WorldWideScience

Sample records for livestock conservation institute

  1. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts.

  2. Perspectives of genomics for genetic conservation of livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Engelsma, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics provides new opportunities for conservation genetics. Conservation genetics in livestock is based on estimating diversity by pedigree relatedness and managing diversity by choosing those animals that maximize genetic diversity. Animals can be chosen as parents for the next generation, as

  3. Using genomic information to conserve genetic diversity in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eynard, Sonia E.

    2018-01-01

    Concern about the status of livestock breeds and their conservation has increased as selection and small population sizes caused loss of genetic diversity. Meanwhile, dense SNP chips and whole genome sequences (WGS) became available, providing opportunities to accurately quantify the impact of

  4. Management Approaches to Accomplish Contemporary Livestock Production-Conservation Objectives in Shortgrass Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional rangeland management in the shortgrass steppe has emphasized livestock production with moderate stocking rates, but alternative approaches will be needed to meet production objectives under increasing demands for conservation-oriented management. We investigated the utility of very inten...

  5. Institutional stakeholders’ views on jaguar conservation issues in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yennie K. Bredin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large carnivore management is typically a source of heated controversy worldwide and, in the Americas, jaguars (Panthera onca are at the centre of many human–wildlife conflicts. Although findings suggest that social, rather than economic, factors are important reasons for why humans kill jaguars, few studies focus on stakeholder attitudes towards jaguar conservation beyond quantifying livestock depredation. Yet insights from other large carnivore conflicts demonstrate the importance of the political landscape and stakeholder attitudes in carnivore conservation. To explore the extent to which stakeholder views about jaguar conservation aligned with institutional arrangements, we conducted a stakeholder analysis among personnel working for key institutions in central Brazil. Using Q methodology, we identified three stakeholder perspectives focusing on: A jaguars’ intrinsic right to exist; B wider ecocentric values; and C contesting jaguar-focused conservation. The three institutional stakeholder groups all accepted the jaguar’s fundamental right to exist and agreed that it was important to establish protected areas for jaguars. Yet, institutional stakeholder views diverged regarding the desired distribution of jaguars in Brazil, hunting policies, and the effects of hunting and development projects on jaguar conservation. These differences and their underlying motivations are important to consider for successful jaguar conservation strategies in Brazil.

  6. Use of SNP markers to conserve genome-wide genetic diversity in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity in livestock breeds is important since it is, both within and between breeds, under threat. The availability of large numbers of SNP markers has resulted in new opportunities to estimate genetic diversity in more detail, and to improve prioritization of animals

  7. Landscape characteristics and livestock presence influence common ravens: Relevance to greater sage-grouse conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Howe, Kristy; Gustafson, K. Ben; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) population abundance in the sagebrush steppe of the American West has increased threefold during the previous four decades, largely as a result of unintended resource subsidies from human land-use practices. This is concerning because ravens frequently depredate nests of species of conservation concern, such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse). Grazing by livestock in sagebrush ecosystems is common practice on most public lands, but associations between livestock and ravens are poorly understood. The primary objective of this study was to identify the effects of livestock on raven occurrence while accounting for landscape characteristics within human-altered sagebrush steppe habitat, particularly in areas occupied by breeding sage-grouse. Using data from southeastern Idaho collected during spring and summer across 3 yr, we modeled raven occurrence as a function of the presence of livestock while accounting for multiple landscape covariates, including land cover features, topographical features, and proximity to sage-grouse lek sites (breeding grounds), as well as site-level anthropogenic features. While accounting for landscape characteristics, we found that the odds of raven occurrence increased 45.8% in areas where livestock were present. In addition, ravens selected areas near sage-grouse leks, with the odds of occurrence decreasing 8.9% for every 1-km distance, increase away from the lek. We did not find an association between livestock use and distance to lek. We also found that ravens selected sites with relatively lower elevation containing increased amounts of cropland, wet meadow, and urbanization. Limiting raven access to key anthropogenic subsidies and spatially segregating livestock from sage-grouse breeding areas would likely reduce exposure of predatory ravens to sage-grouse nests and chicks.

  8. Seasonal movements of wildlife and livestock in a heterogenous pastoral landscape: Implications for coexistence and community based conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tyrrell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands across the world are home to millions of pastoral people and vast wildlife populations, which create a complex landscape for conservation. Community based conservation has been used to promote human-wildlife coexistence on pastoral lands, protecting wildlife outside of official protected areas. With the spread of community based conservation within the rangelands there is a need for more information on successful management practices. This study provides an example of this in the South Rift, Kenya, where seasonal movements of pastoralists aid coexistence. We used Density Surface Modelling (DSM, a novel tool for conservation managers in the rangelands, to predict wildlife and livestock abundance across the landscape and seasons. Wildlife grazers, zebra (Equus burchelli and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus, follow expected metabolic patterns, feeding on short grass outside the conservation area in the wet season, before returning to the taller-lower quality grazing in the conservation areas during the drought. Browsing wildlife, impala (Aepyceros melampus and Grant’s gazelle (Nanger granti, move from open grassland and bushland areas into thicker, denser browse as the seasons progress towards the drought. Livestock, both shoats (Ovis aries, and Capra aegagrus hircus and cattle (Bos indicus, are managed by community grazing committees, who enforce a grazing plan that creates spatial–temporal separation between wildlife and livestock. They exploit the high-quality grazing in the livestock area during the wet season while conserving pasture in the conservation area, which is utilized only as forage is depleted. This ensures that wildlife has access to a diverse resource base across all seasons and potentially reduces competition, allowing for a diverse and abundant wildlife community to coexist with livestock. This highlights the importance of the presence and maintenance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of forage resources

  9. Molecular identification of livestock breeds: a tool for modern conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaro, Mohammed; Munyard, Kylie A; Stear, Michael J; Groth, David M

    2017-05-01

    Global livestock genetic diversity includes all of the species, breeds and strains of domestic animals, and their variations. Although a recent census indicated that there were 40 species and over 8000 breeds of domestic animals; for the purpose of conservation biology the diversity between and within breeds rather than species is regarded to be of crucial importance. This domestic animal genetic diversity has developed through three main evolutionary events, from speciation (about 3 million years ago) through domestication (about 12000 years ago) to specialised breeding (starting about 200 years ago). These events and their impacts on global animal genetic resources have been well documented in the literature. The key importance of global domestic animal resources in terms of economic, scientific and cultural heritage has also been addressed. In spite of their importance, there is a growing number of reports on the alarming erosion of domestic animal genetic resources. This erosion of is happening in spite of several global conservation initiatives designed to mitigate it. Herein we discuss these conservation interventions and highlight their strengths and weaknesses. However, pivotal to the success of these conservation initiatives is the reliability of the genetic assignment of individual members to a target breed. Finally, we discuss the prospect of using improved breed identification methodologies to develop a reliable breed-specific molecular identification tool that is easily applicable to populations of livestock breeds in various ecosystems. These identification tools, when developed, will not only facilitate the regular monitoring of threatened or endangered breed populations, but also enhance the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Caitlin E; Main, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Calf (Bos taurus) depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2) develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr) and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the landscape. We

  11. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Jacobs

    Full Text Available Calf (Bos taurus depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2 develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC. We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the

  12. Guidelines for sustainable manure management in Asian livestock production systems. A publication prepared under the framework of the RCA project on Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with the technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated approach for improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment' (RAS/5/044). Technical Cooperation projects are technology transfer initiatives, designed to address specific priorities identified by Member States. The specific objectives of this project were: (a) to improve animal productivity and decrease discharges of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (b) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies to improve animal productivity through the use of better selection criteria for offspring from cross-breeding programmes, optimum utilization of appropriate indigenous cows, benchmarking for growth and reproduction, and improving procedures for management, nutrition and healthcare programmes in dairy farms. The first meeting to plan project activities was hosted by the Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, and was held from 4 to 8 April 2005. It was attended by 23 nominated project counterparts from 12 RCA Member States and was supported by three IAEA experts. One of the conclusions from this meeting was that there was considerable scope and need for improving current manure management practices in the region to enhance the productive recycling of ingested nutrients in animal production systems, which in addition to increasing livestock and crop productivity will decrease environment pollution. It was agreed that there was a need to focus on improving the nutritional and manure management in integrated livestock systems, and that it was

  13. The Institutional Canopy of Conservation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    based ... to natural resources, income diversification, and green economic development ... conservation practices in collaborative natural resource management; and ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  14. Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): Epidemiological study in a wildlife/livestock system

    OpenAIRE

    Gakuya, Francis; Ombui, Jackson; Maingi, Ndichu; Muchemi, Gerald; Ogara, William; Soriguer, Ramón C.; Alasaad, Samer

    2012-01-01

    The sanitary control of threatened wild animals is of pivotal interest for their conservation. This task, however, is highly complex in wildlife/livestock systems. In this paper we report findings from a 2-year cross-sectional study of the epidemiology and attempted control of a Sarcoptes mite infestation in the threatened cheetah population in Masai Mara (Kenya), and discuss its interaction with sympatric wild (lion, wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle) and domestic (dog, cattle and sheep) anim...

  15. Water Conservation in Schools and Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Suggests measures for New Jersey schools to take to decrease building water consumption by 25 per cent during the present state water shortage. Appended is a short list of water conservation instructional materials intended to supplement a bibliography published in the February, 1981 issue of this magazine (pp15-16). (SJL)

  16. African wildlife conservation and the evolution of hunting institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Hunting regulation presents a significant challenge for contemporary global conservation governance. Motivated by various incentives, hunters may act legally or illegally, for or against the interests of conservation. Hunter incentives are shaped by the interactions between unevenly evolving formal and informal institutions, embedded in socio-ecological systems. To work effectively for conservation, regulatory interventions must take these evolving institutional interactions into account. Drawing on analytical tools from evolutionary institutional economics, this article examines the trajectory of African hunting regulation and its consequences. Concepts of institutional dynamics, fit, scale, and interplay are applied to case studies of rhinoceros and lion hunting to highlight issues of significance to conservation outcomes. These include important links between different forms of hunting and dynamic interplay with institutions of trade. The case studies reveal that inappropriate formal regulatory approaches may be undermined by adaptive informal market responses. Poorly regulated hunting may lead to calls for stricter regulations or bans, but such legal restrictions may in turn perversely lead to more intensified and organised illegal hunting activity, further undermining conservation objectives. I conclude by offering insights and recommendations to guide more effective future regulatory interventions and priorities for further research. Specifically, I advocate approaches that move beyond simplistic regulatory interventions toward more complex, but supportive, institutional arrangements that align formal and informal institutions through inclusive stakeholder engagement.

  17. Whereto with institutions and governance challenges in African wildlife conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchapondwa, Edwin; Stage, Jesper

    2015-09-01

    African wildlife conservation has been transformed, shifting from a traditional, state-managed government approach to a broader governance approach with a wide range of actors designing and implementing wildlife policy. The most widely popularized approach has been that of community-managed nature conservancies. The knowledge of how institutions function in relation to humans and their use of the environment is critical to the design and implementation of effective conservation. This paper seeks to review the institutional and governance challenges faced in wildlife conservation in southern and eastern Africa. We discuss two different sets of challenges related to the shift in conservation practices: the practical implementation of wildlife governance, and the capacity of current governance structures to capture and distribute economic benefits from wildlife. To some extent, the issues raised by the new policies must be resolved through theoretical and empirical research addressed at wildlife conservation per se. However, many of these issues apply more broadly to a wide range of policy arenas and countries where similar policy shifts have taken place.

  18. Recommendations on successful quarantine of pure exotic sheep breed at Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Giasuddin

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Quarantine is mandatory for entering any new animal in a new area that gives the outline of different new diseases. It also acts as radar of exotic disease in a country. So, this quarantine technique serves the purpose for livestock owners effectively. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 67-72

  19. Exploration and conservation of bacterial genetic resources as bacteriocin producing inhibitory microorganisms to pathogen bacteria in livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotiah S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and conservation of microorganisms producing bacteriocin was done as the primary study towards the collection of potential bacteria and its application in improving livestock health condition and inhibit food borne pathogens. Diferent kinds of samples such as beef cattle rectal swab, rumen fluids, cow’s milk, chicken gut content, goat’s milk were collected at Bogor cattle slaughter houses, poultry slaughter houses, dairy cattle and goat farms. A total of 452 bacterial isolates consisted of 73 Gram negative bacteria and 379 Gram positive bacteria were isolated from samples collected and screened for bacteriocin activity. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassay using agar spot tests were carried out on liquid and semisolid medium assessing 8 kins of indicators of pathogenic bacteria and food borne pathogens. A total of 51 bacteriocin producing strains were collected and some of the strains had high inhibitory zone such as Lactobacillus casei SS14C (26 mm, Enterobacter cloacae SRUT (24mm, Enterococcus faecalis SK39 (21mm and Bifidobacterium dentium SS14T (20mm respectively, to Salmonella typhimurium BCC B0046/ATCC 13311, E. coli O157 hemolytic BCC B2717, Listeria monocytogenes BCC B2767/ATCC 7764 and Escherichia coli VTEC O157 BCC B2687. Evaluation after conservation ex situ to all bacterocin producing strain at 5oC for 1 year in freeze drying ampoules in vacuum and dry condition revealed the decreasing viability starting from log 0.8 CFU/ml for Lactococcus and Leuconostoc to log 2.2. CFU/ml for Streptococcus. Result of the study showed that the bacteriocin producing strains obtained were offered a potential resource for preventing disease of livestock and food borne diseases.

  20. Climate variability and impacts on east African livestock herders: The Maasai of Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Galvin, K.A.; Thornton, P.K.; Boone, R.B.; Sunderland, J.

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record East African pastoral adaptation and vulnerability to climate variability and climate change is assessed, using data from decision-making processes and ecological data of the Maasai of Ngorongoro Conservation Area as an example. The paper uses integrated modeling, linking PHEWS, a household model, to SAVANNA, an ecosystem model to look at the effects of drought and a series of wet years on the well-being of Maasai pastoralists. Model results suggest that the ecosystem ...

  1. Mainstreaming conservation agriculture in Malawi: Knowledge gaps and institutional barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew J; Whitfield, Stephen; Stringer, Lindsay C; Vincent, Katharine; Wood, Benjamin T; Chinseu, Edna L; Steward, Peter; Mkwambisi, David D

    2017-06-15

    Conservation agriculture (CA) practices of reduced soil tillage, permanent organic soil coverage and intercropping/crop rotation, are being advocated globally, based on perceived benefits for crop yields, soil carbon storage, weed suppression, reduced soil erosion and improved soil water retention. However, some have questioned their efficacy due to uncertainty around the performance and trade-offs associated with CA practices, and their compatibility with the diverse livelihood strategies and varied agro-ecological conditions across African smallholder systems. This paper assesses the role of key institutions in Malawi in shaping pathways towards more sustainable land management based on CA by outlining their impact on national policy-making and the design and implementation of agricultural development projects. It draws on interviews at national, district and project levels and a multi-stakeholder workshop that mapped the institutional landscape of decision-making for agricultural land management practices. Findings identify knowledge gaps and institutional barriers that influence land management decision-making and constrain CA uptake. We use our findings to set out an integrated roadmap of research needs and policy options aimed at supporting CA as a route to enhanced sustainable land management in Malawi. Findings offer lessons that can inform design, planning and implementation of CA projects, and identify the multi-level institutional support structures required for mainstreaming sustainable land management in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): epidemiological study in a wildlife/livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakuya, Francis; Ombui, Jackson; Maingi, Ndichu; Muchemi, Gerald; Ogara, William; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer

    2012-10-01

    The sanitary control of threatened wild animals is of pivotal interest for their conservation. This task, however, is highly complex in wildlife/livestock systems. In this paper we report findings from a 2-year cross-sectional study of the epidemiology and attempted control of a Sarcoptes mite infestation in the threatened cheetah population in Masai Mara (Kenya), and discuss its interaction with sympatric wild (lion, wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle) and domestic (dog, cattle and sheep) animals. Sarcoptes scabiei was isolated from cheetahs, Thomson's gazelles, wildebeests, lions, cattle, goats and dogs; Psoroptes ovis, on the other hand, was only isolated from sheep. The prevalence study revealed 12·77% infection rates in cheetahs, 4·7% in dogs, 0·8% in Thomson's gazelles, 0·8% in sheep, 0·09% in cattle, and 0·09% in goats, while it opportunistically affected lions and wildebeest. Our study revealed that prevalence of Sarcoptes mite in cheetah population was not associated with the studied geographical blocks, animal sex or the presence of affected domestic animals. Cheetah infection with S. scabiei was associated with the climatic conditions (dry more than wet season) and the balancing between the total number of Thomson's gazelles and the prevalence of infected individuals. Apparently the high prevalence of mangy gazelles has a negative effect on cheetah; this negative effect was reduced when the number of healthy gazelles was increased. Treatment with injectable ivermectin of the clinically affected wild and domestic animals during the first year of this study was associated with much lower incidence of sarcoptic mange during the second year.

  3. Food safety in scavenger conservation: Diet-associated exposure to livestock pharmaceuticals and opportunist mycoses in threatened Cinereous and Egyptian vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Junza, Alexandra; Barrón, Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals from veterinary treatments may enter terrestrial food webs when medicated livestock are available to wildlife in supplementary feeding stations aimed at the conservation of endangered scavengers. Here, we hypothesized that the exposure risk to livestock fluoroquinolones, as indicators of pharmaceutical burden in food, is related to the variable reliance of scavengers on domestic versus wild animal carcasses. Since the misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is a major predisposing factor for opportunistic mycoses, we evaluated disease signs potentially associated with diet-dependent drug exposure in nestlings of two threatened vultures. A greater occurrence (100%, n=14) and concentration of fluoroquinolones (mean±SD=73.0±27.5µgL -1 , range=33.2-132.7), mostly enrofloxacin, were found in Cinereous vultures, Aegypius monachus, due to their greater dependence on livestock carcasses than Egyptian vultures, Neophron percnopterus (fluoroquinolones occurrence: 44%, n=16, concentration: 37.9±16.6µgL -1 , range=11.5-55.9), which rely much more on carcasses of wild animals (42% of remains vs. 23% in the cinereous vulture). The chaotic, chronic and pulsed ingestion of these drugs throughout nestling development is proposed as one of the most plausible explanations for the high occurrence and intensity of oral Candida-like lesions in nestling vultures. The high occurrence of fluoroquinolone residues and disease hindered the probing of a cause-effect relationship between both factors in individual vultures. This relationship could be evaluated through a population-based approach by sampling vultures not exposed to these drugs. The high dependence of vultures on domestic animals today compared to past decades and the growing intensification of livestock farming, imply an expected increase in the impact of pharmaceuticals on scavenger populations. This requires further evaluation due to potential consequences in biodiversity conservation and environmental health

  4. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  5. Institutional Sustainability Barriers of Community Conservation Agreement as a Collaboration Management in Lore Lindu National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudirman Daeng Massiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of forest institutional arrangement is the issue of institutional sustainability in achieving sustainable forest ecosystem. This study aimed to explain the barriers of institutional sustainability Community Conservation Agreement (CCA designed in Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP, in Indonesia, as a collaborative management of national parks. This study is of descriptive which used qualitative approach, i.e. asking open-ended questions, reviewing documentation and analyzing textual of community conservation agreements. We found that the institutional sustainability barriers of CCA were the local decisions on collective-choice level and that the rules at operational level arranged in CCA were not in line with formal rules of national park management at the constitutional level. Furthermore, the low capacity of local institutions in heterogeneous villages with many migrants in controlling and regulating the forest use, especially in rehabilitation zone areas, also became a barrier to institutional sustainability of CCA. Therefore, institutional sustainability of CCA requires support of national park management policy that accommodates the sustainability of livelihoods of local communities in national parks, strengthening local institution's capacity, and ultimately integrating institution of CCA as part of LLNP management.

  6. Nationwide survey of energy conservation in public school districts: Institutional, organizational, and technical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.E.; Ettinger, G.A.; Gaines, L.L.; Kier, P.H.; Miller, K.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kammerud, R.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes the responses to a mail survey sent to superintendents and other administrators of public school districts. The survey was part of an evaluation project for the USDOE Institutional Conservation Program (ICP). The goal of the project is to identify the most successful energy conservation measures (equipment and activities) available to the institutional buildings sector. To accomplish this goal, four specific research objectives were defined: To determine the impact of the ICP grants program on fostering energy efficiency and saving energy; to determine key characteristics of institutional conservation efforts outside the federal program; To determine the technical, organizational, and Institutional conditions that create the opportunity for energy conservation measures (ECMS) to be most effective; and to identify key technology transfer opportunities. This report focuses on those characteristics of school districts (and the schools within those districts) that might influence the identification, implementation, operation, and impacts of institutional energy conservation efforts. Information about institutional characteristics was gathered through a mail survey of public school districts and private schools. The first mailing resulted in responses from 90 of the 823 public school districts selected through a combination cluster-and-stratification sampling technique and 64 of the 1,700 private schools selected as a stratified random sample. Remaining project resources were used to collect data to achieve a statistically sound sample of a total of 250 public school districts by telephone interviews. In doing so, some questions had to be dropped. Responses from both the mall surveys and the telephone interviews of public school districts were combined into one data set. This report describes results for all 250 districts.

  7. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions

  8. Adjusting policy to institutional, cultural and biophysical context conditions: The case of conservation banking in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsten Mann; James D. Absher

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the political construction of a policy instrument for matching particular institutional, biophysical and cultural context conditions in a social–ecological system, using the case of conservation banking in California as an example. The guiding research question is: How is policy design negotiated between various actors on its way from early...

  9. Consumer energy-conservation policy in Canada: behavioural and institutional obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G. (Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, Ontario); Mank, R.B.

    1982-09-01

    This paper posits that if consumer energy-conservation policy is to succeed in Canada, both behavioral and institutional obstacles must be identified and overcome. The behavioral barriers, identified through a national household survey, include consumer resistance to policies that affect their lifestyles. The institutional barriers obtained from a series of interviews with government officials, include weak federal-provincial relations. Viewed from a federal perspective, these obstacles are discussed and then linked to policy types. A prior understanding of the obstacles that a particular program type is likely to face should allow more-effective execution of the program and enhance the probability of success. 11 references, 7 tables.

  10. Report of the consultants' meeting on the identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries' was held at IAEA, Vienna, April 12- 14, 2000. Four consultants, with expertise in nutrient dynamics drawn from National Agricultural Research Organisations and Universities, attended the meeting together with staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Divisions. The consultants presented reviews of the situation regarding studies of nutrient dynamics in crop/pasture/ livestock systems in developing and developed agricultural systems. These were complemented by a paper on the development of 15 N techniques to study the contribution of N from crop residues and human, animal and industrial waste products developed at the Seibersdorf Laboratory. The consultants were of the opinion that in view of of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's comparative advantage in operating (both technically and administratively) Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) the proposal to initiate an FAO/IAEA CRP on quantification of nutrient budget and flows in integrated crop/livestock systems is appropriate. They identified a well focused area of the CRP and also provided recommendations on its formulation and implementation

  11. Report of the consultants' meeting on the identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries' was held at IAEA, Vienna, April 12- 14, 2000. Four consultants, with expertise in nutrient dynamics drawn from National Agricultural Research Organisations and Universities, attended the meeting together with staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Divisions. The consultants presented reviews of the situation regarding studies of nutrient dynamics in crop/pasture/ livestock systems in developing and developed agricultural systems. These were complemented by a paper on the development of {sup 15}N techniques to study the contribution of N from crop residues and human, animal and industrial waste products developed at the Seibersdorf Laboratory. The consultants were of the opinion that in view of of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's comparative advantage in operating (both technically and administratively) Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) the proposal to initiate an FAO/IAEA CRP on quantification of nutrient budget and flows in integrated crop/livestock systems is appropriate. They identified a well focused area of the CRP and also provided recommendations on its formulation and implementation.

  12. Energy management action plan: Developing a strategy for overcoming institutional barriers to municipal energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Energy offices working to improve efficiency of local government facilities face not only technical tasks, but institutional barriers, such as budget structures that do not reward efficiency, a low awareness of energy issues, and purchasing procedures based only on minimizing initial cost. The bureau, in working to remove such barriers in San Francisco, has identified 37 institutional barriers in areas such as operations & maintenance, purchasing, and facility design; these barriers were then reorganized into three groupings-- policy & attitudes, budget & incentives, and awareness & information-- and mapped. This map shows that the barriers mutually reinforce each other, and that a holistic approach is required for permanent change. The city`s recreation & parks department was used as a model department, and information about facility energy use was compiled into a departmental energy review. Staff interviews showed how barriers affect conservation. The bureau then generated ideas for projects to remove specific barriers and rated them according to potential impact and the resources required to implement them. Four of the six projects selected focused on maintenance staff: a cost- sharing lighting retrofit program, a boiler efficiency program, a departmental energy tracking system, and a budgetary incentive program for conservation. The other two projects are city-wide: promotion of a new term contract supplying energy-efficient light materials, and publication/distribution of ENERGY NEWS newsletter. A general methodology, the EMAP Strategy Guide, has been created to assist other energy offices in developing EMAPs.

  13. 25 CFR 168.7 - Kind of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kind of livestock. 168.7 Section 168.7 Indians BUREAU OF... LANDS AREA § 168.7 Kind of livestock. Unless determined otherwise by the Area Director for conservation purposes, the Hopi Tribe may determine, subject to the authorized carrying capacity, the kind of livestock...

  14. An empirical study on the institutional factors of energy conservation and emissions reduction: Evidence from listed companies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhaoguo; Jin, Xiaocui; Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Corporate excessive energy consumption and emissions are negative externality problems, with the basic countermeasure of establishing a series of institutional programs to promote corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. This paper analyzes the influence of institutional factors such as laws, tax policies, credit policies, government subsidies, media supervision and marketization degree on corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction from the institutional perspective. The data, from 84 listed Chinese chemical and steel companies from 2006 to 2010, was analyzed using both a fixed effect model and the generalized method of moments (GMM) model. The empirical results demonstrate that these institutional factors positively affect corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. Specifically, four factors – tax policies, government subsidies, credit policies and media supervision – have a significant positive relationship with corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction; whereas laws and marketization degree exhibit no significant effects. The research findings are theoretically and practically significant to the Chinese government with regard to improving the institutional environment and promoting corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. - Highlights: ► Theoretical analysis of the influence of institutional factors based on NIE. ► Empirical analysis of the influence of institutional factors on ECER by regression. ► Economic measures and public opinions have positive influence on ECER in China. ► Laws and the degree of marketization have weak influence on ECER in China

  15. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  16. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  17. Samoa : Livestock Production and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to provide information and analysis of the Samoan livestock sub-sector for the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries through a technical assistance assignment financed by the World Bank. The Word Bank contributed technical assistance support to the Government of Samoa to help identify measures to strengthen agriculture sector institutions, to improve the performanc...

  18. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  19. Energy conservation measures in an institutional building in sub-tropical climate in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Rasul, M.G.; Khan, M.M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, various energy conservation measures (ECMs) on heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems for a four-storied institutional building in sub-tropical (hot and humid climate) Queensland, Australia are evaluated using the simulation software called DesignBuilder (DB). Base case scenario of energy consumption profiles of existing systems are analysed and simulated first then, the simulated results are verified by on-site measured data. Three categories of ECMs, namely major investment ECMs (variable air volume (VAV) systems against constant air volume (CAV); and low coefficient of performance (COP) chillers against high COP chillers); minor investment ECMs (photo electric dimming control system against general lighting, and double glazed low emittance windows against single-glazed windows) and zero investment ECMs (reset heating and cooling set point temperatures) are evaluated. It is found that the building considered in this study can save up to 41.87% energy without compromising occupancies thermal comfort by implementing the above mentioned ECMs into the existing system.

  20. Energy conservation from a consumer perspective. Institut fuer marketing der Universitaet Muenster, Arbeitspapiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, R

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the standard of energy research in the American Literature on consumer behaviour is given. After the discussion of the importance of consumer research for energy conservation the difficulties on determining ''energy conservation behaviour'' are described. Moreover, the study compiles past American Literature that has tried to explain energy conservation behaviour. A further chapter analyzes measures of influencing the consumer energy conservation behaviour carried out so far in the United States and Canada. Finally, still open problems in future American energy conservation research in the field of consumer behaviour are demonstrated.

  1. Building local institutions for national conservation programs: lessons for developing Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wain Collen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For programs that aim to promote forest conservation and poverty alleviation, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+, the participation of indigenous communities is essential to meet program goals. Using Ostrom's theory of collective action for common pool resource management, we evaluated the institutions governing indigenous participation in the Programa Socio Bosque incentive-based conservation program in Ecuador. We conducted structured interviews with 94 members in 4 communities to assess community institutions for 6 of Ostrom's principles, using 12 measures we developed for the principles. We found substantial variation between communities in terms of their institutional performance. The best-performing community performed well (>50% of interviewees reported successfully meeting the measure on 8 of the 12 measures. The weakest performed well on only 2 out of 12 measures. Overall, our results indicate that there is stronger performance for constitutional-level institutions, which determine who gets to make the rules, and some collective-choice institutions, which determine how local rules are made. We identified specific challenges with the day-to-day operational institutions that arise from participation in nation state-community conservation programs, such as restricted resource appropriation, monitoring and compliance, and conflict resolution. We found that top-down policy making has an important role to play in supporting communities to establish constitutional-level and some collective-choice institutions. However, developing operational institutions may take more time and depend on local families' day-to-day use of resources, and thus may require a more nuanced policy approach. As some countries and donors find a jurisdictional REDD+ approach increasingly attractive, complementing top-down policy measures with bottom-up institutional development could provide a stronger platform to achieve the

  2. Testing Extended Accounts in Scheduled Conservation of Open Woodlands with Permanent Livestock Grazing: Dehesa de la Luz Estate Case Study, Arroyo de la Luz, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Campos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard Economic Accounts for Agriculture and Forestry do not measure the ecosystem services and intermediate products embedded in the final products recorded, and omit the private non-commercial intermediate products and self-consumption of private amenities. These limitations of the standard accounts are addressed by the extended Agroforestry Accounting System, which is being tested at the publicly-owned Dehesa de la Luz agroforestry estate. The extended accounts simulate conservation forestry of holm oak and cork oak for the current as well as successive rotation cycles during which scheduled conservation of the cultural woodland landscape of the Dehesa de la Luz is carried out, improving the natural physical growth of the firewood and cork. The estimated results for 2014 reveal that private ecosystem services make up 50% of the firewood and grazing products consumed; the private environmental income accounts for 13% of the total private income; and the private environmental asset represents 53% of the total opening capital. The net value added is more than 2.3 times the amount estimated using the standard accounts. The landowner donates intermediate products of non-commercial services at a value of 85 €/ha, which are used to enhance the supply of public products.

  3. Livestock production and marketing:

    OpenAIRE

    Negassa, Asfaw; Rashid, Shahidur; Gebremedhin, Berhanu

    2011-01-01

    The livestock is an important sub-sector within Ethiopia’s economy in terms of its contributions to both agricultural value-added and national GDP. Between 1995/96 and 2005/06, the livestock sub-sector’s share averaged 24 percent of agricultural GDP and 11 percent of national GDP, with the highest shares recorded at 27 percent and 13 percent, respectively, at its peak (NBE 2005/06). The contribution of livestock and livestock product exports to foreign exchange earnings is also large. The ann...

  4. Gender Responsive Livestock Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Livestock researchers and development practitioners need to ... Qualitative approaches that integrate gender analysis frameworks and tools; Gender .... and social attitudes, which means multiple methods ... Combining quantitative tools that.

  5. The conservation message of the rehabilitated facilities of the International Institute of Tropical Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J. Rullan

    2015-01-01

    Over a period of about 20 years, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) and its collaborators developed and implemented a facilities plan that included both new and restored facilities. Among the restored facilities, the historic Headquarters Building received a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certificate, and was...

  6. Blood conservation in cardiac surgery. Preliminary results with an institutional commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, G S; Sladen, R N; Spainhour, V; Savitt, M A; Ferguson, T B; Wolfe, W G

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of blood conservation in cardiac surgery, use of blood products was analyzed in patients undergoing CABG before and after implementation of blood conservation techniques. Age, sex, coronary anatomy, ejection fraction, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and the preoperative hematocrit, platelet count, and clotting studies were similar in both groups. Methods of blood conservation included autologous transfusion of blood withdrawn before bypass, autotransfusion of shed mediastinal blood, strict protocols for transfusion, and acceptance of normovolemic anemia. With blood conservation, 25.5% of patients received no transfusions and 54.9% received blood only. Significant reductions (p less than 0.001) were achieved in the transfusion of blood from 6.8 +/- 2.4 to 2.3 +/- 2.6 units per patient and of plasma from 2.5 +/- 2.2 to 0.6 +/- 2.0 units per patient. Reductions in the use of platelets and cryoprecipitate were substantial, although not significant. Total donor exposure was reduced significantly from 13.1 +/- 7.3 to 4.3 +/- 6.7 donors per patient. The postoperative hematocrit was significantly lower and remained so at discharge. However, 30 days later there was no difference. This reduction in transfusion requirements decreased costs and donor exposure.

  7. Ecological and economic conditions and associated institutional challenges for conservation banking in dynamic landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Wätzold, F.; Hartig, F.; Johst, K.; Drechsler, M.; Vos, C.C.; Wissel, S.; Quétier, F.

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone of current biodiversity policy. The continued loss of biodiversity, however, as well as the limited scope to extend protected area networks necessitates a conservation perspective that encompasses both protected areas and the wider landscape. This calls for policy

  8. Blood conservation in cardiac surgery. Preliminary results with an institutional commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, G S; Sladen, R N; Spainhour, V; Savitt, M A; Ferguson, T B; Wolfe, W G

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blood conservation in cardiac surgery, use of blood products was analyzed in patients undergoing CABG before and after implementation of blood conservation techniques. Age, sex, coronary anatomy, ejection fraction, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and the preoperative hematocrit, platelet count, and clotting studies were similar in both groups. Methods of blood conservation included autologous transfusion of blood withdrawn before bypass, autotransfusion of shed mediastinal blood, strict protocols for transfusion, and acceptance of normovolemic anemia. With blood conservation, 25.5% of patients received no transfusions and 54.9% received blood only. Significant reductions (p less than 0.001) were achieved in the transfusion of blood from 6.8 +/- 2.4 to 2.3 +/- 2.6 units per patient and of plasma from 2.5 +/- 2.2 to 0.6 +/- 2.0 units per patient. Reductions in the use of platelets and cryoprecipitate were substantial, although not significant. Total donor exposure was reduced significantly from 13.1 +/- 7.3 to 4.3 +/- 6.7 donors per patient. The postoperative hematocrit was significantly lower and remained so at discharge. However, 30 days later there was no difference. This reduction in transfusion requirements decreased costs and donor exposure. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2730184

  9. Facilitating Transitional Processes in Rigid Institutional Regimes for Water Management and Wetland Conservation: Experience from the Guadalquivir Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F. Méndez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional policies for water resources management and wetland conservation are often based on command-and-control approaches. The latter tend to drive the human-wetland-water system into pathological states, characterized by more vulnerable ecosystems and rigid institutions for governance. The overcoming of these states may rest in the development of flexible and adaptive institutional regimes that rely on adaptive governance and management. Because past factors might constrain the implementation of more flexible adaptive approaches to management, it is important to understand the historical mechanisms underlying the genesis of institutional rigidity. We first present the results of a historical analysis of Doñana, which can be characterized as a pathological water socio-ecosystem governed through rigid institutional regimes for water resources management and wetland conservation. In a second step, we analyze the advances achieved during a recent, large-scale restoration program for the Doñana wetlands, which adhered explicitly to the tenets of adaptive management. Our analysis indicated that the historical persistence of command-and-control approaches has been a path-dependent process that led to the emergence of a rigid institutional regime and caused it to enter a rigidity trap. However, the achievements of the restoration program suggest that a more flexible and adaptive regime could be developed through the introduction of adaptive management at the operational levels, using specifically tailored action research programs. To conclude, we speculate that the research strategy outlined could be extended to comply with, or complement, the requirements of the EU's Water Framework Directive in other European water socio-ecosystems.

  10. Curie-therapy for the conservative treatment of 304 choroidal melanomas in the Catalonia Oncology Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riou, O.; Gutierrez, C.; Pera, J.; Martinez, E.; Caminal, J.M.; Modolell, I.; Navarro, V.; Guedea, F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report an analysis of results obtained on 304 patients who have been treated by curie-therapy for a non-metastatic choroidal melanoma. They address the treatment (exclusive curie-therapy, local relapse, and adjuvant surgery), the treatment type (iodine-125 plate, ruthenium plate, and dose level), the survival, metastatic evolutions, toxicity occurrence, and vision quality. In most of the cases, curie-therapy results in ocular conservation and in an acceptable vision. Short communication

  11. Conserving Mangrove Ecosystems in the Philippines: Transcending Disciplinary and Institutional Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua; Batker, David; de La Torre, Isabel; Hudspeth, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Humans are rapidly depleting critical ecosystems and the life support functions they provide, increasing the urgency of developing effective conservation tools. Using a case study of the conversion of mangrove ecosystems to shrimp aquaculture, this article describes an effort to develop a transdisciplinary, transinstitutional approach to conservation that simultaneously trains future generations of environmental problem solvers. We worked in close collaboration with academics, non-government organizations, local government and local communities to organize a workshop in Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines. The primary objectives of the workshop were to: (1) train participants in the basic principles of ecological economics and its goals of sustainable scale, just distribution and efficient allocation; (2) learn from local community stakeholders and participating scientists about the problems surrounding conversion of mangrove ecosystems to shrimp aquaculture; (3) draw on the skills and knowledge of all participants to develop potential solutions to the problem; and (4) communicate results to those with the power and authority to act on them. We found that the economic and ecological benefits of intact mangroves outweigh the returns to aquaculture. Perversely, however, private property rights to mangrove ecosystems favor inefficient, unjust and unsustainable allocation of the resource—a tragedy of the non-commons. We presented the workshop results to the press and local government, which shut down the aquaculture ponds to conserve the threatened ecosystem. Effective communication to appropriate audiences was essential for transforming research into action. Our approach is promising and can be readily applied to conservation research and advocacy projects worldwide, but should be improved through adaptive management—practitioners must continually build on those elements that work and discard or improve those that fail.

  12. Conservative treatment of breast ductal carcinoma in situ: results of an Italian multi-institutional retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidali, Cristiana; Neri, Stefano; Pietta, Nicoletta; Caffo, Orazio; Aristei, Cynthia; Bertoni, Filippo; Bonetta, Alberto; Guenzi, Marina; Iotti, Cinzia; Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Mussari, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased markedly in recent decades. In the past, mastectomy was the primary treatment for patients with DCIS, but as with invasive cancer, breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT) has become the standard approach. We present the final results of a multi-institutional retrospective study of an Italian Radiation Oncology Group for the study of conservative treatment of DCIS, characterized by a very long period of accrual, from February 1985 to March 2000, and a median follow-up longer than 11 years. A collaborative multi-institutional study was conducted in Italy in 10 Radiation Oncology Departments. A consecutive series of 586 women with DCIS histologically confirmed, treated between February 1985 and March 2000, was retrospectively evaluated. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (range: 29–84); 32 patients were 40 years old or younger. All women underwent conservative surgery followed by whole breast RT. Irradiation was delivered to the entire breast, for a median total dose of 50 Gy; the tumour bed was boosted in 295 cases (50%) at a median dose of 10 Gy. After a median follow-up of 136 months (range: 16–292 months), 59/586 patients (10%) experienced a local recurrence: invasive in 37 cases, intraductal in 20 and not specified in two. Salvage mastectomy was the treatment of choice in 46 recurrent patients; conservative surgery in 10 and it was unknown in three patients. The incidence of local recurrence was significantly higher in women younger than 40 years (31.3%) (p= 0.0009). Five patients developed distant metastases. Furthermore 40 patients developed a contralateral breast cancer and 31 a second primary tumour in a different site. The 10-year actuarial overall survival (OS) was 95.5% and the 10-year actuarial disease-specific survival (DSS) was 99%. Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature. In particular it has been defined the importance of young age (40

  13. Torroja Institute, the historic building: conservation and characteristics of the materials of its façades

    OpenAIRE

    Luxán, M. P.; Gaspar, D.; Sotolongo, R.; Solesio, M. T.; Dorrego, F.

    1999-01-01

    The "Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción" building is one of the most singular engineering design done by Eduardo Torroja: it was started in 1951. This study focused on the Institute façade-building materials has been carried out in the 100th anniversary of his birth. The analysis has revealed that the design of the original project has been of a great importance for the good conservation of the external walls. The pointing mortar characterization of its brick...

  14. Improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment. A publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers' - provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment' (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region

  15. Scale dependence of felid predation risk: Identifying predictors of livestock kills by tiger and leopard in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susana Rostro-Garcia; Lhendup Tharchen; Leandro Abade; Christos Astaras; Samuel A. Cushman; David W. Macdonald

    2016-01-01

    Livestock predation by tiger and leopard in Bhutan is a major threat to the conservation of these felids. Conflict mitigation planning would benefit from an improved understanding of the spatial pattern of livestock kills by the two predators.

  16. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  17. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only milk and meat but also other fundamental positive externalities and ecosystem services, such as conservation of genetic resources, water flow regulation, pollination, climate regulation, landscape maintenance, recreation and ecotourism and cultural heritage. In recent decades, the mountain livestock, mainly represented by dairy cattle, has been affected by a dramatic reduction of farms, a strong increase of animals per farm, an increase in indoor production systems, more extensive use of specialised non-indigenous cattle breeds and the increasing use of extra-farm concentrates instead of meadows and pastures for fodder. This paper firstly describes the livestock sector in the Italian Alps and analyses the most important factors affecting their sustainability. Secondly, it discusses the need to assess the ecosystem services offered by forage- based livestock systems in mountains with particular attention to greenhouse gas emission and its mitigation by carbon sequestration. In conclusion, comparison between the different elements of the environmental sustainability of mountain livestock systems must be based on a comprehensive overview of the relationships among animal husbandry, environment and socio-economic context.

  18. Terrazzo floor from the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw - mineralogical characterization, conservation and impact of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Wojciech; Martusewicz, Jacek

    2017-12-01

    Samples of historical terrazzo floor from the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, dated back to the thirties of the twentieth century, have been analysed. Investigations by polarised optical microscopy, scanning microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and simultaneous thermal analysis were preformed. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that terrazzo tiles were prepared on the basis of ordinary Portland cement and aggregate, dominated with crushed stone (marble, serpentinite, limestone and marl), accompanied by sparse quartz sand grains. The binding mass was colourised with the use of pigments containing iron ions. The occurrence of altered serpentinite and marble grains, the latter clouded and partly replaced with micrite, the presence of portlandite, indicate the terrazzo tiles were subjected to thermal impact. This is related to the fire that took place at the beginning of World War II. Based on this study, repair mortars were formulated, on one hand compatible with the authentic ones, on the other retaining traces of fire.

  19. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-10-01

    LWP. Ensuring land security, installing proper grazing management, improved forage seed supply and application of soil and water conservation are expected to enhance WP on GL. Given the relationship of production factors with crop biomass and associated WP, interventions targeted to improve provision of inputs, credit, extension and training support due emphasis to the poor would increase CR yield and reduce part of water use for feed production. Optimizing feed value of CR with treatment and supplementation, following water efficient forage production methods and maintenance of healthy productive animals are expected to amplify the benefits from livestock and eventually improve LWP.

  20. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2018-02-01

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. WOMEN, LIVESTOCK OWNERSHIP AND MARKETS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3.6 Common means of livestock acquisition by women in Kenya ... 9.1 Prerequisite for a gender transformative approach in livestock research ..... of the data, describing the quantitative and qualitative methods used and the analysis employed.

  3. Monitoring of livestock grazing effects on Bureau of Land Management land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Public land management agencies, such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), are charged with managing rangelands throughout the western United States for multiple uses, such as livestock grazing and conservation of sensitive species and their habitats. Monitoring of condition and trends of these rangelands, particularly with respect to effects of livestock grazing, provides critical information for effective management of these multiuse landscapes. We therefore investigated the availability of livestock grazing-related quantitative monitoring data and qualitative region-specific Land Health Standards (LHS) data across BLM grazing allotments in the western United States. We then queried university and federal rangeland science experts about how best to prioritize rangeland monitoring activities. We found that the most commonly available monitoring data were permittee-reported livestock numbers and season-of-use data (71% of allotments) followed by repeat photo points (58%), estimates of forage utilization (52%), and, finally, quantitative vegetation measurements (37%). Of the 57% of allotments in which LHS had been evaluated as of 2007, the BLM indicated 15% had failed to meet LHS due to livestock grazing. A full complement of all types of monitoring data, however, existed for only 27% of those 15%. Our data inspections, as well as conversations with rangeland experts, indicated a need for greater emphasis on collection of grazing-related monitoring data, particularly ground cover. Prioritization of where monitoring activities should be focused, along with creation of regional monitoring teams, may help improve monitoring. Overall, increased emphasis on monitoring of BLM rangelands will require commitment at multiple institutional levels.

  4. Animals & Livestock | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home Animals & Livestock NEWT: National Extension fisher occupancy of small, 1 km^2^ grid cells of forest habitat. Animals and Livestock html Data from consisting of IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R, and activates the JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Animals and Livestock html

  5. Torroja Institute, the historic building: conservation and characteristics of the materials of its façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxán, M. P.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The "Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción" building is one of the most singular engineering design done by Eduardo Torroja: it was started in 1951. This study focused on the Institute façade-building materials has been carried out in the 100th anniversary of his birth. The analysis has revealed that the design of the original project has been of a great importance for the good conservation of the external walls. The pointing mortar characterization of its brick walls by instrumental techniques (infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with EDS reveals that calcite is its main component, with gypsum presence in polluted external zones and silica compounds from the sand. The obtained results indicate a good compatibility between mortars and façade bricks.

    El edificio del "Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción", construido en 1951, constituye una de las obras singulares del ingeniero Eduardo Torroja. En el centenario de su nacimiento se ha elaborado este estudio, que se centra en los materiales de construcción de las fachadas del Instituto. De su análisis se desprende la importancia del diseño del proyecto original en la buena conservación de los paramentos exteriores. La caracterización de los morteros de junta de las fábricas de ladrillo de los paramentos, mediante técnicas instrumentales (espectroscopia infrarroja, difracción de rayos X, microscopía electrónica de barrido con energías dispersivas de rayos X revela que la calcita es el compuesto principal, con presencia de yeso -especialmente en zonas externas contaminadas- y compuestos silíceos procedentes de la arena. Los resultados sobre las fachadas reflejan una buena compatibilidad entre los morteros de cal y los ladrillos.

  6. The role of reproductive technologies in breeding schemes for livestock populations in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The world is faced with the challenge to meet the increasing demand for livestock products while conserving animal genetic resource diversity and maintaining environmental integrity. Genetic improvement of local breeds can help to improve the livelihood of the livestock keepers, to increase the

  7. Habitat shift and time budget of the Tibetan argali: the influence of livestock grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production is the primary source of livelihood and income in most of the high steppe and alpine regions of the Indian Trans-Himalaya. In some areas, especially those established or proposed for biodiversity conservation, recent increases in populations of domestic livestock, primarily

  8. The Role of Rural Communities in Conservation of Rangelands in Mahneshan Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Karimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the action of rangeland-depended livestock holders regarding rangeland conservation, including protection and rehabilitation activities and to analyse relevant influencing factors, using a mixed method of survey and case study. The data were collected through analysing existing documents, focus groups, semi-structured and structured interviews using questionnaires submitted to 204 rural livestock holders in the Mahneshan Township. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results farmers’ knowledge regarding the role, importance and factors affecting rangeland degradation was relatively high, however they had a low level of knowledge and action about mechanical conservation techniques. The action of livestock holders in terms of biological conservation activities and grazing management showed a positive and signifincat corrletaion with variables such as implementing of rangeland projects, their interaction with external institutions, participating in extension training courses, education level and irrigated and rainfed agricultural land size. Moreover, based on a path analysis, 37% of the variance of the farmers’ actions regarding the rangeland conservation was explained by the variables such as rangeland rehabilitation actions, farmers’ conservation knowledge, farmers’ interaction with natural resources experts, beekeeping, and participating in extension training courses. Promotional and extension activities and farmers’ interaction with experts have a positive effect in enhancing farmers’ knowledge and actions for sustainable rangeland use and conservation.

  9. Understanding Institutional Adaptation to Climate Change: Social Resilience and Adaptive Governance Capacities of the Nature Based Tourism Institutions in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Lama, Anu Kumari

    2016-01-01

    The global-local sustainable development and climate change adaptation policy, and the emerging political discourse on the value of local Adaptation, have positioned the local institutions and their governance space within the strategic enclaves of multilevel governance system. Such shifts have transformed the context for sustainable Nature Based Tourism (NBT) development and adaptation in Nepal in general, and its protected areas, in particular. The emerging institutional adaptation discours...

  10. Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory persecution by pastoralists are worldwide conservation concerns. Poor understanding of the ecological and social underpinnings of this human¿wildlife conflict hampers effective conflict management programs. The endangered snow leopard

  11. A Conservation Ethic and the Collecting of Animals by Institutions of Natural Heritage in the Twenty-First Century: Case Study of the Australian Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ikin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting of animals from their habitats for preservation by museums and related bodies is a core operation of such institutions. Conservation of biodiversity in the current era is a priority in the scientific agendas of museums of natural heritage in Australia and the world. Intuitively, to take animals from the wild, while engaged in scientific or other practices that are supposed to promote their ongoing survival, may appear be incompatible. The Australian Museum presents an interesting ground to consider zoological collecting by museums in the twenty-first century. Anderson and Reeves in 1994 argued that a milieu existed that undervalued native species, and that the role of natural history museums, up to as late as the mid-twentieth century, was only to make a record the faunal diversity of Australia, which would inevitably be extinct. Despite the latter, conservation of Australia’s faunal diversity is a key aspect of research programmes in Australia’s institutions of natural heritage in the current era. This paper analyses collecting of animals, a core task for institutions of natural heritage, and how this interacts with a professed “conservation ethic” in a twenty-first century Australian setting.

  12. African Journal of Livestock Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...

  13. Innovation in Livestock Genetic Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mofakkarul Islam, M.; Renwick, A.; Lamprinopoulou, C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of genetic selection technologies in livestock breeding offers unique opportunities to enhance the productivity, profitability and competitiveness of the livestock industry. However, there is a concern that the uptake of these technologies has been slower in the sheep and beef

  14. Modelling Livestock Component in FSSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorne, P.J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Keulen, van H.; Thornton, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    This document summarises the development of a ruminant livestock component for the Farm System Simulator (FSSIM). This includes treatments of energy and protein transactions in ruminant livestock that have been used as a basis for the biophysical simulations that will generate the input production

  15. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, Tsewang; Fox, Joseph L; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer

    2007-04-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses significantly more than expected, whereas they killed other livestock types in proportion to their abundance. The three villages combined incurred an estimated annual monetary loss of approximately $USD 12,120 amounting to approximately $USD 190/household/y. This relatively high total annual loss occurred primarily because of depredation of the most valuable livestock types such as yak and horse. Conservation actions should initially attempt to target decrease of predation on these large and valuable livestock species.

  16. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A; Plastow, Graham S; Wishart, David S

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular "omics" approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed.

  17. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A.; Plastow, Graham S.; Wishart, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular “omics” approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed. PMID:28531195

  18. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-Institutional Experience of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Black vs White Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole Breast Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Carl; Bai, Harrison; Neboori, Hanmanth; Takita, Cristiane; Motwani, Sabin; Wright, Jean L.; Hobeika, Georges; Haffty, Bruce G.; Jones, Tiffanie; Goyal, Sharad; Moran, Meena S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Given the paucity of data on racial disparities in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the data from a multi-institutional cohort of DCIS patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast radiation therapy (RT) were analyzed to determine whether racial disparities or differences exist. Methods and Materials: A total of 533 white and 76 black DCIS patients from 3 university-based cancer centers were uniformly treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT. All patient data were collected and analyzed as a function of race. Results: The median follow-up was 5.2 years. No significant racial differences were seen in tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status, necrosis, or grade (all P>.05). Of the treatment parameters, the RT dose delivered, boost, positive margin rates, frequency of hormone receptor status assessment, and receipt of hormonal therapy for the 2 cohorts did not significantly differ (all P>.05). The local relapse-free survival was similar at 5 years (96.1% and 98.1%, P=.399) and 10 years (92.8% vs 95.8%, P=.360), with no significant overall survival difference at 10 years (94.0% vs 88.9%, P=.290) between the white and black patients, respectively. On multivariate analysis, race was not an independent predictor of local relapse-free survival or overall survival when accounting for age, grade, and margin status. Conclusion: In our large cohort of DCIS patients uniformly treated at 3 institutions with breast conservation without any apparent differences in treatment delivery parameters, we demonstrated that the clinical and pathologic features and local survival outcomes did not differ as a function of race. Our results suggest that when black patients with DCIS are appropriately selected for breast conservation and receive adjuvant RT without racial disparities in the treatment parameters, differences in the outcomes as a function of race do not exist.

  20. How does farmer connectivity influence livestock genetic structure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthouly, C; Do, Duy Ngoc; Thévenon, S

    2009-01-01

    Assessing how genes flow across populations is a key component of conservation genetics. Gene flow in a natural population depends on ecological traits and the local environment, whereas for a livestock population, gene flow is driven by human activities. Spatial organization, relationships between...... farmers and their husbandry practices will define the farmer's network and so determine farmer connectivity. It is thus assumed that farmer connectivity will affect the genetic structure of their livestock. To test this hypothesis, goats reared by four different ethnic groups in a Vietnamese province were......, ethnicity and husbandry practices. In this study, we clearly linked the livestock genetic pattern to farmer connectivity and showed the importance of taking into account spatial information in genetic studies....

  1. Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    measure of gender inequality and women's economic empowerment compared to indicators such as income. The role of livestock as an asset for women has been analysed in Kenya, Tanzania .... were a more common source in Tanzania and.

  2. 25 CFR 168.14 - Livestock trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 168.14 Section 168.14 Indians BUREAU... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.14 Livestock trespass. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the Hopi... Hopi Partitioned Lands of any livestock without an approved grazing or crossing permit; (b) Allowing...

  3. 36 CFR 261.7 - Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock. 261.7 Section 261... Prohibitions § 261.7 Livestock. The following are prohibited: (a) Placing or allowing unauthorized livestock to... unauthorized livestock from the National Forest System or other lands under Forest Service control when...

  4. Identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems in East Asia and Latin America with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Between 1979/81 and 1999 livestock numbers increased throughout S.E. Asia and Tropical America despite the increasing human population density in these regions Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand dominate the large ruminant population in S.E. Asia. . The large ruminant population in these countries is dwarfed by that in China. In tropical America Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela have the largest large ruminant populations . In S.E. Asia, between 1979/81 and 1999, cattle numbers increased by 91% but buffalo numbers decreased by 3%. The cattle population in Tropical America has increased by 19%. The largest small ruminant population in S. E. Asia occurs in Indonesia and, in Tropical America, in Brazil and Mexico. There has been a very significant (90%) increase in small ruminants in S.E. Asia. The major needs of the largely cut and carry systems used in much of S E Asia and Africa is to provide a year-round supply of high quality forages to supplement low quality crop residues and forages cut from roadsides and wastelands. Because of the reluctance of farmers to fertilise forages in these systems it is an imperative that the flow of nutrients from the soil to the plant and then to the animal be as efficient as possible. In the past legumes, particularly tree and shrub legumes, have been the preferred supplementary forage supply but as systems become more intensive increased attention needs to be paid to N fertilised grasses and direct supplementation of animals with N, P, and other nutrients. The research to be undertaken needs to trace the flow and balance of nutrients (particularly N,P,K,S,Zn and C) through the plant production cycle, particularly the recycling of nutrients when associated with carbon in crop residues and specialist supplementary fodder crops. Studies are also needed on the efficiency of animal feeding and nutrient utilisation, especially in the re- utilisation of manure, urine and bedding material in subsequent crop production. Additional research is

  5. Improving Access to Livestock Markets for Sustainable Rangeland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The center of the region is either very dry with very unreliable rainfall, or the ...... and Dynamics (LUCID) Working Paper 19, Nairobi: International Livestock Research. Institute (ILRI). .... Cutting the web of interests: Pitfalls of formalizing property ..... VARIABLE COST PER TLU (INPUT COSTS TO MAINTAIN THE. HERD). IR.

  6. Collaboration between research institutions and Marine Protected Area contributes to Posidonia oceanica conservation: The Egadi Island’s experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocito, Silvia; Lombardi, Chiara; Peirano, Andrea; Donati, Stefano; Patti Genovese, Pietro; Ponzè, Niccolo

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results on the collaboration between the ENEA’s Marine Environment Research Center and the Egadi Islands’ Marine Protected Area (MPA), aimed to evaluate effectiveness of artificial reefs in limiting the impact of trawling on Posidonia oceanica meadow at Favignana Island, are reported. The methods and parameters chosen for monitoring showed their reliability in training non-experienced personnel for data collection within the MPA. The proposed monitoring approach is of great value to the MPA interested in both gathering basic and long-term data on the health status of protected habitats and acquiring baseline information useful for the evaluation of protection and conservation actions. [it

  7. Extreme Wildlife Declines and Concurrent Increase in Livestock Numbers in Kenya: What Are the Causes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Ogutu

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of escalating wildlife losses worldwide. Extreme wildlife losses have recently been documented for large parts of Africa, including western, Central and Eastern Africa. Here, we report extreme declines in wildlife and contemporaneous increase in livestock numbers in Kenya rangelands between 1977 and 2016. Our analysis uses systematic aerial monitoring survey data collected in rangelands that collectively cover 88% of Kenya's land surface. Our results show that wildlife numbers declined on average by 68% between 1977 and 2016. The magnitude of decline varied among species but was most extreme (72-88% and now severely threatens the population viability and persistence of warthog, lesser kudu, Thomson's gazelle, eland, oryx, topi, hartebeest, impala, Grevy's zebra and waterbuck in Kenya's rangelands. The declines were widespread and occurred in most of the 21 rangeland counties. Likewise to wildlife, cattle numbers decreased (25.2% but numbers of sheep and goats (76.3%, camels (13.1% and donkeys (6.7% evidently increased in the same period. As a result, livestock biomass was 8.1 times greater than that of wildlife in 2011-2013 compared to 3.5 times in 1977-1980. Most of Kenya's wildlife (ca. 30% occurred in Narok County alone. The proportion of the total "national" wildlife population found in each county increased between 1977 and 2016 substantially only in Taita Taveta and Laikipia but marginally in Garissa and Wajir counties, largely reflecting greater wildlife losses elsewhere. The declines raise very grave concerns about the future of wildlife, the effectiveness of wildlife conservation policies, strategies and practices in Kenya. Causes of the wildlife declines include exponential human population growth, increasing livestock numbers, declining rainfall and a striking rise in temperatures but the fundamental cause seems to be policy, institutional and market failures. Accordingly, we thoroughly evaluate wildlife

  8. Extreme Wildlife Declines and Concurrent Increase in Livestock Numbers in Kenya: What Are the Causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Joseph O.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Said, Mohamed Y.; Ojwang, Gordon O.; Njino, Lucy W.; Kifugo, Shem C.; Wargute, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of escalating wildlife losses worldwide. Extreme wildlife losses have recently been documented for large parts of Africa, including western, Central and Eastern Africa. Here, we report extreme declines in wildlife and contemporaneous increase in livestock numbers in Kenya rangelands between 1977 and 2016. Our analysis uses systematic aerial monitoring survey data collected in rangelands that collectively cover 88% of Kenya’s land surface. Our results show that wildlife numbers declined on average by 68% between 1977 and 2016. The magnitude of decline varied among species but was most extreme (72–88%) and now severely threatens the population viability and persistence of warthog, lesser kudu, Thomson’s gazelle, eland, oryx, topi, hartebeest, impala, Grevy’s zebra and waterbuck in Kenya’s rangelands. The declines were widespread and occurred in most of the 21 rangeland counties. Likewise to wildlife, cattle numbers decreased (25.2%) but numbers of sheep and goats (76.3%), camels (13.1%) and donkeys (6.7%) evidently increased in the same period. As a result, livestock biomass was 8.1 times greater than that of wildlife in 2011–2013 compared to 3.5 times in 1977–1980. Most of Kenya’s wildlife (ca. 30%) occurred in Narok County alone. The proportion of the total “national” wildlife population found in each county increased between 1977 and 2016 substantially only in Taita Taveta and Laikipia but marginally in Garissa and Wajir counties, largely reflecting greater wildlife losses elsewhere. The declines raise very grave concerns about the future of wildlife, the effectiveness of wildlife conservation policies, strategies and practices in Kenya. Causes of the wildlife declines include exponential human population growth, increasing livestock numbers, declining rainfall and a striking rise in temperatures but the fundamental cause seems to be policy, institutional and market failures. Accordingly, we thoroughly evaluate

  9. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  10. Results of breast conservation therapy from a single-institution community hospital in Hawaii with a predominantly Japanese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemori, Mark; Prygrocki, Maria C.T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome data from breast conservation therapy performed at the Kuakini Medical Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The remarkably low rates of recurrence found in this study prompted a review of the literature and evaluation of the prognostic factors that may explain these results. Methods and materials: The data from patients with Tis, T1 or T2 breast tumors, treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy during the 12-year period between January 1990 and December 2001 were retrospectively reviewed and compared to results found in national publications. Results: Current follow-up data was available in 97.1% of patients who met these criteria, identifying a total of 896 patients who were analyzed in this study. With a median follow-up exceeding 6 years, the local in-breast failure rate was 0.67%. Survival data was superior to the National Cancer Data Base for each stage of disease. Conclusion: This low rate of local relapse is extraordinary and unmatched by the published results generally cited in the literature. The findings are consistent with other studies reporting unusually low rates of breast cancer recurrence in patients of Japanese ancestry

  11. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership... livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? (a) Tribes determine the class of livestock and livestock ownership requirements for livestock that may be grazed on range units...

  12. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-04-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as "organic by default" can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic principles of ecology, fairness, health, and care. Challenges of implementing sustainable organic practices in the Ugandan livestock sector threaten its future development, such as vectors and vector-borne diseases, organic feed insufficiency, limited education, research, and support to organic livestock production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support.

  13. Livestock Fadama users' access to information on selected livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FUGs members never had access to information on key livestock technologies like artificial insemination, automated feeding, feed formulation and creep feeding. Farmers' number of years of formal education (r = -0.09) and family size (r= 0.09) had no significant relationships with respondents' access to information on ...

  14. Bibliometry of the Revista de Biología Tropical / International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation: document types, languages, countries, institutions, citations and article lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2016-09-01

    The Revista de Biología Tropical / International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, founded in 1953, publishes feature articles about tropical nature and is considered one of the leading journals in Latin America. This article analyzes document type, language, countries, institutions, citations and for the first time article lifespan, from 1976 through 2014. We analyzed 3 978 documents from the Science Citation Index Expanded. Articles comprised 88 % of the total production and had 3.7 citations on average, lower than reviews. Spanish and English articles were nearly equal in numbers and citation for English articles was only slightly higher. Costa Rica, Mexico, and the USA are the countries with more articles, and the leading institutions were Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico and Universidad de Oriente (Venezuela). The citation lifespan of articles is long, around 37 years. It is not surprising that Costa Rica, Mexico, and Venezuela lead in productivity and cooperation, because they are mostly covered by tropical ecosystems and share a common culture and a tradition of scientific cooperation. The same applies to the leading institutions, which are among the largest Spanish language universities in the neotropical region. American output can be explained by the regional presence of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Organization for Tropical Studies. Tropical research does not have the rapid change typical of medical research, and for this reason, the impact factor misses most of citations for the Revista, which are made after the two-year window used by the Web of Science. This issue is especially damaging for the Revista because most journals that deal with tropical biology are never checked when citations are counted for by the Science Citation Index.

  15. Management and Level of Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus Illinger, 1815 as Display Animal in Indonesia Conservation Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Hansyari Ar-Rasyid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education and breeding become main reasons for asian small-clawed otter placement as display animal in zoo. Proper management is needed to maintain asian small-clawed otter welfare. This research objectives were to examine and assess asian small-clawed otter welfare in three Indonesia zoos. The study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 in Bandung Zoo, Ragunan Zoo and Ocean Dream Samudra Ancol. The methods of this research were literature review, interview and field observation. Data were analyzed using the suitability of management and animal welfare assessment. The result showed that there were three main management activities conducted at the three study locations, i.e., nutrition, housing, and health management. Bandung Zoo achieved the lowest score of asian small-clawed otter welfare (45,24% compared to Ragunan Zoo (62,24% and Ocean Dream Samudra (65,90%. Asian small-clawed otter welfare in three institutions were relatively low to fair category, this was due to the unfilled quality of food and water i.e.,  the type, amount, feeding frequency, diet and preparing of food; the unavailability of suitable and favorable environmental conditions; the care facilities provided could not ensure the health of animal; the appearance of abnormal behavior that affected the growth and breeding of animal; and animal had no freedom to behave as in their natural habitat. Keywords: animal display, animal welfare, Asian small-clawed otter, zoo 

  16. Conservative treatment versus mastectomy in breast cancer tumors with macroscopic diameter of 20 millimeters or less. The experience of the Institut Gustave-Roussy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrazin, D.; Le, M.; Roueesse, J.; Contesso, G.; Petit, J.Y.; Lacour, J.; Viguier, J.; Hill, C.

    1984-01-01

    A clinical trial was conducted at the Institut Gustave Roussy between October 1972 and December 1980 to compare mastectomy with local excision plus Cobalt-irradiation, in patients with breast cancer tumors of 20 mm in diameter or less at macroscopic examination. Low-axillary dissection and extemporaneous histologic examination were carried out for all patients. If one or more positive nodes were found, complete axillary dissection was performed. The study included 179 patients. No significant difference was detected in either overall or relapse-free survival between the two groups, although the conservatively treated group showed slightly better results. The results of conservative treatment were esthetically satisfactory in 92% of the cases. The trial included a second randomization for the patients with positive axillary nodes to assess the value of nodal area irradiation; 72 patients were studied in this part of the trial. No significant differences were found between the two groups after adjustment for the number of positive axillary nodes, although the no-nodal irradiation group showed better results and less complications than the nodal irradiation group

  17. Zoonoses risk: AHWs and Livestock keepers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... loss of markets because of decreased consumer confidence (McDermott & Arimi, ..... Some of the traditional livestock keepers reported eating meat from animals .... G. & Nilsen, R. (2003) The role of livestock keeping in tuberculosis trends in ...

  18. African Journal of Livestock Extension: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original articles not published elsewhere are invited in the following areas relating to all species of livestock. • Breeding and Genetic improvements ... livestock husbandry e.g. cane rat, snail, guinea pig, honey bee, silkworm etc.

  19. Promoting Health, Livelihoods, and Sustainable Livestock Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These areas are experiencing zoonotic (animal to human and vice-versa) ... and shed light on interactions between disease risk, livestock and human health, and ... and social development to support safe food production, healthy livestock, ...

  20. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  1. Time series livestock diet optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alqaisi, Othman; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Williams, Ryan Blake

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable feed formulation (defined here as nutritional and economic feed optimization) is substantial in feed chain production from crop farmers to livestock producers. Diet formulation employing a static linear programming (LP) approach, which is widely used in trading firms and feed production

  2. Examining the association between livestock ownership typologies and child nutrition in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Sarah E; Kassa, Lea; Young, Sera L; Travis, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between livestock ownership and dietary diversity, animal-source food consumption, height-for-age z-score, and stunting among children living in wildlife "buffer zones" of Zambia's Luangwa Valley using a novel livestock typology approach. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 838 children aged 6-36 months. Households were categorized into typologies based on the types and numbers of animals owned, ranging from no livestock to large numbers of mixed livestock. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression to examine the association between livestock typologies and four nutrition-related outcomes of interest. Results were compared with analyses using more common binary and count measures of livestock ownership. No measure of livestock ownership was significantly associated with children's odds of animal-source food consumption, child height-for-age z-score, or stunting odds. Livestock ownership Type 2 (having a small number of poultry) was surprisingly associated with decreased child dietary diversity (β = -0.477; p<0.01) relative to owning no livestock. Similarly, in comparison models, chicken ownership was negatively associated with dietary diversity (β = -0.320; p<0.01), but increasing numbers of chickens were positively associated with dietary diversity (β = 0.022; p<0.01). Notably, neither child dietary diversity nor animal-source food consumption was significantly associated with height, perhaps due to unusually high prevalences of morbidities. Our novel typologies methodology allowed for an efficient and a more in-depth examination of the differential impact of livestock ownership patterns compared to typical binary or count measures of livestock ownership. We found that these patterns were not positively associated with child nutrition outcomes in this context. Development and conservation programs focusing on livestock must carefully consider the complex, context-specific relationship between livestock

  3. Examining the association between livestock ownership typologies and child nutrition in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Dumas

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between livestock ownership and dietary diversity, animal-source food consumption, height-for-age z-score, and stunting among children living in wildlife "buffer zones" of Zambia's Luangwa Valley using a novel livestock typology approach.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 838 children aged 6-36 months. Households were categorized into typologies based on the types and numbers of animals owned, ranging from no livestock to large numbers of mixed livestock. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression to examine the association between livestock typologies and four nutrition-related outcomes of interest. Results were compared with analyses using more common binary and count measures of livestock ownership.No measure of livestock ownership was significantly associated with children's odds of animal-source food consumption, child height-for-age z-score, or stunting odds. Livestock ownership Type 2 (having a small number of poultry was surprisingly associated with decreased child dietary diversity (β = -0.477; p<0.01 relative to owning no livestock. Similarly, in comparison models, chicken ownership was negatively associated with dietary diversity (β = -0.320; p<0.01, but increasing numbers of chickens were positively associated with dietary diversity (β = 0.022; p<0.01. Notably, neither child dietary diversity nor animal-source food consumption was significantly associated with height, perhaps due to unusually high prevalences of morbidities.Our novel typologies methodology allowed for an efficient and a more in-depth examination of the differential impact of livestock ownership patterns compared to typical binary or count measures of livestock ownership. We found that these patterns were not positively associated with child nutrition outcomes in this context. Development and conservation programs focusing on livestock must carefully consider the complex, context-specific relationship between

  4. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. 167.15 Section 167.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The...

  5. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity Program, and General... clarifying amendments and corrections to the regulations for the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP) and the Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP) to clarify when...

  6. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior to the date of legislation which designates...

  7. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  8. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  9. Mainstreaming gender issues in livestock research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Providing equal access to and use of resources for men and women could also increase the productivity of livestock systems. Read more about how to mainstream gender considerations into livestock development projects in the Gender Responsive Livestock Research brief (PDF, 613KB, available in ...

  10. MODELING OF INDICATORS OF LIVESTOCK IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Darda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of livestock in food without dangerous country. The analysis of the dynamics of production indicators waspsmainly livestock products. The problems offorecasting-ing performance of LivestockDevelopment of the Russian Federationon the basis of the a-analytical models ofalignment and connected series.

  11. 25 CFR 700.725 - Livestock trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... according to the range unit Range Management Plan. (c) The grazing of livestock upon any land withdrawn from... approved by the Commissioner. (e) Grazing of livestock whose brand is not recorded in the range unit Range Management Plan. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the New Lands is liable to a civil penalty...

  12. Livestock Farming Under Climate Change Conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koelle, B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is intended for livestock farmers, as well as others who are wanting to learn about livestock farming. It is not intended to be a comprehensive livestock farming manual, but is rather aimed at giving some guidance on how to plan...

  13. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  14. Photobiomodulation therapy for the management of radiation-induced dermatitis. A single-institution experience of adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer patients after breast conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strouthos, Iosif; Chatzikonstantinou, Georgios; Tselis, Nikolaos; Bon, Dimitra; Karagiannis, Efstratios; Zoga, Eleni; Ferentinos, Konstantinos; Maximenko, Julia; Nikolettou-Fischer, Vassiliki; Zamboglou, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) comprises a key component in the treatment of breast cancer. Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the major adverse event experienced by patients; however, radiodermatitis (RD) prevention and management remains trivial. It is proven that photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy using light-emitting diode (LED) increases wound healing and depicts an anti-inflammatory effect. This single-institute study evaluates the beneficial role of PBM-LED in preventing/reducing RD during breast cancer RT. Of 70 consecutively treated patients, 25 patients were treated with PBM-LED twice a week prior to adjuvant 3D conformal RT after breast-conserving surgery. RD was reported using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0 and pain intensity using a visual analog scale (VAS). For comparison, a control group (n = 45) received RT without PBM-LED. In addition, a ''matched'' group (n = 25) was generated from the control group based on propensity for potentially confounding variables. In the PBM group, 22 patients (88%) presented grade 1 and 3 (12%) grade 2 RD. In the control group, 25 patients (55.6%) developed grade 1 reactions, 18 patients (40%) grade 2, and 2 (4.4%) patients grade 3 RD. Concerning pain intensity, 15 patients (60%) of the PBM treatment arm reported no pain, 5 patients (20%) VAS 2, and 5 (20%) VAS 3. In the control group, 13 patients (28.9%) reported no pain, 2 (4.4%) VAS 1, 7 (15.6%) VAS 2, 9 patients (20%) reported VAS 3, 12 (26.7%) patients VAS 4, and 2 (4.4%) patients VAS 5. PBM-LED therapy applied prior to RT might be effective in decreasing the incidence and sequelae of radiation-induced skin toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery. (orig.) [de

  15. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  16. Flower production of Aster tripolium is affected by behavioral differences in livestock species and stocking densities : the role of activity and selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, Stefanie; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.

    Semi-natural grasslands are an important habitat for endangered plant and animal species. In grasslands, low-intensity livestock grazing is frequently applied as a tool for nature conservation. We aim to investigate how different livestock species in various densities influence the state and flower

  17. Impact of livestock in uplifting rural livelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, J.; Ashraf, I.; Mehmood, K.; Iftikhar, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global population is increasing by creating high demand for food and improved livestock and crop farming initiatives. The livestock sector plays a key role in boosting the national economy and improving the citizens' livelihoods. The study focused on the potential contribution of the livestock sector in uplifting livelihoods. Data were collected through face to face interview using interview schedule from 120 randomly selected livestock producers in Sub- District Jaranwala of District Faisalabad. Data showed that, livestock farming on small level was found widely adopted for income generation. More than 22 percentage respondents earned a maximum income of more than Rs.15000. Livestock have dominant effect on domestic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision of location specific best management practices, training on livestock management and market aspects. Essential veterinary services enabling the livestock extension should be disseminated on the door step to boost productivity. (author)

  18. Livestock mortality in pastoralist herds in Ethiopia and implications for drought response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Andy; Admassu, Berhanu; Bekele, Gezu; Abebe, Dawit

    2014-07-01

    Participatory epidemiology methods were employed retrospectively in three pastoralist regions of Ethiopia to estimate the specific causes of excess livestock mortality during drought. The results showed that starvation/dehydration accounted for between 61.5 and 100 per cent of excess livestock mortality during drought, whereas disease-related mortality accounted for between 0 and 28.1 per cent of excess mortality. Field observations indicate that, in livestock, disease risks and mortality increase in the immediate post-drought period, during rain. The design of livelihoods-based drought response programmes should include protection of core livestock assets, and it should take account of the specific causes of excess livestock mortality during drought and immediately afterwards. This study shows that, when comparing livestock feed supplementation and veterinary support, relatively more aid should be directed at the former if the objective is to protect core livestock during drought. Veterinary support should consider disease-related mortality in the immediate post-drought period, and tailor inputs accordingly. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  19. Photobiomodulation therapy for the management of radiation-induced dermatitis. A single-institution experience of adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer patients after breast conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouthos, Iosif [Sana Klinikum Offenbach, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach (Germany); Medical Center - Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Chatzikonstantinou, Georgios; Tselis, Nikolaos [Sana Klinikum Offenbach, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach (Germany); J.W. Goethe University, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bon, Dimitra [J.W. Goethe University, Institute of Biostatistics and Mathematical Modelling, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Karagiannis, Efstratios [Sana Klinikum Offenbach, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach (Germany); Otto von Guericke University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Magdeburg (Germany); Zoga, Eleni; Ferentinos, Konstantinos; Maximenko, Julia; Nikolettou-Fischer, Vassiliki; Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Sana Klinikum Offenbach, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Radiation therapy (RT) comprises a key component in the treatment of breast cancer. Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the major adverse event experienced by patients; however, radiodermatitis (RD) prevention and management remains trivial. It is proven that photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy using light-emitting diode (LED) increases wound healing and depicts an anti-inflammatory effect. This single-institute study evaluates the beneficial role of PBM-LED in preventing/reducing RD during breast cancer RT. Of 70 consecutively treated patients, 25 patients were treated with PBM-LED twice a week prior to adjuvant 3D conformal RT after breast-conserving surgery. RD was reported using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0 and pain intensity using a visual analog scale (VAS). For comparison, a control group (n = 45) received RT without PBM-LED. In addition, a ''matched'' group (n = 25) was generated from the control group based on propensity for potentially confounding variables. In the PBM group, 22 patients (88%) presented grade 1 and 3 (12%) grade 2 RD. In the control group, 25 patients (55.6%) developed grade 1 reactions, 18 patients (40%) grade 2, and 2 (4.4%) patients grade 3 RD. Concerning pain intensity, 15 patients (60%) of the PBM treatment arm reported no pain, 5 patients (20%) VAS 2, and 5 (20%) VAS 3. In the control group, 13 patients (28.9%) reported no pain, 2 (4.4%) VAS 1, 7 (15.6%) VAS 2, 9 patients (20%) reported VAS 3, 12 (26.7%) patients VAS 4, and 2 (4.4%) patients VAS 5. PBM-LED therapy applied prior to RT might be effective in decreasing the incidence and sequelae of radiation-induced skin toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery. (orig.) [German] Radiotherapie (RT) ist integrativer Bestandteil der multimodalen Therapie beim Mammakarzinom. Strahlentherapieinduzierte Hauttoxizitaet ist dabei das haeufigste unerwuenschte Ereignis; dennoch sind Praevention und Management der

  20. Livestock reproduction in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the FAO/IAEA/ARCAL III Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Meat- and Milk-Producing Livestock in Latin America with the Aid of Radioimmunoassay, organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and held in Bogota, 19-23 September 1988. The general goals of this programme, which was part of the ARCAL (Arreglos Regionales Cooperativos para la promocion de la ciencia y la tecnologia nucleares en America Latina) project, were to characterize and improve the reproductive management of milk, meat and fibre producing livestock maintained under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in the Latin America region. In particular, the programme addressed the efficacy of using radioimmunoassay methods of measuring reproductive performance based on breeding and production records, behaviour and clinical parameters. One of the major achievements of the programme was the establishment of viable RIA laboratories in each of the participant countries

  1. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  2. Livestock Grazing as a Driver of Vernal Pool Ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, J.; McCarten, N. F.

    2017-12-01

    Vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that host rare plant communities of high conservation priority. Plant community composition is largely driven by pool hydroperiod. A previous study found that vernal pools grazed by livestock had longer hydroperiods compared with pools excluded from grazing for 10 years, and suggests that livestock grazing can be used to protect plant diversity. It is important to assess whether observed differences are due to the grazing or due to water balance variables including upland discharge into or out of the pools since no a priori measurements were made of the hydrology prior to grazing. To address this question, in 2016 we compared 15 pools that have been grazed continuously and 15 pools that have been fenced off for over 40 years at a site in Sacramento County. We paired pools based on abiotic characteristics (size, shape, slope, soil type) to minimize natural variation. We sampled vegetation and water depth using Solinst level loggers. We found that plant diversity and average hydroperiod was significantly higher in the grazed pools. We are currently measuring groundwater connectivity and upland inputs in order to compare the relative strength of livestock grazing as a driver of hydroperiod to these other drivers.

  3. Mapping the global distribution of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Timothy P; Wint, G R William; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Ercoli, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Cinardi, Giuseppina; D'Aietti, Laura; Hay, Simon I; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.

  4. Development of livestock production in the tropics: farm and farmers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, S J; Udo, H M J; Viets, T C

    2014-08-01

    Because of an increasing demand for animal-source foods, an increasing desire to reduce poverty and an increasing need to reduce the environmental impact of livestock production, tropical farming systems with livestock must increase their productivity. An important share of the global human and livestock populations are found within smallholder mixed-crop-livestock systems, which should, therefore, contribute significantly towards this increase in livestock production. The present paper argues that increased livestock production in smallholder mixed-crop-livestock systems faces many constraints at the level of the farm and the value chain. The present paper aims to describe and explain the impact of increased production from the farm and farmers' perspective, in order to understand the constraints for increased livestock production. A framework is presented that links farming systems to livestock value chains. It is concluded that farming systems that pass from subsistence to commercial livestock production will: (1) shift from rural to urban markets; (2) become part of a different value chain (with lower prices, higher demands for product quality and increased competition from peri-urban producers and imports); and (3) have to face changes in within-farm mechanisms and crop-livestock relationships. A model study showed that feed limitation, which is common in tropical farming systems with livestock, implies that maximum herd output is achieved with small herd sizes, leaving low-quality feeds unutilised. Maximal herd output is not achieved at maximal individual animal output. Having more animals than required for optimal production - which is often the case as a larger herd size supports non-production functions of livestock, such as manure production, draught, traction and capital storage - goes at the expense of animal-source food output. Improving low-quality feeds by treatment allows keeping more animals while maintaining the same level of production. Ruminant

  5. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously.Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years.We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a 'win-win' solution for farmers and

  6. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  7. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  8. Livestock: An alternative mosquito control measure | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the indigenous methods or measures adopted by urban livestock owners in the control of mosquito in Sokoto metropolis. Fifty (50) respondents who were engaged in urban livestock production were conveniently sampled, In addition, five (5) locations (Sidi farm, Kara market, Sokoto ...

  9. Gender and Livestock: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is generally easier for women in developing countries to ... influence income management by women? • How do ... decision-making powers over livestock and livestock ... access to capital; their skills, capacities and ability to .... benefit from agricultural innovations. ... This research brief has a Creative Commons licence.

  10. Vocational Agriculture Education: Agricultural Livestock Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Greg

    Ten units of instruction are provided in this curriculum guide on agricultural livestock skills. Unit topics are as follow: (1) restraining, (2) vaccination, (3) livestock castration, (4) dehorning, (5) docking, (6) growth stimulants, (7) identification, (8) shearing, (9) hoof trimming, and (10) birth assistance. Each instructional unit generally…

  11. Do Smallholder, Mixed Crop-Livestock Livelihoods Encourage Sustainable Agricultural Practices? A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Rudel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As calls for bolstering ecosystem services from croplands have grown more insistent during the past two decades, the search for ways to foster these agriculture-sustaining services has become more urgent. In this context we examine by means of a meta-analysis the argument, proposed by Robert McC. Netting, that small-scale, mixed crop-livestock farming, a common livelihood among poor rural peoples, leads to environmentally sustainable agricultural practices. As predicted, mixed crop-livestock farms exhibit more sustainable practices, but, contrary to predictions, a small scale of operation does not predict sustainability. Many smallholders on mixed crop-livestock farms use sustainable practices, but other smallholders practice a degrading, input-scarce agriculture. Some large farm operators use soil-conserving, minimum-tillage techniques while other large operators ignore soil-conserving techniques and practice an industrialized, high chemical input agriculture. The strength and pervasiveness of the link in the data between mixed crop-livestock farming and sustainable agricultural practices argues for agricultural policies that promote mixed crop-livestock livelihoods.

  12. Livestock Animal Displacement on Rural Tourism Destinations: Placing Livestock's “Pest” Role in the Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is becoming increasingly embedded in the livestock animal management in rural areas. Drawing on a multi-methods approach, this exploratory research shows how to construct the livestock animal displacement actor-networks. As is found, human actors (local governments, tourists, and local residents, non-human animal (livestock and quasi-object (human dwellings construct an interaction network in a structured way. The critical action route of livestock animal displacement demonstrated in this research is aimed to improve residents' participation willingness and further to change the local livestock feeding model and traditional dwelling by rural environment governance and rural tourism landscape consumption. Through the process of translation, problematization, interest, enrollment, mobilization and opposition, the livestock displacement actor-networks were constructed to build a heterogeneous network of the local government, tourists, local residents, livestock and human dwelling. The ultimate goal is to change the traditional human dwelling to a dis-dwelling; the most important thing is to promote residents’ participation willingness in the livestock displacement actor-networks. This article attempts to perform compelling exploratory research to elucidate the livestock displacement actor-networks in hope to provide a meaningful contribution to the epistemology and methodology of livestock management on rural tourism destination and open a new path for research on rural livestock-human relations.

  13. Patterns of Livestock Predation by Carnivores: Human-Wildlife Conflict in Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Buzzard, Paul; Chen, Yongchun; Jiang, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    Alleviating human-carnivore conflict is central to large carnivore conservation and is often of economic importance, where people coexist with carnivores. In this article, we report on the patterns of predation and economic losses from wild carnivores preying on livestock in three villages of northern Baima Xueshan Nature Reserve, northwest Yunnan during a 2-year period between January 2010 and December 2011. We analyzed claims from 149 households that 258 head of livestock were predated. Wolves ( Canis lupus) were responsible for 79.1 % of livestock predation; Asiatic black bears ( Selenarctos thibetanus) and dholes ( Cuon alpinus) were the other predators responsible. Predation frequency varied between livestock species. The majority of livestock killed were yak-cattle hybrids or dzo (40.3 %). Wolves killed fewer cattle than expected, and more donkeys and horses than expected. Wolves and bears killed more adult female and fewer adult male livestock than expected. Intensified predation in wet season coincided with livestock being left to graze unattended in alpine meadows far away from villages. On average, carnivore attacks claimed 2.1 % of range stock annually. This predation represented an economic loss of 17 % (SD = 14 %) of the annual household income. Despite this loss and a perceived increase in carnivore conflict, a majority of the herders (66 %) still supported the reserve. This support is primarily due to the benefits from the collection of nontimber resources such as mushrooms and medicinal plants. Our study also suggested that improvement of husbandry techniques and facilities will reduce conflicts and contribute to improved conservation of these threatened predators.

  14. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor L. Atanga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  15. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris) in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolipaka, S S; Tamis, W L M; van 't Zelfde, M; Persoon, G A; de Iongh, H H

    2017-01-01

    Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1) the sex and age class of tigers, (2) season, and (3) the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.

  16. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Kolipaka

    Full Text Available Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1 the sex and age class of tigers, (2 season, and (3 the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers - Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this July 2012 document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule.

  18. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Philip K.

    2010-01-01

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. PMID:20713389

  19. Agent Based Model of Livestock Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, D. J.; Emelyanova, I. V.; Donald, G. E.; Garner, G. M.

    The modelling of livestock movements within Australia is of national importance for the purposes of the management and control of exotic disease spread, infrastructure development and the economic forecasting of livestock markets. In this paper an agent based model for the forecasting of livestock movements is presented. This models livestock movements from farm to farm through a saleyard. The decision of farmers to sell or buy cattle is often complex and involves many factors such as climate forecast, commodity prices, the type of farm enterprise, the number of animals available and associated off-shore effects. In this model the farm agent's intelligence is implemented using a fuzzy decision tree that utilises two of these factors. These two factors are the livestock price fetched at the last sale and the number of stock on the farm. On each iteration of the model farms choose either to buy, sell or abstain from the market thus creating an artificial supply and demand. The buyers and sellers then congregate at the saleyard where livestock are auctioned using a second price sealed bid. The price time series output by the model exhibits properties similar to those found in real livestock markets.

  20. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, MK; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-01-01

    Background: In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. Objective: We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. Methods: We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. Results: We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: −0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: −0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.112, −0.016 cm/mo). Children livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: −0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: −0.063, −0.003 kg/mo). Conclusion: In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. PMID:27075911

  1. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, M K; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: -0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: -0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.112, -0.016 cm/mo). Children livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: -0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: -0.063, -0.003 kg/mo). In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of traceability among livestock traders in south-western Nigeria: implications for sustainable livestock industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ocheja, Samuel E

    2014-01-01

    Livestock diseases and other animal health events are a threat to achieving sustainable livestock industry. The knowledge of trace-back and the practice of providing feedback on diseases encountered in slaughtered animals from the abattoir to the farm can help limit the spread as well as manage potential future incidents of such diseases. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of 200 willing livestock traders on traceability in Bodija Municipal Abattoir, south-western Nigeria. The results reveal that the majority of these traders had poor knowledge (79.5 %) and practices (74.0 %) of traceability, though 89.5 % demonstrated good attitudes. While 22.9 % knew that traceability could be an effective means to control diseases, only a lower proportion (9.0 %) knew the health status of the animals being purchased. Though 29.0 % reported the diseases encountered in their animals during slaughter to the farm, only 9.5 % followed up to ensure the farmers take steps at preventing further occurrence of the reported diseases. While age (p = 0.000; 0.014) and education (p = 0.000; 0.000) were both significant for good knowledge and attitudes, frequency of condemned cases (p = 0.000) and length of years in the trade (p = 0.004) were, respectively, significant for good knowledge and attitudes with none associated with practice. These poor levels of knowledge and practices of traceability are a threat to sustainable livestock industry, food security and human health; hence, there is an urgent need to institute national feedback mechanism on slaughtered animals in order to strengthen interventions against diseases at farm levels.

  3. Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D

    1992-04-01

    Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy

  4. Overview of Pigs and Poultry: Specific Livestock Industries, Livestock Diseases and Policies in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Thomas; Tisdell, Clem

    1995-01-01

    The pigs and poultry industries are the major livestock sectors in terms of commercial livestock production in Thailand. The dramatic growth of the Thai economy since the 1960s was spearheaded by rapid expansion of agricultural industries such as the poultry sector and has since generated increased demand for other livestock commodities such as pork. While pigs have traditionally been an important part of the integrated farm system in Thailand, pork production has only recently developed into...

  5. Innovations to improve livestock vaccines | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The proposed research focuses on vaccine improvement for one or more of the ... of existing livestock vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  6. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  7. Call 1 - Innovations in Livestock Vaccines (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renee Larocque

    production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against livestock ... These vaccines often have limited uptake, efficacy or safety profiles .... It is the policy of IDRC that research work involving human participants or animals be.

  8. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... livestock diseases (including poultry) in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia. ... and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. View all. Video. Partners. Global Affairs Canada.

  9. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  10. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  12. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  13. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Origin of livestock. 205.236 Section 205.236... livestock. (a) Livestock products that are to be sold, labeled, or represented as organic must be from livestock under continuous organic management from the last third of gestation or hatching: Except, That: (1...

  14. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on the...

  15. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of livestock. 780.615 Section 780.615 Labor... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.615 Raising of livestock. Livestock auction operations are within the 13(b)(13) exemption only...

  16. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such...

  17. 9 CFR 85.4 - Interstate movement of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of livestock. 85.4... Interstate movement of livestock. (a) Livestock showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall not be moved interstate. (b) Livestock that have been exposed to an animal showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall...

  18. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible livestock producer. 760.303 Section 760.303... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Livestock Forage Disaster Program § 760.303 Eligible livestock producer. (a) To be considered an eligible livestock producer, the eligible producer on a farm...

  19. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians... Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing Committee... and the procedures and methods to be used in moving livestock to market. All movements of livestock...

  20. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock... of such biological product, drug, or chemical will not result in the products of such livestock being...

  1. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock living conditions. 205.239 Section 205.239... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock living...

  2. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  3. Changes of spatial differentiation in livestock breeding in the Czech Repulic after 1990

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinát, Stanislav; Klapka, Pavel; Nováková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2008), s. 97-120. ISBN 978-83-924797-6-5. ISSN 1642-4689 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : livestock breeding * agricultural geography * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  4. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  5. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  6. Institutional Support : Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER) is an established, semi-autonomous national policy research entity created in 1960. Affiliated with the National ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  7. Dzuds, droughts, and livestock mortality in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palat Rao, Mukund; Davi, Nicole K.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Skees, Jerry; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Leland, Caroline; Lyon, Bradfield; Wang, Shih-Yu; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa

    2015-07-01

    Recent incidences of mass livestock mortality, known as dzud, have called into question the sustainability of pastoral nomadic herding, the cornerstone of Mongolian culture. A total of 20 million head of livestock perished in the mortality events of 2000-2002, and 2009-2010. To mitigate the effects of such events on the lives of herders, international agencies such as the World Bank are taking increasing interest in developing tailored market-based solutions like index-insurance. Their ultimate success depends on understanding the historical context and underlying causes of mortality. In this paper we examine mortality in 21 Mongolian aimags (provinces) between 1955 and 2013 in order to explain its density independent cause(s) related to climate variability. We show that livestock mortality is most strongly linked to winter (November-February) temperatures, with incidences of mass mortality being most likely to occur because of an anomalously cold winter. Additionally, we find prior summer (July-September) drought and precipitation deficit to be important triggers for mortality that intensifies the effect of upcoming winter temperatures on livestock. Our density independent mortality model based on winter temperature, summer drought, summer precipitation, and summer potential evaporanspiration explains 48.4% of the total variability in the mortality dataset. The Mongolian index based livestock insurance program uses a threshold of 6% mortality to trigger payouts. We find that on average for Mongolia, the probability of exceedance of 6% mortality in any given year is 26% over the 59 year period between 1955 and 2013.

  8. Field studies of game and livestock under African ranching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    A model was used to integrate the results of tritiated-water studies on game and livestock under African ranching conditions. The model illustrated the two main functions of water in a tropical herbivore, i.e. as a medium for intermediary metabolism and for evaporative cooling. The close relationship between water and nutrition in the ecosystem is reflected in the water and energy conservation mechanisms which operate concomitantly in the animal. Arid-adapted animals can maintain productivity, albeit low, on a limited water intake despite high environmental heat loads. This is achieved because of a number of physical as well as physiological attributes, which can reduce the effect of the environmental heat load without affecting the intake of food and its utilization. (author)

  9. Effects of grazing management on biodiversity across trophic levels – The importance of livestock species and stocking density in salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, van Roel; Nolte, Stefanie; Mandema, Freek S.; Lagendijk, D.D.G.; Wallis de Vries, Michiel; Bakker, Jan P.; Esselink, Peter; Smit, Christian

    2016-01-01

    European coastal salt marshes are important for the conservation of numerous species of specialist plants, invertebrates, breeding and migratory birds. When these marshes are managed for nature conservation purposes, livestock grazing is often used to counter the dominance of the tall grass

  10. Effects of grazing management on biodiversity across trophic levels-The importance of livestock species and stocking density in salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klink, Roel; Nolte, Stefanie; Mandema, Freek; Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; WallisDeVries, Michiel F.; Bakker, Jan P.; Esselink, Peter; Smit, Christian

    2016-01-01

    European coastal salt marshes are important for the conservation of numerous species of specialist plants, invertebrates, breeding and migratory birds. When these marshes are managed for nature conservation purposes, livestock grazing is often used to counter the dominance of the tall grass

  11. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western ...

  12. Institutional analysis of marine reserves and fisheries governance policy experiments : a case study of Nassau grouper conservation in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of

  13. Exploring Children's Perceptions of Cheetahs through Storytelling: Implications for Cheetah Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Namibia's cheetah population has predominantly been threatened by human conflict related to livestock farming and habitat loss. Cheetahs have been indiscriminately persecuted as a mortal threat to livestock, as well as suffered from human-caused land use change. The Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF) in Otjiwarongo, Namibia conducts cheetah research…

  14. Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the gender gap ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... The book further analyzes the role of livestock ownership, especially by women, ... access to resources, information, and financial services to enable women to more effectively participate in livestock production and marketing.

  15. Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... ... women own assets, and to what extent they participate in making decisions about how to ... Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food security ... Improving women's participation in livestock markets.

  16. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... including the burden of parasitic diseases in livestock and human exposure to ... for: -improving livestock production, animal, and human health; -supporting local ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  17. Perceptions of livestock information credibility available through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results in the study area depict that, majority of the livestock owners preferred mostly to access the information through Internet in local language and from bilingual web sites. The results prove that with the current pitfalls, the respondents that availed Internet services may not be in position to prove the good image and ...

  18. Best available technology for European livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loyon, L.; Burton, C. H.; Misselbrook, T.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns over the negative environmental impact from livestock farming across Europe continue to make their mark resulting in new legislation and large research programs. However, despite a huge amount of published material and many available techniques, doubts over the success of national...

  19. Resilience of livestock to changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breeding and Genetics Symposium titled “Resilience of Livestock to Changing Environments” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting, July 19–24, 2016, Salt Lake City, UT. The objective of the symposium was to provide a broad overview of recent research on the effects of changing environmental conditi...

  20. Prospects of Livestock Production in Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raziq*, M. Younas1 and Z. Rehman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan and makes about 44% of the total geographical area of the country. Most of the area is rangelands with only 5% arable. Animal agriculture is centuries old occupation of the people of Balochistan. Livestock are one of the major important sectors of the province having about 20% of the national stock. However, with little manufacturing facilities and under-developed infrastructure, the provincial economy lags far behind other parts of the country. This is the cradle of many precious livestock breeds and livestock make an important part of the socio-cultural and socioeconomic survival of its inhabitants. The biodiversity of animal genetic resources plays very pivotal role in the economy of the province and each breed has its own uniqueness and socioeconomic importance. The exact value of such precious animal genetic resource has never been realized as yet and no serious steps have been taken for its improvement. It is the utmost need of the time to rethink on the policies relating to livestock production in the province while keeping the needs of the growing population, socio-cultural change and the global warming issues in mind.

  1. Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge Application among Livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the application of indigenous knowledge among livestock farmers in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty four respondents in the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  2. Biological control of livestock pests: Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in biological methods for livestock and poultry pest management is largely motivated by the development of resistance to most of the available synthetic pesticides by the major pests. There also has been a marked increase in organic systems, and those that promote animal welfare by reducing...

  3. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU

  4. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund was established in September 2015 as a partnership between the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Affairs Canada, and the International Development Research Centre. It represents a joint investment of $57 million over five years to support the development, production, and ...

  5. A moral Operating System of livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Societal views about livestock production systems in Europe are changing dramatically in a negative direction. Based on the tradition of pragmatism in applied philosophy I develop a Moral Operating System of animal production systems in cooperating a plurality of ethical views. This moral operating

  6. Loomakasvatus, 2007 = Livestock farming, 2007 / Tiiu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Tiiu

    2007-01-01

    2007. aastal tapeti ning müüdi tapaks 105 000 tonni loomi ja linde, toodeti 689 700 tonni piima ning 155,8 miljonit muna. Diagramm. Tabelid. Vt. samas: Loomade ja piima kokkuost, 2007 = Purchase of livestock and milk, 2007

  7. Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daka, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

  8. Research award: Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF) is an initiative developed by ... to support the development, production, and commercialization of innovative ... of countries within a regional and/or sub-regional structure (e.g. the ...

  9. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure...

  10. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...

  11. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund: Strengthening of Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project creates the authorization for capacity building support to develop and manage the Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF). The fund aims to support the ... Des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI parlent de leurs expériences au Comité sur les ONG lors du forum de la Commission de la condition de la femme.

  12. Livestock-environment interactions: Methane emissions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock producers face a number of challenges including pressure from the public to be good environmental stewards and adopt welfare-friendly practices. However, environmental stewardship and animal welfare may have excitingly conflicting objectives. Examples include pasture-based dairy and beef cattle production ...

  13. Estimation of Airflow in livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1995-01-01

    The well-being of the animals (e.g. pigs) in livestock buildings is contingent on adequate ventilation. Depending on the construction of the ventilation system draught may be introduced into the buildings. Obviously this is an unwanted effect, that might lead to decreasing growth of and increasing...

  14. Relative availability of natural prey versus livestock predicts landscape suitability for cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbach, Christiaan W.; Boast, Lorraine K.; Klein, Rebecca; Somers, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Prey availability and human-carnivore conflict are strong determinants that govern the spatial distribution and abundance of large carnivore species and determine the suitability of areas for their conservation. For wide-ranging large carnivores such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), additional conservation areas beyond protected area boundaries are crucial to effectively conserve them both inside and outside protected areas. Although cheetahs prefer preying on wild prey, they also cause conflict with people by predating on especially small livestock. We investigated whether the distribution of cheetahs’ preferred prey and small livestock biomass could be used to explore the potential suitability of agricultural areas in Botswana for the long-term persistence of its cheetah population. We found it gave a good point of departure for identifying priority areas for land management, the threat to connectivity between cheetah populations, and areas where the reduction and mitigation of human-cheetah conflict is critical. Our analysis showed the existence of a wide prey base for cheetahs across large parts of Botswana’s agricultural areas, which provide additional large areas with high conservation potential. Twenty percent of wild prey biomass appears to be the critical point to distinguish between high and low probable levels of human-cheetah conflict. We identified focal areas in the agricultural zones where restoring wild prey numbers in concurrence with effective human-cheetah conflict mitigation efforts are the most immediate conservation strategies needed to maintain Botswana’s still large and contiguous cheetah population. PMID:26213646

  15. Relative availability of natural prey versus livestock predicts landscape suitability for cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Boast, Lorraine K; Klein, Rebecca; Somers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Prey availability and human-carnivore conflict are strong determinants that govern the spatial distribution and abundance of large carnivore species and determine the suitability of areas for their conservation. For wide-ranging large carnivores such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), additional conservation areas beyond protected area boundaries are crucial to effectively conserve them both inside and outside protected areas. Although cheetahs prefer preying on wild prey, they also cause conflict with people by predating on especially small livestock. We investigated whether the distribution of cheetahs' preferred prey and small livestock biomass could be used to explore the potential suitability of agricultural areas in Botswana for the long-term persistence of its cheetah population. We found it gave a good point of departure for identifying priority areas for land management, the threat to connectivity between cheetah populations, and areas where the reduction and mitigation of human-cheetah conflict is critical. Our analysis showed the existence of a wide prey base for cheetahs across large parts of Botswana's agricultural areas, which provide additional large areas with high conservation potential. Twenty percent of wild prey biomass appears to be the critical point to distinguish between high and low probable levels of human-cheetah conflict. We identified focal areas in the agricultural zones where restoring wild prey numbers in concurrence with effective human-cheetah conflict mitigation efforts are the most immediate conservation strategies needed to maintain Botswana's still large and contiguous cheetah population.

  16. Relative availability of natural prey versus livestock predicts landscape suitability for cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlie E.K. Winterbach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prey availability and human-carnivore conflict are strong determinants that govern the spatial distribution and abundance of large carnivore species and determine the suitability of areas for their conservation. For wide-ranging large carnivores such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, additional conservation areas beyond protected area boundaries are crucial to effectively conserve them both inside and outside protected areas. Although cheetahs prefer preying on wild prey, they also cause conflict with people by predating on especially small livestock. We investigated whether the distribution of cheetahs’ preferred prey and small livestock biomass could be used to explore the potential suitability of agricultural areas in Botswana for the long-term persistence of its cheetah population. We found it gave a good point of departure for identifying priority areas for land management, the threat to connectivity between cheetah populations, and areas where the reduction and mitigation of human-cheetah conflict is critical. Our analysis showed the existence of a wide prey base for cheetahs across large parts of Botswana’s agricultural areas, which provide additional large areas with high conservation potential. Twenty percent of wild prey biomass appears to be the critical point to distinguish between high and low probable levels of human-cheetah conflict. We identified focal areas in the agricultural zones where restoring wild prey numbers in concurrence with effective human-cheetah conflict mitigation efforts are the most immediate conservation strategies needed to maintain Botswana’s still large and contiguous cheetah population.

  17. 29 CFR 780.328 - Meaning of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of livestock. 780.328 Section 780.328 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.328 Meaning of livestock. The term “livestock” includes cattle, sheep, horses... § 780.120. Turkeys or domesticated fowl are considered poultry and not livestock within the meaning of...

  18. 25 CFR 141.14 - Trade in livestock restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in livestock restricted. 141.14 Section 141.14... livestock restricted. (a) No person other than an enrolled member of the tribe or any association... livestock from tribal members without a special permit issued by the Commissioner. (b) The Commissioner...

  19. 7 CFR 53.15 - Accessibility to livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility to livestock. 53.15 Section 53.15... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.15 Accessibility to livestock. (a) The applicant shall...

  20. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock payment calculations. 760.209 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.209 Livestock payment calculations. (a) Payments for an...

  1. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.327 Production of livestock. For an employee to be engaged in the production of livestock, he must be actively taking care of the animals or standing by in readiness for that purpose. Thus...

  2. Interaction Between Livestock And Crop Farming In Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked at the role of livestock and its interaction with crop production in an integrated crop-livestock farming system in Katsina State. Field data were collected through household survey of 120 respondent located in six villages in Katsina State. The result shows that there was a high level of crop-livestock ...

  3. Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melissa Rojas-Downing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for livestock products is expected to double by 2050, mainly due to improvement in the worldwide standard of living. Meanwhile, climate change is a threat to livestock production because of the impact on quality of feed crop and forage, water availability, animal and milk production, livestock diseases, animal reproduction, and biodiversity. This study reviews the global impacts of climate change on livestock production, the contribution of livestock production to climate change, and specific climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in the livestock sector. Livestock production will be limited by climate variability as animal water consumption is expected to increase by a factor of three, demand for agricultural lands increase due to need for 70% growth in production, and food security concern since about one-third of the global cereal harvest is used for livestock feed. Meanwhile, the livestock sector contributes 14.5% of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, driving further climate change. Consequently, the livestock sector will be a key player in the mitigation of GHG emissions and improving global food security. Therefore, in the transition to sustainable livestock production, there is a need for: a assessments related to the use of adaptation and mitigation measures tailored to the location and livestock production system in use, and b policies that support and facilitate the implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.

  4. The Use of and Need for Livestock Market News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Herman M.

    This publication reports the practices of 46 livestock producers relating to their use of market news as reported in personal interviews made in September, 1969, in three counties in Illinois. The questionnaire provided for information for: volume of livestock, type, location, frequency of use of various media used to obtain livestock market news;…

  5. Social and ecological analysis of commercial integrated crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, R.D.; Niles, M.T.; Gil, J.D.B.; Gaudin, A.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Assmann, A.; Assmann, T.S.; Brewer, K.; Faccio Carvalho, de P.C.; Cortner, O.; Dynes, R.; Garbach, K.; Kebreab, E.; Mueller, N.; Peterson, C.; Reis, J.C.; Snow, V.; Valentim, J.

    2017-01-01

    Crops and livestock play a synergistic role in global food production and farmer livelihoods. Increasingly, however, crops and livestock are produced in isolation, particularly in farms operating at the commercial scale. It has been suggested that re-integrating crop and livestock systems at the

  6. Understanding the gender dimensions of livestock ownership | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Download the Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership brief (PDF, 726 KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings presented in the book “Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the Gender Gap in Eastern and Southern Africa” produced by the International Livestock ...

  7. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and

  8. Hydropower vs. fisheries conservation: a test of institutional design principles for common-pool resource management in the lower Mekong basin social-ecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Villamayor-Tomas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New methods have emerged for testing common-pool resource theory in large-scale environmental governance contexts. We aim to contribute to that scholarship by assessing the relevance of Elinor Ostrom's design principles in the lower Mekong basin (LMB. The recent dam-building trend in the LMB has revealed a trade-off between hydropower development and the conservation of migratory fish species. The need to internalize or avoid the negative externalities of hydropower dam construction poses a new challenge to the LMB governance system and its main management body, the Mekong River Commission. Our objective was to explain the emergence of the trade-off and the capacity of the governance system to address it. Elinor Ostrom's design principles and other variables provided by the Socio-ecological Systems Meta-analysis Database were first coded with regard to secondary data and then tested against the capacity for cooperation of the LMB governance system. The lack of sanctioning despite a strong monitoring system, and the existence of fuzzy governance boundaries in the context of a powerful outsider like China, were particularly relevant to understanding the current cooperation stalemate in the basin. Other variables such as scientific knowledge, triggering events, markets, resource spatial heterogeneity, and heterogeneity of interests were also relevant.

  9. In the Modern Treatment Era, Is Breast Conservation Equivalent to Mastectomy in Women Younger Than 40 Years of Age? A Multi-Institution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Jonathan; Ly, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Cannon, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah (United States); Suneja, Gita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Matsen, Cindy [Department of General Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Gaffney, David K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Wright, Melissa [Oncology Clinical Program, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Kokeny, Kristine E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Poppe, Matthew M., E-mail: matthew.poppe@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Mastectomy is often recommended for women ≤40 years of age with breast cancer, as young women were under-represented in the landmark trials comparing breast conservation therapy (BCT) to mastectomy. We hypothesized that, in the modern treatment era, BCT and mastectomy result in equivalent local control rates in young women. Methods and Materials: Breast cancer cases arising between 1975 and 2013 in women ≤40 years old were collected from the tumor registries of 2 large healthcare systems in Utah. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze freedom from locoregional recurrence (FFLR), overall survival (OS), and relapse-free survival (RFS). Results: This analysis identified 853 BCT candidates. A comparison of BCT to mastectomy after 2000 showed FFLR, RFS, and OS were all similar. Rate for FFLR at 10 years was 94.9% versus 92.1% for BCT and mastectomy, respectively (P=.57). For women whose cancer was diagnosed after 2000, who received BCT, FFLR and RFS rates were improved compared to those whose cancer was diagnosed prior to 2000 (P<.05), whereas OS (P=.46) rates were similar. Among those who underwent mastectomy, FFLR, OS, and RFS were significantly improved (P<.05) with diagnosis after 2000. Conclusions: FFLR rates for young women, ≤40 years of age, have significantly improved for BCT and mastectomy over time. If patients were treated after 2000, BCT appears to be safe and equivalent to mastectomy at 10 years in terms of FFLR, OS, and RFS.

  10. Pathways for sustainable development of mixed crop livestock systems: Taking a livestock and pro-poor approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarawali, S.A.; Herrero, M.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Grings, E.; Blmmel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed crop livestock systems provide the majority of the cereal and livestock domestic products for households in developing countries. We explore the question of whether such systems can respond to increasing demands for livestock products without compromising future livelihoods of the poor or the

  11. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. 309.7 Section 309.7 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and... followed immediately by a thorough disinfection of the exposed premises by soaking the ground, fences...

  12. 36 CFR 262.10 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized livestock. 262.10 Section 262.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock or livestock in excess of those authorized by a grazing permit... officer determines that such livestock use is occurring, has definite knowledge of the kind of livestock...

  13. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT BASED ON CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT. CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerim SYDYKOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In most developing countries, where agriculture is the main economical source, clusters have been found as a booster to develop their economy. The Asian countries are now starting to implement agro-food clusters into the mainstream of changes in agriculture, farming and food industry. The long-term growth of meat production in the Kyrgyz Republic during the last decade, as well as the fact that agriculture has become one of the prioritized sectors of the economy, proved the importance of livestock sector in the economy of the Kyrgyz Republic. The research question is “Does the Kyrgyz Republic has strong economic opportunities and prerequisites in agriculture in order to implement an effective agro cluster in the livestock sector?” Paper focuses on describing the prerequisites of the Kyrgyz Republic in agriculture to implement livestock cluster. The main objective of the paper is to analyse the livestock sector of the Kyrgyz Republic and observe the capacity of this sector to implement agro-cluster. The study focuses on investigating livestock sector and a complex S.W.O.T. The analysis was carried out based on local and regional database and official studies. The results of research demonstrate the importance of livestock cluster for national economy. It can be concluded that cluster implementation could provide to its all members with benefits if they could build strong collaborative relationship in order to facilitate the access to the labour market and implicitly, the access to exchange of good practices. Their ability of potential cluster members to act as a convergence pole is critical for acquiring practical skills necessary for the future development of the livestock sector.

  14. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce McCarl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data.

  15. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  16. Family Farming livestock data search in loco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Benito Pimentel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The creation and trading of livestock are potentially growing in the Brazil over the years so that there is an increase in the interest of producers to apply new technologies to be able to stay in this increasingly competitive market. The technologies that are being applied include both new production techniques as management tools, control and monitoring of animals. Thus, this work presents an application development proposal to enable livestock data transmission and retrieval through a mobile platform, informing characteristics such as origin, weight recorded in the last weighing, race, vaccination, among others. The use of a technology applied to mobile devices can solve the problems of farmers from having to carry computers or notepads to where the animals are arranged, offering convenience and speed in decision making.

  17. Mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Bjerg, Bjarne; Batzanas, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings are reviewed and influences on discharge and pressure coefficients are discussed. Compared to studies conducted on buildings for human occupation and industrial buildings which focus on thermal comfort, ventilation systems......, indoor air quality, building physics and energy etc., our understanding of the mechanisms involved in natural ventilation of livestock buildings are still limited to the application of the orifice equation. It has been observed that the assumptions made for application of the orifice equation...... are not valid for wind-induced cross ventilation through large openings. This review identifies that the power balance model, the concept of stream tube and the local dynamic similarity model has helped in the fundamental understanding of wind-induced natural ventilation in buildings for human occupation...

  18. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  19. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S. Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the impacts of a hotter and drier climate on future agriculture. By examining Australian regional livestock data on sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs, the authors find that livestock production will expand under such conditions. Livestock revenue per farm is expected to increase by more than 47% by 2060 under the UKMO, the GISS, and a high degree of warming CSIRO scenario. The existence of a threshold temperature for these species is not evident. Abstract This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. PMID:26486620

  20. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufino, M C; Brandt, P; Herrero, M; Butterbach-Bahl, K

    2014-01-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands–livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop–livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling. (paper)

  1. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone however explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat and pig traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity.

  2. Livestock as a potential biological control agent for an invasive wetland plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Silliman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species threaten biodiversity and incur costs exceeding billions of US$. Eradication efforts, however, are nearly always unsuccessful. Throughout much of North America, land managers have used expensive, and ultimately ineffective, techniques to combat invasive Phragmites australis in marshes. Here, we reveal that Phragmites may potentially be controlled by employing an affordable measure from its native European range: livestock grazing. Experimental field tests demonstrate that rotational goat grazing (where goats have no choice but to graze Phragmites can reduce Phragmites cover from 100 to 20% and that cows and horses also readily consume this plant. These results, combined with the fact that Europeans have suppressed Phragmites through seasonal livestock grazing for 6,000 years, suggest Phragmites management can shift to include more economical and effective top-down control strategies. More generally, these findings support an emerging paradigm shift in conservation from high-cost eradication to economically sustainable control of dominant invasive species.

  3. Development of clean environment conservation technology by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myunjoo; Kim, Tak Hyun; Jung, In Ha

    2012-04-01

    This report is aim to develop the technology for environmental conservation by radiation. It is consisted of two research parts. One is development of wastewater disinfection technology by radiation and the other is development of livestock waste treatment technology by radiation. For the development of wastewater disinfection technology disinfect ion process, technology for treatment of toxic organic chemicals and assessment of ecological toxicity, technology for treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals and assessment of genetic safety were developed. For the development of livestock waste treatment technology, process for simultaneous removal of nutrients, technology for disinfection and quality enhancement of livestock waste compost, technology for reduction of composting periods, monitoring of toxic organic compounds, pretreatment technology for organic toxic chemicals and enhancement of biological treatment efficiencies were developed. Based on basic research, advanced livestock wastewater treatment process using radiation was established

  4. Enabling sustainable pastoralism: policies and investments that optimise livestock production and rangeland stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, R; Davies, J

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralism is a system of dynamically managing livestock and land for economic, social and environmental benefit. To a large extent, pastoralism is an adaptation to ecological and climatic variability and is not simply a livestock production system but provides significant environmental services to humanity. Evidence from a range of national contexts shows that sustainable pastoralist development requires an understanding of the dual environmental and economic roles of pastoralism and an adaptation of policies and investments to support both. The current paper examines three cornerstones that have proven to be crucial for sustainable pastoralist development and for maximising the links between livestock production and environmental stewardship: strengthening pastoral capabilities and institutions, securing land tenure and natural resource governance, and ensuring equitable markets for pastoral diversity. To effectively support the dual economic-environmental roles of pastoralism requires not only optimisation of the production of ecosystem services through extensive livestock production, but also a major overhaul of the way we approach pastoralist development, and major investment in the people who are central to the system. As long as pastoralists remain marginalised, with weak rights and little access to services, their future will remain uncertain.

  5. Maturity analysis of the innovation system in the livestock industries of West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresti, A.; Dinata, U. G. S.; Wati, R.

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the ANIS of Livestock industry in West Sumatera according to its main determinants. This research aims to know and understand the maturity level of the regional innovationsystem of West Sumatra livestock industries, including recommendation for improvements. The maturity level of the regional innovation system was analyzed with the ANIS method by using an opinion survey to some experts from businessmen, government and universities. This expert opinion survey was conducted to measure expert perceptions on the implementations of determinants of west Sumatera regional innovations systems on livestock industries on macro level (innovations policy), mezzo level (innovation institutions and programs) and micro level (innovation capacity). By using Likert method, the result showed maturity level for the West Sumatra livestock industries innovation system was still develop. This is caused by low maturity in the macro and meso determinants which are at the central and regional government side. This research result may be useful as recommendations for the government for improving the maturity level and may be a basic for incoming researches to identify regional innovation system determinants with low maturity to improve.

  6. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  7. Estimation of NH3 emissions from a naturally ventilated livestock farm using local-scale atmospheric dispersion modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hensen, A.; Loubet, B.; Mosquera, J.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Erisman, J. W.; Daemmgen, U.; Milford, C.; Loepmeier, F. J.; Cellier, P.; Mikuška, Pavel; Sutton, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 12 (2009), s. 2847-2860 ISSN 1726-4170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : NH3 livestock farm emissions * concentration measurement * atmospheric dispersion Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2009 http://www.biogeosciences.net/6/2847/2009/

  8. Strategic management of livestock to improve biodiversity conservation in African savannahs: A conceptual basis for wildlife-livestock coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    African savannas are complex socio-ecological systems with diverse wild and domestic herbivore assemblages, which utilize functional heterogeneity of habitats to adapt to intra- and inter-annual variation in forage quantity and quality, predation and disease risks. As African savannas become increas...

  9. Poor livestock keepers: ecosystem-poverty-health interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Delia; Lindahl, Johanna; Wanyoike, Francis; Bett, Bernard; Randolph, Tom; Rich, Karl M

    2017-07-19

    Humans have never been healthier, wealthier or more numerous. Yet, present success may be at the cost of future prosperity and in some places, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, poverty persists. Livestock keepers, especially pastoralists, are over-represented among the poor. Poverty has been mainly attributed to a lack of access, whether to goods, education or enabling institutions. More recent insights suggest ecosystems may influence poverty and the self-reinforcing mechanisms that constitute poverty traps in more subtle ways. The plausibility of zoonoses as poverty traps is strengthened by landmark studies on disease burden in recent years. While in theory, endemic zoonoses are best controlled in the animal host, in practice, communities are often left to manage disease themselves, with the focus on treatment rather than prevention. We illustrate this with results from a survey on health costs in a pastoral ecosystem. Epidemic zoonoses are more likely to elicit official responses, but these can have unintended consequences that deepen poverty traps. In this context, a systems understanding of disease control can lead to more effective and pro-poor disease management. We illustrate this with an example of how a system dynamics model can help optimize responses to Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Kenya by giving decision makers real-time access to the costs of the delay in vaccinating. In conclusion, a broader, more ecological understanding of poverty and of the appropriate responses to the diseases of poverty can contribute to improved livelihoods for livestock keepers in Africa.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. LivestockPlus — The sustainable intensification of forage-based agricultural systems to improve livelihoods and ecosystem services in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As global demand for livestock products (such as meat, milk and eggs is expected to double by 2050, necessary increases to future production must be reconciled with negative environmental impacts that livestock cause. This paper describes the LivestockPlus concept and demonstrates how the sowing of improved forages can lead to the sustainable intensification of mixed crop-forage-livestock-tree systems in the tropics by producing multiple social, economic and environmental benefits. Sustainable intensification not only improves the productivity of tropical forage-based systems but also reduces the ecological footprint of livestock production and generates a diversity of ecosystem services (ES such as improved soil quality and reduced erosion, sedimentation and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Integrating improved grass and legume forages into mixed production systems (crop-livestock, tree-livestock, crop-tree-livestock can restore degraded lands and enhance system resilience to drought and waterlogging associated with climate change. When properly managed tropical forages accumulate large amounts of carbon in soil, fix atmospheric nitrogen (legumes, inhibit nitrification in soil and reduce nitrous oxide emissions (grasses, and reduce GHG emissions per unit livestock product. The LivestockPlus concept is defined as the sustainable intensification of forage-based systems, which is based on 3 interrelated intensification processes: genetic intensification - the development and use of superior grass and legume cultivars for increased livestock productivity; ecological intensification - the development and application of improved farm and natural resource management practices; and socio-economic intensification - the improvement of local and national institutions and policies, which enable refinements of technologies and support their enduring use. Increases in livestock productivity will require coordinated efforts to develop supportive government, non

  11. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

  12. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  13. Greenhouse gas and livestock emissions and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario

    2018-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of livestock sector on climate change. The main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock are described and the contribution of livestock sector to the global GHG emissions is presented on the basis of the latest results...... obtained from the scientific research. The most recent mitigation strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock sector are also discussed. The paper aims to provide a general overview of an emergent environmental issue such as the impact of livestock sector on climate change. While...... the paper is easy to understand for non-expert readers, it may also be a relevant reference point for academic researchers and for policy makers aimed at achieving the sustainability of livestock/food sector....

  14. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  15. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. The past half-century has seen marked growth in food production, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the proportion of the world’s people that are hungry, despite a doubling of the total population. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by 2050. So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cultivated land areas and an increase of water and energy consumption. The environmental assessment of human activities is presently a hot topic. It is not only important from an ecological perspective, but also from the view of efficient utilization of limited natural resources. The livestock sector that increasingly competes for scarce resources (land, water, and energy has a severe impact on air, water and soil quality because of its emissions. The environmental impact of food of animal origin is currently quantified by so-called CO2eq-footprints. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to achieve a sustainable supply of food, especially of animal origin, because land and other production factors are not unlimited resources. This lecture deals with related problems linked to the production of foods of animal origin and some possible sustainable solutions for the increasing demand of these products, by means of a detailed analysis of the carbon footprint by the livestock, as well as the land requirement, biodiversity, energy and water footprint in livestock production.

  16. Work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstrup, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Swedish livestock farming has undergone considerable structural changes and technical development, which have influenced the work environment and health of the workers in several ways. The general aim of the studies was to investigate the work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers on large modern dairy and pig farms. The studies were mainly based on questionnaires. The results showed that the livestock workers reported high frequencies of musculoskele...

  17. Impact of BSE on livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, A

    2003-09-01

    The small number of BSE cases diagnosed in Italy from January 2001 to 12 September 2001 (a total of 28, one every 9000 head) does not allow for a statistical analysis of the relationship between this disease and the livestock systems. However, some indications can be noted: (a) only dairy cattle, which represent three-quarters of the cattle raised in Italy, are involved; (b) 58% of the cases belong to medium-large farms that breed 27% of all head; (c) 13 out of 28 cases are 5-year-old animals and 26 out of 28 are between 5 and 7 years of age; (d) 15 of 28 cases come from Lombardia, where 27% of Italian dairy cattle are raised. The following factors may have affected the livestock system: (1) trends of beef meat consumption; (2) changes in livestock management; (3) changes in animal feeding; (4) possible effects on selection. A strong decline in beef meat consumption (4 kg/year) has been observed in the UK and other European countries since 1996 (the year of the discovery of the relationship between BSE and nvCJD). In Italy, from January 2001 the consumption of beef meat has declined as well as slaughter: a drop of 31% in the total slaughtered head in the period January-February, a drop of 14% in January-May. A fall in the price of calves has promoted, in some dairy farms, the start of the production of light beef less than one year old (advantages in the marketing of meat favour this initiative), a phenomenon which is not yet well established. Traceability and certification of meat have improved, thanks to breeders' associations and interprofessional agreements. The breeders associations have also started insurance initiatives against BSE risks. In Italy the employment of plant protein meals would increase the total feedstuff consumption by about 7%. Direct effects of BSE could slow down the genetic progress (GP) of cattle populations within breed and country. Indirect effects on GP may also happen as a consequence of an increase in the replacement rate (rr). This

  18. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    synthesize recommendations from federal and university rangeland science experts about how BLM might prioritize collection of different types of livestock grazing-related natural resource data. 4. Investigate whether range-wide datasets (Objective 1) could be used in conjunction with remotely sensed imagery to identify across broad scales (a) allotments potentially not meeting BLM Land Health Standards (LHS) and (b) allotments in which unmet standards might be attributable to livestock grazing. Objective 1: We identified four datasets that potentially could be used for analyses of livestock grazing effects on sagebrush ecosystems. First, we obtained the most current spatial data (typically up to 2007, 2008, or 2009) for all BLM allotments and compiled data into a coarse, topologically enforced dataset that delineated grazing allotment boundaries. Second, we obtained LHS evaluation data (as of 2007) for all allotments across all districts and regions; these data included date of most recent evaluation, BLM determinations of whether region-specific standards were met, and whether BLM deemed livestock to have contributed to any unmet standards. Third, we examined grazing records of three types: Actual Use (permittee-reported), Billed Use (BLM-reported), and Permitted Use (legally authorized). Finally, we explored the possibility of using existing Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Ecological Site Description (ESD) data to make up-to-date estimates of production and forage availability on BLM allotments. Objective 2: We investigated the availability of BLM livestock grazing-related monitoring data and the status of LHS across 310 randomly selected allotments in 13 BLM field offices. We found that, relative to other data types, the most commonly available monitoring data were Actual Use numbers (permittee-reported livestock numbers and season-of-use), followed by Photo Point, forage Utilization, and finally, Vegetation Trend measurement data. Data availability and

  19. Freshwater use in livestock production—To be used for food crops or livestock feed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Ylva; Middelaar, van Corina E.; Lannerstad, Mats; Herrero, Mario; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to estimate freshwater use in livestock production systems generally fail to consider the competition for water resources with alternative uses, such as production of food crops food or other ecosystem services. This article presents a new method to account for the competition for

  20. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Livestock impacts on forage, stover, and grain production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise diversity is the key to ensure productive and sustainable agriculture for the future. Integration of crops and livestock enterprises is one way to improve agricultural sustainability, and take advantage of beneficial enterprise synergistic effects. Our objectives were to develop cropping ...

  1. [Virtual water content of livestock products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Jun-hong

    2006-04-01

    The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year. Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: (1) The virtual water content of livestock products is increasing rapidly in China recently, especially poultry eggs and pork. (2) The distribution of virtual water content of livestock products is not balanced, mainly lies in North China, East China and so on; (3) The increasing production of livestock in Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei, Nei Monggol, Liaononing, Jilin, Shandong, Henan and Ningxia province and autonom ous region will bring pressure to local water shortage.

  2. Using mixed methods to investigate factors influencing reporting of livestock diseases: a case study among smallholders in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Lewis, Elisa G; Chang, Yu-Mei; Ruiz, Hugo; Balanza, Maria Elba; Guitian, Javier

    2014-02-01

    Livestock disease surveillance is particularly challenging in resource-scarce settings, where disease events are often unreported. Surveillance performance is determined as much by the quantifiable biological attributes of the disease, as it is by motivations and barriers perceived by livestock keepers for disease reporting. Mixed methods designs, which integrate the collection, analysis and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data in a single study, are increasingly used across different disciplines. These designs allow for a deeper exploration of the topic under investigation, than can be achieved by either approach alone. In this study a mixed methods design was used in order to gain a greater understanding of the factors that influence reporting of livestock diseases in Bolivia. There is a need to strengthen passive surveillance in this country, among other reasons as part of an eradication programme for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Findings revealed livestock keepers in the study area were extremely unlikely to report the occurrence of livestock health events to the Official Veterinary Services (OVS). Communication outside the local community occurs more often through alternative routes and this is positively correlated with disease awareness. The main barriers to disease reporting identified were a lack of institutional credibility and the conflicting priorities of the OVS and livestock keepers. As for other animal and human diseases across the developing world, passive surveillance of livestock diseases in Bolivia should be enhanced; this is urgent in view of the current FMD eradication programme. Increasing timeliness and smallholders' participation requires a detailed understanding of their likely actions and perceived barriers towards disease reporting. These insights are most likely to be developed through a holistic mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative analyses. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Livestock Environment Prospects for the 90's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Thatcher

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available When projecting livestock environmental prospects for the 1990's. it is critical to recognize the multidimensional nature of managing livestock species under hot environments. This paper identifies potential critical physiological windows during the life cycle of the animal that are sensitive to heat stress and responsive to environmental modification. Ovarian follicular development appears to be sensitive to heat stress leading to reductions in intensity of oestrus and subsequent fertility. Periods of follicular development that are sensitive to heat stress have not been defined. With current improved systems to alter the microenvironment of animals. the period of embryonic sensitivity to heat stress has shifted so that early embryonic losses are less. Potential recombinant proteins that may enhance embryo survival and correct deficiencies in placental function that are induced by heat stress warrant additional investigation. The postpartum period is a critical period in which a multitude of factors interact to influence animal productivity and its sensitivity to heat stress. Nutritional strategies to improve animal performance with the use of fat-supplementation are discussed. Environmental modification and housing systems need to not only maximize the efficiency of animal production but need to consider the potential impact on the environment relative to water use. soil and water pollution. Animal production and management systems need to consider both animal health and well-being issues. To optimize profit under conditions of greater societal constraints and available management alternatives, computer assisted management systems will become a critical tool.

  4. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  5. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Per

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation

  6. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  7. Risks of gene transfer from GMOs to livestock, and consequences for health and nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, R.H.; Beever, D.E.; Einspanier, R.

    2005-01-01

    There has been rapid uptake of GM crops, with widespread use in livestock production systems. The concept of substantial equivalence as the starting point for the safety assessment of GM crops is discussed, together with the role of compositional and nutritional equivalence. Concerns have been expressed as to the fate of transgenic DNA and the expressed protein, and the safety of milk, meat and eggs derived from animals receiving diets containing GM feeds, and the effects of feed processing, conservation and nutrient digestion on the fate of transgenic DNA and proteins, are presented. Their presence in milk, meat and eggs has never been established in any study to date. There is no evidence to suggest that livestock products from animals receiving GM feed ingredients are anything other than as safe as those produced from conventional feeds. Furthermore, although hypothetically possible, horizontal gene transfer between transgenic DNA and microorganisms either in the digestive tract of livestock or in the soil has not been established under natural conditions. (author)

  8. Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D M; Galindo, F A; Murgueitio, E

    2013-11-22

    What is the future for livestock agriculture in the world? Consumers have concerns about sustainability but many widely used livestock production methods do not satisfy consumers' requirements for a sustainable system. However, production can be sustainable, occurring in environments that: supply the needs of the animals resulting in good welfare, allow coexistence with a wide diversity of organisms native to the area, minimize carbon footprint and provide a fair lifestyle for the people working there. Conservation need not just involve tiny islands of natural vegetation in a barren world of agriculture, as there can be great increases in biodiversity in farmed areas. Herbivores, especially ruminants that consume materials inedible by humans, are important for human food in the future. However, their diet should not be just ground-level plants. Silvopastoral systems, pastures with shrubs and trees as well as herbage, are described which are normally more productive than pasture alone. When compared with widely used livestock production systems, silvopastoral systems can provide efficient feed conversion, higher biodiversity, enhanced connectivity between habitat patches and better animal welfare, so they can replace existing systems in many parts of the world and should be further developed.

  9. Conservation education and habitat restoration for the endangered Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni in Sagalla Hill, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K. MALONZA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni is an endangered amphibian endemic to Sagalla Hill in the Taita Hills. This burrowing worm-like species prefers soft soil with high moisture and organic matter. The major threats to the Sagalla caecilian are soil erosion caused by steep slopes, bare ground and water siphoning/soil hardening from exotic eucalyptus trees. The purpose of this study was to get a better understanding of the local people's attitude towards this species and how they can contribute to its continued conservation through restoration of its remaining habitat. In this study, it was found that 96% of Sagalla people are aware of the species, its habits and its association with soils high in organic matter. It was also found that 96% of Sagalla people use organic manure from cow dung in their farms. Habitat restoration through planting of indigenous plants was found to be ongoing, especially on compounds of public institutions as well as on private lands. Although drought was found to be a challenge for seedlings development especially on the low elevation sites, destruction by livestock especially during the dry season is also a major threat. In this study, it was recommended that any future habitat restoration initiative should include strong chain-link fencing to protect the seedlings from livestock activity. Recognizing that the preferred habitats for the species are in the valleys, systematic planting of keystone plant species such as fig trees (Ficus creates the best microhabitats. These are better than general woodlots of indigenous trees.

  10. Conservation education and habitat restoration for the endangered Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) in Sagalla Hill, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Malonza, Patrick

    2016-05-18

    The Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) is an endangered amphibian endemic to Sagalla Hill in the Taita Hills. This burrowing worm-like species prefers soft soil with high moisture and organic matter. The major threats to the Sagalla caecilian are soil erosion caused by steep slopes, bare ground and water siphoning/soil hardening from exotic eucalyptus trees. The purpose of this study was to get a better understanding of the local people's attitude towards this species and how they can contribute to its continued conservation through restoration of its remaining habitat. In this study, it was found that 96% of Sagalla people are aware of the species, its habits and its association with soils high in organic matter. It was also found that 96% of Sagalla people use organic manure from cow dung in their farms. Habitat restoration through planting of indigenous plants was found to be ongoing, especially on compounds of public institutions as well as on private lands. Although drought was found to be a challenge for seedlings development especially on the low elevation sites, destruction by livestock especially during the dry season is also a major threat. In this study, it was recommended that any future habitat restoration initiative should include strong chain-link fencing to protect the seedlings from livestock activity. Recognizing that the preferred habitats for the species are in the valleys, systematic planting of keystone plant species such as fig trees (Ficus) creates the best microhabitats. These are better than general woodlots of indigenous trees.

  11. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However,

  12. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruford, M.W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Megens, Hendrik Jan

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR).

  13. Biotechnology in livestock production: Overview of possibilities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock production is expected to grow tremendously in line with the projected demand for animal products. Therefore, the methods of livestock production must change to allow for efficiency and improvement in productivity. Biotechnology is important if the world is to respond to the pressure to produce more food from ...

  14. Livestock Judges Training Provides Hands-On Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Scott; Harrison, Steve; Packham, Joel; Sanchez, Dawn; Jensen, Jim; Kaysen, Brett; King, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The judging of a market animal at a fair is the highlight of a youth-owned livestock project. Livestock judges are hired to evaluate youth projects at fairs. They are critical ambassadors for agriculture and influence countless youths and adults. Judges must be knowledgeable about current animal evaluation methods that support youth development.…

  15. 19 CFR 4.71 - Inspection of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of livestock. 4.71 Section 4.71 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.71 Inspection of livestock. A proper export...

  16. Developing a Mobile Extension Course for Youth Livestock Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenkamp, Deborah; Dam, Karna; Chichester, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The 4-H Livestock Quality Assurance course is a mobile Extension course for youth and youth leaders. In 3 years of implementation, over 6,600 participants from 16 states have learned about good production practices for animal agriculture through the innovative online Nebraska Livestock Quality Assurance course. By evaluating the needs of our youth…

  17. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding, driving...

  18. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The...

  19. A facilitated process towards finding options for improved livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A participatory multi-stakeholder process of finding options for improving livestock production in the severely degraded communal grazing area of Sterkspruit in South Africa was conducted. Interviews were conducted with individual livestock keepers from two sites to gather data on their demographic characteristics, ...

  20. Ethno veterinary practices of small ruminant livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a total of 400 ruminant livestock farmers selected from Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Ondo and Edo States of Nigeria using Multi-stage sampling technique. The data collected include the specific attributes of small ruminant livestock farmers in the area, ethno-veterinary practices of farmers in the treatment of ...

  1. Biogas production from livestock waste anaerobic digesters: evaluation and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. However, feedstocks from livestock re...

  2. Staple Food and Livestock Production among the Yoruba of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    natural for a staple food farmer to also, essentially, own and raise livestock. No doubt .... whole, by 1945, agriculture in Ekiti had generally experienced ... fried plantain or processed dried powdered plantain, in form of amala .... There were, however, some dangers to livestock production in the ... goats, sheep, dogs and pigs.

  3. cyber livestock communication in rural india: a strategic model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cyber extension system focuses the overall development of the livestock farmers including production, management, marketing and other rural developmental activities, thus conceptualizing a livestock communication model and defining anything that can be fit into this model as Cyber Communication was felt ...

  4. The Way Forward for Livestock and the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, M.; Thornton, P.K.; Gerber, P.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Steeg, van de J.; Notenbaert, A.M.; Lecomte, P.; Tarawali, S.A.; Grace, D.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock provide many benefits to society, but at the same time, they generate considerable pressure on land, water and biomass resources and are responsible for 18 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. The total demand for livestock products may almost double by 2050, mostly in the developing

  5. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in the highland and mid altitude areas of Horro and Guduru districts of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing livestock production situation, livestock production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution.

  6. Modeling and Control of Livestock Ventilation Systems and Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Heiselberg, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The hybrid ventilation systems have been widely used for livestock barns to provide optimum indoor climate by controlling the ventilation rate and air flow distribution within the ventilated building structure. The purpose of this paper is to develop models for livestock ventilation systems and i...

  7. 76 FR 50081 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... sovereignty, if a Tribe has its own system for identifying and tracing livestock, separate from those of a... that are needed for food, water, or rest en route if the animals are moved in any other manner. This... which it is contained, then, because of Tribal sovereignty, livestock movements taking place entirely...

  8. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the

  9. Factors affecting livestock predation by lions in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van L.; Vaate, bij de M.D.; Boer, de W.F.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2007-01-01

    Interviews were carried out in six villages south-west of Waza National Park, Cameroon, to investigate the impact of factors related to the occurrence of livestock raiding by lions. Data were analysed at the village and individual level. Livestock losses (cattle, sheep and/or goats) caused by lions

  10. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Products 120 - 130 ... This article aims to provide information on the worth and impact of the livestock sector; information and statistics providing a baseline to guiding sustainability towards 2050. Seventy percent of agricultural land in South Africa can be utilized only by livestock and game and species are found in all provinces ...

  11. Assessment of veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined operational modes of providing veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in Egba-Division, Ogun-State Nigeria. Information was obtained from 120 livestock farmers and 8 extension agents selected through multi-stage random sampling technique with the use of both structured questionnaire ...

  12. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing the livestock sector towards 2050 and the changes and ... In dairy plants the water usage to process the same product may vary by more than 100%, ... Efficiency of production should be on par with competitors if the livestock ...

  13. Ethno-veterinary practices amongst livestock farmers in Ngamiland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable ...

  14. Prevalence of brucellosis in livestock and incidences in humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is an emerging zoonotic disease that poses a threat to both livestock and public health in east Africa. There are several reports of occurrence of the disease in livestock populations especially in Tanzania and Kenya, suggesting chances of increased spread to humans, and the disease being misdiagnosed for ...

  15. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  16. Alternativas de manejo de la fertilidad del suelo en ecosistemas agropecuarios Management alternatives of soil fertility in livestock production ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, debido a la degradación que presentan los suelos, se requiere de un manejo integrado para potenciar su capacidad productiva en beneficio del hombre y lograr el desarrollo sostenible y la seguridad alimentaria. Esta situación demanda que los profesionales, técnicos y responsables de la producción agropecuaria amplíen sus conocimientos relacionados con el manejo y conservación de este recurso, de modo que con su trabajo se pueda lograr un equilibrio en el sistema suelo-planta-animal, que posibilite mejorar el medio ambiente, lograr producciones más ecológicas y obtener mayores beneficios económicos y sociales para el país. En este artículo se presentan algunos resultados generados en diferentes instituciones científicas en cuanto al uso de tecnologías adecuadas en el manejo de la fertilidad del suelo en ecosistemas agropecuarios, así como las experiencias de su introducción en la práctica productiva con el fin de contribuir al desarrollo sostenible y la seguridad alimentaria en Cuba.In Cuba, due to soil degradation, integrated management is required to enhance their productive capacity in benefit of man and achieve sustainable development and the necessary food security. This situation demands that the professionals, technicians and people responsible for livestock production increase their knowledge related to the management and conservation of this resource, so that with their work balance can be achieved in the soil-plant-animal system, which allows improving the environment, achieving more ecological productions, and attaining higher economic and social benefits for the country. In this paper some results are shown generated in different scientific institutions regarding the use of adequate technologies of soil fertility management in agricultural and livestock production ecosystems, as well as the experiences of their introduction in productive practice in order to contribute to sustainable development and food

  17. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  18. Gender issues in livestock production: a case study of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupawaenda, Anna C; Chawatama, Shingirai; Muvavarirwa, Plaxidia

    2009-10-01

    The importance of main streaming gender issues in development programmes is now recognized by governments and development agents. This paper evaluates the role of gender in smallholder livestock production using Zimbabwe as a case study. It draws on several studies and assesses the gender dimension in terms of access and control, decision making and, division of labour. It is shown that for mainly traditional and historical reasons men continue to dominate livestock production although the situation is gradually changing. Men eclipse women in terms of ownership of more valuable stock, the making of decisions and the control of livestock production. This suggests that gender is important in livestock production and must be considered among other factors. The complexity of the system is noted but more gender disaggregated quantitative data is required if gender is to be effectively mainstreamed in livestock development programmes.

  19. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  20. Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Pernille

    . Presently, the development of abatement technologies is limited by the lack of an accurate and reliable method for quantifying the effect on odor. To measure the impact of air cleaning techniques on perceived odor, common practice in Europe is to store odor samples in sample bags and quantify them......Volatile sulfur compounds, i.e. hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide have been identified as key odorants in livestock production due to their high concentration levels and low odor threshold values. At the same time their removal with abatement technologies based on mass transfer...... from a gas phase to a liquid phase, e.g. biotrickling filters, is decelerated due to their low partitioning coefficients. This can significantly limit the odor reduction obtained with these technologies. The present study examines the possibility of adding metal catalysts to enhance the mass transfer...

  1. Determinants of Livestock Prices in Ethiopian Pastoral Livestock Markets: Implications for Pastoral Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Belayneh, Hailemariam Teklewold; Feye, Getachew Legese; Alemu, Dawit; Negassa, Asfaw

    2009-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to identify determinants of market prices for cattle, sheep and goat in the export market value chain starting from pastoral markets to export abattoirs and live animal exporters. The study is based on the information generated through a formal survey conducted in the major pastoral livestock markets of Ethiopia with 128 collectors, small and big traders, feedlot operators, live animal and meat exporters. Hedonic price formation model was used to analyze t...

  2. Conceptual Framework for the National Pilot Project on Livestock and the Environment, Livestock Series Report 2

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Bouzaher; Stanley R. Johnson; Shannon Neibergs; Ron Jones; Larry Beran; Larry Frarey; Larry M. Hauck

    1993-01-01

    Assessing the effects of alternative policies that regulate nonpoint pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires insight into the interactions of livestock production practices, waste management technologies, and their impacts on the environment. CAFOs have been identified as a source of nutrient loadings that impair ground and surface water quality, and they can emit intense odor that impairs air quality. This report describes the conceptual framework and the integ...

  3. Rapid Differentiation between Livestock-Associated and Livestock-Independent Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Clades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jesper; Soldanova, Katerina; Aziz, Maliha; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Petersen, Andreas; Vandendriessche, Stien; Jiménez, Judy N.; Mammina, Caterina; van Belkum, Alex; Salmenlinna, Saara; Laurent, Frederic; Skov, Robert L.; Larsen, Anders R.; Andersen, Paal S.; Price, Lance B.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (CC398) isolates cluster into two distinct phylogenetic clades based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealing a basal human clade and a more derived livestock clade. The scn and tet(M) genes are strongly associated with the human and the livestock clade, respectively, due to loss and acquisition of mobile genetic elements. We present canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) assays that differentiate the two major host-associated S. aureus CC398 clades and a duplex PCR assay for detection of scn and tet(M). The canSNP assays correctly placed 88 S. aureus CC398 isolates from a reference collection into the human and livestock clades and the duplex PCR assay correctly identified scn and tet(M). The assays were successfully applied to a geographically diverse collection of 272 human S. aureus CC398 isolates. The simple assays described here generate signals comparable to a whole-genome phylogeny for major clade assignment and are easily integrated into S. aureus CC398 surveillance programs and epidemiological studies. PMID:24244535

  4. Grasslands in India: Problems and perspectives for sustaining livestock and rural livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy K. Roy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In India, grazing-based livestock husbandry plays an important role in the rural economy as around 50% of animals depend on grazing. Pasturelands over an area of 12 Mha constitute the main grazing resources that are available. Temperate/alpine pastures are spread across elevations higher than 2000 m in the Eastern and Western Himalayas including the Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim states. Nearly 30 pastoral communities in hilly or arid/semi-arid regions in northern and western parts of India, as well as 20 in temperate/hilly regions, depend on grazing-based livestock production. Due to overgrazing coupled with poor management and care, these grazing lands have deteriorated to a large extent and need amelioration or rehabilitation. Appropriate technologies have been developed, refined and tested in various research and academic institutions. These technologies need to be implemented on a large scale in different parts of the country for augmenting forage resources, enhancing livestock production and sustaining livelihood options in an eco-friendly manner.

  5. Sustainable development of smallholder crop-livestock farming in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, S.; Cicek, H.; Bell, L. W.; Norman, H. C.; Mayberry, D. E.; Kassam, S.; Hannaway, D. B.; Louhaichi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Meeting the growing demand for animal-sourced food, prompted by population growth and increases in average per-capita income in low-income countries, is a major challenge. Yet, it also presents significant potential for agricultural growth, economic development, and reduction of poverty in rural areas. The main constraints to livestock producers taking advantage of growing markets include; lack of forage and feed gaps, communal land tenure, limited access to land and water resources, weak institutions, poor infrastructure and environmental degradation. To improve rural livelihood and food security in smallholder crop-livestock farming systems, concurrent work is required to address issues regarding efficiency of production, risk within systems and development of whole value chain systems. This paper provides a review of several forage based-studies in tropical and non-tropical dry areas of the developing countries. A central tenet of this paper is that forages have an essential role in agricultural productivity, environmental sustainability and livestock nutrition in smallholder mixed farming systems.

  6. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  7. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  8. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  9. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  10. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  11. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  12. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  13. Marker-assisted selection. Current status and future perspectives in crops, livestock, forestry and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.; Ruane, J.; Scherf, B.D.; Sonnino, A.; Dargie, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description and assessment of the use of marker-assisted selection for increasing the rate of genetic gain in crops, livestock, forestry and farmed fish, including the related policy, organizational and resource considerations. It continues FAO's tradition of dealing with issues of importance to agricultural and economic development in a multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral manner. As such it is hoped that the information and options presented and the suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists and breeders in both the public and private sectors, as well as to government and institutional policy and decision-makers

  14. Feeding strategies for improving productivity of ruminant livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The primary function of the FAO/IAEA Programme on Animal Production and Health is to improve the capability of animal production and veterinary institutes in developing countries to conduct research into solving the problems of low animal productivity. The main objective of the Advisory Group Meeting was to review recent developments in ruminant nutrition research and identify developments and techniques that could be of use to developing Member States to increase livestock productivity. The report contains papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. The Wildlife Institute of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Careers in Nature Conservation: The Wildlife Institute of India. T R Shankar Raman. Information and Announcements Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 89-93 ...

  16. Searching for Symbolic Value of Cattle: Tropical Livestock Units, Market Price, and Cultural Value of Maasai Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Quinlan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine metabolic, market, and symbolic values of livestock relative to cultural “positioning” by gender, marriage, and household production among Maasai people in Simanjiro, Tanzania to assess local “proximate currencies” relevant for “cultural success.” Data from mixed methods ethnographic research include qualitative interviews since 2012, observation of 85 livestock market sales in 2013 and 2015, and 37 short key informant interviews in 2015. We examine fit between market values, Tropical Livestock Units (TLU, weight-based species exchange ratio, and perceived value from interviews for moran (unmarried men, muruo (married men, and tɔmɔnɔ́k (married women. Hedonic regression using livestock species, sex, maturity, and size accounted for 90% of the local market price of livestock. We compared the market-based exchange ratio between cattle and smallstock (sheep and goats to TLU and perceived values situating symbolic value of cattle in terms of Maasai household production schema. One TLU model accurately predicted market exchange ratios, while another predicted hypothetical exchanges, suggesting need for improved livestock wealth estimation for pastoralists. Ritual context, subsistence work, and cultural position influenced perceived values: Moran overvalued cattle by 100% of the local market value. Tɔmɔnɔ́k accurately perceived the market exchange ratio despite never directly engaging in livestock market transactions. Muruo perceived exchange ratios intermediate between moran and tɔmɔnɔ́k. We argue that these perceptions of value reflect distinct labor responsibilities of moran, muruo, and tɔmɔnɔ́k in livestock management, differential value of bridewealth, and control of meat and milk.Attention to value of different livestock species in cultural models of production may prove useful for development efforts.

  17. Development of germline manipulation technologies in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelaw, C.B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic improvement by conventional breeding is restricted to those genetic loci present in the parental breeding individuals. Gene addition through transgenic technology offers a route to overcome this restriction. The transgene can be introduced into the germ cells or the fertilized zygote, using viral vectors, by simple co-culture or direct micro-injection. Alternatively, the transgene can be incorporated into a somatic cell, which is then incorporated into a developing embryo. This latter approach allows gene-targeting strategies to be employed. Using pronuclear injection methods, transgenic livestock have been generated with the aim of enhancing breeding traits of agricultural importance, or for biomedical applications. Neither has been taken beyond the development phase. Before they are, in addition to issues of commercial development, basic technological issues addressing inefficiency and complexity of the methodology need to be overcome, and appropriate gene targets identified. At the moment, perhaps the most encouraging development involves the use of viral vectors that offer increased simplicity and efficiency. By combining this new technology with transgenes that evoke the powerful intracellular machinery involved in RNA interference, pioneering applications to generate animals that are less susceptible to infectious disease may be possible. (author)

  18. Biotechnology in livestock production: Overview of possibilities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... livestock production can be categorised as the biological, chemical and physical techniques ... the European industrial revolution in the 17th century that ..... Heterotypic protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding.

  19. Livestock and land: trends, status and research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M.; Cecile, G.

    2017-12-01

    Livestock are one of the largest users of land. The use vast areas of rangelands and pasturelands and use a third of the global cropland for feed production. The demand of rlivestock products is growing at an accelerated rate due to large increases in income and urbanisation, primarily in the developing world. While most expansion is occuring the the poultry and pork sectors, ruminant meat and milk are also increasing significantly. There is concern as to how to manage the environmental footprints of these very dynamic systems. At the same, time, significnat opportunities to intensify land use in the the livestock sector exist, primarily in grasslands. This paper gives an overview of the trends in land use in the global livestock sector, assess the status of supply and demand of livestock products and how these might be met in the future and cocludes by proposing a research agenda with key areas that merit more attention from biophysical, social and economic scientists.

  20. Breaking the chain of zoonoses through biosecurity in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Daniel S; Choudhary, Anupma; Bean, Andrew G D

    2017-10-20

    Increases in global travel, trade and urbanisation are leading to greater incidence of zoonotic disease, and livestock are often a key link in the spread of disease to humans. As such, livestock vaccination strategies, as a part of broader biosecurity solutions, are critical to both animal and human health. Importantly, approaches that restrict infectious agents in livestock, not only protects their economic value but should reduce the potential for spill over infections in humans. Biosecurity solutions to livestock health can take a number of different forms and are generally heavily weighted towards prevention of infection rather than treatment. Therefore, vaccination can provide an effective component of a strategic approach, particularly as production economics dictate the use of cost effective solutions. Furthermore, in an evolving global environment there is a need for vaccines that accommodate for lower socioeconomic and rapidly emerging zoonotics. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in women exposed to livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Henriksen, T B; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    outcome in women with self-reported occupational or domestic contact with livestock compared to pregnant women without such contact. The Danish National Birth Cohort collected information on pregnancy outcome from 100 418 pregnant women (1996-2002) from which three study populations with occupational and....../or domestic exposure to livestock and a reference group of women with no animal contact was sampled. Outcome measures were miscarriage, very preterm birth (before gestational week 32), preterm birth (before 37 gestational weeks), small for gestational age (SGA), and perinatal death. Adverse reproductive...... outcomes were assessed in four different exposure groups of women with occupational or domestic exposure to livestock with no association found between exposure to livestock and miscarriage, preterm birth, SGA or perinatal death. These findings should diminish general occupational health concerns...

  2. Department of Livestock and Wild.life Management, Faculty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    95 % of the milk produced in the country (Chivandi,. 2001). ... livestock industry and health effects on humans. It causes adverse ... Brucella species are recovered from blood, bone marrow .... smallholder dairy farmers in order to protect people.

  3. GENDER ROLES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION: THE CASE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    livestock fell heavily on women and female children. Women ... Brain (1975), on the position of women in the Rural Settlement Schemes and others did not ... the extension system of the need to be gender sensitive in the development and.

  4. Novel Livestock Vaccines for Viral Diseases in Africa toward ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa's livestock industry The research will take place in Kenya and South Africa, where ... They will enhance food security by increasing production efficiency and ... provided through Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD).

  5. Five diseases, one vaccine - a boost for emerging livestock farmers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 of the 16 most devastating animal diseases ... good use of livestock vaccines, emerging ... T Chetty, S Goga & A Mather (graphic design by C Lombard) .... Emerging farmers discussing an information pamphlet developed within the project.

  6. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  7. Economic efficiency of extensive livestock production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of extensive livestock production are present worldwide, primarily in regions where natural resources such as pastures and meadows could be used. Extensive livestock production is common in the EU, as well. Therefore the goal of this research was to establish economic efficiency of extensive livestock production types and to compare their efficiency with some intensive livestock production types. In order to achieve that goal FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network methodology was used. Source of information was FADN database as well as appropriate sector analysis and publications of European commission. It has been determined that sheep and goat production is competitive with intensive production types (dairy and granivores - pigs and poultry. Cattle production (other than dairy production proved to be economically inefficient due to low output level.

  8. The role of prostaglandins in livestock production | Okon | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... synthesized) fashion. Prostaglandins are therefore regarded as essential mediators of female reproductive processes, hence, this paper seeks to review the role of Prostaglandins which is exploited in livestock production especially oestrus synchronization and induced parturition. KEYWORDS: Prostaglandins, Production ...

  9. LVIF Call 2 - Innovations to improve livestock vaccines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Musa Mulongo

    production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against livestock ... novel vaccine design/formulations that present significant improvements over ... and which can be transferred to vaccine manufacturers for subsequent registration of.

  10. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland and mid altitude areas ... production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution. A single-visit multi subject formal survey method was used in the survey.

  11. Climate variability and impacts on east African livestock herders: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate variability and impacts on east African livestock herders: the Maasai of ... and vulnerability to climate variability and climate change is assessed, using data ... Model results suggest that the ecosystem is quite resilient and suggests that ...

  12. A South African perspective on livestock production in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality protein sources for human consumption, ruminant production systems are targeted as they are perceived to produce large quantities of GHG. Livestock is also accused of using large quantities of water, an allegation that is based on ...

  13. Livestock Husbandry and Economic-Sustainability of Small Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... their engagement in different operations of livestock husbandry for economic sustainability. ... husbandry for barn and cleaning while men performed 71.5% marketing activities.

  14. Analysing Incentive and Cost Sharing Issues in Livestock Disease Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biira, Juliet

    This PhD thesis tackles two main issues in livestock health management: a) the incentives for animal disease prevention on Danish livestock farms and b) allocation of costs of animal disease outbreaks and animal disease preparedness, among stakeholders involved in the livestock sector. The main...... contributions of this thesis are firstly the investigation of incentives for Danish livestock farmers to prevent animal diseases at the farm level and recommendations on how they could be improved. Secondly, the exploration of a mutual fund as a possibility for risk pooling among farmers and how it can...... is used in paper 5. The thesis consists of two parts; first is the introduction section where I introduce the thesis in general and provide an overview of the objectives and main theories and the second part includes the 5 papers which address the thesis objectives. Paper 1 uses existing literature...

  15. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  16. Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovina, Brian; Feeley, Kenneth J; Ripple, William J

    2015-12-01

    The consumption of animal-sourced food products by humans is one of the most powerful negative forces affecting the conservation of terrestrial ecosystems and biological diversity. Livestock production is the single largest driver of habitat loss, and both livestock and feedstock production are increasing in developing tropical countries where the majority of biological diversity resides. Bushmeat consumption in Africa and southeastern Asia, as well as the high growth-rate of per capita livestock consumption in China are of special concern. The projected land base required by 2050 to support livestock production in several megadiverse countries exceeds 30-50% of their current agricultural areas. Livestock production is also a leading cause of climate change, soil loss, water and nutrient pollution, and decreases of apex predators and wild herbivores, compounding pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity. It is possible to greatly reduce the impacts of animal product consumption by humans on natural ecosystems and biodiversity while meeting nutritional needs of people, including the projected 2-3 billion people to be added to human population. We suggest that impacts can be remediated through several solutions: (1) reducing demand for animal-based food products and increasing proportions of plant-based foods in diets, the latter ideally to a global average of 90% of food consumed; (2) replacing ecologically-inefficient ruminants (e.g. cattle, goats, sheep) and bushmeat with monogastrics (e.g. poultry, pigs), integrated aquaculture, and other more-efficient protein sources; and (3) reintegrating livestock production away from single-product, intensive, fossil-fuel based systems into diverse, coupled systems designed more closely around the structure and functions of ecosystems that conserve energy and nutrients. Such efforts would also impart positive impacts on human health through reduction of diseases of nutritional extravagance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaugn, Kit; Brickell, Emily [WWF-UK (United Kingdom); Roe, Dilys; Reid, Hannah; Elliot, Jo

    2007-07-01

    The growing market for carbon offers great opportunities for linking greenhouse gas mitigation with conservation of forests and biodiversity, and the generation of local livelihoods. For these combined objectives to be achieved, strong governance is needed along with institutions that ensure poor people win, rather than lose out, from the new challenges posed by climate change. This briefing paper explores the opportunities from and limitations to carbon-based funds for conservation and development. It highlights mechanisms that may help secure benefits for climate, conservation and communities.

  18. Computer Prediction of Air Quality in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Bjerg, Bjarne

    In modem livestock buildings the design of ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air quality. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air distribution makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry and heat sources in the design process. This paper...... presents numerical prediction of air flow in a livestock building compared with laboratory measurements. An example of the calculation of contaminant distribution is given, and the future possibilities of the method are discussed....

  19. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases

  20. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  1. Estimation of Water Requirements by Livestock in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    MUBAREKA Sarah; MAES JOACHIM; LAVALLE Carlo; DE ROO Arie

    2013-01-01

    The Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water aims to positively contribute to the European Union's Water Policy through a series of studies to assess the quantity and quality of this precious resource. An important part of that water balance is the accounting of water removed from rivers or aquifers by different sectorial needs. The map series presented here shows the water requirements for the livestock sector. These maps are calculated based on livestock density maps for 2005, normalized...

  2. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases. (author)

  3. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  4. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What constitutes âraisingâ of livestock. 780.121 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term “raising” employed with reference to livestock in section 3(f...

  5. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  6. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... similar livestock. 309.3 Section 309.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises of... § 309.13. (b) Livestock plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection any disease or condition that, under...

  7. Strategies for improving water use efficiency in livestock feed production in rain-fed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.; Oosting, S.J.; Haileslassie, A.; Duncan, A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall

  8. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  9. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane [School of Economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, 00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2009-05-15

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation on struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak- Hyun; Nam, Yun-Ku; Joo Lim, Seung

    2014-01-01

    Livestock wastewater is generally very difficult to be treated by conventional wastewater treatment techniques because it contains high-strength organics (COD), ammonium (NH 4 + ), phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and suspended solids. Struvite crystallization has been recently studied for the simultaneous removal of NH 4 + and PO 4 3− . In this study, gamma ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of the anaerobically digested livestock wastewater. The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater were investigated. As a result, gamma ray irradiation can decrease the concentration of COD, NH 4 + and PO 4 3− contained in the livestock wastewater. This results in not only an enhancement of the struvite crystallization efficiency but also a decrease in the chemical demands for the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. - Highlights: • Gamma ray was applied prior to struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. • Gamma ray resulted in an enhancement of struvite crystallization efficiency. • This is due to the decrease of COD concentration by gamma ray irradiation

  11. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa.

  12. Strategies to control odours in livestock facilities: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ubeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Odours generated in livestock buildings constitute one of the most relevant air quality issues of intensive livestock production. Reducing nuisance episodes related to odour exposure is therefore essential for a sustainable livestock production. In this study, the state-of-the-art on odour mitigation techniques in livestock housing is critically reviewed. Scientific advances in the last decade are revised and research needs are also identified. The complex nature of livestock odours is firstly reviewed and examined. Then, the most relevant odour control strategies are analyzed in terms of present knowledge and future needs. The strategies considered are: nutritional strategies, manure additives, building design, air filtration, manure covers, manure treatment systems and windbreaks. Finally, future research needs and priorities when establishing mitigation techniques are identified. Despite important recent advances, there are still some challenges for scientists, producers and regulators, particularly related to field evaluation of odours. Therefore, to control livestock odours effectively, using standardized field assessment techniques will be required. Also, investigating measurement and model errors may be useful to better understand the limitations of the current methods, as well as to identify research priorities.

  13. Estimate of livestock water use in Nebraska during 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The estimated volume of 148,120 acre-ft of water used by livestock in Nebraska during 1980 is the second largest (after Texas) volume used for livestock production in the fifty Sates. Although water used by livestock is a small percentage of the total water used in Nebraska, this use has a major impact on the farm economy of the State, as livestock sales accounted for 59% of the total farm market cash receipts in 1980. About 16%, or 23 ,590 acre-ft, of this use is estimated to be from surface water sources, with the remaining 124,530 acre-ft pumped from the State 's groundwater supply. The estimated livestock water use in Nebraska 's 93 counties during 1980 ranged from 340 acre-ft in Hooker County to 6,770 acre-ft in Cherry County. Livestock water use by Hydrologic Units ranged from 20 acre-ft in the Hat Creek basin 10120106) to 10,370 acre-ft in the Elkhorn River basin, and the Natural Resources Districts ' use ranged from 1 ,880 acre-ft in the South Platte NRD to 17,830 acre-ft in the Lower Elkhorn NRD. (Author 's abstract)

  14. National Livestock Policy of Nepal: Needs and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Pradhanang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Nepal’s national livestock policies and considers how they can be improved to help meet the pressing national challenges of economic development, equity, poverty alleviation, gender mainstreaming, inclusion of marginalized and underprivileged communities, and climate vulnerability. Nepal is in the process of transforming its government from a unitary system to a federal democratic structure through the new constitution expected by 2015, offering the opportunity to bring a new set of priorities and stakeholders to policymaking. Nepal’s livestock subsector comes most directly within the purview of the National Agricultural Policy 2004, Agro-Business Policy, 2006 and Agricultural Sectoral Operating Policies of the Approach Paper to 13th Plan, 2012/13–2015/16 policy instruments. We systematically review these and other livestock-related national policies through analysis of their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT. We conclude with the need to formulate a separate, integrated national livestock policy so that Nepal can sustainably increase livestock productivity and achieve diversification, commercialization and competitiveness of the livestock subsector within the changing national and international contexts.

  15. Landscape-scale accessibility of livestock to tigers: implications of spatial grain for modeling predation risk to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jena, Jyotirmay; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-03-01

    Innovative conservation tools are greatly needed to reduce livelihood losses and wildlife declines resulting from human-carnivore conflict. Spatial risk modeling is an emerging method for assessing the spatial patterns of predator-prey interactions, with applications for mitigating carnivore attacks on livestock. Large carnivores that ambush prey attack and kill over small areas, requiring models at fine spatial grains to predict livestock depredation hot spots. To detect the best resolution for predicting where carnivores access livestock, we examined the spatial attributes associated with livestock killed by tigers in Kanha Tiger Reserve, India, using risk models generated at 20, 100, and 200-m spatial grains. We analyzed land-use, human presence, and vegetation structure variables at 138 kill sites and 439 random sites to identify key landscape attributes where livestock were vulnerable to tigers. Land-use and human presence variables contributed strongly to predation risk models, with most variables showing high relative importance (≥0.85) at all spatial grains. The risk of a tiger killing livestock increased near dense forests and near the boundary of the park core zone where human presence is restricted. Risk was nonlinearly related to human infrastructure and open vegetation, with the greatest risk occurring 1.2 km from roads, 1.1 km from villages, and 8.0 km from scrubland. Kill sites were characterized by denser, patchier, and more complex vegetation with lower visibility than random sites. Risk maps revealed high-risk hot spots inside of the core zone boundary and in several patches in the human-dominated buffer zone. Validation against known kills revealed predictive accuracy for only the 20 m model, the resolution best representing the kill stage of hunting for large carnivores that ambush prey, like the tiger. Results demonstrate that risk models developed at fine spatial grains can offer accurate guidance on landscape attributes livestock should

  16. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  17. Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Manners, G D; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L; Schoch, T K

    1999-02-01

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic plants that contain numerous diterpenoid alkaloids which occur as one of two structural types: (1) lycotonine, and (2) 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL-type). Among the lycoctonine type alkaloids are three N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL-type) alkaloids which appear to be most toxic: methyllycaconitine (MLA), 14-deacetylnudicauline (DAN), and nudicauline. An ester function at C-18 is an important structural requirement for toxicity. Intoxication results from neuromuscular paralysis, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the muscle and brain are blocked by toxic alkaloids. Clinical signs include labored breathing, rapid and irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and collapse. Toxic alkaloid concentration generally declines in tall larkspurs with maturation, but alkaloid concentration varies over years and from plant to plant, and is of little use for predicting consumption by cattle. Knowledge of toxic alkaloid concentration is valuable for management purposes when cattle begin to eat larkspur. Cattle generally begin consuming tall larkspur after flowering racemes are elongated, and consumption increases as larkspur matures. Weather is also a major factor in cattle consumption, as cattle tend to eat more larkspur during or just after summer storms. Management options that may be useful for livestock producers include conditioning cattle to avoid larkspur (food aversion learning), grazing tall larkspur ranges before flowering (early grazing) and after seed shatter (late grazing), grazing sheep before cattle, herbicidal control of larkspur plants, and drug therapy for intoxicated animals. Some potentially fruitful research avenues include examining alkaloid chemistry in low and plains larkspurs, developing immunologic methods for analyzing larkspur alkaloids, developing drug therapy, and devising grazing regimes specifically for low and plains larkspur.

  18. Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Livestock and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Jacques; Nielsen, Klaus; Saegerman, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Aim To describe and discuss the merits of various direct and indirect methods applied in vitro (mainly on blood or milk) or in vivo (allergic test) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals. Methods The recent literature on brucellosis diagnostic tests was reviewed. These diagnostic tests are applied with different goals, such as national screening, confirmatory diagnosis, certification, and international trade. The validation of such diagnostic tests is still an issue, particularly in wildlife. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. Results Measuring the kinetics of antibody production after Brucella spp. infection is essential for analyzing serological results correctly and may help to predict abortion. Indirect ELISAs help to discriminate 1) between false positive serological reactions and true brucellosis and 2) between vaccination and infection. Biotyping of Brucella spp. provides valuable epidemiological information that allows tracing an infection back to the sources in instances where several biotypes of a given Brucella species are circulating. Polymerase chain reaction and new molecular methods are likely to be used as routine typing and fingerprinting methods in the coming years. Conclusion The diagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife is complex and serological results need to be carefully analyzed. The B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccines are the cornerstones of control programs in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. There is no vaccine available for pigs or for wildlife. In the absence of a human brucellosis vaccine, prevention of human brucellosis depends on the control of the disease in animals. PMID:20718082

  19. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle and selected wildlife species at selected livestock/wildlife interface areas of the Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndengu, Masimba; Matope, Gift; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Tivapasi, Musavengana; Scacchia, Massimo; Bonfini, Barbara; Pfukenyi, Davis Mubika

    2017-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and risk factors for Brucella species infection in cattle and some wildlife species in communities living at the periphery of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in south eastern Zimbabwe. Three study sites were selected based on the type of livestock-wildlife interface: porous livestock-wildlife interface (unrestricted); non-porous livestock-wildlife interface (restricted by fencing); and livestock-wildlife non-interface (totally absent or control). Sera were collected from cattle aged≥2years representing both female and intact male animals. Sera were also collected from selected wild ungulates from Mabalauta (porous interface) and Chipinda (non-interface) areas of the Gonarezhou National Park. Samples were screened for Brucellaantibodies using the Rose Bengal plate test and confirmed by the complement fixation test. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression modelling. In cattle, brucellosis seroprevalence from all areas was 16.7% (169/1011; 95% CI: 14.5-19.2%). The porous interface recorded a significantly (p=0.03) higher seroprevalence (19.5%; 95% CI: 16.1-23.4%) compared to the non-interface area (13.0%; 95% CI: 9.2-19.9%).The odds of Brucellaseropositivity increased progressively with parity of animals and were also three times higher (OR=3.0, 2.0wildlife and livestock. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The Impact of Stakeholders' Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-01-25

    Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers) were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a 'western' international organization. This study demonstrates the differences in

  1. Searching for Symbolic Value of Cattle: Tropical Livestock Units, Market Price, and Cultural Value of Maasai Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Quinlan; Isaya Rumas; Godfrey Naiskye; Marsha Quinlan; Jonathan Yoder

    2016-01-01

    We examine metabolic, market, and symbolic values of livestock relative to cultural “positioning” by gender, marriage, and household production among Maasai people in Simanjiro, Tanzania to assess local “proximate currencies” relevant for “cultural success.” Data from mixed methods ethnographic research include qualitative interviews since 2012, observation of 85 livestock market sales in 2013 and 2015, and 37 short key informant interviews in 2015. We examine fit between market values, Tropi...

  2. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  3. Methane Emission By Grazing Livestock. A Synopsis Of 1000 Direct Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassey, K.R. [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington (New Zealand); Ulyatt, M.J. [New Zealand Pastoral Agriculture Research Institute (AgResearch), Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    2000-07-01

    In a series of field campaigns since 1995, a team of atmospheric and ruminant-nutrition scientists have measured methane emissions directly from individual ruminant livestock freely grazing representative New Zealand pastures. The technique collects integrated 'breath' samples during grazing, using an implanted SF6 source as a conservative calibrated tracer, an approach pioneered by Johnson et al. [1994]. Most of these measurements have been on grazing sheep (942 animal-days to Aug 1999), others on grazing dairy cows (283), with some measurements also on sheep under controlled feeding conditions (305) [eg, Lassey et al., 1997; Ulyatt et al., 1999]. The aim is to characterise the variability of emission rates, including their dependence on pasture quality and physiological condition. The research goal is two-fold: (1) to provide a better scientific basis for assessing the national emissions inventory; and (2) to investigate options for mitigating livestock emissions. Here, we discuss the research strategy and overview the principal research findings. We note in particular, that as a source of enterically fermented methane, sheep may not be merely 'small cattle'. 5 refs.

  4. New issues in orchid conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 5 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : orchid conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.ejes.cz/index.php/ejes/article/view/46

  5. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  6. Revealing livestock effects on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat ETM+ data across a grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Vincent S.

    Remote sensing provides monitoring solutions for more informed grazing management. To investigate the ability to detect the effects of cattle grazing on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, we conducted a study on the Zumwalt Prairie in northeastern Oregon across a gradient of grazing intensities. Biophysical vegetation data was collected on vertical structure, biomass, and cover at three different time periods during the grazing season: June, August, and October 2012. To relate these measures to the remotely sensed Landsat ETM+ data, Pearson's correlations and multiple regression models were computed. Using the best models, predicted vegetation metrics were then mapped across the study area. Results indicated that models using common vegetation indices had the ability to discern different levels of grazing across the study area. Results can be distributed to land managers to help guide grassland conservation by improving monitoring of bunchgrass vegetation for sustainable livestock management.

  7. Digital image processing in art conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zitová, Barbara; Flusser, Jan

    č. 53 (2003), s. 44-45 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : art conservation * digital image processing * change detection Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  8. A history of conservation politics in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-04-03

    Apr 3, 1984 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT ... across multiple geographic and institutional sites. .... lected cases, I provide only general organizational associations for ... began studying ring-tailed lemurs in 1962, followed by Robert ...... Coordination issues in policy implementation networks: an.

  9. The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. We compared the attitudes of different stakeholders within the livestock industries in east (E) and southeast (SE) Asia. Farmers were more motivated to improve animal welfare during transport and slaughter by peer pressure, business owners by monetary gain, and business managers by what is prescribed by their company. Veterinarians showed the most support for improving animal welfare. The results suggest that the role that stakeholders play in their sector of the livestock industry must be considered when attempting to change attitudes towards animal welfare during transport and slaughter. Abstract Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that

  10. The combined use of embryos and semen for cryogenic conservation of mammalian livestock genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzi Flavia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this empirical simulation study was to evaluate the use of a combination of semen and embryos in the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed. Such an approach was compared for banks with varying proportions of embryos on the basis of the amount of the material to be stored, time for reconstruction, maintenance of genetic variability, and probability of failure during reconstruction. Four types of populations were simulated, based on reproductive rate: single offspring, twinning, enhanced reproduction, and litter bearing. Reconstruction was simulated for banks consisting of different combinations of semen and reduced numbers of embryos (expressed as a percentage of the material needed for a bank containing exclusively embryos and ranging from 10 to 90%. The use of a combination of semen and embryos increased the number of insemination cycles needed for reconstruction and the level of genetic relatedness in the reconstructed population. The risk for extinction was unacceptably high when a very low proportion of embryos (

  11. Homocystein: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Kozat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector is making great contributions to the world economy. Many different diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney and mineral substance insufficiency, cause huge losses in yield and production in the livestock sector. Early diagnosis is essential to combat these diseases. Today, homocysteine levels are used as biochemical markers in the diagnosis of the functions and diseases of many different organs in human medicine. Homocysteine is an amino acid that occurs in the process of methionine metabolism and does not enter the primary structure of proteins. Homocysteine is a biochemical marker used in the assessment of cardiovascular and renal diseases as well as other organ functions. In this review, homocysteine determination methods and detailed information about which organ and system diseases can be used in livestock sector will be given. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 319-332

  12. Modeling, Estimation and Control of Indoor Climate in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang

    The main objective of this research is to design an efficient control system for the indoor climate of a large-scale partition-less livestock building, in order to maintain a healthy, comfortable and economically energy consuming indoor environment for the agricultural animals and farmers. In thi...... scale livestock buildings, and could be considered as an alternative solution to the current used decentralized PID controller.......The main objective of this research is to design an efficient control system for the indoor climate of a large-scale partition-less livestock building, in order to maintain a healthy, comfortable and economically energy consuming indoor environment for the agricultural animals and farmers....... With necessary assumptions and simplifications, the dominant air flow distributions are investigated and the phenomenon of horizontal variations is well depicted. The designed entire control system consists of an outer feedback closed-loop dynamic controller and an inner feed-forward redundancy optimization...

  13. CFD Modeling of Airflow in a Livestock Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Elhadidi, B.; Khalifa, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a 2D simulation for a typical livestock building is performed to assess the ammonia emission removal rate to the atmosphere. Two geometry models are used and compared in order to represent the slatted floor. In the first model the floor is modeled as a slatted floor and in the second...... the accuracy of the porous jump assumption by comparing the velocity, and ammonia concentration in a 2D simulation, heated solid bodies are added to represent the livestock in the following simulations. The results of simulations with heat source also indicate that modeling the slatted floor with slats...... is necessary. Furthermore, the combination of low inlet velocity and heated objects causes the flow to be buoyancy dominated and unsteady. This unsteadiness can be common in similar buoyancy induced flows for high Rayleigh number flow. The paper concludes with tradeoffs suggested for simulation of livestock...

  14. Estimation of Airflow in Livestock Buildings using Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    of a livestock building, the airflow in a laser-illuminated plane may be visualized. Based on sequences of images recorded of this plane using a video camera, estimates of 2--D flow vectors are derived locally. The local estimates of velocity are found using a set of spatio-temporal convolution filters...... and camera may be placed so they do not disturb the airflow) for estimating air velocity in a 2--D plane.......In order to evaluate a given ventilation system in a livestock building and its sensitivity to wind, presence of heat sources (e.g. livestock) etc. it is of interest to estimate flow vector fields corresponding to the airflow. By introducing particles (e.g. smoke) into the air inlets of a model...

  15. The benefits of biogas as a livestock waste management technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    neighbor matching (NNM) to measure the benefits of adopting biogas technology. The results indicated that the biogas adopters were the farmers who had a longer formal education; owned more cattle; had better access to information about the technology and better access to the biogas installation’s aid...... program; although, they had less access to formal credit. The estimation of treatment effects showed that farmers who adopted the biogas technology gained benefits through decreases in crops expenses and increases in the livestock and non-agricultural income. Furthermore, the results showed that adopting...... synergies between crop farming, livestock, and household in terms of mixed crop and livestock farming, as an Integrated Farming System (IFS) practice, at the farm household level. Although the biogas technology provided the alternative energy source for the household, the specific benefits as an energy...

  16. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Nondestructive methods for quality evaluation of livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N

    2012-06-01

    The muscles derived from livestock are highly perishable. Rapid and nondestructive methods are essential for quality assurance of such products. Potential nondestructive methods, which can supplement or replace many of traditional time consuming destructive methods, include colour and computer image analysis, NIR spectroscopy, NMRI, electronic nose, ultrasound, X-ray imaging and biosensors. These methods are briefly described and the research work involving them for products derived from livestock is reviewed. These methods will be helpful in rapid screening of large number of samples, monitoring distribution networks, quick product recall and enhance traceability in the value chain of livestock products. With new developments in the areas of basic science related to these methods, colour, image processing, NIR spectroscopy, biosensors and ultrasonic analysis are expected to be widespread and cost effective for large scale meat quality evaluation in near future.

  18. A correct enthalpy relationship as thermal comfort index for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valéria Cristina; da Silva, Iran José Oliveira; Vieira, Frederico Márcio Corrêa; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares

    2011-05-01

    Researchers working with thermal comfort have been using enthalpy to measure thermal energy inside rural facilities, establishing indicator values for many situations of thermal comfort and heat stress. This variable turned out to be helpful in analyzing thermal exchange in livestock systems. The animals are exposed to an environment which is decisive for the thermoregulatory process, and, consequently, the reactions reflect states of thermal comfort or heat stress, the last being responsable for problems of sanity, behavior and productivity. There are researchers using enthalpy as a qualitative indicator of thermal environment of livestock such as poultry, cattle and hogs in tropical regions. This preliminary work intends to check different enthalpy equations using information from classical thermodynamics, and proposes a direct equation as thermal comfort index for livestock systems.

  19. Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) for livestock wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rory; McInnes, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Social, economic and environmental coherence is sought in the management of livestock wastewater. Wetlands facilitate the biogeochemical processes that exploit livestock wastewater and provide opportunities to achieve such coherence and also to deliver on a range of ecosystem services. The Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) concept integrates three inextricably linked objectives: water quantity and quality management, landscape-fit to improve aesthetic site values and enhanced biodiversity. The synergies derived from this explicit integration allow one of the key challenges for livestock management to be addressed. An example utilizing twelve ICW systems from a catchment on the south coast of Ireland demonstrates that over an eight year period mean reduction of total and soluble phosphorus (molybdate reactive phosphorus) exceeded 95% and the mean removal of ammonium-N exceeded 98%. This paper reviews evidence regarding the capacity of ICWs to provide a coherent and sustainable alternative to conventional systems.

  20. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  1. Effect of Bacillus subtilis microecological probiotics on livestock breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui ZHOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of green and healthy microecologics, Bacillus subtilis could balance the intestinal flora, promote the nutrient absorption and enhance immunity. Microecologics is one of the ideal antibiotics alternative, which are effective in preventing and treating animal disease and promoting the growth and development of the animal. Because of its advantages, such as no toxin side effect and no residual or drug-resistant, microecologics has been used in livestock breeding widely. Here, we concluded the characteristics and mechanism of Bacillus subtilis,elaborated application of microecologics on livestock breeding, discussed its problems and suggested its solved methods. In the end, the future of microecologics was expected in order to provide a reference for subsequent livestock breeding.

  2. Adoption of automated livestock production systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades the development of automated systems in livestock production has gained increasing interest among farmers. A combined use of computers and sensor systems has lead the development into new research areas with automated milking systems, grain drying systems and automated feeding...... on the relationship and adoption patterns among these countries. The paper presents the results of the surveyed population, demography, farm structure with livestock production characteristics and farmers use of selected automated systems in livestock production....... systems. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a farm survey and cluster analysis that have been made among 4 countries in Europe. This study is based on replies from 413 respondents in Germany (eastern part), Greece, Finland and Denmark, respectively, and the study comments...

  3. Infectious animal diseases: the wildlife/livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengis, R G; Kock, R A; Fischer, J

    2002-04-01

    The long-standing conflict between livestock owners and animal health authorities on the one hand, and wildlife conservationists on the other, is largely based on differing attitudes to controlling diseases of livestock which are associated with wildlife. The authors have attempted to highlight the fact that these disease problems are frequently bi-directional at the wildlife/livestock interface. The different categories of diseases involved are presented. A new dimension being faced by veterinary regulatory authorities is the spectre of emerging sylvatic foci of diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis, bovine brucellosis and possibly rinderpest; these diseases threaten to undermine national and international eradication schemes, which have been implemented and executed with significant success, and at great cost. Conversely, wildlife-based ecotourism world-wide has expanded rapidly over the past decade and is the source of lacking foreign revenue for many developing countries. Traditional subsistence farming is still the largest source of much-needed protein on some continents and this, together with the growth and hunger of historically disadvantaged communities for land, is forcing enterprises and communities with markedly different objectives and land-use practices to operate effectively in close proximity. Some land-users rely exclusively on wildlife, others on livestock and/or agronomy, while yet others need to combine these activities. The net result may be an expansion or intensification of the interface between wildlife and domestic livestock, which will require innovative control strategies that permit differing types of wildlife/livestock interaction, and that do not threaten the land-use options of neighbours, or the ability of a country to market animals and animal products profitably.

  4. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  5. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  6. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  7. The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia. The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a ‘western’ international organization. This study demonstrates the

  8. Institutional Support: Centre for Economic and Social Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institutional Support: Centre for Economic and Social Research, Education and Documentation (Burkina Faso). The Centre d'études de documentation et de ... innovations to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.

  9. Social engineering of societal knowledge in livestock science: Can we be more empathetic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, R K; Thakur, Devesh; Choudhary, Hardev; Kumar, Vivek; Kinhekar, Amol S; Garg, Tushar; Ponnusamy, K; Bhojne, G R; Shetty, Vasanth M; Kumar, Vipin

    2017-01-01

    Questions are raised in effective utilization of farmer's wisdom by communities in their farming. Planners support to livelihood emphasize mostly of inputs from outside and not setting up sustainable goals. Formal institutions and planners of program are finding constraints and sceptical in wider dissemination of indigenous knowledge research system (IKRS). This is in spite of evidence that considerable number of farmer's in livestock sector depends on IKRS. In this context, it is pertinent to showcase dissemination potential of these knowledge system(s) in larger geographical areas. The review illustrates different challenges encountered while control of livestock ailments like ectoparasite infestation through IKRS. Several times, it was opinioned to provide or share IKRS to thwart ailments in a specific region. This is interesting as it was narrated how formal system is unable to recognize farmer's problem and challenges in integrating these sustainable practices. It has to be noted that disseminating activities seldom takes into account the experimental potential of farmers. This review paper articulates various evidences generated in enhancing diffusion thereby dissemination of IKRS. The nature of support extended by IKRS in entrepreneurial activity of smallholder farming units did not get adequate recognition. There needs to be minimum standard protocol in deriving benefit from such low-cost alternative technologies. This will enrich incremental innovation activities as per location specific need and provide scope for wider dissemination.

  10. Use of crops and livestock futures contracts in portfolios: an analysis of feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Fabio L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Portfolio Theory, by combining assets that show a correlation inferior to one (1 among their individual returns, it becomes possible to create portfolios that reduce risk without damaging expected return. Crop and livestock futures contracts and company stocks show such a characteristic, which signals potential benefits when forming portfolios combining these two types of assets. This investment strategy is not often utilized in Brazil. The purpose of our research was to assess whether such an asset combination is actually advantageous to those creating investment portfolios in the Brazilian market. Our evaluation used instruments of analysis developed by Markowitz in Portfolio Theory and data about the return from crop and livestock futures contracts and stocks. The data was gathered from the Brazilian Futures and Commodities Exchange (BM&F and Brazil?s National Association of Open Market Institutions (ANDIMA between July 1994 and December 1998. The results of this work showed that the combination of these two types of assets in investment portfolios can be an interesting portfolio management alternative.

  11. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  12. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry.

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse

  13. Livestock and Hides and Skins Marketing in Kenya: Problems and investment needs

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Mohammad A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper briefly summarises the historical perspective on the development of livestock marketing in Kenya, current problems of livestock and hides and skins marketing, and recommends investment opportunities to improve the situation.

  14. A comparison between urban livestock production strategies in Burkina Faso, Mali and Nigeria in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, Hamadoun; Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Abdulkadir, Aisha; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-10-01

    We undertook a comparative analysis of (peri-)urban livestock production strategies across three West African cities. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, livestock-keeping households (HH) were interviewed in Kano/Nigeria (84 HH), Bobo Dioulasso/Burkina Faso (63 HH) and Sikasso/Mali (63 HH). Questions covered livestock species kept, herd sizes and structure, feeds used, manure management, livestock marketing and production constraints. Sheep and goats dominated (p livestock, whereas field cropping and livestock were integrated. There was no relation between the education of the HH head and the adoption of improved management practices (p > 0.05), but the proportion of HH heads with a long-term experience in UPA activities was higher in Kano and in Bobo Dioulasso than in Sikasso (p livestock keepers in West Africa does not threaten the acceptance of improved technologies and innovations supporting the sustainability of their livestock production.

  15. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, J; Upton, M

    1999-08-01

    The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed.

  16. Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzah, Leela; Dolrenry, Stephanie; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Naughton, Lisa; Edwards, Charles T T; Mwebi, Ogeto; Kearney, Fiachra; Frank, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    Lion (Panthera leo) populations are in decline throughout most of Africa. The problem is particularly acute in southern Kenya, where Maasai pastoralists have been spearing and poisoning lions at a rate that will ensure near term local extinction. We investigated 2 approaches for improving local tolerance of lions: compensation payments for livestock lost to predators and Lion Guardians, which draws on local cultural values and knowledge to mitigate livestock-carnivore conflict and monitor carnivores. To gauge the overall influence of conservation intervention, we combined both programs into a single conservation treatment variable. Using 8 years of lion killing data, we applied Manski's partial identification approach with bounded assumptions to investigate the effect of conservation treatment on lion killing in 4 contiguous areas. In 3 of the areas, conservation treatment was positively associated with a reduction in lion killing. We then applied a generalized linear model to assess the relative efficacy of the 2 interventions. The model estimated that compensation resulted in an 87-91% drop in the number of lions killed, whereas Lion Guardians (operating in combination with compensation and alone) resulted in a 99% drop in lion killing. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  18. Cystatin C: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector contributes largely to the economy of India. Different systemic diseases like renal diseases, neurological and cardiovascular diseases cause huge loss in production and productive potential of livestock in India, which is considered as a major concern for both small and large ruminants. Early detection of diseseses is essential to combat the economic loss. An efficient biochemical marker can be developed which would provide more specific, sensitive and reliable measurement of functions of different organs. Determination of endogenous marker Cystatin C may fulfill the above need which can provide a detection platform not only for Kidney function but also for assaying other organs' function. Cystatin C is a low molecular weight protein which is removed from the bloodstream by glomerular filtration in the kidneys. Thus, it may act as a potential biological tool in diagnosis of renal and other systemic diseases in livestock. This mini-review focuses on the Cystatin C and its clinical importance which can be extensively employed in the livestock sector. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 200-205

  19. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  20. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of seasonal shortages of herbage production from natural pastures in the Ethiopian highlands was investigated. This was done by comparing the available biomass amounts on the pastures with biomass amounts required for livestock grazing and for protecting land slope from soil erosion within a given slope ...

  1. Environmental responsibilities of livestock feeding using trace mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brugger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are essential dietary components for livestock species. However, they also exhibit a strong toxic potential. Therefore, their fluxes through the animal organism are tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery that controls the rate of absorption from the gut lumen as well as the amount of excretion via faeces, urine and products (e.g., milk in order to maintain an internal equilibrium. When supplemented in doses above the gross requirement trace elements accumulate in urine and faeces and, hence, manure. Thereby, trace element emissions represent a potential threat to the environment. This fact is of particular importance in regard to the widely distributed feeding practice of pharmacological zinc and copper doses for the purpose of performance enhancement. Adverse environmental effects have been described, like impairment of plant production, accumulation in edible animal products and the water supply chain as well as the correlation between increased trace element loads and antimicrobial resistance. In the light of discussions about reducing the allowed upper limits for trace element loads in feed and manure from livestock production in the European Union excessive dosing needs to be critically reconsidered. Moreover, the precision in trace element feeding has to be increased in order to avoid unnecessary supplementation and, thereby, heavy metal emissions from livestock production. Keywords: Trace element, Livestock, Homeostasis, Pharmacological supplementation, Accumulation, Environment

  2. Model Predictive Control of the Hybrid Ventilation for Livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Stoustrup, Jakob; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, design and simulation results of Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy for livestock hybrid ventilation systems and associated indoor climate through variable valve openings and exhaust fans are presented. The design is based on thermal comfort parameters for poultry in barns...

  3. A method for livestock waste management planning in NE Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teira-Esmatges, M.R.; Flotats, X.

    2003-01-01

    A method of decision-making on livestock wastes management in areas with nutrient surplus due to high livestock density is applied in Catalonia (NE Spain). Nutrient balance is made considering soil nitrogen application as the limiting factor. Special attention is paid to the centralized treatment option. The method presented consists of: - minimizing livestock waste generation (at farm scale) as a step previous to any other, both in amount and limiting components,; - applying the nitrogen balance method at regional and municipal scale and providing enough storage capacity in order to apply wastes in an agronomically correct way,; - spatially refining the results of the nitrogen balance by a proposed method that allows precisely pinpointing the hotspots of livestock waste generation, where centralized treatment might be an interesting option, and; - deciding on the waste treatment objectives, provided that treatments be necessary. Knowledge about the wastes, meeting the interests and merging the efforts of the various actors, as well as an adequate budget are necessary ingredients for the success of any waste management plan

  4. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.; Menzi, H.; Pain, B.F.; Misselbrook, T.H.; Daemmgen, U.; Hendriks, H.; Doehler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH 3 . At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH 3 , and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH 3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH 3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH 3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH 3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH 3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  5. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions of monogastric livestock in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lindeque

    In this the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from South African pigs, ... The agricultural sector, including livestock, forest land and cropland (carbon .... utilizing intake data and diet dry matter digestibilities as: .... but are comparable with default values reported for developed countries such as North America, Canada and.

  6. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  7. A review of the sustainability of global livestock production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Judith L. Capper

    of livestock production, is that all foods have an environmental cost and that this is not ... only require the replacement of animal products with plant-based foods, but .... an ideological view of the perceived advantages of historical small-scale.

  8. Analysis of borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained from the Bank of Agriculture (BOA), Calabar. Descriptive statistics such as percentage count, mean and tables were employed in the analysis. It was discovered that BOA in ...

  9. Assessment of Antibiotic Usage in Some Selected Livestock Farms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey to assess the use of antibiotics was conducted in 120 livestock farms across the 4 agricultural zones of Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires on respondents characteristics; educational status, usage, adherence to prescription and withdrawal periods and were ...

  10. Intestinal health: Key to maximise growth performance in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beever, D.E.; Collet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production is changing worldwide. It is also the case that the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in Europe, the shift in animal production centres to Brazil or Eastern Europe, increase in demand for traceability and natural production, and the emergence of new diseases, are all forcing

  11. livestock production systems for increased yield on resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciples of business management to research and education programming is ... planning for livestock production research and education ... cultivated with the maximum potential of arable land being ... (3) Approximately 85/, of the land area receives ... trate feeds has had a great impact on the beef cattle in- ..... (45 days A.I.,.

  12. the economic benefits of extension services on livestock production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRS FOLA AJAYI

    2007-06-08

    Jun 8, 2007 ... This study examined the impact of extension services on livestock output in six communities in .... Divorced. 3. 2.5. Widowed. 2. 1.7. Total. 120. 100. Educational ... status may be constraints on positive impact of extension on.

  13. Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, both genetic and epigenetic controls influence genetic expression and should be taken into account when formulating breeding programmes. Subsistence farmers keep livestock for multiple purposes and the formulation of breeding objectives/strategies will have to consider these dynamics. Keywords: Breeding ...

  14. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  15. Movement response patterns of livestock to rainfall variability in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock movement patterns indicated that forage is the motivation for winter movements and water is the motivation for summer. The movement followed a predictable ... The latter can be considered as a 'key resource' area to sustain animal numbers through critical periods of low rainfall. Overall, seasonal movement ...

  16. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to promote evidence-based policies for improving livestock production, environmental sustainability, and health in the Bolivian Altiplano's rural communities. Traditional farming under threat in Bolivia Raising sheep and llamas is a fundamental economic activity that is threatened by current agricultural ...

  17. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions

  18. Controlling nitrous oxide emissions from grassland livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Gebauer, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Sapek, A.; Jarvis, S.C.; Corré, W.J.; Yamulki, S.

    1998-01-01

    There is growing awareness that grassland livestock production systems are major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Controlling these emissions requires a thorough understanding of all sources and controlling factors at the farm level. This paper examines the various controlling factors and proposes

  19. Dynamic livestock modelling for on-farm decision support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalvingh, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focuses on the development and use of models that simulate herd dynamics in livestock. The models can be used to calculate the herd-specific technical and economic consequences of various management strategies. The thesis is composed of four parts. (1)

  20. Contribution of Livestock Production to Climate Change and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt is made to understand the role livestock production plays in climate change and to identify mitigation strategies to cap or reduce greenhouse (GHG) emissions. Scientific literature on farm animal production and documented GHG emission, as well as mitigation strategies were synthesized and used for the study.

  1. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ..., who suggested an intake level that would be attainable on productive pastures of farming operations in... animals.'' Most types or species of livestock animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, sheep, goats..., goats, swine, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fiber, feed, or other...

  2. Impact Of Ethnic Conflicts On Livestock Production In Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rampant ethnic conflicts and civil wars in the northern parts of most African ... than 50 sheep, goats and poultry after the conflict also declined after the conflict. ... the livestock sector in the region but a decade after the conflict, most farmers ...

  3. THREAT TO LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AMONG WOMEN IN OYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    This study examines women farmers' perception on livestock involvement in road accident in ... this could be made possible through exchange of female goats among kilns and kiths in a ... bounded partly by Ogun State in the south, Kwara state in the North. ..... Realizing the promise and potentials of African agriculture.

  4. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. [ADAS Research, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton WV6 8TQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jim.webb@adas.co.uk; Menzi, H. [Swiss College of Agriculture, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen (Switzerland); Pain, B.F. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Misselbrook, T.H. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Daemmgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Hendriks, H. [National Reference Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ede (Netherlands); Doehler, H. [KTBL, Bartningstrasse 49, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH{sub 3}. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH{sub 3}, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH{sub 3} abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH{sub 3} emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH{sub 3} emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost.

  5. problems of livestock production in the black states of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    within the scope of this paper to go into details, but rather emphasise .... individual herd off-take in the Black States. For exam- ple, a recent finding in two areas of the Ciskei and. Transkei ..... make livestock marketing centres more attractive, by siting them .... cation of the other principles of grazing management. Extension ...

  6. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  7. Respiratory health effects of livestock farm emissions in neighbouring residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borlée, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315138661

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the large contribution of agriculture to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution, and the public health impact that may result from agricultural emissions.The aim of this thesis was to explore associations between air pollution from livestock farms and respiratory

  8. The future of animal feeding: towards sustainable precision livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the future, production will increasingly be affected by globalization of the trade in feed commodities and livestock products, competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between feed, food and biofuel, and by the need to operate in a carbonconstrained economy,

  9. Database Application for a Youth Market Livestock Production Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…

  10. Survey of traditional use of medicinal plants in peasant livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural substances of plant origin, which provide a rich source of botanical anthelmintics, antibacterials and insecticides, were used by the respondents to kill or repel parasitic arthropods on livestock. There had been a good effort by the rural farmers to solve their own problems through indigenous knowledge systems and ...

  11. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... represent as organic any animal or edible product derived from any animal treated with antibiotics, any... restore an animal to health when methods acceptable to organic production fail. Livestock treated with a...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling...

  12. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...

  13. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: A paradigm for human poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock poisoning, primarily liver damage, caused by consumption of plants containing 1,2-dehydropyrro-lizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs), and the corresponding N-oxides, is a relatively common occurrence worldwide. Because of the economic impact, extensive investigations...

  14. Perspective of agricultural extension in livestock production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extension communication methods used were visits, demonstration, workshop, training and excursion. The benefits of extension services were introduction of livestock species, marketing information, feed and feed ingredient supply, disease and pest control, and liaison services. Constraints to the use of extension ...

  15. Assessment on major livestock health problems in southern zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted to identify the major livestock health problems in southern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia from July 2014 to June 2016. Questionnaire survey and case observational study were employed for data collection. A total of 120 respondents were interviewed for the questionnaire survey.

  16. Occurrence of a Severe Acute Livestock Poisoning by Borehole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on an outbreak of acute livestock poisoning by borehole water that occurred at Kargi in Marsabit District, Kenya in 2000. The borehole had been out of use for 3 years and after its rehabilitation, 7,000 animals died within a day after drinking the water. The most affected were shoats, cattle, camels and dogs ...

  17. Brucellosis in pastoral and confined livestock: prevention and vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, H. L.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional lifestyle and beliefs of pastoralists and small-scale farmers with confined livestock, together with certain farming environments, create favourable conditions for the spread and transmission of brucellosis. The risks associated with these practices are difficult to control because

  18. Recent Developments in Livestock and Wildlife Brucellosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against B. melitensis or B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addit...

  19. Serological survey of Brucellosis in livestock animals and workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A serological survey of brucellosis in livestock animals and workers was conducted in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria between May and August 2004. A total of 1,210 cattle, 54 sheep, 496 goats, 200 pigs and 21 humans (i.e. butchers and herdsmen) were screened using the Rose Bengal test (RBT).From the results ...

  20. Institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....

  1. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Lindsey

    Full Text Available Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, leopards (Panthera pardus and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus and lions (Panthera leo are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world

  2. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  3. Linking Human Health and Livestock Health: A “One-Health” Platform for Integrated Analysis of Human Health, Livestock Health, and Economic Welfare in Livestock Dependent Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumbi, S. M.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Marsh, Thomas L.; Noh, Susan; Otiang, Elkanah; Munyua, Peninah; Ochieng, Linus; Ogola, Eric; Yoder, Jonathan; Audi, Allan; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Breiman, Robert F.; Palmer, Guy H.; McElwain, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. Method We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Findings Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling

  4. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumbi, S M; Njenga, M Kariuki; Marsh, Thomas L; Noh, Susan; Otiang, Elkanah; Munyua, Peninah; Ochieng, Linus; Ogola, Eric; Yoder, Jonathan; Audi, Allan; Montgomery, Joel M; Bigogo, Godfrey; Breiman, Robert F; Palmer, Guy H; McElwain, Terry F

    2015-01-01

    For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling for household size, the

  5. Implications of the Biofuels Boom for the Global Livestock Industry: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a general equilibrium analysis of the impacts of US and EU biofuel mandates for the global livestock sector. Our simulation boosts biofuel production in the US and EU from 2006 levels to mandated 2015 levels. We show that mandates will encourage crop production in both biofuel and non biofuel producing regions, while reducing livestock and livestock production in most regions of the world. The non-ruminant industry curtails its production more than other livestock indu...

  6. Defining a land boundary for sustainable livestock consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zanten, Hannah H E; Herrero, Mario; Hal, Ollie Van; Röös, Elin; Muller, Adrian; Garnett, Tara; Gerber, Pierre J; Schader, Christian; De Boer, Imke J M

    2018-05-22

    The need for more sustainable production and consumption of animal-source food is central to the achievement of the sustainable development goals: within this context, wise use of land is a core challenge and concern. A key question in feeding the future world is: how much animal-source food should we eat? We demonstrate that livestock raised under the circular economy concept could provide a significant, non-negligible part (9-23g/per capita) of our daily protein needs (~50-60 g/per capita). This livestock then would not consume human-edible biomass, such as grains, but mainly convert leftovers from arable land and grass resources into valuable food, implying that production of livestock feed is largely decoupled from arable land. The availability of these biomass streams for livestock then determines the boundaries for livestock production and consumption. Under this concept, the competition for land for feed or food would be minimized and compared to no animal-source food, including some animal-source food in the human diet could free up about one quarter of global arable land. Our results also demonstrate that restricted growth in consumption of animal-source food in Africa and Asia would be feasible under these boundary conditions, while reductions in the rest of the world would be necessary to meet land use sustainability criteria. Managing this expansion and contraction of future consumption of animal-source food is essential for achieving sustainable nutrition security. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Overview analysis of bioenergy from livestock manure management in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China); Lin, Che-I [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the livestock manure are becoming significant energy and environmental issues in Taiwan. However, the waste management (i.e., anaerobic digestion) can produce the biogas associated with its composition mostly consisting of methane (CH{sub 4}), which is now considered as a renewable energy with emphasis on electricity generation and other energy uses. The objective of this paper was to present an overview analysis of biogas-to-bioenergy in Taiwan, which included five elements: current status of biogas sources and their energy utilizations, potential of biogas (methane) generation from livestock manure management, governmental regulations and policies for promoting biogas, benefits of GHGs (i.e., methane) emission reduction, and research and development status of utilizing livestock manure for biofuel production. In the study, using the livestock population data surveyed by the Council of Agriculture (Taiwan) and the emission factors recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the potential of methane generation from livestock manure management in Taiwan during the period of 1995-2007 has been estimated to range from 36 to 56 Gg year{sup -1}, indicating that the biogas (methane) from swine and dairy cattle is abundant. Based on the characteristics of swine manure, the maximum potential of methane generation could reach to around 400 Gg year{sup -1}. With a practical basis of the total swine population (around 4300 thousand heads) from the farm scale of over 1000 heads, a preliminary analysis showed the following benefits: methane reduction of 21.5 Gg year{sup -1}, electricity generation of 7.2 x 10{sup 7} kW-h year{sup -1}, equivalent electricity charge saving of 7.2 x 0{sup 6} US$ year{sup -1}, and equivalent carbon dioxide mitigation of 500 Gg year{sup -1}. (author)

  8. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... livestock production. 205.603 Section 205.603 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... organic livestock production. In accordance with restrictions specified in this section the following synthetic substances may be used in organic livestock production: (a) As disinfectants, sanitizer, and...

  9. 7 CFR 701.53 - Debris removal and water for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debris removal and water for livestock. 701.53 Section... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.53 Debris removal and water for livestock..., and for providing water for livestock. [71 FR 30265, May 26, 2006] ...

  10. 25 CFR 700.727 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. 700... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.727 Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock within any range unit of the New Lands which are not removed therefrom within the...

  11. 9 CFR 311.30 - Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive. 311.30 Section 311.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PARTS § 311.30 Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive. All livestock which have been suffocated in...

  12. 25 CFR 168.16 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. 168... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.16 Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock within any range unit of the Hopi Partitioned Lands which are not removed therefrom...

  13. 32 CFR 643.124 - Rights-of-way for ferries and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights-of-way for ferries and livestock. 643.124... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.124 Rights-of-way for ferries and livestock. Installation commanders are authorized to grant permits for the landing of ferries and driving of livestock...

  14. 78 FR 13776 - National Organic Program: Notice of Policies Addressing Kelp, Seeds and Planting Stock, Livestock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Stock, Livestock Feed, and Responding to Pesticide Residue Testing AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... documents are entitled as follows: ``The Use of Kelp in Organic Livestock Feed (NOP 5027); Responding to... Minerals for Organic Livestock Feed (NOP 5030)''. These final guidance and instruction documents are...

  15. 78 FR 12050 - S. Martinez Livestock, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Livestock, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments.... Martinez Livestock, Inc. filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the... megawatt hours. Applicant Contact: Mr. Daniel T. Martinez, S. Martinez Livestock, Inc., 13395 Hwy. 24...

  16. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production. 205.604 Section 205.604 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic livestock...

  17. 9 CFR 302.3 - Livestock and products entering official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock and products entering official establishments. 302.3 Section 302.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Livestock and products entering official establishments. All livestock and all products entering any...

  18. 9 CFR 329.4 - Notification of governmental authorities having jurisdiction over article or livestock detained...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authorities having jurisdiction over article or livestock detained; form of written notification. 329.4... governmental authorities having jurisdiction over article or livestock detained; form of written notification. Within 48 hours after the detention of any livestock or article pursuant to this part, an authorized...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or... Losses § 1.1231-2 Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes. (a)(1) In the case of cattle, horses, or other livestock acquired by the taxpayer after December 31, 1969, section 1231 applies...

  20. 36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... livestock use permits. 222.3 Section 222.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.3 Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. (a) Unless otherwise specified by the Chief, Forest Service, all...

  1. Revised methane emissions factors and spatially distributed annual carbon fluxes for global livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock play an important role in carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Recent research suggests that existing bottom-up inventories of livestock methane emissions in the U.S., such as those made using 2006 IPCC Tier 1 livestock emissions factors, are too low. Thi...

  2. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have...

  3. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever... parasites or have been exposed thereto, such livestock must be treated and the movement thereof restricted...

  4. A generic method to analyse yield gaps in feed-crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Aart

    2017-01-01

    Global livestock production is expected to increase in future decades, and expansion of the agricultural area for feed production is not desired. Hence, increasing livestock production per unit agricultural area is essential. The bio-physical scope to increase production of livestock systems with

  5. Analysis Of Trends In Livestock Production In Nigeria: 1970-2005 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The livestock industry as an important component of general agriculture is expected to be a key contributor to national development. This study analyzes the livestock production trends in Nigeria with a view to ascertaining the influence of policy changes on real output of livestock over time, and investigates the existence of ...

  6. Love and death of cattle : the paradox in Suri attitudes toward livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2003-01-01

    Livestock herding peoples are known for their close involvement with their animals, valuing them in multiple ways. This paper addresses the issue of the nature of emotional and moral commitment to livestock animals, particularly cattle, among a group of livestock herders in southwest Ethiopia, the

  7. Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Roessler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri- urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and Tamale (Ghana. Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping households. Cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis revealed factors that influence livestock husbandry, showing their impacts on resource use by livestock keepers in the two cities. A diversity of livestock species was kept, mostly integrated with crop farming. Yet, some households specialized in either sheep, pig or commercial milk production, and partly intensified their production. The decision to specialize and/or intensify livestock production is site-specific and influenced by the education level of the household head and security of land ownership. Higher inputs in livestock systems do not necessarily lead to higher outputs, and specialization inevitably leads to higher manure wastages. Therefore, links of livestock producers to crop farmers and markets for livestock manure must be strengthened to enable recycling of resources and limit negative externalities of specialized livestock production. Strategies need to be identified to improve livestock productivity by enhancing outputs as input use increases.

  8. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.

  9. Movements of domestic sheep in the presence of livestock guardian dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of successful predator reintroductions, livestock are experiencing increased predation in many parts of the US relative to that witnessed just a few decades ago. Of the methods used to reduce predation on livestock, livestock guardian dogs (LGDs) have been the most effective. The use of ...

  10. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Effects of annual crops used for fall forage production on livestock productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversification of farm enterprises is important to maintain sustainable production systems. Systems that integrate crops and livestock may prove beneficial to each enterprise. Our objectives were to determine the effects of annual crops grazed in the fall and early-winter period on cow and calf gro...

  11. Adapting the bioblitz to meet conservation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sophie S; Pauly, Gregory B; Moore, James; Fraga, Naomi S; Knapp, John J; Principe, Zachary; Brown, Brian V; Randall, John M; Cohen, Brian S; Wake, Thomas A

    2018-03-01

    When conservation strategies require new, field-based information, practitioners must find the best ways to rapidly deliver high-quality survey data. To address this challenge, several rapid-assessment approaches have been developed since the early 1990s. These typically involve large areas, take many months to complete, and are not appropriate when conservation-relevant survey data are urgently needed for a specific locale. In contrast, bioblitzes are designed for quick collection of site-specific survey data. Although bioblitzes are commonly used to achieve educational or public-engagement goals, conservation practitioners are increasingly using a modified bioblitz approach to generate conservation-relevant data while simultaneously enhancing research capacity and building working partnerships focused on conservation concerns. We term these modified events expert bioblitzes. Several expert bioblitzes have taken place on lands of conservation concern in Southern California and have involved collaborative efforts of government agencies, nonprofit organizations, botanic gardens, museums, and universities. The results of expert bioblitzes directly informed on-the-ground conservation and decision-making; increased capacity for rapid deployment of expert bioblitzes in the future; and fostered collaboration and communication among taxonomically and institutionally diverse experts. As research and conservation funding becomes increasingly scarce, expert bioblitzes can play an increasingly important role in biodiversity conservation. © 2018 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Subsidized Fencing of Livestock as a Means of Increasing Tolerance for Wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Karlsson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of how proactive measures to reduce livestock depredation by carnivores affect human tolerance toward carnivores are extremely rare. Nevertheless, substantial amounts of money are spent each year on proactive measures to facilitate large carnivore conservation. The objective of this study was to assess how subsidies for proactive measures to reduce sheep losses to wolves are associated with public attitudes toward wolves. The respondents were 445 people living inside wolf territories in Sweden. Our data set is unique because we combine wolf territory level information regarding proactive subsidies and wolf attacks on dogs and sheep with geographical information of the respondents. Consequently, the respondents can be assigned to a specific wolf territory. The number of wolf attacks on sheep and dogs in the respective territories as well as the number of years that the wolf territory had existed did not affect human attitudes toward wolves. Subsidies for proactive measures to reduce wolf predation on sheep significantly increased positive attitudes toward wolf presence on the local scale. The magnitude of the effect of subsidies for proactive measures was comparable to the effect of other variables well known to affect human attitudes toward wolves such as age or education. Our data show that subsidies not only made the already positive more positive, but also made people with negative attitudes to wolf presence locally, less negative. Our conclusion is, therefore, that subsidies for proactive measures are an effective tool when working with "the human dimension" of conservation biology.

  13. Outbreak investigation and control case report of brucellosis: Experience from livestock research centre, Mpwapwa, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Shirima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis screening was conducted between 2005 and 2010 at the National Livestock Research Institute headquarters, Mpwapwa, Tanzania, following an abortion storm in cattle. The initial screening targeted breeding herds; 483 cattle were screened using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT followed by the Competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA as a confirmatory test. The seropositivity on c-ELISA was 28.95% in 2005; it subsequently declined to 6.72%, 1.17%, 0.16% and 0.00% in 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Brucella seropositivity was not detected in goats. Seropositivity declined following institution of stringent control measures that included: gradual culling of seropositive animals through slaughter; isolation and confinement of pregnant cows close to calving; proper disposal of placentas and aborted foetuses; the use of the S19 vaccine; and restricted introduction of new animals. It was thought that the source of this outbreak was likely to have been from the introduction of infected animals from another farm. Furthermore, humans were found with brucellosis antibodies. Out of 120 people screened, 12 (10% were confirmed seropositive to brucella antigen exposure by c-ELISA analysis. The majority of the seropositive individuals (80% were milkers and animal handlers from the farm. Nine individuals had clinical signs suggestive of brucellosis. All cases received medical attention from the district hospital. This achievement in livestock and human health showed that it is possible to control brucellosis in dairy farms, compared to pastoral and agro-pastoral farms, thus providing evidence to adopt these strategies in dairy farms thought to be at risk.

  14. Forest gene conservation from the perspective of the international community

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hosny El-Lakany

    2017-01-01

    conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR). After presenting internationally adopted definitions of some terms related to FGR, the characteristics of the current state of FGR conservation from a global perspective are summarized. Many international and regional organizations and institutions are engaged in the conservation of FGR at degrees ranging from...

  15. Oxidizable carbon and humic substances in rotation systems with brachiaria/livestock and pearl millet/no livestock in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loss

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The crop-livestock integration system significantly increases the carbon content in chemical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. This study aimed to evaluate chemical indicators of SOM attributes for sites under brachiaria/livestock and pearl millet/no livestock in Goias, Brazil. A third area covered with natural Cerrado vegetation (Cerradão served as reference. Soil was randomly sampled at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm. Total organic carbon stocks (TOC, oxidizable carbon fractions (OCF (F1>F2>F3>F4, carbon content in the humin (C-HUM, humic acid (C-HAF and fulvic acid (C-FAF fractions were evaluated. F1/F4, F1+F2/F3+F4, C-HAF/C-FAF and (C-HAF+C-FAF/C-HUM indices were calculated, as well as stocks chemical SOM fractions. Brachiaria/livestock produced greater TOC stocks than pearl millet/no livestock (0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. In terms of OCF, brachiaria/livestock generally exhibited higher levels in F1, F2, F4 and F1/F4 than pearl millet/no livestock. C-HUM (0-10 cm and C-HAF (0-20 cm stocks were larger in brachiaria/livestock than pearl millet/no livestock. Compared to the Cerradão, brachiaria/livestock locations displayed higher values for TOC (5-10 and 10-20 cm, C-HAF and C-HAF/C-FAF (5-10 cm stocks. TOC, C-HAF stock and OCF show that land management with brachiaria/livestock was more efficient in increasing SOM than pearl millet/no livestock. Moreover, when compared with pearl millet/no livestock, brachiaria/livestock provided a more balanced distribution of very labile (F1 and recalcitrant (F4 carbon throughout soil layers, greater SOM humification. Brachiaria/livestock leads to higher values of F1 and F4 in depth when compared to pearl millet/livestock and provides a more homogeneous distribution of C-FAF and C-HAF in depth compared to Cerradão.

  16. Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Young, A E

    2014-10-01

    Globally, food-producing animals consume 70 to 90% of genetically engineered (GE) crop biomass. This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature on performance and health of animals consuming feed containing GE ingredients and composition of products derived from them. It also discusses the field experience of feeding GE feed sources to commercial livestock populations and summarizes the suppliers of GE and non-GE animal feed in global trade. Numerous experimental studies have consistently revealed that the performance and health of GE-fed animals are comparable with those fed isogenic non-GE crop lines. United States animal agriculture produces over 9 billion food-producing animals annually, and more than 95% of these animals consume feed containing GE ingredients. Data on livestock productivity and health were collated from publicly available sources from 1983, before the introduction of GE crops in 1996, and subsequently through 2011, a period with high levels of predominately GE animal feed. These field data sets, representing over 100 billion animals following the introduction of GE crops, did not reveal unfavorable or perturbed trends in livestock health and productivity. No study has revealed any differences in the nutritional profile of animal products derived from GE-fed animals. Because DNA and protein are normal components of the diet that are digested, there are no detectable or reliably quantifiable traces of GE components in milk, meat, and eggs following consumption of GE feed. Globally, countries that are cultivating GE corn and soy are the major livestock feed exporters. Asynchronous regulatory approvals (i.e., cultivation approvals of GE varieties in exporting countries occurring before food and feed approvals in importing countries) have resulted in trade disruptions. This is likely to be increasingly problematic in the future as there are a large number of "second generation" GE crops with altered output traits for improved livestock

  17. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 666-678 ISSN 1755-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conservative translation * deductive system * nonclassical logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8757256

  18. The Economic Impact of Global Warming on Livestock Husbandry in Kenya: A Ricardian Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane (School of Economics, Univ. of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya))

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The results further suggest possible gains from rising temperatures; losses from increased precipitation, but gains in net revenues resulting from a combined effect of rising temperatures and increased precipitation

  19. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  20. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  1. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  2. How livestock and flooding mediate the ecological integrity of working forests in Amazon River floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Christine M; Sheikh, Pervaze; Gagnon, Paul R; Mcgrath, David G

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of working forests to tropical conservation and development depends upon the maintenance of ecological integrity under ongoing land use. Assessment of ecological integrity requires an understanding of the structure, composition, and function and major drivers that govern their variability. Working forests in tropical river floodplains provide many goods and services, yet the data on the ecological processes that sustain these services is scant. In flooded forests of riverside Amazonian communities, we established 46 0.1-ha plots varying in flood duration, use by cattle and water buffalo, and time since agricultural abandonment (30-90 yr). We monitored three aspects of ecological integrity (stand structure, species composition, and dynamics of trees and seedlings) to evaluate the impacts of different trajectories of livestock activity (alleviation, stasis, and intensification) over nine years. Negative effects of livestock intensification were solely evident in the forest understory, and plots alleviated from past heavy disturbance increased in seedling density but had higher abundance of thorny species than plots maintaining low activity. Stand structure, dynamics, and tree species composition were strongly influenced by the natural pulse of seasonal floods, such that the defining characteristics of integrity were dependent upon flood duration (3-200 d). Forests with prolonged floods ≥ 140 d had not only lower species richness but also lower rates of recruitment and species turnover relative to forests with short floods flooding hindered forest regeneration, but overall forest integrity was largely related to the hydrological regime and age. Given this disjunction between factors mediating canopy and understory integrity, we present a subset of metrics for regeneration and recruitment to distinguish forest condition by livestock trajectory. Although our study design includes confounded factors that preclude a definitive assessment of the major

  3. Gene-based technologies for livestock industries in the 3rd millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    (e.g. scrapie) with the genotype of the animal calls for the application of DNA technologies. Following the BSE epidemic in Europe, safety of livestock-derived foods is high on research and regulatory agendas. DNA techniques are already in use for tracking of sources of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli outbreaks, as well as for traceability of product in the food chain. Finally, gene-based technologies can facilitate the measurement and conservation of genetic diversity in animal populations. (author)

  4. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  5. Airborne particulate matter from livestock production systems: A review of an air pollution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambra-Lopez, Maria; Aarnink, Andre J.A.; Zhao Yang; Calvet, Salvador; Torres, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock housing is an important source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM can threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter in livestock houses is mainly coarse, primary in origin, and organic; it can adsorb and contain gases, odorous compounds, and micro-organisms, which can enhance its biological effect. Levels of PM in livestock houses are high, influenced by kind of housing and feeding, animal type, and environmental factors. Improved knowledge on particle morphology, primarily size, composition, levels, and the factors influencing these can be useful to identify and quantify sources of PM more accurately, to evaluate their effects, and to propose adequate abatement strategies in livestock houses. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of PM in and from livestock production systems. Future research to characterize and control PM in livestock houses is discussed. - Control of particulate matter emissions, a major challenge to modern livestock production.

  6. Solar thermal application for the livestock industry in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mei Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems have proven reliable and economical. In Taiwan, the cumulative area of installed solar collectors at the end of 2014 was approximately 2.39 million m2 and approximately 98% of those systems were installed in the domestic sector. Preheating water for livestock processing plants is cost-effective since heated water can be used for evisceration, sanitation during processing and for daily cleanup of plant. In this case study, detailed measurements are reported for parallel combined solar thermal and heat pump systems that are installed in a livestock processing plant. These results confirm that the hot water consumption, the mass flow rate and the operation of circulation and heat pumps affect the system's thermal efficiency. The combined operational effect is a factor in system design. The estimated payback period is less than the expected service period of the system, which validates the financial viability.

  7. Reducing the Livestock related green house gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle rearing generate more global warming green house gases than driving cars. These green house gases leads to changes in the climate. This climate change affects the livestock, man and natural environment continuously. For this reason it is important for livestock farmers to find the ways which minimize these gases emission. In this article the causes of climate change and effects, measures to be taken by farmers and their efficiency in reducing green house gases emission were reviewed briefly to make the farmers and students aware of the reduction of global warming green house gases and measures to be taken for reducing these gases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 244-247

  8. Invited review: Genetic and genomic mouse models for livestock research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arends

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the function and functioning of single or multiple interacting genes is of the utmost significance for understanding the organism as a whole and for accurate livestock improvement through genomic selection. This includes, but is not limited to, understanding the ontogenetic and environmentally driven regulation of gene action contributing to simple and complex traits. Genetically modified mice, in which the functions of single genes are annotated; mice with reduced genetic complexity; and simplified structured populations are tools to gain fundamental knowledge of inheritance patterns and whole system genetics and genomics. In this review, we briefly describe existing mouse resources and discuss their value for fundamental and applied research in livestock.

  9. CFD Simulation of Air Velocity Distribution in Occupied Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.; Bjerg, B.

    In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants in the de......In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants....... In this study laboratory measurements in a ventilated test room with "pig simulators" are compared with CFD-simulations....

  10. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....... conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production...

  11. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  12. Livestock farmer perceptions of successful collaborative arrangements for manure exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu; Langer, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    to underground water, self-governing manure exchanges have been widely organised among farms in local communities. This allows large livestock farms to achieve the required balance between manure production and the agricultural production area although the importer rarely pays the full nutrient value...... for the manure received. Despite the potential for improved efficiency of manure use, few studies have examined livestock farmers’ perceptions of coordinated arrangements with recipient farms and factors in successful arrangements. A total of 644 manure exporters were asked about factors they consider important...... in identifying and selecting a new partner for manure export, including factors regarding the potential partner and the function of the partnership. They evaluated a total of 18 statements relating to possible perceptions. The results revealed that exporters appreciated especially four qualities: (1) timely...

  13. Genetic aspects of enteric methane emission in ruminants livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the importance of enteric methane (CH4 emission in ruminants and relevant to the current on knowledge relevant to genetic aspects of enteric CH4 production, highlighting future research needs and directions. Global average temperature has increased by about 0.7°C in the last century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC reported that anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG, including carbon dioxide (CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and halocarbons, have been responsible for most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the twentieth century. Agriculture, particularly livestock, is increasingly being recognized as both a contributor to the process and a potential victim of it. Policy interventions and technical solutions are required to address both the impact of livestock production on climate change and the effects of climate change on livestock production. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, declared that in the next 50 years, the world’s farmers will be called upon to produce more food than has been produced in the past 10,000 years, and to do so in environmentally sustainable ways. Therefore, the GHG reduction should be treated as a public good. The United States congress is prospecting to define a price on GHG emissions. Limiting the concentration of CO2 and other GHG in Earth’s atmosphere requires a technological and economic revolution. A cost-effective way could be the genetic improvement of livestock, which produces permanent and cumulative changes in performance. Animal variation in enteric CH4 emission has been reported in the literature, providing potential for improvement through genetic selection. 

  14. Respiratory health effects of livestock farm emissions in neighbouring residents

    OpenAIRE

    Borlée, Floor

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the large contribution of agriculture to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution, and the public health impact that may result from agricultural emissions.The aim of this thesis was to explore associations between air pollution from livestock farms and respiratory health of non-farming residents living in close proximity to farms in a rural area in the Netherlands. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 12,117 adult patients from 21 general practitioner ...

  15. Annual forage cropping-systems for midwestern ruminant livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, John Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Annual forage cropping systems are a vital aspect of livestock forage production. One area where this production system can be enhanced is the integration of novel annual forages into conventional cropping systems. Two separate projects were conducted to investigate alternative forage options in annual forage production. In the first discussed research trial, two sets of crops were sown following soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain harvest, at two nitrogen application rates 56 ...

  16. Automated Valuation Model for Livestock Appraisal in Loaning Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Buzás, Ferenc; Kiss, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Actualization of loan security (mortgage) value is of major importance in Hungarian loaning practice. Due to the recession in economics, the value of agricultural portfolio of banks has decreased a great deal, though not to such a great extent as other branches of the economy. Depreciation of estate stock is compensated with additional collateral security. Besides other stock, often temporarily and out of necessity, livestock is presented as additional collateral security. From the loaners’...

  17. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....

  18. Increasing importance of precipitation variability on global livestock grazing lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Lindsey L.; Gerber, James S.; Samberg, Leah H.; Smith, William K.; Herrero, Mario; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Godde, Cécile M.; West, Paul C.

    2018-03-01

    Pastures and rangelands underpin global meat and milk production and are a critical resource for millions of people dependent on livestock for food security1,2. Forage growth, which is highly climate dependent3,4, is potentially vulnerable to climate change, although precisely where and to what extent remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we assess climate-based threats to global pastures, with a specific focus on changes in within- and between-year precipitation variability (precipitation concentration index (PCI) and coefficient of variation of precipitation (CVP), respectively). Relating global satellite measures of vegetation greenness (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) to key climatic factors reveals that CVP is a significant, yet often overlooked, constraint on vegetation productivity across global pastures. Using independent stocking data, we found that areas with high CVP support lower livestock densities than less-variable regions. Globally, pastures experience about a 25% greater year-to-year precipitation variation (CVP = 0.27) than the average global land surface area (0.21). Over the past century, CVP has generally increased across pasture areas, although both positive (49% of pasture area) and negative (31% of pasture area) trends exist. We identify regions in which livestock grazing is important for local food access and economies, and discuss the potential for pasture intensification in the context of long-term regional trends in precipitation variability.

  19. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Corn Residue Use by Livestock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R. Schmer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn ( L. residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha, Iowa (385,000 ha, South Dakota (361,000 ha, and Kansas (344,000 ha. Average grazing days ranged from 10 to 73 d (mean = 40 d. Corn residue harvests predominantly occurred in the central and northern Corn Belt, with an estimated 2.9 Tg of corn residue harvested across the 19 states. This survey highlights the importance of corn residue for US livestock, particularly in the western Corn Belt.

  1. Wireless data management system for environmental monitoring in livestock buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gray

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of air quality on the health, welfare and productivity of livestock needs to be considered, especially when livestock are kept in enclosed buildings. The monitoring of such environmental factors allows for the development of appropriate strategies to reduce detrimental effects of sub-optimal air quality on the respiratory health of both livestock and farmers. In 2009, an environmental monitoring system was designed, developed and tested that allowed for the monitoring of a number of airborne pollutants. One limitation of the system was the manual collection of logged data from each unit. This paper identifies limitations of the current environmental monitoring system and suggests a range of networking technologies that can be used to increase usability. Consideration is taken for the networking of environmental monitoring units, as well as the collection of recorded data. Furthermore, the design and development of a software system that is used to collate and store recorded environmental data from multiple farms is explored. In order to design such a system, simplified software engineering processes and methodologies have been utilised. The main steps taken in order to complete the project were requirements elicitation with clients, requirements analysis, system design, implementation and finally testing. The outcome of the project provided a potential prototype for improving the environmental monitoring system and analysis informing the benefit of the implementation.

  2. Selenium Nanoparticles for Stress-Resilient Fish and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Daware, Akshay; Tribedi, Prosun; Krishnani, K. K.; Minhas, P. S.

    2015-09-01

    The fisheries and livestock sectors capture the highest share of protein-rich animal food and demonstrate accelerated growth as an agriculture subsidiary. Environmental pollution, climate change, as well as pathogenic invasions exert increasing stress impacts that lead the productivity momentum at a crossroads. Oxidative stress is the most common form of stress phenomenon responsible for the retardation of productivity in fisheries and livestock. Essential micronutrients play a determinant role in combating oxidative stress. Selenium, one of the essential micronutrients, appears as a potent antioxidant with reduced toxicity in its nanoscale form. In the present review, different methods of synthesis and characterization of nanoscale selenium have been discussed. The functional characterization of nano-selenium in terms of its effect on growth patterns, feed digestibility, and reproductive system has been discussed to elucidate the mechanism of action. Moreover, its anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant potentiality, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy, and fatty acid reduction in liver have been deciphered as the new phenomena of nano-selenium application. Biologically synthesized nano-selenium raises hope for pharmacologically enriched, naturally stable nanoscale selenium with high ecological viability. Hence, nano-selenium can be administered with commercial feeds for improvising stress resilience and productivity of fish and livestock.

  3. Effects of past and present livestock grazing on herpetofauna in a landscape-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Geoffrey M; Mortelliti, Alessio; Tulloch, Ayesha; Barton, Philip; Florance, Daniel; Cunningham, Saul A; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-04-01

    Livestock grazing is the most widespread land use on Earth and can have negative effects on biodiversity. Yet, many of the mechanisms by which grazing leads to changes in biodiversity remain unresolved. One reason is that conventional grazing studies often target broad treatments rather than specific parameters of grazing (e.g., intensity, duration, and frequency) or fail to account for historical grazing effects. We conducted a landscape-scale replicated grazing experiment (15,000 km 2 , 97 sites) to examine the impact of past grazing management and current grazing regimes (intensity, duration, and frequency) on a community of ground-dwelling herpetofauna (39 species). We analyzed community variables (species richness and composition) for all species and built multiseason patch-occupancy models to predict local colonization and extinction for the 7 most abundant species. Past grazing practices did not influence community richness but did affect community composition and patch colonization and extinction for 4 of 7 species. Present grazing parameters did not influence community richness or composition, but 6 of the 7 target species were affected by at least one grazing parameter. Grazing frequency had the most consistent influence, positively affecting 3 of 7 species (increased colonization or decreased extinction). Past grazing practice affected community composition and population dynamics in some species in different ways, which suggests that conservation planners should examine the different grazing histories of an area. Species responded differently to specific current grazing practices; thus, incentive programs that apply a diversity of approaches rather than focusing on a change such as reduced grazing intensity should be considered. Based on our findings, we suggest that determining fine-scale grazing attributes is essential for advancing grazing as a conservation strategy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately....../Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  5. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  6. Institutional Assessment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many approaches can and have helped research institutions in the developing .... There are many good texts on project and program evaluation, not to ...... has challenged managers and students of organizational development for decades.

  7. Attitudes of livestock farmers and sensitivity of livestock farming systems to drought conditions in the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dobremez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock farming systems in the French Alps are particularly exposed to the predicted climate change and most of them have already experienced periods of drought since the beginning of the 2000s. Faced with this risk, livestock farmers have put in place a certain number of measures and envisage introducing others in the future. For the present study, surveys were conducted among livestock farmers to identify these measures and analyses were carried out to characterise the attitudes of livestock farmers to drought conditions and to evaluate changes in the sensitivity of their livestock farming systems. With the exception of those farms with extensive irrigated areas, all the farms are seeking solutions to deal with the risks arising from droughts. One solution is to purchase fodder to compensate for the decrease in the harvests that normally provide animal feed in the winter; the amounts purchased vary with the length of wintering required. For the grazing periods, the high mountain livestock breeders and the dairy systems of the Northern Alps rely above all on extending and over-sizing the pasture areas in relation to the needs of the herds. The livestock farms of the Southern Alps also rely on the diversity of vegetation areas and a certain flexibility in the practices used to adapt to conditions experienced during the year. A succession of dry years could result in more radical breakdowns in the livestock systems. It should also be remembered that climate change is only one of the factors influencing the types of changes taking place on farms.Les systèmes d'élevage des Alpes françaises sont fortement exposés au changement climatique annoncé et la plupart subissent déjà des épisodes de sécheresse depuis le début des années 2000. Face à ces aléas, les éleveurs ont mis en œuvre un certain nombre de leviers et envisagent d'en activer d'autres à l'avenir. Des enquêtes en exploitation ont permis d’identifier ces leviers. Leur

  8. Quantifying Livestock Heat Stress Impacts in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hopson, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Livestock heat stress, especially in regions of the developing world with limited adaptive capacity, has a largely unquantified impact on food supply. Though dominated by ambient air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation all affect heat stress, which can decrease livestock growth, milk production, reproduction rates, and mortality. Indices like the thermal-humidity index (THI) are used to quantify the heat stress experienced from climate variables. Livestock experience differing impacts at different index critical thresholds that are empirically determined and specific to species and breed. This lack of understanding has been highlighted in several studies with a limited knowledge of the critical thresholds of heat stress in native livestock breeds, as well as the current and future impact of heat stress,. As adaptation and mitigation strategies to climate change depend on a solid quantitative foundation, this knowledge gap has limited such efforts. To address the lack of study, we have investigated heat stress impacts in the pastoral system of Sub-Saharan West Africa. We used a stochastic weather generator to quantify both the historic and future variability of heat stress. This approach models temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation, the climate variables controlling heat stress. Incorporating large-scale climate as covariates into this framework provides a better historical fit and allows us to include future CMIP5 GCM projections to examine the climate change impacts on heat stress. Health and production data allow us to examine the influence of this variability on livestock directly, and are considered in conjunction with the confounding impacts of fodder and water access. This understanding provides useful information to decision makers looking to mitigate the impacts of climate change and can provide useful seasonal forecasts of heat stress risk. A comparison of the current and future heat stress conditions based on

  9. Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cuny

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past 25 years an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA was recorded worldwide. Additionally, MRSA infections may occur outside and independent of hospitals, caused by community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA. In Germany, we found that at least 10% of these sporadic infections are due to livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA, which is initially associated with livestock. The majority of these MRSA cases are attributed to clonal complex CC398. LA-MRSA CC398 colonizes the animals asymptomatically in about half of conventional pig farms. For about 77%–86% of humans with occupational exposure to pigs, nasal carriage has been reported; it can be lost when exposure is interrupted. Among family members living at the same farms, only 4%–5% are colonized. Spread beyond this group of people is less frequent. The prevalence of LA-MRSA in livestock seems to be influenced by farm size, farming systems, usage of disinfectants, and in-feed zinc. LA-MRSA CC398 is able to cause the same kind of infections in humans as S. aureus and MRSA in general. It can be introduced to hospitals and cause nosocomial infections such as postoperative surgical site infections, ventilator associated pneumonia, septicemia, and infections after joint replacement. For this reason, screening for MRSA colonization at hospital admittance is recommended for farmers and veterinarians with livestock contacts. Intrahospital dissemination, typical for HA-MRSA in the absence of sufficient hygiene, has only rarely been observed for LA-MRSA to date. The proportion of LA-MRSA among all MRSA from nosocomial infections is about 3% across Germany. In geographical areas with a comparatively high density of conventional farms, LA-MRSA accounts for up to 10% of MRSA from septicemia and 15% of MRSA from wound infections. As known from comparative genome analysis, LA-MRSA has evolved from human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and the jump to

  10. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  11. Cultural synergy in information institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Smiraglia, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Cultural forces govern a synergistic relationship among information institutions that shapes their roles collectively and individually. Cultural synergy is the combination of perception- and behavior-shaping knowledge within, between, and among groups. Our hyperlinked era makes information-sharing among institutions critically important for scholarship as well as for the advancement of humankind. Information institutions are those that have, or share in, the mission to preserve, conserve, and disseminate information objects and their informative content. A central idea is the notion of social

  12. Livestock Predation by Puma (Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  13. Controlling Malaria Using Livestock-Based Interventions: A One Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana O.; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.; Rowland, Mark; Coleman, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Where malaria is transmitted by zoophilic vectors, two types of malaria control strategies have been proposed based on animals: using livestock to divert vector biting from people (zooprophylaxis) or as baits to attract vectors to insecticide sources (insecticide-treated livestock). Opposing findings have been obtained on malaria zooprophylaxis, and despite the success of an insecticide-treated livestock trial in Pakistan, where malaria vectors are highly zoophilic, its effectiveness is yet to be formally tested in Africa where vectors are more anthropophilic. This study aims to clarify the different effects of livestock on malaria and to understand under what circumstances livestock-based interventions could play a role in malaria control programmes. This was explored by developing a mathematical model and combining it with data from Pakistan and Ethiopia. Consistent with previous work, a zooprophylactic effect of untreated livestock is predicted in two situations: if vector population density does not increase with livestock introduction, or if livestock numbers and availability to vectors are sufficiently high such that the increase in vector density is counteracted by the diversion of bites from humans to animals. Although, as expected, insecticide-treatment of livestock is predicted to be more beneficial in settings with highly zoophilic vectors, like South Asia, we find that the intervention could also considerably decrease malaria transmission in regions with more anthropophilic vectors, like Anopheles arabiensis in Africa, under specific circumstances: high treatment coverage of the livestock population, using a product with stronger or longer lasting insecticidal effect than in the Pakistan trial, and with small (ideally null) repellency effect, or if increasing the attractiveness of treated livestock to malaria vectors. The results suggest these are the most appropriate conditions for field testing insecticide-treated livestock in an Africa region with

  14. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  15. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  16. Pastoralist-predator interaction at the roof of the world: Conflict dynamics and implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Ud. Din

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralism and predation are two major concomitantly known facts and matters of concern for conservation biologists worldwide. Pastoralist-predator conflict constitutes a major social-ecological concern in the Pamir mountain range encompassing Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan, and affects community attitudes and tolerance toward carnivores. Very few studies have been conducted to understand the dynamics of livestock predation by large carnivores like snow leopards (Panthera uncia and wolves (Canis lupus, owing to the region's remoteness and inaccessibility. This study attempts to assess the intensity of livestock predation (and resulting perceptions by snow leopards and wolves across the Afghani, Pakistani, and Tajik Pamir range during the period January 2008-June 2012. The study found that livestock mortality due to disease is the most serious threat to livestock (an average 3.5 animal heads per household per year and ultimately to the rural economy (an average of US$352 per household per year as compared to predation (1.78 animal heads per household per year, US$191 in the three study sites. Overall, 1419 (315 per year heads of livestock were reportedly killed by snow leopards (47% and wolves (53% in the study sites. People with comparatively smaller landholdings and limited earning options, other than livestock rearing, expressed negative attitudes toward both wolves and snow leopards and vice versa. Education was found to be an effective solution to dilute people's hatred for predators. Low public tolerance of the wolf and snow leopard in general explained the magnitude of the threat facing predators in the Pamirs. This will likely continue unless tangible and informed conservation measures like disease control and predation compensation programs are taken among others.

  17. Climate change impacts and adaptations on small-scale livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruvinga, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimated the impacts of climate change and adaptations on small-scale livestock production. The study is based on a survey of 1484 small-scale livestock rural farmers across the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Regression estimates finds that with warming, the probability of choosing the following species increases; goats, dual purpose chicken (DPC, layers, donkeys and ducks. High precipitation increases the probability of choosing the following animals; beef, goats, DPC and donkeys. Further, socio-economic estimates indicate that livestock selection choices are also conditioned by gender, age, marital status, education and household size. The paper therefore concluded that as climate changes, rural farmers switch their livestock combinations as a coping strategy. Unfortunately, rural farmers face a limited preferred livestock selection pool that is combatable to harsh climate which might translate to a bleak future for rural livestock farmers.

  18. 4-H & FFA Livestock Projects: Life Skills Gained and Knowledge Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle N. Holmgren

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Junior Livestock shows are one of the most popular 4-H and FFA projects in Utah. Thousands of youth participate in these shows from every county in Utah. County extension agents and FFA advisors spend much time with livestock committees, leaders, parents, and youth engaged in livestock shows. Can public funds spent on salaries be justified for county 4-H extension agents and FFA advisors who work with junior livestock shows? To help answer this question, 413 youth involved in livestock shows in Utah were surveyed in 2001. Youth were asked to share skills learned from their livestock projects. Value statements along with specific content skills were measured in the survey. The results indicate that from their 4-H and FFA projects, youth learned to accept responsibility, follow instructions, gain self-confidence, follow instructions, “do the right thing” as well as a variety of other values and content skills.

  19. LivestockPlus: Forages, sustainable intensification, and food security in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K; Paul, Birthe; White, Douglas; Rao, I M; Van Der Hoek, Rein; Castro, Aracely; Boval, Maryline; Lerner, Amy; Schneider, Laura; Peters, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The increased use of grain-based feed for livestock during the last two decades has contributed, along with other factors, to a rise in grain prices that has reduced human food security. This circumstance argues for feeding more forages to livestock, particularly in the tropics where many livestock are reared on small farms. Efforts to accomplish this end, referred to as the 'LivestockPlus' approach, intensify in sustainable ways the management of grasses, shrubs, trees, and animals. By decoupling the human food and livestock feed systems, these efforts would increase the resilience of the global food system. Effective LivestockPlus approaches take one of two forms: (1) simple improvements such as new forage varieties and animal management practices that spread from farmer to farmer by word of mouth, or (2) complex sets of new practices that integrate forage production more closely into farms' other agricultural activities and agro-ecologies.

  20. Impact of animal health programmes on poverty reduction and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradere, J P

    2017-04-01

    Based on data from publications and field observations, this study analyses the interactions between animal health, rural poverty and the performance and environmental impact of livestock farming in low-income countries and middle-income countries. There are strong statistical correlations between the quality of Veterinary Services, livestock productivity and poverty rates. In countries with effective Veterinary Services, livestock growth stems mainly from productivity gains and poverty rates are the lowest. Conversely, these analyses identify no statistical link between the quality of Veterinary Services and increased livestock production volumes. However, where animal diseases are poorly controlled, productivity is low and livestock growth is extensive, based mainly on a steady increase in animal numbers. Extensive growth is less effective than intensive growth in reducing poverty and aggravates the pressure of livestock production on natural resources and the climate.