days. The supplementation with MOS alone and the additives combination resulted in increased ruminal pH (P<0.01, while the total concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA in the rumen were higher (P<0.05 only in the diets with LY and MOS. Ammonia (NH3 concentration in the rumen decreased (P<0.04 with the additives usage. Diets with LY, MOS and with additives combination reduced (P<0.01 the levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS in the plasma with values of 0.46; 0.44 and 0.04 EU/mL, respectively when compared to the control (0.93 EU/mL. MOS and LY+MOS treatments had reduced stratum corneum thickness (P<0.01 in comparison to the control treatment. The total thickness of ruminal epithelium was lower with the addition of MOS in the diet (P<0.03 than with LY additive. The incidence and severity of hepatic abscesses in animals whose diet was supplemented with LY and LY+MOS was lower (P<0.05 than in animals fed the control diet. The use of LY, MOS and LY+MOS in the high-concentrate diets for sheep reduced NH3 concentrations and LPS translocation into the bloodstream. Diets containing MOS and LY+MOS enhanced the health of the ruminal epithelium by reducing the thickness of the stratum corneum, and diets containing LY and LY+MOS decreased the

  18. Exoplanet habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-03

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  19. Vitamin D-rich marine Inuit diet and markers of inflammation - a population-based survey in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Louise Kærholm; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Inuit diet in Greenland consists mainly of fish and marine mammals, rich in vitamin D. Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory capacity but markers of inflammation have been found to be high in Inuit living on a marine diet. Yet, the effect of vitamin D on inflammation in Inuit remains...... unsettled. This led us to investigate the association between vitamin D and markers of inflammation in a population with a high intake of a marine diet. We studied 535 Inuit and non-Inuit living in West and East Greenland. Information concerning dietary habits was obtained by interview-based FFQ. Blood...... samples were drawn for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitinase-3-like protein 1(YKL-40). Participants were divided into three groups based on degree of intake of the traditional Inuit diet. The diet groups (Inuit diet/mixed diet/imported foods) were...

  20. Meanings of Food, Eating and Health in Punjabi Families Living in Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gwen E; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Beagan, Brenda L

    2011-01-01

    Objective: South Asians living in western countries have increased risk for developing diet-related chronic disease compared to Caucasians of European heritage. To increase understanding of social and cultural factors associated with their food habits, this study examined the meanings of food, health and well-being embedded in the food practices…

  1. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Live Well Mental Health Substance Use Smoking Healthy Diet Physical Activity Family Planning Living with HIV: Travel ... to his or her health and well-being. Smoking - Tobacco use is the ... year. Healthy Diet - No matter your HIV status, healthy eating is ...

  2. Effect of health education combining diet and exercise supervision in Chinese women with perimenopausal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S; Mao, L; Chen, X; Bai, W

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of health education combining diet and exercise supervision on menopausal symptoms and diet/exercise habits. The randomized controlled study enrolled 60 patients with perimenopausal syndrome (Kupperman Menopause Index (KMI) score ≥15). The participants were randomized into either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30). Women were interviewed with questionnaires about perimenopausal symptoms, diet pattern and exercise habit. Their height and weight were measured. Women in the intervention group received health education, diet supervision and exercise supervision twice a week while those in the control group continued as normal. The total KMI score, scores of individual symptoms, diet pattern and exercise habit were measured after intervention. The total KMI score, the individual KMI scores for paresthesia, irritability, depression/suspicious, fatigue, arthralgia/myalgia, and palpitations of the intervention group were significantly lower compared with the control group after intervention. The intake of cereal, meat, fats and oils of the intervention group were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline. The percentage of women with a regular exercise habit was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group after intervention. Twelve weeks intervention of health education combining diet and exercise supervision could improve perimenopausal symptoms and help the patients establish good living habits.

  3. Assessment of lifestyle and eating habits among undergraduate students in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lupi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM AND METHODOLOGY: Dietary habits of university students were analyzed in order to investigate any differences between students living at and away from home. Two hundred and fifty-eight undergraduate students attending University of Ferrara completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic characteristics, food frequency consumption habits and body weight perception. RESULTS: Students living at home practiced more sport and consumed more frequently raw and cooked vegetables, fish, meat and poultry, fresh fruit, eggs, bread/cereals. Conversely, students living away from home consumed more often packaged/ready food, beer and spirits, milk and chips. The majority of students living alone reported a modification of dietary habits since leaving family. Furthermore they perceived to have a weight condition different from normal in a greater extent than students living with family. DISCUSSION: Students living alone encountered more difficulties in adopting a healthy diet so it would be desirable to adopt nutritional educational interventions on university students, usually neglected by these measures.

  4. HABITAR JUNTOS. SOBRE EL PAPEL DE LA ARQUITECTURA EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE ESPACIOS COLECTIVOS HABITABLES / Living together. On the role of architecture in the production of habitable collective spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Altés Arlandis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo reflexiona sobre la necesidad de otra aproximación al concepto de habitabilidad que permita aplicar soluciones y propuestas colectivas a todas las escalas, transversal y simultáneamente, de la habitación a la ciudad, reivindicando el valor de lo colectivo como alternativa a la atomización e individualismo imperantes. Frente a aquellas prácticas que o bien se entretienen en la incesante producción de nuevas formas, o bien se alinean con el sistema neoliberal en la tarea de producir y absorber plusvalías a costa de la destrucción creativa del espacio urbano y el territorio, se reclama la urgencia y necesidad de otros modos de hacer que aborden decidida y comprometidamente la tarea de proyectar la convivencia. Es imprescindible avanzar más allá de lo formal y lo tipológico, incorporando no sólo los ya conocidos discursos de adaptación, disociación y otros rituales contemporáneos de lo privado, sino también el proyecto crítico de los espacios comunes, colectivos, públicos e intermedios que fomenten la sociabilidad y convivialidad, y hagan posible el compartir espacios, recursos y vivencias. SUMMARY This paper reflects on the need for another approach to the concept of habitability; for collective solutions and proposals at all scales, transversally and simultaneously, from the room to the city, restoring the value of the collective as an alternative to prevailing fragmentation and individualism. Faced with those practices that are either entertained in the incessant production of new forms, or are aligned with the neoliberal system in the task of producing and absorbing surplus, at the expense of creative destruction of the urban space and the territory, there is an urgent need for other ways to firmly and uncompromisingly approach the task of planning coexistence. It is imperative to move beyond the formal and typological, incorporating not only the well-known rhetoric of adaptation, dissociation and other

  5. Healthy living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... living URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002393.htm Healthy living To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Good health habits can allow you to avoid illness and improve your quality of life. The following steps will help you ...

  6. Nutrition knowledge and other determinants of food intake and lifestyle habits in children and young adolescents living in a rural area of Sicily, South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Mistretta, Antonio; Turconi, Giovanna; Cena, Hellas; Roggi, Carla; Galvano, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to test the reliability of a nutrition questionnaire and to assess potential associations between nutrition knowledge, food consumption and lifestyle behaviours, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional survey. Comprehensive school in the municipality of Butera, a rural area of Sicily, South Italy. The survey was conducted between March and May 2010 on 445 students (4-16 years). All constructs of the questionnaire had statistically significant Cronbach's a and Pearson's correlation coefficients, showing good internal consistency and temporal stability. After controlling for covariates, nutrition knowledge was positively associated with pasta/rice, fish, vegetable and fruit intakes, and negatively with sweets, snacks, fried foods and sugary drinks consumption. Moreover, students whose parents were in the highest educational and occupational categories reported eating significantly more fruits and vegetables and less meat, sweets, snacks, fried foods and sugary drinks. Students with higher nutrition knowledge scores were less likely to have two or more snacks daily and to spend more than 3 h in sedentary activities daily (OR=0.89, 95% CI 0.83, 0.97 and OR=0.92, 95% CI 0.86, 0.99, respectively). High parental education was associated with less frequent snacking and more frequent weekly physical activity, compared with lower categories, whereas high parental occupational category was associated with daily breakfast. Improving nutrition knowledge in children and young adolescents may translate into educating them in good dietary habits. Moreover, nutrition intervention programmes should also involve parents to improve dietary quality and nutritional habits of the entire family.

  7. Relationship among diet habit and lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual function in outpatient-based males with LUTS/BPH: a multiregional and cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuke; Yu, Wei; Zhou, Liqun; Wu, Shiliang; Yang, Yang; Wang, Jianye; Tian, Ye; He, Dalin; Xu, Yong; Huang, Jian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Xin; Li, Hanzhong; Ma, Lulin; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Shengtian; Jin, Xunbo

    2016-08-31

    This study assessed the effect of diet habits on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual function in Chinese men with LUTS/benign prostatic hypertrophy (LUTS/BPH). Multicentre study conducted between July 2013 and December 2013 in 11 hospitals in 3 geographic regions in China. Overall, participants with LUTS/BPH accounted for 61.4% (2584/4208) of the respondents, whose data were processed in the following statistical analysis. LUTS and sexual function were assessed based on the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5) score. Prostate volume (PV) was determined by ultrasound. A total of 4208 participants met the inclusion criteria. The average age of the whole participants was 65.8±7.7 years. Overall, participants with LUTS/BPH accounted for 61.4% (2584/4208) of the respondents, whose data were processed in the following statistical analysis. Generally, prostate enlargement was greatest in south China. LUTS and male sexual dysfunction (MSD) were most severe in northwest China. Based on multivariable analysis, PV enlarged as the age (pBPH. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. FLUCTUATING SELECTION AND THE MAINTENANCE OF INDIVIDUAL AND SEX-SPECIFIC DIET SPECIALIZATION IN FREE-LIVING OYSTERCATCHERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Brouwer, Lyanne; Ens, B; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Candolin, U.

    Fluctuating and disruptive selection are important mechanisms for maintaining intrapopulation trait variation. Nonetheless, few field studies quantify selection pressures over long periods and identify what causes them to fluctuate. Diet specialists in oystercatchers differ in short-term payoffs

  9. Post-weaning and whole-of-life performance of pigs is determined by live weight at weaning and the complexity of the diet fed after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie L. Collins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production performance and financial outcomes associated with weaner diet complexity for pigs of different weight classes at weaning were examined in this experiment. A total of 720 weaner pigs (360 entire males and 360 females were selected at weaning (27 ± 3 d and allocated to pens of 10 based on individual weaning weight (light weaning weight: pigs below 6.5 kg; medium weaning weight: 6.5 to 8 kg; heavy weaning weight: above 8.5 kg. Pens were then allocated in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the respective factors being weaning weight (heavy, medium and light; H, M and L, respectively, weaner diet complexity (high complexity/cost, HC; low complexity/cost, LC, and gender (male and female. Common diets were fed to both treatment groups during the final 4 weeks of the weaner period (a period of 39 days. In the first 6 d after weaning, pigs offered the HC diets gained weight faster and used feed more efficiently than those offered the LC diets (P = 0.031. Pigs fed a HC diet after weaning tended to be heavier at the sale live weight of 123 d of age compared with pigs fed the LC diet (P = 0.056. There were no other main effects of the feeding program on growth performance through to slaughter. Weaning weight had a profound influence on lifetime growth performance and weight at 123 d of age, with H pigs at weaning increasing their weight advantage over the M and L pigs (101.3, 97.1, 89.6 kg respectively, P < 0.001. Cost-benefit analyses suggested there was a minimal benefit in terms of cost per unit live weight gain over lifetime when pigs were offered a HC feeding program to L, with a lower feed cost/kg gain. The results from this investigation confirm the impact of weaning weight on lifetime growth performance, and suggest that a HC feeding program should be focused on L weaner pigs (i.e., weaning weight less than 6.5 kg at 27 d of age in order to maximise financial returns.

  10. Changes in food habits and motivation for healthy eating among Pakistani women living in Norway: results from the InnvaDiab-DEPLAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Karianne S; Bjørge, Benedikte; Hjellset, Victoria Telle; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Råberg, Marte; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-06-01

    Pakistani women in Oslo have high risk of overweight and type 2 diabetes. The objective is to present the effect of an intervention study on Pakistani women's intentions to change dietary behaviour and changes made in dietary intake. The intervention group received culturally adapted lifestyle education, including diet and physical activity. The questionnaire, applied before and after the 7-month intervention, included FFQ and questions on intentions to change. Oslo, Norway. A total of 198 Pakistani women, aged 25-63 years, randomised into control and intervention groups. There was a shift in distribution of intentions to change the intake of selected foods in the intervention group after the intervention, resulting in significant differences between the groups. The daily intake of vegetables, fruits and fruit juice had increased (P = 0.043), and the intake of red meats (P = 0.001), full fat milk/yoghurt (P = 0.027) and sugar-rich drinks (P diet healthier, and also to induce some beneficial, however modest, self-reported changes in diet.

  11. Diet, smoking and cardiovascular risk in schizophrenia in high and low care supported housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avirup; Craig, Tom K J

    2009-01-01

    People suffering from schizophrenia have markedly increased physical morbidity and mortality. A poor diet and sedentary lifestyle make a significant contribution to this ill health. Healthcare professionals need to include assessments of diet and to promote a 'healthy living' lifestyle. To describe the dietary habits and cardiovascular risk factors of people with chronic schizophrenia living in supported accommodation and to audit the provision of cardiovascular health screening in this population. The dietary habits of 69 people with chronic schizophrenia living in community settings were assessed. Tobacco smoking, body mass indices and waist circumference were also measured. The dietary behaviour of patients living in high care settings with care staff present every day was compared with those in low care settings. Residents in both levels of care made poor dietary choices. Patients in high care were consuming more fast food than those in low care. The dietary habits of men and women in both levels of care were worse than reported by surveys of the general population in England. All patients had seen their GP in the previous year though only 3 had received diabetes screening and fewer than half had lipid profiles. People with schizophrenia do not improve their diet just by the provision of healthy food as was the case in high care settings. Secondary care services must address physical health monitoring as well as mental health if the increased mortality of patients with schizophrenia is to be addressed effectively. More effective interventions are necessary to improve and sustain a healthy diet.

  12. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  13. Effects of inclusion Aspergillus niger fermented shrimp waste meal in broiler diets on live performance and digestive organ weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan H. Djunaidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of shrimp waste meal fermented with Aspergillus niger (LUF in diets on growth performance and digestive organ weight of broilers. A total of 75 d-old chicks were randomly allocated to 5 (five treatments in 3 replication pens of 5 birds each. Treatments consisted of LUF inclusion of 0 (control, and 5, 7.5, 10 and 12,5% (P0, P1, P2, P3 and P4 in the diets. Birds were raised under standard condition and provided with feed and water ad-libitum. Feed and birds were weighed weekly up to 35 days to determine body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. At the end of experimental period, the birds were slaughatered and dressed up to determine carcass percentage and digestive organ weight. There was a significant negative linear response in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion with increase of LUF more than 7.5% in the diets until 35 days of age, but % carcass was almost the same for all treatment. There was no significant response in digestive organ weight with increasing levels of LUF. The present result indicated that LUF could be considered as a potential feed ingredient as protein source of broiler but its inclusion should be limited until 7.5% of the diet to maintain growth performance and digestive organ weight.

  14. [Prevalence of healthy oral habits in the child population resident in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapresa, L Barriuso; Barbero, B Sanz; Arizaleta, L Hernando

    2012-03-01

    Oral health is integral to children's health. To achieve this, it is essential establishing healthy habits early on them, such as regular check-ups, proper and frequent tooth brushing and a non-cariogenic diet. Prevalence of these habits are investigated in Spanish children by age group (pre-school: 2-5 years and school: 6-15 years) and by maternal educational level. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted, based on the last Spanish National Health Survey (2006). A representative sample of 8042 subjects (2-15 years) was obtained. A total of 47.35% reported having gone to dental services during the last year and 69.09% having gone sometime during their lives. Only 22.68% of the sample reported daily tooth brushing three times or more and 89.03% reported eating a cariogenic risk diet. In the school group (6-15 years) 29.87% of children whose mothers were university level brushed their teeth three times or more compared to 25.83% and 20.89% of those whose mothers had secondary and even primary studies respectively. For the intake of cariogenic risk diet, the percentages were 87.05%, 91.11% and 90.44%. In both age groups, and except for the consumption of sweets, there was a statistically significant association between maternal educational level and healthy habits. The prevalence of these healthy habits is far lower than the recommendations: a lower use of services and a lower frequency of daily tooth brushing and higher intake of a cariogenic risk diet. The outcomes are more favourable in both age groups when the mother are university level, wich may serve as a guide to the promotion of oral health. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Setting the Scene for a Healthier Indoor Living Environment: Citizens’ Knowledge, Awareness, and Habits Related to Residential Radon Exposure in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research is based on the premise that people perceive radiation risks in different ways, depending on their cultural background, information exposure, economic level, and educational status, which are specific to each country. The main objective was to assess and report, for the first time, the Romanians’ attitude (perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors related to residential radon, in order to contribute to the creation of a healthier living environment. A convenience sample of 229 people from different parts of Romania, including radon prone areas, was used. Results profiled a population vulnerable to radon threats from the perspective of their awareness and perceptions. Thus, study results showed that most participants did not perceive the risk generated by radon exposure as significant to their health; only 13.1% of interviewed people considered the danger to their health as “high” or “very high”. Additionally, it was found that awareness of radon itself was low: 62.4% of the sample did not know what radon was. From a practical perspective, the study shows that in Romania, increasing awareness, through the provision of valid information, should be a major objective of strategies that aim to reduce radon exposure. The present study takes a bottom-up perspective by assessing Romanian citizens’ attitudes toward radon. Therefore, it compensates for a gap in the behavioral studies literature by providing practical support for radon risk mitigation and creating the premises for a healthier living environment.

  16. Effect of oleic and conjugated linoleic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on the live growth performances, carcass traits and meat fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.

  17. High quality diet improves lipid metabolic profile and breeding performance in the blue-footed booby, a long-lived seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick González-Medina

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of diet in the physiological condition of adults during reproduction and hence its effect on reproductive performance is fundamental to understand reproductive strategies in long-lived animals. In birds, little is known about the influence of the quality of food consumed at the beginning of the reproductive period and its short-term effects on reproductive performance. To assess the role of diet in the physiological condition of female blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii (BFBO, during reproduction we evaluated whether individual differences in diet (assessed by using δ13C and δ15N values of whole blood from female birds and muscle tissue of the principal prey species prior to egg laying and during incubation influenced their lipid metabolic profile (measured as triglyceride levels and C:N ratio and their reproductive performance (defined by laying date, clutch size and hatching success. Females with higher δ15N values in their blood during the courtship and incubation periods had a higher lipid metabolic profile, earlier laying date, greater clutch size (2-3 eggs and higher hatching success. Females that laid earlier and more eggs (2-3 eggs consumed more Pacific anchoveta (Cetengraulis mysticetus and Pacific thread herring (Opisthonema libertate than did other females. These two prey species also had high amounts of lipids (C:N ratio and caloric content (Kcal/g fresh weight. The quality of food consumed by females at the beginning of reproduction affected their physiological condition, as well as their short-term reproductive performance. Our work emphasizes the importance of determining the influence of food quality during reproduction to understand the reproductive decisions and consequences in long-lived animals.

  18. Growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile Cerastoderma edule (L.) fed live microalgae diets with different fatty acid profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Batista, dos I.C.; Kamermans, P.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of dietary 20:5n-3 (EPA), 22:6n-3 (DHA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA) for growth, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile cockles (Cerastoderma edule) was investigated. Cockles of 6.24 ± 0.04 mm and 66.14 ± 0.34 mg (live weight) were distributed into three treatments where live microalgae

  19. Habitual Diet and Avocado Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-16

    Intra-abdominal Fat; Metabolic Syndrome; High Cholesterol; Triglycerides High; Diet Habit; High Blood Sugar; Liver Fat; Dietary Modification; HDL Cholesterol, Low Serum; Cardiovascular Diseases; High Density Lipoprotein Deficiency; Low-density-lipoprotein-type; Cardiovascular Risk Factor; Diabetes

  20. Memory Function in Feeding Habit Transformation of Mandarin Fish (Siniperca chuatsi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yaqi; He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Cai, Wenjing; Wang, Jie; Shi, Linjie; Li, Jiao

    2018-04-22

    Mandarin fish refuse dead prey fish or artificial diets and can be trained to transform their inborn feeding habit. To investigate the effect of memory on feeding habit transformation, we compared the reaction time to dead prey fish and the success rate of feeding habit transformation to dead prey fish with training of mandarin fish in the 1st experimental group (trained once) and the 2nd experimental group (trained twice). The mandarin fish in the 2nd group had higher success rate of feeding habit transformation (100%) than those in the 1st group (67%), and shorter reaction time to dead prey fish (1 s). Gene expression of cAMP responsive element binding protein I ( Creb I ), brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( Bdnf ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein delta ( C/EBPD ), fos-related antigen 2 ( Fra2 ), and proto-oncogenes c-fos ( c-fos ) involved in long-term memory formation were significantly increased in the 2nd group after repeated training, and taste 1 receptor member 1 ( T1R1 ), involved in feeding habit formation, was significantly increased in brains of the 2nd group after repeated training. DNA methylation levels at five candidate CpG (cytosine⁻guanine) sites contained in the predicted CpG island in the 5′-flanking region of T1R1 were significantly decreased in brains of the 2nd group compared with that of the 1st group. These results indicated that the repeated training can improve the feeding habit transformation through the memory formation of accepting dead prey fish. DNA methylation of the T1R1 might be a regulatory factor for feeding habit transformation from live prey fish to dead prey fish in mandarin fish.

  1. Memory Function in Feeding Habit Transformation of Mandarin Fish (Siniperca chuatsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqi Dou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin fish refuse dead prey fish or artificial diets and can be trained to transform their inborn feeding habit. To investigate the effect of memory on feeding habit transformation, we compared the reaction time to dead prey fish and the success rate of feeding habit transformation to dead prey fish with training of mandarin fish in the 1st experimental group (trained once and the 2nd experimental group (trained twice. The mandarin fish in the 2nd group had higher success rate of feeding habit transformation (100% than those in the 1st group (67%, and shorter reaction time to dead prey fish (<1 s than those in the 1st group (>1 s. Gene expression of cAMP responsive element binding protein I (Creb I, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf, CCAAT enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPD, fos-related antigen 2 (Fra2, and proto-oncogenes c-fos (c-fos involved in long-term memory formation were significantly increased in the 2nd group after repeated training, and taste 1 receptor member 1 (T1R1, involved in feeding habit formation, was significantly increased in brains of the 2nd group after repeated training. DNA methylation levels at five candidate CpG (cytosine–guanine sites contained in the predicted CpG island in the 5′-flanking region of T1R1 were significantly decreased in brains of the 2nd group compared with that of the 1st group. These results indicated that the repeated training can improve the feeding habit transformation through the memory formation of accepting dead prey fish. DNA methylation of the T1R1 might be a regulatory factor for feeding habit transformation from live prey fish to dead prey fish in mandarin fish.

  2. Construct Validation of Three Nutrition Questions Using Health and Diet Ratings in Older Canadian Males Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Usman; Keller, Heather H; Tate, Robert B; Lengyel, Christina O

    2015-12-01

    Brief nutrition screening tools are desired for research and practice. Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition (SCREEN-II, 14 items) and the abbreviated version SCREEN-II-AB (8 items) are valid and reliable nutrition screening tools for older adults. This exploratory study used a retrospective cross-sectional design to determine the construct validity of a subset of 3 items (weight loss, appetite, and swallowing difficulty) currently on the SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB tools. Secondary data on community-dwelling senior males (n = 522, mean ± SD age = 86.7 ± 3.0 years) in the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) study were available for analysis. Participants completed the mailed MFUS Nutrition Survey that included SCREEN-II items and questions pertaining to self-rated health, diet healthiness, and rating of the importance of nutrition towards successful aging as the constructs for comparison. Self-perceived health status (F = 14.7, P importance to aging (ρ = 0.10, P = 0.03) were correlated with the 3-item score. Inferences were consistent with associations between these construct variables and the full SCREEN-II. Three items from SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB demonstrate initial construct validity with self-perceived health status and diet healthiness ratings by older males; further exploration for criterion and predictive validity in more diverse samples is needed.

  3. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  4. Habitable Planets for Man

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dole, Stephen H

    2007-01-01

    ..., and discusses how to search for habitable planets. Interestingly for our time, he also gives an appraisal of the earth as a planet and describes how its habitability would be changed if some of its basic properties were altered...

  5. Rearing a reading habit

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

  6. Fad diets, miracle diets, diet cult… but no results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fad diets, miracle diets (in sum, diet cult are diets that make promises of weight loss or other health advantages (e.g. longer life without backing by solid science, and usually they are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices. These diets are often supported by celebrities and some health “professionals”, and they result attractive among people who want to lose weight quickly. By means of pseudoscientific arguments, designers of fad, miracle or magic diets usually describe them as healthy diets with unusual properties but always with undoubted benefits. After revising the history of these diets and exploring the scientific evidence, it must be noted that there is not a diet better than eating less, moving more and eating lots of fruits and vegetables. In addition, it is necessary to be aware of our general daily habits, remembering that eating is important but it is not everything. Getting active is also very relevant to improve (or recover our health. Summarizing, eating healthy and taking care of yourself are a duty but not a miracle.

  7. Effect of diet on the capacity to remove mercury from the body of a penguin (Spheniscus demersus living in the ZOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowska L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds due to its position in the trophic chain are good monitors of the marine environment in terms of mercury contamination. For the proper interpretation of results it is necessary to know both the processes of accumulation of this metal in their bodies and processes of elimination. Research involving the Penguin (Spheniscus demersus living in a ZOO has identified the relationship between diet and the amount of mercury removed from the penguin body in guano, feathers, and in the case of females with eggs. The research was conducted in years 2009-2011. Total mercury was determined in elements responsible for detoxification and in the diet of penguins. Mercury concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with AMA-254 automatic mercury analyzer. The highest average mercury concentrations were determined in feathers: 1781.12 ngHg•g−1d.w., lower in eggs: 950.88 ngHg•g−1 dry weight (d.w.. and in a guano: 139.18 ngHg•g−1. In food, herrings caught in the southern Baltic, Hg concentrations were relatively low with averaged value 31.81 ngHg•g−1d.w.

  8. Unhealthy lifestyle habits and diabetes-specific health-related quality of life in youths with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzillo, Enza; Zito, Eugenio; Maffeis, Claudio; De Nitto, Elena; Maltoni, Giulio; Marigliano, Marco; Zucchini, Stefano; Franzese, Adriana; Valerio, Giuliana

    2017-12-01

    Management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) influences several aspects of life, such as adherence to healthy lifestyle habits and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Our aim was to evaluate the association between unhealthy lifestyle habits and HRQoL in adolescents and young adults with T1DM. Two hundred and forty-two Caucasian patients (13-19 years) consecutively enrolled over a 12-month period in three Regional Pediatric Diabetes Centers in Italy. Demographics, clinical, and laboratory parameters, adherence to lifestyle habits (Mediterranean Diet assessed by KIDMED, Physical Activity levels and sedentary behavior by questionnaire) considered either separately or in cluster, and HRQoL by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes Module (PedsQL 3.0 DM) were collected. Metabolic control was determined by HbA1c mean of previous year. Only 15 (6.2%) patients fulfilled the cluster of three healthy lifestyle habits without gender differences (p = 0.353); 62 (25.6%) had 1 unhealthy lifestyle habit, and 165 (68.2%) had ≥2. Adolescents meeting physical activity recommendations had better PedsQL scores than those who did not meet. PedsQL total score and specific sub-scales decreased in patients with unhealthy lifestyle habits. High PedsQL was significantly associated with being male, living in South Italy, having lower HbA1c mean levels, and reporting lower adherence to unhealthy lifestyle habits. The clustering of unhealthy lifestyle habits is associated with reduced HRQoL in adolescents and young adults with T1DM. Promoting multiple behavior changes may be a useful approach to improve the health status and the HRQoL in youths with T1DM.

  9. On Your Own: Older Adults’ Food Choice and Dietary Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Whitelock

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function; food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence; on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one; and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting. These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population.

  10. On Your Own: Older Adults’ Food Choice and Dietary Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Emily; Ensaff, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population. PMID:29584644

  11. On Your Own: Older Adults' Food Choice and Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Emily; Ensaff, Hannah

    2018-03-27

    The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults' perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63-90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants' food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population.

  12. Dietary Habits and Cardiometabolic Health in Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini, Luisa; Croci, Marina; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Caffetto, Katherine; Invitti, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors vary largely among overweight children. This study investigated the relationships between dietary habits and cardiometabolic health among obese children living in a city of Northern Italy. Dietary habits were collected in 448 obese subjects aged 6-18 years, attending an obesity outpatient center in Milan. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), lipids, fasting and post-load glucose, and insulin were measured. Physical activity was assessed in adolescents using a questionnaire. Frequency of glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia was 0.7%, 13% and 27.2%, respectively. Plausible reporters consumed more animal protein and sodium and less legumes than recommended in nutritional recommendations and adequate amounts of fiber mainly derived from whole grains. Subjects skipping breakfast had unhealthy diets and greater body fatness. After adjustment for confounders, waist/height and fasting glucose were associated with sodium intake (r =0.149 and r = 0.142, respectively; p < 0.05), 2-hour glucose with fiber (r = -0.172; p < 0.01), and BP with vegetable protein intake (systolic r = -0.120 (p < 0.05); diastolic r = -0.267 (p < 0.01)). Hypertensive children consumed less vegetable protein than normotensive children. The cardiometabolic health of obese children improves with vegetable protein and whole grain intake, whereas dysglycemia and adiposity increase with sodium intake.

  13. Dietary Habits and Cardiometabolic Health in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gilardini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors vary largely among overweight children. This study investigated the relationships between dietary habits and cardiometabolic health among obese children living in a city of Northern Italy. Methods: Dietary habits were collected in 448 obese subjects aged 6-18 years, attending an obesity outpatient center in Milan. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, lipids, fasting and post-load glucose, and insulin were measured. Physical activity was assessed in adolescents using a questionnaire. Results: Frequency of glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia was 0.7%, 13% and 27.2%, respectively. Plausible reporters consumed more animal protein and sodium and less legumes than recommended in nutritional recommendations and adequate amounts of fiber mainly derived from whole grains. Subjects skipping breakfast had unhealthy diets and greater body fatness. After adjustment for confounders, waist/height and fasting glucose were associated with sodium intake (r =0.149 and r = 0.142, respectively; p Conclusions: The cardiometabolic health of obese children improves with vegetable protein and whole grain intake, whereas dysglycemia and adiposity increase with sodium intake.

  14. Milk in the island of Chole [Tanzania] is high in lauric, myristic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and low in linoleic acid - Reconstructed diet of infants born to our ancestors living in tropical coastal regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Smit, Ella N.; van der Meulen, Jan; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Boersma, E. Rudy; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    Background: We need information on the diet on which our genes evolved. Objective: We studied the milk fatty acid [FA] composition of mothers living in the island of Chole [Tanzania, Indian Ocean]. These mothers have high intakes of boiled marine fish and coconut, and consume plenty amount of fruits

  15. Habitability: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C S; Bush, T; Bryce, C; Direito, S; Fox-Powell, M; Harrison, J P; Lammer, H; Landenmark, H; Martin-Torres, J; Nicholson, N; Noack, L; O'Malley-James, J; Payler, S J; Rushby, A; Samuels, T; Schwendner, P; Wadsworth, J; Zorzano, M P

    2016-01-01

    Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of "habitability" and a "habitable environment." An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies.

  16. Campus food and beverage purchases are associated with indicators of diet quality in college students living off campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between college students' dietary patterns and frequency of purchasing food/beverages from campus area venues, purchasing fast food, and bringing food from home. Cross-sectional Student Health and Wellness Study. One community college and one public university in the Twin Cities, Minnesota. Diverse college students living off campus (n = 1059; 59% nonwhite; mean [SD] age, 22 [5] years). Participants self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of purchasing food/beverages around campus, purchasing fast food, and bringing food from home. Campus area purchases included à la carte facilities, vending machines, beverages, and nearby restaurants/stores. Dietary outcomes included breakfast and evening meal consumption (d/wk) and summary variables of fruit and vegetable, dairy, calcium, fiber, added sugar, and fat intake calculated from food frequency screeners. The associations between each purchasing behavior and dietary outcomes were examined using t-tests and linear regression. Approximately 45% of students purchased food/beverages from at least one campus area venue ≥3 times per week. Frequent food/beverage purchasing around campus was associated with less frequent breakfast consumption and higher fat and added sugar intake, similar to fast-food purchasing. Bringing food from home was associated with healthier dietary patterns. Increasing the healthfulness of campus food environments and promoting healthy food and beverage purchasing around campuses may be an important target for nutrition promotion among college students.

  17. Habitability Assessment of International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess habitability during the International Space Station 1-year mission, and subsequent 6-month missions, in order to better prepare for future long-duration spaceflights to destinations such as Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) and Mars, which will require crewmembers to live and work in a confined spacecraft environment for over a year. Data collected using Space Habitability Observation Reporting Tool (iSHORT), crew-collected videos, questionnaires, and PI conferences will help characterize the current state of habitability for the ISS. These naturalistic techniques provide crewmembers with the opportunity to self-report habitability and human factors observations in near real-time, which is not systematically done during ISS missions at present.

  18. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  19. Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy in emerging countries? ... advantages, primarily that its efficacy appears in studies to date to be very ... important role in adapting the diet to local eating habits and finding ...

  20. URGENSI STRATEGI DISPOSITION HABITS OF MIND MATEMATIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bety Miliyawati

    2014-09-01

    goals in 2013, which is preparing a generation of people that have the ability to live as individuals and productive citizens, creative, innovative, and affective. This article is assessed based on an analysis of: (1 the characteristics of mathematics, (2 the mathematical habits of mind, and (3 disposition example HOM in mathematics learning strategies developed in students. Keywords: Learning, Mathematics Characteristics, Habits of Mind Mathematics

  1. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.

  2. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Habitability of Aquaplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando Cardenas; Noel Perez; Jesus Martinez-Frias; Osmel Martin

    2014-01-01

    An Aquatic Habitability Index is proposed, based on Quantitative Habitability Theory, and considering a very general model for life. It is a primary habitability index, measuring habitability for phytoplankton in the first place. The index is applied to some case studies, such as the habitability changes in Earth due to environmental perturbations caused by asteroid impacts.

  4. On the Habitability of Aquaplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Cardenas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An Aquatic Habitability Index is proposed, based on Quantitative Habitability Theory, and considering a very general model for life. It is a primary habitability index, measuring habitability for phytoplankton in the first place. The index is applied to some case studies, such as the habitability changes in Earth due to environmental perturbations caused by asteroid impacts.

  5. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. For those who don't, simple behavior modification can help them break the habit. However, for those who start hair pulling as ... in your mirror. Do you bite your nails? Studies suggest that nail biting may ... kids engage in habits to attract attention or to manipulate their parents. ...

  6. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  7. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... to do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  8. Sociodemographic differences in dietary habits described by food frequency questions--results from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynesen, A W; Haraldsdóttir, J; Holm, L; Astrup, A

    2003-12-01

    To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index". Cross-sectional population survey. A total of 480 men, 515 women, aged 15-90 y. Random sample of private telephone numbers drawn from regional telephone records, geographically stratified. Participation rate 62%. Computer-assisted telephone interviews, including six food frequency questions, a question on type of fat spreads used on bread, questions on seven sociodemographic variables. The summary of the healthy-diet index showed that the subjects who adhered to food-based dietary guidelines (top quintile) compared to those who did not (bottom quintile) were most often women (odds ratio (OR)=6.07; confidence interval (CI): 3.91-9.43, women vs men), of older age (OR=9.72; CI: 3.02-31.31, old age vs young), highly educated (OR=3.69; CI: 1.53-8.92, high education vs low) and living in multiperson households including children (OR=4.66; CI: 2.47-8.80, multiperson household vs single household). The results also showed that gender difference in dietary habits is associated with other sociodemographic variables. The selected food frequency questions proved sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and this method may be a valuable supplement to traditional quantitative dietary surveys in monitoring sociodemographic changes in eating patterns. The results also underline the influence of sociodemographic status on dietary habits. The Danish Nutrition Council funded the study.

  9. On the habitability of exoplanets orbiting Proxima Centauri

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Madeleine; Cardenas, Rolando; Rodriguez, Lien

    2014-01-01

    We apply a mathematical model for photosynthesis to quantitatively assess the habitability of a hypothetical planet orbiting Proxima Centauri, inside the so called habitability zone. Results suggest significant viability for primary biological productivity, provided living organisms have evolved to reach the ability of using infrared light for photosynthesis.

  10. Gastrointestinal symptoms and well-being of adults living on a gluten-free diet: a case for nursing in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Susanne; Kärner, Anita; Hallert, Claes

    2009-01-01

    Women with celiac disease (CD) living on a gluten-free diet (GFD) show a lower health-related quality of life and report a higher rate of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms than men with CD. Uncertainty exists as to whether GI symptoms may explain the poorer treatment outcome of women with CD. This study was designed to explore relationships of GI symptoms and psychological well-being in men and women with long-standing CD. Patients with CD (n = 108; 59% women), aged 45-64 years, treated with a GFD for at least 8 years were evaluated by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and the Psychological General Well-Being index. The results show that women with a high rate of GI symptoms have no lower level of psychological well-being than corresponding men with CD and that women with CD with reduced psychological well-being have no more GI symptoms than corresponding men. Our results fail to support the notion that the reduced subjective health in CD is explained by GI symptoms. They may be secondary to perceived difficulties in managing everyday life, suggesting that launching a nurse-led follow-up may be helpful, as has been proven to be useful in other lifelong disorders.

  11. Habits of the Scaly Anteater from Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1903-01-01

    Mr. Edward Jacobson from Semarang (Java), one of the zealed correspondents of our Museum, communicated me the other day some observations made by himself on living animals. Especially of a high scientific interest seemed to me what he wrote concerning the habits and behavior of a specimen of the

  12. Adherence to the "Mediterranean Diet" in Spain and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk (DIMERICA Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Alemán, José; Zafrilla Rentero, María Pilar; Montoro-García, Silvia; Mulero, Juana; Pérez Garrido, Alfonso; Leal, Mariano; Guerrero, Lucía; Ramos, Elena; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2016-10-28

    Nutritional studies focus on traditional cultural models and lifestyles in different countries. The aim of this study was to examine the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, life habits, and risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among people living in different geographical regions in Spain. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in each region. The sampling scheme consisted of a random three-stage stratified sampling program according to geographic region, age, and gender. A total of 1732 subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and exercise. A diet score that assesses the adherence of participants to the Mediterranean diet (range 0-10) was also applied. Southeastern Spain had the lowest score for adherence to the Mediterranean diet because of the low consumption of fish and plant products. A lower adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was strongly associated with the prevalence of hypertension ( p = 0.018). A low level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet is accompanied by a high prevalence of hypertension and, therefore, a raised cardiovascular risk in the country. The adherence score could help identify individuals at greater cardiovascular risk.

  13. Assessing Nutritional Parameters of Brown Bear Diets among Ecosystems Gives Insight into Differences among Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alfaro, Claudia; Coogan, Sean C P; Robbins, Charles T; Fortin, Jennifer K; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Food habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. However, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. Here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (Ursus arctos) diets among three interior ecosystems of North America. Specifically, we estimate the average amount of digestible energy and protein (per kilogram fresh diet) content in the diet and across the active season by bears living in western Alberta, the Flathead River (FR) drainage of southeast British Columbia, and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). As well, we estimate the proportion of energy and protein in the diet contributed by different food items, thereby highlighting important food resources in each ecosystem. Bear diets in Alberta had the lowest levels of digestible protein and energy through all seasons, which might help explain the low reproductive rates of this population. The FR diet had protein levels similar to the recent male diet in the GYE during spring, but energy levels were lower during late summer and fall. Historic and recent diets in GYE had the most energy and protein, which is consistent with their larger body sizes and higher population productivity. However, a recent decrease in consumption of trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), whitebark pine nuts (Pinus albicaulis), and ungulates, particularly elk (Cervus elaphus), in GYE bears has decreased the energy and protein content of their diet. The patterns observed suggest that bear body size and population densities are influenced by seasonal availability of protein an energy, likely due in part to nutritional influences on mass gain and reproductive success.

  14. Assessing Nutritional Parameters of Brown Bear Diets among Ecosystems Gives Insight into Differences among Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia López-Alfaro

    Full Text Available Food habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. However, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. Here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (Ursus arctos diets among three interior ecosystems of North America. Specifically, we estimate the average amount of digestible energy and protein (per kilogram fresh diet content in the diet and across the active season by bears living in western Alberta, the Flathead River (FR drainage of southeast British Columbia, and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE. As well, we estimate the proportion of energy and protein in the diet contributed by different food items, thereby highlighting important food resources in each ecosystem. Bear diets in Alberta had the lowest levels of digestible protein and energy through all seasons, which might help explain the low reproductive rates of this population. The FR diet had protein levels similar to the recent male diet in the GYE during spring, but energy levels were lower during late summer and fall. Historic and recent diets in GYE had the most energy and protein, which is consistent with their larger body sizes and higher population productivity. However, a recent decrease in consumption of trout (Oncorhynchus clarki, whitebark pine nuts (Pinus albicaulis, and ungulates, particularly elk (Cervus elaphus, in GYE bears has decreased the energy and protein content of their diet. The patterns observed suggest that bear body size and population densities are influenced by seasonal availability of protein an energy, likely due in part to nutritional influences on mass gain and reproductive success.

  15. Assessing Nutritional Parameters of Brown Bear Diets among Ecosystems Gives Insight into Differences among Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alfaro, Claudia; Coogan, Sean C. P.; Robbins, Charles T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Food habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. However, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. Here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (Ursus arctos) diets among three interior ecosystems of North America. Specifically, we estimate the average amount of digestible energy and protein (per kilogram fresh diet) content in the diet and across the active season by bears living in western Alberta, the Flathead River (FR) drainage of southeast British Columbia, and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). As well, we estimate the proportion of energy and protein in the diet contributed by different food items, thereby highlighting important food resources in each ecosystem. Bear diets in Alberta had the lowest levels of digestible protein and energy through all seasons, which might help explain the low reproductive rates of this population. The FR diet had protein levels similar to the recent male diet in the GYE during spring, but energy levels were lower during late summer and fall. Historic and recent diets in GYE had the most energy and protein, which is consistent with their larger body sizes and higher population productivity. However, a recent decrease in consumption of trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), whitebark pine nuts (Pinus albicaulis), and ungulates, particularly elk (Cervus elaphus), in GYE bears has decreased the energy and protein content of their diet. The patterns observed suggest that bear body size and population densities are influenced by seasonal availability of protein an energy, likely due in part to nutritional influences on mass gain and reproductive success. PMID:26083536

  16. Habitable Zones in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review...

  17. The role of dietary habits in human internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.; Bruck, G.J.; Shutov, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    The diversity of the dietary habits of the inhabitants living in the areas contaminated with long-lived radionuclides is an important factor for finding out the ways and specific features of internal dose formation of the population. The diet and structure of food consumption of different contingents of the population in several regions subjected to the radioactive accidents were studied. Using the specially developed questionnaire, we surveyed in Russia over 3000 inhabitants of the Bryansk region, and found out their food rations before the Chernobyl accident and during different time periods after it. In the Urals, we surveyed 102 inhabitants of the village Muslyumovo located on the bank of the Techa river that was contaminated as a result of releases of products of processing nuclear fuel and also more than 136 people residing in the area of the East Ural Radioactive Trace. In the North of the European part of Russia we investigated 310 local inhabitants including 114 reindeer herders. In Kazakhstan, we polled over 114 residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, including 23 herdsmen and members of their families. The dietary habits of all investigated groups of the population strongly differ both due to climatic conditions and national and confessional traditions. Besides that, they are strongly influenced by the sources of the contamination of local food products that also differ both by radionuclide composition and by the time period elapsed since contamination of the considered areas. On the basis of the obtained results, we calculated the internal doses for the population of mentioned regions, which are in good coincidence with the data of direct measurements of radionuclides content in human body. We have determined, which products have the leading role in internal dose formation during different time periods after depositions

  18. Eating attitudes anda habits on adolescents in the Pilsen region

    OpenAIRE

    CÍROVÁ, Vanda

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the eating habits of pupils at elementary schools and of the third-year students of high school. The theoretical part deals with the definition of teenagers and adolescents eating habits and attitudes, the principles of a healthy diet, fluid intake, the most common eating disorders, metabolic disorders and obesity. The practical part contains the research carried out at selected elementary and secondary schools. Results are compared by gender, education level a...

  19. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  20. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  1. Habitability: CAMELOT 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alequin, W.; Barragan, A.; Carro, M.; Garcia, F.; Gonzalez, I.; Mercado, J. A.; Negron, N.; Lopez, D.; Rivera, L. A.; Rivera, M.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 to 1989 the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program sponsored research and design efforts aimed at developing habitability criteria and at defining a habitability concept as a useful tool in understanding and evaluating dwellings for prolonged stays in extraterrestrial space. The Circulating Auto sufficient Mars-Earth Luxurious Orbital Transport (CAMELOT) was studied as a case in which the students would try to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants by applying architectural design methodology. The study proposed 14 habitability criteria considered necessary to fulfill the defined habitability concept, which is that state of equilibrium that results from the interaction between components of the Individual Architecture Mission Complex, which allows a person to sustain physiological homeostatis, adequate performance, and acceptable social relationships. Architecture, design development, refinements and revisions to improve the quality of life, new insights on artificial gravity, form and constitution problems, and the final design concept are covered.

  2. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  3. Habitability and the Multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, M. E.

    2017-11-01

    Are the laws of physics set to maximize the habitability of the universe? We study how plate tectonics, core and mantle composition, homochirality, photosynthesis, and planet size depend on physics, and make predictions for where life will be found.

  4. Food Habits Database (FHDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Food Habits Database has two major sources of data. The first, and most extensive, is the standard NEFSC Bottom Trawl Surveys Program. During these...

  5. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  6. [Study on health support strategies by analyzing the diet, alcohol intake, and smoking behavior of university students: examination of non-communicable disease risk factors according to their sex, age and living arrangement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the diet, drinking, and smoking behaviors of university students and to analyze the health behaviors that could be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in order to contribute to the promotion of NCD prevention in youth. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions including items about health behaviors. The subjects surveyed were students of 10 universities on the main island of Japan (1,196 valid responders). The score for the nutritional balance was significantly low in the group living alone for both students in their teens and 20s. For the frequency of not eating breakfast, results suggest that living alone and increase in age are related to the lack of breakfast for both males and females. Teenage males living alone tended to lack in consideration for the intake of animal fat than those not living alone. The females showed a higher tendency to eat sweets and snacks during the day than the males. For the males who living alone, results suggest that they tended to have a higher or equal alcohol intake to females in their 20s and males in their 20s not living alone even when they are underage. Males in their 20s tended to have a higher amount and frequency of smoking than other groups regardless of their living arrangement. Accumulation of health behavior that could be a risk for NCDs was found in some of the groups, such as males living alone.

  7. Translational Research on Habit and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Theresa H; Shnitko, Tatiana A; Robinson, Donita L; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Habitual actions enable efficient daily living, but they can also contribute to pathological behaviors that resistant change, such as alcoholism. Habitual behaviors are learned actions that appear goal-directed but are in fact no longer under the control of the action's outcome. Instead, these actions are triggered by stimuli, which may be exogenous or interoceptive, discrete or contextual. A major hallmark characteristic of alcoholism is continued alcohol use despite serious negative consequences. In essence, although the outcome of alcohol seeking and drinking is dramatically devalued, these actions persist, often triggered by environmental cues associated with alcohol use. Thus, alcoholism meets the definition of an initially goal-directed behavior that converts to a habit-based process. Habit and alcohol have been well investigated in rodent models, with comparatively less research in non-human primates and people. This review focuses on translational research on habit and alcohol with an emphasis on cross-species methodology and neural circuitry.

  8. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  9. Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-01-31

    Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.

  10. Comparison of a low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckling, Kelly A; O'Sullivan, Caitriona; Saari, Dayna

    2004-06-01

    Overweight and obese men and women (24-61 yr of age) were recruited into a randomized trial to compare the effects of a low-fat (LF) vs. a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on weight loss. Thirty-one subjects completed all 10 wk of the diet intervention (retention, 78%). Subjects on the LF diet consumed an average of 17.8% of energy from fat, compared with their habitual intake of 36.4%, and had a resulting energy restriction of 2540 kJ/d. Subjects on the LC diet consumed an average of 15.4% carbohydrate, compared with habitual intakes of about 50% carbohydrate, and had a resulting energy restriction of 3195 kJ/d. Both groups of subjects had significant weight loss over the 10 wk of diet intervention and nearly identical improvements in body weight and fat mass. LF subjects lost an average of 6.8 kg and had a decrease in body mass index of 2.2 kg/m2, compared with a loss of 7.0 kg and decrease in body mass index of 2.1 kg/m2 in the LC subjects. The LF group better preserved lean body mass when compared with the LC group; however, only the LC group had a significant decrease in circulating insulin concentrations. Group results indicated that the diets were equally effective in reducing systolic blood pressure by about 10 mm Hg and diastolic pressure by 5 mm Hg and decreasing plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 bioactivity. Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were increased in the LC only, at the 2- and 4-wk time points. These data suggest that energy restriction achieved by a very LC diet is equally effective as a LF diet strategy for weight loss and decreasing body fat in overweight and obese adults.

  11. Disparities in dietary habits and physical activity in Denmark and trends from 1995 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Concentration Index" did not change any of the conclusions. Gender also influenced diet quality. Men had dietary and alcohol habits furthest away from the guidelines. A trend of healthier habits was also found over the time period. CONCLUSIONS SOCIAL DISPARITIES IN DIET QUALITY AND LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL......In all analyses, both diet quality and physical inactivity differed systematically with educational group and with healthier habits for the group with long education. Only for alcohol habits was an opposite social gradient seen. Disparities persisted over all time periods. The analyses using "The...... ACTIVITY WERE SEEN FOR ALL EXAMINED TIME PERIODS AND WITH NO SIGNIFICANT CHANGE THEREFORE, THERE IS NO SUPPORT TO THE HYPOTHESIS OF WIDENING SOCIAL DISPARITIES IN ALL EDUCATIONAL GROUPS SOME IMPROVEMENT OF DIETARY HABITS WAS FOUND, ESPECIALLY FOR THOSE FOODS WHERE COMPREHENSIVE INITIATIVES HAD TAKEN PLACE...

  12. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  13. Increased Protein Consumption during the Day from an Energy-Restricted Diet Augments Satiety but Does Not Reduce Daily Fat or Carbohydrate Intake on a Free-Living Test Day in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwin, Jess A; Maki, Kevin C; Leidy, Heather J

    2017-12-01

    between the NP-BEEF and NP-PLANT treatments. Conclusions: Although appetite control, satiety, and food cravings improved after an HP energy-restriction diet, increased protein consumption did not reduce carbohydrate and fat intakes throughout the free-living test day in overweight healthy women exposed to highly palatable foods. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02614729. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern1 At the time of the study, Anne Flint was employed at the Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Flint

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS, and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS.To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI, smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings.We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98 and men (80, aged 20–60 years with a BMI of 18.5–35.0 kg/m2. Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour.Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (p<0.001, adj. R 2=0.19 and hunger (p<0.001, adj. R 2=0.15. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM analyses revealed that women felt more satisfied than men (p<0.001 and older subjects felt more satisfied than younger (p<0.01. Furthermore, light/no exercisers felt more satisfied and less hungry than hard/moderate exercisers (p<0.05, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (p < 005 and women in the ovulation phase felt less hungry than women in the menstruation phase (p<005. Neither BMI nor diet/weight concern were significantly associated with appetite ratings.Appetite ratings differed according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern

  15. Eating habits of students in the second and third years of elementary school in northeastern Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Orthaber, Mateja; Potočnik, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental elements of healthy eating for children and adolescents is a high-quality and varied diet that will help develop good habits for future life. Therefore, we presented some statistics on the eating habits of children and adolescents in elementary school and the organization of school meals in our country. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the basic characteristics of the eating habits of students. We included their opinions and attitudes toward eating at home and ...

  16. Food and feeding habits of four selected fish species in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food and feeding habits of four fish species: Citharinus latus, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Hepsetus odoe and Trichiurus lepturus, from the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria were investigated. In studying the diets and feeding habits of the fishes, both the frequency of occurrence and numerical methods were used. Results show that ...

  17. Snacking now or later? Individual differences in following intentions or habits explained by time perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Riet, van 't J.; Dagevos, H.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Even when individuals are aware of long-term health effects of their diet, and form healthy intentions, they often engage in relatively unhealthy snacking habits. Some individuals fall back on unhealthy habits more easily than others. We aim to explore whether time perspective can explain why

  18. Snacking now or later? Individual differences in following intentions or habits explained by time perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Riet, J.P. van 't; Dagevos, H.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Even when individuals are aware of long-term health effects of their diet, and form healthy intentions, they often engage in relatively unhealthy snacking habits. Some individuals fall back on unhealthy habits more easily than others. We aim to explore whether time perspective can explain why some

  19. Chapter 22: Marbled Murrelet Food Habits and Prey Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther E. Burkett

    1995-01-01

    Information on food habits of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) was compiled from systematic studies and anecdotal reports from Alaska to California. Major differences between the winter and summer diets were apparent, with euphausiids and mysids becoming more dominant during winter and spring. The primary invertebrate prey items were...

  20. Acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits among Hispanics in United States-Mexico border communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia J; Pagán, José A; Díaz, Violeta

    2010-09-01

    To explore the relationship between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits in the largely Hispanic populations living in underserved communities in the United States of America along the U.S.-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2006 to June 2008 using survey data from the Alliance for a Healthy Border, a program designed to reduce health disparities in the U.S.-Mexico border region by funding nutrition and physical activity education programs at 12 federally qualified community health centers in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. The survey included questions on acculturation, diet, exercise, and demographic factors and was completed by 2,381 Alliance program participants, of whom 95.3% were Hispanic and 45.4% were under the U.S. poverty level for 2007. Chi-square (χ2) and Student's t tests were used for bivariate comparisons between acculturation and dietary and physical activity measures. Linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to control for factors associated with nutrition and exercise. Based on univariate tests and confirmed by regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic and health variables, less acculturated survey respondents reported a significantly higher frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and healthier dietary habits than those who were more acculturated. Adjusted binary logistic regression confirmed that individuals with low language acculturation were less likely to engage in physical activity than those with moderate to high acculturation (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.95). Findings confirmed an association between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits and supported the hypothesis that acculturation in border community populations tends to decrease the practice of some healthy dietary habits while increasing exposure to and awareness of the importance of other healthy behaviors.

  1. Nutritional habits of the inhabitants of the island of Vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Sasa

    2009-12-01

    The island of Vis belongs to middle Dalmatian group of islands with caracteristics Mediterranean climate. The assumption was that the dominant diet of the inhabitants is also Mediterranean. Such diet is considered to be one of the best for the prevention of many complex and chronic diseases, as confirmed by numerous studies in different parts of the World. This study showed a shift in dietary habits in the direction of a more globalized diet. Such sudden shift may prove to be an important trigger for the development of complex diseases such as diabetes melitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases, gout, as well as certain types of cancer.

  2. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mary T; Roberto, Christina A

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearly every country in the world. As countries grapple with the growing obesity prevalence, many innovative policy options to reduce overeating and improve diet quality remain largely unexplored. We describe recent trends in eating habits and consequences for public health, vulnerabilities to unhealthy eating, and the role for public health policies. We reviewed recent public health policies to promote healthier diet patterns, including mandates, restrictions, economic incentives, marketing limits, information provision, and environmental defaults.

  3. Paleo Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Topic: Paleo Diet Objectives: The aim of bachelor thesis is to study available literature about Paleo Diet and evaluated it. Then determine whether there is awareness of Paleo Diet in Czech republic. In addition, find out whether there is any experience in dieting according to Paleo Diet and whether Paleo Diet coul be applied in our environment. Methods: As a source of information served a survey. The research group consists of respondents who should have any experience in dieting according t...

  4. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Dale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides

  5. Alaska Phocid Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Relatively little is known of the diet and foraging behaviors of the four species of ice-associated seals (ribbon seal, bearded seal, spotted seal, and ringed seal)...

  6. Dietary Habits and Cardiometabolic Health in Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gilardini, Luisa; Croci, Marina; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Caffetto, Katherine; Invitti, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors vary largely among overweight children. This study investigated the relationships between dietary habits and cardiometabolic health among obese children living in a city of Northern Italy. Methods Dietary habits were collected in 448 obese subjects aged 6-18 years, attending an obesity outpatient center in Milan. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), lipids, fasting and post-load glucose, and insulin were measured. Physical activity wa...

  7. Trajectories of martian habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning from two plausible starting points-an uninhabited or inhabited Mars-this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments.

  8. Habit and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    , but like the influence of context, quantification of its importance is lacking. To contribute to a closing of this gap, we analyse food dairy data from 100+ New Zealand consumers quantitatively with a variance component analysis. Food diaries, recording the eating occasion, beverages and meal food...... was used to examine the contribution of context factors (eating occasion, where, with whom), habit (share of beverage in consumption portfolio) and socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age) to explain the binary choice of seven main beverage types (water, hot beverages, milk, carbonated beverages...... predictor for its consumption likelihood. The impact of this measure for habit differed across beverages, for instance it played a larger role for hot beverages and water than for the consumption of beer and wine. Eating occasions and its interaction with place of consumption had highest explanatory power...

  9. Evaluation of sun holiday, diet habits, origin and other factors as determinants of vitamin D status in Swedish primary health care patients: a cross-sectional study with regression analysis of ethnic Swedish and immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Anne; Andersson, Åsa; Johansson, Gunnar; Björkegren, Karin; Bardel, Annika; Kristiansson, Per

    2013-09-03

    Determinants of vitamin D status measured as 25-OH-vitamin D in blood are exposure to sunlight and intake of vitamin D through food and supplements. It is unclear how large the contributions are from these determinants in Swedish primary care patients, considering the low radiation of UVB in Sweden and the fortification of some foods. Asian and African immigrants in Norway and Denmark have been found to have very low levels, but it is not clear whether the same applies to Swedish patients. The purpose of our study was to identify contributors to vitamin D status in Swedish women attending a primary health care centre at latitude 60°N in Sweden. In this cross-sectional, observational study, 61 female patients were consecutively recruited between January and March 2009, irrespective of reason for attending the clinic. The women were interviewed about their sun habits, smoking, education and food intake at a personal appointment and blood samples were drawn for measurements of vitamin D and calcium concentrations. Plasma concentration of 25-OH-vitamin D below 25 nmol/L was found in 61% (19/31) of immigrant and 7% (2/30) of native women. Multivariate analysis showed that reported sun holiday of one week during the last year at latitude below 40°N with the purpose of sun-bathing and native origin, were significantly, independently and positively associated with 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations in plasma with the strongest association for sun holiday during the past year. Vitamin D deficiency was common among the women in the present study, with sun holiday and origin as main determinants of 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations in plasma. Given a negative effect on health this would imply needs for vitamin D treatment particularly in women with immigrant background who have moved from lower to higher latitudes.

  10. Smoking habits of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacka

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate as to the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on health. Most health workers advise their patients to cease the practice. The impact of the advice is however diluted if it is seen to be ignored by the professionals themselves. As nurses play an increasing role in all levels of health care a survey was undertaken to investigate the smoking habits of two groups of nurses - those operating within the community and those working in institutions.

  11. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  12. Comparison of the Diet of Two Desert-living Owls, the Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus and Little Owl ( Athene noctua from Southern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M. Scott

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The diet of two sympatric owl species, the long-eared owl ( Asio otus and the little owl ( Athene noctua was investigated in an arid area of southern Mongolia using pellet analysis. In total 334 pellets of long-eared owl and 52 pellets of little owl were analysed, revealing the presence of five small mammal species (Dipodidae, three Muridae and one Soricidae, small birds and invertebrate fragments. Accumulative composition plots indicated a batch size of 35 - 60 pellets was sufficient to reveal representative diet composition. Small mammals comprised the largest component of the diet of long- eared owls with four species recorded, Phodopus was the most frequently occurring (85 %, followed by Meriones (33 %. Bird and invertebrate remains were also found in long-eared owl pellets but comprised less than 2 %. In contrast, invertebrates were the highest occurring component of the diet of little owls (35 %, with small mammals occurring in only 40 % of pellets. Meriones was the most frequently recorded small mammal in little owl pellets (23 % and contributed the greatest in terms of overall rodent biomass. There was a highly statistically significant difference in the diet of the two species (÷ 2 = 2043, d.f. = 4, P < 0.001. Levin’s measure of niche breadth was greater for little owls (0.71 than long-eared owls (0.51, but overall the two species had low niche overlap using Levin’s index (0.22. These results are discussed in relation to previous findings of these two species.

  13. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  14. Suitability of NIRS analysis for estimating diet quality of free-living red deer Cervus elaphus and roe deer Capreolus capreolus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav; Čižmár, D.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2004), s. 235-240 ISSN 0909-6396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/D053; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : deer * diet quality * faecal nitrogen Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.535, year: 2004 http://www.wildlifebiology.com/Articles/en/View-473.aspx

  15. Adolescents' unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-10-01

    Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. [Food habits and nutritional assessment in a university population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera Burriel, Faustino; Serrano Urrea, Ramón; Vico García, Cruz; Milla Tobarra, Marta; García Meseguer, Mariá José

    2013-01-01

    The university students are in critical period for the development of life styles which are very important for their future health. The eating behaviour of other students, the alcohol consumption, their economic situation and the ability of cooking make them change their dietary habits. In Spain there are a few studies on the quality of the diet in this population group. Most of them show Spanish students diet does not follow an adequate Mediterranean dietary pattern. To describe the dietary habits of a population of university students and to assess the quality of their diet. Cross sectional study conducted on a sample of 80 students from the Faculty of Nursing of Albacete (University of Castilla-La Mancha). Nine 24-hours follow-ups questionnaires were self-administered in three different seasons. The quality of the diet was assessed by the IAS and the MDS2. In all tests a level of significance p university students. More than 91% of the students need "diet changes" in order to acquire healthier dietary patterns. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was only 53%. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs

  18. Food habits and nutritional status assessment of adolescent soccer players. A necessary and accurate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García-Rovés, Pablo M; Rodríguez, Carmen; Braga, Socorro; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the food habits and nutritional status of high level adolescent soccer players (N = 33; ages 14-16 yrs) living in their home environment. Body composition (height, mass, skinfolds), biochemical and hematological parameters, performance in soccer-specific tests (sprinting, jumping, intermittent endurance), and dietary intake (weighed food intake method) and related behaviors (nutrient supplement use, daily activity profile) were assessed. Daily energy expenditure and energy intake were 12.5 MJ and 12.6 MJ, respectively. Protein (16% of energy intake; 1.9 g/kg of body mass), lipid (38%), and cholesterol (385 mg) intake were above recommendations, while carbohydrates (45%) were below. The food intake of these adolescents was based on cereals and derivates; meat, fish, and eggs; milk and dairy products; biscuits and confectionery; and oil, butter and margarine, which provided 78% of total energy intake, 85% of proteins, 64% of carbohydrates, 90% of lipids, and 47% of fiber. Although diet provided sufficient iron, 48% of individuals showed iron deficiency without anemia. Based on these results, a well designed nutrition intervention would be advisable for optimizing performance, and especially for promoting healthy eating habits in adolescent soccer players.

  19. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  20. Studies on the diet of various lobster species have shown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    However, the proportion of the population feeding showed marked seasonal trends at both sites, tracking the commercial ..... The general diet of crustaceans, molluscs and echino- .... habits of polychelid lobsters in the Western Mediterranean.

  1. Does a Coeliac School increase psychological well-being in women suffering from coeliac disease, living on a gluten-free diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring Jacobsson, Lisa; Friedrichsen, Maria; Göransson, Anne; Hallert, Claes

    2012-03-01

    To assess the effects of an active method of patient education on the psychological well-being of women with coeliac disease in remission. Despite remission with a gluten-free diet, adults with coeliac disease and especially women experience a subjective poor health. Self-management education seems to be promising tool to help patients suffering from coeliac disease to cope with their disorder. A randomised controlled trial. A total of 106 women, ≥ 20 years, with confirmed coeliac disease, who had been on a gluten-free diet for a minimum of five years. The intervention group (n = 54) underwent a 10-session educational programme, 'Coeliac School', based on problem-based learning. The controls (n = 52) received information regarding coeliac disease sent home on a regular basis. The primary outcomes were psychological general well-being measured with a validated questionnaire. Participants in the Coeliac School reported a significant improvement in psychological well-being at 10 weeks, whereas the controls given usual care reported a worsening in psychological well-being. After six months, a significant improvement remained for the index of vitality. Patient education increased psychological well-being in women with coeliac disease. There is a need to refine the methods of patient education to make the effects of well-being more pronounced over time. Patient education using problem-based learning promotes self-management in coeliac disease by improving the well-being of patients who have been struggling with the gluten-free diet for years. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun

    and gender (women are more accepting than men). Higher levels of education and income also appeared to be relevant factors. In contrast, men, those living in less urbanised and rural areas, those with preferences for ‘traditional’ dishes, and those not inclined to consume seasonal, organic food or healthy...... demands of their lives. Cultural factors associated with acceptance of the NND were interest in cooking, eating habits that embrace ‘feminine’ tastes, ‘modern’ dishes and healthy foods, as well as preferences for consuming organic and seasonal foods. Social factors were high level of urbanisation...

  3. Long-lived hypopituitary Ames dwarf mice are resistant to the detrimental effects of high-fat diet on metabolic function and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cristal M; Fang, Yimin; Miquet, Johanna G; Sun, Liou Y; Masternak, Michal M; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) signaling stimulates the production of IGF-1; however, increased GH signaling may induce insulin resistance and can reduce life expectancy in both mice and humans. Interestingly, disruption of GH signaling by reducing plasma GH levels significantly improves health span and extends lifespan in mice, as observed in Ames dwarf mice. In addition, these mice have increased adiposity, yet are more insulin sensitive compared to control mice. Metabolic stressors such as high-fat diet (HFD) promote obesity and may alter longevity through the GH signaling pathway. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the effects of a HFD (metabolic stressor) on genetic mechanisms that regulate metabolism during aging. We show that Ames dwarf mice fed HFD for 12 weeks had an increase in subcutaneous and visceral adiposity as a result of diet-induced obesity, yet are more insulin sensitive and have higher levels of adiponectin compared to control mice fed HFD. Furthermore, energy expenditure was higher in Ames dwarf mice fed HFD than in control mice fed HFD. Additionally, we show that transplant of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) from Ames dwarf mice fed HFD into control mice fed HFD improves their insulin sensitivity. We conclude that Ames dwarf mice are resistant to the detrimental metabolic effects of HFD and that visceral adipose tissue of Ames dwarf mice improves insulin sensitivity in control mice fed HFD. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dietary habits in New France during the 17th and 18th centuries: An isotopic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, J; Ribot, I; Hélie, J-F

    2017-03-01

    Little attention has been given, so far, to the early colonial diet in New France from an isotopic perspective. Historical records that compare France to New France suggest a shift toward a more diverse diet, including a higher protein intake due to an improvement in living conditions in the New World, despite the retention of ancestral dietary habits. This hypothesis will be explored here. Stable carbon (organic and mineral) and nitrogen isotopes were measured on 43 individuals from Notre Dame cemetery (first Catholic parish church cemetery in Montreal, 1683-1803) as well as 13 French compatriots from La Rochelle, France (Protestant Hospital Cemetery, 1765-1792). Intragroup variation (age at death, sex, and/or burial location) was investigated and compared to compiled data from various northeastern North American sites (N = 99). The Notre Dame sample means are as follows: -19.6‰ versus VPDB for δ 13 C collagen , -12.22‰ versus VPDB for δ 13 C carbonate , and 11.5‰ versus AIR for δ 15 N. They are significantly lower than both La Rochelle (-18.4‰, -11.67‰, and 12.7‰, respectively, p ≤ .005) and the northeastern North American groups used for this comparison (p = .000). The isotopic values obtained from Notre Dame cemetery suggest that the diet was mainly based on C 3 resources with limited C 4 resources. Although different from all comparable contemporary sites, colonial Montreal's diet remains most similar to La Rochelle, France. This study agrees with historians who have suggested that French dietary traditions seem to have been retained among the early colonial inhabitants of Montreal. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Food habits and nutritional assessment in a tunisian university population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera Burriel, Faustino; Serrano Urrea, Ramón; Daouas, Thouraya; Delicado Soria, Amalia; García Meseguer, María José

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition and health are of great importance throughout life, in particular in adulthood due to active population is included among the adults. Therefore, it is essential to assess the quality of the diet and the possible conditioning factors. The objectives of this study were to characterize food habits and assess the quality of the diet of university students from the Virtual University of Tunisia, a North African country in nutritional transition. This is a cross-sectional study performed with data collected from a sample of 54 students from this University. For each individual a questionnaire involving socio-economic and demographic data was self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by a 24 hours recall. The assessment of diet quality was conducted by Healthy Eating Index and Mediterranean Diet Score. The study revealed that the diet of this population is hypocaloric. The percentage of total energy from proteins was 18% and the percentage of total energy from carbohydrates was about 40%. The diet was high in simple sugars, saturated fat and cholesterol. Apart from oils and fat, the main source of lipids had an animal origin from meat (19%), and the fish group only provided 3% of this macronutrient. According to Healthy Eating Index classification more than 50% of students scored "poor" and more than 40% "needs improvement" about the quality of their diet. The study also showed low adherence rates to the Mediterranean diet. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America April 19, 2018 Resource ... living Recipe collection Guidance on alcohol use with lupus Moderate use of alcohol is usually not a ...

  7. Assessment of dietary habits and nutritional status of depressive patients, depending on place of residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, Ewa; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Cwalina, Urszula; Kowzan, Urszula; Konarzewska, Beata; Szulc, Agata; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2017-12-23

    An increased incidence of depressive disorders observed in recent years in the Polish and world population is a serious health problem. The aim of the study was to compare dietary habits and nutritional status of patients with recurrent depressive disorders, depending on their place of residence. Their impact on selected metabolic parameters was also considered. The study group comprised 96 women and 84 men reporting to the Outpatient Mental Health Clinic at the Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Bialystok in north-eastern Poland. The average age of the women was 46.7±11.7 years, and of men 47.0±11.3 years. In the quantitative assessmentof diets, 24-hour food recall interviews were conducted. Assessment of the nutritional status of the respondents consisted of anthropometric measurements, body composition analysis and biochemical parameters. It was show that the diets of female urban inhabitants were characterized by a significantly lower energy value and total fat content, compared to their rural counterparts. The food rations of men living in the city had a significantly higher energy value, protein content and total FAT, compared to rural residents. It was also noted that urban residents of both genders were characterized by a lower percentage of body fat, both visceral and subcutaneous (women), and a higher water content than rural residents. The study showed dietary errors in all compared groups, regardless of place of residence, which was reflected in the nutritional status of the respondents. The results also indicated that during the declared change in dietary habits, the treatment of depressive patients should include dietary instructions in order to ensure an optimum supply of nutrients.

  8. Different healthy habits between northern and southern Spanish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Knox, Emily; Zabala, Mikel; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Dalmau, Jose Maria; Muros, Jose Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Healthy habits are influenced by several factors such as geographical location. The aims of this study were to describe and compare healthy habits within two populations of sixth-grade primary school children (aged 11-12 years) from northern and southern Spain. A cross-sectional study using two representative samples of school children was conducted. Participants came from Logroño ( n  = 329) in the north and Granada ( n  = 284) in the south of Spain. Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, aerobic fitness, and healthy lifestyles were recorded. Boys reported a higher level of physical activity and aerobic fitness than girls ( p  = 0.000). Southern school children reported significantly higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (♀: p  = 0.041; ♂: p  = 0.008), lower aerobic fitness (♀: p  = 0.000; ♂: p  = 0.042) and hours of nightly sleep (♀: p  = 0.008, ♂: p  = 0.007) than northern school children. Southern boys also reported lower levels of physical activity ( p  = 0.013). There were slight or moderate correlations among all habits measured (physical activity, diet, screen and sleep time). Additionally, the physical activity level was inversely related to weight status. Overweight and obese northern boys reported less physical activity than healthy-weight northern boys ( p  = 0.020) and overweight and obese southern girls reported less physical activity than healthy-weight southern girls ( p  = 0.024). Results showed differences in physical activity, eating and sleep habits, and aerobic fitness according to geographical location. The relationships found among lifestyle habits indicate the need for health promotion interventions nationally and considering the differences discussed here.

  9. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  10. Evaluation of increasing levels of a microbial phytase in phosphorus deficient broiler diets via live broiler performance, tibia bone ash, apparent metabolizable energy, and amino acid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniazek, J; Smith, K A; Williams, M P; Manangi, M K; Vazquez-Anon, M; Solbak, A; Miller, M; Lee, J T

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to investigate increasing concentrations of an evolved microbial phytase on male broiler performance, tibia bone ash, AME, and amino acid digestibility when fed diets deficient in available phosphorus (aP). Experiment 1 evaluated the effects of phytase during a 21 d battery cage study and Experiment 2 was a 42 d grow-out. Experiment 1 included six treatments; negative control (NC) with an aP level of 0.23% (starter) and 0.19% (grower), two positive controls (PC) consisting of an additional 0.12% and 0.22% aP (PC 1 and PC 2), and the NC supplemented with three levels of phytase (250, 500, and 2,000 U/kg). The NC diet reduced (P Phytase increased (P phytase yielding similar results to the PC2, and improved FCR and increased bone ash was observed at all phytase levels. Amino acid digestibility coefficients were increased (P phytase at 250 U/kg. Phytase at all rates increased (P phytase inclusion of 250, 500, and 2000 U/kg, respectively. Experiment 2 included a PC consisting of 0.45%, 0.41%, and 0.38% aP for the starter, grower, and finisher, respectively; NC with reduced aP of 0.17%; and phytase at 500 and 2,000 U/kg. Phytase increased BW (P phytase resulted in further BW increases compared to the PC (starter and grower). Phytase improved FCR to levels comparable to the PC, with supplementation at 2,000 U/kg resulting in improvements beyond the PC in the starter phase. Amino acid digestibility coefficients were increased with phytase at 2,000 U/kg to levels comparable to that of the PC. These data confirm that the inclusion of phytase improves broiler performance and bone mineralization in aP reduced diets and levels beyond the traditional 500 U/kg can result in further improvements. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Selected nutritional habits of teenagers associated with overweight and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Zalewska, Magdalena; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A balanced diet is at the heart of healthy growth and development of children and youth, whereas inappropriate eating habits considerably influence the incidence of disorders connected with nutrition, including overweight and obesity. This paper aims at studying nutritional factors of 18-year-old secondary school youth in the urban environment and their effect on the incidence of overweight and obesity. Materials and methods The survey was conducted among 1,999 secondary school s...

  12. Habitual diet assessment in adolescents with the down’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivandra Mari Roieski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The eating habits formation of the individuals with the Down’s syndrome deserves special attention because, besides specific anatomical and physiological alterations, some aspects also interfere in this process. Among them, the parents’behavior is the one that counts most, and it’s essential to establish a healthy diet. Facing this, the objective in this study was to assess the habitual diet in eight overweight adolescents with the Down’s syndrome living in the South Region of Tocantins State. These adolescents are between 10 and 19 years of age. To instrumentalize the referred assessment, the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents was applied and it was compared with the Adapted Food Pyramid recommendations. It was observed 82% of the adolescents used to eat less than the recommended amount of the vegetables and cereal/bread/tubers/roots; 68% eat less fruits and 87% eat less milk/dairy products groups. It was also detected an exaggeration in the consumption of grains, meat/eggs and sugar/candy groups. It was concluded that the adolescents habitually keep a diet out of the pattern considered healthy. It’s predominantly easy chewing food and high in calories, what may bring risks of getting overweight and even obese. Thus, it’s vital to go through an eating re-education process, in whichthe family has participation, so that changes in the eating habits may be achieved.

  13. HABITUAL DIET ASSESSMENT IN ADOLESCENTS WITH THE DOWN’S SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivandra Mari Roieski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The eating habits formation of the individuals with the Down’s syndrome deserves special attention because, besides specific anatomical and physiological alterations, some aspects also interfere in this process. Among them, the parents’ behavior is the one that counts most, and it’s essential to establish a healthy diet. Facing this, the objective in this study was to assess the habitual diet in eight overweight adolescents with the Down’s syndrome living in the South Region of Tocantins State. These adolescents are between 10 and 19 years of age. To instrumentalize the referred assessment, the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Dieta de adolescentes com Síndrome de Down Adolescents was applied and it was compared with the Adapted Food Pyramid recommendations. It was observed 82% of the adolescents used to eat less than the recommended amount of the vegetables and cereal/bread/tubers/roots; 68% eat less fruits and 87% eat less milk/dairy products groups. It was also detected an exaggeration in the consumption of grains, meat/eggs and sugar/candy groups. It was concluded that the adolescents habitually keep a diet out of the pattern considered healthy. It’s predominantly easy chewing food and high in calories, what may bring risks of getting overweight and even obese. Thus, it’s vital to go through an eating re-education process, in which the family has participation, so that changes in the eating habits may be achieved.

  14. Habits in perioperative nursing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Lillemor; von Post, Iréne

    2008-09-01

    This study focuses on investigating habits in perioperative nursing culture, which are often simply accepted and not normally considered or discussed. A hermeneutical approach was chosen as the means of understanding perioperative nurses' experiences of and reflections on operating theatre culture. Focus group discussions were used to collect data, which was analysed using hermeneutical text analysis. The results revealed three main categories of habits present in perioperative nursing culture: habits that promote ethical values (by temporary friendship with patients, showing respect for each other, and spending time on reflection on ethics and caring); habits that hinder progress (by seeing the patient as a surgical case, not acknowledging colleagues, and not talking about ethics); and habits that set the cultural tone (the hidden power structure and achieving more in less time).

  15. Health Habit: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Andra S; Weglicki, Linda S; Gropper, Sareen S

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide clarity of the concept of health habit. Using Walker and Avant's (1983; 2010) method for conducting a concept analysis, the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of health habit, its theoretical and practical application to nursing, and sample cases to further illustrate the concept. Empirical and conceptual literature was used to inform this concept analysis. Articles and one book from 1977 to 2014 were reviewed from PsycINFO, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing Health Literature (CINAHL), Science Direct, EBSCOhost and Web of Science. Offering a clear definition and conceptual model of health habit provide the foundation to identify/develop appropriate measures of the concept and guide further investigation of understanding the development and sustainability of healthy habits. Additional research is needed to test the conceptual relationships between health habits and outcome variables as they apply to different groups across the age continuum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. "Man Is a Bundle of Habits” in a Universe with an Inherent Tendency to Habit Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Torkild; Brier, Søren

    2018-01-01

    a tentative and affirmative answer and outlined the conditions of the ideal and some of its possible (pragmatic) consequences around his concept of habit taking. We believe that Peirce`s concept of habit is essential in understanding the fundamental ideal of the human being and its efforts concerning to live...

  17. 'Please, sir, can I have some more?' Food, lifestyle, diets: respect and moral responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaufort, Inez

    2014-04-01

    This article is about respect for food, responsibility for lifestyle and diet and responsibility for those who suffer from lack of food. After some general reflections on food, feasts, flatulence, taboos and waste, I argue that we have a responsibility to live a healthy lifestyle, but that there are also morally good reasons for taking risks with our health as we cherish other goals and values. Then I discuss situations, using the example of obesity, in which people are not free to choose their lifestyle. Governments and doctors have responsibilities in enabling people to chose healthy eating habits, e.g. by facilitating access to healthy foods and by criticizing scientifically unfounded weight loss diets. I continue to defend that we need to respect food and those who prepare it, and that we have a moral responsibility to contribute to the solution of the food gap in the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Business Communication Students Learn to Hear a Bad Speech Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Reginald L.; Liang-Bell, Lei Paula; Deselle, Bettye

    2006-01-01

    Students were trained to perceive filled pauses (FP) as a bad speech habit. In a series of classroom sensitivity training activities, followed by students being rewarded to observe twenty minutes of live television from the public media, no differences between male and female Business Communication students was revealed. The practice of teaching…

  19. Live and formulated diet evaluation through initial growth and survival of jundiá larvae, Rhamdia quelen Alimento vivo e formulado, crescimento inicial e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de jundiá, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Falanghe Carneiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Live diet (LD dependence and the lack of suitable formulated diets (FD are major constraints for the expansion of larviculture of many fish species. The low digestibility and nutritional quality of FD are factors that might explain their failure as a stand-alone starter food. To determine whether FD in combination with LD (zooplankton may efficiently increase larval growth and survival of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, when compared to fish fed by either types of diet alone, jundiá larvae (5.57 mm; 1.41 mg were initially stocked into 12 10-L aquaria (100 larvae per aquarium. Replicate groups (n=4 were fed ad libitum one of the three diets for 20 (when fed FD or 48 days (when fed LD or the combined diets. Larvae fed FD alone presented significantly lower survival and growth rates as compared to larvae fed LD or a combination of both (co-fed. In addition, co-fed larvae grew better (170 mg in relation to those fed solely with LD (110 mg. Such better performance of combined feeding indicates that most of the required nutrients are in balance when both diet sources are included. More can be learned about fish larvae nutrition by further testing the effect of feeding combined diets, which include zooplankton, than only testing new ingredients or protein sources commonly used in the elaboration of juvenile or adult fish feeds.A larvicultura da maioria das espécies de peixes enfrenta o desafio da dependência do alimento vivo (AL e da falta de dietas formuladas (DF que atendam plenamente às necessidades das larvas. A baixa digestibilidade e a qualidade nutricional das DFs são alguns dos fatores que explicam o insucesso quando as larvas recebem apenas FD. Para avaliar o efeito da combinação da DF com o AL no crescimento e na sobrevivência de larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, comparando com o uso separado da DF ou do AL, larvas recém eclodidas (5,57 mm; 1,41 mg foram estocadas inicialmente em 12 aquários de 10 L (100 larvas por aquário. Quatro r

  20. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  1. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  2. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris Irene

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coel...

  3. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinetti, Alberto; Zurlo, Valeria; Manenti, Antonio; Coppi, Francesca; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. As such, we conducted a literature search using keywords "colorectal cancer," "dietary pattern," "Mediterranean diet," "olive oil," "protective effects," "resveratrol," and "lycopene." Olive oil polyphenols, red wine resveratrol, and tomato lycopene showed several characteristics in vitro that interfere with molecular cancer pathways. At the same time, many clinical studies have reported an association of these components with a reduction in cancer initiation and progression. More clinical studies are needed to identify the precise dose and administration of single agents or their combination to produce a coadjutant treatment to those already applied in chemoprevention and oncologic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transfer of long-lived radionuclides from diet to man and their body content and physiological characteristics of Reference Japanese Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hisao; Shiraishi, Kunio; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Gi-ichiro.

    1994-01-01

    Intake and body content of actinides (Pu, Th, U) and a related alpha-emitting nuclide (Ra) were studied along with physiological aspects of Reference Japanese Man as the basic model for dosimetry. The ultimate purpose of the program was to examine applicability of the ICRP models and parameters (for workers) to members of the public. The result of an interlaboratory comparison of 239 Pu+ 240 Pu determination including our result was published. Alpha spectrometric determinations of 226 Ra in bone yielded representative adult bone concentration levels in Tokyo, 0.42 (mean) and 0.35 (median) mBq/g ash. The Ra-Ca O.R. (bone-diet) was obtained which was similar to the values in Sapporo and Kyoto. Specific effective energies for alpha radiation from 226 Ra and its daughters were calculated using the ICRP dosimetric model for bone and masses of source and target organs of Reference Japanese Man. Annual dose equivalents in red marrow and bone surfaces were 10 and 145 μSv, respectively as estimated from the median adult bone Ra concentration. Diet samples collected by the duplicate portion method from 31 locations in Japan in summer and winter, 1981-2 were analysed for 232 Th and 238 U by the newly developed ICP-MS technique. The daily intake per person of 232 Th and 238 U were 1.7 and 8.8 mBq, respectively. Using IDES with Japanese physical parameters and other parameters of ICRP, weighted dose equivalent commitments for single year intakes were estimated as 0.4 μSv for 232 Th and 0.3 μSv for 238 U. Reference Japanese data including the adult, adolescent, child and infant of both sexes was extensively studied by Tanaka as part of the activities associated with the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man Revision. Normal data on the physical measurements, mass and dimensions of internal organs and body surfaces and some of the body composition were analyzed in relation to the nutritional conditions of the Japanese population. (J.P.N.)

  5. Students' adherence to dietary recommendations and their food consumption habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette; Dieze, Anastasia; Hilzendegen, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Habitual behavior rather than intention has been linked to food intake patterns. The purpose of this study was to examine the adherence to dietary recommendations in university students and to analyze whether habit strength predicts food consumption. A student sample of the University (University of Hohenheim) was recruited ( n = 103; age range 18-30 years). Habit strength for consuming the food groups fruits, vegetables, whole grains, milk, meat, convenience foods, sugary and savory snacks, water and sugar-sweetened beverages was measured using a questionnaire. Food intake was measured via a self-administered online food frequency survey two weeks later, which was then compared to dietary recommendations. For associations of habit strength and consumption, Kendall's Tau-c correlation coefficient was calculated. The majority of students failed to meet the recommendations for all food groups except meat, eggs, oil, fat, and water. Only 4.2% of men (15.4% of women) consumed the recommended daily amount of vegetables. Fruit recommendations were met by 20.8% of men (43.6% of women). Habit strength was significantly associated with the consumption of most food groups. Adhering to dietary recommendations appeared to be difficult. Educational efforts should be undertaken to improve students' diet considering habit strength as an important determinant of food intake.

  6. Mediterranean diet adherence and body composition among Southern Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Antoci, Mariagrazia; Cagnetti, Antonella; Giogianni, Gabriele; Nolfo, Francesca; Rametta, Stefania; Pecora, Giulia; Marranzano, Marina

    Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet has been associated with health benefits in young populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardio-metabolic parameters in adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted during two school years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) on 1643 adolescents of 11-16 years attending 15 secondary schools. Socio-demographic, dietary, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected. The KIDMED score was used to evaluate the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Linear and logistic regression models were used to test the association between the variable of interest and the outcomes. A higher percentage of boys compared with girls was overweight (30.8% vs. 25.4%) and obese (28.7% vs. 18.5%) and only 9.1% had high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Vegetable intake was negatively associated with being overweight/obese whereas higher intake of sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast foods was associated with overweight and obesity. A good adherence to the Mediterranean diet resulted in 30% decreased odds of being overweight or obese (odd ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.87) in both boys and girls. An inverse correlation was found between KIDMED score and BMI, waist circumference and fat mass. No relation with blood pressure was found. Mediterranean dietary pattern resulted significantly associated with weight status in adolescents. These results underline the importance of providing lifestyle and dietary habits education to prevent overweight and obesity in adolescent. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of a Plant-Based Diet and Support on Mitigating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Latinos Living in Medically Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramal, Edelweiss; Champlin, Andrea; Bahjri, Khaled

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact that a high-fiber, low-fat diet, derived from mostly plant-based sources, when coupled with support has upon self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Latinos from medically underserved areas (MUAs). Experimental randomized controlled community pilot study. Three community clinics in MUAs located within San Bernardino County, California. Thirty-two randomly assigned Latinos with A1 C greater than 6.4: 15 control and 17 experimental. Participants completed a 5-week education program. Researchers provided follow-up support for 17 randomly assigned experimental group participants through focus groups held at participating clinics-1, 3, and 6 months posteducation. Changes in fat and fiber consumption were measured using a modified Dietary Screener for Mexican Americans. Self-management was measured through the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale and Diabetes Quality of Life Measure. Baseline characteristics for both groups were analyzed using independent t tests and χ 2 tests. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze biometric data between baseline and 6 months for both groups. Mean A1 C levels decreased from baseline to 6 months for both groups: control, μ 1 = 9.57, μ 2 = 9.49; experimental, μ 1 = 8.53, μ 2 = 7.31. The experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in mean A1 C levels ( P = .002) when compared to the control group.

  8. Radioisotope studies of steroid hormone levels of plasma in indigenous subjects living at high altitude and submitted to a low calorie diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, I.

    1975-08-01

    Radioimmunological techniques were applied to the evaluation of TSH and ACTH in the four groups of Ecuadorian subjects under investigation at Tocachi, Malchingui, Quito and Portoviejo, the first three populations living at a high altitude and the fourth at sea-level. This evaluation was of interest since previous studies had indicated that there were thyroid and adrenal hormone deficiency levels in individuals from Tocachi and Malchingui or, in other words, in populations from a high-altitude region, and also endemic goitre and caloric-protein malnutrition. Furthermore, the Tocachi group was composed of subjects suffering from chronic ''stress''. Parallel to the analysis of TSH and pituitary ACTH levels, the circadian rhythm in the production of these hormones in these subjects was studied. The basal values of TSH and ACHT for the studied groups were found to lie within the normal range. 131 I-TSH and 125 I-ACTH were used. As far as the nycthemeral TSH rhythm is concerned, the values tended to be lowest for the high-altitude populations, while for the groups living at sea-level, where there is also circadian variation, the higher values are found in the morning. Similarly, the circadian rhythm for ACTH was established, with a predominance of diurnal values at Tocachi, Malchingui and Portoviejo

  9. Vehicle Net Habitable Volume (NHV) and Habitability Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this study is to assess habitability on the International Space Station (ISS) in order to better prepare for long-duration spaceflight missions of the...

  10. Are "Habitable" Exoplanets Really Habitable? -A perspective from atmospheric loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Huang, Z.; Jin, M.; Lingam, M.; Ma, Y. J.; Toth, G.; van der Holst, B.; Airapetian, V.; Cohen, O.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    In the last two decades, the field of exoplanets has witnessed a tremendous creative surge. Research in exoplanets now encompasses a wide range of fields ranging from astrophysics to heliophysics and atmospheric science. One of the primary objectives of studying exoplanets is to determine the criteria for habitability, and whether certain exoplanets meet these requirements. The classical definition of the Habitable Zone (HZ) is the region around a star where liquid water can exist on the planetary surface given sufficient atmospheric pressure. However, this definition largely ignores the impact of the stellar wind and stellar magnetic activity on the erosion of an exoplanet's atmosphere. Amongst the many factors that determine habitability, understanding the mechanisms of atmospheric loss is of paramount importance. We will discuss the impact of exoplanetary space weather on climate and habitability, which offers fresh insights concerning the habitability of exoplanets, especially those orbiting M-dwarfs, such as Proxima b and the TRAPPIST-1 system. For each case, we will demonstrate the importance of the exoplanetary space weather on atmospheric ion loss and habitability.

  11. Healthy dietary habits, body mass index, and predictors among nursing students, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, R; Nanakorn, S; Sanseeha, L; Nagahiro, C; Kodama, N

    1999-03-01

    This study aimed to assess body mass index (BMI) of nursing students, and examine the links between health behavior in terms of healthy dietary habits, positive health habits, dieting and BMI. A structured questionnaire was used for obtaining information on dietary habits, positive health habits, demographic characteristic including body weight, and height by administering self-answering questionnaires to all of nursing students in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year-classes of the College of Nursing located in northeast Thailand. Three hundred and eleven female nursing students with an average age of 19.9 (SD = 1.4), had an average BMI of 20.3 kg/m2 (SD = 1.9). Most of the subjects (82.6%) were in the acceptable weight category (BMI > 18.5-24.99 kg/m2), 5.1% underweight (BMI or = 25.0 kg/m2). About half of them (50.8-66.2%) practiced healthy dietary habits in terms of avoiding eating fat/cholesterol, enriched fiber foods, while one-fourth practiced daily fruit consumption. Positive health habits in terms of having breakfast, and taking exercise over the last two weeks, were practiced by 49.5% and 59.8%, respectively. Persistent health problem occurred 13.5% amongst the subjects. The univariate analyses revealed significant associations between dieting with the BMI; perception of body size with the BMI; the enriched fiber food consumption with dieting; and the avoidance of fat/cholesterol with dieting. It suggests that the choice of food was predominantly attributable to dieting. Results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed that dietary belief, dieting, and exercise had effects on the strength of the association (p = 0.0191, 0.0024, 0.0165; Odds ratios = 0.97, 2.21, 1.87, respectively). The results and implications are discussed.

  12. Role of the diet in ontogenesis and induction of chromosomal aberrations in population living in the area exposed to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyinskikh, N.N.; Ilyinskikh, I.N.; Ilyinskikh, E.N.; Semenov, A.G.; Kozlova, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate a role of diet in oncogenesis and induction of chromosomal aberrations in fragility sites in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of people in some areas exposed to radionuclides as a result of an accident in the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCP). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the level of aberrations at fragile sites of chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes of population residing area contaminated with radionuclides following an accident at the Siberian Chemical Plant (SCP). We carried out micronucleus test to screen people with radiation-related cytogenetic effects. Of 1246 examined inhabitants of Samus settlement, 148 showed significantly increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes and were selected for chromosome analysis as a radiation-exposed group. Additional analysis was carried out for 40 patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis with stage II-III epithelial dysplasia. Eighty six individuals from non-contaminated area were used as a control group. Chromosomal breaks and exchanges occurred preferentially in chromosomes 3 and 6 among radiation-exposed persons and patients. The regions 3pl4-3p25 and 6p23 were damaged most often. There was a tendency towards preferential involvement at q21-q25 of chromosome 6 in patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Specific damage at certain chromosome sites was observed in radiation-exposed population as well as in patients with gastric cancer. Most often this damage was located near oncogene loci which could imply that chromosome damage induced by radiation is likely to be a predisposing factor to the expression of oncogenes and malignant transformation of cells in exposed individuals. (author)

  13. Improving Habitability, Mood & Diet through Bioregenerative Food Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During spaceflight, mealtime plays a primary role in psychological well-being of the crew by contributing to stress reduction, boredom relief and group unity. During...

  14. Managing away bad habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroop, J; Butler, T

    2000-01-01

    We've all worked with highly competent people who are held back by a seemingly fatal personality flaw. One person takes on too much work; another sees the downside in every proposed change; a third pushes people out of the way. At best, people with these "bad habits" create their own glass ceilings, which limit their success and their contributions to the company. At worst, they destroy their own careers. Although the psychological flaws of such individuals run deep, their managers are not helpless. In this article, James Waldroop and Timothy Butler--both psychologists--examine the root causes of these flaws and suggest concrete tactics they have used to help people recognize and correct the following six behavior patterns: The hero, who always pushes himself--and subordinates--too hard to do too much for too long. The meritocrat, who believes that the best ideas can and will be determined objectively and ignores the politics inherent in most situations. The bulldozer, who runs roughshod over others in a quest for power. The pessimist, who always worries about what could go wrong. The rebel, who automatically fights against authority and convention. And the home run hitter, who tries to do too much too soon--he swings for the fences before he's learned to hit singles. Helping people break through their self-created glass ceilings is the ultimate win-win scenario: both the individual and the organization are rewarded. Using the tactics introduced in this article, managers can help their brilliantly flawed performers become spectacular achievers.

  15. Crew awareness as key to optimizing habitability standards onboard naval platforms: A 'back-to-basics' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Anand; Ilankumaran, Mookkiah; Ray, Sougat

    2017-10-01

    A healthy habitable environment onboard warships is vital to operational fleet efficiency and fit sea-warrier force. Unique man-machine-armament interface issues and consequent constraints on habitability necessitate a multi-disciplinary approach toward optimizing habitability standards. Study of the basic 'human factor', including crew awareness on what determines shipboard habitability, and its association with habitation specifications is an essential step in such an approach. The aim of this study was to assess crew awareness on shipboard habitability and the association between awareness and maintenance of optimal habitability as per specifications. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 552 naval personnel onboard warships in Mumbai. Data on crew awareness on habitability was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and correlated with basic habitability requirement specifications. Data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel, Epi-info, and SPSS version 17. Awareness level on basic habitability aspects was very good in 65.3% of crew. Area-specific awareness was maximum with respect to living area (95.3%). Knowledge levels on waste management were among the lowest (65.2%) in the category of aspect-wise awareness. Statistically significant association was found between awareness levels and habitability standards (OR = 7.27). The new benchmarks set in the form of high crew awareness levels on basic shipboard habitability specifications and its significant association with standards needs to be sustained. It entails re-iteration of healthy habitation essentials into training; and holds the key to a fit fighting force.

  16. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  17. Healthy Habits Can Lengthen Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 Print this issue Health Capsule Healthy Habits Can Lengthen Life Send us your comments Physical activity is one of five healthy lifestyle factors that can lower your risk for several diseases and lengthen ...

  18. Make peak flow a habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  19. Feeling 'too fat' rather than being 'too fat' increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents - even in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Jolanda S; Gustafsson, Per A; Nelson, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals, and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence. For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference (WC). Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (peating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (peating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood.

  20. [Habitability and life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, Iu G; Adamovich, B A

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses various aspects of space vehicle habitability and life support systems. It describes variations in the chemical and microbial composition of an enclosed atmosphere during prolonged real and simulated flights. The paper gives a detailed description of life support systems and environmental investigations onboard the Mir station. It also outlines the development of space vehicle habitability and life support systems as related to future flights.

  1. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  2. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet by nursing students of Murcia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, Inmaculada; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Rodríguez-Tadeo, Alejandra; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Marín, Mariano; Doménech-Asensi, Guillermo

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean diet is recognized as one with the healthiest dietary patterns; however, this diet is deteriorating and being abandoned even in the Mediterranean countries themselves. Generally speaking, dietary habits get fixed during adolescence although during the college phase, students may experience important changes in their lifestyles. The KIDMED index is recognized as a good tool to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess AMD in college students and to evidence possible variations throughout the college period assessing differences between the college years. A cross-sectional study with 213 alumni in first grade and 105 in fourth grade was carried out. The students were classified by gender, type of residence (parents' home or out of the parents' house) and body mass index (BMI) ( 25). The BMI for the whole sample was 24.35 ± 2.71 in men and 22.54 ± 3.25 in women (p pasta was observed, foods that are included in the base of the dietary pyramid. Consumption of olive oil and legumes was very high and a direct relationship was observed between overweighed people (BMI > 25) and the habit of not having breakfast usually. No significant differences were observed between the student of first and fourth grades although those students in the fourth grade living away from the parental house had higher AMD level than the other students (p < 0.001). Educational programs promoting the intake of the different groups of food are recommended, was well as strategies promoting the consumption of fruits and vegetables within the university area and the healthy habit of having breakfast. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Does the diet of the Balearic population, a Mediterranean-type diet, ensure compliance with nutritional objectives for the Spanish population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Josep A; Romaguera, Dora; Pons, Antoni

    2005-05-01

    To assess the dietary habits of Balearic Islands' consumers who are successful in meeting current nutritional recommendations, to find clues for the development of future food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) that would be relevant to this population. Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands between 1999 and 2000. Dietary habits were assessed by means of 24-hour recall (two non-consecutive days: warm and cold season) and a food-frequency questionnaire in a random sample (n=1200, aged 16-65 years) living in private households. Differences in percentage of compliers with the intermediate nutritional objectives for the Spanish population and differences in food consumption patterns between genders and between high (above the upper quartile of intake) and low (below the lower quartile of intake) consumers of fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), fibre, and fruit and vegetables were analysed. Gender differences were observed in nutrient and energy intakes, as well as in attainment of the recommendations. Less than 25% of the population reached the intermediate nutritional recommendations for iodine, fruit, carbohydrates, SFA, fibre and vegetables. Low fat/SFA and high fruit and vegetables/fibre consumers kept a diet in line with the traditional Balearic diet and prevailing dietary pyramids, which ensured better compliance with the nutritional goals. The intermediate nutritional objectives for the Spanish population could be achieved through maintenance of the traditional Balearic diet, a Mediterranean-type diet in the Balearic population. Therefore, this dietary model could be used to develop FBDG relevant to this population.

  4. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  5. Developing obesity prevention interventions among minority ethnic children in schools and places of worship: The DEAL (DiEt and Active Living) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Maria J; Baker, Graham; Rawlins, Emma; Anderson, Annie; Harding, Seeromanie

    2009-12-21

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with serious implications for the sustainability of healthcare systems. Studies in the US and UK have shown that ethnicity is consistently associated with childhood obesity, with Black African origin girls in particular being more vulnerable to overweight and obesity than their White peers. Little is known, however, about what promotes or hinders engagement with prevention programmes among ethnic minority children. This paper describes the background and design of an exploratory study conducted in London, UK. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility, efficacy and cultural acceptability of child- and family-based interventions to reduce risk factors for childhood and adolescent obesity among ethnic minorities. It investigated the use of a population approach (in schools) and a targeted approach (in places of worship). We used a mixture of focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires to explore what children, parents, grandparents, teachers and religious leaders think hinder and promote engagement with healthy eating and active living choices. We assessed the cultural appropriateness of validated measures of physical activity, dietary behaviour and self efficacy, and of potential elements of interventions informed by the data collected. We are also currently assessing the potential for wider community support (local councils, community networks, faith forums etc) of the intervention. Analysis of the data is ongoing but the emergent findings suggest that while the school setting may be better for the main implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions, places of worship provide valuable opportunities for family and culturally specific support for implementation. Tackling the rise in childhood and adolescent obesity is a policy priority, as reflected in a range of government initiatives. The study will enhance such policy by developing the evidence base about culturally

  6. Developing obesity prevention interventions among minority ethnic children in schools and places of worship: The DEAL (DiEt and Active Living study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Annie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with serious implications for the sustainability of healthcare systems. Studies in the US and UK have shown that ethnicity is consistently associated with childhood obesity, with Black African origin girls in particular being more vulnerable to overweight and obesity than their White peers. Little is known, however, about what promotes or hinders engagement with prevention programmes among ethnic minority children. Methods/Design This paper describes the background and design of an exploratory study conducted in London, UK. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility, efficacy and cultural acceptability of child- and family-based interventions to reduce risk factors for childhood and adolescent obesity among ethnic minorities. It investigated the use of a population approach (in schools and a targeted approach (in places of worship. We used a mixture of focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires to explore what children, parents, grandparents, teachers and religious leaders think hinder and promote engagement with healthy eating and active living choices. We assessed the cultural appropriateness of validated measures of physical activity, dietary behaviour and self efficacy, and of potential elements of interventions informed by the data collected. We are also currently assessing the potential for wider community support (local councils, community networks, faith forums etc of the intervention. Discussion Analysis of the data is ongoing but the emergent findings suggest that while the school setting may be better for the main implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions, places of worship provide valuable opportunities for family and culturally specific support for implementation. Tackling the rise in childhood and adolescent obesity is a policy priority, as reflected in a range of government initiatives. The study will enhance such

  7. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  8. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions

  9. Qualitative study of eating habits in Bruneian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, Tajidah; Serudin, Rajiah; Noor, Salmah; Tuah, Nik

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling. Five focus group discussion sessions were conducted, and recorded discussions were translated. The transcripts were entered into NVivo10 and thematic analysis was conducted. All participants had differing perceptions of the term 'healthy eating'. Children reported 'healthy eating' by identifying foods or food groups they perceived as healthy and unhealthy. Only a few mentioned fruits and vegetables as essential to a healthy diet. Parents mainly perceived 'healthy eating' as consuming 'any quality food' that contains 'vitamins and minerals'. Teachers described a healthy diet as including balanced and varied dietary practices, having breakfast and eating regularly at the right, set times. They also associated eating healthily with traditional, home-grown and home-cooked food. All participants had positive attitudes towards healthy eating, however most children demonstrated unhealthy eating habits and frequently consumed unhealthy foods. The Bruneian primary school children reported favourable knowledge despite having poor healthy eating habits. The factors influencing participants eating behavior included food preferences, familial factors (parental style and parenting knowledge), food accessibility and availability, time constraints, as well as convenience. These factors hindered them from adopting healthy eating practices.

  10. Dietary habits of obese patients qualified for bariatric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska-Mierzyńska, Marta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Patients with obesity, including morbid obesity, commit numerous dietary mistakes. They prefer high-energy diets, but of poor nutritional value. Patients qualified for bariatric procedures show deficiencies in vitamins and minerals due to insufficient intake of vegetables, fruit and whole grain products. Analysis of dietary habits in morbidly obese patients prepared for bariatric surgery, including assessment of eating style and frequency of consumption of certain products. The study group contained 39 people aged 18 - 65 years, who were surveyed with a questionnaire elaborated in the Department of Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok. The following factors were assessed: number of meals, snacking between meals and eating at night, types of snacks eaten, and frequency of consumption of certain foods. Results were analyzed using Statistica 9.0. The majority of surveyed men (41.7%) ate three meals a day, whereas most women (40.7%) had at least 4 meals a day. Nearly 85% of the respondents admitted snacking between meals, mainly eating fruit, sweets and sandwiches. Whole grain cereal, milk and dairy products, fish, fruit, vegetables and pulses appeared in diet of patients qualified for treatment of obesity very rarely. Dietary habits of obese patients qualified for bariatric procedures are not consistent with recommendations. Therefore, these patients should receive nutritional education in order to foster proper eating habits that will help in the postoperative nutrition.

  11. Socio-Economic Factors, Food Habits and Phosphorus Levels in Patients on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Domenico; Ingegnieri, Maria Teresa; Vita, Giuseppe; Lucisano, Silvia; Zuppardo, Carmelo; Canale, Valeria; Savica, Vincenzo; Buemi, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Hyperphosphoremia is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and also, for the general population. Excessive dietary intake of phosphate (P) is one of the key factors. In particular, P in its inorganic form, which is contained in food additives, is more readily absorbed. Unfortunately, these food additives are mostly present in convenience so called "fast foods" (pre-cooked), soft drinks, which represent the typical food consumed by our hemodialysis (HD) population, composed by elderly people, mostly low-socio economic class, who often live alone. We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study to find any association between social, cultural and economic situation, as well as food habits, and P levels in a cohort of patients on HD. Secondarily; we also examined the association between the fast food consumption and increased P levels, as well as patient compliance for P binding products. To explore the association between socio-economic factors and serum P levels, we enrolled 100 patients on periodic HD treatment from three different units. Information on social, cultural, economic, diet habits, therapy for hyperphosphoremia and hematological and clinical parameters had been collected through specific questionnaires, administered by a physician. Results showed serum P level was reduced in patients who live alone compared to patients in family (P = 0.04), in self-sufficient (P = 0.05) and in patients belonging to middle-upper class, versus low-class (P = 0.003). Fast foods intake correlates with increase in P serum levels (P = 0.002), whilst the same correlation was not found for cheese intake. Our data show that socio-economic status and food habits are useful predictors of P serum levels. In conclusion, dietary counseling of patients on HD is mandatory. Interventions that consider the socio-economic situation allow delivering important messages on foods with the least amount of P

  12. Habit formation, work ethics, and technological progress

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, João Ricardo; León-Ledesma, Miguel A.

    2002-01-01

    Work ethics affects labor supply. This idea is modeled assuming that work is habit forming. This paper introduces working habits in a neoclassical growth model and compares its outcomes with a model without habit formation. In addition, it analyzes the impact of different forms of technical progress. The findings are that i) labor supply in the habit formation case is higher than in the neoclassical case; ii) unlike in the neoclassical case, labor supply in the presence of habit formation wil...

  13. Habitable worlds with no signs of life

    OpenAIRE

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life’ is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable...

  14. Tidal locking of habitable exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory

    2017-12-01

    Potentially habitable planets can orbit close enough to their host star that the differential gravity across their diameters can produce an elongated shape. Frictional forces inside the planet prevent the bulges from aligning perfectly with the host star and result in torques that alter the planet's rotational angular momentum. Eventually the tidal torques fix the rotation rate at a specific frequency, a process called tidal locking. Tidally locked planets on circular orbits will rotate synchronously, but those on eccentric orbits will either librate or rotate super-synchronously. Although these features of tidal theory are well known, a systematic survey of the rotational evolution of potentially habitable exoplanets using classic equilibrium tide theories has not been undertaken. I calculate how habitable planets evolve under two commonly used models and find, for example, that one model predicts that the Earth's rotation rate would have synchronized after 4.5 Gyr if its initial rotation period was 3 days, it had no satellites, and it always maintained the modern Earth's tidal properties. Lower mass stellar hosts will induce stronger tidal effects on potentially habitable planets, and tidal locking is possible for most planets in the habitable zones of GKM dwarf stars. For fast-rotating planets, both models predict eccentricity growth and that circularization can only occur once the rotational frequency is similar to the orbital frequency. The orbits of potentially habitable planets of very late M dwarfs ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) are very likely to be circularized within 1 Gyr, and hence, those planets will be synchronous rotators. Proxima b is almost assuredly tidally locked, but its orbit may not have circularized yet, so the planet could be rotating super-synchronously today. The evolution of the isolated and potentially habitable Kepler planet candidates is computed and about half could be tidally locked. Finally, projected TESS planets

  15. Festival Foods in the Immigrant Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Kristen M.J.; Chen, Edith; Holland, Ariel T.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary acculturation for immigrant groups has largely been attributed to the “Westernization” of indigenous diets, as characterized by an increased consumption of unhealthy American foods (i.e. fast foods, hamburgers). However, acculturation and adoption of western dietary habits may not fully explain new dietary patterns among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. The immigrant diet may change in such a way that it elaborates on specific ethnic traditions in addition to the incorporation of Western food habits. In this paper, we explore the role that festival foods, those foods that were once eaten a few times a year and on special occasions, play in the regular diet of immigrants to the U.S. This paper will focus on the overconsumption of ethnic festival foods, which are often high in carbohydrates, animal protein, sugar and fat, as opposed to Western “junk” food, as an explanation for the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders among new immigrant groups. PMID:22968231

  16. Snacking now or later? Individual differences in following intentions or habits explained by time perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwezen, M C; Van 't Riet, J; Dagevos, H; Sijtsema, S J; Snoek, H M

    2016-12-01

    Even when individuals are aware of long-term health effects of their diet, and form healthy intentions, they often engage in relatively unhealthy snacking habits. Some individuals fall back on unhealthy habits more easily than others. We aim to explore whether time perspective can explain why some individuals are more prone to rely on habits and others on intentions. Study 1 (N = 1503) provides a first exploration of the role of time perspective by exploring individual differences in perception of long-term and short-term consequences. In accordance with our hypotheses, Study 1 shows that habits are associated with short-term consequences and intentions with long-term consequences. Study 2 (N = 1497) shows that the effects of habits on snacking behaviour are strengthened by a present time perspective, whereas the effects of intentions on snacking behaviour are strengthened by a future time perspective. These findings imply that there is a fundamental difference in the guiding function of intentions and habits which might explain individual differences in following intentions versus habits. Individuals with a long-term perspective are more inclined to follow intentions and individuals with a short-term perspective are more inclined to follow habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of items allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no ... two or three days of starting the diet and antibiotics. If you haven't started feeling ...

  18. Are school meals a viable and sustainable tool to improve the healthiness and sustainability of children´s diet and food consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Wang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    . School meal programs are of particular interest for improving public diet because they reach children at a population scale across socio-economic classes and for over a decade of their lives, and because food habits of children are more malleable than those of adults. Current research on the history...... and health implications of school meal programs is reviewed in a cross-national comparative framework, and arguments explored that speak for the need of a new developmental phase of school meals as an integrative learning platform for healthy and sustainable food behavior. Nutritional, social, practical...

  19. Eating habits and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...... that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families....

  20. Mediterranean Diet in Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Meryem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bad eating habits lead to the emergence of chronic health problems such as coronary artery diseases, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cancer and obesity and the relationship between diet and diseases is emphasized and the relationship between them is clearly revealed in studies conducted over many years. The Mediterranean diet, which is first described by Angel Keys at the beginning of the 1960’s, is not a specific diet but a natural way of eating in olive-growing region. With the properties such as the use of vegetable oils such as olive oil in particular, and the consumption of fish instead of red meat, the diet constitutes a health-protective nutrition. So, this review conducted the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic diseases.

  1. Weight concerns and food habits of adolescent girls in two contrasting ecological regions: A comparative study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Nivedita; Mishra, Shailendra Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Susmita

    2016-01-01

    To compare the incidence of weight concerns and food habits between two ethnically different groups of adolescent girls residing in two distinct ecological settings: the plains of Kolkata and the mountains of Sikkim. Two separate cross-sectional studies were conducted within a period of five years in urban hilly areas of Sikkim and the city of Kolkata, India. A total of 506 girls aged 14-19 years were selected from the study areas of Sikkim (n=224) and Kolkata (n=282). Girls were interviewed for weight concerns and food habits along with socio-demographic characteristics. Weight concerns were assessed with four variables such as, perceptions about own body weight, felt dissatisfied with own body weight, urge for dieting and use of weight reduction diet. Food habits included consumption of major foods during the past one week. Bivariate analyses showed that Kolkata girls perceived themselves as overweight, remained dissatisfied with body weight, expressed perceived need for dieting and followed weight reduction diet more compared to the girls of Sikkim. Food habits indicated that all Sikkimese girls preferred to consume cereals regularly, while Kolkata girls consumed vegetables, pulses, fish, fruits, bread and butter and fried foods more than Sikkimese girls. Multivariate analyses showed that place of residence was significantly (pfood habits of girls. Diversity in culture, ethnicity and socio-economic standard perhaps develop the disparity in food habits and weight concerns between girls of urban hilly areas of Sikkim and the city of Kolkata. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Swedish women's food habits during pregnancy up to six months post-partum: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Isaksson, Ulf; Sandström, Herbert; Lundqvist, Anette; Hörnell, Agneta; Hamberg, Katarina

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences the health of the foetus and the woman during pregnancy and later in life. It is therefore important to investigate pregnant women's food habits. The aim of this study was to describe women's food habits during pregnancy and up to six months post-partum. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (VIP-FFQ) was distributed to 163 pregnant women on five occasions during and after pregnancy. Data were analysed using Friedman's ANOVA and a Bonferroni post-hoc test. Food habits in relation to the National Food Agency's (NFA) food index. The pregnant women's diets were inadequate according to the NFA food index. A tendency towards an even poorer diet after delivery was identified, something which was related to an increased intake of discretionary food, e.g. sweets, cakes, cookies, crisps, ice cream, and decreased intake of fruit and vegetable. The alcohol consumption was low throughout. The food habits during pregnancy were inadequate compared to recommendations and these habits became unhealthier after delivery. These suggest that dietary counselling needs to be more effective and continued into the lactating period. An increased focus should be given to healthy eating from the life course perspective, not just focus on effects on the foetus and pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures.

  4. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Choung Young

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%, followed by upper extremity (18%, back (10%, and head (3.6%. The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%, followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention.

  5. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather; Su Choung, Young

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%), followed by upper extremity (18%), back (10%), and head (3.6%). The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%), followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention. PMID:15921510

  6. Analysis of the relationship between food habits and health students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes nutrition of students, based on the assessment of frequency of consumption of basic food products. The study involved 50 students aged 21-22 years. Set that the nutrition of the majority of students is irrational, in the daily life of young people there is a number of risk factors associated with inadequate intake of healthy food products. Have far-reaching enough food habits due to the consumption of so-called "food waste". The analysis of the correlation relationship between nutrition, mental performance and lifestyle factors, confirmed that a violation of the rules of a healthy diet affects the performance efficiency, increases the likelihood of bad habits. Slow food culture, lack of knowledge of young people on healthy food cause the need for appropriate health education.

  7. Nutritional Knowledge, Practice, and Dietary Habits among school Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeeni, Marjan Manouchehri; Jafari, Sakineh; Fouladgar, Maryam; Heidari, Kamal; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fakhri, Maryam; Karami, Parvaneh; Omidi, Razieh

    2014-12-01

    Although nutritional status of children and adolescents is of great concern various interventions and modifications aiming at promotion of healthy eating behaviors have limited impact due to insufficient understanding of dietary habits between different age groups and genders. The aim of this study in not only evaluation of nutritional knowledge, practice, and dietary habits of primary school and junior high school students in Isfahan province, but also this research explore crucial differences regarding gender and living area of the above-mentioned population in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4700 primary school and junior high school pupils in Isfahan province. Data were collected through standard 24-h recall food frequency questionnaire and researcher-designed questionnaire. Independent t-test was applied for comparison of mean values of total units of consumed food materials. Qualitative variables were compared by using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by ACCESS 2010 and SPSS 18 software. Nutritional knowledge of female pupils and junior high school students was higher than their male and elementary school students respectively; still, theses superiorities did not lead to higher practice score. Bread and cereals group received daily intakes in accordance with food and drug administration (FDA) recommendations. Indeed, vegetables, milk, and dairy products, as well as meat daily intakes, were lower than the FDA recommendation, whereas fats, oils, and sugars intakes were higher. In comparison to females, male participants had significantly lower consumption of vegetables and fruits whilst they had a higher intake of carbohydrates, fats, and meats. Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials.

  8. Nutritional habits of elderly people living at home

    OpenAIRE

    Premoš, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a process that is accompanied by biological, psychological and social changes. These changes can affect the nourishment of elderly people. Elderly people are becoming less independent with years and more dependent on others. Family members, to whom the elderly people trust the most, offer them assistance. On the market, there are various services that provide assistance in different cases. In the diploma work I have been investigating how the elderly people eat, which foods are u...

  9. Seasonal food habits of the coyote in the South Carolina coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua D. Schrecengost; John C. Kilgo; David Mallard; H. Scott Ray; Karl V. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal plasticity in Canis latrans (coyote) diets require regional studies to understand the ecological role of this omnivorous canid. Because coyotes have recently become established in South Carolina, we investigated their food habits by collecting 415 coyote scats on the Savannah River Site in western South Carolina from May 2005?...

  10. [Meaning the process of living the coronary artery bypass graft surgery: changes in lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, Giovana Dorneles; Koerich, Cintia; Lanzoni, Gabriela Marcellino de Melo; Baggio, Maria Aparecida; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2012-12-01

    The study aimed to understand how patients mean your experience process of living after surgical revascularization. Will be presented in this article, a category and seven subcategories that represent significant changes from that experience, that is, the "consequences" component of the paradigm model, according to Grounded Theory, method of study. Participated in data collection 23 subjects The interviews were semi-structured and took place from October 2010 to August 2011. Significant changes are related to aspects of social and sexual life, work diet physical activity and drug treatment. We conclude that surgical revascularization experience encourages the reflection and the (re) think the lifestyle, it has limitations and difficulties that challenge changes in daily habits of patients and families to live a healthier process.

  11. Live yeast culture and monensin in high grain diets for cattle: rumen fermentation and “in situ” degradability Leveduras vivas e monensina em dietas de alto concentrado para bovinos: parâmetros ruminais e degradabilidade "in situ"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Machado Nogueira Filho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Live yeast cultures have been used as an alternative to replace antibiotics in diets for ruminants. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the effects of adding live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Beef Sacc®, Alltech, Inc., monensin (Rumensin®, Elanco, Inc. and the combination of both additives in high grain diets, on rumen fermentation patterns, protozoa organisms and in situ degradability of diet components. Four rumen-cannulated steers were fed a basal ration (2.8Mcal ME/kg DM, 14% CP and submitted to one of four treatments following a 4x4 Latin Square design: control (CON, no additives, yeast (YEA, 0.6g/kg of dry matter, monensin (MON, 0.3g/kg of dry matter and monensin plus yeast (MON+YEA. After 14 days of diet adaptation, the rumen fermentation parameters, the protozoa numbers and the degradation kinetics of corn (CO, soybean meal (SM and soybean hulls (SH were assessed. Feed additives did not affect rumen pH, butirate and ammonia nitrogen concentrations, but decreased total short chain fatty acids (mM. MON and MON+ YEA decreased acetate (% and acetate:propionate ratio whereas propionate was increased by MON and MON+YEA at all sampling times, and by YEA at 4 and 6h post-feeding only. YEA increased the number of protozoa whereas MON and MON+YEA inhibited those microorganisms (total organisms [x104/mL]. There were no effects of YEA and MON+YEA on in situ degradability parameters of any evaluated feed, however, MON increased NDF degradation rate of SH. Monensin effects on rumen fermentation are more significant than those observed when feeding live yeast cultures, and the combination of both additives does not improve their effects.Leveduras têm sido utilizadas para substituir antibióticos em dietas para ruminantes. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de leveduras vivas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Beef-Sacc®, Alltech, Inc., monensina (Rumensin®, Elanco, Inc. e a combinação de ambos em dietas com alto concentrado, sobre a

  12. Habitability in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success

  13. 7 Habits of Developmental Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Gibson; Shimon, Jane

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how coaches can apply principles of athlete growth and development to the learning and performance of motor skills. They present 7 habits that lead to well-rounded athletes who experience increased enjoyment, self-motivation, skill improvement, and ultimately more success on the playing field. (Contains 1…

  14. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common questions IBS patients have is what food to avoid. This can drive a person to ... Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause ...

  15. Disparities in dietary habits and physical activity in Denmark and trends from 1995 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse; Landvad, Niels; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard

    2014-11-01

    To examine social disparities in dietary-, alcohol- and leisure-time physical activity habits in Danish adults from 1995 to 2008 and to test the hypothesis of widening disparities. Four cross-sectional surveys of representative samples of the Danish population aged 20-75 years were analysed, a total of 7900 respondents. Dietary and alcohol habits were measured by a 7-day pre-coded food diary and physical activity and education by a face-to-face interview. Multivariate analyses were used to test associations between explanatory variables and response variables and the hypothesis of widening disparities. In all analyses, both diet quality and physical inactivity differed systematically with educational group and with healthier habits for the group with long education. Only for alcohol habits was an opposite social gradient seen. Disparities persisted over all time periods. The analyses using "The Concentration Index" did not change any of the conclusions. Gender also influenced diet quality. Men had dietary and alcohol habits furthest away from the guidelines. A trend of healthier habits was also found over the time period. Social disparities in diet quality and leisure-time physical activity were seen for all examined time periods and with no significant change therefore, there is no support to the hypothesis of widening social disparities in all educational groups some improvement of dietary habits was found, especially for those foods where comprehensive initiatives had taken place however, social disparities still exist there is an ongoing need to address these disparities in order to reduce social inequality in health. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. Intertemporal Asset Allocation with Habit Formation in Preferences: An Approximate Analytical Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    In this paper we derive an approximate analytical solution to the optimal con- sumption and portfolio choice problem of an infinitely-lived investor with power utility defined over the difference between consumption and an external habit. The investor is assumed to have access to two tradable......-linearized surplus consumption ratio. The "difference habit model" implies that the relative risk aversion is time-varying which is in line with recent ev- idence from the asset pricing literature. We show that accounting for habit a¤ects both the myopic and intertemporal hedge component of optimal asset demand......, and introduces an additional component that works as a hedge against changes in the investor's habit level. In an empirical application, we calibrate the model to U.S. data and show that habit formation has significant effects on both the optimal consumption and portfolio choice compared to a standard CRRA...

  17. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  18. Feeding habit of the Brazilian tapir, Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae in a vegetation transition zone in south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Talamoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tapirs are considered generalist herbivores and the differences in the proportions of dietary items are often attributed to differences in the habitats where individuals live. This study characterized the feeding habit of Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 in a nature reserve in south-eastern Brazil, located in a region considered a transition zone between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Atlantic Forest biomes. Fecal samples from T. terrestris individuals were collected monthly at six sampling areas that encompassed a total of 242.22 ha. There were 147 fresh samples found (77 during the dry season and 70 during the wet season. The diet of the tapirs in this reserve was characterized by the prevalent browsing on leaves and stems. There was a low frequency of fruit seeds in the diet of the tapirs during both the wet and dry seasons. However, in the dry season a higher percentage of samples containing seeds was observed. Fruits of Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, and Annonaceae were most consumed during the dry season. Most of the fruit seeds found presented small mean diameter (3.7-8.4 mm and most of the fruits were capsules and dry fruits. The characteristics of the fruits consumed by the tapirs indicate that they forage in the lower forest stratum and upon species from Cerrado. Additionally, Psidium myrtoides O. Berg. clusters found in the study site suggest that the tapirs may be acting as dispersal agents of this species.

  19. DNA damage response in monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Francesca; Carotti, Daniela; Andreoli, Cristina; Siniscalchi, Ester; Leopardi, Paola; Caiola, Stefania; Biffoni, Mauro; Zijno, Andrea; Medda, Emanuela; Nisticò, Lorenza; Rossi, Sabrina; Crebelli, Riccardo

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies in twins indicate that non-shared environment, beyond genetic factors, contributes substantially to individual variation in mutagen sensitivity; however, the role of specific causative factors (e.g. tobacco smoke, diet) was not elucidated. In this investigation, a population of 22 couples of monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits was selected with the aim of evaluating the influence of tobacco smoke on individual response to DNA damage. The study design virtually eliminated the contribution of genetic heterogeneity to the intra-pair variation in DNA damage response, and thus any difference in the end-points investigated could directly be attributed to the non-shared environment experienced by co-twins, which included as main factor cigarette smoke exposure. Peripheral lymphocytes of study subjects were challenged ex vivo with γ-rays, and the induction, processing, fixation of DNA damage evaluated through multiple approaches. Folate status of study subjects was considered significant covariate since it is affected by smoking habits and can influence radiosensitivity. Similar responses were elicited by γ-rays in co-twins for all the end-points analysed, despite their discordant smoking habits. Folate status did not modify DNA damage response, even though a combined effect of smoking habits, low-plasma folic acid level, and ionising radiation was observed on apoptosis. A possible modulation of DNA damage response by duration and intensity of tobacco smoke exposure was suggested by Comet assay and micronucleus data, but the effect was quantitatively limited. Overall, the results obtained indicate that differences in smoking habits do not contribute to a large extent to inter-individual variability in the response to radiation-induced DNA damage observed in healthy human populations.

  20. Habit in Personality and Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy

    2017-11-01

    Habits are largely absent from modern social and personality psychology. This is due to outdated perspectives that placed habits in conflict with goals. In modern theorizing, habits are represented in memory as implicit context-response associations, and they guide responding in conjunction with goals. Habits thus have important implications for our field. Emerging research shows that habits are an important mechanism by which people self-regulate and achieve long-term goals. Also, habits change through specific interventions, such as changes in context cues. I speculate that understanding of habits also holds promise for reducing intergroup discrimination and for understanding lay theories of the causes for action. In short, by recognizing habit, the field gains understanding of a central mechanism by which actions persist in daily life.

  1. Smoking habits among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Kimura, Masafumi

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation made a research through mailing, the smoking habits among the A-bomb survivors in 1978-79. Statistic analysis was made on the smoking habits and radiation doses. (J.P.N.)

  2. The rules of coherence and other habits

    OpenAIRE

    Solis, M. R. C.

    2003-01-01

    Physics and mathematics are difficult enough without the aditional burden of bad habits. In this article, we examine some helpful habits that tend to be underemphasized by many physics teachers (mainly because they seem so obvious!).

  3. The Role of Habitability Studies in Space Facility and Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Constance M.

    1999-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the role of the space architect in designing a space vehicle with habitability as a chief concern. Habitability is composed of the qualities of the environment or system which support the crew in working and living. All the impacts from habitability are interdependent; i.e., impacts to well-being can impact performance, safety or efficiency. After reviewing the issues relating to habitability the presentation discusses the application of these issues in two case studies. The first studies the Bio-Plex Hab chamber which includes designs of the living and working areas. The second case study is the ISS-TransHab which is being studied as a prototype for Mars transit.

  4. Nutritional attitudes of homosexual people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Chongqing, Southwest China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjie; Ma, Rui; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    This article aimed at understanding nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of homosexual persons living with HIV/AIDS in Chongqing, China. A cross sectional design using a valid and reliable survey was used. The survey was completed in Chongqing, Southwest China (n = 172). Knowledge of nutrition was deficient regarding sources of nutrients such as calcium and iron, relationships between diet/nutrients and disease, and only 36.1% of participants knew about the Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese. Eating habits did not meet the nutritional requirements, and a majority (59.3%) did not eat breakfast every day. The average score on the knowledge quiz was 51.8%. This study showed that homosexual persons with HIV/AIDS in China longed for nutrition knowledge, and this was supported by objective data. Efforts and targeted education programs aiming to improve their nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors need to be emphasized.

  5. Development of a Healthy Dietary Habits Index for New Zealand Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Haszard, Jillian J; Howe, Anna S; Parnell, Winsome R; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2017-05-03

    Healthful dietary habits are individually associated with better nutrient intake and positive health outcomes; however, this information is rarely examined together to validate an indicator of diet quality. This study developed a 15-item Healthy Dietary Habits Index (HDHI) based on self-reported dietary habits information collected in the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. The validity of HDHI as a diet quality index was examined in relation to sociodemographic factors, 24-diet recall derived nutrient intakes, and nutritional biomarkers in a representative sample of adults aged 19 years and above. Linear regression models were employed to determine associations between HDHI quintiles and energy-adjusted nutrient data and nutritional biomarkers. Significantly higher HDHI scores were found among women, older age groups, Non-Māori or Pacific ethnic groups, and less socioeconomically-deprived groups (all p < 0.001). Increasing quintiles of HDHI were associated with higher intakes of dietary fibre and seven micronutrients including calcium, iron, and vitamin C, and lower intakes of energy, macronutrients, sodium, zinc, vitamins B6 and B12. Associations in the expected directions were also found for urinary sodium, whole blood folate, serum and red blood cell folate, and plasma selenium (all p < 0.001). The present findings suggest that the HDHI is a valid measure of diet quality as it is capable of discerning quality of diets of subgroups and ranking nutrient intakes among NZ adults.

  6. Oral Habits That Cause Malocclusion Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Joelijanto, Rudy

    2012-01-01

    Oral habits that place pressure on the teeth may slowly move the teeth out of place. The aim of this study was to review the literature for articles referring the most common oral habits that cause malocclusion. The oral bad habits that cause malocclussion problems include: Thumb sucking, It is a normal habit for babies, but causes serious orthodontic problems if it continues long after the eruption of permanent teeth. Prolonged thumb sucking can create crowded, crooked teeth, or bite problem...

  7. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  8. Does a low-income urban population practise healthy dietary habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nurul Ain; Thangiah, Nithiah; Su, Tin Tin; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the unhealthy dietary habits and practices in a low-income community in an urban area and determine the associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low-income housing area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data were collected using a questionnaire via face-to-face interviews by trained enumerators in order to obtain details on sociodemographic characteristics and dietary practices. Descriptive statistics showed that 86.7% of the respondents in the low-income community consumed fruit and vegetables less than five times per day, 11.7% consumed carbonated and sweetened drinks more than twice per day and about 25% consumed fast food more than four times per month. In total, 65.2% (n=945) did not have healthy dietary practices. Binary logistic regression showed that age, education and ethnicity were significant predictors of unhealthy dietary practices among the low-income community. Those in the 30-59 years age group had higher odds (odds ratio 1.65, p=0.04) of practising an unhealthy diet as compared with those older than 60 years of age. Unhealthy dietary practices were found to be common among the low-income group living in an urban area. Healthy lifestyle intervention should be highlighted so that it can be adopted in the low-income group.

  9. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Achkar, Alice; Abdallah, Abbass; Rizk, Sandra

    2008-10-30

    In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and to examine their eating habits. A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female), aged 20 +/- 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU) campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0) to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7%) were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively). In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4%) reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P = 0.001). Intake of colored vegetables and

  10. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Abbass

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female, aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0 to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7% were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively. In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4% reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P

  11. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Achkar, Alice; Abdallah, Abbass; Rizk, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female), aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU) campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0) to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7%) were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively). In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4%) reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P = 0.001). Intake of

  12. [Path analysis of lifestyle habits to the metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-xin; Zhang, Cheng-qi; Tang, Fang; Song, Xin-hong; Xue, Fu-zhong

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between lifestyle habits and the components of metabolic syndrome (MS). Based on the routine health check-up system in a certain Center for Health Management of Shandong Province, a longitudinal surveillance health check-up cohort from 2005 to 2010 was set up. There were 13 225 urban workers in Jinan included in the analysis. The content of the survey included demographic information, medical history, lifestyle habits, body mass index (BMI) and the level of blood pressure, fasting blood-glucose, and blood lipid, etc. The distribution of BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood-glucose, blood lipid and lifestyle habits between MS patients and non-MS population was compared, latent variables were extracted by exploratory factor analysis to determine the structure model, and then a partial least squares path model was constructed between lifestyle habits and the components of MS. Participants'age was (46.62 ± 12.16) years old. The overall prevalence of the MS was 22.43% (2967/13 225), 26.49% (2535/9570) in males and 11.82% (432/3655) in females. The prevalence of the MS was statistically different between males and females (χ(2) = 327.08, P alcohol consumption has statistical difference (χ(2) = 374.22, P smoking status was statistically significant (χ(2) = 115.86, P smoking was 59.72% (1772/2967), 6.24% (185/2967), 34.04% (1010/2967) respectively, while in non-MS population was 70.03% (7184/10 258), 5.35% (549/10 258), 24.61% (2525/10 258) respectively. Both lifestyle habits and the components of MS were attributable to only one latent variable. After adjustment for age and gender, the path coefficient between the latent component of lifestyle habits and the latent component of MS was 0.22 with statistical significance (t = 6.46, P Unhealthy lifestyle habits are closely related to MS. Meat diet, excessive drinking and smoking are risk factors for MS.

  13. Home-Living Elderly People's Views on Food and Meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Edfors

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to describe home-living elderly people's views on the importance of food and meals. Methods. Semistructured interviews with twelve elderly people. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results. Respondents described how their past influenced their present experiences and views on food and meals. Increased reliance on and need of support with food and meals frequently arose in connection with major changes in their life situations. Sudden events meant a breaking point with a transition from independence to dependence and a need for assistance from relatives and/or the community. With the perspective from the past and in the context of dependency, respondents described meals during the day, quality of food, buying, transporting, cooking, and eating food. Conclusions. Meeting the need for optimal nutritional status for older people living at home requires knowledge of individual preferences and habits, from both their earlier and current lives. It is important to pay attention to risk factors that could compromise an individual's ability to independently manage their diet, such as major life events and hospitalisation. Individual needs for self-determination and involvement should be considered in planning and development efforts for elderly people related to food and meals.

  14. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  15. Drug Advertising and Health Habit

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiaki Iizuka; Ginger Zhe Jin

    2005-01-01

    We examine the effect of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of drug treatment on an important health habit, physical exercise. By learning the existence of a new drug treatment via DTCA, rational consumers may become careless about maintaining healthy lifestyles. Using the National Health Insurance Survey (NHIS) and MSA-level DTCA data, we find that the DTCA related to four chronic conditions -- diabetes, high cholesterol, over weight, and hypertension -- reduce the likelihood of engaging ...

  16. Organic food for sustainable and healthy diets - lessons from the nordic diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, Susanne; Damsgaard, C. T.; Larsen, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    foods from the wild countryside and 3) more foods from sea and lakes. In many ways, the New NND is very similar to a Mediterranean diet but relies on rapeseed (canola) oil instead of olive oil and ramson instead of garlic. The diets differ in their types of produce due to regional differences in climate......://foodoflife.ku.dk/opus/english/nyheder/publikationer/) in which the NND was compared to the Average Danish Diet (ADD). The use of mostly local products and reduction of the meat intake were of both socioeconomic and environmental advantage. Including organic produce increased environmental impact of the NND.Conclusion: In line with the Mediterranean diet......Introduction: The New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in 2004 by chefs and food professionals from the five Nordic countries. The goal for the NND was that it should be based on traditional regional food products but healthier than the traditional eating habits. The NND builds on four key...

  17. Widen the belt of habitability!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Among the key-parameters to characterize habitability are presence or availability of liquid water, an appropriate temperature range, and the time scale of reference. These criteria for habitability are discussed and described from the point of view of water- and ice-physics, and it is shown that liquid water may exist in the sub-surfaces of planetary bodies like Mars, and possibly of inner asteroids and internally heated ice-moons. Water can remain fluid there also at temperatures far below the "canonical" 0 °C. This behaviour is made possible as a consequence of the freezing point depression due to salty solutes in water or "brines", as they can be expected to exist in nature more frequently than pure liquid water. On the other hand, low temperatures cause a slowing down of chemical processes, as can be described by Arrhenius's relation. The resulting smaller reaction rates probably will have the consequence to complicate the detection of low-temperature life processes, if they exist. Furthermore, the adaptation potential of life is to be mentioned in this context as a yet partially unknown process. Resulting recommendations are given to improve the use of criteria to characterize habitable conditions.

  18. [Significance of bad habits in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Ildikó

    2002-08-01

    The author is concerned with the etiological role of bad habits in the development. Disturbances caused by pacifier habits, finger sucking, various forms of swallowing habits and their therapeutical possibilities are discussed. The role of mouth breathing, nail biting, bruxism and self-mutilation in development of anomalies and their therapy are also mentioned. The attention is called to the fact that dentists have responsibility and task to diagnose as early as can be the oral bad habits and that the adequate therapy in time in co-operation with other specialists helping the child get out of bad habits, preventing the development of severe anomaly.

  19. [Dietary habits and cancer: the experience of EPIC-Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    to investigate hypothesised relationships between diet and cancer by assessing diet as a whole, in the Italian cohort EPIC. multicentric prospective study. 47,749 volunteers were recruited between 1993 and 1998 in the centres of Varese and Turin (Northern Italy), Florence (Central Italy), Naples and Ragusa (Southern Italy). Information on diet and lifestyle were collected through validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken and biological samples collected using standardised protocols. follow-up was carried out by accessing regional cancer and mortality registries, hospital discharge records, and by telephone inquiries (only for Naples). After a median follow-up of 11 years, 879 incident cases of breast cancer, 421 cases of colorectal cancer, and 152 deaths were identified. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate risks in relation to dietary characteristics. the "Olive oil & Salad" dietary pattern, characterised by high consumption of raw vegetables and olive oil, was associated with a lower risk of overall mortality in the elderly. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet rich in vegetables and fruit was associated with reduced risk of colon cancer. Consumption of high-glycemic carbohydrates was associated with higher incidence of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Reduced risk of colon cancer was also found in regular consumers of yoghurt. the accuracy and comprehensiveness of EPIC-Italy data made it possible to investigate both individual dietary components and dietary habits as a whole, to thereby provide Italians with dietary and lifestyle advice that will help them to remain healthy.

  20. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  1. Dietary habits of Wroclaw Medical University students (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilow, Rafał; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Różańska, Dorota

    The World Health Organization considers an unhealthy diet to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases development. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary habits among Wroclaw Medical University students with a view towards the nutritional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The study was conducted between the years 2004-2012. The study group consisted of 892 women and 276 men. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire based on the principles outlined in “The Polish food-based dietary guidelines”. There were numerous eating habits not in compliance with the recommendations. Men failed to take ≥ 3 meals/ day (10.1% vs 6.3%) at a significantly higher frequency than women. Food products exhibiting a high glycaemic index (GI) were preferred over low GI, especially among men. About 62% of women and 75% of men failed to consume ≥ 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day. Women chose low-fat dairy products and meat significantly more frequently than men. 73% of women and 67% of men declared that they consumed vegetable oils on an irregular basis. About 8% of women and 11% of men used salt without restrictions, while 58% and 64% respectively, used sugar to sweeten beverages. Improper nutritional habits were observed in a high part of the studied students, especially among men. It is therefore strongly suggested that the rules of proper nutrition be promoted among this group.

  2. [FAMILY EATING HABITS AND PERCEPTION OF RISK IN EATING DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Lazo, María; Hernández Camacho, Juan Diego; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    factors related to food, shape, weight and exercise, transmitted from parents to children, and media sociocultural factors, such as social networks, also influence the development of Eating Disorders (ED). to analyse the influence of family eating habits and the parents perception about the influence of social networks on the development and maintenance of ED. 30 parents of ED patients participated voluntarily in this study fulfilling a series of questionnaires, as well as reporting their weight and height. it is observed an underestimation of weight in the case of overweight (33.33%) and obesity (35%) without considering the fact of going on diet in the future (χ2 = 11.31; p habits seem to be more relevant (e.g. snacking, intake of a single dish) (p eating habits of ED patients' families improve by means of the nutrition education included in the treatment. Relatives do not perceive adequately the risk of the social networks in their children, which might contribute to the maintenance and future relapses of ED. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-Perceived Eating Habits and Food Skills of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce J; Mudryj, Adriana N

    2016-01-01

    This study identified and described Canadians' self-perceived eating habits and food skills through the use of population-based data. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2013 Rapid Response on Food Skills was used to examine the eating quality and patterns of Canadians. Data were collected from all provinces in January and February 2013. Respondent variables (sex, age, Aboriginal/immigrant status) were examined to assess differentiations between socio-demographic groupings (family structure, marital status, education, and income). Logistic regression was used to determine whether demographic variables increased the likelihood of certain responses. Forty-six percent of Canadians believe they have excellent/very good eating habits, with 51% categorizing their habits as good or fair. Similarly, the majority report having good food skills. Sex and age were significantly associated with food skills, with women rating their cooking skill proficiency higher than men (72% vs 55%), and older Canadians reporting higher food skill knowledge than their younger counterparts. Results indicate that while portions of the Canadian population have adequate food skills, others are lacking, which may negatively impact their diet. Findings from this study have implications for education and health promotion programs focusing on foods skills, particularly among vulnerable target groups. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of dietary habits on prevalence of anemia in pregnant women of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Soni, Dimple; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa; Malhotra, Monika

    2003-04-01

    To see the effect of various dietary habits, such as a vegetarian diet or various types of meat, on the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women. A study was carried out in Delhi to determine the effect of different dietary habits on prevalence of anemia during pregnancy by questioning the women during pregnancy regarding their dietary habits (vegetarian diet, jhatka or halal meat) and assessing their hemoglobin levels. The data was compiled and chi2 test was employed for understanding the associations between the effect of food habits on prevalence of anemia. Mean age was 26.5 years. Most women were in the second (26%) or third trimester (63.2%) of pregnancy. Prevalence of anemia was found to be very high. Of 1150 women, 96% were anemic (89.8% mildly anemic, 5.3% severely anemic). Anemia was seen in 96.18% cases in vegetarian women, 95.3% in halal meat eaters, and 96.2% in jhatka meat eaters (not significant). Although the percentage of women with halal meat eaters and vegetarians, the difference was not statistically significant. There is very high prevalence of anemia during pregnancy in Delhi, probably due to very low frequency of meat eating in India. Different types of dietary habits had no effect on the prevalence of anemia in pregnant Indian women.

  5. [Assessment of current eating habits in women diagnosed with breast tumours and changes introduced after diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Alicja; Królikowska, Ewa; Sińska, Beata

    Intrroduction: Incorrect eating habits are a significant risk factor for breast tumours. An appropriate diet is a vital part in the treatment of such a disorder. The aim of the study was to assess current eating habits in women diagnosed with breast tumours and the changes introduced after diagnosis. The survey was conducted among 200 women aged 59±11.2 with a diagnosed breast tumour. An original survey questionnaire was used to assess the respondents' dietary habits. Questions pertained to the frequency of consumption of certain food groups, changes in diet since the moment of diagnosis and sources of knowledge about nutrition. A number of current incorrect eating habits became apparent (namely, low frequency of eating wholemeal products, legumes, fish, vegetables, fruit and high frequency of eating sweets), as well as many beneficial changes introduced after the diagnosis (more frequent consumption of wholemeal products, poultry, vegetables and fruit and lower frequency of consumption of red meat, meat preserves, sweets, sweetened drinks and alcohol), with no difference in age, education or time elapsed since the diagnosis. Less than one third of respondents have received nutrition advice after their diagnosis. In spite of the beneficial changes in dietary habits there is a need for widely available, reliable nutrition education amongst all women diagnosed with a breast tumour.

  6. Food habits of pumas in northwestern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, O. C.; Valdez, R.; Bender, L.C.; Daniel, D.

    2003-01-01

    It is questionable whether food-habits studies of pumas conducted in the southwestern United States can be extrapolated to northwestern Mexico, because of differences in management, distribution, and abundance of wildlife. We determined food habits of pumas (Puma concolor) in the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Based on studies in the western United States, we hypothesized that desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the major food source of pumas in Sonoran Desert habitats of Mexico. The study area supports populations of desert mule deer, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), lagomorphs (Lepus spp. and Sylvilagus audubonii), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), and the largest population (???300 individuals) of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Sonora. Based on pugmark characteristics, we recorded 3 different adult resident pumas in approximately 90 km2. We analyzed 60 puma fecal samples collected September 1996-November 1998. Primary prey items based on frequency of occurrence and estimated biomass consumed were desert bighorn sheep (40% and 45%, respectively), lagomorphs (33%, 19%), deer (17%, 17%), and collared peccary (15%, 11%). The high percentage of desert bighorn sheep in puma diets may be due to high abundance relative to mule deer, which declined in number during our study. No differences were found in puma diets between seasons (??22=2.4526, P=0.2934). Fluctuations in mule deer populations in northwestern Sonora may influence prey selection by pumas.

  7. Changes in food neophobia and dietary habits of international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J S A; Hartwell, H L; Brown, L

    2010-06-01

    International study is becoming more prevalent, yet aspects such as food neophobia often militate against visiting students consuming a nutritionally balanced diet. The present study aimed to evaluate the extent to which international post-graduate students experience food neophobia, how this might vary by nationality and other demographic characteristics, and how acculturation might manifest itself in students' dietary behaviour. International students (n = 228) attending a Masters course were invited to complete a validated food neophobia and dietary habits questionnaire during their first week at university. The questionnaire was subsequently re-administered to the same students approximately 4 and 8 months later. In total, 226 usable responses were analysed (124, 58 and 44, respectively) for the first, second and final data collection. Perhaps surprisingly, the overall food neophobia scores increased from an mean (SD) initial value of 27.95 (16.95) to 33.67 (33.67) after 3 months, although, when comparing European and Asian students, only the former were significantly different (P Asian and European students reported small but not significant changes in their eating habits, although, after 3 months, significantly (P = students' perceived healthiness of their diets either by nationality or over time. Understanding the complexities of food neophobia, other aspects of dietary change and at what point these changes might take place in the acculturation process when students arrive in the UK needs to be fully understood if a climate for positive learning is to be established.

  8. Falling into a routine: from habits to situated practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Simon; Lynch, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    In line with the concept of 'nudging' people to change their behaviour, there has been increased attention on habit as a focus for psychologically-based health interventions. It is hoped that behaviours initiated by interventions not only become so regular that they are normalised into people's everyday lives, but that through repetition they may eventually become fixed and habitual. In this paper we draw on people's accounts of participating in a trial designed to encourage greater physical activity, and attend to the ways they describe their engagement with interventions within wider narratives of their everyday lives. In contrast to the idea that habit refers to automatic behaviour cued by external stimuli and governed by unconscious cognitive processes, our study describes how people identify many diverse elements that are felt to have equal significance in achieving a routine. Paradoxically, the sense of stability derives not from exact repetition, but from the ability for an assemblage of elements to be configured slightly differently each time. We consequently argue that attending to the diverse range of contextual elements bracketed off from interventions designed to be tested in trials, and the idea that continuity might emerge from variation, demands a reconceptualisation of the concept of habit adopted within many areas of current health psychology. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  9. Relationship between diet-related indicators and overweight and obesity in older adults in rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Moriya, S; Yokoyama, T

    2017-01-01

    To identify the relationship between diet-related indicators and overweight and obesity in older adults in rural Japan. Cross-sectional survey. Obira, Hokkaido, Japan. Local residents aged between 65 and 74 years, except for those with poor health, were included. A health- and diet-related questionnaire was applied to participants house-to-house by trained health professionals. The following indicators were examined: number of meals, number of balanced meals, food diversity, food group diversity, chewing ability, alcohol intake habit, smoking habit, instrumental activities of daily living scores, age, and residing alone or with family. Of 550 residents, 317 residents completely responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 41 were had low body mass index (BMI≤20) and were excluded. This resulted in a sample of 307 subjects comprising 117 men and 190 women; 37.6% and 46.8% of men and women were classified as obese (BMI≥25), respectively. Women with a normal BMI (20diet-related indicators compared with women with high BMI. The mean number of meals per day of normal men was significantly higher than of obese men. Using logistic regression analysis (stepwise), it was found that the number of meals per day was associated with obesity in men (OR=3.02; 95% CI 0.91-9.98; P=0.071), and food diversity was significantly associated with obesity in women (OR=1.95; 95% CI 1.12-3.38; P=0.018). The associations between dietary indicators and obesity differed by sex. Food diversity may be a potential indicator to measure nutritional status in women.

  10. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  11. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits.

  12. Fluid Expulsion, Habitability, and the Search for Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2012-01-01

    Habitability assessments are critical for identifying settings in which potential biosignatures could exist in quantities large enough to be detected by rovers. Habitability depends on 1) the potential for long-lived liquid water, 2) conditions affording protection from surface processes destructive to organic biomolecules, and 3) a source of renewing nutrients and energy. Of these criteria, the latter is often overlooked. Here we present an analysis of a large "ghost" crater in northern Chryse Planitia [1] that appears to have satisfied each of these requirements, with several processes providing potential sources of nutrient/energy renewal [1-2]. This analysis can serve as a model for identifying other localities that could provide similarly favorable settings in which to seek evidence of life on Mars.

  13. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  14. Dietary habits contributing to breast cancer risk among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarakeh, Zahra Sheikhi; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Hatmi, Nadia; Ebrahimi, Mandana; Dabiran, Sohaila; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate demographic features, dietary habits, and some possible risk factors for being susceptible to breast cancer in Iranian women. A study of dietary habits and breast cancer was conducted among 53 Iranian women with histological confirmed disease and 40 matched controls. A dietary habits questionnaire was used to evaluate the pattern of selected food intakes. The risk of cancer was analyzed after adjustment for confounding factors. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, educational status, parity, lactation, marital status, menopause, history of estrogen therapy, and family history of breast disease or cancer were assessed among participants. Special attention was given to the relationship between consumption of high fat meat, milk, yogurt and cheese as well use of frying oils for frying foods, use of olive/liquid oils for cooking, removing fat from meat and poultry, removing chicken skin and not use of mayonnaise as salad dressing and the risk of breast cancer. Moreover, salad, vegetable and fruit consumption, and eating outdoors owere investigated. Our results revealed significant lower education and higher BMI and waist circumference levels in patients with breast cancer. There was significantly increased breast cancer risk in overweight women in comparison with normal weight (OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.24 to 6.82). High intake of fat dairy products including milk and cheese was found to be a statistically significant factor for increasing breast cancer risk in models adjusting for age, BMI and education. Use of olive/liquid oils for cooking and avoidance of mayonnaise as salad dressing are related to lower risk of breast cancer. The frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was significantly lower in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy women. Dietary habits might be risk factors for breast cancer among Iranian women. Adoption of a prudent diet could be an appropriate strategy for preventing breast

  15. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  16. Smoking habit and gastritis histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, A; Kemona, A; Namiot, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking may increase the risk of digestive tract pathologies, however, what is the influence smoking habit on gastric mucosa histology is still poorly elicited. The aim of the study was to compare histological evaluation of gastritis in smoker and non-smoker groups. A total of 236 patients of various H. pylori status (109 infected, 127 non-infected), clinical diagnosis (107 duodenal ulcer disease, 129 dyspepsia), and smoking habit (92 smokers, 144 non-smokers) were included. Subjects were classified as smokers if they smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years. A histological examination of endoscopically obtained samples was performed by two experienced pathomorphologists blinded to the diagnoses and smoking habit. Microscopic slices of the gastric mucosa were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. Apart from histological diagnosis, H. pylori status was additionally confirmed by an urease test (CLO-test) at least in one of two gastric locations (antrum or corpus). In the H. pylori infected population, H. pylori density, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells infiltration in the gastric corpus mucosa were lower in smokers than non-smokers, while in the antrum the differences were not significant. In the non-infected population, no significant differences in neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltration between smokers and non-smokers were found. Since the significant differences in studied parameters of chronic gastritis between smokers and non-smokers were found in the corpus mucosa of H. pylori infected subjects, smoking should be taken into account when a histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa in the H. pylori infected population is performed.

  17. Determination of Prevalence of Dental Erosion in 12 - 14 Years School Children and Its Relationship with Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Uzma; Quadir, Fauzia; Hosein, Tasleem

    2016-07-01

    To determine the frequency of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its association with dietary habits. Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, from January to June 2010. School children aged between 12 - 14 years were included in this study. Dental erosion was detected by visual examination. Aself-developed questionnaire was used to assess the dietary habits of children. Acidic diet was considered a diet that has an acidic pH. The amount of consumption of acidic drinks and food per week was categorized into low consumption (1 - 7 times / week) and medium consumption (8 - 21 times / week). Chi-square test was applied to see any statistical difference between diet and tooth erosion at 95% CI. The results showed a high frequency of (46%) dental erosion in children, which was significantly higher (p dental erosion in children. Acidic diets need to be controlled in frequency to prevent dental erosion.

  18. Healthy diet: Health impact, prevalence, correlates, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; Gillebaart, Marleen

    2017-08-01

    To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and environmental determinants of healthy diet; and the psychological interventions that have been designed to promote healthy diet. A systematic review of the psychological literature on healthy diet. Our findings suggest that consumers have a relatively poor understanding of a healthy diet. The literature also demonstrates that there is poor evidence on the health protective effects of single foods or nutrients. We further show that low SES is the single consistent risk factor for not adhering to a healthy diet. Our review of the literature on determinants demonstrates that intentions, habits, self-regulatory skills, and the social and physical environment are the most important determinants of a healthy diet, which are in turn amenable to change by intervention strategies with varying levels of effectiveness. Educational interventions generally show a limited effect on practising a healthy diet whereas interventions targeting habitual behaviour and/or the physical environment seem more promising. In view of the large number of people who are concerned about their diets and make attempts to change their dietary patterns, we conclude that it is crucial to gain a better understanding of both the automatic and environmental influences that are responsible for people not acting upon their good intentions for diet change.

  19. A randomized trial of diet and physical activity in women treated for stage II—IV ovarian cancer: Rationale and design of the Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-225) Study☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; Crane, Tracy E.; Miller, Austin; Garcia, David O.; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Alberts, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer death in United States women. Efforts to improve progression free survival (PFS) and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for ovarian cancer are necessary. Observational studies suggest that lifestyle behaviors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with lower mortality in this population. The Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES) NRG 0225 study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that a 24 month lifestyle intervention will significantly increase PFS after oncological therapy for stage II-IV ovarian cancer. Women are randomized 1:1 to a high vegetable and fiber, low-fat diet with daily physical activity goals or an attention control group. Secondary outcomes to be evaluated include QoL and gastrointestinal health. Moreover an a priori lifestyle adherence score will be used to evaluate relationships between adoption of the diet and activity goals and PFS. Blood specimens are collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months for analysis of dietary adherence (carotenoids) in addition to mechanistic biomarkers (lipids, insulin, telomere length). Women are enrolled at NRG clinic sites nationally and the telephone based lifestyle intervention is delivered from The University of Arizona call center by trained health coaches. A study specific multi-modal telephone, email, and SMS behavior change software platform is utilized for information delivery, coaching and data capture. When completed, LIVES will be the largest behavior-based lifestyle intervention trial conducted among ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:27394382

  20. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with information about living with diabetes and developing habits for healthy eating and physical activity through small, ... Cope with stress and emotions Set goals Stop smoking Prevent diabetes-related health problems Check my blood ...

  1. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the text smaller. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HOME | CONTACT US | JOBS AT NIDDK | RSS ... living with diabetes and developing habits for healthy eating and physical activity through small, sensible steps. Manage ...

  2. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Journey for Control This website is filled with information about living with diabetes and developing habits for ... Your GAME PLAN to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Information for Patients These three booklets help with diabetes ...

  3. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unmute Watch more videos from NDEP Selected Resources Need help getting started, or feeling overwhelmed? Take a ... Journey for Control This website is filled with information about living with diabetes and developing habits for ...

  4. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you be active in ways that suit your lifestyle, interests, health, and budget. ... website is filled with information about living with diabetes and developing habits for healthy eating and physical ...

  5. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews

  6. Host Star Evolution for Planet Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Florian; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis

    2016-11-01

    With about 2000 exoplanets discovered within a large range of different configurations of distance from the star, size, mass, and atmospheric conditions, the concept of habitability cannot rely only on the stellar effective temperature anymore. In addition to the natural evolution of habitability with the intrinsic stellar parameters, tidal, magnetic, and atmospheric interactions are believed to have strong impact on the relative position of the planets inside the so-called habitable zone. Moreover, the notion of habitability itself strongly depends on the definition we give to the term "habitable". The aim of this contribution is to provide a global and up-to-date overview of the work done during the last few years about the description and the modelling of the habitability, and to present the physical processes currently includes in this description.

  7. Dynamical habitability of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Bois, Eric; Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Frank; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the stability of planetary systems, a question that concerns only multiplanetary systems that host at least two planets, is discussed. The problem of mean motion resonances is addressed prior to discussion of the dynamical structure of the more than 350 known planets. The difference with regard to our own Solar System with eight planets on low eccentricity is evident in that 60% of the known extrasolar planets have orbits with eccentricity e > 0.2. We theoretically highlight the studies concerning possible terrestrial planets in systems with a Jupiter-like planet. We emphasize that an orbit of a particular nature only will keep a planet within the habitable zone around a host star with respect to the semimajor axis and its eccentricity. In addition, some results are given for individual systems (e.g., Gl777A) with regard to the stability of orbits within habitable zones. We also review what is known about the orbits of planets in double-star systems around only one component (e.g., gamma Cephei) and around both stars (e.g., eclipsing binaries).

  8. Habitability from Tidally Induced Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Diana; Tan, Vivian Yun Yan; Zajac, Zachary

    2018-04-01

    The stability of Earth’s climate on geological timescales is enabled by the carbon–silicate cycle that acts as a negative feedback mechanism stabilizing surface temperatures via the intake and outgassing of atmospheric carbon. On Earth, this thermostat is enabled by plate tectonics that sequesters outgassed CO2 back into the mantle via weathering and subduction at convergent margins. Here we propose a separate tectonic mechanism—vertical recycling—that can serve as the vehicle for CO2 outgassing and sequestration over long timescales. The mechanism requires continuous tidal heating, which makes it particularly relevant to planets in the habitable zone of M stars. Dynamical models of this vertical recycling scenario and stability analysis show that temperate climates stable over timescales of billions of years are realized for a variety of initial conditions, even as the M star dims over time. The magnitude of equilibrium surface temperatures depends on the interplay of sea weathering and outgassing, which in turn depends on planetary carbon content, so that planets with lower carbon budgets are favored for temperate conditions. The habitability of planets such as found in the Trappist-1 system may be rooted in tidally driven tectonics.

  9. TIDAL LIMITS TO PLANETARY HABITABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Rory; Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N.

    2009-01-01

    The habitable zones (HZs) of main-sequence stars have traditionally been defined as the range of orbits that intercept the appropriate amount of stellar flux to permit surface water on a planet. Terrestrial exoplanets discovered to orbit M stars in these zones, which are close-in due to decreased stellar luminosity, may also undergo significant tidal heating. Tidal heating may span a wide range for terrestrial exoplanets and may significantly affect conditions near the surface. For example, if heating rates on an exoplanet are near or greater than that on Io (where tides drive volcanism that resurfaces the planet at least every 1 Myr) and produce similar surface conditions, then the development of life seems unlikely. On the other hand, if the tidal heating rate is less than the minimum to initiate plate tectonics, then CO 2 may not be recycled through subduction, leading to a runaway greenhouse that sterilizes the planet. These two cases represent potential boundaries to habitability and are presented along with the range of the traditional HZ for main-sequence, low-mass stars. We propose a revised HZ that incorporates both stellar insolation and tidal heating. We apply these criteria to GJ 581 d and find that it is in the traditional HZ, but its tidal heating alone may be insufficient for plate tectonics.

  10. ISS Habitability Data Collection and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry (Principal Investigator); Greene, Maya; Schuh, Susan; Williams, Thomas; Archer, Ronald; Vasser, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Habitability is the relationship between an individual and their surroundings (i.e. the interplay of the person, machines, environment, and mission). The purpose of this study is to assess habitability and human factors on the ISS to better prepare for future long-duration space flights. Scheduled data collection sessions primarily require the use of iSHORT (iPad app) to capture near real-time habitability feedback and analyze vehicle layout and space utilization.

  11. What is the effect of diet and/or exercise interventions on behavioural compensation in non-exercise physical activity and related energy expenditure of free-living adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analiza M; Júdice, Pedro B; Carraça, Eliana V; King, Neil; Teixeira, Pedro J; Sardinha, Luís B

    2018-06-01

    Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) and/or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) reductions may occur from diet and/or exercise-induced negative energy balance interventions, resulting in less-than-expected weight loss. This systematic review describes the effects of prescribed diet and/or physical activity (PA)/exercise on NEPA and/or NEAT in adults. Studies were identified from PubMed, web-of-knowledge, Embase, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and PsycINFO searches up to 1 March 2017. Eligibility criteria included randomised controlled trials (RCT), randomised trials (RT) and non-randomised trials (NRT); objective measures of PA and energy expenditure; data on NEPA, NEAT and spontaneous PA; ≥10 healthy male/female aged>18 years; and ≥7 d length. The trial is registered at PROSPERO-2017-CRD42017052635. In all, thirty-six articles (RCT-10, RT-9, NRT-17) with a total of seventy intervention arms (diet, exercise, combined diet/exercise), with a total of 1561 participants, were included. Compensation was observed in twenty-six out of seventy intervention arms (fifteen studies out of thirty-six reporting declines in NEAT (eight), NEPA (four) or both (three)) representing 63, 27 and 23 % of diet-only, combined diet/exercise, and exercise-only intervention arms, respectively. Weight loss observed in participants who decreased NEAT was double the weight loss found in those who did not compensate, suggesting that the energy imbalance degree may lead to energy conservation. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that prescribed diet and/or exercise results in decreased NEAT and NEPA in healthy adults, the underpowered trial design and the lack of state-of-the-art methods may limit these conclusions. Future studies should explore the impact of weight-loss magnitude, energetic restriction degree, exercise dose and participant characteristics on NEAT and/or NEPA.

  12. Exploring mechanisms of diet-colon cancer associations through candidate molecular interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, David; Li, Jun; Jensen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies in the recent years have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and disease risk demonstrating that diet has a direct effect on public health. Especially plant-based diets-fruits, vegetables and herbs-are known as a source of molecules with pharma...

  13. Food habits of hypertensive and diabetics cared for in a Primary Health Care service in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Azeredo de Lima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the eating habits of hypertensive and diabetic individuals, classify their adequacy according to the Ministry of Health's Food Guide for the Brazilian Population and determine the association between adequate diet and the health problems under investigation. METHODS: Descriptive study from the baseline of a longitudinal study begun in 2011, with a sample of hypertensive and diabetic patients from a Primary Health Care facility in Southern Brazil, interviewed at home. RESULTS: A total of 2,482 people were interviewed, of which 66.5% were hypertensive, 6.5% diabetic and 27.1% suffered from hypertension and diabetes. Of those interviewed, 29.6% had inadequate eating habits, 46.9% partially inadequate and 23.4% had adequate diets. Low fiber intake was identified along with high consumption of soda, sugar, salt and saturated fat. The most adequate diet was associated with poor health status and the prevalence of inadequate diet was 30.0% higher among those who were only hypertensive. CONCLUSION: According to Ministry of Health guidelines, the eating habits of diabetic and hypertensive subjects are inadequate. The association between adequate diet and the health problems studied indicated a delayed improvement in diet, suggesting an urgent need for preventive and effective interventions to promote healthy eating.

  14. The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

    2012-10-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology.

  15. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet in a rural Appalachian food desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Fanning, F

    2013-01-01

    with higher incomes. Participants with lower educational levels were more likely to report family members would be hesitant to try a Mediterranean diet. Women were more likely than men to report an understanding of the health impact of certain foods as motivation to adopt and adhere to a Mediterranean diet. Multiple factors were reported as influencing dietary habits in this sample of rural Appalachian residents. Several of the factors reported are amenable to behavioral interventions. Although Appalachia has more residents per square kilometer than the rest of the country, the population density is not uniform across the region. Because many Appalachians live in sparsely populated counties, rurality plays a significant role in factors that affect dietary choice. Interventions that address barriers related to limited knowledge of nutrition, ease of preparation and changing personal habits as well as promote locally available foods, while considering issues specific to a rural population, may lead to sustained dietary changes.

  16. A strategy for weight loss based on healthy dietary habits and control of emotional response to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes Torrado, Yolanda; García-Villaraco Velasco, Ana; Hernández Galiot, Ana; Goñi Cambrodón, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits are major causes of a negative energy balance and excess body weight. The lifestyle of the Mediterranean diet eating pattern significantly reduces risk factors for non communicable diseases. Moreover, emotions have a powerful effect on feeding behavior. There is a direct relationship between food choices (type and amount), emotions and increased energy intake. To know the emotional behavior of individuals as a function of the relation between food intake and emotions to facilitate the establishment of personalized dietary guidelines based on healthy eating habits and increase the patient fidelity until the desired weight. 99 overweight adult people (81 women and 18 men) were subjected to a weight-reduction program based on the establishment of lifestyle and healthy eating habits. The adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and the effect of emotions on the choice of food and eating habits were determined using Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and Emotional- Eater Questionnaire (EEQ) respectively. The studied population was sedentary, consumed an unhealthy diet and eating behavior was highly affected by emotions. The majority of participants, (66% of women and 71% of men) were classified as emotional eater. During the treatment program eating habits and lifestyle subjects were modified and reduced at least 10% of their body weight. Know the relation between food intake and emotions allows to personalize the dietary strategy for weight loss in overweight and obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Intake of traditional Inuit diet vary in parallel with inflammation as estimated from YKL-40 and hsCRP in Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schæbel, L H; Vestergaard, H; Laurberg, P; Rathcke, C N; Andersen, S

    2013-06-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. This was rare in pre-western Inuit who lived on a diet that consisted mainly of marine mammals rich in n-3 fatty acids. To assess the association between biomarkers of inflammation and the intake of traditional Inuit diet in addition to Inuit ethnicity. YKL-40 and hsCRP were measured in serum from 535 Inuit and non-Inuit living in the capital city Nuuk in West Greenland or in the main town or a settlement in rural East Greenland. Dietary habits were assessed by an interview-based food frequency questionnaire. The participation rate was 95%. YKL-40 was higher in Inuit than in non-Inuit (p Inuit with a higher intake of traditional Inuit diet (p Inuit from rural compared to urban areas (p Inuit had higher hsCRP compared to non-Inuit (p = 0.003) and hsCRP increased in parallel with intake of traditional Inuit foods (p Inuit (p = 0.004). YKL-40 and hsCRP increased with higher intakes of traditional Inuit diet after adjusting for ethnicity, gender, age, smoking, alcohol intake and BMI. Biomarkers of inflammation vary in parallel with the intake of traditional Inuit diet. A diet based on marine mammals from the Arctic does not reduce inflammatory activity and it may be speculated that markers of inflammation reflect the disease rather than the cause of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is diet an essential risk factor for coronary heart disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, hypertension and diet each play a major role in the development of coronary heart attacks in most industrialized nations. In some countries where cigarette smoking and hypertension are prevalent there is a low risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Hyperlipidaemia resulting from national food habits appears to be the essential factor in the high rates of CHD in developed countries.

  19. Delivering Healthy Diets to Low-Income Families through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major cause of death in Peru, accounting for 60% of deaths in 2010. Unhealthy diet is one of the four major risk factors for NCDs. Researchers will explore ways to promote healthy dietary habits among residents of Lima's poor urban communities who use the city's Comedores ...

  20. Personality traits and eating habits in a large sample of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Deary, Ian J; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Diet has health consequences, which makes knowing the psychological correlates of dietary habits important. Associations between dietary habits and personality traits were examined in a large sample of Estonians (N = 1,691) aged between 18 and 89 years. Dietary habits were measured using 11 items, which grouped into two factors reflecting (a) health aware and (b) traditional dietary patterns. The health aware diet factor was defined by eating more cereal and dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruits. The traditional diet factor was defined by eating more potatoes, meat and meat products, and bread. Personality was assessed by participants themselves and by people who knew them well. The questionnaire used was the NEO Personality Inventory-3, which measures the Five-Factor Model personality broad traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, along with six facets for each trait. Gender, age and educational level were controlled for. Higher scores on the health aware diet factor were associated with lower Neuroticism, and higher Extraversion, Openness and Conscientiousness (effect sizes were modest: r = .11 to 0.17 in self-ratings, and r = .08 to 0.11 in informant-ratings, ps < 0.01 or lower). Higher scores on the traditional diet factor were related to lower levels of Openness (r = -0.14 and -0.13, p < .001, self- and informant-ratings, respectively). Endorsement of healthy and avoidance of traditional dietary items are associated with people's personality trait levels, especially higher Openness. The results may inform dietary interventions with respect to possible barriers to diet change.

  1. Food habits of Atlantic sturgeon off the central New Jersey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. H.; Dropkin, D.S.; Warkentine, B.E.; Rachlin, J.W.; Andrews, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Limited information exists on the marine diet of the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We examined the food habits of 275 Atlantic sturgeon (total length, 106-203 cm) caught in the commercial fishery off the coast of New Jersey. Stomachs were provided by fishermen. Significantly more stomachs were empty in the spring than in the fall. Sand and organic debris were a major component in the stomachs (26.3-75.4% by weight). Polycheates were the primary pre group consumed, although the isopod Politolana conchorum was the most important individual prey eaten. Mollusks and fish contributed little to the diet. Some prey taxa (i.e., polychaetes, isopods, amphipods) exhibited seasonal variation in importance in the diet of Atlantic sturgeon. Identification of the offshore diet of Atlantic sturgeon is an important step in developing a better understanding of the life history requirements and marine ecology of this species.

  2. Nutritional status, dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care assessment in a group of older adults attending community centres in Pavia, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, G; Rossi, M; Roggi, C; Maccarini, L

    2013-02-01

    The population of industrialised countries is ageing as a consequence of an increase in life expectancy. As a result of the increasing ageing process, the assessment of nutritional status and dietary habits, as well as the assessment of self-care, is needed to plan selected actions aimed at improving the quality of life in the third and fourth life spans. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 200 healthy older adults (≥65 years old), attending community centres for older people in Pavia, Northern Italy. Ninety-two percent of the recruited subjects participated in the survey. Anthropometric measurements and the Mini Nutritional Assessment were performed. Dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care were investigated using a questionnaire administered by two dietitians. The majority of subjects were low socio-economic status and overweight [mean (SD) body mass index = 28.4 (4.3) kg/m(2) ], 12% were malnourished according to their Mini Nutritional Assessment score and the majority of the arm muscle circumference measurements were below the 10th percentile, predicting accelerated loss of lean mass, even in the healthy independently living older adults. Only 30% of the sample had adequate dietary habits, whereas the ability to self-care was good for the whole sample. The unhealthy and unbalanced diet, frequently too rich in sugar and fats and low in protein intake, might explain being overweight and the loss of lean mass in the study subjects. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55-0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93) were negatively associated with school performance (each with P instant noodles, fast foods, and confections.

  4. Exoplanets Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, John W

    2008-01-01

    This edited, multi-author volume will be an invaluable introduction and reference to all key aspects in the field of exoplanet research. The reviews cover: Detection methods and properties of known exoplanets, Detection of extrasolar planets by gravitational microlensing. The formation and evolution of terrestrial planets in protoplanetary and debris disks. The brown dwarf-exoplanet connection. Formation, migration mechanisms and properties of hot Jupiters. Dynamics of multiple exoplanet systems. Doppler exoplanet surveys. Searching for exoplanets in the stellar graveyard. Formation and habitability of extra solar planets in multiple star systems. Exoplanet habitats and the possibilities for life. Moons of exoplanets: habitats for life. Contributing authors: •Rory Barnes •David P. Bennett •Jian Ge •Nader Haghighipour •Patrick Irwin •Hugh Jones •Victoria Meadows •Stanimir Metchev •I. Neill Reid •George Rieke •Caleb Scharf •Steinn Sigurdsson

  5. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  6. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy

  7. Habitability Properties of Circumbinary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that several habitability conditions (in fact, at least seven such conditions) appear to be fulfilled automatically by circumbinary planets of main-sequence stars (CBP-MS), whereas on Earth, these conditions are fulfilled only by chance. Therefore, it looks natural that most of the production of replicating biopolymers in the Galaxy is concentrated on particular classes of CBP-MS, and life on Earth is an outlier, in this sense. In this scenario, Lathe’s mechanism for the tidal “chain reaction” abiogenesis on Earth is favored as generic for CBP-MS, due to photo-tidal synchronization inherent to them. Problems with this scenario are discussed in detail.

  8. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  9. Adolescent Girls' Reactions to Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Tools and Insight into Lifestyle Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metos, Julie; Gren, Lisa; Brusseau, Timothy; Moric, Endi; O'Toole, Karen; Mokhtari, Tahereh; Buys, Saundra; Frost, Caren

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to understand adolescent girls' experiences using practical diet and physical activity measurement tools and to explore the food and physical activity settings that influence their lifestyle habits. Design: Mixed methods study using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting: Large city in the western…

  10. Influence of riparian canopy on macroinvertebrate composition and food habits of juvenile salmonids in several Oregon streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Meehan

    1996-01-01

    The community composition of macroinvertebrates and the feeding habits of juvenile salmonids were studied in eight Oregon streams. Benthic, drift, sticky trap, and water trap samples were taken over a 3-year period, along with stomach samples of the fish. Samples were taken in stream reaches with and without riparian canopy. Both main effects—fish diet versus...

  11. Understanding Nutrition: A Study of Greek Primary School Children Dietary Habits, before and after Classroom Nutrition Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Sotiriou, Apostolos; Georgiou, Evanthia; Thanou, Ageliki; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first to assess and then to improve the diet of Greek primary school children teaching them healthy dietary habits and instructing them to face critically advertisements and media projected dietary models using a program which included intervention on cognitive, emotional, and social level. The results show that our…

  12. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    OpenAIRE

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, Mar?a ?.; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 +/- 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrie...

  13. Effectiveness of Implementing Initial Education Strategies to Promote Awareness and Healthy Habits in Childhood Obesity: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Anastacia; Kreider, Kathryn Evans; Ochberg, Richard; Meek, Judith

    Rising incidence and prevalence of childhood obesity and related costly health consequences suggest the need for an effective training tool at the primary care level. Evidence-based studies show how a healthy diet and physical activity help reduce the incidence of obesity. The objective for this quality improvement project was to evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based educational tool in improving healthy eating and physical activity habits among overweight and obese children in a primary care setting over 3 months. There was a positive statistically significant change in behavior in eating more fruits and vegetables and decreased intake of sugary drinks and sedentary habits (p healthy lifestyle changes with regard to nutrition and physical activity, pediatric patients adopted better diet and physical activity habits. However, there was little effect on reducing body mass index in a 3-month timeframe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Habitability research priorities for the International Space Station and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M; Adolf, J A; Woolford, B J

    2000-09-01

    Advanced technology and the desire to explore space have resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on the ability of humans to adapt and function in microgravity environments. In addition, studies conducted in analogous environments, such as winter-over expeditions in Antarctica, have complemented the scientific understanding of human performance in LDSF. These findings indicate long duration missions may take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically, with potential impacts on performance. Significant factors in any manned LDSF are habitability, workload and performance. They are interrelated and influence one another, and therefore necessitate an integrated research approach. An integral part of this approach will be identifying and developing tools not only for assessment of habitability, workload, and performance, but also for prediction of these factors as well. In addition, these tools will be used to identify and provide countermeasures to minimize decrements and maximize mission success. The purpose of this paper is to identify research goals and methods for the International Space Station (ISS) in order to identify critical factors and level of impact on habitability, workload, and performance, and to develop and validate countermeasures. Overall, this approach will provide the groundwork for creating an optimal environment in which to live and work onboard ISS as well as preparing for longer planetary missions.

  15. Prevalence of Deleterious Oral Habits and Oral Mucosal Lesions among Fishermen Population of Mahe, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzil, Ksa; Mathews, J; Sai, A G; Kiran, M; Kevin, S; Sunith, S

    2016-09-01

    Fishing is an occupation associated with uneven diet, strain, drunkenness, tobacco use, and deleterious habits. The physical state of laborers on a large scale will also be influenced by conditions at their work site. Oral mucosal lesions can occur as a result of infections, local shock or infuriation, systemic diseases, and uncontrolled usage of tobacco, betel quid, and alcohol. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of deleterious oral habits and oral mucosal lesions among fishermen population of Mahe, South India. The study population consists of 362 fishermen aged between 15 and 54. The questionnaire consisted of questions on personal data, and information related to the subjects' oral habits were collected by the interview. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form was designed for the assessment of oral mucosal lesions. Among the 362 fishermen, 266 (73.48%) were males and 96 (26.52%) were females. The overall prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and gutka chewing was found to be 24.3, 48.85, and 32.4% respectively. Smokeless tobacco (32.4%) was the most prevalent habit followed by smoking tobacco (24.3%). The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 14.9%. There is a statistically significant association between age groups and habits considered. Findings of the present study suggest that oral health condition of the fisherfolk community was relatively poor, with high habit prevalence and oral mucosal lesions. This epi-demiological study has provided baseline data to plan further research in this area. Low socioeconomic status, strenuous working hours, inadequate diet and nutrition intake, stress, and use of tobacco and alcohol act as contributing factors for ill health and oral diseases. It is a challenging population to the clinician to identify and treat them.

  16. Inculcating reading habits among Nigerian secondary schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at reading habit as process of imbibing a culture of educating, informing and enlightening people. Inculcating reading habit is very essential for the academic achievement of children and this is made possible with the help of trained and qualified teachers who help in guiding children in developing the right ...

  17. 24 CFR 203.673 - Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Habitability. 203.673 Section 203.673 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities Occupied Conveyance § 203.673 Habitability. (a) For...

  18. Bringing Exoplanet Habitability Investigations to High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Mary Anne; Sohl, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Habitability, a.k.a. habitat suitability, is a topic typically discussed in Biology class. We present here a curriculum unit that introduces the topic of global-scale planetary habitability in a Physics classroom, allowing students to emulate the process of doing cutting-edge science and re-framing an otherwise "typical" physics unit in a more engaging and interactive way.

  19. Tides and the evolution of planetary habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory; Raymond, Sean N; Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Tides raised on a planet by the gravity of its host star can reduce the planet's orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity. This effect is only relevant for planets orbiting very close to their host stars. The habitable zones of low-mass stars are also close in, and tides can alter the orbits of planets in these locations. We calculate the tidal evolution of hypothetical terrestrial planets around low-mass stars and show that tides can evolve planets past the inner edge of the habitable zone, sometimes in less than 1 billion years. This migration requires large eccentricities (>0.5) and low-mass stars ( less or similar to 0.35 M(circle)). Such migration may have important implications for the evolution of the atmosphere, internal heating, and the Gaia hypothesis. Similarly, a planet that is detected interior to the habitable zone could have been habitable in the past. We consider the past habitability of the recently discovered, approximately 5 M(circle) planet, Gliese 581 c. We find that it could have been habitable for reasonable choices of orbital and physical properties as recently as 2 Gyr ago. However, when constraints derived from the additional companions are included, most parameter choices that indicate past habitability require the two inner planets of the system to have crossed their mutual 3:1 mean motion resonance. As this crossing would likely have resulted in resonance capture, which is not observed, we conclude that Gl 581 c was probably never habitable.

  20. Unsuccessful Study Habits in Foreign Language Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phillip D.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    This study determined which study habits would distinguish successful from unsuccessful foreign language learners. Participants were 219 college students from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds enrolled in either Spanish, French, German, or Japanese classes. The students completed the Study Habits Inventory and the Background Demographic Form.…

  1. SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS IN ZIMBABWE. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... Objective To examine the relationship between smoking habits and indicators of socioeconomic status, the urban/rural dimension and gender among secondary ...

  2. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  3. Real Business-cycle Model with Habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the ability of a real business-cycle model with nonseparabilities in consumption and leisure and external habits both in consumption and leisure to fit the postwar US data. The results indicate a strong but fast-dying habit in leisure, and a somewhat weaker...

  4. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  5. Diet and the development of atherosclerosis: a whole-diet approach from childhood to adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkilä, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality in the world. Studies of the impact of single nutrients on the risk for CVD have often provided inconclusive results, and recent research in nutritional epidemiology with a more holistic whole-diet approach has proven fruitful. Moreover, dietary habits in childhood and adolescence may play a role in later health and disease, either independently or by tracking into adulthood. The main aims of this study were to find childhood a...

  6. Giant Planets: Good Neighbors for Habitable Worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Eggl, Siegfried; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2018-04-01

    The presence of giant planets influences potentially habitable worlds in numerous ways. Massive celestial neighbors can facilitate the formation of planetary cores and modify the influx of asteroids and comets toward Earth analogs later on. Furthermore, giant planets can indirectly change the climate of terrestrial worlds by gravitationally altering their orbits. Investigating 147 well-characterized exoplanetary systems known to date that host a main-sequence star and a giant planet, we show that the presence of “giant neighbors” can reduce a terrestrial planet’s chances to remain habitable, even if both planets have stable orbits. In a small fraction of systems, however, giant planets slightly increase the extent of habitable zones provided that the terrestrial world has a high climate inertia. In providing constraints on where giant planets cease to affect the habitable zone size in a detrimental fashion, we identify prime targets in the search for habitable worlds.

  7. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  8. On the intraspecific variability in basal metabolism and the food habits hypothesis in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BOZINOVIC, P. SABAT

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The food habits hypothesis (FHH stands as one of the most striking and often-cited interspecific patterns to emerge from comparative studies of endothermic energetics. The FHH identifies three components of diet that potentially produce variability in mass-independent BMR, i.e. food quality, food availability, and food predictability or environmental productivity. The hypothesis predicts that species with diets of low energy content and/or low digestibility should evolve low mass-independent BMRs. The effects of food habits on BMR have been widely investigated at the interspecific level, but the variation between individuals and populations has been largely ignored. Our focus is to compare predictions derived from interspecific studies with data collected from within-species studies to explore the mechanisms and functional significance of adaptive responses predicted by the food-habits hypothesis among birds. We conclude that if BMR is correlated with daily energy expenditure, then organisms that can lower BMR will reduce daily energy expenditure and hence, food requirements. Birds that lower BMR in stressful environments may increase survival. Nevertheless, the mechanism (s by which birds eating a low quality diet reduce BMR and whether lower BMR affects fitness remain to be determined [Current Zoology 56 (6: 759–766, 2010].

  9. Branching habit and the allocation of reproductive resources in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Andrew B

    2012-09-01

    Correlated relationships between branch thickness, branch density, and twig and leaf size have been used extensively to study the evolution of plant canopy architecture, but fewer studies have explored the impact of these relationships on the allocation of reproductive resources. This study quantifies pollen cone production in conifers, which have similar basic reproductive biology but vary dramatically in branching habit, in order to test how differences in branch diameter influence pollen cone size and the density with which they are deployed in the canopy. Measurements of canopy branch density, the number of cones per branch and cone size were used to estimate the amount of pollen cone tissues produced by 16 species in three major conifer clades. The number of pollen grains produced was also estimated using direct counts from individual pollen cones. The total amount of pollen cone tissues in the conifer canopy varied little among species and clades, although vegetative traits such as branch thickness, branch density and pollen cone size varied over several orders of magnitude. However, branching habit controls the way these tissues are deployed: taxa with small branches produce small pollen cones at a high density, while taxa with large branches produce large cones relatively sparsely. Conifers appear to invest similar amounts of energy in pollen production independent of branching habit. However, similar associations between branch thickness, branch density and pollen cone size are seen across conifers, including members of living and extinct groups not directly studied here. This suggests that reproductive features relating to pollen cone size are in large part a function of the evolution of vegetative morphology and branching habit.

  10. Fast food in the diet: Implications and solutions for families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2018-04-06

    Fast food is omnipresent in the United States (U.S.) and contributes to poor dietary quality and poor health among youth and adults alike. Children need adults to teach them good eating habits to attain and maintain good health by introducing them to healthful foods and being good role models. The fast food industry, through vast funds and advertising, contribute to challenges parents face to provide healthful foods for their families and thwart our best efforts to meet health goals. Research shows fast food consumption is influenced by lack of cooking confidence, time pressures, and perceptions of ease and convenience. We need practical strategies to help parents and children make healthier food choices. As a product of conference proceedings, this paper provides a non-exhaustive narrative summary of the fast food marketplace and marketing, the contributions of fast food to diet and health, struggles with healthful eating among families, and possible solutions of how we can help children and parents empower themselves to have healthier lives. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Diet, exercise, sleep, sexual activity, and perceived stress in people with epilepsy in NE Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Boonyaleepan, Suwanna; Tiamkao, Somsak

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out how people with epilepsy in NE Thailand feel about their levels of stress, sleep, diet, exercise habits, and sex lives using a cross-sectional design. Two hundred and three people with epilepsy (PWE) were randomly recruited from a university epilepsy clinic in Khon Kaen and then completed an interview and a questionnaire. A total of 27.6% of the patients believed that diet had an influence on their epilepsy (of those who reported changes, 41.1% stopped consuming alcohol, while 32.1% stopped drinking caffeinated beverages). A total of 47.2% of the patients exercised at least three times per week, while 52.8% exercised two times or less a week. Daytime sleeping was prevalent, with 43.3% saying that they slept during the day frequently or every day. There were 44.3% of the patients who believed that their sex lives changed after the onset of epilepsy, with decreased sexual arousal being most commonly mentioned. A total of 76.4% of the patients said that they had medium or high levels of stress, and epilepsy was listed as the most common reason for their stress (50.2%). Focusing on the problem was the most common method to reduce stress (80.3%). The findings illuminate the need to increase attention towards improving and promoting self-management of epilepsy. As a whole, diet, exercise, sleep, stress reduction, and sex therapy can be valuable tools to improve the quality of life of people with epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thumb Sucking: Help Your Child Break the Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older kids who continue to suck their thumbs, peer pressure at school usually ends the habit. Remember, though, ... an incredibly difficult habit to break. Remember, though, peer pressure typically leads kids to stop daytime sucking habits ...

  13. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bad Habits Breaking Bad Habits: Why It's So Hard to Change Past Issues / ... News in Health ( http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/ ) Break Bad Habits Avoid temptations. If you always stop for a ...

  14. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    healthy dietary habits are considered to improve oral health and tooth quality. Caries treatment comprises tooth restoration with dental composites and sealants, almost all (> 90%) of which contain bisphenol A (BPA). Study hypotheses were: a) breakfast and oral hygiene habits are important factors in dental caries development; and b) dental caries treatment with epoxy-resins entails a risk of oral exposure to monomers migrating from the polymeric material. We evaluated caries in the teeth of a Spanish school population and determined the percentage treated with dental composites. to relate consumption of breakfast components and oral hygiene habits to dental caries and determine the presence of sealants/composites as potential sources of BPA exposure. subjects: 582 schoolchildren from Granada city (Southern Spain) aged 7 yrs; mean (SD) of 7.55 (0.64) yrs. caries was detected in 21.7% of their teeth. Mean breakfast quality index (BQI) score, based on nutritional questionnaires, was 5.18 (1.29). Breakfast with foods rich in simple sugars representing > 5% of total daily energy was consumed by 24% of the population and was significantly associated with caries frequency in binary logistic regression analysis. Biscuit consumption was reported by 35.8% and significantly associated with caries frequency. Breakfast intake of bakery products/ cereals and of dairy products showed a significant inverse association with caries frequency. No significant relationship was observed between caries and BQI score or oral hygiene factors. further research is required to elucidate the role of diet in caries and the associated risk of exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics such as BPA. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Perissodactyla diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2018-01-01

    Perissodactyla (Schoch 1989) includes tapirs, rhinoceros, wild asses, horses, and zebras. It is the order of hoofed mammals referred to as “odd-toed ungulates” because its members have one to three weight-bearing toes and walk on hoofs or “ungules.” They are herbivores that are specialized to exploit grasslands and brushy habitat (rhinos, horses, asses, zebras) or dense tropical forests (tapirs). All share a common digestive system called hindgut fermentation, or cecal digestion (in the cecum), and can consume relatively tough, coarse forage. Some perissodactyls are “browsers” that forage primarily on woody shrubs and trees, whereas others are “grazers” with a graminoid-dominated diet. They are all predominantly opportunistic feeders and select for quantity over quality of forage; that is, they consume more abundant low-quality forage instead of searching and selecting for higher-quality forage because it gives them the advantage of reducing search effort, which conserves energy.

  16. [Intrapair comparisons of diet and food preference in adult twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kenji; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Onoi, Miyuki; Shimizu, Tadahiko; Yura, Akiko; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Kanamori, Masao

    2002-12-01

    An investigation was conducted on the influence of genetic and lifestyle factors related to the determination of eating behavior of human beings. The objective was to obtain information about lifestyle factors that may help health professionals intervene in terms of the prevention of diet-related diseases. The subjects were 180 pairs of adult twins aged over thirty, comprising of 134 monozygotic (MZ) and 46 dizygotic (DZ) pairs. Every subject was given an interview concerning dietary habits, food preference, food intake, as a part of medical examination. The intake of food containing salt and fat, the intake of food meals, the frequency of daily meals, and the frequency of eating 18 sorts of food were assessed on an individual basis, with a questionnaire on nutrition. The expected and observed values of intrapair concordance rates were calculated, and compared within each zygosity, using the chi-square test. Significant differences between the expected and observed for intrapair concordance rates were shown with monozygotic twins, regarding every category of question. Comparing MZ pairs who had lived apart before their twenties with the other MZ pairs, the latter had a tendency to show significant differences between the expected and observed values of intrapair concordance rate, regarding every category of question. In each case, the observed values were higher than the expected values. The study implied that both genetic and lifestyle factors influence the determinants of eating behavior of human beings. This finding shows the importance of understanding individual characteristics of food preference and eating behavior for intervention regarding lifestyle factors for prevention of diet-related diseases.

  17. Determination of prevalence of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its relationship with dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, U.; Hosein, T.; Fauzia, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its association with dietary habits. Study Design: Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, from January to June 2010. Methodology: School children aged between 12 - 14 years were included in this study. Dental erosion was detected by visual examination. Aself-developed questionnaire was used to assess the dietary habits of children. Acidic diet was considered a diet that has an acidic pH. The amount of consumption of acidic drinks and food per week was categorized into low consumption (1 - 7 times / week) and medium consumption (8 - 21 times / week). Chi-square test was applied to see any statistical difference between diet and tooth erosion at 95 percent CI. Results: The Results showed a high frequency of (46 percent) dental erosion in children, which was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in children with more acidic diet. Conclusion: This study highlights the impact of dietary habits on the prevalence of dental erosion in children. Acidic diets need to be controlled in frequency to prevent dental erosion. (author)

  18. EATING HABITS: A study with adolescents aged 10 to 15, from Gaspar Bartholomay Elementary School in Santa Cruz do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernada Soder

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eating habits in adolescence, may suffer several changes as they can vary from one day to another. The objective of this study is to determine the eating habits of adolescents aged 10 to 15 years old. The study comprised 81 students aged between 10 and 15 years, 48 male and 33 female students, from Gaspar Bartholomay Elementary School. The research was carried out through a descriptive exploratory study, addressing the eating habits and weight control, and focusing on the frequency of food consumption per week. The tool for the study was a questionnaire on health and well-being - children and adolescents - eating habits and weight control. According to the results obtained in this study, the consumption of fried foods, pizza, lasagna and treats,were consumed less frequently, being considered among adolescents as a good eating habit, since foods such as these will cause obesity if consumed more frequently and in large quantities. In relation to the consumption of salads and vegetables males (40.5% have the habit of eating more that kind of food, when compared to the females(38.2%. For both genders, adults become more or less prone to obesitywith a more regular consumption of this type of food. Thus, we can see that the teenagers in their diet, prioritize foods they like to eat, and seldom choose foods which are healthier, without worrying about becoming obese adolescents or even in the future, obese adults with poor eating habits.

  19. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting food choices, nutritional and food safety, and body mass index (BMI of the adolescents. The sample included 707 adolescents, the mean age of 15,8 ± 2 years enrolled in the first grade at several high schools in Belgrade. Results. Only 27% of the adolescents had satisfactory eating habits; 31% have a very active lifestyle; 7% good nutritional knowledge and 6- 12% satisfactory food safety knowledge and hygiene practices. Conclusion. Significant deviations from recommendations for healthy lifestyle was noted in adolescents’ habits, knowledge and practice. It is therefore necessary to develop and organize programs for promotion of healthy behaviours adapted to the adolescents’ needs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47015

  20. Young Children's Screen Habits are Associated with Consumption of Sweetened Beverages Independently of Parental Norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Eiben, Gabriele; Prell, Hillevi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the associations between children’s screen habits and their consumption of sweetened beverages. Because parents might be disposed to regulate their child’s screen and dietary habits in a similar direction, our specific aim was to examine whether these associati......Objectives: This study investigated the associations between children’s screen habits and their consumption of sweetened beverages. Because parents might be disposed to regulate their child’s screen and dietary habits in a similar direction, our specific aim was to examine whether...... and diets. Results: Associations between screen habits and sweetened beverage consumption were found independent of parental norms regarding sweetened beverages. A longitudinal analysis revealed that sweetened beverage consumption at 2-year follow-up was predicted by exposure to commercial TV at baseline...... (OR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1–1.9). Cross-sectional analysis showed that the likelihood of consuming sweetened beverages at least 1–3 times per week increased for each hour/day watching television (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2–1.9), and for being exposed to commercials (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.3–2.1). TV viewing time...

  1. [Improvement of healthy lifestyle habits in university students through a gamification approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez López, Isaac José; Rivera García, Enrique; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2017-07-28

    Health education is one of the primary tools for health promotion, especially for those that will be responsible for educating on healthy habits in the future. To improve healthy lifestyle habits in university students through an educational intervention based on gamification. A cuasiexperimental design of two groups (i.e., experimental groups and control group) with pretest and postest measurements was carried out. A 4-month intervention was implemented in 148 students from the Physical Activity and Sport Sciences university degree. Habits related to diet and physical activity were evaluated using a questionnaire (scaled from -40 a +50) and the teaching-learning process through a qualitative analysis. At the end of the intervention, a very significant improvement was found in the global value of the healthy lifestyle habits of the experimental group (+13,5), highlighting the improvement obtained in its higher level of compliance in the breakfast (53,4%), in the number of diary meals (31,5%), in the reduction of the consumption of soft-drinks (19,2%) and in the increase of physical activity level, with an improvement of 12,3% of participants with respect to the baseline levels. On the other hand, no significant improvements were found in the control group. An educational intervention based on gamification improves healthy lifestyle habits of the students.

  2. Integrating nutrition education into the cardiovascular curriculum changes eating habits of second-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Eric J; Zelis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Survey of medical curricula continues to show that nutrition education is not universally adequate. One measure of nutritional educational competence is a positive change in student eating habits. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether integrating nutrition education within the second-year cardiovascular course for medical students, using the "Rate Your Plate" (RYP) questionnaire, coupled with knowledge of student personal 30-year risk of a cardiovascular event was useful in changing students' eating behaviors. Thirty-two students completed an unpublished 24-item questionnaire (modified-RYP) about their eating habits in the spring of their first year. The same students then completed the questionnaire in the spring of their second year. Paired t test was used to analyze the difference in RYP scores. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for the Framingham 30-year cardiovascular event risk and change in RYP score to examine whether risk knowledge may have changed eating habits. Mean scores at baseline and 1 year later were 57.19 and 58.97, respectively (paired t test, P eating healthy at baseline, integration of nutrition education within the second-year cardiovascular medical curriculum was associated with improved heart healthy eating habits. Because student attitudes about prevention counseling are influenced by personal eating habits, this suggests that students with a more healthy diet will be more likely to recommend the same for their patients. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of weight status, dietary habits and beliefs, physical activity, and nutritional knowledge among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Wang, Daniel; Rapley, Melyssa; Dey, Rajarshi

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess weight status, dietary habits, physical activity, dietary beliefs, and nutrition knowledge among a sample of students from Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of undergraduate students in Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 at Central Michigan University. Participating students completed an online questionnaire that included questions related to their eating habits, physical activity and lifestyle, dietary beliefs, and nutritional knowledge. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Percentage body fat and visceral fat score were determined using a Tanita body composition analyser (SC-331S). Outcomes of this study indicated that 78% of female students were within the healthy weight range compared to 52% of male students. Visceral body fat and waist circumference scores were higher in males than in females. Most students showed 'satisfactory' dietary habits. Almost half of the students reported drinking two glasses of milk and consuming two cups of fruits and vegetables daily. Physical activity and lifestyle score indicated that most of the students were not physically active. Only 7% of students reported having a very active lifestyle, and 4% had quite good nutritional knowledge. The majority of students, particularly females, were within the healthy body weight range. Students' dietary habits were satisfactory. However, physical activity, students' knowledge of healthy and unhealthy diet habits, and nutritional knowledge needed improvement. Developing gender-specific programmes for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours among students is recommended. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  4. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Sleep duration, nap habits, and mortality in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Perach, Rotem

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of nighttime sleep duration on mortality and the effect modification of daytime napping on the relationship between nighttime sleep duration and mortality in older persons. Prospective survey with 20-yr mortality follow-up. The Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study, a multidimensional assessment of a stratified random sample of the older Jewish population in Israel conducted between 1989-1992. There were 1,166 self-respondent, community-dwelling participants age 75-94 yr (mean, 83.40, standard deviation, 5.30). Nighttime sleep duration, napping, functioning (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, Orientation Memory Concentration Test), health, and mortality. Duration of nighttime sleep of more than 9 hr was significantly related to increased mortality in comparison with sleeping 7-9 hr (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31, P habits, and mortality in older persons. SLEEP 2012;35(7):1003-1009.

  6. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  7. Seven Habits of Reclaiming Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an ethnographic study undertaken with 23 youth, in residential treatment centers, to explore the effect of caring relationships on their lives. Seven elements of caring relationships were identified: trust; attention; empathy; availability; affirmation; respect; and virtue. Describes how the components of successful caring can be used to…

  8. Low Tyramine Headache Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 25 Oct Low-Tyramine Diet for Migraine Posted at 17:16h ... and Diamond Headache Clinic Headache Diet Tags: headache , low tyramine diet , MAOI , tyramine No Comments Post A ...

  9. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  10. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  11. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  12. Eating habits of patients with cleft lip and palate terated with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Magdalena; Cudziło, Dorota; Kawala, Beata; Kopczyński, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    Health education, built on the basis of various models as a lifelong process, has a considerable impact on eating habits. Correct nutritional patterns are particularly important during the period of intense growth and adolescence. The need to observe dietary recommendations concerns healthy, as well as sick persons, especially those with chronic diseases. To-date the data on the dietary habits of patients with cleft lip and palate during orthodontic treatment have been scarce. The objective of the study was to determine the eating habits of patients with cleft lip and palate before and during orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance. The study covered 125 patients with cleft lip and palate, aged 14 to 31. The research tool was an own questionnaire assessing the dietary behaviour and oral hygiene habits during the treatment with a fixed orthodontic appliance. In the course of the orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance, 79 patients (57.6%) did not change their eating patterns and 32 patients (24%) changed them to a moderate degree. The mean of 53 patients (42.7%) changed their hygienic habits considerably. The number of meals remained the same, however in the period when patients suffered pain after orthodontic adjustment appointments, the number of persons having 4-5 meals a day decreased by 32%. It is worth considering that no statistically significant changes were recorded as regards the habit of having sweet snacks and the insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables. Difficulties with correct oral hygiene were reported after the consumption of e.g. spinach (59.8%), cucumber (57.6%), berries (54.4%), meat (58.2%). Eating habits of a considerable percentage of patients with a cleft defect, before or during the treatment with a fixed appliance, do not comply with healthy nutrition recommendations. The dietary education of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment is necessary to ensure proper oral health and prevent diet-related illnesses.

  13. Eating Habits and Body Weight Control Behaviors of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur CETINKAYA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional needs increase in puberty due to rapid growth and changes in body composition. Because of that healthy eating is vital for teen’s health. The aim of this study was to determine eating habits and weight control behaviors of high school students. A cross-sectional study was performed involving all (6 public and 3 private tenth-grade high schools in Manisa city. Two thousand one hundred forty six students completed a questionnaire which consists of 26 items and was designed by researchers. Among all students surveyed, 34.0% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat breakfast regularly, 38.3% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat lunch regularly, 6.5% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat dinner regularly, 36.7% reported that they were afraid getting fat, 6.5% reported that they were dieting, 39.4% reported that they don’t make sport regularly and 59.1% reported that they were snacking frequently. In this study it has seen that skipping meals is a common eating habit in high school students and many of them fail to eat three regular meals per day. On the other hand it has seen that students don’t have regular exercise habits. The results of this study have suggested that there is a need to encourage teens a healthy lifestyle that incorporates eating habits and regular exercise. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 98-105

  14. Eating Habits and Body Weight Control Behaviors of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek OZMEN

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional needs increase in puberty due to rapid growth and changes in body composition. Because of that healthy eating is vital for teen’s health. The aim of this study was to determine eating habits and weight control behaviors of high school students. A cross-sectional study was performed involving all (6 public and 3 private tenth-grade high schools in Manisa city. Two thousand one hundred forty six students completed a questionnaire which consists of 26 items and was designed by researchers. Among all students surveyed, 34.0% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat breakfast regularly, 38.3% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat lunch regularly, 6.5% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat dinner regularly, 36.7% reported that they were afraid getting fat, 6.5% reported that they were dieting, 39.4% reported that they don’t make sport regularly and 59.1% reported that they were snacking frequently. In this study it has seen that skipping meals is a common eating habit in high school students and many of them fail to eat three regular meals per day. On the other hand it has seen that students don’t have regular exercise habits. The results of this study have suggested that there is a need to encourage teens a healthy lifestyle that incorporates eating habits and regular exercise. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 98-105

  15. HABEBEE: habitability of eyeball-exo-Earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerhausen, Daniel; Sapers, Haley; Citron, Robert; Bergantini, Alexandre; Lutz, Stefanie; Queiroz, Luciano Lopes; da Rosa Alexandre, Marcelo; Araujo, Ana Carolina Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Extrasolar Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting within the habitable zone of M dwarf host stars may play a significant role in the discovery of habitable environments beyond Earth. Spectroscopic characterization of these exoplanets with respect to habitability requires the determination of habitability parameters with respect to remote sensing. The habitable zone of dwarf stars is located in close proximity to the host star, such that exoplanets orbiting within this zone will likely be tidally locked. On terrestrial planets with an icy shell, this may produce a liquid water ocean at the substellar point, one particular "Eyeball Earth" state. In this research proposal, HABEBEE: exploring the HABitability of Eyeball-Exo-Earths, we define the parameters necessary to achieve a stable icy Eyeball Earth capable of supporting life. Astronomical and geochemical research will define parameters needed to simulate potentially habitable environments on an icy Eyeball Earth planet. Biological requirements will be based on detailed studies of microbial communities within Earth analog environments. Using the interdisciplinary results of both the physical and biological teams, we will set up a simulation chamber to expose a cold- and UV-tolerant microbial community to the theoretically derived Eyeball Earth climate states, simulating the composition, atmosphere, physical parameters, and stellar irradiation. Combining the results of both studies will enable us to derive observable parameters as well as target decision guidance and feasibility analysis for upcoming astronomical platforms.

  16. Constraining Exoplanet Habitability with HabEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging mission, or HabEx, is one of four flagship mission concepts currently under study for the upcoming 2020 Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The broad goal of HabEx will be to image and study small, rocky planets in the Habitable Zones of nearby stars. Additionally, HabEx will pursue a range of other astrophysical investigations, including the characterization of non-habitable exoplanets and detailed observations of stars and galaxies. Critical to the capability of HabEx to understand Habitable Zone exoplanets will be its ability to search for signs of surface liquid water (i.e., habitability) and an active biosphere. Photometry and moderate resolution spectroscopy, spanning the ultraviolet through near-infrared spectral ranges, will enable constraints on key habitability-related atmospheric species and properties (e.g., surface pressure). In this poster, we will discuss approaches to detecting signs of habitability in reflected-light observations of rocky exoplanets. We will also present initial results for modeling experiments aimed at demonstrating the capabilities of HabEx to study and understand Earth-like worlds around other stars.

  17. Healthy eating habits protect against temptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John

    2016-08-01

    Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  19. Functional neuroimaging of avoidance habits in OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan. Following 4 blocks of training, we tested if the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. We tested for task-related differences in brain activity in 3 ROIs, the caudate, putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex at a statistical threshold of phabit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyper-activation in the caudate. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyper-activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) during the acquisition of avoidance, however this did not relate directly to habit formation. Conclusions OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyper-activation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Prior studies suggest that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the build up of stimulus-response habits themselves. PMID:25526600

  20. The Habitable Zone Gallery and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelino, Dawn M.; Kane, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table, a plot with the period and eccentricity of each of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ, a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits, and orbital movies. Here we discuss various educational and scientific applications of the site such as target selection, exploring planets with eccentric orbits, and investigating habitability.

  1. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  2. Religiosity, dietary habit, intake of fruit and vegetable, and vegetarian status among Seventh-Day Adventists in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min-Min; Chan, Carina K Y; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-08-01

    Religion has been shown to be salutary on health, and a possible link between religion and positive health outcomes is diet. Research has shown that religiosity is associated with better diet but most studies were conducted in a multi-denominational context, which might be confounded with theological differences. This study examined the relationship between religiosity and diet within a homogenous group of believers. Data from survey of 574 Seventh-Day Adventists residing in West Malaysia, aged 18-80, were analyzed using multiple regressions. While none of the religious variables were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable intake, a higher level of religiosity was associated with a better dietary habit and vegetarian status. The mixed relationship between religiosity and diet suggest that further research is needed to explore how religion might influence the diet of adherents.

  3. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  4. [Feeding habits of cichlid species (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Caobas lake, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtierra-Vega, M T; Schmitter-Soto, J J

    2000-01-01

    Feeding habits of seven cichlid species (Archocentrus octofasciatus, A. spilurus, "Cichlasoma" robertsoni, "C." synspilum, "C." urophthalmus, Petenia splendida, Thorichthys meeki) in Lake Caobas, southern Yucatan Peninsula, were studied. Samples were taken with enclosure and cast nets during the dry and rainy seasons of 1995 (day and night). The environment was characterized by measuring temperature, conductivity and pH. All individuals were below 41 mm SL (N = 281). Frequency of occurrence and prey abundance were analyzed. Main prey items were chironomids, mites, copepods, cladocerans, and ostracods. The cichlids fed mainly on zooplankton, with the partial exceptions of P. splendida (piscivore), "C." synspilum and A. spilurus (herbivores). A cluster analysis showed that the most similar trophic spectra were those of T. meeki, "C." robertsoni and "C." salvini, which were also the least diverse. "C." synspilum and A. spilurus had an intermediate distance between their diets and those of other species. The species with the most distinctive feeding composition were P. splendida (with the most diverse and equitable diet) and the omnivore A. octofasciatus (whose diet was the richest one). T. meeki showed quantitative diel, ontogenetic, and seasonal diet changes, but none between sexes. "C." robertsoni, "C." salvini and "C." synspilum differ in food habits in Caobas and in other localities, a fact that underscores the trophic adaptability of cichlids. Trophic overlap between cichlids in Caobas could imply absence of competition, perhaps because resources are abundant in the ecosystem.

  5. Ontogenetic variations and feeding habits of a Neotropical annual fish from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the feeding biology of a population and its ontogenetic aspects can help in understanding the functioning of fish assemblages, essential to the conservation of the habitat biodiversity in which these species are found. Annual fishes complete their life cycle in temporary aquatic environments, existing in adult stage only for brief annual periods. Changes in the feeding habits between different size classes could indicate that a species belongs to different feeding groups in different growth phases. The aim of this work was to characterize the diet of Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa, 2002 in a temporary flooded area in the coastal plain of southern Brazil, taking into consideration possible alterations in feeding habits in different body size classes caused by ontogenetic changes, to explain the coexistence of these individuals in a short space of time. The diet analysis indicated that C. fulgens is a generalist, consuming small crustaceans and autochthonous insects. Intraspecific differences in diet were determined when compared between nine classes of standard length. Adults fed mainly on autochthonous insects, and juveniles ingested mostly crustaceans, with the population being separated into two trophic groups: invertivores and invertivores with a tendency towards zooplanktivory. It is possible to conclude that the ontogenetic changes in the diet of C. fulgens are related to morphological restrictions due to the size of the individuals, since feeding competitive relations are probably not so evident.

  6. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N_2–CO_2–H_2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO_2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H_2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N_2–CO_2–H_2O–H_2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H_2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H_2 warming is reduced in dense H_2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H_2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  7. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: rmr277@cornell.edu [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{sub 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  8. Earth's Paleomagnetosphere and Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Blackman, E. G.; Oda, H.; Bono, R. K.; Carroll-Nellenback, J.; Cottrell, R. D.; Nimmo, F.

    2017-12-01

    The geodynamo is thought to play an important role in protecting Earth's hydrosphere, vital for life as we know it, from loss due to the erosive potential of the solar wind. Here we consider the mechanisms and history of this shielding. A larger core dynamo magnetic field strength provides more pressure to abate the solar wind dynamic pressure, increasing the magnetopause radius. However, the larger magnetopause also implies a larger collecting area for solar wind flux during phases of magnetic reconnection. The important variable is not mass capture but energy transfer, which does not scale linearly with magnetosphere size. Moreover, the ordered field provides the magnetic topology for recapturing atmospheric components in the opposite hemisphere such that the net global loss might not be greatly affected. While a net protection role for magnetospheres is suggested, forcing by the solar wind will change with stellar age. Paleomagnetism utilizing the single silicate crystal approach, defines a relatively strong field some 3.45 billion years ago (the Paleoarchean), but with a reduced magnetopause of 5 Earth radii, implying the potential for some atmospheric loss. Terrestrial zircons from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) and other localities host magnetic inclusions, whose magnetization has now been recorded by a new generation of ultra-sensitive 3-component SQUID magnetometer (U. Rochester) and SQUID microscope (GSJ/AIST). Paleointensity data suggest the presence of a terrestrial dynamo and magnetic shielding for Eoarchean to Hadean times, at ages as old as 4.2 billion years ago. However, the magnetic data suggest that for intervals >100,000 years long, magnetopause standoff distances may have reached 3 to 4 Earth radii or less. The early inception of the geodynamo, which probably occurred shortly after the lunar-forming impact, its continuity, and an early robust hydrosphere, appear to be key ingredients for Earth's long-term habitability.

  9. Scratching the Surface of Martian Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.

    2014-01-01

    Earth and Mars, though formed at the same time from the same materials, look very different today. Early in their histories they evolved through some of the same processes, but at some point their evolutionary paths diverged, sending them in perhaps irrevocably different directions. Knowledge of the factors that contributed to such different outcomes will help to determine how planets become habitable and how common habitable planets may be. The Mars surface environment is harsh today, but in situ measurements of ancient sedimentary rock by Mars Science Laboratory reveal chemical and mineralogical evidence of past conditions that might have been more favorable for life to exist. But chemistry is only part of what is required to make an environment habitable. Physical conditions constrain the chemical reactions that underlie life processes; the chemical and physical characteristics that make planets habitable are thus entangled.

  10. GIS Technology: Resource and Habitability Assessment Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are applying Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to new orbital data sets for lunar resource assessment and the identification of past habitable environments on...

  11. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  12. An evaluation of Skylab habitability hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, J.

    1974-01-01

    For effective mission performance, participants in space missions lasting 30-60 days or longer must be provided with hardware to accommodate their personal needs. Such habitability hardware was provided on Skylab. Equipment defined as habitability hardware was that equipment composing the food system, water system, sleep system, waste management system, personal hygiene system, trash management system, and entertainment equipment. Equipment not specifically defined as habitability hardware but which served that function were the Wardroom window, the exercise equipment, and the intercom system, which was occasionally used for private communications. All Skylab habitability hardware generally functioned as intended for the three missions, and most items could be considered as adequate concepts for future flights of similar duration. Specific components were criticized for their shortcomings.

  13. Human Factors and Habitability Assessment Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The major accomplishment for FY2012 was successful testing of the iPad-based Space Habitability Observation Reporting Tool (iSHORT) during NEEMO 16. iSHORT is an...

  14. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  15. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gonzalez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe.

  16. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe. PMID:25370028

  17. Does the social gradient remain in the dietary habits of a health-conscious population? A study of Seventh-Day Adventists in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min Min; Chan, Carina K Y; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong predictor of health, and individuals with higher SES generally have better health than those with lower SES. One of the pathways that SES influences health is through health behaviors, such as dietary intake, and a higher SES has been associated with a better diet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a social gradient in dietary habits among the Seventh-Day Adventists, a group of conservative Christians, where healthy eating is part of the doctrinal teaching. Data from a survey of 574 Adventists residing in West Malaysia, aged 18-80 years, were analyzed. Dietary habits were measured using the Nutrition subscale of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Education and income were significantly associated with dietary habits before and after controlling for demographics. There was a gradient of association; a higher level of education and higher income were associated with better dietary habits. However, only education remained significantly associated with dietary habits when the other two socioeconomic variables were included. Employment was not significantly associated with dietary habits before or after controlling for demographic variables and the other two sociodemographic variables. This study showed that education is the strongest predictor of healthy diet, and a social gradient in dietary habits still exists even among health-conscious population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Discussion on control room habitability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bing; Chen Yingying; Xiao Jun; Yang Duanjie; Cui Hao

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on control room envelope integrity, source term analysis in habitability assessments and other impact factors for dose consequence is provided combined with regulatory requirements and the current status of domestic NPPs. Considering that the infiltration is an important factor for control room habitability assessment, CRE integrity test should be performed to demonstrate the CRE's infiltration characteristics. The consequence assessment should be performed based on different DBAs and different pathways, such as pathways internal to the plant. (authors)

  19. Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra Vikram; Singh, Zile; Banerjee, A; Basannar, DR

    2003-01-01

    A cross sectional study of smoking habits among medical students was carried out to find out the prevalence of smoking and its association with certain factors such as parental smoking, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence of smoking was 46%. There was significant association of smoking with parental smoking habit, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Strategies to counter these social determinants have been discussed.

  20. Military experience can influence Women's eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira

    2017-11-01

    Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The Habitable Zone and Extreme Planetary Orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Stephen R.; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon...

  2. [Bad habits and dysgnathia: epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, G; Lo Giudice, G; Dolci, E; Romeo, U; Lafronte, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors refer about an epidemiological survey in 651 children in the school-age. The aim of study is to investigate about the frequency of the bad habits and the pathogenetic relations between these and the development of the dento-maxillo-facial deformities. They point out an incidence of these bad habits in the 35,48% with a predominance of mouth breathers (45,45%). After they discuss the necessity of an early detection of anomalous neuromuscular attitudes.

  3. Investigating Habits: Strategies, Technologies, and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Stephen Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding habits at a biological level requires a combination of behavioral observations and measures of ongoing neural activity. Theoretical frameworks as well as definitions of habitual behaviors emerging from classic behavioral research have been enriched by new approaches taking account of the identification of brain regions and circuits related to habitual behavior. Together, this combination of experimental and theoretical work has provided key insights into how brain circuits underlying action-learning and action-selection are organized, and how a balance between behavioral flexibility and fixity is achieved. New methods to monitor and manipulate neural activity in real time are allowing us to have a first look ‘under the hood’ of a habit as it is formed and expressed. Here we discuss ideas emerging from such approaches. We pay special attention to the unexpected findings that have arisen from our own experiments suggesting that habitual behaviors likely require the simultaneous activity of multiple distinct components, or operators, seen as responsible for the contrasting dynamics of neural activity in both cortico-limbic and sensorimotor circuits recorded concurrently during different stages of habit learning. The neural dynamics identified thus far do not fully meet expectations derived from traditional models of the structure of habits, and the behavioral measures of habits that we have made also are not fully aligned with these models. We explore these new clues as opportunities to refine an understanding of habits.

  4. Corresponding Habits of Mind and Mathematical Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwirahayu, G.; Kustiawati, D.; Bidari, I.

    2017-09-01

    Objective of learning process regarding system of Indonesia government should be consist of knowledge, attitudes, and skills, or in general we call cognitive, affective and psychomotor. These objective are apply to mathematics education also. Attitude in mathematics known as habits of mind. The teacher should create a learning objective which including all, cognitive, affective and psychomotor. In general, math teachers in Indonesia pay attention to aspects of knowledge, and they ignore other aspects. Habits of mind is term which means the tendency to behave intellectually or intelligently when faced with problems which is immediately known solution. This article examines the math teacher’s attention to students’ habits of mind. The research done by survey method to 38 students at Islamic School 32 Jakarta academic year 2015/2016 from April to May 2016. Habits of mind are observed in this research restricted to persisting, thinking about thinking, thinking flexible and applying past knowledge to new situation. Based on survey, conclude that teacher, without realizing, they have to improve students’ habits of mind, as long as teaching and learning only persisting and thinking about thinking are already well developed, while flexible thinking and applying past knowledge to new situation has not well developed. We hope, math teacher can pay attention not only cognitive aspect but habits of mind also.

  5. Characterizing Exoplanet Habitability with Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Results from NASA’s Kepler mission and other recent exoplanet surveys have demonstrated that potentially habitable exoplanets are relatively common, especially in the case of low-mass stellar hosts. The next key question that must be addressed for such planets is whether or not these worlds are actually habitable, implying they could sustain surface liquid water. Only through investigations of the potential habitability of exoplanets and through searches for biosignatures from these planets will we be able to understand if the emergence of life is a common phenomenon in our galaxy. Emission spectroscopy for transiting exoplanets (sometimes called secondary eclipse spectroscopy) is a powerful technique that future missions will use to study the atmospheres and surfaces of worlds orbiting in the habitable zones of nearby, low-mass stars. Emission observations that span the mid-infrared wavelength range for potentially habitable exoplanets provide opportunities to detect key habitability and life signatures, and also allow observers to probe atmospheric and surface temperatures. This presentation will outline the case for using emission spectroscopy to understand if an exoplanet can sustain surface liquid water, which is believed to be a critical precursor to the origin of life.

  6. Habitable worlds with no signs of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-04-28

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers.

  7. [Live style and risk of lifestyle diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kábrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome included obesity, diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension and disorder of lipid metabolism are serious complication affecting many people of economic advanced countries. Unhealthy live style with limited physical activity and overfeeding are the main cause of this disorder. Adjustment of the live style with regular physical activity has the better result compared with a diet intervention alone.

  8. The power of habits: unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Aukje A C; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Evers, Catharine; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2012-11-01

    Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour in a large representative community sample (N= 1,103). To test our hypothesis that habits are crucial when explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour, their role was compared to the 'Power of Food', a related construct that addresses sensitivity to food cues in the environment. Moreover, the relation between Power of Food and unhealthy snacking habits was assessed. A prospective design was used to determine the impact of habits in relation to intention, Power of Food and a number of demographic variables. One month after filling out the questionnaire, including measures of habit strength and Power of Food, participants reported their unhealthy snacking behaviour by means of a 7-day snack diary. Results showed that habit strength was the most important predictor, outperforming all other variables in explaining unhealthy snack intake. The findings demonstrate that snacking habits provide a unique contribution in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour, stressing the importance of addressing habit strength in further research and interventions concerning unhealthy snacking behaviour. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  10. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  11. Image Analysis-Based Food Recognition and Volume Estimation for Diet Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hassannejadh, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Food intake and eating habits have a significant impact on people's health. Widespread diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are directly related to eating habits. Therefore, monitoring diet can be an effective way of promoting the adoption of a healthy lifestyle and of improving personal and national health economy. Studies have demonstrated that manual reporting of food intake is inaccurate and often impractical. Thus, several methods have been proposed to automate the process. This thesi...

  12. An Electronic Wellness Program to Improve Diet and Exercise in College Students: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, Amy L; Ross, Jamisha T; Klein, Catherine J; Lei, Kai Y; Mackey, Eleanor R

    2016-01-01

    Background In transitioning from adolescence to adulthood, college students are faced with significant challenges to their health habits. Independence, stress, and perceived lack of time by college students have been known to result in poor eating and exercise habits, which can lead to increased disease risk. Objective To assess the feasibility and to determine preliminary efficacy of an electronic wellness program in improving diet and physical activity in college students. Methods A 24-week...

  13. Quantifying altitude of human habitation in studies of human health using geographical name server data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thielke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all studies examining the effects of altitude on human health have estimated the geographical altitude of defined regions, yet the primary interest lies in where people live, not the land around them. Populations are not homogenously distributed across altitudes. We propose a straightforward and computationally simple method for estimating the average altitude of habitation within the regional units for which health statistics are typically reported (such as counties. The United States Board on Geographical Names database contains records for over 2.7 million places, which can be processed to select places that are associated with human habitation. These points can easily be averaged by region yielding a representative altitude of human habitation within city, county, state regions, or by longitude and latitude zones. We provide an example of using this approach in a study of human health, and compare it with three other previously used methods of estimating altitude for counties.

  14. The Earth Through Time: Implications for Searching for Habitability and Life on Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The Earth has been both a habitable and inhabited planet for around 4 billion years, yet distant observers studying Earth at different epochs in our history would have detected substantially different and probably varying conditions. Understanding Earth's history thus has much to tell us about how to interpret observations of potentially habitable exoplanets. In this talk I will review the history of life on Earth, from the earliest microbial biosphere living under a relatively methane-rich atmosphere to the modern world of animals, plants, and atmospheric oxygen, with a focus on how observable conditions on Earth changed as the planet and its biosphere evolved. I'll discuss the implications of this history for assessing the habitability of-or presence of life on-planets around other stars.

  15. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. © 2016 APJPH.

  16. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Lifestyle Health Determinants Among Older Adults Living in the Mediterranean Region: The Multinational MEDIS Study (2005-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Foscolou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives By the end of the 2000s, the economic situation in many European countries started to deteriorate, generating financial uncertainty, social insecurity and worse health status. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the recent financial crisis has affected the lifestyle health determinants and behaviours of older adults living in the Mediterranean islands. Methods From 2005 to 2015, a population-based, multi-stage convenience sampling method was used to voluntarily enrol 2749 older adults (50% men from 20 Mediterranean islands and the rural area of the Mani peninsula. Lifestyle status was evaluated as the cumulative score of four components (range, 0 to 6, that is, smoking habits, diet quality (MedDietScore, depression status (Geriatric Depression Scale and physical activity. Results Older Mediterranean people enrolled in the study from 2009 onwards showed social isolation and increased smoking, were more prone to depressive symptoms, and adopted less healthy dietary habits, as compared to their counterparts participating earlier in the study (p<0.05, irrespective of age, gender, several clinical characteristics, or socioeconomic status of the participants (an almost 50% adjusted increase in the lifestyle score from before 2009 to after 2009, p<0.001. Conclusions A shift towards less healthy behaviours was noticeable after the economic crisis had commenced. Public health interventions should focus on older adults, particularly of lower socioeconomic levels, in order to effectively reduce the burden of cardiometabolic disease at the population level.

  17. Urban Diets Linked to Gut Microbiome and Metabolome Alterations in Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma Kisuse

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of traditional diets by food globalization may have adverse impact on the health of human being through the alteration of gut microbial ecosystem. To address this notion, we compared the gut microbiota of urban (n = 17 and rural (n = 28 school-aged children in Thailand in association with their dietary habits. Dietary records indicated that children living in urban Bangkok tended to consume modern high-fat diets, whereas children in rural Buriram tended to consume traditional vegetable-based diets. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples showed that children in Bangkok have less Clostridiales and more Bacteroidales and Selenomonadales compared to children in Buriram and bacterial diversity is significantly less in Bangkok children than in Buriram children. In addition, fecal butyrate and propionate levels decreased in Bangkok children in association with changes in their gut microbial communities. Stool samples of these Thai children were classified into five metabolotypes (MTs based on their metabolome profiles, each characterized by high concentrations of short and middle chain fatty acids (MT1, n = 17, amino acids (MT2, n = 7, arginine (MT3, n = 6, amino acids, and amines (MT5, n = 8, or an overall low level of metabolites (MT4, n = 4. MT1 and MT4 mainly consisted of samples from Buriram, and MT2 and MT3 mainly consisted of samples from Bangkok, whereas MT5 contained three samples from Bangkok and five from Buriram samples. According to the profiles of microbiota and diets, MT1 and MT2 are characteristic of children in Buriram and Bangkok, respectively. Predicted metagenomics indicated the underrepresentation in MT2 of eight genes involved in pathways of butyrate biosynthesis, notably including paths from glutamate as well as pyruvate. Taken together, this study shows the benefit of high-vegetable Thai traditional diets on gut microbiota and suggests that high-fat and less-vegetable urban dietary habits alter gut

  18. Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bjørg Dale, Ulrika SöderhamnCentre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayBackground: Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care.Methods: An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons' own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks.Results: The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care.Conclusion: Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health.Keywords: adapting, decision-making, knowledge, self-care talks

  19. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Federico; Gomez, Rafael; Walsh, Carolyn O.; Almenara, José; Ruiz, Mencía; Abellán, María José

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy). Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change) have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future. PMID:23670578

  20. Explaining nutritional habits and behaviors of low socioeconomic status women in Sanandaj: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Nasrin; Sadeghi, Roya; Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud

    2016-01-01

    Health and behavior are closely related subjects because disease is typically rooted in individuals' unhealthy behaviors and habits. This study aims to identify women's nutritional habits and behaviors in order to design interventions to promote nutritional literacy. This qualitative research is part of a mixed method (quantitative-qualitative) study, conducted based on content analysis. Data were collected using semistructured interviews, group discussions, and in-depth interviews with married women, aged 18-50 years, who were referred to four health care centers in Sanandaj in 2013-2014. Nutritional habits and behaviors of participants were classified into two categories: representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption pattern and representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method. For the former, eight consumption pattern subcategories were formed: meat, dairy, fast food, local foods, fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, and oils. The latter (representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method), included two subcategories: consumption method in line with health and consumption method inconsistent with health. Results of this qualitative study provide a solid foundation for development and designing interventions to nutritional literacy promotion based on needs. The designed intervention to healthy nutritional behavior should be based on empowering women and providing facilitator factors of a healthy diet. While designing this study, with a holistic perspective, individual and social aspects of a healthy diet should be taken into account.

  1. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eVITAL group

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related Habits (HrH are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy. Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future.

  2. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  3. The power of habits : Unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Evers, C.; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy

  4. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  5. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  6. The evolution of habit in Tempskya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, C.B.

    1939-01-01

    1. The genus Tempskya Corda, of Upper Cretaceous age in western America, is characterized by a markedly dichotomous solenostelic stem system sheathed in a felt of its own adventitious roots. A composite stemlike structure is thus formed which has been termed a false stem. 2. As primary bases for the discussion, it is assumed that the false stem is a composite "organ" analogous to a true stem in certain respects; that form is influenced by habit, and that lack of perfect correlation is indicative of a structural lag; and that the false stem is much more plastic than the true stem and, in consequence, a close correlation of habit and internal structure is to be expected. 3. Arguments favoring a subterranean and obliquely ascending habit for these false stemmed types are presented. Likewise, arguments suggesting an erect treefern-like habit for the radially symmetrical false stems, and a climbing habit for the dorsiventral ones are given. It is believed that the available evidence favors the erect and the liana-like habits. 4. Assuming a radial Urform, for which there is ample justification both in theoretical morphology and in the Paleozoic record, the dorsiventral morphology of fern stems may be regarded as developed towards the close of the Paleozoic as an adaptation to rigorous climates which are known to have produced striking changes in the organic landscape. 5. From one of these early dorsiventral types with a dichotomous stem system, Tempskya may have been derived through the development of the scandent and tree-climbing habit, aided by the production of a mass of adventitious roots. Thus the false stem could be developed. 6. It follows that the more primitive habit in Tempskya is logically the climbing one reflected by the dorsiventral false stem. Old age of individuals may have been characterized by self-saprophytism and finally epiphytism. 7. The radial forms, it is believed, were developed from these dorsiventral climbing types as a result of the

  7. [Eating habits of patients with severe obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reséndiz Barragán, Aída Monserrat; Hernández Altamirano, Sheila Viridiana; Sierra Murguía, Mariana Alejandra; Torres Tamayo, Margarita

    2014-11-30

    Severe obesity is a health problem that has medical, emotional and economic consequences. The etiology of severe obesity is multifactorial; however, it is known that the eating habits represent a major factor in the development of this disease. This study aimed to identify eating patterns and specific habits that need to be changed to achieve weight loss. An observational, descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study with 250 candidates for bariatric surgery, 79.2% women and 20.8% men aged 37.7 ± 10.2 years and 44.3 ± 7.7 kg/m2 BMI patients was performed. It was found that "drinking water", "eat faster than most people", "leave the plate empty", "have long fasts", "sweet cravings", and "drinking soda" were the most common habits in patients with severe obesity. The existence of significant differences between the habits of men and women and between BMI strata or groups are also discussed. "Snacking" and "eat until you feel uncomfortable" were significantly different between men and women and "eat by yourself because you feel ashamed of eating with others" was significant between BMI strata. It was concluded that it is important that the treatment of these patients includes assessment techniques and behavior modification aimed at these habits. It is recommended to include in future studies patients with normal weight and overweight as well as the use of instruments with adequate psychometric properties. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Association Between Geographic Elevation, Bone Status, and Exercise Habits: The Shimane CoHRE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Miwako; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Kohno, Kunie; Yano, Shozo; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Nabika, Toru

    2015-06-30

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the association between the residential environment and health. The association between residential environment (i.e., geographic elevation) and bone status is unknown. Furthermore, these associations could differ by exercise habits due to the chronically greater daily activity caused by steep slopes in mountainous areas. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between bone status of elderly people measured using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and elevation varied according to the exercise habits in a mountainous area population. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted during 2012-2013. QUS value was expressed as a proportion of the young adult mean (%YAM), with higher scores donating better bone status. After excluding subjects with missing data, we analyzed the data for 321 men and 500 women. Our results indicate that %YAM was not associated with elevation among men, or among women with exercise habits. However, elevation was associated with %YAM among women without exercise habits. Our results highlight the importance of considering residential environment and exercise habits when establishing promotion strategies to maintain bone status of the elderly people who live in rural mountainous areas.

  9. Association Between Geographic Elevation, Bone Status, and Exercise Habits: The Shimane CoHRE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwako Takeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been growing interest in the association between the residential environment and health. The association between residential environment (i.e., geographic elevation and bone status is unknown. Furthermore, these associations could differ by exercise habits due to the chronically greater daily activity caused by steep slopes in mountainous areas. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between bone status of elderly people measured using quantitative ultrasound (QUS and elevation varied according to the exercise habits in a mountainous area population. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted during 2012–2013. QUS value was expressed as a proportion of the young adult mean (%YAM, with higher scores donating better bone status. After excluding subjects with missing data, we analyzed the data for 321 men and 500 women. Our results indicate that %YAM was not associated with elevation among men, or among women with exercise habits. However, elevation was associated with %YAM among women without exercise habits. Our results highlight the importance of considering residential environment and exercise habits when establishing promotion strategies to maintain bone status of the elderly people who live in rural mountainous areas.

  10. Energy as a Constraint on Habitability in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, T.

    2008-12-01

    All living things must obtain energy from the environment to grow, to maintain a metabolic steady state, or simply to preserve viability. The availability of energy sources in the environment thus represents a key factor in determining the size, distribution, and activity of biological populations, and ultimately constrains the possibility for life itself. Lacking the abundant energy provided by solar radiation or the products of oxygenic photosynthesis, life in subsurface environments may be limited by energy availability as much as any other factor. The biological requirement for energy is expressed in two dimensions - analogous to the power and voltage requirements of electrical devices - and consideration and quantification of these requirements establishes quantitative boundary conditions on subsurface habitability. The magnitude of these requirements depends significantly on physicochemical environment, as does the provision of biologically-accessible energy from subsurface sources. With this conceptual basis, we are developing an 'energy balance' model that is designed to ultimately predict the habitability of a given environment, with respect to a given metabolism, in quantitative terms (as 'biomass density potential'). The model will develop from conceptual to quantitative as experimental and observational work constrains and quantifies, in natural populations adapted to low energy conditions, the magnitude of the biological energy requirements and the impacts of physicochemical environmental conditions on energy demand and supply.

  11. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  12. Knowledge about infertility risk factors, fertility myths and illusory benefits of healthy habits in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Laura; Boivin, Jacky

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has highlighted a lack of fertility awareness in the general population especially in relation to the optimal fertile period during the menstrual cycle, incidence of infertility and duration of the reproductive life span. The current study assessed fertility knowledge more broadly in young people and investigated three areas of knowledge, namely risk factors associated with female infertility (e.g. smoking), beliefs in false fertility myths (e.g. benefits of rural living) and beliefs in the illusory benefits of healthy habits (e.g. exercising regularly) on female fertility. The sample (n = 149) consisted of 110 female and 39 male postgraduate and undergraduate university students (average age 24.01, SD = 7.81). Knowledge scores were based on a simple task requiring the participants to estimate the effect a factor would have on a group of 100 women trying to get pregnant. Items (n = 21) were grouped according to three categories: risk factors (e.g. smoking; 7 items), myths (e.g. living in countryside; 7 items) and healthy habits (e.g. being normal weight; 7 items). An analysis of variance showed a significant main effect of factor (P healthy habits (P healthy habits. We suggest that the public education campaigns should be directed to erroneous beliefs about pseudo protective factors.

  13. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  14. Evolution of Mediterranean diets and cuisine: concepts and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radd-Vagenas, Sue; Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Singh, Maria Fiatarone; Flood, Victoria M

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been demonstrated to provide a range of health benefits in observational and clinical trials and adopted by various dietary guidelines. However, a broad range of definitions exist impeding synthesis across trials. This review aims to provide a historical description of Mediterranean diets, from the ancient to the modern, to inform future educational and diet index tool development representing the 'traditional' Mediterranean diet. Nine databases were searched from inception to July 2015 to identify papers defining the Mediterranean diet. The definition accepted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was also reviewed. The 'traditional' Mediterranean diet is described as high in unprocessed plant foods (grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts/seeds and extra virgin olive oil), moderate in fish/shellfish and wine and low in meat, dairy, eggs, animal fats and discretionary foods. Additional elements relating to cuisine and eating habits identified in this review include frequent intake of home cooked meals; use of moist, lower temperature, cooking methods; eating main meals in company; reduced snacking occasions; fasting practice; ownership of a vegetable garden; use of traditional foods and combinations; and napping after the midday meal. Scope exists for future tools to incorporate additional elements of the 'traditional' Mediterranean diet to improve the quality, consistency, and synthesis of ongoing research on the Mediterranean diet.

  15. Environmental Signatures for Habitability: What to Measure and How to Rank the Habitability Potential of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Mahaffy, Paul M.; Steele, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The environmental signatures for habitability are not necessarily biosignatures, even though on Earth, they are definitive proof of habitability. It is the constant overprint of the chemical signatures of life that makes it difficult to recognize the chemical and physical properties of a potentially habitable environment as distinct from an inhabited one. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will soon embark on a mission to Mars to assess its past or present habitability, so it is useful to examine how we measure habitability on Earth and prepare for how that approach may differ for Mars. This exercise includes: (a) articulation of fundamental assumptions about habitability, (b) an inventory of factors that affect habitability, (c) development of metrics, measurement approach and implementation, and (d) a new classification scheme for planetary habitability that goes beyond the binary "yes" or "no." There may be dozens of factors that affect habitability and they can be weighted as a function of specific environment. However a robotic, in situ investigation even on Earth has constraints that prevent the measurement of every environmental factor, so metrics must be reduced to the most relevant subset, given available time, cost, technical feasibility and scientific importance. Many of the factors could be measured with a combination of orbital data and the MSL payload. We propose that, at a minimum, a designation of high habitability potential requires the following conditions be met: (a) thermally stable with respect to extremes and frequency of fluctuation, (b) has more than one energy source, (c) sufficient chemical diversity to make compounds with covalent and hydrogen bonding, (d) can moderate ionizing radiation enough to allow a stable or evolving pool of organic molecules, (e) must have water or other high quality polar solvent, (f) must be able to renew chemical resources (e.g., plate tectonics, volcanism or something else we haven't envisioned). A measurement

  16. A community-based healthy living promotion program improved self-esteem among minority children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority c...

  17. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth [Department of Nephrology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Boras Hospital (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital and Lund University (Sweden); Moelne, Johan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wallin, Maria [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Olausson, Michael [Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  18. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barregard, Lars; Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth; Lundh, Thomas; Moelne, Johan; Wallin, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 μg/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 μg/g for mercury, and 0.08 μg/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 μg/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 μg/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 μg/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  19. HABITABLE CLIMATES: THE INFLUENCE OF ECCENTRICITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Spiegel, David S.; Scharf, Caleb A.; Menou, Kristen; Raymond, Sean N.

    2010-01-01

    In the outer regions of the habitable zone, the risk of transitioning into a globally frozen 'snowball' state poses a threat to the habitability of planets with the capacity to host water-based life. Here, we use a one-dimensional energy balance climate model (EBM) to examine how obliquity, spin rate, orbital eccentricity, and the fraction of the surface covered by ocean might influence the onset of such a snowball state. For an exoplanet, these parameters may be strikingly different from the values observed for Earth. Since, for a constant semimajor axis, the annual mean stellar irradiation scales with (1 - e 2 ) -1/2 , one might expect the greatest habitable semimajor axis (for fixed atmospheric composition) to scale as (1 - e 2 ) -1/4 . We find that this standard simple ansatz provides a reasonable lower bound on the outer boundary of the habitable zone, but the influence of both obliquity and ocean fraction can be profound in the context of planets on eccentric orbits. For planets with eccentricity 0.5, for instance, our EBM suggests that the greatest habitable semimajor axis can vary by more than 0.8 AU (78%!) depending on obliquity, with higher obliquity worlds generally more stable against snowball transitions. One might also expect that the long winter at an eccentric planet's apoastron would render it more susceptible to global freezing. Our models suggest that this is not a significant risk for Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars, as considered here, since such planets are buffered by the thermal inertia provided by oceans covering at least 10% of their surface. Since planets on eccentric orbits spend much of their year particularly far from the star, such worlds might turnout to be especially good targets for direct observations with missions such as TPF-Darwin. Nevertheless, the extreme temperature variations achieved on highly eccentric exo-Earths raise questions about the adaptability of life to marginally or transiently habitable conditions.

  20. Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to gain an understanding of the requirements for a PSA to be considered a Living PSA. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Definition; Planning/Documentation; Task Performance; Maintenance; Management. 4 figs

  1. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Engel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL, high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  2. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kern, Hua; Brenna, J. Thomas; H. Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. PMID:29361684

  3. Feeding habits of giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, Central Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. M. Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the diet of giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmermann, 1780 in the Balbina reservoir (01º55'S, 59º29'W, to compare it with literature data on the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas, and to verify the effects of the seasonal changes in water levels on the feeding habits of Balbina otters. A total of 254 feces samples were collected and identified according to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Teleostei fish were present in 100% of the samples; two samples also presented monkey fur (n = 1 and sloth fur (n = 1, suggesting that the diet of P. brasiliensis, in the reservoir, is almost exclusively based on fish. Ten fish families were identified in our samples, six of which were exclusive to the Balbina Lake (not present in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas. These six fish families, however, were present in less than 3% of the samples. The fish families with highest representation in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas also appeared with higher frequencies in the Balbina Lake, suggesting that the otters have not changed their diet substantially after the implementation of the reservoir. During the high-water period, when the fish are dispersed into the flooded forest and are not very easy to catch, the otters seem to have an opportunistic feeding habit. By contrast, during the low-water period, when prey items are widely available and easier to catch in the reservoir, their feeding habits are more selective.

  4. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-23

    Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expenditures. In order to limit dialysis cost, primary and secondary prevention of chronic renal disease are of paramount importance. In addition to drugs, secondary prevention includes diet measures (e.g. salt diet, protein diet). The aims of diet practice in chronic kidney disease are to slow chronic renal failure progression and to prevent its complications like hyperphosphatemia and hyperkaliemiae. A few decades ago, a Tunisian diet was exclusively Mediterranean, and protein consumption was not excessive. However, today, protein consumption is more comparable to western countries. Salt consumption is also excessive. Some Tunisian diets still include food with high potassium intake, which are not suitable for patients with chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the role of the dietician is extremely important to help calculate and create a dietary regimen tailored to each of our patients. Advice about diets should be adapted to both the patient and population habits to improve adherence rate. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide our own experience regarding medical nutrition therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease in Tunisia, with some changes in food habits. Prevention is far better than treatment. In this perspective, dietary measures must be at the core of our intervention.

  5. You are what you eat, whenever or wherever you eat it: an integrative analysis of fish food habits in Canadian and U.S.A. waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, A; Link, J S; Smith, B E; Cook, A M

    2011-02-01

    The degree to which fish diet differs by season and area, particularly over broad scales, was examined for the first time in temperate, contiguous north-west Atlantic Ocean waters by comparing food habit data for 10 species of fishes collected concurrently during the spring and autumn surveys in the U.S.A. (Gulf of Maine proper and Georges Bank) and in the summer survey in Canada (western Scotian Shelf and Bay of Fundy). For most species, there was a general concurrence among the three seasons and four areas: summer diets had the same dominant prey items as spring and autumn diets. Although a suite of multivariate analyses did elucidate some differences in specific proportions of the diet for these species across seasons and areas, the main prey did not substantially change for most of these species. These results suggest that there are (1) minimal differences in diet across season for these species at these taxonomic resolutions, (2) there are minimal differences in diet geographically for these species and (3) differences across species, as expected, are important. Many fisheries ecosystem and multispecies models are dependent on food habit data, where resolving seasonal and spatial differences in diet remains an important consideration; however, the present work implies that amalgamated estimates of diet from seasonal surveys may be a reasonable approach when no finer seasonal resolution exists, as long as due diligence is exercised. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2017-11-08

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet's (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as "Mediterranean" an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  7. Eating habits and preferences among the student population of the Complutense University of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Álvarez, Jesús-Román; García Alcón, Rosa; Villarino Marín, Antonio; Marrodán Serrano, M Dolores; Serrano Morago, Lucia

    2015-10-01

    Studying eating habits can aid in the design of specific measures that reduce the negative effects of an unhealthy diet on health. In this context, the aim of the present study was to examine the eating habits and food preferences of students and their level of satisfaction with the catering services of the university. Survey conducted during 2011 using a questionnaire that asked participants abut their sex, age and frequency of use of catering services placed on campus. Participants were also asked about their level of satisfaction with five aspects (hygiene, quality, taste of food, price and convenience of facilities) of the university catering services, what their preferred dishes were and whether they followed a special diet. Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. Nine hundred and sixty-four students (381 males; 583 females). The students used the university food service 2·3 (sd 1·3) times/week. With respect to satisfaction level, 44·1 % gave an average score (3) to the combination of surveyed aspects (hygiene, quality, taste of food, price and comfort of the dining rooms). Regarding food choices, 61·0 % of students preferred pasta dishes, followed by meat (59·1 %) and salads (32·5 %). The least popular dishes were vegetables (16·8 %), fruits (13·6 %), milk products (12·2 %) and legumes (9·8 %). Of the students, 20·1 % followed special diets. The degree of satisfaction with the university meal service was low and the most common choices of dishes and foods among students were far from the guidelines of the Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to extend policies related to diet to this sector of the population and also to the management and food offer of university canteens.

  8. Influence of a diet very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Natarajan, Loki; Caan, Bette J; Parker, Barbara A; Greenberg, E Robert; Flatt, Shirley W; Rock, Cheryl L; Kealey, Sheila; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Bardwell, Wayne A; Carlson, Robert W; Emond, Jennifer A; Faerber, Susan; Gold, Ellen B; Hajek, Richard A; Hollenbach, Kathryn; Jones, Lovell A; Karanja, Njeri; Madlensky, Lisa; Marshall, James; Newman, Vicky A; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wasserman, Linda; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2007-07-18

    % confidence interval, 0.72-1.15; P = .43). No significant interactions were observed between diet group and baseline demographics, characteristics of the original tumor, baseline dietary pattern, or breast cancer treatment. Among survivors of early stage breast cancer, adoption of a diet that was very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat did not reduce additional breast cancer events or mortality during a 7.3-year follow-up period. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003787.

  9. Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calories more than you consume each day — through diet and exercise. You might lose weight more quickly if you ... yourself with regular weigh-ins and tracking your diet and activity, which is ... don't have a positive attitude about losing weight, you might not be ready — ...

  10. Ketogenic Diet for Obesity: Friend or Foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is a strong risk factor for a number of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and also certain types of cancers. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Genetic predisposition in combination with inactive lifestyles and high caloric intake leads to excessive weight gain. Even though there may be agreement about the concept that lifestyle changes affecting dietary habits and physical activity are essential to promote weight loss and weight control, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet are still under debate. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have been focused on reducing dietary fat with little positive results over the long-term. One of the most studied strategies in the recent years for weight loss is the ketogenic diet. Many studies have shown that this kind of nutritional approach has a solid physiological and biochemical basis and is able to induce effective weight loss along with improvement in several cardiovascular risk parameters. This review discusses the physiological basis of ketogenic diets and the rationale for their use in obesity, discussing the strengths and the weaknesses of these diets together with cautions that should be used in obese patients.

  11. Ketogenic Diet for Obesity: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is a strong risk factor for a number of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and also certain types of cancers. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Genetic predisposition in combination with inactive lifestyles and high caloric intake leads to excessive weight gain. Even though there may be agreement about the concept that lifestyle changes affecting dietary habits and physical activity are essential to promote weight loss and weight control, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet are still under debate. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have been focused on reducing dietary fat with little positive results over the long-term. One of the most studied strategies in the recent years for weight loss is the ketogenic diet. Many studies have shown that this kind of nutritional approach has a solid physiological and biochemical basis and is able to induce effective weight loss along with improvement in several cardiovascular risk parameters. This review discusses the physiological basis of ketogenic diets and the rationale for their use in obesity, discussing the strengths and the weaknesses of these diets together with cautions that should be used in obese patients. PMID:24557522

  12. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although workers with poor sleep quality are reported to have problems with work performance, few studies have assessed the association between dietary factors and sleep quality using validated indexes. Here, we examined this association using information acquired from validated questionnaires. A total of 3,129 female workers aged 34 to 65 years were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ), and subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The relationship between the intake of several food groups and nutrients and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. The effect of eating habits on sleep quality was also examined. Poor sleep quality was associated with low intake of vegetables (p for trend 0.002) and fish (p for trend 0.04) and high intake of confectionary (p for trend 0.004) and noodles (p for trend 0.03) after adjustment for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, physical activity, depression score, employment status, alcohol intake and smoking status). Poor sleep quality was also significantly and positively associated with consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, skipping breakfast, and eating irregularly. In addition, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with high carbohydrate intake (p for trend 0.03). A low intake of vegetables and fish, high intake of confectionary and noodles and unhealthy eating habits were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was also associated with high carbohydrate intake in free-living Japanese middle-aged female workers.

  13. ADHD and lifestyle habits in Czech adults, a national sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissenberger S

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Simon Weissenberger,1,2 Radek Ptacek,1,2 Martina Vnukova,1,2 Jiri Raboch,1 Martina Klicperova-Baker,3 Lucie Domkarova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, 3Institute of Psychology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 4Department of Paediatric Psychiatry, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic Background: Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been added as a diagnosis to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5 (DSM5 in 2013, thus making ADHD, which has been classically known as a childhood disorder, a lifelong disorder. Those suffering from the condition show very specific behavioral traits, which manifest as lifestyle habits; they also show comorbidities that can be the symptoms and/or consequences of certain lifestyles.Materials and methods: The targeted population was adults aged 18–65 years. The total sample was 1,012 (507 males and 505 females. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS V. 1.1 was administered to evaluate the current symptoms of ADHD and a questionnaire regarding lifestyles that are pertinent to ADHD, exercise, drug use, and diet.Results: An ASRS score of 4–6 points was found in 11.4% of the male population and 9.7% of the female population (5–6 points indicate very high-intensity symptoms. A score of 6, the highest intensity of symptomatology, was found in 1.18% of males and 0.99% of females. Gender differences in scores were not statistically significant. In terms of self-reported lifestyles, we calculated an ordered logistic regression and the odds ratios of those with ASRS scores >4. Those with higher ASRS scores had higher rates of self-reported unhealthy lifestyles and poor diets with high consumption of sweets. We also

  14. The automatic component of habit in health behavior: habit as cue-contingent automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina; Verplanken, Bas

    2010-07-01

    Habit might be usefully characterized as a form of automaticity that involves the association of a cue and a response. Three studies examined habitual automaticity in regard to different aspects of the cue-response relationship characteristic of unhealthy and healthy habits. In each study, habitual automaticity was assessed by the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI). In Study 1 SRHI scores correlated with attentional bias to smoking cues in a Stroop task. Study 2 examined the ability of a habit cue to elicit an unwanted habit response. In a prospective field study, habitual automaticity in relation to smoking when drinking alcohol in a licensed public house (pub) predicted the likelihood of cigarette-related action slips 2 months later after smoking in pubs had become illegal. In Study 3 experimental group participants formed an implementation intention to floss in response to a specified situational cue. Habitual automaticity of dental flossing was rapidly enhanced compared to controls. The studies provided three different demonstrations of the importance of cues in the automatic operation of habits. Habitual automaticity assessed by the SRHI captured aspects of a habit that go beyond mere frequency or consistency of the behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  16. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  17. Diet-boosting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity - diet-boosting foods; Overweight - diet-boosting foods ... Low-fat and nonfat milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese are healthy sources of calcium, vitamin D , and potassium. Unlike sweetened drinks with extra calories, milk ...

  18. Gastric Bypass Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the guidance of your doctor. A new healthy diet Three to four months after weight-loss surgery, ... as your stomach continues to heal. Throughout the diet To ensure that you get enough vitamins and ...

  19. Child diet and healthy growth in the context of rural poverty in the peruvian andes: what influences primary caregivers' opportunities and choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga B; Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2013-09-01

    This study explored opportunities and choices related to child feeding among women living in a remote and low-income district in the Andean highlands. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with mothers (N = 7) with reputations for providing good child care, and who participated in an NGO-run social and health programme. The aim of this study was to learn about women's positive experience with child feeding, in the context of living in low-income communities. Such knowledge could be of substantial practical value to health promotion practitioners, in illuminating existing local circumstances and practices that produce good child nutrition. The women who were most knowledgeable about child health and diet were better educated and had relatively higher social positions in the community. Regarding contextual factors related to child feeding, numerous references were made to the extensive use of own crops and food stuffs, seen to provide a better diet than that available in cities where people buy their food. In discussing food and meal preparation habits, there were clear references to child welfare and health as motivating factors in the choices that were made. The NGO programme was not mentioned by the interviewer, to avoid prompting, yet the respondents referred to it explicitly, and attributed improved health-related knowledge and skills to the NGO education interventions (e.g. education about nutritious meal preparation, child care skills, and sanitation practices). It is concluded that the women were concerned about providing a good diet to their children, they were aware of the impact of feeding practices on child health, and that education about health and diet helped them to improved feeding practices.

  20. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.