WorldWideScience

Sample records for livestock protection collars

  1. Fire protection in Angra-2 nuclear power plant. The use of fire protection collars on plastic piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Segabinaze, R. de

    1994-01-01

    The object of this paper is to briefly the use of fire protection collars on plastic piping systems passing through wall and floor penetration. The fire protection collars consist of a stainless steel housing, in which the leading edges of two pivoting plates are in constant pressure contact with the pipe. In case of fire these plates react on the softened pipe with a guillotine action, thereby stopping the flow; within the housing a foam material expands to fill the space when subject to the heat of the fire. The piping project has to be modified to permit the fixing of the collars to walls and floor penetrations. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  2. Ergonomic assessment of enhanced protection under body armour combat shirt neck collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Granger, C J; Pearkes, T D; Clasper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Combat neck injury due to explosively propelled fragments is a significant cause of mortality and long-term morbidity in UK soldiers deployed on current operations. Reinforcing the collar of the existing under body armour combat shirt (UBACS) has been suggested as a potential method for reducing the incidence of combat neck injury. 20 soldiers serving in Afghanistan objectively compared three designs of enhanced protection UBACS (EP-UBACS) using 10 representative military tasks against a baseline of a standard UBACS. Each EP-UBACS design was trialled using three constituent materials: two layers of para-aramid felt, one layer of ultra high molecule weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) felt or two layers of a silk fabric. Subjective assessment of these nine configurations in terms of comfort, heat dissipation and overall acceptability were compared with the standard UBACS using a χ² test. All military tasks could be performed with all nine configurations of EP-UBACS. Although silk was the most comfortable material, it was not functionally practical in any of the three designs. Crossover collars incorporating UHMWPE or para-aramid were the only two of the nine configurations to demonstrate similar user acceptability to a standard UBACS. The EP-UBACS has the potential to provide neck protection without reducing performance incorporating materials analogous to either of the felts assessed in this study. The collar should provide stand-off from the skin to improve heat dissipation and comfort, which can be maximised by changing the current UBACS collar shape to one that crosses over at the front. Should a zip be desired, it should be moved to one side of the midline to reduce rubbing on the chin and be covered with ballistic protective material. Additional semi-circles of silk beneath the collar at the front and back would improve protection without affecting comfort.

  3. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  4. Using computerised surface wound mapping to compare the potential medical effectiveness of Enhanced Protection Under Body Armour Combat Shirt collar designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Allanson-Bailey, L C; Hunt, N C; Delaney, R; Hepper, A E; Lewis, E A

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the neck from explosively propelled fragments has traditionally been achieved through a collar attached to the ballistic vest. An Enhanced Protection Under Body Armour Combat Shirt (EP-UBACS) collar has been identified as an additional method of providing neck protection but limited evidence as to its potential medical effectiveness exists to justify its procurement. Entry wound locations and resultant medical outcomes were determined using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) for all fragmentation neck wounds sustained by UK soldiers between 01 January 2010 and 31 December 2011. Data were prospectively entered into a novel computerised tool base and comparisons made between three EP-UBACS neck collar designs in terms of predicted reduction in AIS scores. All collars reduced AIS scores, with the greatest reduction provided by designs incorporating increased standoff from the neck and an additional semi-circle of ballistic material underneath the collar at the front and back. This technique confirms that reinforcing the neck collar of an EP-UBACS would be expected to reduce injury severity from neck wounds. However, without knowledge of entry wound locations for injuries to other body areas as well as the use of AIS scores without clinical or pathological verification its further use in the future may be limited. The ability to overlay any armour design onto a standardised human was potentially the most useful part of this tool and we would recommend developing this technique using underlying anatomical structures and not just the skin surface. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Health and pink-collar work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Ratcliffe, G; Green, M

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a decline in the manufacturing sector of the UK economy with a corresponding growth of service-orientated pink-collar jobs in some regions. While the health outcomes of white- and blue-collar workers are well-established, less is known about this emerging pink-collar group. To outline the health of pink-collar workers in comparison to their white-collar counterparts across a range of indicators. Area-level percentages for white-, pink- and blue-collar workers were derived from residents' routinely collected employment data in a northern English town. Area-level health data pertaining to male and female life expectancy, respiratory deaths and deaths from cardiovascular and circulatory causes (all age and under 75 years) were obtained from the local authority and public health observatory. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between job collar and health. When adjusted for deprivation, areas with higher percentages of pink-collar workers experienced lower rates of death from circulatory disease under the age of 75 in comparison to white-collar workers. Other relationships between collar status and health outcomes were not statistically significant. The reasons underlying the apparent protective effect of pink-collar status for deaths from circulatory disease are uncertain and merit further study. Possibilities include differences in age, exposure to occupational hazards and lifestyle behaviours. Our work has a number of limitations and longitudinal studies with detailed exposure data should assess the long-term health outcomes of these workers using agreed definitions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  7. The vein collar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect...

  8. Lightweight bilayer barium sulfate-bismuth oxide composite thyroid collars for superior radiation protection in fluoroscopy-guided interventions: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Heiko; Benenati, Matthew J; Katzen, Barry T; Peña, Constantino; Gandhi, Ripal; Staub, Daniel; Schernthaner, Melanie

    2014-02-01

    To test whether newer bilayer barium sulfate-bismuth oxide composite (XPF) thyroid collars (TCs) provide superior radiation protection and comfort during fluoroscopy-guided interventions compared with standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent TCs. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study, and 144 fluoroscopy-guided vascular interventions were included at one center between October 2011 and July 2012, with up to two operators randomly assigned to wear XPF (n = 135) or standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent (n = 121) TCs. Radiation doses were measured by using dosimeters placed outside and underneath the TCs. Wearing comfort was assessed at the end of each procedure on a visual analog scale (0-100, with 100 indicating optimal comfort). Adjusted differences in comfort and radiation dose reductions were calculated by using a mixed logistic regression model and the common method of inverse variance weighting, respectively. Patient (height, weight, and body mass index) and procedure (type and duration of intervention, operator, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product, and air kerma) data did not differ between the XPF and standard groups. Comfort was assessed in all 256 measurements. On average, the XPF TCs were 47.6% lighter than the standard TCs (mean weight ± standard deviation, 133 g ± 14 vs 254 g ± 44; P 90; odds ratio, 7.6; 95% confidence interval: 3.0, 19.2; P standard group). The mean radiation dose reductions (ie, radiation protection) provided by XPF and standard TCs were 90.7% and 72.4%, with an adjusted mean difference of 17.9% (95% confidence interval: 7.7%, 28.1%; P standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent TCs and provide superior radiation protection during fluoroscopy-guided interventions. © RSNA, 2013.

  9. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  10. Well swab collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-04-09

    A well swab collar which can be hoisted to bring well fluids upward through a pipe string is described. An elastic swab is used to swab a pipe having a predetermined diameter. The swab consists of a circular shaped elastomer body having an outer diameter a little smaller than the inner diameter of the pipe. The body is divided into multiple swab elements by ring-shaped grooves in the body. The swab element has truncated conical surfaces directed radially at an outward angle, then downward and consequently at an angle inward and then downward. (19 claims)

  11. Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor.

  12. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  13. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010... Control § 77.1010 Collaring holes. (a) Starter steels shall be used when collaring holes with hand-held drills. (b) Men shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or...

  14. Augmented collar for assistance dog

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasson , Germain; Lucidarme , Philippe; Pesty , Sylvie; Duhaut , Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present briefly our reflexion on how to communicate with a dog using embedded devices. We also present the prototype collar we made in order to improve the communication between an assistance dog and his disabled master.

  15. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  16. Collar of Lady's Wear in Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun

    2007-01-01

    The research is started with a query that whether the width of collar in Qing Dynasty Is too small. The paper bases on the statistics which come from the collection of the Costume Museum of Donghua University. compares the results with the natlonal standard specification, then analyzes the structure and shape of collars in Qing Dynasty, and tells the relationship between collar and the garment. Furthermore, the paper discusses the function of lady's collar in Qing Dynasty and gives a suggestion that collar being an Indicator to distinguish women's wear from children's wear.

  17. Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Why are blue-collar blacks less likely to help jobseekers than jobholders from other ethnoracial groups or even than more affluent blacks? Drawing from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 97 black and Latino workers at one large, public sector employer, we find that blue-collar black workers both helped less proactively and rejected more requests for assistance than did blue-collar Latino and white-collar black workers. We attribute blue-collar blacks’ more passive engagement to their...

  18. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-07-13

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  19. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Cheng Chang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  20. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  1. Protecting cows in small holder farms in East Africa from tsetse flies by mimicking the odor profile of a non-host bovid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder K Saini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, differential attraction of pathogen vectors to vertebrate animals is investigated for novel repellents which when applied to preferred host animals turn them into non-hosts thereby providing a new paradigm for innovative vector control. For effectively controlling tsetse flies (Glossina spp., vectors of African trypanosomosis, causing nagana, repellents more powerful than plant derived, from a non-host animal the waterbuck, Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa, have recently been identified. Here we investigate these repellents in the field to protect cattle from nagana by making cattle as unattractive as the buck.To dispense the waterbuck repellents comprising guaiacol, geranylacetone, pentanoic acid and δ-octalactone, (patent application we developed an innovative collar-mounted release system for individual cattle. We tested protecting cattle, under natural tsetse challenge, from tsetse transmitted nagana in a large field trial comprising 1,100 cattle with repellent collars in Kenya for 24 months. The collars provided substantial protection to livestock from trypanosome infection by reducing disease levels >80%. Protected cattle were healthier, showed significantly reduced disease levels, higher packed cell volume and significantly increased weight. Collars >60% reduced trypanocide use, 72.7% increase in ownership of oxen per household and enhanced traction power (protected animals ploughed 66% more land than unprotected. Land under cultivation increased by 73.4%. Increase in traction power of protected animals reduced by 69.1% acres tilled by hand per household per ploughing season. Improved food security and household income from very high acceptance of collars (99% motivated the farmers to form a registered community based organization promoting collars for integrated tsetse control and their commercialization.Clear demonstration that repellents from un-preferred hosts prevent contact between host and vector, thereby

  2. Use of cervical collar after whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak-Wójtowicz, Anna; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław Michał; Materek, Magdalena; Pietras, Marta; Bażant, Katarzyna

    2014-08-08

    Whiplash injuries, also known as neck sprains and strains, are currently some of the most common injuries of the cervical spine. Mechanism of injury is still controversial and current treatment methods do not provide satisfactory results. In this article we present QTF classification of related disorders, epidemiological data and treatment methods. We described basic principles of using a soft collar, goals and effects of collar use and potential complications ensuing from immobilization. Authors reviewed publications comparing the effects of collar use with other methods of treatment and physiotherapy following whiplash injury.

  3. Expert System for 3D Collar Intelligent Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; GENG Zhao-feng

    2004-01-01

    A method to set up 3D collar prototype is developed in this paper by using the technique of cubic spline and bicubic surface patch. Then the relationship between the parameters of 3D collar prototype and different collar styles are studied. Based on the relationship, we can develop some algorithms of transferring style requirements to the parameters value of the collar prototype, and obtain some generation rules for the design of 3D collar style. As such, the knowledge base can be constructed, and the intelligent design system of 3D collar style is built. Using the system, various 3D collar styles can be designed automatically to satisfy various style requirements.

  4. [Factors associated with depressive symptoms in blue-collar and white-collar male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yurika; Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders are increasing and their influence on productivity is a concern in the workplace. However, few studies have investigated depression among blue-collar and white-collar workers in the manufacturing industry. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors associated with depressive symptoms, focusing on lifestyles and insomnia. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted of 1,963 workers at an annual health checkup in a manufacturing company. Of the 1,712 respondents (response rate: 87%), 1,258 male worker subjects (blue-collar 674; white-collar 584) were analyzed after excluding those with mental diseases. The questionnaire included items on basic attributes and lifestyle. The Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and The Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to evaluate insomnia and depressive symptoms. The incidence of depressive symptoms with CES-D scores of ≥16 was 15.1% in both the blue-collar and the white-collar workers. Insomnia with AIS scores of ≥6 were encountered in 18.8% of the blue-collar workers and 18.3% of the white-collar workers. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that for the blue-collar workers, depressive symptoms were associated with "AIS scores ≥6" (Odds ratio (OR): 10.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.12-19.15), "not get rid of fatigue with sleep" (OR: 3.36; 95%CI: 1.85-6.09), "skip breakfast over 3 times a week" (OR: 3.10; 95%CI:1.42-6.76), "no family living together" (OR: 2.08; 95%CI: 1.05-4.12), and "commuting time" (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.00-1.02). For the white-collar workers, depressive symptoms were related to "AIS scores ≥6" (OR: 14.91; 95%CI: 7.54-29.49), and "no family living together" (OR: 2.54; 95%CI: 1.27-5.09). Sleep time was not associated with depression in both blue- and white-collar workers. Depressive symptoms were found in 51.6% of the blue-collar workers with insomnia with AIS scores ≥6 and 53.8% of white-collar workers. Depressive symptoms were

  5. Design and testing of a GPS/GSM collar prototype to combat cattle rustling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco M. Tangorra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rustling is an age-old practice that was widespread in Italy until the first half of the 20th century. Today, incidents of cattle rustling are again being reported. However, the problem is not only found in Italy. It is also becoming a plague for ranchers in the US and is still rampant in East Africa. In Italy, the cattle rustling phenomena have usually been limited through the direct control of the herdsmen. Global positioning system (GPS and geographic information system (GIS combined technologies are increasingly applied for tracking and monitoring livestock with greater spatial and temporal resolution. However, so far, no case studies of the use of GPS technology to combat cattle rustling have been reported in the literature. The aim of this research was to develop a GPS/GSM (global system for mobile communication collar, using commercial hardware and implementing a specific software [ARVAshepherd 1.0; ARVAtec Srl, Rescaldina (MI, Italy] to track animals’ movements outside their grazing area and to signal when animals are straying outside virtual perimeters. A phase I study was conducted from January to June 2011 to build the GPS/GSM collar and to assess its performances in terms of GPS accuracy and precision, while a phase II study was conducted in July 2011 to test the GPS collar under real-life operating conditions. The static GPS positioning error achieved a circular error probable (50% and horizontal 95% accuracy of 1.462 m and 4.501 m, respectively. This is comparable with values obtained by other authors in static tests of a commercial GPS collar for grazing studies. In field tests, the system was able to identify the incorrect position of the cattle and the warning messages were sent promptly to the farmer, continuing until the animals had been repositioned inside the fence, thus highlighting the potential of the GPS/GSM collar as an anti-theft system.

  6. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  7. Essential oils of indigenous plants protect livestock from infestations of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and other tick species in herds grazing in natural pastures in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, Wycliffe; Hassanali, Ahmed; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard; Takken, Willem

    2018-01-01

    The effects of formulated essential oils of Tagetes minuta and Tithonia diversifolia on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus infesting livestock were evaluated in semi-field experiments. Forty-five zebu cattle naturally infested with ticks were randomly selected from 15 herds, three animals from each. Of

  8. Boron-Coated Straw Collar for Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianwei; Croft, Stephen; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design and optimize, in simulation space, an active neutron coincidence counter (or collar) using boron-coated straws (BCSs) as a non- 3 He replacement to the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL). UNCL has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) since the 1980s to verify the 235 U content in fresh light water reactor fuel assemblies for safeguards purposes. This report documents the design and optimization of the BCS collar.

  9. Boron-Coated Straw Collar for Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design and optimize, in simulation space, an active neutron coincidence counter (or collar) using boron-coated straws (BCSs) as a non-3He replacement to the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL). UNCL has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) since the 1980s to verify the 235U content in fresh light water reactor fuel assemblies for safeguards purposes. This report documents the design and optimization of the BCS collar.

  10. Livestock production and marketing:

    OpenAIRE

    Negassa, Asfaw; Rashid, Shahidur; Gebremedhin, Berhanu

    2011-01-01

    The livestock is an important sub-sector within Ethiopia’s economy in terms of its contributions to both agricultural value-added and national GDP. Between 1995/96 and 2005/06, the livestock sub-sector’s share averaged 24 percent of agricultural GDP and 11 percent of national GDP, with the highest shares recorded at 27 percent and 13 percent, respectively, at its peak (NBE 2005/06). The contribution of livestock and livestock product exports to foreign exchange earnings is also large. The ann...

  11. Gender Responsive Livestock Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Livestock researchers and development practitioners need to ... Qualitative approaches that integrate gender analysis frameworks and tools; Gender .... and social attitudes, which means multiple methods ... Combining quantitative tools that.

  12. Criminal Trajectories of White-collar Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The

  13. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  14. Hypospadias repair with the glanular-frenular collar (GFC) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbey, Hüseyin; Etker, Şeref

    2017-02-01

    In the normal human penis, the glans wings merge in the midline ventrally, but are separated by the 'septum glandis' in conjunction with the frenulum. The frenulum is also included in the formation of the distal (glanular and subcoronal) urethra, which has a special part known as the 'fossa navicularis'. This has inspired a hypospadias repair technique that simulates the development of the glanular and subcoronal urethra, which can be incorporated into the repair of all cases of hypospadias. A total of 121 patients with varying degrees of hypospadias underwent surgery with the described technique: a Y-V plasty was used to dissect the inner foreskin, in a fashion that allowed for its ventral mobilization as a frenular mucosal collar. After tubularization of the proximal urethra, a partial spongioplasty was performed that extended up to the subcoronal level. The glans wings were approximated only at their outermost convexities, with a couple of subepithelial sutures, leaving a slit for the meatus. The cleft-like area between the split wings of the glans penis was filled with the terminal ends of the spongiosum and the dartos of the mucosal collar, which converged to form a septum and a neo-frenulum (glanular-frenular collar, GFC). The midline skin closure of the ventral collar and the circumferential foreskin closure was completed as usual. At a mean follow-up of 10 months, two patients developed urethral fistula (2%), six had meatal stenosis (5%), and two had glans dehiscence (2%) that resulted in meatal retraction. Overall, patients had a cosmetically satisfying appearance (Figure). Forty-one received secondary circumcision; the parents of 80 (66%) patients were satisfied with the final foreskin appearance obtained with this method. The split wings of the glans penis or so-called ventral cleft between the glans wings that accommodate the frenulum is part of normal anatomy. Hence, in hypospadias surgery, the approximated glans wings should allow for ventral support

  15. Reducing Local Scouring at Bridge Piles Using Collars and Geobags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatirah Akib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles.

  16. Generalized collar waves in acoustic logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiu-Ming; He Xiao; Zhang Xiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Tool waves, also named collar waves, propagating along the drill collars in acoustic logging while drilling (ALWD), strongly interfere with the needed P- and S-waves of a penetrated formation, which is a key issue in picking up formation P- and S-wave velocities. Previous studies on physical insulation for the collar waves designed on the collar between the source and the receiver sections did not bring to a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we investigate the propagation features of collar waves in different models. It is confirmed that there exists an indirect collar wave in the synthetic full waves due to the coupling between the drill collar and the borehole, even there is a perfect isolator between the source and the receiver. The direct collar waves propagating all along the tool and the indirect ones produced by echoes from the borehole wall are summarized as the generalized collar waves. Further analyses show that the indirect collar waves could be relatively strong in the full wave data. This is why the collar waves cannot be eliminated with satisfactory effect in many cases by designing the physical isolators carved on the tool. (special topic)

  17. White-Collar Crimes and Financial Corruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ŞENTÜRK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.

  18. LHC collars - 12 million high technology gems

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Some 12 million steel collars will keep the LHC dipole magnet structures rigid. Their production has just begun. A huge job began last week: the high speed manufacturing of twelve million steel collars for the 1250 dipole magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider, LHC. The challenge is not only a matter of quantity: these collars are very high technology components because of the important role they play in the way the collider works. One of the main difficulties with the accelerator is that the magnetic field that keeps particles in orbit must have the same configuration and intensity in all the dipoles. But when the 8.33 tesla magnetic field is on -100.000 times the earth magnetic field - it produces a very strong force that can deform the 'soft' parts of the magnets, such as superconducting coils. The force loading one metre of dipole is almost comparable with the weight of a Boeing 747 - about 400 tonnes - so a huge deformation would occur without a mechanical component to keep the whole structure rigid...

  19. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  20. Proximal femoral anatomy and collared stems in hip arthroplasty: is a single collar size sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Nicolas; Gedouin, Jean-Emmanuel; Pibarot, Vincent; Bejui-Hughues, Jacques; Bothorel, Hugo; Saffarini, Mo; Batailler, Cécile

    2017-10-03

    Even if the benefits of collars are unclear, they remain widely used, in several femoral stem designs. This study aimed to determine whether collar size should be proportional to hip dimensions and morphology. The hypothesis was that the collar should be larger for greater stem sizes and for varus femoral necks. Computed Tomography scans of 204 healthy hips were digitally analysed and manually templated to determine principle dimensions, appropriate stem size and model, as well as cortical distance at the femoral calcar (ideal collar size). Univariable analysis revealed that cortical distance was moderately correlated with mediolateral offset (r = 0.572; p < 0.0001) and stem model (r = 0.520; p < 0.0001). Cortical distance was weakly correlated with head diameter (r = 0.399; p < 0.0001), stem size (r = 0.200; p = 0.017), and patient gender (r = 0.361; p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis confirmed that stem model (p < 0.0001) and head diameter (p = 0.0162) are directly correlated to cortical distance. We found that cortical distance along the femoral calcar is directly correlated with the model of the stem implanted ('standard' or 'varus') and with the head diameter. This cortical distance indicates optimal collar size, which would grant maximum calcar coverage without prosthetic overhang. Collar size should be proportional to the size of the operated hip, and should be larger for 'varus' stem models than for 'standard' stem models.

  1. 19 CFR 4.71 - Inspection of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of livestock. 4.71 Section 4.71 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.71 Inspection of livestock. A proper export...

  2. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding, driving...

  3. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The...

  4. Mechanical test results on Dipole model C-1 25 mm aluminum collars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, C.

    1985-02-01

    This report is a summary of procedures used in collaring the SSC Dipole model C-1. Included are descriptions of the collars, instrumentation, collar pack preparation, collaring procedures, and collar dimension and coil pressure data measurements taken during and testing of the magnet

  5. Neutron Collar Evolution and Fresh PWR Assembly Measurements with a New Fast Neutron Passive Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Root, Margaret A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rael, Carlos D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belian, Anthony P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-02

    The passive neutron collar approach removes the effect of poison rods when using a 1mm Gd liner. This project sets out to solve the following challenges: BWR fuel assemblies have less mass and less neutron multiplication than PWR; and effective removal of cosmic ray spallation neutron bursts needed via QC tests.

  6. Biotechnology in livestock production: Overview of possibilities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... livestock production can be categorised as the biological, chemical and physical techniques ... the European industrial revolution in the 17th century that ..... Heterotypic protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding.

  7. Department of Livestock and Wild.life Management, Faculty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    95 % of the milk produced in the country (Chivandi,. 2001). ... livestock industry and health effects on humans. It causes adverse ... Brucella species are recovered from blood, bone marrow .... smallholder dairy farmers in order to protect people.

  8. A self-adjusting expandable GPS collar for male elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Dick; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenge to use collars on male cervids because their neck size can increase substantially during the rut and also because of growth as the animal matures. We describe how to build a self-adjusting expandable collar for yearling or adult male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to which very high frequency transmitters and global...

  9. Draining Collars and Lenses in Liquid-Lined Vertical Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen

    2000-01-01

    The speed at which an annular liquid collar drains under gravity g in a vertical tube of radius a, when the tube has an otherwise thin viscous liquid lining on its interior, is determined by a balance between the collar's weight and viscous shear stresses confined to narrow regions in the neighborhood of the collar's effective contact lines. Whether a collar grows or shrinks in volume as it drains depends on the modified Bond number B=rho g a(2)/(sigmaepsilon), where rho is the fluid density, sigma is its surface tension, and epsilona is the thickness of the thin film immediately ahead of the collar. Asymptotic methods are used here to determine the following nonlinear stability criteria for an individual collar, valid in the limit of small epsilon. For 0draining collars grow in volume and, in sufficiently long tubes, ultimately "snap off" to form stable lenses. For 0.5960drain, so that any lens ultimately ruptures, unless stabilizing intermolecular forces allow the formation of a lamella supported by a macroscopic Plateau border. If surfactant immobilizes the liquid's free surface, these critical values of B are reduced by a factor of 2 but the distance a collar must travel before it snaps off is unchanged. Gravitationally driven snap off is therefore most likely to occur in long tubes with radii substantially less than the capillary lengthscale sigma/rhog)(1/2). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Does the Laser-Microtextured Short Implant Collar Design Reduce Marginal Bone Loss in Comparison with a Machined Collar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alper Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare marginal bone loss between subgingivally placed short-collar implants with machined collars and those with machined and laser-microtextured collars. Materials and Methods. The investigators used a retrospective study design and included patients who needed missing posterior teeth replaced with implants. Short-collar implants with identical geometries were divided into two groups: an M group, machined collar; and an L group, machined and laser-microtextured collar. Implants were evaluated according to marginal bone loss, implant success, and probing depth (PD at 3 years of follow-up. Results. Sixty-two patients received 103 implants (56 in the M group and 47 in the L group. The cumulative survival rate was 100%. All implants showed clinically acceptable marginal bone loss, although bone resorption was lower in the L group (0.49 mm than in the M group (1.38 mm at 3 years (p<0.01. A significantly shallower PD was found for the implants in the L group during follow-up (p<0.01. Conclusions. Our results suggest predictable outcomes with regard to bone loss for both groups; however, bone resorption was less in the L group than in the M group before and after loading. The laser-microtextured collar implant may provide a shallower PD than the machined collar implant.

  11. WOMEN, LIVESTOCK OWNERSHIP AND MARKETS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3.6 Common means of livestock acquisition by women in Kenya ... 9.1 Prerequisite for a gender transformative approach in livestock research ..... of the data, describing the quantitative and qualitative methods used and the analysis employed.

  12. Animals & Livestock | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home Animals & Livestock NEWT: National Extension fisher occupancy of small, 1 km^2^ grid cells of forest habitat. Animals and Livestock html Data from consisting of IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R, and activates the JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Animals and Livestock html

  13. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    parasites. The release kinetics of these actives from a neck collar (compounded with 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was extensively studied in dogs and cats under laboratory and field conditions. Acaricidal concentrations of the actives were found to be consistently released from the collar matrix for 8 months. None of the collar studies in dogs or cats were associated with any significant collar related adverse event. Conclusion Here we demonstrated the synergism between the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, both provided in therapeutically relevant doses by a slow release collar matrix system over 8 months. This collar is therefore a convenient and safe tool for a long-term protection against ectoparasites.

  14. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    these actives from a neck collar (compounded with 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin) was extensively studied in dogs and cats under laboratory and field conditions. Acaricidal concentrations of the actives were found to be consistently released from the collar matrix for 8 months. None of the collar studies in dogs or cats were associated with any significant collar related adverse event. Conclusion Here we demonstrated the synergism between the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, both provided in therapeutically relevant doses by a slow release collar matrix system over 8 months. This collar is therefore a convenient and safe tool for a long-term protection against ectoparasites. PMID:22498105

  15. 1:100k Digital Raster Graphic - Collars Removed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — A digital raster graphic (DRG) is a scanned image of an U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard series topographic map, including all map collar information. The...

  16. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blue-collar workers have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis, but epidemiological studies are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To investigate allergic contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers with dermatitis registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. METHODS: A retrospective...... analysis of patch test data from 1471 blue-collar workers and 1471 matched controls tested between 2003 and 2012 was performed. A logistic regression was used to test for associations. RESULTS: The blue-collar workers often had occupational hand dermatitis (p dermatitis was less commonly......, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI). The following occupations were additionally identified as risk factors for contact sensitization to MCI/MI and MI, epoxy resins, and potassium dichromate, respectively: painting, construction work, and tile setting/terrazzo work. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy...

  17. [Health impact assessment of "white-collar exemption" in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Matsuda, Shinya

    2007-03-01

    This work conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) of the Japanese Government's proposal concerning the introduction of so called "white-collar exemption" into the Japanese labor market. We adopted the Merseyside model and performed a rapid health impact assessment to assess the potential health effects of white-collar exemption. In this HIA, several health determinants which may possibly be affected, both positively and negatively, were identified based on experts' judgments. Literature evidence was assessed using PubMed and other databases. In addition, we searched for the opinions of those affected by white-collar exemption from internet web sites, and six concerns were identified. Long working hours were identified as the most serious concern by both experts and those affected. White-collar exemption may increase irregular working patterns which may be related to sleep disorder, stress, and cardiovascular disease. Family function and social participation will also be affected by irregular working patterns. On the other hand, in terms of stress, white-collar exemption may benefit from a higher degree of job control. There are possibilities that white-collar exemption may enable an improved work-life balance and enable access of some groups of the population, such as people with disabilities or parents looking after children, greater access to the labour market. However, it is uncertain whether the benefits of white-collar exemption would overcome those of the current free-time or flex-time systems. The present work provides a wide range of health impacts of white-collar exemption, and will hopefully attract the attentions of decision-makers and those likely to be affected in order to contribute to policy-making.

  18. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases

  19. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases. (author)

  20. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2018-02-01

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail H Collins

    Full Text Available Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS and very high frequency (VHF radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.

  2. Impact of livestock Scale on Rice Production in Battambang of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, D.; Xu, S. W.; Wyu; Ahmed, A.-G.

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the awareness of environmental protection especially in the rural regions is important as most the farmers reside in that region. Crop-livestock proudciton has proven in many ways to encourage environmental protection. This study analyzes among other factors the impacto of livestock scale on rice production. Two regressions: Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and stepwise regression was applied to investigate these interrelationship. The result stress of three factors encouraging livestock production namely size of farmland, scale of livestock and income acquired from other jobs. The study further provides recommends to the government based on the findings of the study.

  3. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions

  4. African Journal of Livestock Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...

  5. Innovation in Livestock Genetic Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mofakkarul Islam, M.; Renwick, A.; Lamprinopoulou, C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of genetic selection technologies in livestock breeding offers unique opportunities to enhance the productivity, profitability and competitiveness of the livestock industry. However, there is a concern that the uptake of these technologies has been slower in the sheep and beef

  6. Modelling Livestock Component in FSSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorne, P.J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Keulen, van H.; Thornton, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    This document summarises the development of a ruminant livestock component for the Farm System Simulator (FSSIM). This includes treatments of energy and protein transactions in ruminant livestock that have been used as a basis for the biophysical simulations that will generate the input production

  7. Breaking the chain of zoonoses through biosecurity in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Daniel S; Choudhary, Anupma; Bean, Andrew G D

    2017-10-20

    Increases in global travel, trade and urbanisation are leading to greater incidence of zoonotic disease, and livestock are often a key link in the spread of disease to humans. As such, livestock vaccination strategies, as a part of broader biosecurity solutions, are critical to both animal and human health. Importantly, approaches that restrict infectious agents in livestock, not only protects their economic value but should reduce the potential for spill over infections in humans. Biosecurity solutions to livestock health can take a number of different forms and are generally heavily weighted towards prevention of infection rather than treatment. Therefore, vaccination can provide an effective component of a strategic approach, particularly as production economics dictate the use of cost effective solutions. Furthermore, in an evolving global environment there is a need for vaccines that accommodate for lower socioeconomic and rapidly emerging zoonotics. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New pulsating casing collar to improve cementing quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. [Southwest Petroleum Inst., Nanchong, Sichuan (China); He, K. [JiangHan Petroleum Administration Bureau, Qianjiang, Hubei (China); Wu, J. [Chevron Petroleum Tech. Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the design and test results of a new pulsating casing collar which improves cementing quality. The new pulsating casing collar (PCC) is designed according to the Helmholtz oscillator to generate a pulsating jet flow by self-excitation in the cementing process. By placing this new pulsating casing collar at the bottom of casing string, the generated pulsating jet flow transmits vibrating pressure waves up through the annulus and helps remove drilling mud in the annulus. It can therefore improve cementing quality, especially when eccentric annulus exists due to casing eccentricity where the mud is difficult to remove. The new pulsating casing collar consists of a top nozzle, a resonant chamber, and a bottom nozzle. It can be manufactured easily and is easy to use in the field. It has been tested in Jianghan oil-field, P.R. China. The field-test results support the theoretical analysis and laboratory test, and the cementing quality is shown greatly improved by using the new pulsating casing collar.

  9. Tribological characterization of the drill collars and casing friction couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripeanu, R. G.; Badicioiu, M.; Caltaru, M.; Dinita, A.; Laudacescu, E.

    2018-01-01

    Drill collars are special pipes used in the drilling of wells for weighting the drill bit, enabling it to drill through the rock. In the drilling process, the drill collars are exposed to an intensive wear due to friction on inner surface of casing wall. In order to evaluate the tribological behaviour of this friction couple, paper presents the drill collars parent material, reconditioned and casing pipe chemical composition, microstructures, hardness and friction tests. For friction tests were prepared samples extracted from new and reconditioned drill collars and from casing pipes and tested on a universal tribometer. Were used plane-on-disk surface friction couples and tests were conducted at two sliding speeds and three normal loads for each materials couple. Plane static partner samples were extracted from casing pipes and disks samples were extracted from new and reconditioned drill collars. Were obtained friction coefficients values and also the temperatures increasing values due to friction working tests parameters. The temperature increasing values were obtained by measuring it with an infrared thermographic camera.

  10. Sickness benefit cuts mainly affect blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaviksoo, E; Kiivet, R-A

    2014-08-01

    To analyse the impact of sick-pay cuts on the use of sickness absence by employees of different socioeconomic groups. In 2009 cuts in sick pay were implemented in reaction to an economic crisis in Estonia. Nationwide health survey data from the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 were used to evaluate sickness absence among blue-collar and white-collar workers. The dataset comprised 7,449 employees of 20-64 years of age. Difference in prevalence of absentees before and after the reform was assessed using the chi-squared test. Odds ratios (OR) for sickness absence were calculated in a multivariate logistic regression model. After the reform, the proportion of blue-collar workers who had been on sick leave decreased from 51% to 40% (pgender, age, self-rated health, and presence of chronic disease, especially among those with low incomes; in white-collar employees it reached statistical significance only in those with good self-rated health (p=0.033). In a multivariate model the odds of having lower sickness absence were highly significant only in blue-collar employees (OR 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.77, p<0.001). The cuts in sickness benefits had a major impact on the use of sickness absence by blue-collar employees with low salaries. This indicates that lower income was a major factor hindering the use of sick leave as these employees are most vulnerable to the loss of income. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. White-collar crime: corporate and securities and commodities fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increased interest in white-collar crime, forensic psychiatrists are in a key position to study the individual characteristics of offenders. While a comprehensive theory of high-level white-collar crime should consider societal and organizational contributions, there is value in understanding the personal traits that place an individual at high risk for offending. As the impact of the criminal acts of this group has been increasingly felt by larger groups from all socioeconomic strata, there is less willingness by the public to view these crimes as victimless and harmless.

  12. Sedentary Behavior of White Collar Office Workers-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkin, T. J.; Sarkar, Swarjit

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the physical activity time (PAT) of white collar office workers in order to assess the levels of sedentary activity in an office environment. Analysing the office workers PAT will not only allow an insight into how an office based job could impact a person’s overall health and wellness status, but will also allow for the development of future office based inter ventions aimed at increasing the overall physical activity among white collar of...

  13. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A; Plastow, Graham S; Wishart, David S

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular "omics" approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed.

  14. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A.; Plastow, Graham S.; Wishart, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular “omics” approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed. PMID:28531195

  15. Neck Collar with Mild Jugular Vein Compression Ameliorates Brain Activation Changes during a Working Memory Task after a Season of High School Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Weihong; Leach, James; Maloney, Thomas; Altaye, Mekibib; Smith, David; Gubanich, Paul J; Barber Foss, Kim D; Thomas, Staci; DiCesare, Christopher A; Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-08-15

    Emerging evidence indicates that repetitive head impacts, even at a sub-concussive level, may result in exacerbated or prolonged neurological deficits in athletes. This study aimed to: 1) quantify the effect of repetitive head impacts on the alteration of neuronal activity based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of working memory after a high school football season; and 2) determine whether a neck collar that applies mild jugular vein compression designed to reduce brain energy absorption in head impact through "slosh" mitigation can ameliorate the altered fMRI activation during a working memory task. Participants were recruited from local high school football teams with 27 and 25 athletes assigned to the non-collar and collar group, respectively. A standard N-Back task was used to engage working memory in the fMRI at both pre- and post-season. The two study groups experienced similar head impact frequency and magnitude during the season (all p > 0.05). fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal response (a reflection of the neuronal activity level) during the working memory task increased significantly from pre- to post-season in the non-collar group (corrected p working memory related brain activity, as well as a potential protective effect that resulted from the use of the purported brain slosh reducing neck collar in contact sports.

  16. Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    measure of gender inequality and women's economic empowerment compared to indicators such as income. The role of livestock as an asset for women has been analysed in Kenya, Tanzania .... were a more common source in Tanzania and.

  17. 25 CFR 168.14 - Livestock trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 168.14 Section 168.14 Indians BUREAU... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.14 Livestock trespass. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the Hopi... Hopi Partitioned Lands of any livestock without an approved grazing or crossing permit; (b) Allowing...

  18. 36 CFR 261.7 - Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock. 261.7 Section 261... Prohibitions § 261.7 Livestock. The following are prohibited: (a) Placing or allowing unauthorized livestock to... unauthorized livestock from the National Forest System or other lands under Forest Service control when...

  19. Work Identity and Marital Adjustment in Blue-Collar Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between work-identity and satisfaction and marital adjustment in 40 married male blue-collar workers, ages 25 to 41 years. Satisfaction with extrinsic work factors related to marital adjustment, while satisfaction with intrinsic work factors negatively related to secondary role salience. Age negatively related to…

  20. The Origin of Black Smock and White Collar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesapcioglu, Muhsin; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many empirical studies on the functions of school uniform, studies which focus on the origins of school uniform are neglected. Purpose of this study is to reveal historical origins of black smock and white collar. To achieve this purpose, a qualitative research method was adopted. As a result of the research, it was determined…

  1. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Setting a Collar.] Module 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on sewing collars, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist.…

  2. Livestock Predation by Puma (Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  3. Comparison of Aerosol Delivery by Face Mask and Tracheostomy Collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugis, Alaa A; Sheard, Meryl M; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert J; Ari, Arzu

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a tracheostomy collar, Wright mask, and aerosol mask attached to a jet nebulizer in facilitating aerosolized medication delivery to the lungs. We also compared albuterol delivery with open versus closed fenestration and determined the effect of inspiratory-expiratory ratio (I:E) on aerosol delivery. Albuterol (2.5 mg/3 mL) was administered to an in vitro model consisting of an adult teaching mannequin extrathoracic and upper airway with stoma intubated with an 8-mm fenestrated tracheostomy tube. The cuff was deflated. A collecting filter at the level of the bronchi was connected to a breathing simulator at a tidal volume of 400 mL, breathing frequency of 20 breaths/min, and I:E of 2:1 and 1:2. A jet nebulizer was operated with O2 at 8 L/min. Each interface was tested in triplicate. The flow was discontinued at the end of nebulization. For each test, the nebulizer was attached to a tracheostomy collar with the fenestration open or closed, a Wright mask, or an aerosol mask. Drug was analyzed by spectrophotometry (276 nm). A paired t test and analysis of variance were performed (P mask (4.1 ± 0.6%) and aerosol mask (3.5 ± 0.04%) were both less than with the tracheostomy collar under either condition (P mask (7.2 ± 0.6%), and aerosol mask (6.1 ± 0.5%). In an adult tracheostomy model, the tracheostomy collar delivered more aerosol to the bronchi than the Wright or aerosol mask. An I:E of 2:1 caused greater aerosol deposition compared with an I:E of 1:2. During aerosol administration via a tracheostomy collar, closing the fenestration improved aerosol delivery. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of seasonal shortages of herbage production from natural pastures in the Ethiopian highlands was investigated. This was done by comparing the available biomass amounts on the pastures with biomass amounts required for livestock grazing and for protecting land slope from soil erosion within a given slope ...

  5. Recent Developments in Livestock and Wildlife Brucellosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against B. melitensis or B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addit...

  6. A comparative study of the effect of soft and hard cervical collars on static postural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Khalkhali Zavieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Aim: Using cervical collars is one of the treatment methods for releaving cervical pain. The effect of limb orthotics on proprioception and postural stability has been suggested. There is not sufficient studies about the effect of cervical collars on static and dynamic stability, and the effect of soft and hard collars have not been compared with one another. The objective of this study is investigating and comparing the immediate effect of soft and hard cervical collars on static postural stability in healthy young subjects. Methods & Materials: In standing position on firm surface with closed eyes, both soft and hard collars decreased the stability and there was not any significant difference among collars. In standing positions on soft surface with closed and opened eyes, using none of the soft and hard collars did not change the stability. This quasi experimental study through repeated measure method has been conducted on 65 healthy young male and female college students. Static stability was evaluated by modified Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB in conditions without collar and by soft and hard cervical collars and were compared between the conditions. Results: Conclusion: Our results suggest that in static conditions, without vision, both collars decrease the stability in healthy young subjects. So considering the evaluation of stability and prevention of balance disturbance during the collar prescription seems to be necessary.

  7. Dependence of Magnetic Field Quality on Collar Supplier and Dimensions in the Main LHC Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Santoni, C; Todesco, E

    2006-01-01

    In order to keep the electro-magnetic forces and to minimize conductor movements, the superconducting coils of the main Large Hadron Collider dipoles are held in place by means of austenitic steel collars. Two suppliers provide the collars necessary for the whole LHC production, which has now reached more than 800 collared coils. In this paper we first assess if the different collar suppliers origin a noticeable difference in the magnetic field quality measured at room temperature. We then analyze the measurements of the collar dimensions carried out at the manufacturers, comparing them to the geometrical tolerances. Finally we use a magneto-static model to evaluate the expected spread in the field components induced by the actual collar dimensions. These spreads are compared to the magnetic measurements at room temperature over the magnet production in order to identify if the collars, rather than other components or assembly process, can account for the measured magnetic field effects. It has been found tha...

  8. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  9. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership... livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? (a) Tribes determine the class of livestock and livestock ownership requirements for livestock that may be grazed on range units...

  10. Livestock Fadama users' access to information on selected livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FUGs members never had access to information on key livestock technologies like artificial insemination, automated feeding, feed formulation and creep feeding. Farmers' number of years of formal education (r = -0.09) and family size (r= 0.09) had no significant relationships with respondents' access to information on ...

  11. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  12. HDM model magnet mechanical behavior with high manganese steel collars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WEC) is presently under contract to the SSCL to design, develop, fabricate, and deliver superconducting dipole magnets for the High Energy Booster (HEB). As a first step toward these objectives SSCL supplied a design for short model magnets of 1.8 m in length (DSB). This design was used as a developmental tool for all phases of engineering and fabrication. Mechanical analysis of the HDM (High Energy Booster Dipole Magnets) model magnet design as specified by SSCL was performed with the following objectives: (1) to develop a thorough understanding of the design; (2) to review and verify through analytical and numerical analyses the SSCL model magnet design; (3) to identify any deficiencies that would violate design parameters specified in the HDM Design Requirements Document. A detailed analysis of the model magnet mechanical behavior was pursued by constructing a quarter section finite element model and solving with the ANSYS finite element code. Collar materials of Nitronic-40 and High-Manganese steel were both considered for the HEB model magnet program with the High-Manganese being the final selection. The primary mechanical difference in the two materials is the much lower thermal contraction of the High-Manganese steel. With this material the collars will contract less than the enclosing yoke producing an increased collar yoke interference during cooldown

  13. Zoonoses risk: AHWs and Livestock keepers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... loss of markets because of decreased consumer confidence (McDermott & Arimi, ..... Some of the traditional livestock keepers reported eating meat from animals .... G. & Nilsen, R. (2003) The role of livestock keeping in tuberculosis trends in ...

  14. African Journal of Livestock Extension: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original articles not published elsewhere are invited in the following areas relating to all species of livestock. • Breeding and Genetic improvements ... livestock husbandry e.g. cane rat, snail, guinea pig, honey bee, silkworm etc.

  15. Promoting Health, Livelihoods, and Sustainable Livestock Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These areas are experiencing zoonotic (animal to human and vice-versa) ... and shed light on interactions between disease risk, livestock and human health, and ... and social development to support safe food production, healthy livestock, ...

  16. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Per

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation

  17. Samoa : Livestock Production and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to provide information and analysis of the Samoan livestock sub-sector for the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries through a technical assistance assignment financed by the World Bank. The Word Bank contributed technical assistance support to the Government of Samoa to help identify measures to strengthen agriculture sector institutions, to improve the performanc...

  18. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  19. Time series livestock diet optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alqaisi, Othman; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Williams, Ryan Blake

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable feed formulation (defined here as nutritional and economic feed optimization) is substantial in feed chain production from crop farmers to livestock producers. Diet formulation employing a static linear programming (LP) approach, which is widely used in trading firms and feed production

  20. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. 167.15 Section 167.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The...

  1. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity Program, and General... clarifying amendments and corrections to the regulations for the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP) and the Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP) to clarify when...

  2. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior to the date of legislation which designates...

  3. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  4. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  5. Mainstreaming gender issues in livestock research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Providing equal access to and use of resources for men and women could also increase the productivity of livestock systems. Read more about how to mainstream gender considerations into livestock development projects in the Gender Responsive Livestock Research brief (PDF, 613KB, available in ...

  6. MODELING OF INDICATORS OF LIVESTOCK IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Darda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of livestock in food without dangerous country. The analysis of the dynamics of production indicators waspsmainly livestock products. The problems offorecasting-ing performance of LivestockDevelopment of the Russian Federationon the basis of the a-analytical models ofalignment and connected series.

  7. 25 CFR 700.725 - Livestock trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... according to the range unit Range Management Plan. (c) The grazing of livestock upon any land withdrawn from... approved by the Commissioner. (e) Grazing of livestock whose brand is not recorded in the range unit Range Management Plan. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the New Lands is liable to a civil penalty...

  8. Livestock Farming Under Climate Change Conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koelle, B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is intended for livestock farmers, as well as others who are wanting to learn about livestock farming. It is not intended to be a comprehensive livestock farming manual, but is rather aimed at giving some guidance on how to plan...

  9. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  10. Increased Executive Functioning, Attention, and Cortical Thickness in White-Collar Criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Laufer, William S.; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known on white collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared to offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and the temporal-parietal junction compared to controls. Results, while initial, constitute the first findings on neurobiological characteristics of white-collar criminals It is hypothesized that white collar criminals have information-processing and brain superiorities that give them an advantage in perpetrating criminal offenses in occupational settings. PMID:22002326

  11. A beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to nutria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; White, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an approximately 85-g beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to semi-aquatic nutria (Myocastor coypus). Prototype collars were tested on captive nutria and refined during field trials. Central to the design was novel use of the VHF transmitter antenna as a collar. A circular collar was formed by passing the 44-cm antenna cable through a pre-made hole in the transmitter, leaving an approximately 16-cm upright antenna. GPS units were mounted separately via a hole in the base of each unit. For good satellite contact, GPS units (28 g) were maintained at the nape of the neck by counterbalance of the heavier VHF transmitters (50 g) positioned under the neck. To reduce friction, we lined the collar with alternate-sized plastic and, later, more durable nylon beads. The final collar configuration was worn for approximately 1 month deployments with only minor neck abrasion; one collar was worn successfully for 5 months. Foot entanglement remained the greatest risk of injury from the collar. By fitting collars tightly, we reduced the incidence of foot entanglement to 2 of 33 deployments (6%). Successful GPS tracks were acquired on 29 of 33 deployments (88%).

  12. Organizational justice is related to heart rate variability in white-collar workers, but not in blue-collar workers-findings from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Raphael M; Bosch, Jos A; van Vianen, Annelies E M; Jarczok, Marc N; Thayer, Julian F; Li, Jian; Schmidt, Burkhard; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    Perceived injustice at work predicts coronary heart disease. Vagal dysregulation represents a potential psychobiological pathway. We examined associations between organizational justice and heart rate variability (HRV) indicators. Grounded in social exchange and psychological contract theory, we tested predictions that these associations are more pronounced among white-collar than among blue-collar workers. Cross-sectional data from 222 blue-collar and 179 white-collar men were used. Interactional and procedural justice were measured by questionnaire. Ambulatory HRV was assessed across 24 h. Standardized regression coefficients (β) were calculated. Among white-collar workers, interactional justice showed positive relationships with 24-h HRV, which were strongest during sleeping time (adjusted βs≥0.26; p values≤0.01). No associations were found for blue-collar workers. A comparable but attenuated pattern was observed for procedural justice. Both dimensions of organizational injustice were associated with lowered HRV among white-collar workers. The impact of justice and possibly its association with health seems to differ by occupational groups.

  13. Defining a land boundary for sustainable livestock consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zanten, Hannah H E; Herrero, Mario; Hal, Ollie Van; Röös, Elin; Muller, Adrian; Garnett, Tara; Gerber, Pierre J; Schader, Christian; De Boer, Imke J M

    2018-05-22

    The need for more sustainable production and consumption of animal-source food is central to the achievement of the sustainable development goals: within this context, wise use of land is a core challenge and concern. A key question in feeding the future world is: how much animal-source food should we eat? We demonstrate that livestock raised under the circular economy concept could provide a significant, non-negligible part (9-23g/per capita) of our daily protein needs (~50-60 g/per capita). This livestock then would not consume human-edible biomass, such as grains, but mainly convert leftovers from arable land and grass resources into valuable food, implying that production of livestock feed is largely decoupled from arable land. The availability of these biomass streams for livestock then determines the boundaries for livestock production and consumption. Under this concept, the competition for land for feed or food would be minimized and compared to no animal-source food, including some animal-source food in the human diet could free up about one quarter of global arable land. Our results also demonstrate that restricted growth in consumption of animal-source food in Africa and Asia would be feasible under these boundary conditions, while reductions in the rest of the world would be necessary to meet land use sustainability criteria. Managing this expansion and contraction of future consumption of animal-source food is essential for achieving sustainable nutrition security. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Livestock mortality in pastoralist herds in Ethiopia and implications for drought response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Andy; Admassu, Berhanu; Bekele, Gezu; Abebe, Dawit

    2014-07-01

    Participatory epidemiology methods were employed retrospectively in three pastoralist regions of Ethiopia to estimate the specific causes of excess livestock mortality during drought. The results showed that starvation/dehydration accounted for between 61.5 and 100 per cent of excess livestock mortality during drought, whereas disease-related mortality accounted for between 0 and 28.1 per cent of excess mortality. Field observations indicate that, in livestock, disease risks and mortality increase in the immediate post-drought period, during rain. The design of livelihoods-based drought response programmes should include protection of core livestock assets, and it should take account of the specific causes of excess livestock mortality during drought and immediately afterwards. This study shows that, when comparing livestock feed supplementation and veterinary support, relatively more aid should be directed at the former if the objective is to protect core livestock during drought. Veterinary support should consider disease-related mortality in the immediate post-drought period, and tailor inputs accordingly. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  15. White-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Iwakiri, Kazuyuki; Sotoyama, Midori

    2017-08-08

    In the present study, two investigations were conducted at a communication center, to examine white-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours. In investigation I, hemodynamic responses were measured on a working day; and in investigation II, cardiovascular responses were verified on both working and non-working days. In investigation I, blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were measured in 15 workers during working hours (from 9:00 am to 18:00 pm) on one working day. Another 40 workers from the same workplace participated in investigation II, in which blood pressure and heart rate were measured between the time workers arose in the morning until they went to bed on 5 working days and 2 non-working days. The results showed that blood pressure increased and remained at the same level during working hours. The underlying hemodynamics of maintaining blood pressure, however, changed between the morning and the afternoon on working days. Cardiac responses increased in the afternoon, suggesting that cardiac burdens increase in the afternoon on working days. The present study suggested that taking underlying hemodynamic response into consideration is important for managing the work-related cardiovascular burden of white-collar workers.

  16. Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary: Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Anelie Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin’s solution and sectioned into 7μm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (pLa sustentabilidad y la producción de pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu han sido estudiados en los últimos años, sin embargo, más información sobre su reproducción es necesaria para el éxito de los sistemas de crianza . La comprensión de los aspectos relacionados con la foliculogénesis contribuirá con la aplicación de biotécnicas de reproducción, las cuales son útiles en la preservación y la producción de la vida silvestre. El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener datos sobre la población folicular del ovario de pecarí de collar. En relación con la población folicular en el ovario derecho, los valores de los folículos primordiales y primarios fueron similares, pero se observó que había una diferencia significativa (p<0.05 con el secundario. En el ovario izquierdo, la fase folicular presentó diferencias significativas (p<0

  17. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2932] Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, DN 2932; the...

  18. Advantages of heavy metal collars in directional drilling and deviation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.B.; Murphey, C.E.; McLamore, R.T.; Dickson, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    A heavy, stiff-bottom drill collar can substantially improve deviation performance, theoretically increasing penetration rates by 50 to 100 percent in deviation-prone areas. This paper presents the underlying theory, practical charts on performance characteristics, and Shell Development Co.'s experience in fabricating and field testing two depleted-uranium alloy, heavy metal collars

  19. Does patency after a vein collar and PTFE-bypass depend on sex and age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect...

  20. GPS radio collar 3D performance as influenced by forest structure and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Scott Gamo; Mark A. Rumble; Fred Lindzey; Matt Stefanich

    2000-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry enables biologists to obtain accurate and systematic locations of animals. Vegetation can block signals from satellites to GPS radio collars. Therefore, a vegetation dependent bias to telemetry data may occur which if quantified, could be accounted for. We evaluated the performance of GPS collars in 6 structural stage...

  1. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  2. Decent Work in the Chinese Apparel Industry: Comparative Analysis of Blue-Collar and White-Collar Garment Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Addressing labor issues in the apparel industry is significantly important due to customers’ increasing awareness of poor working conditions and growing labor crises in apparel production locations worldwide. Decent work is a key element to achieving fair and harmonious employment, but is not always evident in global apparel production networks. This study examines the working conditions in China’s garment manufacturing industry, which employs more than 10 million workers. A survey was administered to 313 blue-collar workers and 228 white-collar workers on issues related to decent work, including workers’ concerns, satisfaction levels and attitudes towards decent work. Regression analysis showed that workers’ attitudes are significantly related to age, education level, service length and monthly wage. Gap analysis revealed poor understanding of decent work and low satisfaction with primary indicators of decent work. However, results suggest that workers increasingly value soft factors and the overall work experience, not only financial benefits. Cluster analysis identified four clusters of workers. This study contributes to understanding garment worker perceptions of decent work and provides implications for the operationalization of decent work in China’s garment manufacturing industry.

  3. Impact of livestock in uplifting rural livelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, J.; Ashraf, I.; Mehmood, K.; Iftikhar, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global population is increasing by creating high demand for food and improved livestock and crop farming initiatives. The livestock sector plays a key role in boosting the national economy and improving the citizens' livelihoods. The study focused on the potential contribution of the livestock sector in uplifting livelihoods. Data were collected through face to face interview using interview schedule from 120 randomly selected livestock producers in Sub- District Jaranwala of District Faisalabad. Data showed that, livestock farming on small level was found widely adopted for income generation. More than 22 percentage respondents earned a maximum income of more than Rs.15000. Livestock have dominant effect on domestic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision of location specific best management practices, training on livestock management and market aspects. Essential veterinary services enabling the livestock extension should be disseminated on the door step to boost productivity. (author)

  4. Evaluation of novel disposable, light-weight radiation protection devices in an interventional radiology setting: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Heiko; Peña, Constantino; West, James; Contreras, Francisco; Benenati, James F; Katzen, Barry T

    2013-04-01

    Radiation exposure to interventionalists is increasing. The currently available standard radiation protection devices are heavy and do not protect the head of the operator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and comfort of caps and thyroid collars made of a disposable, light-weight, lead-free material (XPF) for occupational radiation protection in a clinical setting. Up to two interventional operators were randomized to wear a XPF or standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent thyroid collars in 60 consecutive endovascular procedures requiring fluoroscopy. Simultaneously a XPF cap was worn by all operators. Radiation doses were measured using dosimeters placed outside and underneath the caps and thyroid collars. Wearing comfort was assessed at the end of each procedure on a visual analog scale (0-100 [100 = optimal]). Patient and procedure data did not differ between the XPF and standard protection groups. The cumulative radiation dose measured outside the cap was 15,700 μSv and outside the thyroid collars 21,240 μSv. Measured radiation attenuation provided by the XPF caps (n = 70), XPF thyroid collars (n = 40), and standard thyroid collars (n = 38) was 85.4% ± 25.6%, 79.7% ± 25.8% and 71.9% ± 34.2%, respectively (mean difference XPF vs standard thyroid collars, 7.8% [95% CI, -5.9% to 21.6%]; p = 0.258). The median XPF cap weight was 144 g (interquartile range, 128-170 g), and the XPF thyroid collars were 27% lighter than the standard thyroid collars (p disposable caps and thyroid collars made of XPF were assessed as being comfortable to wear, and they provide radiation protection similar to that of standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent thyroid collars.

  5. Livestock reproduction in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the FAO/IAEA/ARCAL III Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Meat- and Milk-Producing Livestock in Latin America with the Aid of Radioimmunoassay, organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and held in Bogota, 19-23 September 1988. The general goals of this programme, which was part of the ARCAL (Arreglos Regionales Cooperativos para la promocion de la ciencia y la tecnologia nucleares en America Latina) project, were to characterize and improve the reproductive management of milk, meat and fibre producing livestock maintained under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in the Latin America region. In particular, the programme addressed the efficacy of using radioimmunoassay methods of measuring reproductive performance based on breeding and production records, behaviour and clinical parameters. One of the major achievements of the programme was the establishment of viable RIA laboratories in each of the participant countries

  6. Mapping the global distribution of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Timothy P; Wint, G R William; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Ercoli, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Cinardi, Giuseppina; D'Aietti, Laura; Hay, Simon I; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.

  7. Tracking maize pollen development by the Leaf Collar Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant. Hence, identification of the different pollen developmental stages as a tool to investigate above biological processes is impossible without dissecting the entire plant. Therefore, an efficient and reproducible method is necessary to isolate homogeneous cell populations at individual stages throughout pollen development without destroying the plant. Here, we describe a method to identify the various stages of pollen development in maize. Using the Leaf Collar Method in the maize inbreed line B73, we have determined the duration of each stage from pollen mother cells before meiosis to mature tricellular pollen. Anther and tassel size as well as percentage of pollen stages were correlated with vegetative stages, which are easily recognized. The identification of stage-specific genes indicates the reproducibility of the method. In summary, we present an easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. This method now opens the way for many subsequent physiological, morphological and molecular analyses to study, for instance, transcriptomics, metabolomics, DNA methylation and chromatin patterns during normal and stressful conditions throughout pollen development in one of the economically most important grass species.

  8. Monitoring distances travelled by horses using GPS tracking collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; Morton, J M; Mills, P C; Trotter, M G; Lamb, D W; Pollitt, C C

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this work were to (1) develop a low-cost equine movement tracking collar based on readily available components, (2) conduct preliminary studies assessing the effects of both paddock size and internal fence design on the movements of domestic horses, with and without foals at foot, and (3) describe distances moved by mares and their foals. Additional monitoring of free-ranging feral horses was conducted to allow preliminary comparisons with the movement of confined domestic horses. A lightweight global positioning system (GPS) data logger modified from a personal/vehicle tracker and mounted on a collar was used to monitor the movement of domestic horses in a range of paddock sizes and internal fence designs for 6.5-day periods. In the paddocks used (0.8-16 ha), groups of domestic horses exhibited a logarithmic response in mean daily distance travelled as a function of increasing paddock size, tending asymptotically towards approximately 7.5 km/day. The distance moved by newborn foals was similar to their dams, with total distance travelled also dependent on paddock size. Without altering available paddock area, paddock design, with the exception of a spiral design, did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled. Feral horses (17.9 km/day) travelled substantially greater mean daily distances than domestic horses (7.2 km/day in 16-ha paddock), even when allowing for larger paddock size. Horses kept in stables or small yards and paddocks are quite sedentary in comparison with their feral relatives. For a given paddock area, most designs did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled.

  9. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  10. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  11. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts.

  12. Livestock: An alternative mosquito control measure | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the indigenous methods or measures adopted by urban livestock owners in the control of mosquito in Sokoto metropolis. Fifty (50) respondents who were engaged in urban livestock production were conveniently sampled, In addition, five (5) locations (Sidi farm, Kara market, Sokoto ...

  13. Gender and Livestock: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is generally easier for women in developing countries to ... influence income management by women? • How do ... decision-making powers over livestock and livestock ... access to capital; their skills, capacities and ability to .... benefit from agricultural innovations. ... This research brief has a Creative Commons licence.

  14. Vocational Agriculture Education: Agricultural Livestock Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Greg

    Ten units of instruction are provided in this curriculum guide on agricultural livestock skills. Unit topics are as follow: (1) restraining, (2) vaccination, (3) livestock castration, (4) dehorning, (5) docking, (6) growth stimulants, (7) identification, (8) shearing, (9) hoof trimming, and (10) birth assistance. Each instructional unit generally…

  15. An Assessment of Participation of Rural Women in Livestock Management and Their Training Needs in Potohar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Nosheen*, Tanvir Ali1, Haq Nawaz Anwar2 and Muhammad Ahmad3

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Potohar plateau is a mountainous and rocky region, covered with scrub forest, interspaced with flat lying plains; the north and north-east consist of softly undulating plain areas along with some rocky patches. Realizing the need for the quantification of women participation in livestock management, a study was conducted to assess the level of participation and need of training in areas of interest. Chakwal, the third most populated district of barani Potohar, was selected as the universe of this research. Like other districts of Pakistan, all livestock species were reared in Potohar region including Chakwal district. Among total livestock population in the district, the decreasing order of species began with goats, followed by cattle, sheep, buffaloes, asses, camels, horses and mules. Although rural women had productive role in livestock management, yet they neither received adequate advice not had adequate access to modern technology that could benefit them in their livestock management activities. It was revealed from the study that more frequently carried out activities by rural women were livestock management, animal production, protection and poultry husbandry. Rural women were interested to get their training in livestock management, animal production, protection, poultry husbandry and marketing of animals to boost up the livestock productivity.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants. Hence, an accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnosis is required for prevention of these above-mentioned diseases. SPR based biosensor assay may fulfill the above characteristics which lead to a greater platform for rapid diagnosis of different livestock diseases. Hence, this review may give a detail idea about the principle, recent development of SPR based biosensor techniques and its application in livestock sector.

  17. Livestock Animal Displacement on Rural Tourism Destinations: Placing Livestock's “Pest” Role in the Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is becoming increasingly embedded in the livestock animal management in rural areas. Drawing on a multi-methods approach, this exploratory research shows how to construct the livestock animal displacement actor-networks. As is found, human actors (local governments, tourists, and local residents, non-human animal (livestock and quasi-object (human dwellings construct an interaction network in a structured way. The critical action route of livestock animal displacement demonstrated in this research is aimed to improve residents' participation willingness and further to change the local livestock feeding model and traditional dwelling by rural environment governance and rural tourism landscape consumption. Through the process of translation, problematization, interest, enrollment, mobilization and opposition, the livestock displacement actor-networks were constructed to build a heterogeneous network of the local government, tourists, local residents, livestock and human dwelling. The ultimate goal is to change the traditional human dwelling to a dis-dwelling; the most important thing is to promote residents’ participation willingness in the livestock displacement actor-networks. This article attempts to perform compelling exploratory research to elucidate the livestock displacement actor-networks in hope to provide a meaningful contribution to the epistemology and methodology of livestock management on rural tourism destination and open a new path for research on rural livestock-human relations.

  18. Manufacturing Gender Inequality in the New Economy: High School Training for Work in Blue-Collar Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, April; Bosky, Amanda; Muller, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women's greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood. Although high school training in blue-collar communities reduced both men's and women's odds of four-year college enrollment, it had gender-divergent labor market consequences. Men in blue-collar communities took more blue-collar courses, had higher rates of blue-collar employment, and earned similar wages relative to otherwise comparable men from non-blue-collar communities. Women were less likely to work and to be employed in professional occupations, and they suffered severe wage penalties relative to their male peers and women from non-blue-collar communities. These relationships were due partly to high schools in blue-collar communities offering more blue-collar and fewer advanced college-preparatory courses. This curricular tradeoff may benefit men, but it appears to disadvantage women.

  19. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Philip K.

    2010-01-01

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. PMID:20713389

  20. Agent Based Model of Livestock Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, D. J.; Emelyanova, I. V.; Donald, G. E.; Garner, G. M.

    The modelling of livestock movements within Australia is of national importance for the purposes of the management and control of exotic disease spread, infrastructure development and the economic forecasting of livestock markets. In this paper an agent based model for the forecasting of livestock movements is presented. This models livestock movements from farm to farm through a saleyard. The decision of farmers to sell or buy cattle is often complex and involves many factors such as climate forecast, commodity prices, the type of farm enterprise, the number of animals available and associated off-shore effects. In this model the farm agent's intelligence is implemented using a fuzzy decision tree that utilises two of these factors. These two factors are the livestock price fetched at the last sale and the number of stock on the farm. On each iteration of the model farms choose either to buy, sell or abstain from the market thus creating an artificial supply and demand. The buyers and sellers then congregate at the saleyard where livestock are auctioned using a second price sealed bid. The price time series output by the model exhibits properties similar to those found in real livestock markets.

  1. Factors associated with blue-collar workers' risk perception of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won Ju; Hong, Oisaeng; Kim, Mi Ja

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as well as, individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors as predictors of CVD risk perception among Korean blue-collar workers. The participants were 238 Korean blue-collar workers who worked in small companies. Data were collected through a survey; anthropometric and blood pressure measures; and blood sampling for lipid levels. Blue-collar workers had high actual CVD risk and low CVD risk perception. The significant predictors of risk perception included perceived health status, alcohol consumption, knowledge of CVD risk, actual CVD risk, decision latitude, and shift work. The model explained 26% of the variance in CVD risk perception. The result suggests when occupational health nurses are giving routine health examination in small companies, they can enhance CVD risk perception in blue-collar workers by providing essential information about CVD risk factors and personal counseling on the individual worker's CVD risk status.

  2. An integrative review: work environment factors associated with physical activity among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Ping; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Kao, Tsui-Sui; Larson, Janet L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the research evidence for the role of the work environment-workplace physical activity policies and resources and job strain factors-in explaining physical activity in white-collar workers. White-collar workers are at risk for developing a sedentary lifestyle, which contributes to all-cause mortality. Understanding how work environment can influence worker physical activity is important for the development of effective interventions. We reviewed 15 research articles that describe the relationship between work environment factors and physical activity in predominantly white-collar workers. Relatively consistent evidence was found for the effects of supportive workplace policies and resources. Weak evidence was found for the effects of job strain. Both work environment factors have the potential to influence physical activity but require further exploration to fully understand their contribution to physical activity in white-collar workers. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  3. Augmenting the osseointegration of endoprostheses using laser-sintered porous collars: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Coathup, M; Chimutengwende-Gordon, M; Aston, W; Briggs, T; Blunn, G

    2017-02-01

    Massive endoprostheses rely on extra-cortical bone bridging (ECBB) to enhance fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of selective laser sintered (SLS) porous collars in augmenting the osseointegration of these prostheses. The two novel designs of porous SLS collars, one with small pores (Ø700 μm, SP) and one with large pores (Ø1500 μm, LP), were compared in an ovine tibial diaphyseal model. Osseointegration of these collars was compared with that of a clinically used solid, grooved design (G). At six months post-operatively, the ovine tibias were retrieved and underwent radiological and histological analysis. Porous collars provided a significantly greater surface (p direct ingrowth of more bone and are better than current designs which rely on surface ongrowth and ECBB. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:276-82. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  4. Cervical collar or physiotherapy versus wait and see policy for recent onset cervical radiculopathy: randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuijper (Barbara); J.T. Tans; A. Beelen (Anita); F. Nollet (Frans); M. de Visser (Marianne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with collar or physiotherapy compared with a wait and see policy in recent onset cervical radiculopathy. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Neurology outpatient clinics in three Dutch hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 205 patients

  5. Livestock Grazing as a Driver of Vernal Pool Ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, J.; McCarten, N. F.

    2017-12-01

    Vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that host rare plant communities of high conservation priority. Plant community composition is largely driven by pool hydroperiod. A previous study found that vernal pools grazed by livestock had longer hydroperiods compared with pools excluded from grazing for 10 years, and suggests that livestock grazing can be used to protect plant diversity. It is important to assess whether observed differences are due to the grazing or due to water balance variables including upland discharge into or out of the pools since no a priori measurements were made of the hydrology prior to grazing. To address this question, in 2016 we compared 15 pools that have been grazed continuously and 15 pools that have been fenced off for over 40 years at a site in Sacramento County. We paired pools based on abiotic characteristics (size, shape, slope, soil type) to minimize natural variation. We sampled vegetation and water depth using Solinst level loggers. We found that plant diversity and average hydroperiod was significantly higher in the grazed pools. We are currently measuring groundwater connectivity and upland inputs in order to compare the relative strength of livestock grazing as a driver of hydroperiod to these other drivers.

  6. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, MK; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-01-01

    Background: In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. Objective: We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. Methods: We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. Results: We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: −0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: −0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.112, −0.016 cm/mo). Children livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: −0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: −0.063, −0.003 kg/mo). Conclusion: In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. PMID:27075911

  7. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, M K; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: -0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: -0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.112, -0.016 cm/mo). Children livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: -0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: -0.063, -0.003 kg/mo). In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.

  9. Mapping cattle trade routes in southern Somalia: a method for mobile livestock keeping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, S; Braidotti, F; Aden, H H; Abdulle, M H; Costagli, R; Otieno, F T

    2010-12-01

    The Somali economy is the only one in the world in which more than half the population is dependent on nomadic pastoralism. Trade typically involves drovers trekking animals over long distances to markets. A pilot approach for mapping trade routes was undertaken, using the Afmadow to Garissa routes in southern Somalia. The methodology included conducting a workshop with traders to gather preliminary information about the most-used routes and general husbandry practices and training selected drovers to collect data about key features along the routes, using hand-held global positioning system (GPS) devices, radio collar GPS and pictorial data forms. Collected data were then integrated into geographic information systems for analysis. The resultant spatial maps describe the Afmadow to Garissa routes, the speed of livestock movement along these routes and relevant environmental and social features affecting this speed. These data are useful for identifying critical control points for health screening along the routes, which may enable the establishment of a livestock certification system in nomadic pastoral environments.

  10. Mechanical behaviour of a closed collar model for an 11.5 T dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emden, W. van; Daum, C.; Geerinck, J.

    1992-03-01

    A 10 cm long model of an 11.5 T Nb 3 Sn accelerator dipole magnet, which will be built in the Netherlands, with a closed ring shaped collar has been constructed. Measurements of the collar deformation and the prestress at the poles have been made with a structural analysis using the Finite Element Method (FEM) of the code ANSYS. (author). 11 refs.; 18 figs.; 7 tabs

  11. Description and performance characteristics for the neutron Coincidence Collar for the verification of reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    1981-08-01

    An active neutron interrogation method has been developed for the measurement of 235 U content in fresh fuel assemblies. The neutron Coincidence Collar uses neutron interrogation with an AmLi neutron source and coincidence counting the induced fission reaction neutrons from the 235 U. This manual describes the system components, operation, and performance characteristics. Applications of the Coincidence Collar to PWR and BWR types of reactor fuel assemblies are described

  12. The effect of nozzle collar on signle phase and boiling heat transfer by planar impinging jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chang Hwan; Yim, Seong Hwan; Cho, Hyung Hee; Wu, Seong Je

    2005-01-01

    The water jet impingement cooling is one of the techniques to remove the heat from high heat flux equipment. Local heat transfer of the confined water impinging jet and the effect of nozzle collar to enhance the heat transfer are investigated in the free surface jet and submerged jet. Boiling is initiated from the farthest downstream and increase of the wall temperature is reduced with developing boiling, forming the flat temperature distributions. The reduction in the nozzle-to-surface distance for H/W≤1 causes significant increases and distribution changes of heat transfer. Developed boiling reduces the differences of heat transfer for various conditions. The nozzle collar is employed at the nozzle exit. The distances from heated surface to nozzle collar, H c are 0.25W, 0.5W and 1.0W. The liquid film thickness is reduced and the velocity of wall jet increases as decreased spacing of collar to heated surface. Heat transfer is enhanced for region from the stagnation to x/W∼8 in the free surface jet and to x/W∼5 in the submerged jet. For nucleate boiling region of further downstream, the heat transfer by the nozzle collar is decreased in submerged jet comparing with higher velocity condition. It is because the increased velocity by collar is de-accelerated downstream

  13. Influence of Austenitic Steel Collar Dimensions on Magnetic Field Harmonics in the LHC Main Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Todesco, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the geometry of the collars in the main LHC dipole on the magnetic field harmonics is analyzed. The study aims at finding if the collar geometry is the driving mechanism of field quality for some harmonics and if the two different collar suppliers give a special signature on the magnetic field. Data of more than 700 magnets of the LHC series dipoles are analyzed and discussed. The main result of the analysis is that the collar shape is the driving mechanism of the magnetic field harmonics only for b2 and a3 in one of the three Cold Mass Assemblers (Firm3), where only collars of the supplier S2 are used. Two independent observations support this fact: firstly, strong correlations between apertures of the same magnet as expected from the assembly procedure have been found. Secondly, the expected values based on the measured dimensions of the collars and on a magneto-static model agree with magnetic measurements both for the average and for the standard deviation.

  14. Horse-collar aurora: A frequent pattern of the aurora in quiet times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.; Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A.; Evans, D.S.; Newell, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Reported here are DE 1 auroral imager observations of an auroral configuration which is given the name ''horse-collar aurora.'' The horse-collar pattern comprises the total area of auroral emissions from a single hemisphere and derives its name from the shape of the emitting area. The pattern is found in images recorded during quiet geomagnetic conditions and is possibly related to the theta aurora, another quiet time configuration of the auroras. This initial report of the DE 1 observations illustrates the horse-collar aurora with a 2-hour images sequence that displays its basic features and shows an example of its evolution into a theta-like auroral pattern. The interplanetary magnetic field was northward during this image sequence and there is some evidence for IMF B/sub y/ influence of the temporal development of the horse-collar pattern. A preliminary statistical analysis found the horse-collar pattern appearing in one-third or more of image sequences recorded during quiet conditions; it did not appear during disturbed conditions. Further study is required to establish more fully the characteristics of the horse-collar aurora and to determine its implications concerning solar wind-magnetosphere coupling when the IMF B/sub z/ is northward. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  15. Cattle behaviour classification from collar, halter, and ear tag sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we summarise the outcome of a set of experiments aimed at classifying cattle behaviour based on sensor data. Each animal carried sensors generating time series accelerometer data placed on a collar on the neck at the back of the head, on a halter positioned at the side of the head behind the mouth, or on the ear using a tag. The purpose of the study was to determine how sensor data from different placement can classify a range of typical cattle behaviours. Data were collected and animal behaviours (grazing, standing or ruminating were observed over a common time frame. Statistical features were computed from the sensor data and machine learning algorithms were trained to classify each behaviour. Classification accuracies were computed on separate independent test sets. The analysis based on behaviour classification experiments revealed that different sensor placement can achieve good classification accuracy if the feature space (representing motion patterns between the training and test animal is similar. The paper will discuss these analyses in detail and can act as a guide for future studies.

  16. Convenience in white-collar crime: A resource perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Gottschalk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available White-collar offenders have access to resources that make financial crime convenient. In the rare case of crime suspicion, resources are available in terms of professional attorney work, control over internal investigations, and public relations support. Hiring private investigators at an early stage of potential crime disclosure enables the organization to control the investigation mandate and influence the investigation process and the investigation output. Getting an early start on reconstruction of the past in terms of a fraud examination makes it possible for the suspect and the organization to influence what facts are relevant and how facts might be assessed in terms of possible violations of the penal code. Convenience aspects of private investigations are discussed in this article in terms of five internal investigations, two in the United States (General Motors and Lehman Brothers and three in Norway (Telenor VimpelCom, DNB Bank, and Norwegian Football Association. The aim of this research is to contribute insights into convenience associated with internal private investigations.

  17. A Comperative Study on Perceptions and Reactions of Workers: A Resear ch on Blue and White Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Ateş

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine perception of inequality and types of reaction of white and blue collar workers. The research was conducted over 120 white collar and 159 blue collar workers in an academic institution. It was determined with correlation analysis whether there is a relation between perception of inequality and reaction towards it for two groups. A significant and positive relation has been found between inequality perceptions and reaction towards inequality of blue collar workers. No significant relation has been found for white collar workers. Factor analysis was used to determine the dimensions of inequality perceptions andreactions towards inequality of blue and white collar workers. Results show that inequality perceptions and types of reactions towards inequality differ in terms of dimensions. Equity perceptions of blue collar workers are mostly based on comparisons with colleagues and nepotist behavior of their managers. White collar workers show sensitivity to the issues like salary, promotion and status. Blue collar workers prefer to report or to persuade their managers when they face with inequality. White collar workers decide to show their reactions by using more political methods.

  18. Overview of Pigs and Poultry: Specific Livestock Industries, Livestock Diseases and Policies in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Thomas; Tisdell, Clem

    1995-01-01

    The pigs and poultry industries are the major livestock sectors in terms of commercial livestock production in Thailand. The dramatic growth of the Thai economy since the 1960s was spearheaded by rapid expansion of agricultural industries such as the poultry sector and has since generated increased demand for other livestock commodities such as pork. While pigs have traditionally been an important part of the integrated farm system in Thailand, pork production has only recently developed into...

  19. Innovations to improve livestock vaccines | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The proposed research focuses on vaccine improvement for one or more of the ... of existing livestock vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  20. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  1. Call 1 - Innovations in Livestock Vaccines (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renee Larocque

    production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against livestock ... These vaccines often have limited uptake, efficacy or safety profiles .... It is the policy of IDRC that research work involving human participants or animals be.

  2. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... livestock diseases (including poultry) in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia. ... and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. View all. Video. Partners. Global Affairs Canada.

  3. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  4. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  5. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  6. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  7. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Origin of livestock. 205.236 Section 205.236... livestock. (a) Livestock products that are to be sold, labeled, or represented as organic must be from livestock under continuous organic management from the last third of gestation or hatching: Except, That: (1...

  8. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on the...

  9. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of livestock. 780.615 Section 780.615 Labor... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.615 Raising of livestock. Livestock auction operations are within the 13(b)(13) exemption only...

  10. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such...

  11. 9 CFR 85.4 - Interstate movement of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of livestock. 85.4... Interstate movement of livestock. (a) Livestock showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall not be moved interstate. (b) Livestock that have been exposed to an animal showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall...

  12. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible livestock producer. 760.303 Section 760.303... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Livestock Forage Disaster Program § 760.303 Eligible livestock producer. (a) To be considered an eligible livestock producer, the eligible producer on a farm...

  13. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians... Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing Committee... and the procedures and methods to be used in moving livestock to market. All movements of livestock...

  14. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock... of such biological product, drug, or chemical will not result in the products of such livestock being...

  15. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock living conditions. 205.239 Section 205.239... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock living...

  16. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  17. Does Shoe Collar Height Influence Ankle Joint Kinematics and Kinetics in Sagittal Plane Maneuvers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fang, Ying; Zhang, Xini; He, Junliang; Fu, Weijie

    2017-01-01

    The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively) performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) maneuver, drop jumps (DJs), and lay-up jumps (LJs). Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041) was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028) and power (p = 0.022) were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion–extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane. Key points An increased shoe collar height effectively reduced ankle joint ROM in the sagittal plane in weight-bearing dorsiflexion maneuver. Shoe collar height did not affect sagittal plane ankle kinematics and had no effect on performance during realistic jumping. Shoe collar height can affect the ankle plantarflexion torque and peak power during the push-off phase in lay-up jump. PMID:29238255

  18. Feral livestock threatens landscapes dominated by columnar cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, J. E.; Acebes, P.; Giannoni, S. M.; Traba, J.

    2011-05-01

    The introduction and naturalization of alien species represents a serious threat to many natural protected areas. One such case of worldwide concern is the impact of feral livestock on arid ecosystems. Damage suffered by Echinopsis (= Trichocereus) terscheckii dominating the landscape of rocky slopes was surveyed in seven locations within the Ischigualasto-Talampaya World Heritage Site (Argentina) by measuring the frequency, position on the plant and extent of damage. At the same time we employed transects to estimate the abundance of autochtonous and feral large herbivores ( Lama guanicoe, Bos taurus, Equus asinus) from their dung. Our results show relatively high damage levels (40-77% of individuals damaged, more than 5 dm 3 removed by plant in some sites), particularly within 0.50-1.75 m above the ground, showing herbivores to be the main responsible for them. We also found significant differences between sites in variables measuring damage level and in the intensity of use by the two feral livestock species but not by guanacos. The frequency of damaged cacti below 1.75 m (but not above) was significantly positively correlated among locations with the frequencies of cattle and donkey dung, and the damage suffered by individual cacti was also correlated with donkey and cattle dung in their surroundings after correcting for spatial effects. However, all correlations were non-significant in the case of guanacos. We conclude that the continued presence of feral livestock, particularly donkeys, leads to damages to columnar cacti with potential effects on their populations and the physiognomy of this protected landscape.

  19. Job strain among blue-collar and white-collar employees as a determinant of total mortality: a 28-year population-based follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitsamo, Jorma; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of job demand, job control and job strain on total mortality among white-collar and blue-collar employees working in the public sector. Design 28-year prospective population-based follow-up. Setting Several municipals in Finland. Participants 5731 public sector employees from the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Municipal Employees Study aged 44–58 years at baseline. Outcomes Total mortality from 1981 to 2009 among individuals with complete data on job strain in midlife, categorised according to job demand and job control: high job strain (high job demands and low job control), active job (high job demand and high job control), passive job (low job demand and low job control) and low job strain (low job demand and high job control). Results 1836 persons died during the follow-up. Low job control among men increased (age-adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42) and high job demand among women decreased the risk for total mortality HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.95). Adjustment for occupational group, lifestyle and health factors attenuated the association for men. In the analyses stratified by occupational group, high job strain increased the risk of mortality among white-collar men (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.13) and passive job among blue-collar men (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.47) compared with men with low job strain. Adjustment for lifestyle and health factors attenuated the risks. Among white-collar women having an active job decreased the risk for mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.00). Conclusion The impact of job strain on mortality was different according to gender and occupational group among middle-aged public sector employees. PMID:22422919

  20. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  1. Dotted collar placed around carotid artery induces asymmetric neointimal lesion formation in rabbits without intravascular manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivelä Antti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neointimal formation in atherosclerosis has been subject for intense research. However, good animal models mimicking asymmetrical lesion formation in human subjects have been difficult to establish. The aim of this study was to develop a model which would lead to the formation of eccentric lesions under macroscopically intact non-denuded endothelium. Methods We have developed a new collar model where we placed two cushions or dots inside the collar. Arterial lesions were characterized using histology and ultrasound methods. Results When this dotted collar was placed around carotid and femoral arteries it produced asymmetrical pressure on adventitia and a mild flow disturbance, and hence a change in shear stress. Our hypothesis was that this simple procedure would reproducibly produce asymmetrical lesions without any intraluminal manipulations. Intima/media ratio increased towards the distal end of the collar with the direction of blood flow under macroscopically intact endothelium. Macrophages preferentially accumulated in areas of the thickest neointima thus resembling early steps in human atherosclerotic plaque formation. Proliferating cells in these lesions and underlying media were scarce at eight weeks time point. Conclusion The improved dotted collar model produces asymmetrical human-like atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits. This model should be useful in studies regarding the pathogenesis and formation of eccentric atherosclerotic lesions.

  2. Occupational psychosocial hazards among the emerging U.S. green collar workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Cristina A.; Moore, Kevin; McClure, Laura A.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Cifuentes, Manuel; Lee, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare occupational psychosocial hazards in green collar versus non-green collar workers. Methods Standard Occupational Classification codes were used to link the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to the 2010 Occupational Information Network Database. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to predict job insecurity, work-life imbalance, and workplace harassment in green versus non-green collar workers. Results Most participants were white, non-Hispanic, 25–64 years of age, and obtained greater than a high school education. The majority reported not being harassed at work, no work-life imbalance, and no job insecurity. Relative to non-green collar workers (n=12,217), green collar workers (n=2,588) were more likely to report job insecurity (OR=1.13; 95% CI=1.02–1.26) and work-life imbalance (1.19; 1.05–1.35), but less likely to experience workplace harassment (0.77; 0.62–0.95). Conclusions Continuous surveillance of occupational psychosocial hazards is recommended in this rapidly emerging workforce. PMID:28045790

  3. [Optimizing staff radiation protection in radiology by minimizing the effective dose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boetticher, H; Lachmund, J; Hoffmann, W; Luska, G

    2006-03-01

    In the present study the optimization of radiation protection devices is achieved by minimizing the effective dose of the staff members since the stochastic radiation effects correlate to the effective dose. Radiation exposure dosimetry was performed with TLD measurements using one Alderson Phantom in the patient position and a second phantom in the typical position of the personnel. Various types of protective clothing as well as fixed shields were considered in the calculations. It was shown that the doses of the unshielded organs (thyroid, parts of the active bone marrow) contribute significantly to the effective dose of the staff. Therefore, there is no linear relationship between the shielding factors for protective garments and the effective dose. An additional thyroid protection collar reduces the effective dose by a factor of 1.7 - 3.0. X-ray protective clothing with a 0.35 mm lead equivalent and an additional thyroid protection collar provides better protection against radiation than an apron with a 0.5 mm lead equivalent but no collar. The use of thyroid protection collars is an effective preventive measure against exceeding occupational organ dose limits, and a thyroid shield also considerably reduces the effective dose. Therefore, thyroid protection collars should be a required component of anti-X protection.

  4. Dzuds, droughts, and livestock mortality in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palat Rao, Mukund; Davi, Nicole K.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Skees, Jerry; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Leland, Caroline; Lyon, Bradfield; Wang, Shih-Yu; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa

    2015-07-01

    Recent incidences of mass livestock mortality, known as dzud, have called into question the sustainability of pastoral nomadic herding, the cornerstone of Mongolian culture. A total of 20 million head of livestock perished in the mortality events of 2000-2002, and 2009-2010. To mitigate the effects of such events on the lives of herders, international agencies such as the World Bank are taking increasing interest in developing tailored market-based solutions like index-insurance. Their ultimate success depends on understanding the historical context and underlying causes of mortality. In this paper we examine mortality in 21 Mongolian aimags (provinces) between 1955 and 2013 in order to explain its density independent cause(s) related to climate variability. We show that livestock mortality is most strongly linked to winter (November-February) temperatures, with incidences of mass mortality being most likely to occur because of an anomalously cold winter. Additionally, we find prior summer (July-September) drought and precipitation deficit to be important triggers for mortality that intensifies the effect of upcoming winter temperatures on livestock. Our density independent mortality model based on winter temperature, summer drought, summer precipitation, and summer potential evaporanspiration explains 48.4% of the total variability in the mortality dataset. The Mongolian index based livestock insurance program uses a threshold of 6% mortality to trigger payouts. We find that on average for Mongolia, the probability of exceedance of 6% mortality in any given year is 26% over the 59 year period between 1955 and 2013.

  5. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only milk and meat but also other fundamental positive externalities and ecosystem services, such as conservation of genetic resources, water flow regulation, pollination, climate regulation, landscape maintenance, recreation and ecotourism and cultural heritage. In recent decades, the mountain livestock, mainly represented by dairy cattle, has been affected by a dramatic reduction of farms, a strong increase of animals per farm, an increase in indoor production systems, more extensive use of specialised non-indigenous cattle breeds and the increasing use of extra-farm concentrates instead of meadows and pastures for fodder. This paper firstly describes the livestock sector in the Italian Alps and analyses the most important factors affecting their sustainability. Secondly, it discusses the need to assess the ecosystem services offered by forage- based livestock systems in mountains with particular attention to greenhouse gas emission and its mitigation by carbon sequestration. In conclusion, comparison between the different elements of the environmental sustainability of mountain livestock systems must be based on a comprehensive overview of the relationships among animal husbandry, environment and socio-economic context.

  6. The pollutants from livestock and poultry farming in China-geographic distribution and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ling; Hu, Xisheng

    2016-05-01

    Livestock and poultry farming is a major source of agricultural pollution. However, our knowledge of the constraining factors of the geographic distribution of pollutants from livestock and poultry farming is still limited. In this study, using the optimized pollutant generation coefficients, we estimated the annual pollutant productions of eight livestock and poultry species at the provincial level in 2005 and 2013 and their growth rates during the study period in China; using canonical correlation analysis, we also explored the association between the eight pollutant measurements as dependent variables and 14 factors (including resource endowment, developmental level, and economic structure factors) as independent variables. Results indicate that there exist spatial disparity in the distribution of pollutants from livestock and poultry farming across regions, with provinces in the Huang-Huai-Hai region and the southwestern region accounting for approximately 50 % of the total productions in the nation. Cattle, pig, and poultry constitute the primary pollution sources in terms of livestock and poultry farming not only at the national level but also at the province level. While the species constitute and their respective growth rates of the pollutants can be also characterized by spatial disparity across regions, canonical correlation analysis shows that the observed regional patterns of the pollutants can be largely explained by the resource endowment factors (positive effects) and the developmental level factors (negative effects). In addition, we found that the development of livestock and poultry farming is negatively associated with the growing rate of both the resource endowment and the socioeconomic factors. This indicates that there exist different driving patterns in the gross and increment of the pollutant productions. Our research has significant implications for the appropriate environmental protection policy formulation and implementation in livestock

  7. Postmortem findings in collared peccaries raised in captivity in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael S. Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is a retrospective examination of diseases in collared peccaries that were diagnosed by the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido. Necropsy and histological examination were performed from 2005 to 2010. Of the 50 necropsied collared peccaries, 24% died due to restraint and capture myopathy; 18% died from trauma; and the remainder was diagnosed with splenic hemangioma (6%, enterolithiasis (6%, gastritis (6%, gastric ulcer (4%, intestinal volvulus (4%, gastric volvulus (2%, mammary carcinoma (2%, polycystic kidney disease (2%, pyometra (2%, and suppurative bronchopneumonia (2%. Twelve animals remained undiagnosed, seven of which (14% were in advanced autolytic condition and five of which (10% had no gross or microscopic lesions that were compatible with disease. This paper describes illnesses that have not been reported in the collared peccary, focusing on their clinical and pathological aspects.

  8. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Maintaining ecosystem services through continued livestock production on California rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, S.; Becchetti, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 40% of California is rangeland comprising the largest land type in California and providing forage for livestock, primarily beef cattle. In addition to forage, rangelands provide a host of ecosystem systems services, including habitat for common and endangered species, fire fuels management, pollination services, clean water, viewsheds, and carbon sequestration. Published research has documented that most of these ecosystem services are positively impacted by managed livestock grazing and rancher stewardship. Ranchers typically do not receive any monetary reimbursement for their stewardship in providing these ecosystem services to the public. Markets have been difficult to establish with limited ability to adequately monitor and measure services provided. At the same time, rangelands have been experiencing rapid conversion to urbanization and more profitable and intensive forms of agriculture such as almond and walnut orchards. To prevent further conversion of rangelands and the loss of the services they provide, there needs to be a mechanism to identify and compensate landowners for the value of all products and services being received from rangelands. This paper considers two methods (opportunity cost and avoided cost) to determine the value of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for rangelands. PES can raise the value of rangelands, making them more competitive financially. Real estate values and University of California Cooperative Extension Cost Studies, were used to demonstrate the difference in value (lost opportunity cost) between the primary products of rangelands (livestock production) and the products of the converted rangelands (almond and walnut orchards). Avoided costs for vegetation management and habitat creation and maintenance were used to establish the value of managed grazing. If conversion is to be slowed or stopped and managed grazing promoted to protect the ecosystem services rangelands provide, this value could be compensated through

  10. A Correlation Study between Geometry of Collared Coils and Normal Quadrupole Multipole in the Main LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Berthollon-Vitte, S; Glaude, D; Vanenkov, I

    2006-01-01

    The quality control implemented at all LHC dipole assemblers includes precise mechanical measurements of the geometry of collared coils. A cross-analysis performed between mechanical and magnetic measurements data shows a correlation between collared coils outer dimensions and the normal quadrupole multipole (b2) for one dipole assembler. The profile geometry of the single collars - as determined from 3D measurements at the collar suppliers and CERN - could not account alone for the significant left – right aperture asymmetry observed. This triggered a deeper investigation on different elements of the geometry of single collars. The results of this work show that the relative positioning of the collaring holes, allowing a small bending deformation of collars under the effect of coil pre-stress, is an important effect that generates a b2 multipole at the limit of specification. The study has deepened the understanding of the factors affecting collared coil geometry and field quality. The precision of 3D m...

  11. Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the gender gap ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... The book further analyzes the role of livestock ownership, especially by women, ... access to resources, information, and financial services to enable women to more effectively participate in livestock production and marketing.

  12. Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... ... women own assets, and to what extent they participate in making decisions about how to ... Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food security ... Improving women's participation in livestock markets.

  13. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... including the burden of parasitic diseases in livestock and human exposure to ... for: -improving livestock production, animal, and human health; -supporting local ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  14. Perceptions of livestock information credibility available through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results in the study area depict that, majority of the livestock owners preferred mostly to access the information through Internet in local language and from bilingual web sites. The results prove that with the current pitfalls, the respondents that availed Internet services may not be in position to prove the good image and ...

  15. Best available technology for European livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loyon, L.; Burton, C. H.; Misselbrook, T.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns over the negative environmental impact from livestock farming across Europe continue to make their mark resulting in new legislation and large research programs. However, despite a huge amount of published material and many available techniques, doubts over the success of national...

  16. Resilience of livestock to changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breeding and Genetics Symposium titled “Resilience of Livestock to Changing Environments” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting, July 19–24, 2016, Salt Lake City, UT. The objective of the symposium was to provide a broad overview of recent research on the effects of changing environmental conditi...

  17. Prospects of Livestock Production in Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raziq*, M. Younas1 and Z. Rehman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan and makes about 44% of the total geographical area of the country. Most of the area is rangelands with only 5% arable. Animal agriculture is centuries old occupation of the people of Balochistan. Livestock are one of the major important sectors of the province having about 20% of the national stock. However, with little manufacturing facilities and under-developed infrastructure, the provincial economy lags far behind other parts of the country. This is the cradle of many precious livestock breeds and livestock make an important part of the socio-cultural and socioeconomic survival of its inhabitants. The biodiversity of animal genetic resources plays very pivotal role in the economy of the province and each breed has its own uniqueness and socioeconomic importance. The exact value of such precious animal genetic resource has never been realized as yet and no serious steps have been taken for its improvement. It is the utmost need of the time to rethink on the policies relating to livestock production in the province while keeping the needs of the growing population, socio-cultural change and the global warming issues in mind.

  18. Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge Application among Livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the application of indigenous knowledge among livestock farmers in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty four respondents in the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  19. Biological control of livestock pests: Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in biological methods for livestock and poultry pest management is largely motivated by the development of resistance to most of the available synthetic pesticides by the major pests. There also has been a marked increase in organic systems, and those that promote animal welfare by reducing...

  20. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU

  1. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund was established in September 2015 as a partnership between the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Affairs Canada, and the International Development Research Centre. It represents a joint investment of $57 million over five years to support the development, production, and ...

  2. A moral Operating System of livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Societal views about livestock production systems in Europe are changing dramatically in a negative direction. Based on the tradition of pragmatism in applied philosophy I develop a Moral Operating System of animal production systems in cooperating a plurality of ethical views. This moral operating

  3. Loomakasvatus, 2007 = Livestock farming, 2007 / Tiiu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Tiiu

    2007-01-01

    2007. aastal tapeti ning müüdi tapaks 105 000 tonni loomi ja linde, toodeti 689 700 tonni piima ning 155,8 miljonit muna. Diagramm. Tabelid. Vt. samas: Loomade ja piima kokkuost, 2007 = Purchase of livestock and milk, 2007

  4. Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daka, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

  5. Research award: Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF) is an initiative developed by ... to support the development, production, and commercialization of innovative ... of countries within a regional and/or sub-regional structure (e.g. the ...

  6. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure...

  7. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...

  8. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund: Strengthening of Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project creates the authorization for capacity building support to develop and manage the Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF). The fund aims to support the ... Des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI parlent de leurs expériences au Comité sur les ONG lors du forum de la Commission de la condition de la femme.

  9. Livestock-environment interactions: Methane emissions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock producers face a number of challenges including pressure from the public to be good environmental stewards and adopt welfare-friendly practices. However, environmental stewardship and animal welfare may have excitingly conflicting objectives. Examples include pasture-based dairy and beef cattle production ...

  10. Estimation of Airflow in livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1995-01-01

    The well-being of the animals (e.g. pigs) in livestock buildings is contingent on adequate ventilation. Depending on the construction of the ventilation system draught may be introduced into the buildings. Obviously this is an unwanted effect, that might lead to decreasing growth of and increasing...

  11. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-10-01

    Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP). This study was conducted to determine feed water productivity (FWP) and LWP in the MCL system. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP. Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity (WP) were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land (GL) analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL. These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most. A linear relationship between the proportion of CR in livestock feed and FWP was evident, but the relationship with LWP was not likely linear. As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of

  12. The effect on patency of type, shape and volume of a vein collar used at the distal anastomis of PTFE-bypass to arteries below-knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect on patency rate of different types of vein collar (Miller's original or St Mary's boot), different length/height shapes of vein collar, and different vein collar volumes at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-bypass grafts to below-knee arteries in patients...

  13. 29 CFR 780.328 - Meaning of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of livestock. 780.328 Section 780.328 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.328 Meaning of livestock. The term “livestock” includes cattle, sheep, horses... § 780.120. Turkeys or domesticated fowl are considered poultry and not livestock within the meaning of...

  14. 25 CFR 141.14 - Trade in livestock restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in livestock restricted. 141.14 Section 141.14... livestock restricted. (a) No person other than an enrolled member of the tribe or any association... livestock from tribal members without a special permit issued by the Commissioner. (b) The Commissioner...

  15. 25 CFR 168.7 - Kind of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kind of livestock. 168.7 Section 168.7 Indians BUREAU OF... LANDS AREA § 168.7 Kind of livestock. Unless determined otherwise by the Area Director for conservation purposes, the Hopi Tribe may determine, subject to the authorized carrying capacity, the kind of livestock...

  16. 7 CFR 53.15 - Accessibility to livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility to livestock. 53.15 Section 53.15... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.15 Accessibility to livestock. (a) The applicant shall...

  17. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock payment calculations. 760.209 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.209 Livestock payment calculations. (a) Payments for an...

  18. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.327 Production of livestock. For an employee to be engaged in the production of livestock, he must be actively taking care of the animals or standing by in readiness for that purpose. Thus...

  19. Interaction Between Livestock And Crop Farming In Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked at the role of livestock and its interaction with crop production in an integrated crop-livestock farming system in Katsina State. Field data were collected through household survey of 120 respondent located in six villages in Katsina State. The result shows that there was a high level of crop-livestock ...

  20. Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melissa Rojas-Downing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for livestock products is expected to double by 2050, mainly due to improvement in the worldwide standard of living. Meanwhile, climate change is a threat to livestock production because of the impact on quality of feed crop and forage, water availability, animal and milk production, livestock diseases, animal reproduction, and biodiversity. This study reviews the global impacts of climate change on livestock production, the contribution of livestock production to climate change, and specific climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in the livestock sector. Livestock production will be limited by climate variability as animal water consumption is expected to increase by a factor of three, demand for agricultural lands increase due to need for 70% growth in production, and food security concern since about one-third of the global cereal harvest is used for livestock feed. Meanwhile, the livestock sector contributes 14.5% of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, driving further climate change. Consequently, the livestock sector will be a key player in the mitigation of GHG emissions and improving global food security. Therefore, in the transition to sustainable livestock production, there is a need for: a assessments related to the use of adaptation and mitigation measures tailored to the location and livestock production system in use, and b policies that support and facilitate the implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.

  1. The Use of and Need for Livestock Market News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Herman M.

    This publication reports the practices of 46 livestock producers relating to their use of market news as reported in personal interviews made in September, 1969, in three counties in Illinois. The questionnaire provided for information for: volume of livestock, type, location, frequency of use of various media used to obtain livestock market news;…

  2. Social and ecological analysis of commercial integrated crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, R.D.; Niles, M.T.; Gil, J.D.B.; Gaudin, A.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Assmann, A.; Assmann, T.S.; Brewer, K.; Faccio Carvalho, de P.C.; Cortner, O.; Dynes, R.; Garbach, K.; Kebreab, E.; Mueller, N.; Peterson, C.; Reis, J.C.; Snow, V.; Valentim, J.

    2017-01-01

    Crops and livestock play a synergistic role in global food production and farmer livelihoods. Increasingly, however, crops and livestock are produced in isolation, particularly in farms operating at the commercial scale. It has been suggested that re-integrating crop and livestock systems at the

  3. Understanding the gender dimensions of livestock ownership | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Download the Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership brief (PDF, 726 KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings presented in the book “Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the Gender Gap in Eastern and Southern Africa” produced by the International Livestock ...

  4. Exploring New York State Policy Expectations Pertaining to Energy Efficiency and Green Collar Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Felix Asher

    2012-01-01

    The Green Jobs Green New York (GJGNY) Act of 2009 was designed to reduce energy consumption by creating green collar workforce and providing energy efficiency audits to the public. The problem addressed in this study is the discrepancy between the expectations of Green Jobs Green New York Act of 2009 and the implementation of this policy. This…

  5. Blue-Collar Affluence in a Remote Mining Town: Challenging the Modernist Myth of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Based on research in Karratha, a remote resource town in Western Australia, this paper explores the ways in which blue-collar affluence disturbs the meritocratic mythology of formal education. In the opening decade of the twenty-first century Karratha was one of Australia's most affluent towns, yet its adult population was characterised by a level…

  6. Plectosphaerella species associated with root and collar rots of horticultural crops in southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlucci, A.; Raimondo, M.L.; Santos, J.; Phillips, A.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plectosphaerella cucumerina, most frequently encountered in its Plectosporium state, is well known as a pathogen of several plant species causing fruit, root and collar rot, and collapse. It is considered to pose a serious threat to melon (Cucumis melo) production in Italy. In the present study, an

  7. The Association between Training and Organizational Commitment among White-Collar Workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman; Bakar, Raida Abu

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 204 of 300 Malaysian white-collar workers were analyzed for the association between training variables (availability of support, benefits, motivation, environment) and four types of organizational commitment. All training variables were significantly correlated with affective, normative, and overall commitment. Availability of…

  8. Why "Working Smarter" Isn't Working: White-Collar Productivity Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Edward

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the productivity and work days of white collar workers. Topics include productivity improvement; task analysis; the amount of time spent reading, and how to reduce it by improving writing skills; time spent in meetings; empowered time management; and sustaining a climate for change. (LRW)

  9. Socializing Messages in Blue-Collar Families: Communicative Pathways to Social Mobility and Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    This study explicitly links processes of anticipatory socialization to social mobility and reproduction. An examination of the socializing messages exchanged between blue-collar parents (n = 41) and their children (n = 25) demonstrate that family-based messages about work and career seldom occur in straightforward, unambiguous ways. Instead,…

  10. Mind over matter: exploring job stress among female blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; Tucker, Pattie J; Liburd, Leandris

    2006-12-01

    Although overall health has been defined holistically as the integration of a person's optimal mental, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual well-being, a mental health focus remains on the fringe of many public health efforts. This report describes recent efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to explore job stress among female blue-collar workers. Using a more holistic approach to understand its impact on blue-collar women's overall health, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was used to assess optimal human performance. Attempting to encapsulate how overall health affects one's ability to participate and fulfill daily personal/professional tasks, HRQOL yields a broader understanding of the interaction between psychological well-being (mind) and physical functioning (matter). Embedding CDC HRQOL-4 measures into a questionnaire used as part of a larger mixed methods project, blue-collar women responded to questions about their health, including both mental and physical. For these female workers, mental health appeared to be of greater consequence, which could be interpreted as mind being more significant than matter. This paper highlights the findings related to HRQOL issues experienced by these female blue-collar workers and summarizes recommendations for effective individual and organizational approaches to address job stress.

  11. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  12. Understanding workplace boredom among white collar employees : temporary reactions and individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.A.H.; Schepers, J.J.L.; Nijssen, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate white collar employees' temporary relief strategies to workplace boredom. Building on self-regulation theory we define two responses: engaging in distraction and work indifference. We also investigate whether some individuals are more likely to engage in

  13. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  14. Original Paper Effects of oxen yoke and donkey collar on traction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The realization of mechanized zaï with draft animal encounters the weakness of hitch traction capabilities. To overcome this issue, a study was conducted in three villages in the northern Burkina Faso with the aim at evaluating the effect of improved yoke and improved collar respectively with oxen and donkey harnessing on ...

  15. The development and validation of a job crafting measure for use with blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Job crafting describes a set of proactive behaviours in which employees may engage to shape their work in order to minimize hindering job demands and maximize resources and challenging demands. Such behaviours may be particularly important among blue-collar workers whose jobs are charact......Abstract Job crafting describes a set of proactive behaviours in which employees may engage to shape their work in order to minimize hindering job demands and maximize resources and challenging demands. Such behaviours may be particularly important among blue-collar workers whose jobs...... are characterized by poor working conditions and low well-being. We present the development and adaptation of a job crafting measure that may be used among blue-collar workers, based on an existing scale by Tims, Bakker, and Derks (2012) that was not specifically developed for blue-collar workers. We test......, increasing social job resources, increasing quantitative demands and decreasing hindering job demands. These can be reliably measured with 15 items. The measure shows acceptable discriminant and criterion validity, and test-retest reliability. The findings extend the application of the original questionnaire...

  16. An Examination of Blue- versus White-Collar Workers' Conceptualizations of Job Satisfaction Facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxiao; Kaplan, Seth; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which blue- versus white-collar workers differentially conceptualize various job facets, namely the work itself, co-workers, supervisors, and pay. To examine these potential differences, we conducted a series of analyses on job satisfaction ratings from two samples of university workers. Consistent with the study…

  17. How Blue-Collar Workers on 4-Day Workweeks Use Their Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklan, David Mark

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study of the behavior of male blue-collar workers on 4-day workweeks, revealing that they participate in the same activities as similar 5-day workers. Discussion focuses on the impact of the 4-day week on use of time and on the individual's satisfaction with leisure activities. (TA)

  18. Biomechanical effects of two different collar implant structures on stress distribution under cantilever fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merıç, Gökçe; Erkmen, Erkan; Kurt, Ahmet; Eser, Atilim; özden, Ahmet Utku

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of two distinct collar geometries of implants on stress distribution in the bone around the implants supporting cantilever fixed partial dentures (CFPDs) as well as in the implant-abutment complex and superstructures. The three-dimensional finite element method was selected to evaluate the stress distribution. CFPDs which was supported by microthread collar structured (MCS) and non-microthread collar structured (NMCS) implants was modeled; 300 N vertical, 150 N oblique and 60 N horizontal forces were applied to the models separately. The stress values in the bone, implant-abutment complex and superstructures were calculated. In the MCS model, higher stresses were located in the cortical bone and implant-abutment complex in the case of vertical load while decreased stresses in cortical bone and implant-abutment complex were noted within horizontal and oblique loading. In the case of vertical load, decreased stresses have been noted in cancellous bone and framework. Upon horizontal and oblique loading, a MCS model had higher stress in cancellous bone and framework than the NMCS model. Higher von Mises stresses have been noted in veneering material for NMCS models. It has been concluded that stress distribution in implant-supported CFPDs correlated with the macro design of the implant collar and the direction of applied force.

  19. Job Attitudes of Black and White Workers: Male Blue-Collar Workers in Six Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzell, Raymond A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A 74-item attitude questionnaire was administered in six companies to 101 black and 87 white male blue-collar employees holding similar jobs in the same company. Differences between the two ethnic groups were not marked, both in terms of job satisfaction and in other respects. (Author)

  20. Causes and consequences of timing errors associated with global positioning system collar accelerometer activity monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam J. Gaylord; Dana M. Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral observations of multiple free-ranging animals over long periods of time and large geographic areas is prohibitively difficult. However, recent improvements in technology, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with motion-sensitive activity monitors, create the potential to remotely monitor animal behavior. Accelerometer-equipped...

  1. Job demands and health complaints in white and blue collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, K. J.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: General health in the working population is thought to depend on working conditions. Objective: This survey studied job demands and health complaints in working white and blue collar employees. We expect physical and psychological job demands to be differentially distributed among white

  2. Biometric monitor with electronics disposed on or in a neck collar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A highly portable biometric monitor is disclosed. At least one remote sensor member (12, 12') includes one or more biometric sensors (20, 22, 24, 25) configured for operative coupling with a patient. A neck collar (14, 114, 214, 314, 414) includes electronics (36, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48) for operating

  3. Analysis of the collar-whisker structure of temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Neve, Horst; Brøndsted, Lone

    2006-01-01

    Proteins homologous to the protein NPS (neck passage structure) are widespread among lactococcal phages. We investigated the hypothesis that NPS is involved in the infection of phage TP901-1 by analysis of an NPS mutant. NPS was determined to form a collar-whisker complex but was shown to be none...

  4. Cervical collar or physiotherapy versus wait and see policy for recent onset cervical radiculopathy: randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Barbara; Tans, Jos Th J.; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with collar or physiotherapy compared with a wait and see policy in recent onset cervical radiculopathy. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Neurology outpatient clinics in three Dutch hospitals. Participants 205 patients with symptoms and

  5. Pathways for sustainable development of mixed crop livestock systems: Taking a livestock and pro-poor approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarawali, S.A.; Herrero, M.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Grings, E.; Blmmel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed crop livestock systems provide the majority of the cereal and livestock domestic products for households in developing countries. We explore the question of whether such systems can respond to increasing demands for livestock products without compromising future livelihoods of the poor or the

  6. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. 309.7 Section 309.7 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and... followed immediately by a thorough disinfection of the exposed premises by soaking the ground, fences...

  7. Increased respiratory symptoms in COPD patients living in the vicinity of livestock farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, C Joris; van Dijk, Christel E; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have investigated the effect of livestock farm emissions on the respiratory health of local residents, but results are inconsistent. This study aims to explore associations between the presence of livestock farms and respiratory health in an area of high-density livestock farming in the Netherlands. We focused especially on associations between farm exposures and respiratory symptoms within subgroups of potentially susceptible patients with a pre-existing lung disease.In total, 14 875 adults (response rate 53.4%) completed a questionnaire concerning respiratory health, smoking habits and personal characteristics. Different indicators of livestock farm exposures relative to the home address were computed using a geographic information system.Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma was lower among residents living within 100 m of a farm (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.91 and OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.93, respectively). However, >11 farms in 1000 m compared to fewer than four farms in 1000 m (fourth quartile versus first quartile) was associated with wheezing among COPD patients (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.89). Using general practitioners' electronic medical records, we demonstrated that selection bias did not affect the observed associations.Our data suggest a protective effect of livestock farm emissions on the respiratory health of residents. Nonetheless, COPD patients living near livestock farms reported more respiratory symptoms, suggesting an increased risk of exacerbations. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  8. 36 CFR 262.10 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized livestock. 262.10 Section 262.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock or livestock in excess of those authorized by a grazing permit... officer determines that such livestock use is occurring, has definite knowledge of the kind of livestock...

  9. Unskilled blue collar workers: Bourgeois and/or authoritarian? Results from a small scale survey in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans De Witte

    2007-04-01

    adopted the attitudes (and life style of white collar workers, from whom they can no longer be distinguished. Lipset’s hypothesis of the ‘authoritarianism of the working class’, on the other hand, states that blue collar workers more strongly endorse a conservative attitude on socio-cultural matters and a progressive stand concerning socio-economic issues. Both hypotheses are tested using data from a small scale survey (N = 135 among unskilled blue collar workers and lower- and mid-level white collar workers from different large companies in the region of Leuven, Belgium. The results indicate that the interviewed unskilled blue collar workers still hold a set of attitudes that distinguishes them from the interviewed white collar workers. So, the ‘embourgeoisement’ thesis was refuted. Instead, the unskilled blue collar workers were more conservative on a socio-cultural level, and more progressive concerning socio-economic issues. These results are in line with Lipset’s ‘authoritarianism of the working class’ hypothesis.

  10. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT BASED ON CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT. CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerim SYDYKOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In most developing countries, where agriculture is the main economical source, clusters have been found as a booster to develop their economy. The Asian countries are now starting to implement agro-food clusters into the mainstream of changes in agriculture, farming and food industry. The long-term growth of meat production in the Kyrgyz Republic during the last decade, as well as the fact that agriculture has become one of the prioritized sectors of the economy, proved the importance of livestock sector in the economy of the Kyrgyz Republic. The research question is “Does the Kyrgyz Republic has strong economic opportunities and prerequisites in agriculture in order to implement an effective agro cluster in the livestock sector?” Paper focuses on describing the prerequisites of the Kyrgyz Republic in agriculture to implement livestock cluster. The main objective of the paper is to analyse the livestock sector of the Kyrgyz Republic and observe the capacity of this sector to implement agro-cluster. The study focuses on investigating livestock sector and a complex S.W.O.T. The analysis was carried out based on local and regional database and official studies. The results of research demonstrate the importance of livestock cluster for national economy. It can be concluded that cluster implementation could provide to its all members with benefits if they could build strong collaborative relationship in order to facilitate the access to the labour market and implicitly, the access to exchange of good practices. Their ability of potential cluster members to act as a convergence pole is critical for acquiring practical skills necessary for the future development of the livestock sector.

  11. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce McCarl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data.

  12. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  13. Family Farming livestock data search in loco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Benito Pimentel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The creation and trading of livestock are potentially growing in the Brazil over the years so that there is an increase in the interest of producers to apply new technologies to be able to stay in this increasingly competitive market. The technologies that are being applied include both new production techniques as management tools, control and monitoring of animals. Thus, this work presents an application development proposal to enable livestock data transmission and retrieval through a mobile platform, informing characteristics such as origin, weight recorded in the last weighing, race, vaccination, among others. The use of a technology applied to mobile devices can solve the problems of farmers from having to carry computers or notepads to where the animals are arranged, offering convenience and speed in decision making.

  14. Mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Bjerg, Bjarne; Batzanas, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings are reviewed and influences on discharge and pressure coefficients are discussed. Compared to studies conducted on buildings for human occupation and industrial buildings which focus on thermal comfort, ventilation systems......, indoor air quality, building physics and energy etc., our understanding of the mechanisms involved in natural ventilation of livestock buildings are still limited to the application of the orifice equation. It has been observed that the assumptions made for application of the orifice equation...... are not valid for wind-induced cross ventilation through large openings. This review identifies that the power balance model, the concept of stream tube and the local dynamic similarity model has helped in the fundamental understanding of wind-induced natural ventilation in buildings for human occupation...

  15. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  16. Qualitative Evaluation of the Five-Year 'Red Collar' Campaign to End Inhumane Culling of Dogs as a Method of Rabies Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Elly; Tasker, Lou

    2018-02-06

    Dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated through mass dog vaccination. Despite leading authorities in human and animal health uniting to advance effective and humane rabies control, some governments resort to lethal methods, which are unethical, often inhumane and ineffective. To end the inhumane culling of dogs in response to rabies, World Animal Protection launched 'Red Collar'; a five-year campaign (2011-2016) that worked with governments to promote the implementation of mass dog vaccination for rabies control. We present the findings from a qualitative evaluation of 'Red Collar', conducted both regionally and with national focus on Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and Zanzibar, Tanzania. Through semi-structured interviews and written contributions from stakeholders ( n = 54), we compared perceptions of changes with stated campaign goals to capture recommendations for future work. The campaign successfully generated momentum for implementation of mass dog vaccination by targeted governments. Lessons learned were established: Value of a consistent animal welfare 'voice'; the need to explore the motivations behind culling; the need to capacity build; time required for the 'ripple effect' to inspire humane control in other countries; importance of monitoring and evaluation of indicators; time and effort required for exit strategies and prior preparation for a robust response to culling.

  17. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S. Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the impacts of a hotter and drier climate on future agriculture. By examining Australian regional livestock data on sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs, the authors find that livestock production will expand under such conditions. Livestock revenue per farm is expected to increase by more than 47% by 2060 under the UKMO, the GISS, and a high degree of warming CSIRO scenario. The existence of a threshold temperature for these species is not evident. Abstract This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. PMID:26486620

  18. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufino, M C; Brandt, P; Herrero, M; Butterbach-Bahl, K

    2014-01-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands–livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop–livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling. (paper)

  19. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone however explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat and pig traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity.

  20. Veterinary vaccine nanotechnology: pulmonary and nasal delivery in livestock animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Nieva, Daniella; Goonewardene, Kalhari Bandara; Gomis, Susantha; Foldvari, Marianna

    2017-08-01

    Veterinary vaccine development has several similarities with human vaccine development to improve the overall health and well-being of species. However, veterinary goals lean more toward feasible large-scale administration methods and low cost to high benefit immunization. Since the respiratory mucosa is easily accessible and most infectious agents begin their infection cycle at the mucosa, immunization through the respiratory route has been a highly attractive vaccine delivery strategy against infectious diseases. Additionally, vaccines administered via the respiratory mucosa could lower costs by removing the need of trained medical personnel, and lowering doses yet achieving similar or increased immune stimulation. The respiratory route often brings challenges in antigen delivery efficiency with enough potency to induce immunity. Nanoparticle (NP) technology has been shown to enhance immune activation by producing higher antibody titers and protection. Although specific mechanisms between NPs and biological membranes are still under investigation, physical parameters such as particle size and shape, as well as biological tissue distribution including mucociliary clearance influence the protection and delivery of antigens to the site of action and uptake by target cells. For respiratory delivery, various biomaterials such as mucoadhesive polymers, lipids, and polysaccharides have shown enhanced antibody production or protection in comparison to antigen alone. This review presents promising NPs administered via the nasal or pulmonary routes for veterinary applications specifically focusing on livestock animals including poultry.

  1. Seasonal movements of wildlife and livestock in a heterogenous pastoral landscape: Implications for coexistence and community based conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tyrrell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands across the world are home to millions of pastoral people and vast wildlife populations, which create a complex landscape for conservation. Community based conservation has been used to promote human-wildlife coexistence on pastoral lands, protecting wildlife outside of official protected areas. With the spread of community based conservation within the rangelands there is a need for more information on successful management practices. This study provides an example of this in the South Rift, Kenya, where seasonal movements of pastoralists aid coexistence. We used Density Surface Modelling (DSM, a novel tool for conservation managers in the rangelands, to predict wildlife and livestock abundance across the landscape and seasons. Wildlife grazers, zebra (Equus burchelli and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus, follow expected metabolic patterns, feeding on short grass outside the conservation area in the wet season, before returning to the taller-lower quality grazing in the conservation areas during the drought. Browsing wildlife, impala (Aepyceros melampus and Grant’s gazelle (Nanger granti, move from open grassland and bushland areas into thicker, denser browse as the seasons progress towards the drought. Livestock, both shoats (Ovis aries, and Capra aegagrus hircus and cattle (Bos indicus, are managed by community grazing committees, who enforce a grazing plan that creates spatial–temporal separation between wildlife and livestock. They exploit the high-quality grazing in the livestock area during the wet season while conserving pasture in the conservation area, which is utilized only as forage is depleted. This ensures that wildlife has access to a diverse resource base across all seasons and potentially reduces competition, allowing for a diverse and abundant wildlife community to coexist with livestock. This highlights the importance of the presence and maintenance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of forage resources

  2. Offshoring White-Collar Work: An Explorative Investigation of the Processes and Mechanisms in Two Danish Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Larsen, Marcus Møller; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2010-01-01

    of this paper is two folded: to explain why knowledge-intensive service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on integration mechanisms for the firms involved. The empirical part of the study is based on two qualitative case studies...... of Danish manufacturers, and on the basis of these, we first argue that the drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring. However, the existing offshoring and outsourcing frameworks do not necessarily adequately address....... By relating white-collar work offshoring to integration means companies instigate to manage it, we attempt to bridge the existing knowledge gaps and advance understanding of the process of white-collar work offshoring and its implications....

  3. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) movements and behavior around a kill site and implications for GPS collar studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars are increasingly used to estimate Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates. In interpreting results from this technology, researchers make various assumptions about wolf behavior around kills, yet no detailed description of this behavior has been published. This article describes the behavior of six wolves in an area of constant daylight during 30 hours, from when the pack killed a Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) calf and yearling on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, to when they abandoned the kill remains. Although this is only a single incident, it demonstrates one possible scenario of pack behavior around a kill. Combined with the literature, this observation supports placing a radio-collar on the breeding male to maximize finding kills via GPS collars and qualifying results depending on whatever other information is available about the collared wolf's pack.

  4. FORTY PLUS CLUBS AND WHITE-COLLAR MANHOOD DURING THE GREAT DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Wood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As scholars of gender and labor have argued, chronic unemployment during the Great Depression precipitated a “crisis” of masculinity, compelling men to turn towards new industrial unions and the New Deal as ways to affirm work, breadwinning, and patriarchy as bases for manhood. But did all men experience this crisis? During the late 1930s, white-collar men organized groups called “Forty Plus Clubs” in response to their worries about joblessness and manhood. The clubs made it possible for unemployed executives to find new jobs, while at the same time recreating the male-dominated culture of the white-collar office. For male executives, Forty Plus Clubs precluded the Depression-era crisis of manhood, challenging the idea that the absence ofpaid employment was synonymous with the loss of masculinity.

  5. Effects of Collar Permeability on the Field Quality of the Large Aperture Quadrupoles for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N; Kirby, G; Mess, K H; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The LHC contains a number of large aperture quadrupoles (MQY) in the insertions. The acceptance of these magnets was based on warm magnetic measurements performed before delivery to CERN. During the series production of the MQY quadrupoles, the permeability of the collars drifted from the nominal value, and effects on the transfer function and multipole components became evident. To study the effects on the magnetic field, variable permeability of the stainless-steel collars as a function of local field and temperature was introduced into a numerical model. Comparing the results with measured data, we could isolate the contribution of permeability deviation on the magnetic field quality. The extrapolation of transfer function and field multipoles to operating temperature and current gives the necessary offsets, which are compared with measurements on a reduced set of magnets.

  6. Neutron collar calibration for assay of LWR [light-water reactor] fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Pieper, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    The neutron-coincidence collar is used for the verification of the uranium content in light-water reactor fuel assemblies. An AmLi neutron source is used to give an active interrogation of the fuel assembly to measure the 235 U content, and the 238 U content is verified from a passive neutron-coincidence measurement. This report gives the collar calibration data of pressurized-water reactor and boiling-water reactor fuel assemblies. Calibration curves and correction factors are presented for neutron absorbers (burnable poisons) and different fuel assembly sizes. The data were collected at Exxon Nuclear, Franco-Belge de Fabrication de Combustibles, ASEA-Atom, and other nuclear fuel fabrication facilities

  7. Influence of recovery method and centrifugation on epididymal sperm from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; da Silva, Andréia Maria; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; da Silva, Mariana de Araújo; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation.

  8. Comparison of risk factors for tooth loss between professional drivers and white-collar workers: an internet survey

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Seitaro; YOSHINO, Koichi; TAKAYANAGI, Atsushi; ISHIZUKA, Yoichi; SATOU, Ryouichi; KAMIJO, Hideyuki; SUGIHARA, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to examine tooth loss and associated factors among professional drivers and white-collar workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire. A total of 592 professional drivers and 328 white-collar workers (male, aged 30 to 69 years) were analyzed. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to ...

  9. First results of feral cats (Felis catus) monitored with GPS collars in New Zealand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Recio, MR

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available -monitoring of feral cats injection of 0.12?0.20 ml of Antisedan? (Atipamezone hydrochloride) reversed the effect of Domitor. Individuals were weighed, sexed and visually inspected, and fitted with a GPS data-logger collar (Sirtrack, Havelock North, NZ, http.... __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Sex Capture Tracking period No. of No. of potential Fix rate No. of fixes % of fixes date (days) fixes fixes percentage HDOP < 9 used...

  10. The impact of long working hours on psychosocial stress response among white-collar workers

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Kyungjin; SUH, Chunhui; KIM, Jong-Eun; PARK, Jae Oh

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In total, 1,122 white-collar workers from a company in Korea completed self-administered questionnaires following a lecture about the study aim, procedures, and confidentiality. Psychosocial stress responses were evaluated using the Psychosocial Well-being Index - Short Form (PWI-SF), and psychosocial working conditions were evaluated with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale - Short Form (KOSS-S...

  11. Changing Workplaces to Reduce Work-Family Conflict: Schedule Control in a White-Collar Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Tranby, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Work-family conflicts are common and consequential for employees, their families, and work organizations. Can workplaces be changed to reduce work-family conflict? Previous research has not been able to assess whether workplace policies or initiatives succeed in reducing work-family conflict or increasing work-family fit. Using longitudinal data collected from 608 employees of a white-collar organization before and after a workplace initiative was implemented, we investigate whether the initi...

  12. Effect of psychosocial factors on metabolic syndrome in male and female blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won Ju; Lee, Chung Yul

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between psychosocial factors and metabolic syndrome among male and female blue-collar workers, and which factors influence their metabolic syndrome by sex. A cross-sectional study was completed of 154 men and 80 women working at small companies in Korea. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire, blood test, and anthropometric and blood pressure measure. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed from the results of blood test and the measurements of waist circumference and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male and female blue-collar workers was 24.0% and 7.5%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine factors of metabolic syndrome associated with sex. After controlling for age, marital status, smoking, alcohol drinking, shift work, overtime work, and physical exercise, job stress (odds ratio [OR] = 3.10, P = 0.005) and risk perception (OR = 1.12, P = 0.016) were influencing factors for men, and low job stress (OR = 0.05, P = 0.04), low social support (OR = 1.51, P = 0.009), and risk perception (OR = 1.27, P = 0.023) for women. Metabolic syndrome among blue-collar workers is closely related to psychosocial factors, such as job stress, social support, and risk perception, with the effect of job stress a point of difference between men and women. Occupational health nurses should be cognizant of the importance of assessing the effect of psychosocial factors on cardiovascular risk for blue-collar workers. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  13. Does Shoe Collar Height Influence Ankle Joint Kinematics and Kinetics in Sagittal Plane Maneuvers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang, Ying Fang, Xini Zhang, Junliang He, Weijie Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF maneuver, drop jumps (DJs, and lay-up jumps (LJs. Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041 was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028 and power (p = 0.022 were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion–extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane.

  14. Using Collar worn Sensors to Forecast Thermal Strain in Military Working Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Using Collar-worn Sensors to Forecast Thermal Strain in Military Working Dogs James R. Williamson, Austin R. Hess, Christopher J. Smalt, Delsey M...these estimates for forecasting and monitoring thermal strain is assessed based on performance in out of sample prediction of core temperature (Tc...time step (100 Hz) from the magnitude of the three- dimensional acceleration vector, ai , which is independent of sensor orientation. Next, the

  15. Factors associated with utilization of traditional Chinese medicine by white collar foreign workers living in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Chung-Yeh; Tai Chen-Jei; Daly Maria; Chien Li-Yin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors l...

  16. Long working hours and risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, N; Yoshida, H; Nagano, K; Kawashimo, H; Nakamura, K; Tatara, K

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the association of long working hours with the risk for hypertension.
DESIGN—A five year prospective cohort study.
SETTING—Work site in Osaka, Japan.
PARTICIPANTS—941 hypertension free Japanese male white collar workers aged 35-54 years were prospectively examined by serial annual health examinations. Men in whom borderline hypertension and hypertension were found during repeated surveys were defined as incidental cases of borderline hypertension and hypertension.
...

  17. Does Shoe Collar Height Influence Ankle Joint Kinematics and Kinetics in Sagittal Plane Maneuvers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fang, Ying; Zhang, Xini; He, Junliang; Fu, Weijie

    2017-12-01

    The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively) performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) maneuver, drop jumps (DJs), and lay-up jumps (LJs). Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041) was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028) and power (p = 0.022) were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion-extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane.

  18. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  19. Fatigue as prognostic risk marker of mental sickness absence in white collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, C A M; Heymans, M W; van Rhenen, W; Groothoff, J W; Twisk, J W R; Bültmann, U

    2014-06-01

    To investigate fatigue as prognostic risk marker for identifying working employees at risk of long-term sickness absence (SA). At baseline, fatigue was measured in 633 white collar employees with the checklist individual strength (CIS) including scales for fatigue severity, reduced concentration, reduced motivation, and reduced physical activity. SA was medically certified by an occupational physician in the 3rd or 4th SA week with diagnostic codes according to the 10th version of the International Classification of Diseases. Medically certified SA was retrieved at the individual level from an occupational health register after 1-year follow-up. CIS scores were investigated as prognostic risk markers predicting medically certified SA and particularly SA certified as mental SA. 614 employees (N = 378 men and N = 236 women) had complete data and were eligible for analysis; 63 (10 %) had medically certified SA of whom 39 (6 %) had mental SA. Fatigue severity and total CIS scores were associated with medically certified SA in men, but poorly discriminated between men with and without medically certified SA. Fatigue severity, reduced concentration, reduced motivation, and total CIS scores were also associated with mental SA in men. CIS and its reduced concentration scale were valid prognostic risk markers of mental SA. CONCLUSION Fatigue was a prognostic risk marker of mental SA in white collar men. The CIS should be further validated as a screening tool for the risk of mental SA in white collar working populations.

  20. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terregino, Calogero; Cattoli, Giovanni; Grossele, Barbara; Bertoli, Elena; Tisato, Ernesto; Capua, Ilaria

    2003-02-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained from feral pigeons (Columba livia) during the same period. All isolates could be classified as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV1) and belonged to the pigeon variant group (PPMV1), as their haemagglutinating activity was inhibited by mAb 161/617 which is specific for PPMV1. The intracerebral pathogenicity indices ranged from 0.68 to 1.38 and all isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the deduced cleavage site of the fusion protein, which is a typical feature of virulent viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicate that 18/20 of these form a separate cluster from the isolates obtained from pigeons in the same period. These findings suggest that different lineages are circulating in feral pigeon populations, and that a separate lineage affects Eurasian collared doves.

  1. Greenhouse gas and livestock emissions and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario

    2018-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of livestock sector on climate change. The main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock are described and the contribution of livestock sector to the global GHG emissions is presented on the basis of the latest results...... obtained from the scientific research. The most recent mitigation strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock sector are also discussed. The paper aims to provide a general overview of an emergent environmental issue such as the impact of livestock sector on climate change. While...... the paper is easy to understand for non-expert readers, it may also be a relevant reference point for academic researchers and for policy makers aimed at achieving the sustainability of livestock/food sector....

  2. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  3. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. The past half-century has seen marked growth in food production, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the proportion of the world’s people that are hungry, despite a doubling of the total population. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by 2050. So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cultivated land areas and an increase of water and energy consumption. The environmental assessment of human activities is presently a hot topic. It is not only important from an ecological perspective, but also from the view of efficient utilization of limited natural resources. The livestock sector that increasingly competes for scarce resources (land, water, and energy has a severe impact on air, water and soil quality because of its emissions. The environmental impact of food of animal origin is currently quantified by so-called CO2eq-footprints. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to achieve a sustainable supply of food, especially of animal origin, because land and other production factors are not unlimited resources. This lecture deals with related problems linked to the production of foods of animal origin and some possible sustainable solutions for the increasing demand of these products, by means of a detailed analysis of the carbon footprint by the livestock, as well as the land requirement, biodiversity, energy and water footprint in livestock production.

  4. Work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstrup, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Swedish livestock farming has undergone considerable structural changes and technical development, which have influenced the work environment and health of the workers in several ways. The general aim of the studies was to investigate the work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers on large modern dairy and pig farms. The studies were mainly based on questionnaires. The results showed that the livestock workers reported high frequencies of musculoskele...

  5. Impact of BSE on livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, A

    2003-09-01

    The small number of BSE cases diagnosed in Italy from January 2001 to 12 September 2001 (a total of 28, one every 9000 head) does not allow for a statistical analysis of the relationship between this disease and the livestock systems. However, some indications can be noted: (a) only dairy cattle, which represent three-quarters of the cattle raised in Italy, are involved; (b) 58% of the cases belong to medium-large farms that breed 27% of all head; (c) 13 out of 28 cases are 5-year-old animals and 26 out of 28 are between 5 and 7 years of age; (d) 15 of 28 cases come from Lombardia, where 27% of Italian dairy cattle are raised. The following factors may have affected the livestock system: (1) trends of beef meat consumption; (2) changes in livestock management; (3) changes in animal feeding; (4) possible effects on selection. A strong decline in beef meat consumption (4 kg/year) has been observed in the UK and other European countries since 1996 (the year of the discovery of the relationship between BSE and nvCJD). In Italy, from January 2001 the consumption of beef meat has declined as well as slaughter: a drop of 31% in the total slaughtered head in the period January-February, a drop of 14% in January-May. A fall in the price of calves has promoted, in some dairy farms, the start of the production of light beef less than one year old (advantages in the marketing of meat favour this initiative), a phenomenon which is not yet well established. Traceability and certification of meat have improved, thanks to breeders' associations and interprofessional agreements. The breeders associations have also started insurance initiatives against BSE risks. In Italy the employment of plant protein meals would increase the total feedstuff consumption by about 7%. Direct effects of BSE could slow down the genetic progress (GP) of cattle populations within breed and country. Indirect effects on GP may also happen as a consequence of an increase in the replacement rate (rr). This

  6. Freshwater use in livestock production—To be used for food crops or livestock feed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Ylva; Middelaar, van Corina E.; Lannerstad, Mats; Herrero, Mario; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to estimate freshwater use in livestock production systems generally fail to consider the competition for water resources with alternative uses, such as production of food crops food or other ecosystem services. This article presents a new method to account for the competition for

  7. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Livestock impacts on forage, stover, and grain production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise diversity is the key to ensure productive and sustainable agriculture for the future. Integration of crops and livestock enterprises is one way to improve agricultural sustainability, and take advantage of beneficial enterprise synergistic effects. Our objectives were to develop cropping ...

  8. [Virtual water content of livestock products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Jun-hong

    2006-04-01

    The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year. Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: (1) The virtual water content of livestock products is increasing rapidly in China recently, especially poultry eggs and pork. (2) The distribution of virtual water content of livestock products is not balanced, mainly lies in North China, East China and so on; (3) The increasing production of livestock in Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei, Nei Monggol, Liaononing, Jilin, Shandong, Henan and Ningxia province and autonom ous region will bring pressure to local water shortage.

  9. Simulations of a PSD Plastic Neutron Collar for Assaying Fresh Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausladen, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The potential performance of a notional active coincidence collar for assaying uranium fuel based on segmented detectors constructed from the new PSD plastic fast organic scintillator with pulse shape discrimination capability was investigated in simulation. Like the International Atomic Energy Agency's present Uranium Neutron Collar for LEU (UNCL), the PSD plastic collar would also function by stimulating fission in the 235U content of the fuel with a moderated 241Am/Li neutron source and detecting instances of induced fission via neutron coincidence counting. In contrast to the moderated detectors of the UNCL, the fast time scale of detection in the scintillator eliminates statistical errors due to accidental coincidences that limit the performance of the UNCL. However, the potential to detect a single neutron multiple times historically has been one of the properties of organic scintillator detectors that has prevented their adoption for international safeguards applications. Consequently, as part of the analysis of simulated data, a method was developed by which true neutron-neutron coincidences can be distinguished from inter-detector scatter that takes advantage of the position and timing resolution of segmented detectors. Then, the performance of the notional simulated coincidence collar was evaluated for assaying a variety of fresh fuels, including some containing burnable poisons and partial defects. In these simulations, particular attention was paid to the analysis of fast mode measurements. In fast mode, a Cd liner is placed inside the collar to shield the fuel from the interrogating source and detector moderators, thereby eliminating the thermal neutron flux that is most sensitive to the presence of burnable poisons that are ubiquitous in modern nuclear fuels. The simulations indicate that the predicted precision of fast mode measurements is similar to what can be achieved by the present UNCL in thermal mode. For example, the

  10. Livestock Environment Prospects for the 90's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Thatcher

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available When projecting livestock environmental prospects for the 1990's. it is critical to recognize the multidimensional nature of managing livestock species under hot environments. This paper identifies potential critical physiological windows during the life cycle of the animal that are sensitive to heat stress and responsive to environmental modification. Ovarian follicular development appears to be sensitive to heat stress leading to reductions in intensity of oestrus and subsequent fertility. Periods of follicular development that are sensitive to heat stress have not been defined. With current improved systems to alter the microenvironment of animals. the period of embryonic sensitivity to heat stress has shifted so that early embryonic losses are less. Potential recombinant proteins that may enhance embryo survival and correct deficiencies in placental function that are induced by heat stress warrant additional investigation. The postpartum period is a critical period in which a multitude of factors interact to influence animal productivity and its sensitivity to heat stress. Nutritional strategies to improve animal performance with the use of fat-supplementation are discussed. Environmental modification and housing systems need to not only maximize the efficiency of animal production but need to consider the potential impact on the environment relative to water use. soil and water pollution. Animal production and management systems need to consider both animal health and well-being issues. To optimize profit under conditions of greater societal constraints and available management alternatives, computer assisted management systems will become a critical tool.

  11. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  12. Effectiveness of a LED flashlight technique in reducing livestock depredation by lions (Panthera leo around Nairobi National Park, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Lesilau

    Full Text Available The global lion (Panthera leo population decline is partly a result of retaliatory killing in response to livestock depredation. Nairobi National Park (NNP is a small protected area in Kenya surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. Communities around the park use flashlights to deter lions from their livestock bomas. We investigated the response by lions to the installation of a LED flashlight technique during 2007-2016.We interviewed 80 owners of livestock bomas with flashlights (n = 43 and without (n = 37 flashlights in the surroundings of NNP and verified reported attacks on bomas against predation data over10 years. The frequency of attacks on bomas equipped with flashlights was significantly lower compared to bomas without flashlights. We also found that after flashlight installation at livestock bomas, lion attacks took place further away from the park edge, towards areas where bomas without flashlights were still present. With increased numbers of flashlight installations at bomas in recent years, we further noticed a shift from nocturnal to more diurnal predation incidences. Our study shows that the LED flashlight technique is effective in reducing nocturnal livestock predation at bomas by lions. Long term studies on the effects as well as expansion of this technique into other communities around NNP are recommended.

  13. Effectiveness of a LED flashlight technique in reducing livestock depredation by lions (Panthera leo) around Nairobi National Park, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesilau, Francis; Fonck, Myrthe; Gatta, Maria; Musyoki, Charles; van 't Zelfde, Maarten; Persoon, Gerard A; Musters, Kees C J M; de Snoo, Geert R; de Iongh, Hans H

    2018-01-01

    The global lion (Panthera leo) population decline is partly a result of retaliatory killing in response to livestock depredation. Nairobi National Park (NNP) is a small protected area in Kenya surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. Communities around the park use flashlights to deter lions from their livestock bomas. We investigated the response by lions to the installation of a LED flashlight technique during 2007-2016.We interviewed 80 owners of livestock bomas with flashlights (n = 43) and without (n = 37) flashlights in the surroundings of NNP and verified reported attacks on bomas against predation data over10 years. The frequency of attacks on bomas equipped with flashlights was significantly lower compared to bomas without flashlights. We also found that after flashlight installation at livestock bomas, lion attacks took place further away from the park edge, towards areas where bomas without flashlights were still present. With increased numbers of flashlight installations at bomas in recent years, we further noticed a shift from nocturnal to more diurnal predation incidences. Our study shows that the LED flashlight technique is effective in reducing nocturnal livestock predation at bomas by lions. Long term studies on the effects as well as expansion of this technique into other communities around NNP are recommended.

  14. Livestock and human use of land: Productivity trends and dietary choices as drivers of future land and carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Rolinski, Susanne; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Biewald, Anne; Humpenöder, Florian; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Stevanović, Miodrag

    2017-12-01

    Land use change has been the primary driving force of human alteration of terrestrial ecosystems. With 80% of agricultural land dedicated to livestock production, the sector is an important lever to attenuate land requirements for food production and carbon emissions from land use change. In this study, we quantify impacts of changing human diets and livestock productivity on land dynamics and depletion of carbon stored in vegetation, litter and soils. Across all investigated productivity pathways, lower consumption of livestock products can substantially reduce deforestation (47-55%) and cumulative carbon losses (34-57%). On the supply side, already minor productivity growth in extensive livestock production systems leads to substantial CO2 emission abatement, but the emission saving potential of productivity gains in intensive systems is limited, also involving trade-offs with soil carbon stocks. If accounting for uncertainties related to future trade restrictions, crop yields and pasture productivity, the range of projected carbon savings from changing diets increases to 23-78%. Highest abatement of carbon emissions (63-78%) can be achieved if reduced consumption of animal-based products is combined with sustained investments into productivity increases in plant production. Our analysis emphasizes the importance to integrate demand- and supply-side oriented mitigation strategies and to combine efforts in the crop and livestock sector to enable synergies for climate protection.

  15. Biotechnology in livestock production: Overview of possibilities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock production is expected to grow tremendously in line with the projected demand for animal products. Therefore, the methods of livestock production must change to allow for efficiency and improvement in productivity. Biotechnology is important if the world is to respond to the pressure to produce more food from ...

  16. Livestock Judges Training Provides Hands-On Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Scott; Harrison, Steve; Packham, Joel; Sanchez, Dawn; Jensen, Jim; Kaysen, Brett; King, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The judging of a market animal at a fair is the highlight of a youth-owned livestock project. Livestock judges are hired to evaluate youth projects at fairs. They are critical ambassadors for agriculture and influence countless youths and adults. Judges must be knowledgeable about current animal evaluation methods that support youth development.…

  17. Developing a Mobile Extension Course for Youth Livestock Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenkamp, Deborah; Dam, Karna; Chichester, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The 4-H Livestock Quality Assurance course is a mobile Extension course for youth and youth leaders. In 3 years of implementation, over 6,600 participants from 16 states have learned about good production practices for animal agriculture through the innovative online Nebraska Livestock Quality Assurance course. By evaluating the needs of our youth…

  18. A facilitated process towards finding options for improved livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A participatory multi-stakeholder process of finding options for improving livestock production in the severely degraded communal grazing area of Sterkspruit in South Africa was conducted. Interviews were conducted with individual livestock keepers from two sites to gather data on their demographic characteristics, ...

  19. Ethno veterinary practices of small ruminant livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a total of 400 ruminant livestock farmers selected from Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Ondo and Edo States of Nigeria using Multi-stage sampling technique. The data collected include the specific attributes of small ruminant livestock farmers in the area, ethno-veterinary practices of farmers in the treatment of ...

  20. Biogas production from livestock waste anaerobic digesters: evaluation and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. However, feedstocks from livestock re...

  1. Staple Food and Livestock Production among the Yoruba of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    natural for a staple food farmer to also, essentially, own and raise livestock. No doubt .... whole, by 1945, agriculture in Ekiti had generally experienced ... fried plantain or processed dried powdered plantain, in form of amala .... There were, however, some dangers to livestock production in the ... goats, sheep, dogs and pigs.

  2. cyber livestock communication in rural india: a strategic model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cyber extension system focuses the overall development of the livestock farmers including production, management, marketing and other rural developmental activities, thus conceptualizing a livestock communication model and defining anything that can be fit into this model as Cyber Communication was felt ...

  3. The Way Forward for Livestock and the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, M.; Thornton, P.K.; Gerber, P.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Steeg, van de J.; Notenbaert, A.M.; Lecomte, P.; Tarawali, S.A.; Grace, D.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock provide many benefits to society, but at the same time, they generate considerable pressure on land, water and biomass resources and are responsible for 18 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. The total demand for livestock products may almost double by 2050, mostly in the developing

  4. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in the highland and mid altitude areas of Horro and Guduru districts of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing livestock production situation, livestock production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution.

  5. Modeling and Control of Livestock Ventilation Systems and Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Heiselberg, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The hybrid ventilation systems have been widely used for livestock barns to provide optimum indoor climate by controlling the ventilation rate and air flow distribution within the ventilated building structure. The purpose of this paper is to develop models for livestock ventilation systems and i...

  6. 76 FR 50081 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... sovereignty, if a Tribe has its own system for identifying and tracing livestock, separate from those of a... that are needed for food, water, or rest en route if the animals are moved in any other manner. This... which it is contained, then, because of Tribal sovereignty, livestock movements taking place entirely...

  7. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the

  8. Factors affecting livestock predation by lions in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van L.; Vaate, bij de M.D.; Boer, de W.F.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2007-01-01

    Interviews were carried out in six villages south-west of Waza National Park, Cameroon, to investigate the impact of factors related to the occurrence of livestock raiding by lions. Data were analysed at the village and individual level. Livestock losses (cattle, sheep and/or goats) caused by lions

  9. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Products 120 - 130 ... This article aims to provide information on the worth and impact of the livestock sector; information and statistics providing a baseline to guiding sustainability towards 2050. Seventy percent of agricultural land in South Africa can be utilized only by livestock and game and species are found in all provinces ...

  10. Assessment of veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined operational modes of providing veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in Egba-Division, Ogun-State Nigeria. Information was obtained from 120 livestock farmers and 8 extension agents selected through multi-stage random sampling technique with the use of both structured questionnaire ...

  11. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing the livestock sector towards 2050 and the changes and ... In dairy plants the water usage to process the same product may vary by more than 100%, ... Efficiency of production should be on par with competitors if the livestock ...

  12. Ethno-veterinary practices amongst livestock farmers in Ngamiland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable ...

  13. Prevalence of brucellosis in livestock and incidences in humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is an emerging zoonotic disease that poses a threat to both livestock and public health in east Africa. There are several reports of occurrence of the disease in livestock populations especially in Tanzania and Kenya, suggesting chances of increased spread to humans, and the disease being misdiagnosed for ...

  14. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers: results from a multicentre study from the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K; Funding, Anne T; Avnstorp, Christian; Østerballe, Morten; Andersen, Klaus E; Paulsen, Evy; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Sommerlund, Mette; Danielsen, Anne; Andersen, Bo L; Thormann, Jens; Kristensen, Ove; Kristensen, Berit; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels H; Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-12-01

    Blue-collar workers have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis, but epidemiological studies are scarce. To investigate allergic contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers with dermatitis registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. A retrospective analysis of patch test data from 1471 blue-collar workers and 1471 matched controls tested between 2003 and 2012 was performed. A logistic regression was used to test for associations. The blue-collar workers often had occupational hand dermatitis (p dermatitis was less commonly observed among blue-collar workers (19.6%) than among controls (23.9%) (p = 0.005). Allergens with a statistically significant association with the occupational group of blue-collar workers were epoxy resins, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, potassium dichromate, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI). The following occupations were additionally identified as risk factors for contact sensitization to MCI/MI and MI, epoxy resins, and potassium dichromate, respectively: painting, construction work, and tile setting/terrazzo work. Contact allergy is a major problem among blue-collar workers. The data indicate a healthy worker effect among blue-collar workers diagnosed with dermatitis, as blue-collar workers were diagnosed significantly less often with atopic dermatitis than were controls. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  16. Gender issues in livestock production: a case study of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupawaenda, Anna C; Chawatama, Shingirai; Muvavarirwa, Plaxidia

    2009-10-01

    The importance of main streaming gender issues in development programmes is now recognized by governments and development agents. This paper evaluates the role of gender in smallholder livestock production using Zimbabwe as a case study. It draws on several studies and assesses the gender dimension in terms of access and control, decision making and, division of labour. It is shown that for mainly traditional and historical reasons men continue to dominate livestock production although the situation is gradually changing. Men eclipse women in terms of ownership of more valuable stock, the making of decisions and the control of livestock production. This suggests that gender is important in livestock production and must be considered among other factors. The complexity of the system is noted but more gender disaggregated quantitative data is required if gender is to be effectively mainstreamed in livestock development programmes.

  17. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  18. Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Pernille

    . Presently, the development of abatement technologies is limited by the lack of an accurate and reliable method for quantifying the effect on odor. To measure the impact of air cleaning techniques on perceived odor, common practice in Europe is to store odor samples in sample bags and quantify them......Volatile sulfur compounds, i.e. hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide have been identified as key odorants in livestock production due to their high concentration levels and low odor threshold values. At the same time their removal with abatement technologies based on mass transfer...... from a gas phase to a liquid phase, e.g. biotrickling filters, is decelerated due to their low partitioning coefficients. This can significantly limit the odor reduction obtained with these technologies. The present study examines the possibility of adding metal catalysts to enhance the mass transfer...

  19. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  20. Does Abutment Collar Length Affect Abutment Screw Loosening After Cyclic Loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Pirmoazen, Salma; Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Alikhasi, Marzieh

    2015-07-01

    A significant vertical space that is corrected with vertical ridge augmentation may necessitate selection of longer abutments, which would lead to an increased vertical cantilever. This study investigated the influence of different abutment collar heights on single-unit dental implant screw-loosening after cyclic loading. Fifteen implant-abutment assemblies each consisted of an internal hexagonal implant were randomly assigned to 3 groups: Group1, consisting of 5 abutments with 1.5 mm gingival height (GH); Group2, 5 abutments with 3.5 mm GH; and Group3, 5 abutments with 5.5 mm GH. Each specimen was mounted in transparent auto-polymerizing acrylic resin block, and the abutment screw was tightened to 35 Ncm with an electric torque wrench. After 5 minutes, initial torque loss (ITL) was recorded for all specimens. Metal crowns were fabricated with 45° occlusal surface and were placed on the abutments. A cyclic load of 75 N and frequency of 1 Hz were applied perpendicular to the long axis of each specimen. After 500 000 cycles, secondary torque loss (STL) was recorded. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate the effects of abutment collar height before and after cyclic loading. One-way ANOVA showed that ITL among the groups was not significantly different (P = .52), while STL was significantly different among the groups (P = .008). Post-hoc Tukey HSD tests showed that STL values were significantly different between the abutments with 1.5 mm GH (Group1) and with 5.5 mm GH (Group3) (P = .007). A paired comparison t-test showed that cyclic loading significantly influenced the STL in comparison with the ITL in each group. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that increase in height of the abutment collar could adversely affect the torque loss of the abutment screw.

  1. Evaluating methods for estimating home ranges using GPS collars: A comparison using proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Danica J; Vaughan, Ian P; Ramirez Saldivar, Diana A; Nathan, Senthilvel K S S; Goossens, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    The development of GPS tags for tracking wildlife has revolutionised the study of home ranges, habitat use and behaviour. Concomitantly, there have been rapid developments in methods for estimating habitat use from GPS data. In combination, these changes can cause challenges in choosing the best methods for estimating home ranges. In primatology, this issue has received little attention, as there have been few GPS collar-based studies to date. However, as advancing technology is making collaring studies more feasible, there is a need for the analysis to advance alongside the technology. Here, using a high quality GPS collaring data set from 10 proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus), we aimed to: 1) compare home range estimates from the most commonly used method in primatology, the grid-cell method, with three recent methods designed for large and/or temporally correlated GPS data sets; 2) evaluate how well these methods identify known physical barriers (e.g. rivers); and 3) test the robustness of the different methods to data containing either less frequent or random losses of GPS fixes. Biased random bridges had the best overall performance, combining a high level of agreement between the raw data and estimated utilisation distribution with a relatively low sensitivity to reduced fixed frequency or loss of data. It estimated the home range of proboscis monkeys to be 24-165 ha (mean 80.89 ha). The grid-cell method and approaches based on local convex hulls had some advantages including simplicity and excellent barrier identification, respectively, but lower overall performance. With the most suitable model, or combination of models, it is possible to understand more fully the patterns, causes, and potential consequences that disturbances could have on an animal, and accordingly be used to assist in the management and restoration of degraded landscapes.

  2. Evaluating methods for estimating home ranges using GPS collars: A comparison using proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica J Stark

    Full Text Available The development of GPS tags for tracking wildlife has revolutionised the study of home ranges, habitat use and behaviour. Concomitantly, there have been rapid developments in methods for estimating habitat use from GPS data. In combination, these changes can cause challenges in choosing the best methods for estimating home ranges. In primatology, this issue has received little attention, as there have been few GPS collar-based studies to date. However, as advancing technology is making collaring studies more feasible, there is a need for the analysis to advance alongside the technology. Here, using a high quality GPS collaring data set from 10 proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus, we aimed to: 1 compare home range estimates from the most commonly used method in primatology, the grid-cell method, with three recent methods designed for large and/or temporally correlated GPS data sets; 2 evaluate how well these methods identify known physical barriers (e.g. rivers; and 3 test the robustness of the different methods to data containing either less frequent or random losses of GPS fixes. Biased random bridges had the best overall performance, combining a high level of agreement between the raw data and estimated utilisation distribution with a relatively low sensitivity to reduced fixed frequency or loss of data. It estimated the home range of proboscis monkeys to be 24-165 ha (mean 80.89 ha. The grid-cell method and approaches based on local convex hulls had some advantages including simplicity and excellent barrier identification, respectively, but lower overall performance. With the most suitable model, or combination of models, it is possible to understand more fully the patterns, causes, and potential consequences that disturbances could have on an animal, and accordingly be used to assist in the management and restoration of degraded landscapes.

  3. MtDNA genetic diversity and structure of Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Zoltán; Dimopoulos, Evangelos Antonis; Loukovitis, Dimitrios; Eraud, Cyril; Kusza, Szilvia

    2018-01-01

    The Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) is one of the most successful biological invaders among terrestrial vertebrates. However, little information is available on the genetic diversity of the species. A total of 134 Eurasian Collared Doves from Europe, Asia and the Caribbean (n = 20) were studied by sequencing a 658-bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Fifty-two different haplotypes and relatively high haplotype and nucleotide diversities (Hd±SD = 0.843±0.037 and π±SD = 0.026±0.013) were detected. Haplotype Ht1 was particularly dominant: it included 44.03% of the studied individuals, and contained sequences from 75% of the studied countries. Various analyses (FST, AMOVA, STRUCTURE) distinguished 2 groups on the genetic level, designated 'A' and 'B'. Two groups were also separated in the median-joining network and the maximum likelihood tree. The results of the neutrality tests were negative (Fu FS = -25.914; Tajima D = -2.606) and significantly different from zero (P≤0.001) for group A, whereas both values for group B were positive (Fu FS = 1.811; Tajima D = 0.674) and not significant (P>0.05). Statistically significant positive autocorrelation was revealed among individuals located up to 2000 km apart (r = 0.124; P = 0.001). The present results provide the first information on the genetic diversity and structure of the Eurasian Collared Dove, and can thereby serve as a factual and comparative basis for similar studies in the future.

  4. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hallman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4 years. Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+ worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05 with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05. In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  5. Estrus cycle monitoring of captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu in semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilla M. Maia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Collared peccaries (Peccary tajacu are among the most hunted species in Latin America due the appreciation of their pelt and meat. In order to optimize breeding management of captive born collared peccaries in semiarid conditions, the objective was to describe and correlate the changes in the ovarian ultrasonographic pattern, hormonal profile, vulvar appearance, and vaginal cytology during the estrus cycle in this species. During 45 days, females (n=4 were subjected each three days to blood collection destined to hormonal dosage by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. In the same occasions, evaluation of external genitalia, ovarian ultrasonography and vaginal cytology were conducted. Results are presented as means and standard deviations. According to hormonal dosage, six estrous cycles were identified as lasting 21.0 ± 5.7 days, being on average 6 days for the estrogenic phase and 15 days for the progesterone phase. Estrogen presented mean peak values of 55.6 ± 20.5 pg/mL. During the luteal phase, the high values for progesterone were 35.3 ± 4.4 ng/mL. The presence of vaginal mucus, a reddish vaginal mucosa and the separation of the vulvar lips were verified in all animals during the estrogenic peak. Through ultrasonography, ovarian follicles measuring 0.2±0.1 cm were visualized during the estrogen peak. Corpora lutea presented hyperechoic regions measuring 0.4±0.2 cm identified during luteal phase. No significant differences (P>0.05 between proportions of vaginal epithelial cells were identified when comparing estrogenic and progesterone phases. In conclusion, female collared peccaries, captive born in semiarid conditions, have an estral cycle that lasts 21.0±5.7 days, with estrous signs characterized by vulvar lips edema and hyperemic vaginal mucosa, coinciding with developed follicles and high estrogen levels.

  6. Discovery of a second population of white-collared seedeaters, Sporophila torqueola (Passeriformes: emberizidae) along the Rio Grande of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary K.; Blacklock, Gene W.; Hickman, Graham C.

    1999-01-01

    The range of the white-collared seedeater (Sporophila torqueola), a tropical grassland species, extends from Central America northward along both coasts of Mexico (Eitniear, 1997), including Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon (Howell and Webb, 1995). White-collared seedeaters historically occurred commonly in extreme southern Texas (Oberholser, 1974; Rappole and Blacklock, 1994). However, since about 1950, white-collared seedeaters have undergone a precipitous decline in south Texas. Studies during 1994-1996 identified only seven to nine breeding pairs in the only population known to occur in Texas, located ca. 55 km downriver of Laredo, Texas, in Zapata Co. (Eitniear, 1997). Outside of the historical range, very few records are documented. Oberholser (1974) reported that three white-collared seed- eater specimens were collected in 1948 in Webb Co., northwest of Laredo, and Arnold (1980) also collected a white-collared seedeater in Webb Co. Vagrants also have been sighted as far afield as Corpus Christi (Blacklock, 1964), ca. 200 km north of the Rio Grande (Fig. 1).

  7. Determinants of Livestock Prices in Ethiopian Pastoral Livestock Markets: Implications for Pastoral Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Belayneh, Hailemariam Teklewold; Feye, Getachew Legese; Alemu, Dawit; Negassa, Asfaw

    2009-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to identify determinants of market prices for cattle, sheep and goat in the export market value chain starting from pastoral markets to export abattoirs and live animal exporters. The study is based on the information generated through a formal survey conducted in the major pastoral livestock markets of Ethiopia with 128 collectors, small and big traders, feedlot operators, live animal and meat exporters. Hedonic price formation model was used to analyze t...

  8. Conceptual Framework for the National Pilot Project on Livestock and the Environment, Livestock Series Report 2

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Bouzaher; Stanley R. Johnson; Shannon Neibergs; Ron Jones; Larry Beran; Larry Frarey; Larry M. Hauck

    1993-01-01

    Assessing the effects of alternative policies that regulate nonpoint pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires insight into the interactions of livestock production practices, waste management technologies, and their impacts on the environment. CAFOs have been identified as a source of nutrient loadings that impair ground and surface water quality, and they can emit intense odor that impairs air quality. This report describes the conceptual framework and the integ...

  9. Rapid Differentiation between Livestock-Associated and Livestock-Independent Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Clades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jesper; Soldanova, Katerina; Aziz, Maliha; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Petersen, Andreas; Vandendriessche, Stien; Jiménez, Judy N.; Mammina, Caterina; van Belkum, Alex; Salmenlinna, Saara; Laurent, Frederic; Skov, Robert L.; Larsen, Anders R.; Andersen, Paal S.; Price, Lance B.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (CC398) isolates cluster into two distinct phylogenetic clades based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealing a basal human clade and a more derived livestock clade. The scn and tet(M) genes are strongly associated with the human and the livestock clade, respectively, due to loss and acquisition of mobile genetic elements. We present canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) assays that differentiate the two major host-associated S. aureus CC398 clades and a duplex PCR assay for detection of scn and tet(M). The canSNP assays correctly placed 88 S. aureus CC398 isolates from a reference collection into the human and livestock clades and the duplex PCR assay correctly identified scn and tet(M). The assays were successfully applied to a geographically diverse collection of 272 human S. aureus CC398 isolates. The simple assays described here generate signals comparable to a whole-genome phylogeny for major clade assignment and are easily integrated into S. aureus CC398 surveillance programs and epidemiological studies. PMID:24244535

  10. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... and all counties have since committed funding toward scaling up successful technologies.

  11. Australian blue-collar men's health and well-being: contextual issues for workplace health promotion interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Karin; Cronin, David; Corney, Tim; Green, Emma

    2013-09-01

    In Australia, blue-collar workers are predominantly male and form a unique and large (approximately 30%) subset of the Australian workforce. They exhibit particular health-related issues and, in comparison to other groups, often a lack of health promoting behavior. This article briefly discusses the Australian context and some of the key health issues blue-collar men face, in particular as it relates to construction workers. It reviews the impact of gender and socioeconomic factors in designing workplace health promotion interventions. This article considers practice strategies for health promoters in a specific workplace setting: it looks at meta-factors and industry-based contextual factors, including barriers to implementation and participation, while addressing common misconceptions about Australian blue-collar workers.

  12. Characteristics of combustion flame sprayed nickel aluminum using a Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar for off-normal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Reid S.

    A novel flame spray collar called the Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar (CSM) has been tested for use on the Sulzer Metco 5P II combustion flame spray gun. A comparison study of the stock nozzle and the CSM has been performed by evaluating the porosity, surface roughness, microhardness, tensile strength and microscopy of normal and off-normal sprayed NiAl deposits. The use of the CSM collar resulted in the need to position the sprayed coupons closer to the gun, which in turn affected the particle impact energy and particle temperatures of the NiAl powder. For the CSM, porosities had a larger scatterband, surface roughness was comparably the same, microhardness was lower, and tensile strength was higher. The microscopy analysis revealed a greater presence of unmelted particles and steeper intersplat boundaries for the CSM. For both processes, the porosity and surface roughness increased and the microhardness decreased as the spray angle decreased.

  13. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  14. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  15. Different parts, different stories: climate sensitivity of growth is stronger in root collars vs. stems in tundra shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Pascale; Angers-Blondin, Sandra; Gagnon, Marianne; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    Shrub densification has been widely reported across the circumpolar arctic and subarctic biomes in recent years. Long-term analyses based on dendrochronological techniques applied to shrubs have linked this phenomenon to climate change. However, the multi-stemmed structure of shrubs makes them difficult to sample and therefore leads to non-uniform sampling protocols among shrub ecologists, who will favor either root collars or stems to conduct dendrochronological analyses. Through a comparative study of the use of root collars and stems of Betula glandulosa, a common North American shrub species, we evaluated the relative sensitivity of each plant part to climate variables and assessed whether this sensitivity is consistent across three different types of environments in northwestern Québec, Canada (terrace, hilltop and snowbed). We found that root collars had greater sensitivity to climate than stems and that these differences were maintained across the three types of environments. Growth at the root collar was best explained by spring precipitation and summer temperature, whereas stem growth showed weak and inconsistent responses to climate variables. Moreover, sensitivity to climate was not consistent among plant parts, as individuals having climate-sensitive root collars did not tend to have climate-sensitive stems. These differences in sensitivity of shrub parts to climate highlight the complexity of resource allocation in multi-stemmed plants. Whereas stem initiation and growth are driven by microenvironmental variables such as light availability and competition, root collars integrate the growth of all plant parts instead, rendering them less affected by mechanisms such as competition and more responsive to signals of global change. Although further investigations are required to determine the degree to which these findings are generalizable across the tundra biome, our results indicate that consistency and caution in the choice of plant parts are a key

  16. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  17. Factors associated with utilization of traditional Chinese medicine by white collar foreign workers living in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Maria; Tai, Chen-Jei; Deng, Chung-Yeh; Chien, Li-Yin

    2009-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. Methods This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. Results The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31–40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Conclusion Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons. PMID:19144152

  18. Association between long working hours and sleep problems in white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Motoko; Morikawa, Yuko; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between long work hours and sleep disturbance among white-collar workers. We evaluated 1510 male white-collar full-time employees, between the ages of 18 and 59 years, using a comprehensive sleep quality questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All subjects worked in a light metal products factory in Japan. The mean number of monthly overtime work hours was determined using data from the previous 6 months from timecard records. Subjects were divided into five groups based on quintiles of the mean number of monthly overtime work hours: 63. Leisure time physical activity, drinking habits just before sleep, presence of family/partner and health status were used as confounding factors in the multiple regression model. The prevalence of short sleep hours, impairment of sleep efficiency and daytime dysfunction among seven components of PSQI increased, in a dose-response relationship, with overtime work hours. The prevalence of high global score (>5.5 points) was highest in workers with overtime hours ≥50 h week(-1). The odds ratios after adjustment for confounding factors for high global score using less than 26 h as a reference group were 1.67 for workers with ≥50 h and long work hours correlate with reduced sleep quality in a dose-response manner. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Sperm morphological and morphometric evaluation in captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia C. Sousa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different staining methods for the evaluation of sperm morphology by light microscopy and also to describe the morphometry of the entire sperm in collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu. Semen from 10 males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, and concentration. Semen smears were prepared through three different staining methods: Bengal rose, brome-phenol blue, and eosin-nigrosin. Smears were evaluated under light microscopy and sperm morphologic alterations were determined in percentage. In addition, sperm morphometric analysis was conducted by light microscopy coupled to image analyzer software. The smears stained with Bengal Rose provide the best results for the visualization of the sperm tail, midpiece, and head. The use of eosin-nigrosin stain did not allow an adequate impregnation, and some sperm presented a few contrasts with the background. A higher incidence of bent coiled tails was verified in the use of brome-phenol blue staining (P<0.05. Through morphometric evaluation, it was observed that the tail occupies the greatest proportion (89% of the sperm which presents a discretely elongated head. According to the results, the use of the Bengal Rose stain is recommended for the morphologic evaluation of the collared peccary sperm.

  20. Root deformation reduces tolerance of lodgepole pine to attack by Warren root collar weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jeanne A; Lindgren, B Staffan

    2010-04-01

    Surveys were conducted on regenerating stands of lodgepole pine to determine the relationship between root deformation and susceptibility to attack by the Warren root collar weevil, Hylobius warreni Wood. The total number of trees attacked by H. warreni did not differ between planted and natural trees. A matched case-control logistic regression suggested that root cross-sectional area was more important in predicting weevil attack for naturally regenerated trees than for planted trees, but weevils were associated with a larger reduction in height-to-diameter ratios for trees with planted root characteristics than for trees with natural root form. Neither the stability of attacked versus unattacked trees differed significantly and there was no significant interaction of weevil attack and tree type, but weevil-killed trees had different root characteristics than alive, attacked trees. Lateral distribution and root cross-sectional area were significant predictors of alive attacked trees versus weevil-killed trees, suggesting that trees with poor lateral spread or poor root cross-sectional area are more likely to die from weevil attack. We conclude that root deformation does not necessarily increase susceptibility to attack but may increase the likelihood of mortality. Thus, measures to facilitate good root form are needed when planting pine in areas with high risk of Warren root collar weevil attack.

  1. Total workload, work stress and perceived symptoms in Swedish male and female white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Gunilla; Berntsson, Leeni; Lundberg, Ulf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse how paid work, unpaid household tasks, child care, work-child care interactions and perceived work stress are associated with reported symptoms in male and female white-collar employees. A questionnaire was mailed to 1300 men and 1300 women belonging to the white-collar sector, with at least 35 hours of regular employment a week and a participant age of between 32 and 58 years. It contained items relating to total workload (hours spent on paid work, unpaid household tasks and childcare), subjective indices for work stress and symptoms. The response rate was 65% (743 women; 595 men). Gender difference in symptom prevalence was tested by analyses of variance. Odds ratios were used to estimate the bivariate associations between work-related variables and symptom prevalence. A multivariate analysis estimated the effect of paid and unpaid work interaction, work-childcare interplay and possible synergy. The frequency and severity of symptoms was higher in women than in men (P women's health was determined by the interaction between conditions at work and household duties (OR 2.09; 1.06-4.14), whereas men responded more selectively to long working hours, i.e. >50 h/week (OR 1.61; 1.02-2.54). However, childcare (women.

  2. Gender differences in work-home interplay and symptom perception among Swedish white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, L; Lundberg, U; Krantz, G

    2006-12-01

    To analyse gender differences in paid and unpaid workload and symptoms in matched groups of Swedish white-collar workers with children. Paid and unpaid workload and perceived stress from paid work, conflict between demands and control over household work were measured by a total workload (TWL) questionnaire. Some symptoms were rated with regard to frequency and severity as a measure of health. Cross-sectional analyses were performed. Matched groups of male (n = 440) and female (n = 529) well-educated white-collar workers in full-time employment, aged 32-58 years and living with children in the home. Women in higher positions in Sweden are healthier than the average population of women, but report more symptoms than men in the same position as well as more stress from paid work, more conflict between demands and a greater TWL. However, women also reported more control over household duties and TWL was not associated with more symptoms. The men were mainly focused on their paid work role and perhaps even more so than men in the general population as they were fairly resistant to feelings of conflicting demands. Even among matched groups of full-time employed, well-educated men and women, traditional gender differences in division of responsibilities and time allocation were found. Even though the women were healthy at this stage, they might risk future ill health, owing to high workload, stress and feelings of conflicting demands.

  3. [Pressure sores secondary to immobilization with cervical collar: a complication of acute cervical injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molano Alvarez, Esteban; Murillo Pérez, María del Ara; Salobral Villegas, María Teresa; Domínguez Caballero, Mireia; Cuenca Solanas, Manuela; García Fuentes, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Cervical collars are essential in the treatment of patients with suspicion or verification of acute cervical spine injury (ACSI). One of the complications of these devices is the development of pressure scores (PS). This study aims to determine its incidence in our unit, the characteristics of patients with ACSI who suffer PS due to the collar and to describe aspects related with these injuries. We include 92 patients with ACSI hospitalized more than 24 hours from January 2002 to December 2003. We analyze demographic variables, incidence, risk factors and characteristics of the PS that develop. The incidence of these lesions was 23.9%. Patients with PS presented: a higher injury severity score (ISS) (37.5 9.8 vs. 31.3 14.9), a greater percentage of catheter carriers of intracraneal pressure (ICP) (55.6% vs. 16.2%), longer time of mechanical ventilation (15.4 8.2 vs. 6.1 9) and longer stays (24.6 10.9 vs. 10 10.3), all statistically significant (pACSI, elevated ISS, monitoring of ICP, mechanical ventilation and prolonged stays is required. The occipital zone requires special attention due to the seriousness of the injuries recorded. We suggest a specific multidisciplinary protocol for this problem.

  4. Factors associated with utilization of traditional Chinese medicine by white collar foreign workers living in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Maria; Tai, Chen-Jei; Deng, Chung-Yeh; Chien, Li-Yin

    2009-01-14

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31-40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons.

  5. Blue-collar workplaces: a setting for reducing heart health inequalities in New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Brad; Bullen, Chris; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Thornley, Simon

    2007-09-07

    To review the evidence for the effectiveness of workplaces as settings for cardiovascular health promotion and reduction of heart health inequalities in New Zealand. Literature review and structured appraisal of 154 articles meeting inclusion criteria, of which one review and three trials addressed cardiovascular interventions specifically, and four systematic reviews addressed the effectiveness of workplace health promotion programmes generally. The reviewed studies showed that workplaces have good potential as settings for health promotion. We found mixed but largely supportive evidence that workplace interventions can lead to improvements in health outcomes, workplace environments, lifestyles, and productivity. Workplace programmes that ranked highest in both clinical and cost-effectiveness targeted industries employing large numbers of blue-collar workers, tackled multiple risk factors, intervened at both individual and environmental levels and incorporated occupational safety components. Such programmes appear to offer a substantial return on investment for employers in other countries, but local evidence is lacking. Employers and workers in blue-collar industries should be encouraged to participate in comprehensive heart health promotion programmes as a strategy for reducing existing socioeconomic and ethnic disparities in health. However, high-quality evidence of improved employee health and productivity is needed from well-designed New Zealand-based research to ensure that these programmes are optimally configured for effectiveness and attractive to employers and employees alike.

  6. The impact of long working hours on psychosocial stress response among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjin; Suh, Chunhui; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jae Oh

    2017-02-07

    This study examined the association between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In total, 1,122 white-collar workers from a company in Korea completed self-administered questionnaires following a lecture about the study aim, procedures, and confidentiality. Psychosocial stress responses were evaluated using the Psychosocial Well-being Index - Short Form (PWI-SF), and psychosocial working conditions were evaluated with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale - Short Form (KOSS-SF). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for demographic variables and psychosocial working conditions to examine associations between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In comparison with the reference group, which worked 40-44 hours per week, the crude odds ratio (OR) of the respondents who worked 60 or more hours was 4.56 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.55-8.15) in terms of psychosocial stress responses. After adjusting for demographic variables, the adjusted OR of those working ≥60 hours was 5.61 (95% CI, 3.01-10.47). After adjusting for both demographic variables and psychosocial working conditions, the adjusted OR of those working ≥60 hours was 3.25 (95% CI, 1.56-6.79). This study found that long working hours are significantly related to psychosocial stress responses among white-collar workers in one Korean company.

  7. Histology of palate and soft palate tonsil of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2014-10-01

    Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Factors associated with utilization of traditional Chinese medicine by white collar foreign workers living in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Chung-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. Methods This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. Results The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31–40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Conclusion Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons.

  9. Measuring the actual I-131 thyroid uptake curve with a collar detector system: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinks, Peter; Van Gils, Koen; Dickerscheid, Dennis B.M.; Habraken, Jan B.A. [Department of Medical Physics, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kranenborg, Ellen; Lavalaye, Jules [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Radionuclide therapy using I-131 is commonly used for the treatment of benign thyroid diseases. The therapeutic dose to be administered is calculated based on the type of disease, the volume of the thyroid, and the measured uptake percentage. This methodology assumes a similar biological half-life of iodine, whereas in reality a large variation in biological half-life is observed. More knowledge about the actual biological half-life of iodine for individual patients will improve the quantification of the delivered radiation dose during radioiodine therapy and could aid the evaluation of the success of the therapy. In this feasibility study we used a novel measurement device [Collar Therapy Indicator (CoTI)] to measure the uptake curve of patients undergoing I-131 radioiodine therapy. The CoTI device is a light-weight wearable device that contains two independent gamma radiation detectors that are placed in a collar. By comparing results of thyroid uptake measurements with results obtained with a gamma camera, the precision of the system is demonstrated. Additionally, for three patients the uptake curve is measured during 48 h of admission in the hospital. The presented results demonstrate the feasibility of the new measurement device to measure the uptake curve during radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  10. Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers.......The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers....

  11. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  13. An integrated approach towards future ballistic neck protection materials selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Helliker, Mark; Carr, Debra J

    2013-05-01

    Ballistic protection for the neck has historically taken the form of collars attached to the ballistic vest (removable or fixed), but other approaches, including the development of prototypes incorporating ballistic material into the collar of an under body armour shirt, are now being investigated. Current neck collars incorporate the same ballistic protective fabrics as the soft armour of the remaining vest, reflecting how ballistic protective performance alone has historically been perceived as the most important property for neck protection. However, the neck has fundamental differences from the thorax in terms of anatomical vulnerability, flexibility and equipment integration, necessitating a separate solution from the thorax in terms of optimal materials selection. An integrated approach towards the selection of the most appropriate combination of materials to be used for each of the two potential designs of future neck protection has been developed. This approach requires evaluation of the properties of each potential material in addition to ballistic performance alone, including flexibility, mass, wear resistance and thermal burden. The aim of this article is to provide readers with an overview of this integrated approach towards ballistic materials selection and an update of its current progress in the development of future ballistic neck protection.

  14. Searching for Symbolic Value of Cattle: Tropical Livestock Units, Market Price, and Cultural Value of Maasai Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Quinlan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine metabolic, market, and symbolic values of livestock relative to cultural “positioning” by gender, marriage, and household production among Maasai people in Simanjiro, Tanzania to assess local “proximate currencies” relevant for “cultural success.” Data from mixed methods ethnographic research include qualitative interviews since 2012, observation of 85 livestock market sales in 2013 and 2015, and 37 short key informant interviews in 2015. We examine fit between market values, Tropical Livestock Units (TLU, weight-based species exchange ratio, and perceived value from interviews for moran (unmarried men, muruo (married men, and tɔmɔnɔ́k (married women. Hedonic regression using livestock species, sex, maturity, and size accounted for 90% of the local market price of livestock. We compared the market-based exchange ratio between cattle and smallstock (sheep and goats to TLU and perceived values situating symbolic value of cattle in terms of Maasai household production schema. One TLU model accurately predicted market exchange ratios, while another predicted hypothetical exchanges, suggesting need for improved livestock wealth estimation for pastoralists. Ritual context, subsistence work, and cultural position influenced perceived values: Moran overvalued cattle by 100% of the local market value. Tɔmɔnɔ́k accurately perceived the market exchange ratio despite never directly engaging in livestock market transactions. Muruo perceived exchange ratios intermediate between moran and tɔmɔnɔ́k. We argue that these perceptions of value reflect distinct labor responsibilities of moran, muruo, and tɔmɔnɔ́k in livestock management, differential value of bridewealth, and control of meat and milk.Attention to value of different livestock species in cultural models of production may prove useful for development efforts.

  15. Development of germline manipulation technologies in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelaw, C.B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic improvement by conventional breeding is restricted to those genetic loci present in the parental breeding individuals. Gene addition through transgenic technology offers a route to overcome this restriction. The transgene can be introduced into the germ cells or the fertilized zygote, using viral vectors, by simple co-culture or direct micro-injection. Alternatively, the transgene can be incorporated into a somatic cell, which is then incorporated into a developing embryo. This latter approach allows gene-targeting strategies to be employed. Using pronuclear injection methods, transgenic livestock have been generated with the aim of enhancing breeding traits of agricultural importance, or for biomedical applications. Neither has been taken beyond the development phase. Before they are, in addition to issues of commercial development, basic technological issues addressing inefficiency and complexity of the methodology need to be overcome, and appropriate gene targets identified. At the moment, perhaps the most encouraging development involves the use of viral vectors that offer increased simplicity and efficiency. By combining this new technology with transgenes that evoke the powerful intracellular machinery involved in RNA interference, pioneering applications to generate animals that are less susceptible to infectious disease may be possible. (author)

  16. Livestock and land: trends, status and research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M.; Cecile, G.

    2017-12-01

    Livestock are one of the largest users of land. The use vast areas of rangelands and pasturelands and use a third of the global cropland for feed production. The demand of rlivestock products is growing at an accelerated rate due to large increases in income and urbanisation, primarily in the developing world. While most expansion is occuring the the poultry and pork sectors, ruminant meat and milk are also increasing significantly. There is concern as to how to manage the environmental footprints of these very dynamic systems. At the same, time, significnat opportunities to intensify land use in the the livestock sector exist, primarily in grasslands. This paper gives an overview of the trends in land use in the global livestock sector, assess the status of supply and demand of livestock products and how these might be met in the future and cocludes by proposing a research agenda with key areas that merit more attention from biophysical, social and economic scientists.

  17. Risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in women exposed to livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Henriksen, T B; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    outcome in women with self-reported occupational or domestic contact with livestock compared to pregnant women without such contact. The Danish National Birth Cohort collected information on pregnancy outcome from 100 418 pregnant women (1996-2002) from which three study populations with occupational and....../or domestic exposure to livestock and a reference group of women with no animal contact was sampled. Outcome measures were miscarriage, very preterm birth (before gestational week 32), preterm birth (before 37 gestational weeks), small for gestational age (SGA), and perinatal death. Adverse reproductive...... outcomes were assessed in four different exposure groups of women with occupational or domestic exposure to livestock with no association found between exposure to livestock and miscarriage, preterm birth, SGA or perinatal death. These findings should diminish general occupational health concerns...

  18. GENDER ROLES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION: THE CASE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    livestock fell heavily on women and female children. Women ... Brain (1975), on the position of women in the Rural Settlement Schemes and others did not ... the extension system of the need to be gender sensitive in the development and.

  19. Novel Livestock Vaccines for Viral Diseases in Africa toward ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa's livestock industry The research will take place in Kenya and South Africa, where ... They will enhance food security by increasing production efficiency and ... provided through Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD).

  20. Five diseases, one vaccine - a boost for emerging livestock farmers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 of the 16 most devastating animal diseases ... good use of livestock vaccines, emerging ... T Chetty, S Goga & A Mather (graphic design by C Lombard) .... Emerging farmers discussing an information pamphlet developed within the project.

  1. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  2. Economic efficiency of extensive livestock production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of extensive livestock production are present worldwide, primarily in regions where natural resources such as pastures and meadows could be used. Extensive livestock production is common in the EU, as well. Therefore the goal of this research was to establish economic efficiency of extensive livestock production types and to compare their efficiency with some intensive livestock production types. In order to achieve that goal FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network methodology was used. Source of information was FADN database as well as appropriate sector analysis and publications of European commission. It has been determined that sheep and goat production is competitive with intensive production types (dairy and granivores - pigs and poultry. Cattle production (other than dairy production proved to be economically inefficient due to low output level.

  3. The role of prostaglandins in livestock production | Okon | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... synthesized) fashion. Prostaglandins are therefore regarded as essential mediators of female reproductive processes, hence, this paper seeks to review the role of Prostaglandins which is exploited in livestock production especially oestrus synchronization and induced parturition. KEYWORDS: Prostaglandins, Production ...

  4. LVIF Call 2 - Innovations to improve livestock vaccines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Musa Mulongo

    production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against livestock ... novel vaccine design/formulations that present significant improvements over ... and which can be transferred to vaccine manufacturers for subsequent registration of.

  5. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland and mid altitude areas ... production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution. A single-visit multi subject formal survey method was used in the survey.

  6. Climate variability and impacts on east African livestock herders: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate variability and impacts on east African livestock herders: the Maasai of ... and vulnerability to climate variability and climate change is assessed, using data ... Model results suggest that the ecosystem is quite resilient and suggests that ...

  7. A South African perspective on livestock production in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality protein sources for human consumption, ruminant production systems are targeted as they are perceived to produce large quantities of GHG. Livestock is also accused of using large quantities of water, an allegation that is based on ...

  8. Livestock Husbandry and Economic-Sustainability of Small Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... their engagement in different operations of livestock husbandry for economic sustainability. ... husbandry for barn and cleaning while men performed 71.5% marketing activities.

  9. Analysing Incentive and Cost Sharing Issues in Livestock Disease Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biira, Juliet

    This PhD thesis tackles two main issues in livestock health management: a) the incentives for animal disease prevention on Danish livestock farms and b) allocation of costs of animal disease outbreaks and animal disease preparedness, among stakeholders involved in the livestock sector. The main...... contributions of this thesis are firstly the investigation of incentives for Danish livestock farmers to prevent animal diseases at the farm level and recommendations on how they could be improved. Secondly, the exploration of a mutual fund as a possibility for risk pooling among farmers and how it can...... is used in paper 5. The thesis consists of two parts; first is the introduction section where I introduce the thesis in general and provide an overview of the objectives and main theories and the second part includes the 5 papers which address the thesis objectives. Paper 1 uses existing literature...

  10. Computer Prediction of Air Quality in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Bjerg, Bjarne

    In modem livestock buildings the design of ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air quality. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air distribution makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry and heat sources in the design process. This paper...... presents numerical prediction of air flow in a livestock building compared with laboratory measurements. An example of the calculation of contaminant distribution is given, and the future possibilities of the method are discussed....

  11. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, Tsewang; Fox, Joseph L; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer

    2007-04-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses significantly more than expected, whereas they killed other livestock types in proportion to their abundance. The three villages combined incurred an estimated annual monetary loss of approximately $USD 12,120 amounting to approximately $USD 190/household/y. This relatively high total annual loss occurred primarily because of depredation of the most valuable livestock types such as yak and horse. Conservation actions should initially attempt to target decrease of predation on these large and valuable livestock species.

  12. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  13. Estimation of Water Requirements by Livestock in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    MUBAREKA Sarah; MAES JOACHIM; LAVALLE Carlo; DE ROO Arie

    2013-01-01

    The Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water aims to positively contribute to the European Union's Water Policy through a series of studies to assess the quantity and quality of this precious resource. An important part of that water balance is the accounting of water removed from rivers or aquifers by different sectorial needs. The map series presented here shows the water requirements for the livestock sector. These maps are calculated based on livestock density maps for 2005, normalized...

  14. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What constitutes âraisingâ of livestock. 780.121 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term “raising” employed with reference to livestock in section 3(f...

  15. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  16. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... similar livestock. 309.3 Section 309.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises of... § 309.13. (b) Livestock plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection any disease or condition that, under...

  17. Strategies for improving water use efficiency in livestock feed production in rain-fed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.; Oosting, S.J.; Haileslassie, A.; Duncan, A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall

  18. Cap’n’collar differentiates the mandible from the maxilla in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The biting mandible of the arthropods is thought to have evolved in the ancestor of the insects, crustaceans and myriapods: the Mandibulata. A unique origin suggests a common set of developmental genes will be required to pattern the mandible in different arthropods. To date we have functional studies on patterning of the mandibular segment of Drosophila melanogaster showing in particular the effects of the gene cap’n’collar (cnc), however, the dipteran head is far from representative of insects or of more distantly related mandibulates; Drosophila does not even possess a mandibular appendage. To study the development of a more representative insect mandible, we chose the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and investigated the function of the Tribolium orthologs of cap’n’collar (Tc-cnc) and the Hox gene Deformed (Tc-Dfd). In order to determine the function of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd, transcripts were knocked down by maternal RNA interference (RNAi). The effects of gene knockdown were examined in the developing embryos and larvae. The effect of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd knockdown on the expression of other genes was determined by using in situ hybridization on Tribolium embryos. Results Our analyses show that Tc-cnc is required for specification of the identity of the mandibular segment of Tribolium and differentiates the mandible from maxillary identity. Loss of Tc-cnc function results in a transformation of the mandible to maxillary identity as well as deletion of the labrum. Tc-Dfd and the Tribolium homolog of proboscipedia (Tc-mxp = maxillopedia), Hox genes that are required to pattern the maxillary appendage, are expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. Tribolium homologs of paired (Tc-prd) and Distal-less (Tc-Dll) that are expressed in the endites and telopodites of embryonic appendages are also expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. We also show that Tc-Dfd is required to activate the collar of Tc

  19. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  20. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane [School of Economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, 00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2009-05-15

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak- Hyun; Nam, Yun-Ku; Joo Lim, Seung

    2014-01-01

    Livestock wastewater is generally very difficult to be treated by conventional wastewater treatment techniques because it contains high-strength organics (COD), ammonium (NH 4 + ), phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and suspended solids. Struvite crystallization has been recently studied for the simultaneous removal of NH 4 + and PO 4 3− . In this study, gamma ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of the anaerobically digested livestock wastewater. The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater were investigated. As a result, gamma ray irradiation can decrease the concentration of COD, NH 4 + and PO 4 3− contained in the livestock wastewater. This results in not only an enhancement of the struvite crystallization efficiency but also a decrease in the chemical demands for the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. - Highlights: • Gamma ray was applied prior to struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. • Gamma ray resulted in an enhancement of struvite crystallization efficiency. • This is due to the decrease of COD concentration by gamma ray irradiation

  2. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa.

  3. Strategies to control odours in livestock facilities: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ubeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Odours generated in livestock buildings constitute one of the most relevant air quality issues of intensive livestock production. Reducing nuisance episodes related to odour exposure is therefore essential for a sustainable livestock production. In this study, the state-of-the-art on odour mitigation techniques in livestock housing is critically reviewed. Scientific advances in the last decade are revised and research needs are also identified. The complex nature of livestock odours is firstly reviewed and examined. Then, the most relevant odour control strategies are analyzed in terms of present knowledge and future needs. The strategies considered are: nutritional strategies, manure additives, building design, air filtration, manure covers, manure treatment systems and windbreaks. Finally, future research needs and priorities when establishing mitigation techniques are identified. Despite important recent advances, there are still some challenges for scientists, producers and regulators, particularly related to field evaluation of odours. Therefore, to control livestock odours effectively, using standardized field assessment techniques will be required. Also, investigating measurement and model errors may be useful to better understand the limitations of the current methods, as well as to identify research priorities.

  4. Estimate of livestock water use in Nebraska during 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The estimated volume of 148,120 acre-ft of water used by livestock in Nebraska during 1980 is the second largest (after Texas) volume used for livestock production in the fifty Sates. Although water used by livestock is a small percentage of the total water used in Nebraska, this use has a major impact on the farm economy of the State, as livestock sales accounted for 59% of the total farm market cash receipts in 1980. About 16%, or 23 ,590 acre-ft, of this use is estimated to be from surface water sources, with the remaining 124,530 acre-ft pumped from the State 's groundwater supply. The estimated livestock water use in Nebraska 's 93 counties during 1980 ranged from 340 acre-ft in Hooker County to 6,770 acre-ft in Cherry County. Livestock water use by Hydrologic Units ranged from 20 acre-ft in the Hat Creek basin 10120106) to 10,370 acre-ft in the Elkhorn River basin, and the Natural Resources Districts ' use ranged from 1 ,880 acre-ft in the South Platte NRD to 17,830 acre-ft in the Lower Elkhorn NRD. (Author 's abstract)

  5. National Livestock Policy of Nepal: Needs and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Pradhanang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Nepal’s national livestock policies and considers how they can be improved to help meet the pressing national challenges of economic development, equity, poverty alleviation, gender mainstreaming, inclusion of marginalized and underprivileged communities, and climate vulnerability. Nepal is in the process of transforming its government from a unitary system to a federal democratic structure through the new constitution expected by 2015, offering the opportunity to bring a new set of priorities and stakeholders to policymaking. Nepal’s livestock subsector comes most directly within the purview of the National Agricultural Policy 2004, Agro-Business Policy, 2006 and Agricultural Sectoral Operating Policies of the Approach Paper to 13th Plan, 2012/13–2015/16 policy instruments. We systematically review these and other livestock-related national policies through analysis of their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT. We conclude with the need to formulate a separate, integrated national livestock policy so that Nepal can sustainably increase livestock productivity and achieve diversification, commercialization and competitiveness of the livestock subsector within the changing national and international contexts.

  6. Prognostic factors for respiratory sickness absence and return to work among blue collar workers and office personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Alexopoulos (Evangelos); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To analyze factors that determine the occurrence of sickness absence due to respiratory disorders and the time it takes to return to work. METHODS: A longitudinal study with 2 year follow up was conducted among 326 male blue collar and white

  7. Prison Field Trips: Can White-Collar Criminals Positively Affect the Ethical and Legal Behavior of Marketing and MBA Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Marketing educators bear some responsibility for teaching ethics and legal issues to their students. Visits to white-collar criminals in a federal prison camp are one method of achieving this task. This article develops and empirically assesses ten objectives for such a visit by MBA and undergraduate marketing classes. Undergraduates rated the…

  8. Psychosocial Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among White and Blue-collar Workers at Private and Public Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januario, Leticia B; Batistao, Mariana V; Coury, Helenice Jcg; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz; Sato, Tatiana O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal and psychosocial perception and compare these conditions regarding the type of job (white or blue-collar) and the type of management model (private or public). Forty-seven public white-collar (PuWC), 84 private white-collar (PrWC) and 83 blue-collar workers (PrBC) were evaluated. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial factors. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) was measured to evaluate sensory responses. According to JCQ, all groups were classified as active profile. There was a significant association between work engagement and workers' categories (p workers had the highest scores for all the UWES domains, while PrBC had the lowest ones. PPT showed that PrBC workers had an increased sensitivity for left deltoid (p workers had an increased sensitivity for both epicondyles than PuWC (right p  0.05). This study showed differences in psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers engaged in different types of jobs and work organization. Personal and work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and PPT responses were different across workers' group. Despite all, there was no significant difference in reported symptoms across the groups, possibly indicating that the physical load is similar among the sectors.

  9. "Blue-Collar Blues" : kõigi maade töötud, ühinege! / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010. Kuraator Anders Härm. Näituse ajendiks on 1. juulist 2009 Eestis kehtima hakanud töölepinguseadus, näituse fookus on töösuhetel

  10. A new member of the greater double-collared sunbird complex (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowie, Rauri C. K.; Fjeldså, Jon; Kiure, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    a cautious approach and formally describe the Rubeho and Udzungwa greater double-collared sunbird population as a subspecies of Cinnyris whytei. This new sunbird taxon has been recorded only above 1700 m in scrub on the forest/grassland ecotone in a very restricted area in the Rubeho and Udzungwa Highlands...

  11. PTFE bypass to below-knee arteries: distal vein collar or not? A prospective randomised multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Fredrik; Bergqvist, David; Norgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Patency and limb salvage after synthetic bypass to the arteries below-knee are inferior to that which can be achieved with autologous vein. Use of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis has been suggested to improve patency and limb salvage, a problem that is analysed in this randomised clinical...

  12. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  13. Interpretación en arqueología : piezas de collar de una necrópolis navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Castiela Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los restos de ajuar, recuperados en la necrópolis que han seguido el rito de la cremación, nos llegan muy alterados y requieren en ocasiones un esfuerzo especial para su comprensión. En el caso de varias piezas procedentes de La Atalaya, que formaban parte de collares, cuya interpretación ofrecemos

  14. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain

  15. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks: An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, W.H.; Schoonhoven, L.; Schuurmans, M.J.; Leenen, L.P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain

  16. Effectiveness of dog collars impregnated with 4% deltamethrin in controlling visceral leishmaniasis in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidade: Phlebotominae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque E; Andrade, Andrey José de; Quint, Bruno Beust; Raffoul, Gabriel Elias Salmen; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2018-03-26

    There is little information on the effect of using deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated collars (Scalibor®) in controlling visceral leishmaniasis in Lutzomyia longipalpis by comparing populations in intervention and non-intervention areas. Phlebotomine flies were captured over 30 months in four neighbourhoods with intense visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Fortaleza and Montes Claros. We calculated the rates of domicile infestation, relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis, and Lu. longipalpis distribution in each site, capture location (intra- and peridomestic locations) and area (intervention and non-intervention areas). In the control area in Fortaleza, the relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis was 415 specimens at each capture site, whereas in the intervention area it was 159.25; in Montes Claros, the relative abundance was 5,660 specimens per capture site in the control area, whereas in the intervention area it was 2,499.4. The use of dog collars was associated with a reduction in captured insects of 15% (p = 0.004) and 60% (p < 0.001) in Montes Claros and Fortaleza, respectively. We observed a lower vector abundance in the intervention areas, suggesting an effect of the insecticide-impregnated collars.

  17. Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Manners, G D; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L; Schoch, T K

    1999-02-01

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic plants that contain numerous diterpenoid alkaloids which occur as one of two structural types: (1) lycotonine, and (2) 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL-type). Among the lycoctonine type alkaloids are three N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL-type) alkaloids which appear to be most toxic: methyllycaconitine (MLA), 14-deacetylnudicauline (DAN), and nudicauline. An ester function at C-18 is an important structural requirement for toxicity. Intoxication results from neuromuscular paralysis, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the muscle and brain are blocked by toxic alkaloids. Clinical signs include labored breathing, rapid and irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and collapse. Toxic alkaloid concentration generally declines in tall larkspurs with maturation, but alkaloid concentration varies over years and from plant to plant, and is of little use for predicting consumption by cattle. Knowledge of toxic alkaloid concentration is valuable for management purposes when cattle begin to eat larkspur. Cattle generally begin consuming tall larkspur after flowering racemes are elongated, and consumption increases as larkspur matures. Weather is also a major factor in cattle consumption, as cattle tend to eat more larkspur during or just after summer storms. Management options that may be useful for livestock producers include conditioning cattle to avoid larkspur (food aversion learning), grazing tall larkspur ranges before flowering (early grazing) and after seed shatter (late grazing), grazing sheep before cattle, herbicidal control of larkspur plants, and drug therapy for intoxicated animals. Some potentially fruitful research avenues include examining alkaloid chemistry in low and plains larkspurs, developing immunologic methods for analyzing larkspur alkaloids, developing drug therapy, and devising grazing regimes specifically for low and plains larkspur.

  18. Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Livestock and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Jacques; Nielsen, Klaus; Saegerman, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Aim To describe and discuss the merits of various direct and indirect methods applied in vitro (mainly on blood or milk) or in vivo (allergic test) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals. Methods The recent literature on brucellosis diagnostic tests was reviewed. These diagnostic tests are applied with different goals, such as national screening, confirmatory diagnosis, certification, and international trade. The validation of such diagnostic tests is still an issue, particularly in wildlife. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. Results Measuring the kinetics of antibody production after Brucella spp. infection is essential for analyzing serological results correctly and may help to predict abortion. Indirect ELISAs help to discriminate 1) between false positive serological reactions and true brucellosis and 2) between vaccination and infection. Biotyping of Brucella spp. provides valuable epidemiological information that allows tracing an infection back to the sources in instances where several biotypes of a given Brucella species are circulating. Polymerase chain reaction and new molecular methods are likely to be used as routine typing and fingerprinting methods in the coming years. Conclusion The diagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife is complex and serological results need to be carefully analyzed. The B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccines are the cornerstones of control programs in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. There is no vaccine available for pigs or for wildlife. In the absence of a human brucellosis vaccine, prevention of human brucellosis depends on the control of the disease in animals. PMID:20718082

  19. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Crafford, Dionne; Horak, Ivan G; Stanneck, Dorothee

    2012-07-27

    The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w) and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats' faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected with the metacestodes of D. caninum, thus preventing infection with the

  20. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourie Josephus J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Methods Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats’ faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Results Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. Conclusion The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected

  1. The Impact of Stakeholders' Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-01-25

    Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers) were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a 'western' international organization. This study demonstrates the differences in

  2. Searching for Symbolic Value of Cattle: Tropical Livestock Units, Market Price, and Cultural Value of Maasai Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Quinlan; Isaya Rumas; Godfrey Naiskye; Marsha Quinlan; Jonathan Yoder

    2016-01-01

    We examine metabolic, market, and symbolic values of livestock relative to cultural “positioning” by gender, marriage, and household production among Maasai people in Simanjiro, Tanzania to assess local “proximate currencies” relevant for “cultural success.” Data from mixed methods ethnographic research include qualitative interviews since 2012, observation of 85 livestock market sales in 2013 and 2015, and 37 short key informant interviews in 2015. We examine fit between market values, Tropi...

  3. Source-specific social support and circulating inflammatory markers among white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-06-01

    Despite known beneficial effects of social support on cardiovascular health, the pathway through which sources of support (supervisor, coworkers, family/friends) influence inflammatory markers is not completely understood. We investigated the independent and moderating associations between social support and inflammatory markers. A total of 137 male white-collar employees underwent a blood draw for measurement of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte and leukocyte counts, and completed a questionnaire on social support. Multivariable linear regression analyses controlling for covariates revealed that supervisor support was inversely associated with IL-6 (β = -0.24, p markers. Social support from the immediate supervisor may be a potential mechanism through which social support exerts beneficial effects on inflammatory markers in working men.

  4. Changing Workplaces to Reduce Work-Family Conflict: Schedule Control in a White-Collar Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis; Tranby, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Work-family conflicts are common and consequential for employees, their families, and work organizations. Can workplaces be changed to reduce work-family conflict? Previous research has not been able to assess whether workplace policies or initiatives succeed in reducing work-family conflict or increasing work-family fit. Using longitudinal data collected from 608 employees of a white-collar organization before and after a workplace initiative was implemented, we investigate whether the initiative affects work-family conflict and fit, whether schedule control mediates these effects, and whether work demands, including long hours, moderate the initiative's effects on work-family outcomes. Analyses clearly demonstrate that the workplace initiative positively affects the work-family interface, primarily by increasing employees' schedule control. This study points to the importance of schedule control for our understanding of job quality and for management policies and practices.

  5. Compressive Strength Prediction of Square Concrete Columns Retrofitted with External Steel Collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjisuryadi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse confining stress in concrete members, commonly provided by transverse reinforcement, has been recognized to enhance strength and ductility. Nowadays, the confining method has been further developed to external confinement approach. This type of confinement can be used for retrofitting existing concrete columns. Many external confining techniques have been proven to be successful in retrofitting circular columns. However, for square or rectangular columns, providing effective confining stress by external retrofitting method is not a simple task due to high stress concentration at column’s corners. This paper proposes an analytical model to predict the peak strength of square concrete columns confined by external steel collars. Comparison with the experimental results showed that the model can predict the peak strength reasonably well. However, it should be noted that relatively larger amount of steel is needed to achieve comparable column strength enhancement when it is compared with those of conve tional internally-confined columns.

  6. Field test and evaluation of the passive neutron coincidence collar for prototype fast reactor fuel subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Keddar, A.

    1982-08-01

    The passive neutron Coincidence Collar, which was developed for the verification of plutonium content in fast reactor fuel subassemblies, has been field tested using Prototype Fast Reactor fuel. For passive applications, the system measures the 240 Pu-effective mass from the spontaneous fission rate, and in addition, a self-interrogation technique is used to determine the fissile content in the subassembly. Both the passive and active modes were evaluated at the Windscale Works in the United Kingdom. The results of the tests gave a standard deviation 0.75% for the passive count and 3 to 7% for the active measurement for a 1000-s counting time. The unit will be used in the future for the verification of plutonium in fresh fuel assemblies

  7. El collar de la paloma : tratado sobre el amor y los amantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina López Pita

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se recoge en este trabajo la opinión que algunos estudiosos han dado sobre una de las mejores obras de la literatura árabe, calificada por don Emilio García Gómez de auténtica joya literaria. Su autor, el ilustre polígrafo cordobés, Ibn Hazm (994-1064, comenzó a escribirla en el año 1022 en unas duras condiciones, como él mismo reconoce, cuando se hallaba cautivo en dativa. Por entonces, el califato cordobés mostraba ya sus primeros síntomas de debilidad. Esta obra esta escrita en árabe purísimo y en rica prosa en la que se intercalan versos con un profundo sentimiento. En ella su autor nos narra aspectos del amor basados en su propia experiencia, y en lo que le contaron gentes de fiar, transmitiendo, en suma, como amaron las gentes de al-Andalus durante el gobierno de la dinastía omeya; por este motivo, algunos consideran, en parte, este libro como la autobiografía de su autor y de las gentes que le rodearon. Ibn Hazm compuso esta obra por encargo de un amigo y a través de ella le ofrece, por la amistad que les une, «ayuda» para alcanzar la verdad. En los sucesivos capítulos de que consta «El collar», el autor nos habla de los fundamentos del amor, entre los que destaca, la esencia del amor, las formas de enamoramiento,etc... de los accidentes del amor y de sus cualidades loables y vituperables; de las malaventuras que sobrevienen al amor, de la fealdad del pecado y de la castidad. No obstante, a pesar del plan previo establecido por el autor, estos temas se mezclan unos con otros, y de ello se excusa Ibn Hazm. «El collar de la paloma» ha tenido una gran divulgación, siendo traducido a las principales lenguas, y en él han querido encontrar, estudiosos de la literatura medieval ciertas similitudes.This report contains some opinión from several experts about one of the masterpieces of the arab literature, considered as an authentic jewel by Emilio García Gómez. Its author, the famous cordovan polygraph Ibn Hazm (994

  8. Fine structure and development of the collar enamel in gars, Lepisosteus oculatus, Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Ichiro; Ishiyama, Mikio; Yokosuka, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Masato

    2008-06-01

    The fine structure of collar enamel and the cells constituting the enamel organ during amelogenesis in Lepisosteus oculatus was observed by light, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. In the enamel, slender crystals were arranged perpendicular to the surface and the stripes that were parallel to the surface were observed, suggesting that the enamel in Lepisosteus shares common morphological features with that in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians. Ameloblasts containing developed Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and secretory granules were found in the secretory stage. In the maturation stage, a ruffled border was not seen at the distal end of the ameloblasts, while many mitochondria and lysosome-like granules were obvious in the distal cytoplasm. The enamel organ consisted of the outer dental epithelial cells, stratum reticulum cells and ameloblasts, but there was no stratum intermedium. It is likely that the ameloblasts have less absorptive function in comparison with the inner dental epithelial cells facing cap enameloid.

  9. Hematology values of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla and collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís C. Sanches

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hematological results are reported for 13 giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla and 13 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla. Animals were captive-reared adults held at the Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil and Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros (Sorocaba, SP, Brazil, and were considered healthy on physical examination. Examined parameters included red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total plasmatic protein and differential leukocyte counts. Also, a survey for hemoparasites was done and none was observed in thin blood smears. The results were generally similar to those previously reported in the exiguous literature for these species, providing further reference data for the interpretation of laboratory results besides health monitoring, assisting early disease diagnosis and providing relevant information for conservation programs for these species.

  10. Determination of U-235 quantity in fresh fuel elements by neutron coincidence collar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de; Almeida, S.G. de; Marzo, M.A.S.; Moita, L.P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The U-235 quantity per lenght of fresh fuel assemblies of the Angra-I first recharge was determined by Neutron Coincidence Collar technique (N.C.C.). This technique is well-founded in fresh fuel assemblies activation by thermal neutrons from AmLi source to generate U-235 fission neutrons. These neutrons are detected by coincidence method in polyethylene structure where 18 He-3 detectors were placed. The coincidence counting results, in active mode (AmLi), showed 0,7% to standard deviation and equal to 1,49% to mass in 1000s of counting. The accuracies of different calibration methods were evaluated and compared. The results showed that the operator declared values are consistent. This evaluation was part of technical-exchange program between Safeguards Laboratory from C.N.E.N. and Los Alamos National Lab., United States. (author)

  11. Long working hours and risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Yoshida, H; Nagano, K; Kawashimo, H; Nakamura, K; Tatara, K

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the association of long working hours with the risk for hypertension. A five year prospective cohort study. Work site in Osaka, Japan. 941 hypertension free Japanese male white collar workers aged 35-54 years were prospectively examined by serial annual health examinations. Men in whom borderline hypertension and hypertension were found during repeated surveys were defined as incidental cases of borderline hypertension and hypertension. 336 and 88 men developed hypertension above the borderline level and definite hypertension during the 3940 and 4531 person years, respectively. After controlling for potential predictors of hypertension, the relative risk for hypertension above the borderline level, compared with those who worked hours per day, was 0.63 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.43, 0.91) for those who worked 10.0-10.9 hours per day and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.74) for those who worked > or = 11.0 hours per day. The relative risk for definite hypertension, compared with those who worked hours per day, was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.95) for those who worked > or = 11.0 hours per day. The multivariate adjusted slopes of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) during five years of follow up decreased as working hours per day increased. From the multiple regression analyses, working hours per day remained as an independent negative factor for the slopes of systolic blood pressure, DBP, and MABP. These results indicate that long working hours are negatively associated with the risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers.

  12. Cervical Spine Collar Removal by Emergency Room Nurses: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Guillaume; Forgione, Massimo; Lusignan, Francis; Lanoue, Marc-André; Drouin, Simon

    2018-05-01

    The Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) is a clinical decision aid to facilitate the safe removal of cervical collars in the alert, orientated, low-risk adult trauma patient. Few health care settings have assessed initiatives to train charge nurses to use the CCR. This practice improvement project conducted in a secondary trauma center in Canada aimed to (1) train charge nurses of the emergency room to use the CCR, (2) monitor its use throughout the project period, and (3) compare the assessments of the charge nurses with those of emergency physicians. The project began with the creation of an interdisciplinary team. Clinical guidelines were established by the interdisciplinary project team. Nine charge nurses of the emergency room were then trained to use the CCR (3 on each 8-hour shift). The use of the CCR was monitored throughout the project period, from June 1 to October 5, 2016. The 3 aims of this practice improvement project were attained successfully. Over a 5-month period, 114 patients were assessed with the CCR. Charge nurses removed the cervical collars for 54 of 114 patients (47%). A perfect agreement rate (114 of 114 patients, 100%) was attained between the assessments of the nurses and those of physicians. This project shows that the charge nurses of a secondary trauma center can use the CCR safely on alert, orientated, and low-risk adult trauma patients as demonstrated by the agreement in the assessments of emergency room nurses and physicians. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender differences in work–home interplay and symptom perception among Swedish white‐collar employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, L; Lundberg, U; Krantz, G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse gender differences in paid and unpaid workload and symptoms in matched groups of Swedish white‐collar workers with children. Design and setting Paid and unpaid workload and perceived stress from paid work, conflict between demands and control over household work were measured by a total workload (TWL) questionnaire. Some symptoms were rated with regard to frequency and severity as a measure of health. Cross‐sectional analyses were performed. Participants Matched groups of male (n = 440) and female (n = 529) well‐educated white‐collar workers in full‐time employment, aged 32–58 years and living with children in the home. Results Women in higher positions in Sweden are healthier than the average population of women, but report more symptoms than men in the same position as well as more stress from paid work, more conflict between demands and a greater TWL. However, women also reported more control over household duties and TWL was not associated with more symptoms. The men were mainly focused on their paid work role and perhaps even more so than men in the general population as they were fairly resistant to feelings of conflicting demands. Conclusion Even among matched groups of full‐time employed, well‐educated men and women, traditional gender differences in division of responsibilities and time allocation were found. Even though the women were healthy at this stage, they might risk future ill health, owing to high workload, stress and feelings of conflicting demands. PMID:17108304

  14. Malaria-infected female collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis do not pay the cost of late breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kulma

    Full Text Available Life-history theory predicts that the trade-off between parasite defense and other costly traits such as reproduction may be most evident when resources are scarce. The strength of selection that parasites inflict on their host may therefore vary across environmental conditions. Collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis breeding on the Swedish island Öland experience a seasonal decline in their preferred food resource, which opens the possibility to test the strength of life-history trade-offs across environmental conditions. We used nested-PCR and quantitative-PCR protocols to investigate the association of Haemosporidia infection with reproductive performance of collared flycatcher females in relation to a seasonal change in the external environment. We show that despite no difference in mean onset of breeding, infected females produced relatively more of their fledglings late in the season. This pattern was also upheld when considering only the most common malaria lineage (hPHSIB1, however there was no apparent link between the reproductive output and the intensity of infection. Infected females produced heavier-than-average fledglings with higher-than-expected recruitment success late in the season. This reversal of the typical seasonal trend in reproductive output compensated them for lower fledging and recruitment rates compared to uninfected birds earlier in the season. Thus, despite different seasonal patterns of reproductive performance the overall number of recruits was the same for infected versus uninfected birds. A possible explanation for our results is that infected females breed in a different microhabitat where food availability is higher late in the season but also is the risk of infection. Thus, our results suggest that another trade-off than the one we aimed to test is more important for explaining variation in reproductive performance in this natural population: female flycatchers appear to face a trade-off between the risk

  15. Synchronous genetic turnovers across Western Eurasia in Late Pleistocene collared lemmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Baca, Mateusz; Abramson, Natalia I; Sablin, Mikhail; Socha, Paweł; Nadachowski, Adam; Prost, Stefan; Germonpré, Mietje; Kosintsev, Pavel; Smirnov, Nickolay G; Vartanyan, Sergey; Ponomarev, Dmitry; Nyström, Johanna; Nikolskiy, Pavel; Jass, Christopher N; Litvinov, Yuriy N; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Grigoriev, Semyon; Fadeeva, Tatyana; Douka, Aikaterini; Higham, Thomas F G; Ersmark, Erik; Pitulko, Vladimir; Pavlova, Elena; Stewart, John R; Węgleński, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-01

    Recent palaeogenetic studies indicate a highly dynamic history in collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx spp.), with several demographical changes linked to climatic fluctuations that took place during the last glaciation. At the western range margin of D. torquatus, these changes were characterized by a series of local extinctions and recolonizations. However, it is unclear whether this pattern represents a local phenomenon, possibly driven by ecological edge effects, or a global phenomenon that took place across large geographical scales. To address this, we explored the palaeogenetic history of the collared lemming using a next-generation sequencing approach for pooled mitochondrial DNA amplicons. Sequences were obtained from over 300 fossil remains sampled across Eurasia and two sites in North America. We identified five mitochondrial lineages of D. torquatus that succeeded each other through time across Europe and western Russia, indicating a history of repeated population extinctions and recolonizations, most likely from eastern Russia, during the last 50 000 years. The observation of repeated extinctions across such a vast geographical range indicates large-scale changes in the steppe-tundra environment in western Eurasia during the last glaciation. All Holocene samples, from across the species' entire range, belonged to only one of the five mitochondrial lineages. Thus, extant D. torquatus populations only harbour a small fraction of the total genetic diversity that existed across different stages of the Late Pleistocene. In North American samples, haplotypes belonging to both D. groenlandicus and D. richardsoni were recovered from a Late Pleistocene site in south-western Canada. This suggests that D. groenlandicus had a more southern and D. richardsoni a more northern glacial distribution than previously thought. This study provides significant insights into the population dynamics of a small mammal at a large geographical scale and reveals a rather complex

  16. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  17. Workload, work stress, and sickness absence in Swedish male and female white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Gunilla; Lundberg, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse, in a homogeneous population of highly educated men and women, gender differences in self-reported sickness absence as related to paid and unpaid work and combinations of these (double exposure), as well as to perceived work stress and work-home conflict, i.e. conflict between demands from the home and work environment. A total of 743 women and 596 men, full-time working white-collar employees randomly selected from the general Swedish population aged 32-58, were assessed by a Swedish total workload instrument. The influence of conditions in paid and unpaid work and combinations of these on self-reported sickness absence was investigated by multivariate regression analyses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess differences between men and women. Overtime was associated with lower sickness absence, not only for men but also for women, and a double-exposure situation did not increase the risk of sick leave. Contrary to what is normally seen, conflict between demands did not emerge as a risk factor for sickness absence for women, but for men. Our assumption that sickness absence patterns would be more similar for white-collar men and women than for the general population was not confirmed. However, the women working most hours were also the least sick-listed and assumed less responsibility for household chores. These women were mainly in top-level positions and therefore we conclude that men and women in these high-level positions seem to share household burdens more evenly, but they can also afford to employ someone to assist in the household.

  18. The role of the State Audit Institution in prevention of white-collar crime in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author points out to the important role of the Serbian State Audit Institution in prevention of corruptive practices, felonies and white-collar crime in the public sector in the Republic of Serbia. Although the activity of supreme state auditors is not primarily aimed at detecting criminal offences in the public sector, their efforts and results in this area are by no means insignificant. This is due to the fact that state auditors are well-trained to interpret and apply the legal provisions from the area of public finance, public procurements and accountancy, regulating the budget system of revenues and expenditures whose violation may constitute a criminal offence within the scope of white-collar crime. Considering the fact that it is an independent and autonomous state authority, the Serbian Supreme Audit Institution should play a very important role in reducing 'the dark figures of white-collar crime'. In many cases, the fear of crime detection as well as the fear of being punished are sufficient to exert the preventive effect on the potential perpetrators of white-collar crimes. However, we have to bear in mind that the prevention of corruption and other felonies which are qualified as white-collar crime calls for a joint effort of all state institutions and citizens alike. Another fact which is very important for improving the operative quality of the Supreme Audit Institution is its membership in the International Organisation of Supreme Audit Institutions and cooperation with the Supreme Audit Institutions in other countries.

  19. Serologic Survey for Selected Viral and Bacterial Swine Pathogens in Colombian Collared Peccaries ( Pecari tajacu) and Feral Pigs ( Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Olga L; Roncancio, Nestor; Soler-Tovar, Diego; Cortés-Duque, Jimena; Contreras-Herrera, Jorge; Sabogal, Sandra; Acevedo, Luz Dary; Navas-Suárez, Pedro Enrique

    2018-06-14

    In South America, wild populations of peccaries coexist with domestic and feral pigs, with poorly understood consequences. We captured 58 collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu) and 15 feral pigs ( Sus scrofa) in locations of Colombia where coexistence of these species is known. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against four viral agents, classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), porcine circovirus (PCV-2), and vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey and Indiana subtypes) and two bacterial agents, Brucella spp. and six serovars of Leptospira interrogans. The prevalence of CSFV was 5% (3/58) in collared peccaries and 7% (1/15) in feral pigs. The prevalence of PCV-2 was 7% (1/15) in collared peccaries and 67% (2/3) in feral pigs. Vesicular stomatitis prevalence was 33% (8/24) in collared peccaries and 67% (4/6) in feral pigs. Leptospira prevalence was 78% (39/50) in collared peccary and 100% (8/8) in feral pigs; bratislava, grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, and pomona were the most frequent serovars. Also, the only white-lipped peccary ( Tayassu pecari) sampled was positive for L. interrogans serovar bratislava and for vesicular stomatitis virus, New Jersey strain. No samples were positive for ADV or Brucella. The seroprevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans was similar to that observed in other studies. Icterohaemorrhagiae appears to be a common serovar among in situ and ex situ peccary populations. Positive antibodies against PVC-2 represent a novel report of exposure to this pathogen in Colombian peccaries. Our results indicate the possible transmission of various pathogens, important for pig farms, in the studied pig and peccaries.

  20. Biomechanical comparison of two different collar structured implants supporting 3-unit fixed partial denture: a 3-D FEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriç, Gökçe; Erkmen, Erkan; Kurt, Ahmet; Eser, Atilim; Ozden, Ahmet Utku

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of two distinct collar geometries of implants on stress distribution in the bone as well as in the fixture-abutment complex, in the framework and in the veneering material of 3-unit fixed partial denture (FPD). The 3-dimensional finite element analysis method was selected to evaluate the stress distribution in the system composed of 3-unit FPD supported by two different dental implant systems with two distinct collar geometries; microthread collar structure (MCS) and non-microthread collar structure (NMCS). In separate load cases, 300 N vertical, 150 N oblique and 60 N horizontal, forces were utilized to simulate the multidirectional chewing forces. Tensile and compressive stress values in the cortical and cancellous bone and von Mises stresses in the fixture-abutment complex, in the framework and veneering material, were simulated as a body and investigated separately. In the cortical bone lower stress values were found in the MCS model, when compared with NMCS. In the cancellous bone, lower stress values were observed in the NMCS model when compared with MCS. In the implant-abutment complex, highest von Mises stress values were noted in the NMCS model; however, in the framework and veneering material, highest stress values were calculated in MCS model. MCS implants when compared with NMCS implants supporting 3-unit FPDs decrease the stress values in the cortical bone and implant-abutment complex. The results of the present study will be evaluated as a base for our ongoing FEA studies focused on stress distribution around the microthread and non-microthread collar geometries with various prosthesis design.

  1. Effects of livestock species and stocking density on accretion rates in grazed salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Stefanie; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.; Smit, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems, such as salt marshes, are threatened by accelerated sea-level rise (SLR). Salt marshes deliver valuable ecosystem services such as coastal protection and the provision of habitat for a unique flora and fauna. Whether salt marshes in the Wadden Sea area are able to survive accelerated SLR depends on sufficient deposition of sediments which add to vertical marsh accretion. Accretion rate is influenced by a number of factors, and livestock grazing was recently included. Livestock grazing is assumed to reduce accretion rates in two ways: (a) directly by increasing soil compaction through trampling, and (b) indirectly by affecting the vegetation structure, which may lower the sediment deposition. For four years, we studied the impact of two livestock species (horse and cattle) at two stocking densities (0.5 and 1.0 animal ha-1) on accretion in a large-scale grazing experiment using sedimentation plates. We found lower cumulative accretion rates in high stocking densities, probably because more animals cause more compaction and create a lower canopy. Furthermore, a trend towards lower accretion rates in horse-compared to cattle-grazed treatments was found, most likely because (1) horses are more active and thus cause more compaction, and (2) herbage intake by horses is higher than by cattle, which causes a higher biomass removal and shorter canopy. During summer periods, negative accretion rates were found. When the grazing and non-grazing seasons were separated, the impact of grazing differed among years. In summer, we only found an effect of different treatments if soil moisture (precipitation) was relatively low. In winter, a sufficiently high inundation frequency was necessary to create differences between grazing treatments. We conclude that stocking densities, and to a certain extent also livestock species, affect accretion rates in salt marshes. Both stocking densities and livestock species should thus be taken into account in management

  2. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  3. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of cervical trauma collars: differences in immobilization, effect on jugular venous pressure and patient comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Concern has been raised that cervical collars may increase intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to compare four types of cervical collars regarding efficacy of immobilizing the neck, effect on jugular venous pressure (JVP), as a surrogate for possible effect on intracranial pressure, and patient comfort in healthy volunteers. Methods The characteristics of four widely used cervical collars (Laerdal Stifneck® (SN), Vista® (VI), Miami J Advanced® (MJ), Philadelphia® (PH)) were studied in ten volunteers. Neck movement was measured with goniometry, JVP was measured directly through an endovascular catheter and participants graded the collars according to comfort on a scale 1–5. Results The mean age of participants was 27 ± 5 yr and BMI 26 ± 5. The mean neck movement (53 ± 9°) decreased significantly with all the collars (p  MJ > SN > PH). Conclusion Stifneck and Miami J collars offered the most efficient immobilization of the neck with the least effect on JVP. Vista and Miami J were the most comfortable ones. The methodology used in this study may offer a new approach to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety of neck collars and aid their continued development. PMID:24906207

  4. Relative availability of natural prey versus livestock predicts landscape suitability for cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbach, Christiaan W.; Boast, Lorraine K.; Klein, Rebecca; Somers, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Prey availability and human-carnivore conflict are strong determinants that govern the spatial distribution and abundance of large carnivore species and determine the suitability of areas for their conservation. For wide-ranging large carnivores such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), additional conservation areas beyond protected area boundaries are crucial to effectively conserve them both inside and outside protected areas. Although cheetahs prefer preying on wild prey, they also cause conflict with people by predating on especially small livestock. We investigated whether the distribution of cheetahs’ preferred prey and small livestock biomass could be used to explore the potential suitability of agricultural areas in Botswana for the long-term persistence of its cheetah population. We found it gave a good point of departure for identifying priority areas for land management, the threat to connectivity between cheetah populations, and areas where the reduction and mitigation of human-cheetah conflict is critical. Our analysis showed the existence of a wide prey base for cheetahs across large parts of Botswana’s agricultural areas, which provide additional large areas with high conservation potential. Twenty percent of wild prey biomass appears to be the critical point to distinguish between high and low probable levels of human-cheetah conflict. We identified focal areas in the agricultural zones where restoring wild prey numbers in concurrence with effective human-cheetah conflict mitigation efforts are the most immediate conservation strategies needed to maintain Botswana’s still large and contiguous cheetah population. PMID:26213646

  5. Relative availability of natural prey versus livestock predicts landscape suitability for cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Boast, Lorraine K; Klein, Rebecca; Somers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Prey availability and human-carnivore conflict are strong determinants that govern the spatial distribution and abundance of large carnivore species and determine the suitability of areas for their conservation. For wide-ranging large carnivores such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), additional conservation areas beyond protected area boundaries are crucial to effectively conserve them both inside and outside protected areas. Although cheetahs prefer preying on wild prey, they also cause conflict with people by predating on especially small livestock. We investigated whether the distribution of cheetahs' preferred prey and small livestock biomass could be used to explore the potential suitability of agricultural areas in Botswana for the long-term persistence of its cheetah population. We found it gave a good point of departure for identifying priority areas for land management, the threat to connectivity between cheetah populations, and areas where the reduction and mitigation of human-cheetah conflict is critical. Our analysis showed the existence of a wide prey base for cheetahs across large parts of Botswana's agricultural areas, which provide additional large areas with high conservation potential. Twenty percent of wild prey biomass appears to be the critical point to distinguish between high and low probable levels of human-cheetah conflict. We identified focal areas in the agricultural zones where restoring wild prey numbers in concurrence with effective human-cheetah conflict mitigation efforts are the most immediate conservation strategies needed to maintain Botswana's still large and contiguous cheetah population.

  6. Relative availability of natural prey versus livestock predicts landscape suitability for cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlie E.K. Winterbach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prey availability and human-carnivore conflict are strong determinants that govern the spatial distribution and abundance of large carnivore species and determine the suitability of areas for their conservation. For wide-ranging large carnivores such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, additional conservation areas beyond protected area boundaries are crucial to effectively conserve them both inside and outside protected areas. Although cheetahs prefer preying on wild prey, they also cause conflict with people by predating on especially small livestock. We investigated whether the distribution of cheetahs’ preferred prey and small livestock biomass could be used to explore the potential suitability of agricultural areas in Botswana for the long-term persistence of its cheetah population. We found it gave a good point of departure for identifying priority areas for land management, the threat to connectivity between cheetah populations, and areas where the reduction and mitigation of human-cheetah conflict is critical. Our analysis showed the existence of a wide prey base for cheetahs across large parts of Botswana’s agricultural areas, which provide additional large areas with high conservation potential. Twenty percent of wild prey biomass appears to be the critical point to distinguish between high and low probable levels of human-cheetah conflict. We identified focal areas in the agricultural zones where restoring wild prey numbers in concurrence with effective human-cheetah conflict mitigation efforts are the most immediate conservation strategies needed to maintain Botswana’s still large and contiguous cheetah population.

  7. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-04-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as "organic by default" can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic principles of ecology, fairness, health, and care. Challenges of implementing sustainable organic practices in the Ugandan livestock sector threaten its future development, such as vectors and vector-borne diseases, organic feed insufficiency, limited education, research, and support to organic livestock production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support.

  8. The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. We compared the attitudes of different stakeholders within the livestock industries in east (E) and southeast (SE) Asia. Farmers were more motivated to improve animal welfare during transport and slaughter by peer pressure, business owners by monetary gain, and business managers by what is prescribed by their company. Veterinarians showed the most support for improving animal welfare. The results suggest that the role that stakeholders play in their sector of the livestock industry must be considered when attempting to change attitudes towards animal welfare during transport and slaughter. Abstract Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that

  9. Homocystein: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Kozat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector is making great contributions to the world economy. Many different diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney and mineral substance insufficiency, cause huge losses in yield and production in the livestock sector. Early diagnosis is essential to combat these diseases. Today, homocysteine levels are used as biochemical markers in the diagnosis of the functions and diseases of many different organs in human medicine. Homocysteine is an amino acid that occurs in the process of methionine metabolism and does not enter the primary structure of proteins. Homocysteine is a biochemical marker used in the assessment of cardiovascular and renal diseases as well as other organ functions. In this review, homocysteine determination methods and detailed information about which organ and system diseases can be used in livestock sector will be given. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 319-332

  10. Modeling, Estimation and Control of Indoor Climate in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang

    The main objective of this research is to design an efficient control system for the indoor climate of a large-scale partition-less livestock building, in order to maintain a healthy, comfortable and economically energy consuming indoor environment for the agricultural animals and farmers. In thi...... scale livestock buildings, and could be considered as an alternative solution to the current used decentralized PID controller.......The main objective of this research is to design an efficient control system for the indoor climate of a large-scale partition-less livestock building, in order to maintain a healthy, comfortable and economically energy consuming indoor environment for the agricultural animals and farmers....... With necessary assumptions and simplifications, the dominant air flow distributions are investigated and the phenomenon of horizontal variations is well depicted. The designed entire control system consists of an outer feedback closed-loop dynamic controller and an inner feed-forward redundancy optimization...

  11. CFD Modeling of Airflow in a Livestock Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Elhadidi, B.; Khalifa, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a 2D simulation for a typical livestock building is performed to assess the ammonia emission removal rate to the atmosphere. Two geometry models are used and compared in order to represent the slatted floor. In the first model the floor is modeled as a slatted floor and in the second...... the accuracy of the porous jump assumption by comparing the velocity, and ammonia concentration in a 2D simulation, heated solid bodies are added to represent the livestock in the following simulations. The results of simulations with heat source also indicate that modeling the slatted floor with slats...... is necessary. Furthermore, the combination of low inlet velocity and heated objects causes the flow to be buoyancy dominated and unsteady. This unsteadiness can be common in similar buoyancy induced flows for high Rayleigh number flow. The paper concludes with tradeoffs suggested for simulation of livestock...

  12. How does farmer connectivity influence livestock genetic structure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthouly, C; Do, Duy Ngoc; Thévenon, S

    2009-01-01

    Assessing how genes flow across populations is a key component of conservation genetics. Gene flow in a natural population depends on ecological traits and the local environment, whereas for a livestock population, gene flow is driven by human activities. Spatial organization, relationships between...... farmers and their husbandry practices will define the farmer's network and so determine farmer connectivity. It is thus assumed that farmer connectivity will affect the genetic structure of their livestock. To test this hypothesis, goats reared by four different ethnic groups in a Vietnamese province were......, ethnicity and husbandry practices. In this study, we clearly linked the livestock genetic pattern to farmer connectivity and showed the importance of taking into account spatial information in genetic studies....

  13. Estimation of Airflow in Livestock Buildings using Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    of a livestock building, the airflow in a laser-illuminated plane may be visualized. Based on sequences of images recorded of this plane using a video camera, estimates of 2--D flow vectors are derived locally. The local estimates of velocity are found using a set of spatio-temporal convolution filters...... and camera may be placed so they do not disturb the airflow) for estimating air velocity in a 2--D plane.......In order to evaluate a given ventilation system in a livestock building and its sensitivity to wind, presence of heat sources (e.g. livestock) etc. it is of interest to estimate flow vector fields corresponding to the airflow. By introducing particles (e.g. smoke) into the air inlets of a model...

  14. The benefits of biogas as a livestock waste management technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    neighbor matching (NNM) to measure the benefits of adopting biogas technology. The results indicated that the biogas adopters were the farmers who had a longer formal education; owned more cattle; had better access to information about the technology and better access to the biogas installation’s aid...... program; although, they had less access to formal credit. The estimation of treatment effects showed that farmers who adopted the biogas technology gained benefits through decreases in crops expenses and increases in the livestock and non-agricultural income. Furthermore, the results showed that adopting...... synergies between crop farming, livestock, and household in terms of mixed crop and livestock farming, as an Integrated Farming System (IFS) practice, at the farm household level. Although the biogas technology provided the alternative energy source for the household, the specific benefits as an energy...

  15. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Nondestructive methods for quality evaluation of livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N

    2012-06-01

    The muscles derived from livestock are highly perishable. Rapid and nondestructive methods are essential for quality assurance of such products. Potential nondestructive methods, which can supplement or replace many of traditional time consuming destructive methods, include colour and computer image analysis, NIR spectroscopy, NMRI, electronic nose, ultrasound, X-ray imaging and biosensors. These methods are briefly described and the research work involving them for products derived from livestock is reviewed. These methods will be helpful in rapid screening of large number of samples, monitoring distribution networks, quick product recall and enhance traceability in the value chain of livestock products. With new developments in the areas of basic science related to these methods, colour, image processing, NIR spectroscopy, biosensors and ultrasonic analysis are expected to be widespread and cost effective for large scale meat quality evaluation in near future.

  17. A correct enthalpy relationship as thermal comfort index for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valéria Cristina; da Silva, Iran José Oliveira; Vieira, Frederico Márcio Corrêa; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares

    2011-05-01

    Researchers working with thermal comfort have been using enthalpy to measure thermal energy inside rural facilities, establishing indicator values for many situations of thermal comfort and heat stress. This variable turned out to be helpful in analyzing thermal exchange in livestock systems. The animals are exposed to an environment which is decisive for the thermoregulatory process, and, consequently, the reactions reflect states of thermal comfort or heat stress, the last being responsable for problems of sanity, behavior and productivity. There are researchers using enthalpy as a qualitative indicator of thermal environment of livestock such as poultry, cattle and hogs in tropical regions. This preliminary work intends to check different enthalpy equations using information from classical thermodynamics, and proposes a direct equation as thermal comfort index for livestock systems.

  18. Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) for livestock wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rory; McInnes, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Social, economic and environmental coherence is sought in the management of livestock wastewater. Wetlands facilitate the biogeochemical processes that exploit livestock wastewater and provide opportunities to achieve such coherence and also to deliver on a range of ecosystem services. The Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) concept integrates three inextricably linked objectives: water quantity and quality management, landscape-fit to improve aesthetic site values and enhanced biodiversity. The synergies derived from this explicit integration allow one of the key challenges for livestock management to be addressed. An example utilizing twelve ICW systems from a catchment on the south coast of Ireland demonstrates that over an eight year period mean reduction of total and soluble phosphorus (molybdate reactive phosphorus) exceeded 95% and the mean removal of ammonium-N exceeded 98%. This paper reviews evidence regarding the capacity of ICWs to provide a coherent and sustainable alternative to conventional systems.

  19. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  20. Effect of Bacillus subtilis microecological probiotics on livestock breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui ZHOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of green and healthy microecologics, Bacillus subtilis could balance the intestinal flora, promote the nutrient absorption and enhance immunity. Microecologics is one of the ideal antibiotics alternative, which are effective in preventing and treating animal disease and promoting the growth and development of the animal. Because of its advantages, such as no toxin side effect and no residual or drug-resistant, microecologics has been used in livestock breeding widely. Here, we concluded the characteristics and mechanism of Bacillus subtilis,elaborated application of microecologics on livestock breeding, discussed its problems and suggested its solved methods. In the end, the future of microecologics was expected in order to provide a reference for subsequent livestock breeding.

  1. Adoption of automated livestock production systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades the development of automated systems in livestock production has gained increasing interest among farmers. A combined use of computers and sensor systems has lead the development into new research areas with automated milking systems, grain drying systems and automated feeding...... on the relationship and adoption patterns among these countries. The paper presents the results of the surveyed population, demography, farm structure with livestock production characteristics and farmers use of selected automated systems in livestock production....... systems. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a farm survey and cluster analysis that have been made among 4 countries in Europe. This study is based on replies from 413 respondents in Germany (eastern part), Greece, Finland and Denmark, respectively, and the study comments...

  2. First data on canids depredation on livestock in an area of recent recolonization by wolf in central Italy : considerations on conflict survey and prevention methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrini Caterina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in the province of Rieti, central Italy, in 2007-2008, was studied. The study area was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance, widespread presence of free ranging dogs and a recent wolf recolonization. Because of the ineffectiveness of compensation programmes, it was not possible to use the official statistics to investigate the extent of the conflict, but sample interviews and surveys of farmers were used. Also, the farming protection tecniques adopted for different livestock species were analysed; the most utilized husbandry method was stabling for cattle and pigs, annual fenced grazing for horses and sheeps, and annual open grazing only for goats. Although sheep farms were the most attacked because of their availability (33.6% of the whole farms, goat farms were the most selected by predators because of their accessibility (40% of farms kept goats in annual open grazing. Management implications to mitigate livestock depredation were discussed.

  3. Forage Polyphenol Oxidase and Ruminant Livestock Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richard F. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (PPO is associated with the detrimental effect of browning fruit and vegetables, however interest within PPO containing forage crops has grown since the brownng reaction was associated with reduced nitrogen (N losses in silo and the rumen. The reduction in protein breakdown in silo of red clover (high PPO forage increased the quality of protein, improving N-use efficiency (NUE when fed to ruminants. A further benefit of red clover silage feeding is a significant reduction in lipolysis in silo and an increase in the deposition of beneficial C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in animal products, which has also been linked to PPO activity. PPOs protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in silo is related to the deactivation of plant proteases and lipases. This deactivation occurs through PPO catalysing the conversion of diphenols to quinones which bind with cellular nucleophiles such as protein reforming a protein-bound phenol (PBP. If the protein is an enzyme the complexing denatures the enzyme. However, PPO is inactive in the anaerobic rumen and therefore any subsequent protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen must be as a result of events that occurred to the forage pre-ingestion. Reduced activity of plant proteases and lipases would have little effect on NUE and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen due to the greater concentration of rumen microbial proteases and lipases. The mechanism for PPOs protection of plant protein in the rumen is a consequence of complexing plant protein, rather than protease deactivation per se. These complexed proteins reduce protein digestibility in the rumen and subsequently increase un-degraded dietary protein flow to the small intestine. The mechanism for protecting glycerol-based PUFA has yet to be fully elucidated but may be associated with entrapment within PBP reducing access to microbial lipases or differences in rumen digestion kinetics of red clover.

  4. Infectious animal diseases: the wildlife/livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengis, R G; Kock, R A; Fischer, J

    2002-04-01

    The long-standing conflict between livestock owners and animal health authorities on the one hand, and wildlife conservationists on the other, is largely based on differing attitudes to controlling diseases of livestock which are associated with wildlife. The authors have attempted to highlight the fact that these disease problems are frequently bi-directional at the wildlife/livestock interface. The different categories of diseases involved are presented. A new dimension being faced by veterinary regulatory authorities is the spectre of emerging sylvatic foci of diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis, bovine brucellosis and possibly rinderpest; these diseases threaten to undermine national and international eradication schemes, which have been implemented and executed with significant success, and at great cost. Conversely, wildlife-based ecotourism world-wide has expanded rapidly over the past decade and is the source of lacking foreign revenue for many developing countries. Traditional subsistence farming is still the largest source of much-needed protein on some continents and this, together with the growth and hunger of historically disadvantaged communities for land, is forcing enterprises and communities with markedly different objectives and land-use practices to operate effectively in close proximity. Some land-users rely exclusively on wildlife, others on livestock and/or agronomy, while yet others need to combine these activities. The net result may be an expansion or intensification of the interface between wildlife and domestic livestock, which will require innovative control strategies that permit differing types of wildlife/livestock interaction, and that do not threaten the land-use options of neighbours, or the ability of a country to market animals and animal products profitably.

  5. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  6. Prevention of White-Collar Crime by Knowledge and Learning in Business Organizations: An Empirical Study of Chief Financial Officer Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Solli-Soether

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and learning are important in combating financial crime generallyand white-collar crime in particular. The purpose of this research is to generateinsights into prevention approaches in practice that may reflect on acontingent approach. The five hundred largest business companies in termsof annual turnover were identified in Norway for our empirical study of whitecollarcrime. A paper letter was mailed to the chief financial officer (CFOasking him or her to fill in the questionnaire to be found on a web site usinga password found in the letter. The open-ended question in the questionnaireto CFOs about prevention of white-collar crime was formulated as follows:How can white-collar crime best be prevented in your company? Survey resultsindicate an even distribution of respondents emphasizing control and respondentsemphasizing influence. This empirical research steps back from manybest practice articles and provides insights into preferences of chief financialofficers on how to prevent white-collar crime in the company.

  7. Investigating the effect of curved shape of bridge abutment provided with collar on local scour, experimentally and numerically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abdallah Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scour around bridge supports such as abutments can result in structural collapse and loss of life and property, so there is a need to control and minimize the local scour depth. In this paper, numerical and experimental studies were carried out to investigate the effect of different relative radii of the bridge abutment provided with collar on local scour depth. A 3-D numerical model is developed to simulate the scour at bridge abutment using SSIIM program. This model solves 3-D Navier–Stokes equations and a bed load conservation equation. The k–ε turbulence model is used to solve the Reynolds-stress term. It was found the curvature shape of bridge abutment provided with collar could share to reduce the local scour depth by more 95%. In addition, the results of simulation models agree well with the experimental data.

  8. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  9. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    2016-09-01

    To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain was explored. Observational. Level one trauma centre in the Netherlands. Adult trauma patients admitted to the Emergency Department in an extrication collar combined with headblocks. Between January and December 2013, 342 patients were included. Study outcomes were incidence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain. The following dependent variables were collected: time in the cervical collar and headblocks, Glasgow Coma Scale, Mean Arterial Pressure, haemoglobin, Injury Severity Score, gender, age, and Body Mass Index. 75.4% of the patients developed a category 1 and 2.9% a category 2 pressure ulcer. Indentation marks were observed in 221 (64.6%) patients; 96 (28.1%) had severe indentation marks. Pressure ulcers and indentation marks were observed most frequently at the back, shoulders and chest. 63.2% experienced pain, of which, 38.5% experienced severe pain. Pain was mainly located at the occiput. Female patients experienced significantly more pain (NRS>3) compared to male patients (OR=2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.80) None of the investigated variables significantly increased the probability of developing PUs or indentation marks. The high incidence of category 1 pressure ulcers and severe indentation marks indicate an increased risk for pressure ulcer development and may well lead to more severe PU lesions. Pain due to the application of the extrication collar and headblocks may lead to undesirable movement (in order to relieve the pressure) or to bias clinical examination of the cervical spine. It is necessary to revise the current practice of cervical spine immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia. The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a ‘western’ international organization. This study demonstrates the

  11. The relationship between meeting of recommendations on physical activity for health and perceived work ability among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Cholewa, Jarosław; Mynarski, Władysław

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between meeting recommendations on physical activity for health in leisure-time and the ability to work among Polish white-collar workers. The study used a cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 360 white-collar workers. Participants recorded 7-day physical activity logs, including form, duration and intensity of leisure-time physical activities. The results were compared to health recommendations. A standardized Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire was used in assessing the ability to work. Participants who met health recommendations achieved higher scores of the WAI (mean score = 41.93) in comparison to those who were not sufficiently physically active (mean score = 39.35) (p health-related physical activity recommendations almost double the odds of reaching at least good work ability (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.12-3.36). Meeting leisure-time physical activity recommendations (especially the criterion of vigorous physical activity) is significantly related to higher self-assessed ability to work among white-collar workers.

  12. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance.

  13. Health beliefs of blue collar workers. Increasing self efficacy and removing barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; Sisk, R J; Baldwin, K A

    1997-05-01

    The study compared the health beliefs of participants and non-participants in a blood pressure and cholesterol screening held at the worksite. A cross sectional, ex-post facto design was used. Questionnaires measuring health beliefs related to cardiac screening and prevention of cardiac problems were distributed to a convenience sample of 200 blue-collar workers in a large manufacturing plant in the Midwest. One hundred fifty-one (75.5%) completed questionnaires were returned, of which 45 had participated in cardiac worksite screening in the past month. A multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Participants perceived significantly fewer barriers to cardiac screening and scored significantly higher on self efficacy than non-participants. These findings concur with other studies identifying barriers and self efficacy as important predictors of health behavior. Occupational health nurses' efforts are warranted to reduce barriers and improve self efficacy by advertising screenings, scheduling them at convenient times and locations, assuring privacy, and keeping time inconvenience to a minimum.

  14. Trends in abundance of collared lemmings near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Regular, multiannual cycles observed in the population abundance of small mammals in many arctic and subarctic ecosystems have stimulated substantial research, particularly among population ecologists. Hypotheses of mechanisms generating regular cycles include predator-prey interactions, limitation of food resources, and migration or dispersal, as well as abiotic factors such as cyclic climatic variation and environmental stochasticity. In 2004 and 2005, we used indirect methods to estimate trends in population size of Richardson's collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) retrospectively, and evaluated the extent of synchrony between lemming populations at 2 coastal tundra study areas separated by approximately 60 km near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We collected scars on willow plants (Salix) resulting from lemming feeding. Ages of scars ranged from 0 to 13 years at both study areas. Scar-age frequency appeared cyclic and we used nonlinear Poisson regression to model the observed scar-age frequency. Lemming populations cycled with 2.8-year periodicity and the phase of the cycle was synchronous between the 2 study areas. We suggest that our approach could be applied in multiple settings and may provide the most efficient way to gather data on small mammals across both space and time in a diversity of landscapes. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  15. The effect of elevated reproductive effort onhumoral immune function in collared flycatcher females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichoń, Mariusz; Dubiec, Anna; Chadzińska, Magdalena

    2001-02-01

    In order to test whether high reproductive investments impair immune function in naturally breeding collared flycatchers, we performed a brood manipulation experiment and simultaneously induced an immune response by challenging birds with a non-pathogenic antigen - sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Females rearing experimentally enlarged number of nestlings showed significantly lower level of specific anti-SRBC antibodies than control females attending unaltered broods, but only in one of the two study years. The haemoconcentration of leukocytes did not differ between the two groups in both study years. The significant difference in immunological responsiveness between control and enlarged group coincided with differences in survival probability to the next breeding season: females attending enlarged broods showed lower probability of survival than control females, but there was no relationship between the level of immune response and survival probability. Our results indicate that reproduction may indeed trade for resources with immune functions at least in terms of specific antibody production. However, as in the other studies on reproductive costs, these costs seem not always to be pronounced.

  16. External and gastrointestinal parasites of the rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Llanos-Soto

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 277 rufous-collared sparrows, Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae, were examined for external parasites. The birds were captured using mist nets in seven locations in northern and central Chile. Additionally, seven carcasses from central Chile (the Biobío region were necropsied to evaluate the presence of endoparasite infection. Ectoparasites were found on 35.8% (99/277 of the examined birds and they were represented by the following arthropods: feather mites Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, and Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae; a louse Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera; and ticks Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae and Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae. Two of the seven necropsied carcasses were infected with the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae. To our knowledge, this study reports P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum, and M. papillosus for the first time for Z. capensis and expands the distributional range for T. capensis to Chile.

  17. Within-species digestive tract flexibility in rufous-collared sparrows and the climatic variability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Karin; Bozinovic, Francisco; Rojas, José M; Sabat, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The climatic variability hypothesis (CVH) states that species are geographically more widespread at higher latitudes because individuals have a broader range of physiological tolerance or phenotypic flexibility as latitude and climatic variability increase. However, it remains unclear to what extent climatic variability or latitude, acting on the phenotype, account for any observed geographical gradient in mean range size. In this study, we analyzed the physiological flexibility within the CVH framework by using an intraspecific population experimental approach. We tested for a positive relationship between digestive-tract flexibility (i.e., morphology and enzyme activities) and latitude and climatic and natural diet variability in populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) captured in desert (27°S), Mediterranean (33°S), and cold-temperate (41°S) sites in Chile. In accordance with the CVH, we observed a positive relationship between the magnitude of digestive-tract flexibility and environmental variability but not latitude. The greatest digestive flexibility was observed in birds at middle latitudes, which experience the most environmental variability (a Mediterranean climate), whereas individuals from the most stable climates (desert and cold-temperate) exhibited little or no digestive-tract flexibility in response to experimental diets. Our findings support the idea that latitudinal gradients in geographical ranges may be strongly affected by the action of regional features, which makes it difficult to find general patterns in the distribution of species.

  18. Prevalence of radiographic appearance of pneumoconiosis in an unexposed blue collar population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellan, R.M.; Sanderson, W.T.; Petersen, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Blue collar employees currently working in environments free from exposure to respiratory hazards were examined with chest radiography and a standard occupational history questionnaire. Workers who had worked for a total of 5 yr or more in previous jobs with possible hazardous respiratory exposures were excluded. Each radiograph was read independently by 3 NIOSH-certified ''B'' readers. For small opacities, the median profusion was accepted as a summary reading. The 1,422 readable films represented a population of 50.6% males, 49.4% females, 52.5% whites, 44.2% blacks, 47.0% current smokers, and 38.5% nonsmokers. The mean age was 33.8 yr, with a range from 16 to 70 yr. Small opacities of profusion greater than or equal to 1/0 were identified in only 3 (0.21%) of the radiographs--2 with small rounded opacities and 1 with small irregular opacities. Small irregular opacities of profusion category greater than or equal to 0/1 were statistically associated with age, gender, and pack-years of smoking. The results suggest that using the median of 3 independent readings should rarely result in interpretation of chest radiographs as ''positive'' for pneumoconiosis in active workers who have not had significant dust exposure

  19. Genetic restoration in the eastern collared lizard under prescribed woodland burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwald, Jennifer L; Templeton, Alan R

    2013-07-01

    Eastern collared lizards of the Ozarks live in glades--open, rocky habitats embedded in a woodland matrix. Past fire suppression had made the woodlands a barrier to dispersal, leading to habitat destruction, fragmentation and local extinction. Reintroduced populations of lizards were subjected to 10 years of habitat fragmentation under continued fire suppression followed by twelve years of landscape restoration with prescribed burns. Prior to prescribed burning, genetic diversity decreased within glades and differentiation increased among glades. With woodland burning, genetic diversity within glades first decreased during an expanding colonization phase, but then increased as a dynamically stable metapopulation was established. Population differentiation among glades also stabilized in the metapopulation under weak isolation-by-distance. This study is one of the first to examine the genetic changes in a species of conservation concern throughout all the stages of decline and recovery and shows the importance of landscape-level restoration for maintaining the genetic integrity of populations. This study also demonstrates how mark-recapture and genetic data together can yield detailed insight into metapopulation dynamics that would be impossible from just one type of data alone. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry.

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse

  1. Livestock and Hides and Skins Marketing in Kenya: Problems and investment needs

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Mohammad A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper briefly summarises the historical perspective on the development of livestock marketing in Kenya, current problems of livestock and hides and skins marketing, and recommends investment opportunities to improve the situation.

  2. A comparison between urban livestock production strategies in Burkina Faso, Mali and Nigeria in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, Hamadoun; Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Abdulkadir, Aisha; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-10-01

    We undertook a comparative analysis of (peri-)urban livestock production strategies across three West African cities. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, livestock-keeping households (HH) were interviewed in Kano/Nigeria (84 HH), Bobo Dioulasso/Burkina Faso (63 HH) and Sikasso/Mali (63 HH). Questions covered livestock species kept, herd sizes and structure, feeds used, manure management, livestock marketing and production constraints. Sheep and goats dominated (p livestock, whereas field cropping and livestock were integrated. There was no relation between the education of the HH head and the adoption of improved management practices (p > 0.05), but the proportion of HH heads with a long-term experience in UPA activities was higher in Kano and in Bobo Dioulasso than in Sikasso (p livestock keepers in West Africa does not threaten the acceptance of improved technologies and innovations supporting the sustainability of their livestock production.

  3. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, J; Upton, M

    1999-08-01

    The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed.

  4. Cystatin C: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector contributes largely to the economy of India. Different systemic diseases like renal diseases, neurological and cardiovascular diseases cause huge loss in production and productive potential of livestock in India, which is considered as a major concern for both small and large ruminants. Early detection of diseseses is essential to combat the economic loss. An efficient biochemical marker can be developed which would provide more specific, sensitive and reliable measurement of functions of different organs. Determination of endogenous marker Cystatin C may fulfill the above need which can provide a detection platform not only for Kidney function but also for assaying other organs' function. Cystatin C is a low molecular weight protein which is removed from the bloodstream by glomerular filtration in the kidneys. Thus, it may act as a potential biological tool in diagnosis of renal and other systemic diseases in livestock. This mini-review focuses on the Cystatin C and its clinical importance which can be extensively employed in the livestock sector. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 200-205

  5. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  6. Environmental responsibilities of livestock feeding using trace mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brugger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are essential dietary components for livestock species. However, they also exhibit a strong toxic potential. Therefore, their fluxes through the animal organism are tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery that controls the rate of absorption from the gut lumen as well as the amount of excretion via faeces, urine and products (e.g., milk in order to maintain an internal equilibrium. When supplemented in doses above the gross requirement trace elements accumulate in urine and faeces and, hence, manure. Thereby, trace element emissions represent a potential threat to the environment. This fact is of particular importance in regard to the widely distributed feeding practice of pharmacological zinc and copper doses for the purpose of performance enhancement. Adverse environmental effects have been described, like impairment of plant production, accumulation in edible animal products and the water supply chain as well as the correlation between increased trace element loads and antimicrobial resistance. In the light of discussions about reducing the allowed upper limits for trace element loads in feed and manure from livestock production in the European Union excessive dosing needs to be critically reconsidered. Moreover, the precision in trace element feeding has to be increased in order to avoid unnecessary supplementation and, thereby, heavy metal emissions from livestock production. Keywords: Trace element, Livestock, Homeostasis, Pharmacological supplementation, Accumulation, Environment

  7. Model Predictive Control of the Hybrid Ventilation for Livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Stoustrup, Jakob; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, design and simulation results of Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy for livestock hybrid ventilation systems and associated indoor climate through variable valve openings and exhaust fans are presented. The design is based on thermal comfort parameters for poultry in barns...

  8. A method for livestock waste management planning in NE Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teira-Esmatges, M.R.; Flotats, X.

    2003-01-01

    A method of decision-making on livestock wastes management in areas with nutrient surplus due to high livestock density is applied in Catalonia (NE Spain). Nutrient balance is made considering soil nitrogen application as the limiting factor. Special attention is paid to the centralized treatment option. The method presented consists of: - minimizing livestock waste generation (at farm scale) as a step previous to any other, both in amount and limiting components,; - applying the nitrogen balance method at regional and municipal scale and providing enough storage capacity in order to apply wastes in an agronomically correct way,; - spatially refining the results of the nitrogen balance by a proposed method that allows precisely pinpointing the hotspots of livestock waste generation, where centralized treatment might be an interesting option, and; - deciding on the waste treatment objectives, provided that treatments be necessary. Knowledge about the wastes, meeting the interests and merging the efforts of the various actors, as well as an adequate budget are necessary ingredients for the success of any waste management plan

  9. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.; Menzi, H.; Pain, B.F.; Misselbrook, T.H.; Daemmgen, U.; Hendriks, H.; Doehler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH 3 . At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH 3 , and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH 3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH 3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH 3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH 3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH 3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  10. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions of monogastric livestock in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lindeque

    In this the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from South African pigs, ... The agricultural sector, including livestock, forest land and cropland (carbon .... utilizing intake data and diet dry matter digestibilities as: .... but are comparable with default values reported for developed countries such as North America, Canada and.

  11. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  12. A review of the sustainability of global livestock production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Judith L. Capper

    of livestock production, is that all foods have an environmental cost and that this is not ... only require the replacement of animal products with plant-based foods, but .... an ideological view of the perceived advantages of historical small-scale.

  13. Analysis of borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained from the Bank of Agriculture (BOA), Calabar. Descriptive statistics such as percentage count, mean and tables were employed in the analysis. It was discovered that BOA in ...

  14. Assessment of Antibiotic Usage in Some Selected Livestock Farms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey to assess the use of antibiotics was conducted in 120 livestock farms across the 4 agricultural zones of Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires on respondents characteristics; educational status, usage, adherence to prescription and withdrawal periods and were ...

  15. Intestinal health: Key to maximise growth performance in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beever, D.E.; Collet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production is changing worldwide. It is also the case that the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in Europe, the shift in animal production centres to Brazil or Eastern Europe, increase in demand for traceability and natural production, and the emergence of new diseases, are all forcing

  16. livestock production systems for increased yield on resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciples of business management to research and education programming is ... planning for livestock production research and education ... cultivated with the maximum potential of arable land being ... (3) Approximately 85/, of the land area receives ... trate feeds has had a great impact on the beef cattle in- ..... (45 days A.I.,.

  17. the economic benefits of extension services on livestock production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRS FOLA AJAYI

    2007-06-08

    Jun 8, 2007 ... This study examined the impact of extension services on livestock output in six communities in .... Divorced. 3. 2.5. Widowed. 2. 1.7. Total. 120. 100. Educational ... status may be constraints on positive impact of extension on.

  18. Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, both genetic and epigenetic controls influence genetic expression and should be taken into account when formulating breeding programmes. Subsistence farmers keep livestock for multiple purposes and the formulation of breeding objectives/strategies will have to consider these dynamics. Keywords: Breeding ...

  19. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  20. Movement response patterns of livestock to rainfall variability in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock movement patterns indicated that forage is the motivation for winter movements and water is the motivation for summer. The movement followed a predictable ... The latter can be considered as a 'key resource' area to sustain animal numbers through critical periods of low rainfall. Overall, seasonal movement ...

  1. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to promote evidence-based policies for improving livestock production, environmental sustainability, and health in the Bolivian Altiplano's rural communities. Traditional farming under threat in Bolivia Raising sheep and llamas is a fundamental economic activity that is threatened by current agricultural ...

  2. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions

  3. Controlling nitrous oxide emissions from grassland livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Gebauer, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Sapek, A.; Jarvis, S.C.; Corré, W.J.; Yamulki, S.

    1998-01-01

    There is growing awareness that grassland livestock production systems are major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Controlling these emissions requires a thorough understanding of all sources and controlling factors at the farm level. This paper examines the various controlling factors and proposes

  4. Improving Access to Livestock Markets for Sustainable Rangeland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The center of the region is either very dry with very unreliable rainfall, or the ...... and Dynamics (LUCID) Working Paper 19, Nairobi: International Livestock Research. Institute (ILRI). .... Cutting the web of interests: Pitfalls of formalizing property ..... VARIABLE COST PER TLU (INPUT COSTS TO MAINTAIN THE. HERD). IR.

  5. Dynamic livestock modelling for on-farm decision support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalvingh, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focuses on the development and use of models that simulate herd dynamics in livestock. The models can be used to calculate the herd-specific technical and economic consequences of various management strategies. The thesis is composed of four parts. (1)

  6. Contribution of Livestock Production to Climate Change and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt is made to understand the role livestock production plays in climate change and to identify mitigation strategies to cap or reduce greenhouse (GHG) emissions. Scientific literature on farm animal production and documented GHG emission, as well as mitigation strategies were synthesized and used for the study.

  7. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ..., who suggested an intake level that would be attainable on productive pastures of farming operations in... animals.'' Most types or species of livestock animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, sheep, goats..., goats, swine, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fiber, feed, or other...

  8. Impact Of Ethnic Conflicts On Livestock Production In Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rampant ethnic conflicts and civil wars in the northern parts of most African ... than 50 sheep, goats and poultry after the conflict also declined after the conflict. ... the livestock sector in the region but a decade after the conflict, most farmers ...

  9. THREAT TO LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AMONG WOMEN IN OYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    This study examines women farmers' perception on livestock involvement in road accident in ... this could be made possible through exchange of female goats among kilns and kiths in a ... bounded partly by Ogun State in the south, Kwara state in the North. ..... Realizing the promise and potentials of African agriculture.

  10. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. [ADAS Research, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton WV6 8TQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jim.webb@adas.co.uk; Menzi, H. [Swiss College of Agriculture, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen (Switzerland); Pain, B.F. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Misselbrook, T.H. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Daemmgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Hendriks, H. [National Reference Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ede (Netherlands); Doehler, H. [KTBL, Bartningstrasse 49, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH{sub 3}. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH{sub 3}, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH{sub 3} abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH{sub 3} emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH{sub 3} emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost.

  11. problems of livestock production in the black states of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    within the scope of this paper to go into details, but rather emphasise .... individual herd off-take in the Black States. For exam- ple, a recent finding in two areas of the Ciskei and. Transkei ..... make livestock marketing centres more attractive, by siting them .... cation of the other principles of grazing management. Extension ...

  12. Perspectives of genomics for genetic conservation of livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Engelsma, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics provides new opportunities for conservation genetics. Conservation genetics in livestock is based on estimating diversity by pedigree relatedness and managing diversity by choosing those animals that maximize genetic diversity. Animals can be chosen as parents for the next generation, as

  13. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  14. Respiratory health effects of livestock farm emissions in neighbouring residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borlée, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315138661

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the large contribution of agriculture to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution, and the public health impact that may result from agricultural emissions.The aim of this thesis was to explore associations between air pollution from livestock farms and respiratory

  15. The future of animal feeding: towards sustainable precision livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the future, production will increasingly be affected by globalization of the trade in feed commodities and livestock products, competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between feed, food and biofuel, and by the need to operate in a carbonconstrained economy,

  16. Database Application for a Youth Market Livestock Production Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…

  17. Survey of traditional use of medicinal plants in peasant livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural substances of plant origin, which provide a rich source of botanical anthelmintics, antibacterials and insecticides, were used by the respondents to kill or repel parasitic arthropods on livestock. There had been a good effort by the rural farmers to solve their own problems through indigenous knowledge systems and ...

  18. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... represent as organic any animal or edible product derived from any animal treated with antibiotics, any... restore an animal to health when methods acceptable to organic production fail. Livestock treated with a...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling...

  19. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...

  20. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: A paradigm for human poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock poisoning, primarily liver damage, caused by consumption of plants containing 1,2-dehydropyrro-lizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs), and the corresponding N-oxides, is a relatively common occurrence worldwide. Because of the economic impact, extensive investigations...