WorldWideScience

Sample records for livestock animal waste

  1. Livestock waste-to-energy opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of animal manure and other organic-based livestock wastes as feedstocks for waste-to-energy production has the potential to convert the livestock waste treatment from a liability into a profit center that can generate annual revenues and diversify farm income. This presentation introduces tw...

  2. Biogas production from livestock waste anaerobic digesters: evaluation and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. However, feedstocks from livestock re...

  3. Improving Animal Welfare in Livestock Operations

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, animal welfare has been increasingly recognized in importance in commercial livestock operations. Governments, academic institutions, and animal welfare professionals are addressing animal welfare at different points in the agricultural supply chain, while consumers are demanding higher standards for food safety and animal welfare. Meanwhile, regional and global initiat...

  4. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  5. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    .  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk......  The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  6. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock animals in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), cattle (8.4%), camels (6.8%), and horses (4.3%). The infection rates were found to be different between the abattoirs in various regions even for the same animals. For sheep, the rates increased significantly as the animals grew older. It was 1.9% before 1 year of age and increased to 8.2% in the age of 1-2 years, and further increased to 12.3% when the animals were 3-4 years old, and reached 17.2% when they were 5-6 year old. Sheep older than 6 years had an infection rate of 19.5%. This study demonstrates that the 4 livestock animals in the pastoral areas in Xinjiang were infected by the parasites to various extend. This study is the first systematic investigation of the hydatid worms in various livestock animals in Xinjiang, China, which provides epidemiological information about the infection of hydatid worms in livestock, and is valuable in developing strategies for prevention and control of the hydatid disease.

  7. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions o

  9. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions

  10. Infectious animal diseases: the wildlife/livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengis, R G; Kock, R A; Fischer, J

    2002-04-01

    The long-standing conflict between livestock owners and animal health authorities on the one hand, and wildlife conservationists on the other, is largely based on differing attitudes to controlling diseases of livestock which are associated with wildlife. The authors have attempted to highlight the fact that these disease problems are frequently bi-directional at the wildlife/livestock interface. The different categories of diseases involved are presented. A new dimension being faced by veterinary regulatory authorities is the spectre of emerging sylvatic foci of diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis, bovine brucellosis and possibly rinderpest; these diseases threaten to undermine national and international eradication schemes, which have been implemented and executed with significant success, and at great cost. Conversely, wildlife-based ecotourism world-wide has expanded rapidly over the past decade and is the source of lacking foreign revenue for many developing countries. Traditional subsistence farming is still the largest source of much-needed protein on some continents and this, together with the growth and hunger of historically disadvantaged communities for land, is forcing enterprises and communities with markedly different objectives and land-use practices to operate effectively in close proximity. Some land-users rely exclusively on wildlife, others on livestock and/or agronomy, while yet others need to combine these activities. The net result may be an expansion or intensification of the interface between wildlife and domestic livestock, which will require innovative control strategies that permit differing types of wildlife/livestock interaction, and that do not threaten the land-use options of neighbours, or the ability of a country to market animals and animal products profitably.

  11. Kitchen waste - a promising feed resource for livestock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M.E.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out the chemical composition of different vegetable wastes to use them as feed for livestock to enhance their productivity as well as to reduce feed cost. Total 10 different types of vegetable wastes like Banana tree (Musa paradisiaca, Bean leaf (Lablab purpureus, Bilimbi leaf (Averrhoa bilimbi, Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, Pumpkin leaf (Cucurbita maxima, Radish (Raphanus sativus, Ridge guard (Luffa acutangula and Spinach (Spinacea oleracea available in different areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh were collected. Samples were chopped and tested immediately for moisture content and remaining samples were sun-dried and processed using standard procedure. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE, Ether extract (EE and Ash. Metabolizable energy (ME was calculated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, crude protein content in Banana tree was 15.6 g/100g, Bean leaf 28.2 g/100g, Bilimbi leaf 11.9 g/100g, Cabbage 18.9 g/100g, Cauliflower 17.3 g/100g, Pumpkin 12.9 g/100g, Pumpkin leaf 25.0 g/100g, Radish 14.9 g/100g, Ridge guard 23.4 g/100g and Spinach 11.4 g/100g. In addition to crude protein, all samples contained substantial amount of crude fibre, nitrogen free extracts, ether extracts and ash. It could therefore be inferred that, the vegetable wastes could be incorporated in appreciable quantities for substituting the conventional feed resources of animal diet.

  12. Animal Husbandry Practices and Perceptions of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Risks Among Livestock Keepers in a Rural Parish of Quito, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Christopher; Waters, William F; Roess, Amira; Leibler, Jessica H; Graham, Jay P

    2016-12-07

    Small-scale livestock production plays an essential role as a source of income and nutrition for households in low- and middle-income countries, yet these practices can also increase risk of zoonotic infectious diseases, especially among young children. To mitigate this risk, there is a need to better understand how livestock producers perceive and manage risks of disease transmission. Twenty semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with small-scale livestock producers in a semirural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Interviews explored livestock-raising practices, including animal health-care practices and use of antimicrobials, family members' interactions with livestock and other animals, and perceptions of health risk associated with these practices and activities. Interviews were analyzed for common themes. Awareness of zoonotic disease transmission was widespread, yet few study participants considered raising livestock a significant health risk for themselves or their families. Several study households reported handling and consuming meat or poultry from sick or dead animals and using animal waste as a fertilizer on their crops. Households typically diagnosed and treated their sick animals, occasionally seeking treatment advice from employees of local animal feed stores where medications, including antimicrobials, are available over the counter. Despite a basic understanding of zoonotic disease risk, this study identified several factors, such as the handling and consumption of sick and dead animals and purchasing medications for sick animals over the counter, that potentially increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission as well as the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  13. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry.

  14. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 1: Farm livestock and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Croubels, Siska; Caloni, Francesca; Sachana, Magda; Davanzo, Franca; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The lack of a reference Veterinary Poison Control Centre for the European Union (EU) means that clinicians find it difficult to obtain information on poisoning episodes. This three-part review collates published and unpublished data obtained from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last decade in order to provide a broader toxicoepidemiological perspective. The first article critically evaluates the national situation in the five European countries and concludes that information for livestock and poultry is limited and fragmentary compared to other animal groups. The analysis has revealed that clinical cases of poisoning are only occasionally studied in depth and that cattle are the species most frequently reported. Several plants and mycotoxins, a few pesticides and metals, together with contaminants of industrial origin, such as dioxins, are responsible for most of the recorded cases. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  16. Genetic diversity of blastocystis in livestock and zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfellani, Mohammed A; Taner-Mulla, Derya; Jacob, Alison S; Imeede, Christine Atim; Yoshikawa, Hisao; Stensvold, C Rune; Clark, C Graham

    2013-07-01

    Blastocystis is a common unicellular anaerobic eukaryote that inhabits the large intestine of many animals worldwide, including humans. The finding of Blastocystis in faeces in mammals and birds has led to proposals of zoonotic potential and that these hosts may be the source of many human infections. Blastocystis is, however, a genetically diverse complex of many distinct organisms (termed subtypes; STs), and sampling to date has been limited, both geographically and in the range of hosts studied. In order to expand our understanding of host specificity of Blastocystis STs, 557 samples were examined from various non-primate animal hosts and from a variety of different countries in Africa, Asia and Europe. STs were identified using 'barcoding' of the small subunit rRNA gene using DNA extracted either from culture or directly from faeces. The host and geographic range of several STs has thereby been greatly expanded and the evidence suggests that livestock is not a major contributor to human infection. Two new STs were detected among the barcode sequences obtained; for these, and for three others where the data were incomplete, the corresponding genes were fully sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was undertaken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS as a tool for animal health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Franceschini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns expressed by various national and international organisations about global livestock sector development and its consequences on the environment and on human and animal health suggest the need to reinforce efforts to monitor and collect more accurate and detailed statistics on livestock. Modern technologies for the organisation, analysis, dissemination and presentation of data and results enhance the contribution that these statistics can make towards the planning of efficient and sustainable animal production and health interventions. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization Animal Production and Health Division (FAO-AGA has developed the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS. GLIMS provides a repository for sub-national data pertaining to the livestock sector and produces and distributes, through various channels and formats, a number of global public products, namely: the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW, mapping the spatial distribution of the main livestock species, the Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas (GLiPHA, disseminating sub-national geo-referenced statistics, and the AGA Livestock Sector Briefs, which are concise national reports on the livestock sector. These products have a variety of applications. The authors focus attention on applications in the field of animal health, both to increase knowledge of the occurrence of livestock diseases and to assess their impact.

  18. Impact of animal health programmes on poverty reduction and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradere, J P

    2017-04-01

    Based on data from publications and field observations, this study analyses the interactions between animal health, rural poverty and the performance and environmental impact of livestock farming in low-income countries and middle-income countries. There are strong statistical correlations between the quality of Veterinary Services, livestock productivity and poverty rates. In countries with effective Veterinary Services, livestock growth stems mainly from productivity gains and poverty rates are the lowest. Conversely, these analyses identify no statistical link between the quality of Veterinary Services and increased livestock production volumes. However, where animal diseases are poorly controlled, productivity is low and livestock growth is extensive, based mainly on a steady increase in animal numbers. Extensive growth is less effective than intensive growth in reducing poverty and aggravates the pressure of livestock production on natural resources and the climate.

  19. Veterinary vaccine nanotechnology: pulmonary and nasal delivery in livestock animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Nieva, Daniella; Goonewardene, Kalhari Bandara; Gomis, Susantha; Foldvari, Marianna

    2017-08-01

    Veterinary vaccine development has several similarities with human vaccine development to improve the overall health and well-being of species. However, veterinary goals lean more toward feasible large-scale administration methods and low cost to high benefit immunization. Since the respiratory mucosa is easily accessible and most infectious agents begin their infection cycle at the mucosa, immunization through the respiratory route has been a highly attractive vaccine delivery strategy against infectious diseases. Additionally, vaccines administered via the respiratory mucosa could lower costs by removing the need of trained medical personnel, and lowering doses yet achieving similar or increased immune stimulation. The respiratory route often brings challenges in antigen delivery efficiency with enough potency to induce immunity. Nanoparticle (NP) technology has been shown to enhance immune activation by producing higher antibody titers and protection. Although specific mechanisms between NPs and biological membranes are still under investigation, physical parameters such as particle size and shape, as well as biological tissue distribution including mucociliary clearance influence the protection and delivery of antigens to the site of action and uptake by target cells. For respiratory delivery, various biomaterials such as mucoadhesive polymers, lipids, and polysaccharides have shown enhanced antibody production or protection in comparison to antigen alone. This review presents promising NPs administered via the nasal or pulmonary routes for veterinary applications specifically focusing on livestock animals including poultry.

  20. Thai pigs and cattle production, genetic diversity of livestock and strategies for preserving animal genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesinee Gatphayak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current situation of livestock production in Thailand, genetic diversity and evaluation, as well as management strategies for animal genetic resources focusing on pigs and cattle. Sustainable conservation of indigenous livestock as a genetic resource and vital components within the agricultural biodiversity domain is a great challenge as well as an asset for the future development of livestock production in Thailand.

  1. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria from livestock animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, Jürgen

    2006-06-01

    Facing the problem of development and spreading of bacterial resistance, preventive strategies are considered the most appropriate means to counteract. The establishment of corresponding management options relies on scientifically defensible efforts to obtain objective data on the prevalence of bacterial resistance in healthy and diseased livestock. Additionally, detailed statistics are needed on the overall amount of antimicrobial agents dispensed in Germany. The collection of valid data on the prevalence of resistance requires representative and cross-sectional studies. The German national antimicrobial resistance monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) determines the current quantitative resistance level of life-stock pathogens, in order to permit the evaluation and surveillance of the distribution of resistances on a valid basis. Essential key features determining the design of these studies comprise (1) a statistically valid sampling program. This incorporates regional differences in animal population density, (2) the avoidance of "copy strains", (3) testing of no more than two bacterial strains belonging to one species per herd, (4) testing only if no antimicrobial therapy preceded sample collection, and (5) the use of standardized methods [e.g. microdilution broth method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)]. The analysis and interpretation of this data permits reliable identification and definition of epidemiological characteristics of resistance and its development in animal associated bacteria, such as geographically and time wise differentiated profiles on its prevalence, the emergence of unknown phenotypes of resistance and an assessment of the threat resistant bacteria from animals pose for humans. In applied antimicrobial therapy, the data can serve as a decision guidance in choosing the antimicrobial agent most adapted to the prevailing epidemiological situation. The susceptibility testing

  2. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 80 years a wide range of diverse organic livestock systems have developed. The driving force behind these developments has mainly been the farmers, consumers and various movements; and it has happened more "despite research" than "because of research." Most production methods have d...... research, some of which was for livestock studies, increased from 15 million dollars in 2002 to 78 million in 2008....

  3. Direct measurements of the ozone formation potential from livestock and poultry waste emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Cody J; Kumar, Anuj; Mitloehner, Frank; Stackhouse, Kimberly; Green, Peter G; Flocchini, Robert G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2010-04-01

    LDV OFP. The measured composition of ROG emitted from animal plus waste sources is nine times less reactive than the current regulatory profiles that are based on dated measurements. The new animal waste ROG OFP measurements combined with adjusted animal waste ROG emissions inventory estimates predict that actual ozone production in the SJV from livestock and poultry (5.7 +/- 1.3 tons O(3) day(-1)) is 40 +/- 10% of the ozone produced by light duty gasoline vehicles (14.3 +/- 1.4 tons O(3) day(-1)) under constant NO(x) conditions.

  4. Final report for the Iowa Livestock Industry Waste Characterization and Methane Recovery Information Dissemination Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, M.V.; Richard, Thomas L

    2001-11-13

    This report summarizes analytical methods, characterizes Iowa livestock wastes, determines fossil fuel displacement by methane use, assesses the market potential, and offers recommendations for the implementation of methane recovery technologies.

  5. Livestock waste treatment systems for environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, José; Dabert, Patrick; Barrington, Suzelle; Burton, Colin

    2009-11-01

    The intensification of livestock operations has benefited production efficiency but has introduced major environmental issues, becoming a concern in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this paper is primarily to address the impact of the livestock sector on environmental pollution (ammonia, greenhouse gases and pathogens), evaluate the related health risks and, subsequently, assess the potential role of waste treatment systems in attenuating these environmental and health issues. This paper is a collection of data pertaining to world trends in livestock production, since the mid 1990s and intensive livestock farming practices along with their impact on: water pollution by nitrates and through eutrophication; air pollution, particularly ammonia and greenhouse gases emissions, and soil pollution because of nutrient accumulation. Finally, this paper examines some of the benefits of treating livestock manures, issues related to the adoption of treatment systems by livestock operations and current as well as past technological developments.

  6. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  7. From environmental nuisance to environmental opportunity: housefly larvae convert waste to livestock feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.; Mollenhorst, H.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Bikker, P.; Meerburg, B.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The livestock sector is in urgent need for more sustainable feed sources, because of the increased demand for animal-source food and the already high environmental costs associated with it. Recent developments indicate environmental benefits of rearing insects for livestock feed, suggesting that

  8. Livestock waste treatment systems for reducing environmental exposure to hazardous enteric pathogens: some considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, E; Scott, A; Lapen, D R; Lyautey, E; Duriez, P

    2009-11-01

    Intensive livestock production systems produce significant quantities of excreted material that must be managed to protect water, air, and crop quality. Many jurisdictions mandate how livestock wastes are managed to protect adjacent water quality from microbial and chemical contaminants that pose an environmental and human health challenge. Here, we consider innovative livestock waste treatment systems in the context of multi-barrier strategies for protecting water quality from agricultural contamination. Specifically, we consider some aspects of how enteric bacterial populations can evolve during manure storage, how their fate following land application of manure can vary according to manure composition, and finally the challenge of distinguishing enteric pathogens of agricultural provenance from those of other sources of fecal pollution at a policy-relevant watershed scale. The beneficial impacts of livestock waste treatment on risk to humans via exposure to manured land are illustrated using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) scenarios. Overall, innovative livestock treatment systems offer a crucially important strategy for making livestock wastes more benign before they are released into the broader environment.

  9. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  10. Text mining in livestock animal science: introducing the potential of text mining to animal sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahadevan, S; Hofmann-Apitius, M; Schellander, K; Tesfaye, D; Fluck, J; Friedrich, C M

    2012-10-01

    In biological research, establishing the prior art by searching and collecting information already present in the domain has equal importance as the experiments done. To obtain a complete overview about the relevant knowledge, researchers mainly rely on 2 major information sources: i) various biological databases and ii) scientific publications in the field. The major difference between the 2 information sources is that information from databases is available, typically well structured and condensed. The information content in scientific literature is vastly unstructured; that is, dispersed among the many different sections of scientific text. The traditional method of information extraction from scientific literature occurs by generating a list of relevant publications in the field of interest and manually scanning these texts for relevant information, which is very time consuming. It is more than likely that in using this "classical" approach the researcher misses some relevant information mentioned in the literature or has to go through biological databases to extract further information. Text mining and named entity recognition methods have already been used in human genomics and related fields as a solution to this problem. These methods can process and extract information from large volumes of scientific text. Text mining is defined as the automatic extraction of previously unknown and potentially useful information from text. Named entity recognition (NER) is defined as the method of identifying named entities (names of real world objects; for example, gene/protein names, drugs, enzymes) in text. In animal sciences, text mining and related methods have been briefly used in murine genomics and associated fields, leaving behind other fields of animal sciences, such as livestock genomics. The aim of this work was to develop an information retrieval platform in the livestock domain focusing on livestock publications and the recognition of relevant data from

  11. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-23

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Integrating policies for the management of animal genetic resources with demand for livestock products and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognition of the need to conserve animal genetic resources comes at a time when the global livestock sector faces significant challenges in meeting the growing demand for livestock products and the mitigation of negative environmental impacts caused by livestock. Outside of the U.S. it would seem ...

  13. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... farm weeds. (2) The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other Federal or State agencies and...

  14. Actions of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    , farmers and employees at the farms and authorities. By using an ethnographic approach and anthropological perspectives I have studied how animal welfare is constituted and communicated and how it shapes the lives of humans and animals. As its starting point, the thesis provides a description...... both a feeling of certainty but also of uncertainty. We discuss whether the challenges faced in this area are caused by tension created by the fact that the interaction between farmers and inspectors takes place in different languages of communication: The language of animal welfare legislation (here......Action of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare The many requirements related to animal welfare - generated by a combination of national and EU animal welfare legislation - are a part of daily life when running a livestock farm in Denmark...

  15. Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, B W B; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2013-08-01

    Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Prophylactic Modulation of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emitted from Ruminants Livestock for Sustainable Animal Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Takahashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major greenhouse gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture sector are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, either generated from enteric fermentation or manure. The abatement mechanism of rumen CH4 emission may be divided to direct and indirect suppression to methanogens in the rumen.The most significant strategy to mitigate ruminal CH4 emission in indirect manner is to promote alternative metabolic pathway to dispose of the reducing power, competing with methanogenesis for H2 uptake. This includes prebiotics and probiotics (mostly propionate enhancers which consume metabolic hydrogen (H2 compete with methanogens and abate rumen methanogenesis in indirect manner. With regard to mitigate GHG emissions from manure, such waste has been proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources through biogas plant. Furthermore, in advanced new biogas system, the ammonia stripping from digested slurry of livestock manure in biogas plant has been examined to apply to nitrogen recycling-options mitigating N2O emission. These options are: (1 ammonolysis on fiber-rich feedstuffs, (2 saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass to produce bio-ethanol, and (3 reformed hydrogen into NH3 fuel cell to generate electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM.

  17. Actions of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    both a feeling of certainty but also of uncertainty. We discuss whether the challenges faced in this area are caused by tension created by the fact that the interaction between farmers and inspectors takes place in different languages of communication: The language of animal welfare legislation (here...... named as belonging to the domain of production) which is supposed to be known by the farmers, but the farmers in this investigation (with their language about animal welfare belonging to the private domain) express their experience as uncertainty, never knowing if they are able to get things right. We......Action of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare The many requirements related to animal welfare - generated by a combination of national and EU animal welfare legislation - are a part of daily life when running a livestock farm in Denmark...

  18. Current available strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in livestock systems: an animal welfare perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; Haskell, M J; Dewhurst, R J; Turner, S P

    2017-02-01

    Livestock production is a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so will play a significant role in the mitigation effort. Recent literature highlights different strategies to mitigate GHG emissions in the livestock sector. Animal welfare is a criterion of sustainability and any strategy designed to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock production should consider animal welfare amongst other sustainability metrics. We discuss and tabulate the likely relationships and trade-offs between the GHG mitigation potential of mitigation strategies and their welfare consequences, focusing on ruminant species and on cattle in particular. The major livestock GHG mitigation strategies were classified according to their mitigation approach as reducing total emissions (inhibiting methane production in the rumen), or reducing emissions intensity (Ei; reducing CH4 per output unit without directly targeting methanogenesis). Strategies classified as antimethanogenic included chemical inhibitors, electron acceptors (i.e. nitrates), ionophores (i.e. Monensin) and dietary lipids. Increasing diet digestibility, intensive housing, improving health and welfare, increasing reproductive efficiency and breeding for higher productivity were categorized as strategies that reduce Ei. Strategies that increase productivity are very promising ways to reduce the livestock carbon footprint, though in intensive systems this is likely to be achieved at the cost of welfare. Other strategies can effectively reduce GHG emissions whilst simultaneously improving animal welfare (e.g. feed supplementation or improving health). These win-win strategies should be strongly supported as they address both environmental and ethical sustainability. In order to identify the most cost-effective measures for improving environmental sustainability of livestock production, the consequences of current and future strategies for animal welfare must be scrutinized and contrasted against their effectiveness

  19. Animal welfare monitoring and livestock traceability during transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Di Pasquale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an experimental project that aims to establish an effective navigation system in accordance with European Council Regulation 1/2005 concerning animal welfare during transport. The prototype created during the project consists of both hardware and software components. An onboard unit is installed at truck level. It collects and transmits real-time information of the animal transport to a remote receiver database. A Web/geographic information system (GIS application is used to analyse and monitor the information received. The architecture of the hardware and software of the project is presented, focusing on the features of the Web-GIS application.

  20. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, Haitske; Duim, Birgitta; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Heederik, Dick; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004 MRSA emerged in animals, particularly in pigs and veal calves. This new MRSA variant was since its first appearance referred to as Livestock Associated-MRSA (LA-MRSA). In Europe and Northern America, LA-MRSA belongs predominantly to clonal complex (CC) 398 whereas in Asia ST9 seems to be

  1. Diagnostics in animal health: How UC helps exclude and minimize impact of livestock pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Adaska, John; Atwill, Edward R.; Nader, Glenn A

    2014-01-01

    UC has a wide reach in the agriculture sector of the California economy and is well recognized for research expertise in plant diseases. Less well known is the role UC plays in animal agriculture. In 2012, the California Animal Health and Food Safety lab at UC Davis performed nearly 980,000 tests on samples from sick livestock, including cattle, horses, pigs, chickens and turkeys. The lab is prepared to respond rapidly to any disease outbreak or identification of a foreign disease. Researcher...

  2. THE LIVESTOCK EVOLUTION ANALYSIS FOR THE MAIN ANIMAL SPECIES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea DRĂGHICI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The livestock problems were permanent in the national and community ensemble attention of agricultural production. These issues were inextricably linked to the evolution of the number of animals. These issues were analyzed in the period 2005-2012 dynamic, effectivelly being taken under consideration the animals number/100 ha, but also the territorial structure of Romania developing regions. For the period analyzed, we took into account the changes in the level of animal numbers from the previous year, and compared to the base year, which defined the meaning of a certain rhythm. Presentations were made for the main animal species based on evolutionary trends for cattle, pigs and sheeps.

  3. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade.

  4. Animal health and price transmission along livestock supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragrande, M; Canali, M

    2017-04-01

    Animal health diseases can severely affect the food supply chain by causing variations in prices and market demand. Price transmission analysis reveals in what ways price variations are transmitted along the supply chain, and how supply chains of substitute products and different regional markets are also affected. In perfect markets, a price variation would be completely and instantaneously transmitted across the different levels of the supply chain: producers, the processing industry, retailers and consumers. However, empirical studies show that food markets are often imperfect, with anomalies or asymmetries in price transmission and distortions in the distribution of market benefits. This means, for instance, that a price increase at the consumer level may not be transmitted from retailers to processors and producers; yet, on the other hand, price falls may rapidly affect the upstream supply chain. Market concentration and the consequent exertion of market power in key segments of the supply chain can explain price transmission asymmetries and their distributional effects, but other factors may also be involved, such as transaction costs, scale economies, and imperfect information. During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, asymmetric price transmission in the beef supply chain and related meat markets determined distributional effects among sectors. After the spread of the BSE food scare, the fall in demand marginally affected the price paid to retailers, but producers and wholesalers suffered much more, in both price reductions and the time needed to recover to precrisis demand. Price transmission analysis investigates how animal health crises create different economic burdens for various types of stakeholder, and provides useful socioeconomic insights when used with other tools.

  5. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  6. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  7. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export.

  8. Combatting African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) in livestock: The potential role of trypanotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaro, M; Munyard, K A; Stear, M J; Groth, D M

    2016-07-30

    African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is endemic in at least 37 of the 54 countries in Africa. It is estimated to cause direct and indirect losses to the livestock production industry in excess of US$ 4.5 billion per annum. A century of intervention has yielded limited success, owing largely to the extraordinary complexity of the host-parasite interaction. Trypanotolerance, which refers to the inherent ability of some African livestock breeds, notably Djallonke sheep, N'Dama cattle and West African Dwarf goats, to withstand a trypanosomiasis challenge and still remain productive without any form of therapy, is an economically sustainable option for combatting this disease. Yet trypanotolerance has not been adequately exploited in the fight against AAT. In this review, we describe new insights into the genetic basis of trypanotolerance and discuss the potential of exploring this phenomenon as an integral part of the solution for AAT, particularly, in the context of African animal production systems.

  9. Compensation and exotic livestock disease management: the views of animal keepers and veterinarians in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Webb, A; Naylor, R; Little, R; Maye, D

    2016-11-19

    Relatively little is known about the perceived influence of different compensation systems on animal keepers' management of exotic livestock disease. This paper aims to address this research gap by drawing on interviews with 61 animal keepers and 21 veterinarians, as well as a series of nine animal keeper focus groups across five different livestock sectors in England. The perceived influence of current compensation systems on disease control behaviour was explored and alternative compensation systems that respectively reward positive practices and penalise poor practices were presented in the form of scenarios, alongside a third system that considered the option of a cost-sharing levy system between industry and government. The results indicate that animal keepers consider themselves to be influenced by a range of non-financial factors, for example, feelings of responsibility, reputation and animal welfare concerns, in the context of their exotic disease management practices. The majority of animal keepers were unaware of the current compensation systems in place for exotic diseases, and were therefore not consciously influenced by financial recompense. Concerns were raised about linking compensation to disease management behaviour due to auditing difficulties. A cost-sharing levy system would likely raise awareness of exotic disease and compensation among animal keepers, but differentiation of payments based upon individual farm-level risk assessments was called for by participants as a strategy to promote positive disease management practices. British Veterinary Association.

  10. The effect of system parameters on the biogas production from anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  11. Main animal welfare problems in ruminant livestock during preslaughter operations: a South American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C B; Huertas, S M

    2016-02-01

    Animals destined for meat production are usually exposed to many stressful conditions during production and particularly during preslaughter operations. Handling animals on farm, loading into and unloading from vehicles, transportation, passing through livestock markets, fasting, lairage and stunning can all affect their welfare. How badly welfare can be affected will depend on both the intrinsic factors of the specific type of animal involved and the extrinsic factors of the environment where those animals live or are being handled, including the animal handlers. In South America (SA), it has been part of a strategy for improving animal welfare (AW) to address not only ethical aspects, but to emphasize the close relationship existing between handling ruminants preslaughter and the quantity and quality of the meat they produce. This has resulted not only in improvements in AW, but has also brought economic rewards to producers which in turn can lead to higher incomes for them and hence better human welfare. For producers with a high number of animals, considering AW during production and preslaughter operations can determine the possibility of exporting and/or getting better prices for their products. At smallfarmer level, particularly in some less developed countries, where human welfare is impaired, using this strategy together with education has also been relevant. It is important that education and training in AW are done not only considering global knowledge, but also including specific geographical and climatic characteristics of each country and the cultural, religious and socio-economical characteristics of its people; therefore, research within the context of each country or region becomes relevant. The aim of this review was to show the results of research dealing with AW of ruminant livestock in Chile and some other SA countries. Some of the main problems encountered are related to lack of proper infrastructure to handle animals; long distance transport

  12. Microbiological Zoonotic Emerging Risks, Transmitted Between Livestock Animals and Humans (2007-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippitzi, M E; Goumperis, T; Robinson, T; Saegerman, C

    2017-08-01

    As part of the Emerging Risk Identification (ERI) activities of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), a literature search was conducted to identify the microbiological agents transmitted between livestock animals and humans that have been suggested as having emerged between 2007 and 2015 in peer-reviewed scientific literature published during the same period (2007-2015). According to the criteria set, the search identified seven such zoonotic agents, namely West Nile Fever virus, Rift Valley Fever virus, Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus, Influenza A H1N1 virus, Coxiella burnetii, Streptococcus suis and livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398. An explanation of the agents' consideration as emerging risks is provided. The experience gained from these emergences has shown that the detection of and response to such risks can be achieved faster and more successfully within a multidisciplinary, collaborative context at the field, local, national and international levels. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Actions of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    understand animal welfare in daily practice and I explore if animal welfare, from an anthropological perspective, can be understood as a social technology. The methods used in the following four papers have been: 1.Ethnographic fieldwork, following inspectors on unannounced inspections of animal welfare. 2.......Following this fieldwork semi-structured interviews were performed with inspectors and farmers from 12 selected inspections. 3.Fieldwork by working at four different farms, two pig farms and two farms with dairy cattle for one month at each site. 4.Following this fieldwork semi-structured interviews were...... a wish to focus on more preventive aspects and on motivation. Paper 3 Farmers under pressure - Analysis of the social conditions of cases of animal neglect In this paper we aimed to shed new light on the stories behind cases where Danish farmers have been charged with neglect of livestock and discuss how...

  14. Cryobanking of farm animal gametes and embryos as a means of conserving livestock genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Casu, Sara; Carta, A; Dattena, M

    2013-04-01

    In the last few decades, farm animal genetic diversity has rapidly declined, mainly due to changing market demands and intensification of agriculture. But, since the removal of single species can affect the functioning of global ecosystems, it is in the interest of international community to conserve the livestock genetics and to maintain biodiversity. Increasing awareness on the reduction of breed diversity has prompted global efforts for conservation of farm animal breeds. The goals of conservation are to keep genetic variation as gene combinations in a reversible form and to keep specific genes of interest. For this purpose two types of strategies are usually proposed: in situ and ex situ conservation. In situ conservation is the breed maintaining within the livestock production system, in its environment through the enhancement of its production characteristics. Ex situ in vivo conservation is the safeguard of live animals in zoos, wildlife parks, experimental farms or other specialized centres. Ex situ in vitro conservation is the preservation of genetic material in haploid form (semen and oocytes), diploid (embryos) or DNA sequences. In the last few years, ex situ in vitro conservation programs of livestock genetic resources have focused interest on cryopreservation of gametes, embryos and somatic cells as well as testis and ovarian tissues, effectively lengthening the genetic lifespan of individuals in a breeding program even after the death. However, although significant progress has been made in semen, oocytes and embryo cryopreservation of several domestic species, a standardized procedure has not been established yet. The aim of the present review is to describe the cryobanking purposes, the collection goals, the type of genetic material to store and the reproductive biotechnologies utilized for the cryopreservation of farm animal gametes and embryos.

  15. Review: Use of human-edible animal feeds by ruminant livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J M; Lee, M R F

    2017-09-12

    The drive to increase the output of animal product in some sectors of ruminant livestock production has led to greater use of feeds such as cereal grains and soyabean meal that are potentially human-edible. This trend has caused concern since, by so doing, ruminants compete not only with monogastric livestock but also with the human population for a limited global area of cultivatable land on which to produce grain crops. Reasons for using potentially human-edible feeds in ruminant diets include increased total daily energy intake, greater supply of essential amino acids and improved ruminal balance between fermentable energy and degradable protein. Soyabean meal, produced on land that has been in arable cultivation for many years can fulfil a useful role as a supplier of undegraded dietary protein in diets for high-yielding dairy cows. However, in the context of sustaining the production of high-quality foods from livestock to meet the demands of a growing human population, the use of potentially human-edible feed resources by livestock should be restricted to livestock with the highest daily nutrient requirements; that is, potentially human-edible feed inputs should be constrained to meeting requirements for energy and protein and to rectifying imbalances in nutrient supply from pastures and forage crops such as high concentrations of nitrogen (N). There is therefore a role for human-edible feeds in milk production because forage-only systems are associated with relatively low output per head and also low N use efficiency compared with systems with greater reliance on human-edible feeds. Profitability on farm is driven by control of input costs as well as product value and examples are given of low-cost bovine milk and meat production with little or no reliance on potentially human-edible feeds. In beef production, the forage-only systems currently under detailed real-time life-cycle analysis at the North Wyke Farm Platform, can sustain high levels of animal

  16. Growth and Development Symposium: promoting healthier humans through healthier livestock: animal agriculture enters the metagenomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D N

    2011-03-01

    The priorities of public health and agricultural sciences intersect through a shared objective to foster better human health. Enhancements in food quality and reductions in the environmental effects of modern agriculture represent 2 distinct paths through which animal sciences can contribute to the cause of public health. Recent developments in the study of human-associated microbial communities (microbiotas), notably in association with disease, indicate that better understanding of the microbial ecology of livestock can contribute to achieving the goals of better foods and a cleaner environment. Culture-independent microbiological technologies now permit comprehensive study of complex microbial communities in their natural environments. Microbiotas associated with both humans and animals provide myriad beneficial services to their hosts that, if lost or diminished, could compromise host health. Dysfunctional microbial communities have been noted in several human conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Examination of the mechanisms by which the human microbiota influences health and disease susceptibility can inform similar studies of host-microbe function in the animal sciences. Insights gained from human studies indicate strategies to raise not only healthier livestock, through selective manipulation of microbial communities, but also healthier humans.

  17. NUCLEOTIDE COMPARISON OF GDF9 GENE IN INDIAN YAK AND GADDI GOAT: HIGH ALTITUDE LIVESTOCK ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshya Veer Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to characterize exon 1 and exon 2 sequence of one of fecundity genes: GDF9 (Growth differentiation factor 9, in high altitude livestock animal (Yak and Gaddi goat. Six nucleotide differences were identified between sheep (AF078545 and goats (EF446168 in exon 1 and exon 2. Sequencing revealed nine novel single nucleotide mutations in exon 1 and exon 2 of Indian yak that compared with Bos taurus (GQ922451. These results preliminarily showed that the GDF9 gene might be a major gene that influences prolificacy of Gaddi goats and Indian yak.

  18. Animal health care seeking behavior of pets or livestock owners and knowledge and awareness on zoonoses in a university community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel J. Awosanya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated the attitude of pets or livestock owning households in a university community to animal health care services and assessed the knowledge and awareness level of the residents on zoonoses. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, pet or livestock ownership, animal health care seeking behavior, awareness and knowledge of zoonoses from 246 households. We did descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to determine the level of association in discrete variables between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock at a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Of the 246 respondents, 80 (32.5% were either pet or livestock owners. The animal health care seeking behavior of the 80 pets or livestock owners in terms of treatment and vaccination was 70%. Of the 56 (70% who provided health care services for their animals, about 48 (85.7% engaged the services of a veterinarian. Dog owning households (42 had the highest frequency of treating their pets against endoparasites (97.6%; ectoparasites (81% and vaccination against diseases (73.8%. Of the 246 respondents, only 47 (19.1% have heard of the term zoonoses. Of the considered zoonoses; their awareness of rabies (79.3% was the highest, followed by Lassa fever (66.3%, the least was pasteurellosis with 18.7%. Having pets or livestock was significantly associated (p=0.04 with rabies awareness. However, there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of zoonoses; knowledge of zoonoses, knowledge of prevention of zoonoses and knowledge of risk of zoonoses between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock. Conclusion: The animal health care seeking behavior of households with pets or livestock is good and should be encouraged. Public education should be created for other zoonoses aside from rabies, Lassa fever, and avian influenza.

  19. Animal Waste Management Practices and Perceptions on Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Waste Management Practices and Perceptions on Public and Environmental Health Risks. ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... and public health risks associated with improper management of animal wastes in 66 ...

  20. Electricity production in membrane-less microbial fuel cell fed with livestock organic solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunhee; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2011-05-01

    Two different MFC configurations designed for handling solid wastes as a feedstock were evaluated in batch mode: a single compartment combined membrane-electrodes (SCME) design; and a twin-compartment brush-type anode electrodes (TBE) design (reversed T-shape MFC with two-air cathode) without a proton exchange membrane (PEM). Cattle manure was tested as a model livestock organic solid waste feedstock. Under steady conditions, voltage of 0.38 V was recorded with an external resistance of 470Ω. When digested anaerobic sludge was used as the seed in the SCME design, a maximum power density of 36.6 mW/m(2) was recorded. When hydrogen-generating bacteria (HGB) were used as the seed used in the TBE design, a higher power density of 67 mW/m(2) was recorded.

  1. CH4 Emission Model from Bos Primigenius Waste in Fish-Water: Implications for Integrated Livestock-Fish Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Okeniyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a methane (CH4 emission model from the waste of cattle (B. primigenius based on trends in integrated livestock-fish farming adoption by farmers in Nigeria. Dung of B. primigenius was employed as substrate in fish-water, obtained from a fish-rearing farm, as a matrix medium for simulating a low-oxygen wastewater environment of an agriculture-aquaculture system. A substrate to fish-water mass ratio of 1:3 was used, developed in a laboratory-size digesting reactor system. Volumetric readings, at ambient temperature conditions and with a retention time of thirty-two days, were then subjected to the logistic probability density function, and tested against correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency criteria. The readings show that a volume of CH4-containing gas as high as 65.3 x 10−3 dm3 was produced on the 13th day from the B. primigenius substrate. Also, production of 234.59 x 10−3 dm3/kg CH4-containing gas, totaling 703.76 x 10−3 dm3, was observed through the studied retention time. The 60% CH4 constituent model of the measured gas generation showed a potency of 2.0664 kg emission per animal, which is equivalent to 43.3944 CO2eq of global warming potential (GWP annually per animal. This bears environmental and climate change implications, and therefore alternative sustainable practices for integrated livestock-fish farming adoption are suggested.

  2. Understanding animal health communication networks among smallholder livestock producers in Australia using stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L; Woodgate, R; Rast, L; Toribio, J-A L M L; Hernández-Jover, M

    2017-09-01

    Smallholder livestock producers are a diverse population with wide ranging motivations for keeping livestock. The biosecurity risk posed by smallholders has been the subject of much conjecture, with comparisons often made between the level of animal health and biosecurity knowledge of smallholders, versus that of commercial livestock producers. This research aimed to gain a better understanding of current knowledge of smallholder production in Australia, particularly in relation to biosecurity and emergency animal disease, and to investigate the relationships that exist between smallholders and the organisations and individuals from which they seek information, assistance and support. Engagement with stakeholders is an important component of an effective biosecurity communication strategy as the dissemination of biosecurity related information from a single source cannot be expected to satisfy the needs of such a broad ranging population. A qualitative study involving a review of literature, semi-structured interviews with government and non-government stakeholders and the development of smallholder and stakeholder influence and interest grids was undertaken. This paper forms part of a broader mixed methods research project among smallholders. Results from the stakeholder analysis showed variation in the parameters used to define smallholders and in the level of stakeholder involvement. Smallholders identified breeding consultants, other producers, private veterinarians and family, friends and colleagues as having a significant to high level of interest and potential to influence their practices. Government agencies were perceived to only have some level of interest but significant influence. Industry stakeholders and rural suppliers were positioned in the quadrant reflecting perceived low levels of interest and influence. The interest and influence grid developed from stakeholder's perspectives demonstrate a clustering around the mid points for both interest and

  3. Persistence of livestock associated MRSA CC398 in humans is dependent on intensity of animal contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitske Graveland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The presence of Livestock Associated MRSA (LA-MRSA in humans is associated with intensity of animal contact. It is unknown whether the presence of LA-MRSA is a result of carriage or retention of MRSA-contaminated dust. We conducted a longitudinal study among 155 veal farmers in which repeated nasal and throat swabs were taken for MRSA detection. Periods with and without animal exposure were covered. METHODS: Randomly, 51 veal calf farms were visited from June-December 2008. Participants were asked to fill in questionnaires (n = 155 to identify potential risk factors for MRSA colonisation. Nasal and throat swabs were repeatedly taken from each participant for approximately 2 months. Swabs were analysed for MRSA and MSSA by selective bacteriological culturing. Spa-types of the isolates were identified and a ST398 specific PCR was performed. Data were analyzed using generalized estimation equations (GEE to allow for correlated observations within individuals. RESULTS: Mean MRSA prevalence was 38% in farmers and 16% in family members. Presence of MRSA in farmers was strongly related to duration of animal contact and was strongly reduced in periods with absence of animal contact (-58%. Family members, especially children, were more often carriers when the farmer was a carrier (OR = 2, P<0.05. Only 7% (n = 11 of the participants appeared to be persistent carriers. A large heterogeneity in spa-types was detected, however 92.7% belonged to LA-MRSA CC398. A surprisingly high fraction of the spa-types (7.3% did not belong to CC398. CONCLUSION: The presence of LA-MRSA in farmers is strongly animal-exposure related. The rapidly decreasing MRSA prevalence during absence of animal contact suggests that LA-MRSA is a poor persistent colonizer in most humans. These results are of relevance for MRSA control strategies.

  4. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0-18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021) and depression (p = 0·002) symptom models. The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  5. Effort of Increasing Production of Livestock Feed out of Cassava Waste by Identifying the more Suitable Cellulotic Degrading Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Suryani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the bioethanol production process, as much as 90% of waste was produced. The availability of waste production is very important since waste can be processed to become livestock feed. The solid bioethanol waste contains cyanide (HCN 5.8177 mg/kg, water 95,21%, ash 0,39%, protein 8,16%, crude fiber 5,45%, crude fat 2.06%, and carbohydrates 83,94%. Processing bioethanol solid waste into livestock feed can be done by utilizing the existing fungi on bioethanol solid waste. Crude fiber (cellulose and carbohydrates are a source of cellulolytic fungi. Cellulolytic fungi can degrade the role of organic materials contained in bioethanol solid waste, so that it can be made as a source of highly nutritious livestock feed. This study aims to determine the types of cellulolytic fungal isolates contained in bioethanol solid waste which is potentially processed to become livestock woof. Descriptive analysis was employed as a method of the study. Furthermore, Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA was used as a medium for culturing and isolating the fungus. Dilution series and pour plate method were employed to isolate the fungus. And, Moist Chamber method was employed to identify it. In addition, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC was used as medium to identify cellulolytic fungi. The process was carried out up to the level of genus based on macroscopic and microscopic characterization. 10 fungal isolates from the genus of Aspergillus sp 1, Aspergillus sp 2, Aspergillus sp 3, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp, Mucor sp, Penicillium sp 1, Penicillium sp 2, Rhizopus sp and Trichoderma viride were yielded in this study. The results of examining cellulose enzyme activity revealed that 9 of 10 isolates of the fungus were capable of degrading cellulose. Isolates yielding the largest cellulose enzyme were Trichoderma viride, Penicillium sp 1, Cladosporium sp and Aspergillus niger.

  6. Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability. OECD Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Special Issue of Bioresource Technology is dedicated to selected contributions presented at the international Workshop: “Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability,” held 2-4 April, 2008, in Florence, South Carolina (US...

  7. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  8. Does the use of tubular digesters to treat livestock waste lower the risk of infection from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Wald, Ileana; Camacho-Céspedes, Fabricio; Izurieta, Ricardo; Haas, Charles N; Ergas, Sarina J

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, high incidences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are attributed to livestock waste. Quantitative microbial risk assessment can be used to estimate the risk of livestock related infections from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. The objective of this paper was to assess the occupational and public health risks associated with management of raw and anaerobically digested livestock waste in two rural communities in Costa Rica based on fomite, soil and crop contamination and livestock waste management exposure pathways. Risks related to cattle waste were greater than swine waste due to cattle shedding more (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium parvum also posed a greater risk than Giardia lamblia in all exposure pathways due to livestock shedding high loads of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and oocysts' lower inactivation rates during anaerobic digestion compared with Giardia lamblia cysts. The risk of infection from exposure to contaminated soil and crops was significantly lower for a community using tubular anaerobic digesters to treat livestock waste compared to a community where the untreated waste was applied to soil. The results indicate that treatment of livestock waste in small-scale tubular anaerobic digesters has the potential to significantly decrease the risk of infection below the World Health Organization's acceptable individual annual risk of infection (10(-4)).

  9. Arsenic: A Roadblock to Potential Animal Waste Management Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeve E. Nachman; Jay P. Graham; Lance B. Price; Ellen K. Silbergeld

    2005-01-01

    .... The presence of inorganic arsenic in incinerator ash and pelletized waste sold as fertilizer creates opportunities for population exposures that did not previously exist. The removal of arsenic from animal feed is a critical step toward safe poultry waste management.

  10. Genetically engineered livestock for agriculture: a generation after the first transgenic animal research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of

  11. Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

    2014-03-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p < .05). A trend towards significance was demonstrated for co-owned/female-owned livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests

  12. Accelerometer based solution for precision livestock farming: geolocation enhancement and animal activity identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasson, G.; Llaria, A.; Marra, A.; Voaden, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid evolution of electronics and communication technologies in the last years has contributed to the expansion of Precision Livestock Farming applications. In this context, animal geolocation systems applied to extensive farming are interesting for farmers to optimize their daily work organization. Nevertheless, the deployment of these solutions implies several technical challenges which must be resolved, mainly the energy consumption and the suitability of the communication protocols. A recently developed solution that deals with these technical challenges is the e-Pasto platform, which is composed of low power geolocation devices embedded into collars that offer an energetic autonomy of at least seven months, completed with a visualization user interface. The autonomy is assured employing a duty-cycle operation that results in one geolocation position measurement per hour. This work studies the employ of accelerometers to overcome this limitation assuring, at the same time, the required autonomy for the geolocation device. The authors also propose an algorithm that processes the acceleration data in order to identify the steps of an individual. The whole solution (step identification and geolocation) has been validated by means of several experimental tests.

  13. Knowledge and attitude towards zoonoses among animal health workers and livestock keepers in Arusha and Tanga, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Emanuel S; Schoonman, Luuk; Daborn, Chris J

    2010-10-01

    Zoonoses are infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. An exploratory questionnaire-based survey of animal health workers(n=36) and livestock keepers(n=43) was carried out from April 2001 to March 2002 in Tanga and Arusha regions, northern Tanzania, to assess local knowledge, attitudes and public awareness for animal zoonoses. A combination of closed and open-ended questions, focus group discussions and ranking techniques were employed to gather information on perceptions concerning the type of zoonotic diseases prevalent in the study area, level of risk, mode of transmission and methods of preventing disease transmission from animals to humans. The results demonstrated that rabies, tuberculosis and anthrax were considered the three most common zoonotic diseases. Sharing living accommodation with animals, consumption of un-treated livestock products (i.e. milk, meat or eggs) and attending to parturition were perceived as routes of transmission. Knowledge about zoonosis was higher in smallholder dairy (92%; 33/36) than traditional livestock keepers (Pzoonosis was significantly higher in traditional livestock (86%; 6/7) than smallholder dairy keepers (Pzoonosis by farm location revealed that rural farms (85%; 7/8) were considered significantly at a higher risk when compared to peri or urban located farms (P<0.05). Most of the respondents stated cooking of meat or boiling of milk as a way to prevent transmission. However, there was a significant difference in the perception of the risk posed by contact with potentially infected animals /or animal products with animal health workers having a much higher level of perception compared to livestock keepers. These results suggest that in the Tanga and Arusha, Tanzania, patchy awareness and knowledge of zoonoses, combined with food consumption habits and poor animal husbandry are likely to expose respondents to an increased risk of contracting zoonoses. Public health promotion on education and

  14. Perceptions among university students in Seville (Spain of the rabbit as livestock and as a companion animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rabbit has various utilities and roles, mainly as a meat-producing animal, game species, companion animal, laboratory animal or pest. Among these roles, rabbit breeding for meat has traditionally prevailed in the Mediterranean countries. However, in recent decades the practice of keeping this species as a companion animal has been on the rise; a factor that could be changing public perception of the rabbit. A survey of 492 university students from Seville, Andalusia, Spain, was conducted to determine young people’s perceptions of the rabbit as livestock and as a companion species. The rabbit received the lowest score when regarded as livestock compared to the pig, cow, goat, sheep and hen. Regarding companion animals, young Spanish people preferred the dog and cat, respectively. The rabbit and the hamster were rated at the same level as a pet, while the budgerigar was rated lower than these two mammals by women and higher by men. The goldfish occupied the last position among the pet species in the women’s perceptions. With regard to the perception of various rabbit breeds and varieties when evaluated as pets, it was found that the pet Lop Dwarf, Netherland Dwarf, Angora and Lionhead breeds were rated higher than a typical meat breed (New Zealand White and than the wild rabbit. The gender of the young people surveyed influenced their perception of the rabbit. Women rated the rabbit lower as livestock while they rated it higher as a pet, also rating the pet rabbit breeds higher than men did. It is proposed that, in keeping with the rabbit’s attributes related to its cuteness, conceptually linked with pets, young Andalusian people’s perception of the rabbit is ambivalent and this perception might partly be shifting from perceiving it as livestock to regarding it as a pet.

  15. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. METHODS: The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP, on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. FINDINGS: The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64 traumatic events (range 0-18. Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4 and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47. The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021 and depression (p = 0·002 symptom models. INTERPRETATION: The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  16. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources.

  17. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2017-01-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance

  18. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-12-22

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production.

  19. Fixed-point Monitoring of Vaccine Immune Effects on Severe Animal Diseases in Livestock and Poultry Breeding Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Sihua; Ruan; Zheng; Yin; Weili; Wan; Yun; Zhou; Hui; Gong; Shiyu

    2014-01-01

    In order to reveal the immune antibody levels and immune effect of livestock and poultry in the locality,we performed antibody surveillance on severe animal diseases in 17 livestock and poultry fields in six administrative districts of Wuhan City. The results showed that the vaccines had a good protective efficacy on highly pathogenic avian influenza( HPAI) and Newcastle disease( ND) in Wuhan City. The whole antibody levels kept above the ministerial standard( > 70%).However,the vaccine immunity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome( PRRS),swine fever( SF) and foot and mouth disease( FMD) was still poorly protective. The data indicated that the vaccines are protecting the severe animal diseases well,but there are still some potential security holes in some administrative districts.

  20. Co-Combustion of Animal Waste in a Commercial Waste-to-Energy BFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Moradian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of animal waste, in waste-to-energy boilers, is considered a method to produce both heat and power and to dispose of possibly infected animal wastes. This research conducted full-scale combustion tests to identify the impact of changed fuel composition on a fluidized-bed boiler. The impact was characterized by analyzing the deposit formation rate, deposit composition, ash composition, and emissions. Two combustion tests, denoted the reference case and animal waste case, were performed based on different fuel mixes. In the reference case, a normal solid waste fuel mix was combusted in the boiler, containing sorted industry and household waste. In the animal waste case, 20 wt% animal waste was added to the reference fuel mix. The collected samples, comprising sampling probe deposits, fuel mixes, bed ash, return sand, boiler ash, cyclone ash and filter ash, were analyzed using chemical fractionation, SEM-EDX and XRD. The results indicate decreased deposit formation due to animal waste co-combustion. SEM-EDX and chemical fractionation identified higher concentrations of P, Ca, S, and Cl in the bed materials in the animal waste case. Moreover, the risk of bed agglomeration was lower in the animal waste case and also a decreased rate of NOx and SO2 emissions were observed.

  1. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    on human health and ecosystem health. Thus, alternative technologies for recycling manure and utilising it as a nutrient source for crop production, while minimising the environmental costs, are important for the sustainability of the livestock and poultry sectors. Composting of animal manure and other......, but information on its effect on GHG emissions, especially nitrous oxide (N2O), is still limited. This thesis investigated the main processes and factors affecting the physicochemical composition of the compost and emissions of GHG and NH3 during composting of animal manure and other organic waste products....... Laboratory studies showed that differences in the initial physical properties (moisture, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity) of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSF) had a considerable impact on the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 o C) and the time required (2...

  2. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-03-14

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  3. Sustainable livestock production: Low emission farm – The innovative combination of nutrient, emission and waste management with special emphasis on Chinese pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kaufmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global livestock production is going to be more and more sophisticated in order to improve efficiency needed to supply the rising demand for animal protein of a growing, more urban and affluent population. To cope with the rising public importance of sustainability is a big challenge for all animal farmers and more industrialized operations especially. Confined animal farming operations (CAFO are seen very critical by many consumers with regard to their sustainability performance, however, the need to improve the sustainability performance especially in the ecological and social dimension exists at both ends of the intensity, i.e., also for the small holder and family owned animal farming models. As in livestock operations, feed and manure contribute the majority to the three most critical environmental impact categories global warming potential (GWP, acidification (AP and eutrophication potential (EP any effort for improvement should start there. Intelligent combination of nutrient-, emission- and waste management in an integrated low emission farm (LEF concept not only significantly reduces the environmental footprint in the ecological dimension of sustainability, but by producing renewable energy (heat, electricity, biomethane with animal manure as major feedstock in an anaerobic digester also the economic dimension can be improved. Model calculations using new software show the ecological improvement potential of low protein diets using more supplemented amino acids for the Chinese pig production. The ecological impact of producing biogas or upgraded biomethane, of further treatment of the digestate and producing defined fertilizers is discussed. Finally, the LEF concept allows the integration of an insect protein plant module which offers additional ecological and economical sustainability improvement potential in the future. Active stakeholder communication about implementation steps of LEF examples improves also the social aspect of

  4. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in women exposed to livestock animals, Denmark, 1996 to 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Molbak, K; Nybo Andersen, A M

    2013-01-01

    National Birth Cohort collected blood samples from 100,418 pregnant women in the period 1996 to 2002. We sampled 195 women with occupational exposure to livestock (veterinarians and female farmers), 202 women with domestic exposure (dairy cattle and/or sheep) and a random sample of 459 unexposed women...

  5. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  6. Farm scale electrical power production from animal waste. Volume I. Final report, 30 June 1981-30 December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, P.A.

    1984-01-31

    A 1 1/2 (dry) tons per day biodigester cogeneration plant has been designed and constructed. This project is part of a federal program to promote energy conservation and the use of non-conventional energy resources. The main purpose of the project is to demonstrate that a dairy farm can generate its own power and supply excess power to a local utility. Such a facility can produce significant energy savings to livestock farms and small communities by allowing them to get energy from raw animal and human waste. Also, an odorless by-product is produced that is nearly pathogenically free and has the possibility of several end uses such as: fertilizer and soil conditioner, protein-rich animal refeed, livestock bedding material, and aquatic food for fish farming. 53 references, 18 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Veterinary antibiotics in animal waste, its distribution in soil and uptake by plants: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasho, Reep Pandi, E-mail: reeplepcha@gmail.com; Cho, Jae Yong, E-mail: soilcosmos@jbnu.ac.kr

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic and sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock farming is and has been, a common practice worldwide. These bioactive organic compounds have short retention period and partial uptake into the animal system. The uptake effects of this pharmaceutics, with plants as the primary focus, has not been reviewed so far. This review addresses three main concerns 1) the extensive use of veterinary antibiotics in livestock farming, 2) disposal of animal waste containing active biosolids and 3) effects of veterinary antibiotics in plants. Depending upon the plant species and the antibiotic used, the response can be phytotoxic, hormetic as well as mutational. Additionally, the physiological interactions that make the uptake of these compounds relatively easy have also been discussed. High water solubility, longer half-lives, and continued introduction make them relatively persistent in the environment. Lastly, some prevention measures that can help limit their impact on the environment have been reviewed. There are three methods of control: treatment of animal manure before field application, an alternative bio-agent for disease treatment and a well targeted legalized use of antibiotics. Limiting the movement of these biosolids in the environment can be a challenge because of their varying physiological interactions. Electron irradiation and supervised inoculation of beneficial microorganisms can be effective remediation strategies. Thus, extensive future research should be focused in this area. - Highlights: • Use of veterinary antibiotics (VA's) in livestock farming. • The fate of VA's in soil. • Properties that make the uptake of VA's by plants relatively easy. • Effect of VA's on plants based on earlier findings. • Possible measures that are helpful in limiting the impact of VA's.

  8. Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) for transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases. The EMPRES-livestock: an FAO initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, Valdir Roberto; Vargas Terán, Moisés

    2004-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) decided that the Organization should be focusing on the goal of enhancing world food security and the fight against transboundary animal diseases and plant pests. A mandate was obtained from the Governing Council and Conference to establish two new Special Programmes to address these fundamental issues. The first is the Special Programme on Food Security and the second is the Emergency Prevention System against transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases (EMPRES). EMPRES has two components, created after 1994 by a new policy of the Director-General of the FAO to better direct the FAO: the plant pest component focuses on the desert locust, whereas the animal diseases component focuses primarily on rinderpest but also on other epidemic diseases (e.g., contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, peste de petit ruminants). For the program as a whole, a high-level EMPRES Steering Committee was established. This is chaired by the FAO Director-General and consists of the heads of key departments (Assistant Directors-General) and Divisional Directors. For the animal diseases component (hereafter referred to as EMPRES-Livestock Programme), FAO established a management unit within its Animal Health Service (AGAH), that is, the Infectious Diseases-EMPRES Group, to be responsible for implementation, including liaison with the Joint FAO-International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Division in Vienna for some of the functions suballocated there. This paper briefly describes FAO EMPRES Livestock, its vision, its mission, and its activities to assist FAO developing member countries and regions in improving the ability of veterinary services to reduce the risks of introduction and/or dissemination of transboundary animal disease, by preventing, controlling, and eradicating those diseases, assisting countries in building their own surveillance/early warning systems, establishing contingency plans

  9. Application of thermogravimetric analysis for the proximate analysis of livestock wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is worldwide interest in deriving increasing amounts of energy from bio-based agricultural materials including not only lignocellulosic residues but also a significant quantity of available livestock manure. This manure can be used as a feedstock for various thermochemical conversion processes...

  10. Using GPA-based, animal tracking systems to evaluate effects on landscape-scale disturbance on livestock distribution and activity patterns:Demo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolving GPS-based, animal tracking technologies have now made it possible to make season-long evaluations of livestock distribution and activity patterns at very fine-scale temporal (< 60 sec) and spatial (<1 m) resolution. We used the Clark Animal Tracking System (Clark ATS) to evaluate cattle be...

  11. ANIMAL WELFARE AS AN ELEMENT OF RETARDATION REVERSING THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz R. Mroczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animals well-being today is a sign of the progressing civilization of humanity. This ethical and philosophical concept is strongly linked with and makes reference to empathy for animals used by human beings. Situating the welfare in the area of connected action is a purpose of the work from retardation. The welfare is determined as the medical condition of the physical and psychological animal achieved in optimal conditions of the farm environment. This system meets the basic needs of breeding animals, especially in the field: nutrition, access to water, ensuring the company of other animals and living space, and treatment. Animal welfare is a significant part of the process of retardation the transformation of resources natural and the most significant element contributing to its growth is the individual person directly involved in taking care of animals. Their duty resulting from ethical standards is to provide protection for animals.

  12. Pattern of antimicrobial usage in livestock animals in south-western Nigeria: The need for alternative plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to antibiotics has continued to increase, placing future animal and human disease management in real danger. The developing countries characterised by widespread indiscriminate antibiotic use and in which ‘third-generation’ antibiotics are not readily available or affordable are the worst affected. A 3-year (2010–2012 retrospective survey of antibiotic usage in livestock production in three selected states of south-western Nigeria was conducted. Data obtained from eight purposively selected licensed veterinary pharmaceutical sales establishments in the area, based on keeping detailed sales records for the study period, were analysed using Stata Version 12. Results showed that tetracyclines (33.6%, fluoroquinolones (26.5% and beta-lactams/aminoglycosides (20.4% constituted the majority of the antibiotics used over the 3 years. The differences in the quantities of antibiotic types used within each antimicrobial class were statistically significant for tetracyclines (F = 59.87; p < 0.0001 and fluoroquinolones (F = 43.97; p < 0.0001 but not for beta-lactams/aminoglycosides (F = 3.21; p = 0.148. Furthermore, antibiotic consumption increased by 40.4% between 2010 and 2012. Although statistically insignificant (F = 0.277; p = 0.762, the increasing trend across the years was at rates of 23.5% between 2010 and 2011 and 13.8% between 2011 and 2012. In addition, the findings show a significantly higher consumption rate (t = 15.21; df = 5; p < 0.0001 during the rainy (52.5% than the dry (47.5% seasons. The current increasing trend in antibiotic usage holds a serious danger for the future and therefore calls for alternative plans to safeguard future livestock production, food security and human health. This becomes more imperative considering emerging resistance against tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, the foremost remedies for livestock diseases in most developing countries.

  13. Towards the identification of methanogenic archaeal groups as targets of methane mitigation in livestock animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eSt-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In herbivores, enteric methane is a by-product from the digestion of plant biomass by mutualistic gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbial communities. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas that is not assimilated by the host and is released into the environment where it contributes to climate change. Since enteric methane is exclusively produced by methanogenic archaea, the investigation of mutualistic methanogen communities in the GIT of herbivores has been the subject of ongoing research by a number of research groups. In an effort to uncover trends that would facilitate the development of efficient methane mitigation strategies for livestock species, we have in this review summarized and compared currently available results from published studies on this subject. We also offer our perspectives on the importance of pursuing current research efforts on the sequencing of gut methanogen genomes, as well as investigating their cellular physiology and interactions with other GIT microorganisms.

  14. Spatially explicit modeling of animal tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in Ciudad Real province, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHue, Nathaniel P; Baños, Joaquín Vicente; Acevedo, Pelayo; Gortázar, Christian; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-06-01

    Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) are the most important wildlife reservoirs for animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), in Mediterranean Spain. These species are considered to play an important role in the transmission and persistence of MTC in cattle in some regions; however the factors contributing to the risk of transmission at the wildlife-livestock interface and the areas at highest risk for such transmission are largely unknown. This study sought to identify geographic areas where wildlife-livestock interactions are most likely to occur and to characterize the environmental and management factors at this interface contributing to persistence, incidence, and occurrence of TB on cattle farms, in one of the provinces with higher TB prevalence in Spain, Ciudad Real. We used spatially explicit, ecological niche models to evaluate the importance of factors such as wildlife demographics and hunting management, land use, climatic, and environmental variables as well as TB status in wildlife for TB breakdown (model 1), persistence (model 2) and new infection (model 3) on cattle farms and to generate high resolution maps of predicted TB occurrence to guide risk-based interventions. Models revealed that land use, particularly open area and woodland, high wild boar TB prevalence, and close proximity to fenced hunting estates were the most important factors associated with TB infection on cattle farms. This is the first time that local TB prevalence in wild boar for individual hunting estates has been significantly associated with TB occurrence on cattle farms at a local scale. Prediction maps identified two areas with high likelihood of TB occurrence in the southwest and northwest of the province where wildlife-livestock interactions and TB occurrence are highly likely and where TB preventative and mitigation strategies (e.g. targeted vaccination, increased biosecurity, etc.) should be prioritized

  15. Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Gudrun S.; Spruijt, Ineke T.; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Yzermans, Joris; van Dijk, Christel E.; Maassen, Catharina B. M.; van der Hoek, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Previous research conducted in 2009 found a significant positive association between pneumonia in humans and living close to goat and poultry farms. However, as this result might have been affected by a large goat-related Q fever epidemic, the aim of the current study was to re-evaluate this association, now that the Q-fever epidemic had ended. In 2014/15, 2,494 adults (aged 20–72 years) living in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire on respiratory health, lifestyle and other items. We retrieved additional information for 2,426/2,494 (97%) participants from electronic medical records (EMR) from general practitioners. The outcome was self-reported, physician-diagnosed pneumonia or pneumonia recorded in the EMR in the previous three years. Livestock license data was used to determine exposure to livestock. We quantified associations between livestock exposures and pneumonia using odds ratios adjusted for participant characteristics and comorbidities (aOR). The three-year cumulative frequency of pneumonia was 186/2,426 (7.7%). Residents within 2,000m of a farm with at least 50 goats had an increased risk of pneumonia, which increased the closer they lived to the farm (2,000m aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6; 500m aOR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0–9.8). We found no significant associations between exposure to other farm animals and pneumonia. However, when conducting sensitivity analyses using pneumonia outcome based on EMR only, we found a weak but statistically significant association with presence of a poultry farm within 1,000m (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.7). Living close to goat and poultry farms still constitute risk factors for pneumonia. Individuals with pneumonia were not more often seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, indicating that results are not explained by Q fever. We strongly recommend identification of pneumonia causes by the use of molecular diagnostics and investigating the role of non

  16. ANIMAL WELFARE AS AN ELEMENT OF RETARDATION REVERSING THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Animals well-being today is a sign of the progressing civilization of humanity. This ethical and philosophical concept is strongly linked with and makes reference to empathy for animals used by human beings. Situating the welfare in the area of connected action is a purpose of the work from retardation. The welfare is determined as the medical condition of the physical and psychological animal achieved in optimal conditions of the farm environment. This system meets the basic needs of breedin...

  17. Innovative bioresource management technologies for recovery of ammonia and phosphorus from livestock and municipal wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recovery of nutrients from wastes for re-use as concentrated plant fertilizers is a new paradigm in agricultural and municipal waste management. Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the economy, impacting many sectors that depend on clean water. Treatment technologies have ...

  18. An Application of Expert System For Diagnozing Endoparsitism Gastrointestinal Disease In Livestock Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Efendi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this research is to make an expert system as a tool for diagnozing endoparsitism gastrointestinal disease for cows and sheep. The knowledge base of the system has been acquired from some interviews with some doctors from the internal diseases animal's unit at Animal's Hospital, Gadjah Mada University Jogjakarta, some text books, journals, and research papers. The inference machine of the system uses Forward Chaining and uncertainty data methods using Dempster-Shafer Theory. The system has a consultation session with an interactive dialog that can be used by the users. A user gives information such as user's data, and answers the questions about the endoparsitism gastrointestinal symptoms that might be had by his animal. From the answers, the system computes the possibility of the animal to suffer from endoparsitism gastrointestinal, informs the life cycle parasites, and suggests a therapy for it. Keywords : Expert System, diagnoze, endoparsitism gastrointestinal disease, Forward chaining method, Dempster-Shafer Teary

  19. Managing livestock using animal behavior: Mixed-species stocking and flerds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed-species stocking can foster sound landscape management while offering economic and ecological advantages compared to mono-species stocking. Producers contemplating a mixed-species enterprise should reflect on several considerations before implementing this animal management strategy. Factors...

  20. USE OF WASTE WATER OF LIVESTOCK IN ORDER TO OBTAIN BIOMASS FODDER CHEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELNICIUC CRISTINA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the combination of two directions for use of algae: algae biomass obtaining fodder minor and wastewater purification. Subject research have served cianofite species of algae: Nostoc gelatinosum, N. flagelliforme and Anabaena propinqua. As nutrient medium were used wastewater from livestock complexes (poultry and pigs with a rich content of organic substances. Investigations carried out indicate that the largest quantity of biomass of Nostoc flageliforme is achieved in the cultivation with wastewater by 1% from pig complexes -13.2 g / l, Nostoc gelatinosum-1% -68 g / l. and Anabaena propinqua-5%-8.8g/l.

  1. Animal welfare aspects in respect of the slaughter or killing of pregnant livestock animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats,horses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    . Limiteddata on European prevalence and related uncertainties necessitated a structu red expert knowledgeelicitation (EKE) exercise. Estimated median percentages of animals slaughtered in the last third ofgestation are 3%, 1.5%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 0.2% (dairy cows, beef cattle, pigs, sheep and goats...

  2. Grief and Bereavement Issues and the Loss of a Companion Animal: People Living with a Companion Animal, Owners of Livestock, and Animal Support Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Companion animals play various roles in people's lives and these roles can impact on loss, grief, bereavement and mourning when the animal has been lost, whether that is through death, when missing, or when relinquished. This paper considers not only companion animal owners, but also those who own farm animals and those who work in animal service…

  3. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  4. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corro, Grisel; Sánchez, Nallely; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino

    2016-01-01

    A two-step catalytic process for the production of biodiesel from waste frying oil (WFO) at low cost, utilizing waste animal-bone as catalyst and solar radiation as heat source is reported in this work. In the first step, the free fatty acids (FFA) in WFO were esterified with methanol by a catalytic process using calcined waste animal-bone as catalyst, which remains active even after 10 esterification runs. The trans-esterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the presence of hydroxyapatite at the surface of calcined animal bones.

  5. Usage of Farm Animal Waste for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankina, O. V.; Chernysh, A. P.; Sankin, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    The article considers problems connecting with the development of cattle breeding in Russia, especially the utilization of animals and poultry waste products. Basing on the foreign scientists’ experience, it has been proposed different solutions to this problem in terms of the Russian Federation, conducted the study, and presented the results of the undertaken experiments. Recommendations on the use of substances, that speed up fermentation processes at certain temperatures, has been developed.

  6. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Soupir, Michelle L.; Ikenberry, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water.

  7. Animal board invited review: precision livestock farming for dairy cows with a focus on oestrus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, T

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows are high value farm animals requiring careful management to achieve the best results. Since the advent of robotic and high throughput milking, the traditional few minutes available for individual human attention daily has disappeared and new automated technologies have been applied to improve monitoring of dairy cow production, nutrition, fertility, health and welfare. Cows milked by robots must meet legal requirements to detect healthy milk. This review focuses on emerging technical approaches in those areas of high cost to the farmer (fertility, metabolic disorders, mastitis, lameness and calving). The availability of low cost tri-axial accelerometers and wireless telemetry has allowed accurate models of behaviour to be developed and sometimes combined with rumination activity detected by acoustic sensors to detect oestrus; other measures (milk and skin temperature, electronic noses, milk yield) have been abandoned. In-line biosensors have been developed to detect markers for ovulation, pregnancy, lactose, mastitis and metabolic changes. Wireless telemetry has been applied to develop boluses for monitoring the rumen pH and temperature to detect metabolic disorders. Udder health requires a multisensing approach due to the varying inflammatory responses collectively described as mastitis. Lameness can be detected by walk over weigh cells, but also by various types of video image analysis and speed measurement. Prediction and detection of calving time is an area of active research mostly focused on behavioural change.

  8. Matching Livestock Production Systems and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, T.; Stackhouse, J.; Snell, L.; Lile, D.; George, H.; Harper, J. M.; Larson, S.; Mashiri, F.; Doran, M.; Barry, S.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock production systems vary greatly over the world. Producers try to match the resources they have with the demands of production, this can vary by species, class of animal, number of animals, and production goals, etc. Using California's diversity in production systems as an example, we explored how livestock producers best utilize the forage and feed found in different ecosystems and available in different parts of the state. Livestock grazing, the predominant land use in California and in much of the world, makes efficient use of the natural vegetation produced without additional water (irrigation), minimal inputs such as fertilizer while often supporting a variety of conservation objectives including vegetation management, fire fuels management, and habitat and open space conservation. The numerous by-products produced by other sectors of California's agriculture as well as food industries, such as brewer's grain, cottonseeds, and almond hulls are utilized as a feed source for livestock. These by-products are not only an important feed source especially in drought years but are diverted from our waste stream when utilized by livestock. The concept of matching available resources to livestock needs throughout the world is often overlooked and production systems are often over simplified in projects conducting a life cycle analysis or developing carbon foot prints for livestock production systems. This paper provides details on the various production systems found in California, the ecosystem they have adapted to, and how the producers use science and ecological knowledge to match the biological requirements of the livestock and conservation objectives to feed and forage resources.

  9. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  10. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  11. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Federica; Tarazona, José V.; Pablos, M. Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium) that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50) and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians. PMID:22629159

  12. Environmental considerations for the disposal of PBB-contaminated animals and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, B P

    1978-01-01

    Accidental contamination of livestock feed in 1973 by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the destruction of over 30,000 animals in Michigan. Animal carcasses of mostly dairy cattle along with some beef cattle, hogs, sheep and rabbits destroyed under the Federal Food and Drug Administration guidelines were disposed on the land at an environmentally safe site in Kalkaska County, Michigan. The geology and hydrology of the disposal site on state-owned land is considered favorable for the disposal of contaminated carcasses and to prevent any migration of PBBs into ground and surface waters of the area. Materials underneath the site are predominantly sand with layers of silts and clays of glacial origin. The vertical isolation from the surface to the water table is over 90 ft, and the horizontal isolation to the privately owned properties and surface water bodies is well over 1.5 mile in all directions. The site design provides necessary safeguards for minimizing surface water infiltration into disposal trenches and maximizing the protection to the environment. A series of water wells in the direction of flow are established for monitoring groundwater quality for years to come. A 40-acre Gratiot County landfill located near St. Louis, Michigan, has received 269,000 lb of wastes containing 60 to 70% PBBs between 1971 and 1973. PBB wastes are intermixed with general refuse at various depths predominantly in the eastern half of the landfill. Phase I of the hydrogeological investigation shows that the landfill is situated immediately above the groundwater aquifer and a divide. Recently drilled test wells show traces of PBBs in the aquifer in all directions. Additional studies are planned in the near future for corrective measures and monitoring. Images FIGURE 4. PMID:209986

  13. Crude oil degradation potential of bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soil and animal wastes in soil amended with animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voke O. Urhibo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of animal wastes on crude oil degradation potential of strains of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis isolated from animal wastes (poultry and pig droppings and petroleum-polluted soil was compared in laboratory studies. Both bacterial strains were selected for high crude oil degradation ability after screening many isolates by the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol method. Analyses by gas chromatography (GC showed that degradation of crude oil was markedly enhanced (88.3–97.3% vs 72.1–78.8% in soil amended with animal wastes as indicated by the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH. TPH reduction by animal waste bacterial strains in animal waste-amended soil was more than the reduction by strains from soil contaminated with petroleum (P < 0.001. The greatest reduction of TPH (96.6–97.3% vs 80.4–95.9% was by poultry waste strains and it occurred in soil amended with poultry waste. GC analyses of n-alkanes showed that although shorter chains were preferentially degraded [32.0–78.5% (C8–23 vs 6.3–18.5% (C24–36] in normal soil, biodegradation of longer chains increased to 38.4–46.3% in animal waste-amended soil inoculated with the same animal wastes’ strains. The results indicate that these animal waste strains may be of potential application for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in the presence of the wastes from where they were isolated.

  14. The Sustainability of Intensive Livestock Areas (ILAS: Network System and Conflict Potential from the Perspective of Animal Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Otten

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available  The present study has determined the perceived consequences of an ILA on the production conditions of livestock farming systems based on the advantages of an agglomerated agri-food industry and the disadvantages of an increasing livestock concentration. It became obvious that the benefits of such ILAs can be understood according to their human and social capital. These elements, however, are both associated with a low geographic responsiveness to any increase in problems and so cause land use conflicts to increase. Their perception of the effects of being located within an ILA caused the livestock farmers in this survey to consider their production conditions more when formulating their demands with respect to policies concerning regional development and land use planning. Understanding this type of perception may help to counter current problems and to enhance the success of structural policies in ILAs.

  15. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  16. Bioaugmentation of Treatment System for Skatole Degradation: Bioremediation Potential for Odors Reduction at Livestock Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal waste disposal and odor control have become a major issue for animal production facilities. As an attempt to improve efficiency and profit margins, many livestock operations have become large concentrated rearing facilities. As a result, many concerns over potentially adverse environmental ...

  17. Hazardous animal waste carcasses transformation into slow release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Patrick; Fiallo, Marina; Nzihou, Ange; Chkir, Mouna

    2009-08-15

    Because of the need to address disposal of materials infected with pathogens new regulations have come into effect for the transport and disposal of dead farm animals or carcasses. For precautionary reasons, disposal to landfill, composting, biogas generation or fertilizer use are banned recycling paths because of incomplete knowledge about contamination transmission paths. Thermal treatment is recognized as a safe elimination process. Animal wastes have a high calorific value (above 16 MJ/kg). However, combustion of the organics leaves mineral residues (near 30%). The ashes contain mostly calcium and phosphate with some sodium, potassium and magnesium. We have examined the transformation of the ashes into a slow release fertilizer. We used a mixture of acids to partly dissolve the combustion residues and form slurry. In a second step, base was added to neutralize and solidify the reaction mixture. The final product was a whitish polycrystalline solid. Leaching tests were made to evaluate the nutrient release rate in laboratory columns. Water leachates were analyzed for up to ten pore-bed volumes and showed, as expected, large differences in release rates. Nitrate release was slowed and phosphate did not level even after ten pore-bed volumes. This demonstrates that insoluble precipitates (gypsum) contribute to control soluble ion release.

  18. 基于WebGIS的畜禽养殖废弃物对农田环境污染预警系统研究%WebGIS-based Early Warning System of Farmland Environmental Pollution Caused by Livestock Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎波杰; 潘瑜春; 吴文英; 汤文静; 甘秋玲; 阮云娟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为了快速、实时动态地获取区域内畜禽养殖废弃物对农田环境污染情况。[方法]以WebGIS为空间信息平台,构建了网络化、数字化的畜禽养殖废弃物对农田环境污染预警系统。[结果]系统主要实现了畜禽养殖废弃量计算、畜禽养殖相关信息查询与分析、农田畜禽养殖废弃物氮负荷量估算、畜禽养殖废弃物对农田环境污染预警及结果可视化输出等。[结论]该研究可为畜禽废弃物对环境污染的相关研究提供科学依据。%[Objective]The paper was to quickly get the real-time dynamic status of regional farmland environmental pollution caused by livestock wastes.[Method] With WebGIS as spatial information platform,the network and digital early warning system of farmland environmental pollution caused by livestock wastes was established.[Result] The system realized the functions such as livestock wastes calculation,livestock information query and analysis,nitrogen load quantity estimation of livestock waste,early warning of farmland environmental pollution caused by livestock wastes and visual display of result.[Conclusion] The paper provided scientific basis for the relevant research on farmland environmental pollution caused by livestock wastes.

  19. Effect of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane...

  20. Evaluation of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane ...

  1. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  2. Isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in Ijara District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service-protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne.

  3. Seroprevalence of antibody to TgGRA7 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii in livestock animals from Western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Guswanto, Azirwan; Allamanda, Puttik; Mariamah, Euis Siti; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a concern in both human and veterinary medicine, and the consumption of undercooked meat infected with Toxoplasma gondii is a major risk factor in human infection. Establishing the prevalence of the parasite in food-producing livestock is essential to reduce the risk of human infection. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii-specific antibodies in cattle and pigs in Western Java, Indonesia. Serum samples from 598 cattle and 205 pigs from 18 locations in Western Java, Indonesia, were tested for antibodies to T. gondii using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seroprevalence was 14.6% in pigs and 7.4% in cattle, and significantly more pigs were seropositive compared with cattle (p<0.01). The results of this study suggest that consumption of undercooked meat should be regarded as an important source of infection in people. This study suggests that the risk factors for T. gondii infection in livestock appeared to be different in each location because geographical variation in seroprevalence was observed. The results of this study will facilitate further research to identify and control risk factors for T. gondii in the surveyed locations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. From Animal Waste to Energy; A Study of Methane Gas converted to Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S.

    2016-12-01

    Does animal waste produce enough harvestable energy to power a household, and if so, what animal's waste can produce the most methane that is usable. What can we power using this methane and how can we power these appliances within an average household using the produced methane from animal waste. The waste product from animals is readily available all over the world, including third world countries. Using animal waste to produce green energy would allow low cost energy sources and give independence from fossil fuels. But which animal produces the most methane and how hard is it to harvest? Before starting this experiment I knew that some cow farms in the northern part of the Central California basin were using some of the methane from the waste to power their machinery as a safer, cheaper and greener source through the harnessed methane gas in a digester. The fermentation process would occur in the digester producing methane gasses as a side product. Methane that is collected can later be burned for energy. I have done a lot of research on this experiment and found that many different farm and ranch animals produce methane, but it was unclear which produced the most. I decided to focus my study on the waste from cows, horses, pig and dogs to try to find the most efficient and strongest source of methane from animal waste. I produced an affordable methane digester from plastic containers with a valve to attach a hose. By putting in the waste product and letting it ferment with water, I was able to produce and capture methane, then measure the amount with a Gaslab meter. By showing that it is possible to create energy with this simple digester, it could reduce pollution and make green energy easily available to communities all over the world. Eventually this could result into our sewer systems converting waste to energy, producing an energy source right in your home.

  5. Diffuse pollution from livestock production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    With economic development and living standard improvement, livestock and poultry production has grown up rapidly, also has become the leading source of pollution in vast rural areas in China. The estimated annual loss amount of COD, BOD, NH3-N from manure in 2001 is 7.28 million ton, 4.99 million ton and 1.32 million ton, respectively. The COD loss amount from manure is close to the sum of COD from industrial and domestic wastewater. Because animal waste and wastewater can enter water bodies from spills or breaks of waste storage structures (due to accidents or excessive rain), and non-agricultural application of manure to cropland, this contamination has resulted in quality degradation of surface and underground drinking water supplies. Areas with concentrated livestock operations are showing elevated nutrients and organic pollutant contents in surface waters. This widespread contamination of water has prompted governments at various levels to adopt regulations and measures to control the spreading of livestock pollution.

  6. Herds, Exotic Animal, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Herds, Exotic Animal dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'WI...

  7. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  8. The experience of animal welfare inspections as perceived by Danish livestock farmers:A qualitative research approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare control carriedout by the authorities by using unannounced on-farm nspection has been expanding in Denmark during the past 10 years.In the EU among others,third-party audit and inspection of animal welfare connected to private labels or as a requirement from the food industry is a ...

  9. The livestock sector and its stakeholders in the search to meet the animal welfare requirements of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, V.M.; Reinders, M.J.; Tulder, R.J.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder support is crucial to chain parties delivering against the (latent) demand and consumption of animal-friendly products. Actors take an ambiguous position in dealing with the issue of animal welfare improvements, partly because such improvements deviate from the dominant business

  10. Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial populations and antimicrobial resistance genes obtained from environments impacted by livestock and municipal waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal waste water treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two "low impact...

  11. Fate and Transport of Bioaerosols Associated with Livestock Operations and Manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne microorganisms and microbial byproducts from intensive livestock and manure management systems are a potential health risk to workers and individuals in nearby communities. This report presents information on zoonotic pathogens in animal wastes and the generation, fate, and transport of bi...

  12. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  13. Herds, Beef, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Herds, Beef dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'WI Livestock...

  14. Herds, Sheep, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Herds, Sheep dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'WI Livestock...

  15. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Poultry Houses dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'WI Livestock...

  16. TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE EMISSIONS OF NOXIOUS GASES RESULTING FROM LIVESTOCK FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smurzyńska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the animal production, which is increasingly expanding, it comes to harmful gas emissions. These emissions relate to both greenhouse and odorous gases emissions. The resulting volatile compounds also contribute to the formation of acid rain, eutrophication of water aquens and soils, corrosion in livestock buildings and damage of the ozone layer. Considering the existing problem, solutions neutralizing the impact of animal production on the environment, are being looked for. Moreover, numerous activities in the way of nutritional and technological solutions are undertaken. Nutritional techniques are based on diet modification and require continuous monitoring of livestock animals. On the other hand, technological solutions are taking action to reduce emissions of gases from livestock buildings and slurry management. The proposed ways of disposing slurry result in different effects in terms of reduction of dangerous gases. They require the implementation of additional actions leading, among other things, to the proper animal waste disposal.

  17. Animal waste as a nitrogen source for Gracilaria tikvahie and Nevagardhiella baileyi in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agare, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Animal waste from sheep and rabbit was used as a nitrogen source for culturing Gracilaria tikvahiae and Neoagardhiella baileyi (Rhodophyceae) at 23 degrees C, 56 mu Ein/m2/s 1 for 6 days. The culture media ranged from 0.008 to 0.08% dry weight animal waste. Optimal growth appeared between 0.04 and 0.08%. Sheep waste supported optimal growth of 0.19 and 0.18 g/g in Neoagardhiella baileyi and Gracilaria tikvahiae, respectively. Rabbit waste on the other hand supported a higher optimal growth of 0.45 and 0.28 g/g in Neoagardhiella baileyi and Gracilaria tikvahiae, respectively. Recommended concentrations of Provasoli's enrichment supported Gracilaria tikvahiae growth of 0.12 g/g during the experimental period. These results suggest a potential for the utilization of sheep and rabbit waste as a nutrient source for growing these economically important red algae. Although sheep waste had a higher inorganic nitrogen content than rabbit waste, the latter supported a better growth (1.5 - 2 times the optimal growth observed in the algae using sheep waste). This result was attributed to the greater turbidity produced from sheep waste, reducing the light reaching the algae in the culture dishes.

  18. Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Padel, Susanne; Younie, David;

    2008-01-01

    of organic values and, 4) In all participating countries, a strong need for training of farmers and in particular veterinarians in animal health promotion and organic principles was identified. The article presents a summary of papers presented at the five SAFO workshops......., and creates several challenges for a harmonised regulation, 2) Implementing organic standards at farm level does not always ensure that animal health and welfare reach the high ideals of the organic principles, 3) To overcome these deficiencies, organic farmers and farmer organisations need to take ownership...

  19. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  20. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste: swine manure and tuna fish waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, L.; Alvarez, J. A.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion has become an established and proven technology for the treatment of solid wastes. Co-digestion offers several possible ecological, technology and economical advantages. Anaerobic co-digestion can increase CH{sub 4} production of manure diesters in a 50-200% according to the operation conditions and the co-substrates used. Last September 2007, PROBIOGAS project started up with the objective of improving the production and use of biogas from co-digestion of farming, agricultural and industrial waste. Our research group takes part in the study of co-digestion of swine manure firstly with tuna fish waste and secondly with glycerine (bio diesel production waste). (Author)

  2. Recycling of solid wastes in Mexico City in livestock and agricultural production systems as a sustainable alternative

    OpenAIRE

    H. Losada; Cortes, J.; Rivera, J.; Vargas, J

    2011-01-01

    The use of solid organic wastes (manure and  fruit and vegetable refusals) as a way to recycle rubbish from peri-urban areas for the production of crops for local consumption, has been designated by some researchers as an alternate method to partially reduce city waste disposal problems as well as to generate employment and promote the consumption of local products. This model production has also been suggested as a closed system ideally suited for urban environments in order to reduce the us...

  3. Recycling of solid wastes in Mexico City in livestock and agricultural production systems as a sustainable alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Losada, H.; J. Cortes; Rivera, J.; Vargas, J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of solid organic wastes (manure and  fruit and vegetable refusals) as a way to recycle rubbish from peri-urban areas for the production of crops for local consumption, has been designated by some researchers as an alternate method to partially reduce city waste disposal problems as well as to generate employment and promote the consumption of local products. This model production has also been suggested as a closed system ideally suited for urban environments in order to reduce the us...

  4. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products; Foerbraenning av flytande animaliska/vegetabiliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  5. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Herrera-León, S; Porrero, C; Blanco, J; Dahbi, G; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Mateo, R; Hanning, I; Vidal, D

    2013-05-03

    Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (p<0, 01) where high densities of red deer (p<0.001) were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  7. News in livestock research — use of Omics-technologies to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Deusch

    2015-01-01

    This review will provide a general overview about the recent Omics-based research of the microbiota in livestock including its major findings. Differences concerning the results of pre-Omics-approaches in livestock as well as the perspectives of this relatively new Omics-platform will be highlighted.

  8. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA Clonal Complex (CC 398 isolated from UK animals belongs to European lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenaxi Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA clonal complex (CC 398 recovered from S. aureus isolated animals in the UK. To determine possible origins of 12 LA-MRSA CC398 isolates collected after screening more than a thousand S. aureus animal isolates from the UK between 2013- 2015, , whole genome sequences (WGS of CC398 European, including UK, and non-European isolates from diverse animal hosts were compared. Phylogenetic reconstruction applied to WGS data to assess genetic relatedness of all 89 isolates, clustered the 12 UK CC398 LA-MRSA within the European sub-lineages, although on different nodes; implicating multiple independent incursions into the UK, as opposed to a single introduction followed by clonal expansion. Three UK isolates from healthy pigs and one from turkey clustered within the cassette chromosome recombinases (ccrC S. aureus protein A (spa-type t011 European sub-lineage and three UK isolates from horses within the ccrA2B2 t011 European sub-lineage. The remaining UK isolates, mostly from pigs, clustered within the t034 European lineage. Presence of virulence, antimicrobial (AMR, heavy metal (HMR, and disinfectant (DR resistance genes were determined using an in-house pipeline. Most, including UK isolates, harboured resistance genes to ≥3 antimicrobial classes in addition to β-lactams. HMR genes were detected in most European ccrC positive isolates, with >80% harbouring czrC, encoding zinc and cadmium resistance; in contrast ~60% ccrC isolates within non-European lineages and 6% ccrA2B2 isolates showed this characteristic. The UK turkey MRSA isolate did not harbour φAVβ avian prophage genes (SAAV_2008 and SAAV_2009 present in US MSSA isolates from turkey and pigs. Absence of some of the major human-associated MRSA toxigenic and virulence genes in the UK LA-MRSA animal isolates was not unexpected. Therefore, we can conclude that the

  9. Risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P

    2004-07-17

    Uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the Animal By-Products Regulations. This paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. The factors controlling the level of risk are the separation of the meat at source, the efficiency of the composting process, and the decay and dilution of the pathogens in soil. The net pathogen destruction by the composting process is determined largely by the degree of bypass, and to accommodate the possibility of large joints or even whole carcases being discarded uncooked to catering waste, a time/temperature condition of 60 degrees C for two days is recommended. Where data are lacking, worst-case assumptions have been applied. According to the model, classical swine fever virus constitutes the highest risk, but the assessment shows that a two-barrier composting approach, together with a two-month grazing ban, reduces the risk to one infection in pigs every 190 years in England and Wales. This work defined the operational conditions for the composting of catering waste as set out in the Animal By-Products Regulations 2003 (SI 1482).

  10. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473).

  11. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium

  12. Ethics of livestock farming? : who cares?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    'Concerns about livestock farming mainly focus on animal welfare.
    Societal groups address livestock farmers on their duty of care
    because more and more animals are kept in increasingly intensive
    systems. Most farmers, as caring farmers, are willing to take
    various measures to improve

  13. Fate of arsenic in swine waste from concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Quazi, Shahida; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2008-01-01

    Swine diets are often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (roxarsone) to treat animal diseases and promote growth. Recent work reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize a suite of swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs for soluble arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-HPPA), p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone, and (ii) determine the geochemical fate of roxarsone in storage lagoons nearby CAFOs. Swine waste suspensions were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions to monitor roxarsone degradation kinetics. Arsenic speciation analysis using liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) illustrated the prevalence of As(V) in swine waste suspensions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to either organoarsenicals (3-HPPA) or As(V) and a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation occurred under anaerobic conditions for suspensions low in solids content, but suspensions higher in solids content facilitated roxarsone degradation under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Increased solids content enhanced roxarsone degradation kinetics under aerobic conditions. According to current waste storage and sampling practices, arsenic in swine wastes stored in lagoons has been overlooked as a possible environmental health issue.

  14. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  15. Assessment of the energy potential of crop residues and animal wastes in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felichesmi Selestine Lyakurwa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy access has a significant contribution to the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the human development. The access to clean and safe energy can improve the human health and quality of ecosystems by reducing the extent of pollution caused by use of inefficient cooking equipments and processes, and by slowing environmental degradation. In this paper Monte Carlo simulation was applied to evaluate the amount of crop residues available which provided the basis for the quantity of energy that can be generated from the crop residues and animal wastes in Tanzania. The amount of crop residues and animal wastes was estimated from the agricultural statistical data obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO from 1961 – 2012. The analysis revealed the bioenergy potential of crop residues in Tanzania to be 5,714 TJ in 2012, which is extremely larger than the installed electric energy generation capacity of 1564 MW in 2013. Besides, the estimation of renewable energy potential of live animals indicated the ability to generate 1,397 TJ/year if exploited. Thus, effective utilization of crop residues and animal wastes without compromising the amount required for the soil fertility and animal feeds can contribute greatly to the access of safe and clean anergy for sustainable development of the rural and urban areas of Tanzania.

  16. Research Progress on Enzyme Application in Resource Recycling of Livestock and Poultry Waste%酶制剂在畜禽养殖废弃物资源化利用中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐; 贺静; 马诗淳; 邓宇

    2013-01-01

    随着我国养殖业的迅速发展,畜禽养殖废弃物污染情况日益严重,传统的废弃物处理方式不仅效率低,且易造成环境污染与资源浪费。针对这一问题,结合酶制剂研究的现状与发展趋势,分析了环保酶制剂对畜禽养殖废弃物的无害化处理与资源化利用的有效性与必要性,详细阐述了脂肪酶、纤维素酶、角蛋白酶以及其他微生物酶制剂用于畜禽养殖废弃物处理的研究进展与应用情况,并讨论了现阶段应用酶制剂处理畜禽养殖废弃物存在的问题以及针对该领域酶制剂研究的发展方向,以期为探索畜禽养殖废弃物高值化利用途径与新型酶制剂的研发提供理论参考。%With the rapid development of China�s livestock and poultry industries, waste pollution becomes serious day by day. The traditional methods of waste disposal are not only inefficient and also cause environmental pollution and resource waste. In order to solve this problem, combining with the current situation and development tendency of studies on enzyme preparation, the paper analyzed the effectiveness and necessity of applying enzyme preparation to bio-safety disposal and resource utilization of livestock and poultry wastes, expounded in detail the research progress and application situation of lipase, cellulose, keratinase and other microbial enzyme preparations used for livestock and poultry waste disposal. The paper also discussed problems existing in applying enzyme preparation to livestock and poultry waste disposal, and the development direction of enzyme preparation research, so as to provide theoretical reference for exploring high-value and utilization ways for waste and R&D of new type enzyme preparation.

  17. 畜禽养殖废物农用对蔬菜铬含量的影响%Effect of Local Livestock Waste Using as Fertilizer on Pollution of Chromium in Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙海燕; 吴春山; 李小梅

    2012-01-01

    With the application of modern technique of breeding domestic livestock, heavy metals are added into the feeding material of livestock, then some of them may be remained into the livestock waste after the livestock' s absorption. If the waste is reused directly as fertilizers in the field, it will potentially lead to the accumulation of heavy metals in vegetable or cereal through soil. We selected the traditional vegetable fields in suburb of Fuzhou, analyzed the chromium content in local typical vegetables in fields both with pig farm wastes as fertilizer and without pig wastes at the meantime, then assessed the heavy metal pollution impact on vegetables caused by the application of pig farm wastes. Results showed that chromium content in soil samples with pig farm wastes as fertilizer was 1.35~2.75 times of that in soil samples without pig farm wastes; Chromium content in vegetable root arrived at the highest level among the whole plant, then leaf and stem, it meant that chromium in vegetable was quite inactive; Chromium content in different organs of the vegetable with pig farm wastes as fertilizer was 1.14~5.82 times of that without pig farm wastes , the highest was edible stem or leaves of vegetables . With pig farm wastes as the fertilizer, the distribution pattern of chromium content in the organs of vegetables was changed, chromium element percentage in root decreased while increased in edible leaf or stem, for example, the highest chromium concentration of potato was in edible stem. Therefore, using waste of livestock as fertilizer may increase the security risks of vegetables.%选取福州城郊典型蔬菜种植区,调查分析了猪粪农用和污灌对土壤和蔬菜铬含量的影响.结果表明:施用猪粪及污灌条件下菜地土壤铬含量是未施用猪粪菜地土壤的1.35~2.75倍;蔬菜各器官铬浓度顺序为根>叶>茎;施用猪粪及污灌后,蔬菜不同器官铬浓度提高到未施用猪粪的1.14~5.82倍,尤其是食

  18. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  19. Nitrous oxide supersaturation at the liquid/air interface of animal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: kcmakris@gmail.co [Cyprus International Institute for the Environment and Public Health in association with the Harvard School of Public Health, 5 Iroon Street, Nicosia 1105 (Cyprus); Andra, Syam S. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Hardy, Michael; Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Bach, Stephan B.H.; Mullens, Conor P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Concentrated animal feeding operations around the globe generate large amounts of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in the surrounding atmosphere. Liquid animal waste systems have received little attention with respect to N{sub 2}O emissions. We hypothesized that the solution chemistry of animal waste aqueous suspensions would promote conditions that lead to N{sub 2}O supersaturation at the liquid/air interface. The concentration of dissolved N{sub 2}O in poultry litter (PL) aqueous suspensions at 25 deg. C was 0.36 mug N{sub 2}O mL{sup -1}, at least an order of magnitude greater than that measured in water in equilibrium with ambient air, suggesting N{sub 2}O supersaturation. There was a nonlinear increase in the N{sub 2}O Henry constants of PL from 2810 atm/mole fraction at 35 deg. C to 17 300 atm/mole fraction at 41 deg. C. The extremely high N{sub 2}O Henry constants were partially ascribed to N{sub 2}O complexation with aromatic moieties. Complexed N{sub 2}O structures were unstable at temperatures > 35 deg. C, supplying the headspace with additional free N{sub 2}O concentrations. - Temperature-dependent N{sub 2}O supersaturation at the liquid/air interface of animal waste.

  20. Rad World -- computer-animated video radiation and hazardous waste-management science curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, B. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Rad World computer-animated video and curriculum materials were developed through a grant from the Waste-management Education and Research Consortium. The package, which includes a computer-animated video, hands-on activities, and multidisciplinary lessons concerning radiation and hazardous-waste management, was created to approach these subjects in an informative, yet entertaining, manner. The lessons and video, designed to supplement studies of energy and physical science at the middle school and high school level, also implement quality and consistent science education as outlined by the New Mexico Science Standards and Benchmarks (1995). Consistent with the curriculum standards and benchmarks, the curriculum includes library research, collaborative learning, hands-on-science, and discovery learning. Pre- and post-tests are included.

  1. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A.; Plastow, Graham S.; Wishart, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular “omics” approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed. PMID:28531195

  2. Isolation and identification of Salmonella from diarrheagenic infants and young animals, sewage waste and fresh vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Nair

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution, and identification of Salmonella serotypes in diarrheagenic infants and young animals, including sewage waste and fresh vegetables. Materials and Methods: A total of 550 samples were processed for the isolation of Salmonella spp., using standard microbiological and biochemical tests. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of Salmonella genus was carried out using self-designed primers targeting invA gene and thereafter identification of important serotypes namely Salmonella Enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enterica serovar Enteritidis, Salmonella Enterica serovar Typhi was performed using published standardized multiplex PCR. Results: An overall low prevalence of 2.5% (14/550 was observed. The observed prevalence of Salmonella spp. in diarrheagenic infants was 1.2% (05/400, diarrheagenic young animals 4% (02/50, sewage waste 10% (05/50, and fresh vegetables 4% (02/50, respectively. In diarrheagenic infants, of the five Salmonella isolates identified, two were Salmonella Typhimurium, two Salmonella Enteritidis, and one was unidentified and hence designated as other Salmonella serovar. All the Salmonella isolates identified from diarrheagenic young animals and sewage waste belonged to other Salmonella serovar, whereas, of the two isolates recovered from fresh vegetables, one was identified as other Salmonella serovar, and one as Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively. Conclusion: Isolation of Salmonella spp. especially from sewage waste and fresh vegetable is a matter of great concern from public health point of view because these sources can accidentally serve as a potential vehicle for transmission of Salmonella spp. to animals and human beings.

  3. Electromagnetic Processing as a Way of Increasing Microbiological Safety of Animal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, O. M.; Kolosova, M. M.; Filipovich, L. A.; Aksenov, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The article shows the possibility of using the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (EMF UHF) for drying and disinfecting of such animal waste as pig manure and poultry droppings. The studied modes included the following options: processing exposure of 60, 90, 120 sec, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. The method of UHF processing of manure and poultry droppings is environmentally safe and effective in neutralizing the pathogenic microflora, as well as larvae and eggs of worms. The following processing mode of animal waste in the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency was recognized as optimal: exposure of 90 seconds, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. This option leads to the complete destruction of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the eggs and larvae of worms. As a result of this processing, a high level of microbiological safety of pig manure and poultry droppings is achieved that allows using them as organic fertilizers. The peculiarities of some species of pathogenic fungi developing on the surface of the wheat grain are shown. Pre-processed animal waste (pig manure and and poultry droppings) were applied in experimental variants. Used organic fertilizers underwent electromagnetic processing of ultra-high frequency. The qualitative composition of the microflora on the surface of the grain depends on the type of animal waste (manure or droppings) and used dose. The safest part of the microflora of grain was marked with the application of the UHF-processed pig manure and poultry droppings in doses of 10 t/ha.

  4. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production with Ralstonia eutropha from low quality waste animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Jahns, Stefan; Koenig, Steven; Bock, Martina C E; Brigham, Christopher J; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-11-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters considered as alternatives to petroleum-based plastics. Ralstonia eutropha is a model organism for PHA production. Utilizing industrially rendered waste animal fats as inexpensive carbon feedstocks for PHA production is demonstrated here. An emulsification strategy, without any mechanical or chemical pre-treatment, was developed to increase the bioavailability of solid, poorly-consumable fats. Wild type R. eutropha strain H16 produced 79-82% (w/w) polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) per cell dry weight (CDW) when cultivated on various fats. A productivity of 0.3g PHB/(L × h) with a total PHB production of 24 g/L was achieved using tallow as carbon source. Using a recombinant strain of R. eutropha that produces poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(HB-co-HHx)], 49-72% (w/w) of PHA per CDW with a HHx content of 16-27 mol% were produced in shaking flask experiments. The recombinant strain was grown on waste animal fat of the lowest quality available at lab fermenter scale, resulting in 45 g/L CDW with 60% (w/w) PHA per CDW and a productivity of 0.4 g PHA/(L × h). The final HHx content of the polymer was 19 mol%. The use of low quality waste animal fats as an inexpensive carbon feedstock exhibits a high potential to accelerate the commercialization of PHAs.

  5. Prevalence of Selected Bacterial Infections Associated with the Use of Animal Waste in Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. Health concerns could arise from exposure to pathogens and excess nitrogen associated with this form of pollution. The objective was to collect and analyze health data related to selected bacterial infections associated with the use of animal waste in Louisiana. An analysis of adverse health effects has been conducted based on the incidence/prevalence rates of campylobacteriosis, E. coli O157:H7 infection, salmonellosis and shigellosis. The number of reported cases increased during the summer months. Analysis of health data showed that reported disease cases of E. coli O157:H7 were highest among Caucasian infants in the 0-4 year old age category and in Caucasian children in the 5-9 year old age category. Fatalities resulting from salmonellosis are low and increases sharply with age. The number of reported cases of shigellosis was found to be higher in African American males and females than in Caucasians. The high rate of identification in the younger population may result from the prompt seeking of medical care, as well as the frequent ordering of stool examination when symptoms become evident among this group of the population. The association with increasing age and fatality due to salmonellosis could be attributed to declining health and weaker immune systems often found in the older population. It is concluded that both animal waste and non-point source pollution may have a significant impact on human health.

  6. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts.

  7. 7 CFR 760.906 - Eligible livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, catfish, crawfish, equine, sheep, goats...; (21) Non-adult beef cattle; (22) Non-adult buffalo/beefalo; (23) Non-adult dairy cattle; (24) Reindeer..., the following types of animals owned by a livestock owner are eligible livestock: (1) Adult beef bulls...

  8. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts. Predator-

  9. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts. Predator-

  10. 中国区域畜禽粪便能源潜力及总量控制研究%Biogas energy potential for livestock manure and gross control of animal feeding in region level of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿维; 胡林; 崔建宇; 卜美东; 张蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

      为了评估中国畜禽粪便资源总量及其对环境的影响,以环保部、统计局和农业部发布的区域畜禽产排污系数为基础,利用2010年的统计数据,研究了中国及各省的畜禽粪便资源总量、能源潜力及农地的氮磷负荷,并以欧盟的农地氮磷施用标准对中国畜禽养殖的环境容量和污染风险进行了初步评估.结果表明,2010年,中国畜禽粪便总量达22.35亿 t,可产沼气1072.75亿 m3,山东等6省市粪便资源超过1.00亿 t;全国单位面积农地氮磷平均负荷为43.73 kg/hm2(TN)和9.16 kg/hm2(TP),北京等6省市农地氮磷负荷超标;全国畜禽养殖环境容量为129.56亿头猪当量(以 N 为基准),159.74亿头猪当量(以 P 为基准),实际养殖总量约占环境容量的1/4,考虑化肥施用的影响,约有20个省超过本省50%环境容量.研究结果为区域畜禽养殖总量控制、合理布局和粪污的综合利用提供决策依据.%With the increasing demand for meat products, animal husbandry industry has developed rapidly in China in the past decade. Large amount of animal manure were produced, which would be an important sources of biogas energy production or serious pollutant sources to soil and water body, if discharged into the environment without appropriate processing. It is very meaningful to assess the impacts of animal manure on environment in China. Based on the pollutant excretion coefficient of livestock and poultry that was officially released by the Ministry of National Environmental Protection of China, and the latest statistical data from statistical year book of China in 2011 that was released by the National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Agriculture, the gross amount of animal manure and the biogas energy potential by animal manure in different regions of China were evaluated in this study. The whole country was divided into six regions and the major 10 species of livestock and poultry were selected. Meanwhile

  11. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  12. Livestock as a Buffer Stock

    OpenAIRE

    Ali,Daniel Ayalew

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a stochastic dynamic programming model to characterize the optimal savings-consumption decisions and the role of livestock inventories as a buffer stock in rural Ethiopia. The results show that relatively land-rich households use accumulation and liquidation of cattle and other animal inventories for partial consumption smoothing, while low-income households appear not to d...

  13. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity.

  14. The Optimum Mesophilic Temperature of Batch Process Biogas Production from Animal-based Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osita Obineche Obiukwu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimum mesophilic temperature of biogas production from blends The optimum temperature of biogas production from blends of animal-based wastes was determined under controlled heat supply to the digester in a batch digestion process. Cow Dung (CD and Poultry Droppings (PD were blended in the ratio of CD: PD: 1:3. The digester was operated at average ambient temperature of 30°C as baseline. Biogas production from the waste blends was monitored under the temperatures of 32 to 45°C. Results obtained indicate maximum cumulative gas yield was observed at the temperature of 40°C. The 40°C temperature gave the highest biogas yield of 2685 mL followed by the 35°C temperature with the cumulative yield of 2535 mL. The ambient temperature of 30°C had the least cumulative biogas yield of 185 mL. These results indicate that increased and steady biogas production can be achieved under the optimum mesophilic temperature of 40°C when these animal-based wastes are digested in batch digestion process.

  15. Gender, smallholder livestock production, improvement and conservation in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Assan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers, developmental agents and researchers are now aware of the need to incorporate gender  issues in smallholder livestock production  planning and development in order to improve livestock productivity in Africa. This discussion  attempt to explore  the role of gender in smallholder livestock production,genetic improvement and conservation.Strategies to improve livestock production and conservation within the smallholder livestock sector  will not be successful unless gender related issues are taken into account.Ownership of different livestock species by men and women in smallholder livestock production sector  has been documented, often cattle and larger animals are owned by men, while goat keeping and backyard poultry production are largely women's domains.  Therefore, it is assumed that taking cognizance of gender differentials in smallholder livestock production intervention programs will result in effectively implementation of livestockdevelopment programs ensuring more optimal outcomes. The rationale for gender integration in livestock improvement and conservation is driven by the fact that different household members typically hold different livestock responsibilities; they also may have different livestock priorities and livestock production constraints. Gender sensitive livestock policy initiatives such as training women in livestock improvement  and conservation in smallholder livestock production sector should be adopted in order to address specific concerns and priorities of women as major stakeholders in livestock production.Gendered asymmetries in access to livestock and  services not only do a great disservice to women and men livestock smallholder farmers, but they also stifle the potential for more sustainable and effective actions along a given livestock improvement program. In most cases , where  livestock improvement and conservation programs  are being carried out, the lack of gender consideration

  16. The development of a modular system to burn farm animal waste to generate heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd., Pottsville, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an internally circulating fluid bed (ICFB) boiler that can burn poultry litter or other waste fuels. The disposal of animal waste is a significant problem for many poultry producers in the Chesapeake Bay area where poultry waste has contaminated local watersheds and the unpleasant odour has offended the local population. ICFB boilers can be made in the range of 3,000 to 23,000 kg/hr. Spinheat Ltd. has designed a complete modular small co-generating power plant in the range of 100 to 1,000 kW electrical generation with equivalent steam output. The co-generating power unit fits on the processor's premises to supply electricity and steam for process use by burning the poultry litter. The unit has been tested for poultry litter combustion and for emissions. This paper illustrates the complete design of the modular plants in the 100, 150, 200, 580 kW range as well as the 1 MW size. This new co-generating unit solves the waste management problem for poultry producers, as it can result in half the amount of poultry litter being spread on land as fertilizer. The cost of building the co-generation plant was reported in this paper along with the running costs of the plant. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  17. Exploring changes in the spatial distribution of livestock in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Keulen, van H.

    1999-01-01

    China's livestock sector is very dynamic as a consequence of increasing demands for animal products. This paper explores the spatial distribution of different groups of livestock in China. Relations between the spatial pattern of livestock distribution and a large number of socio-economic and biophy

  18. Arsenic poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bahri, L; Ben Romdane, S

    1991-06-01

    Arsenic is an important heavy metal intoxicant to livestock. Arsenical pesticides present significant hazards to animal health. The toxicity of arsenic varies with several factors--its chemical form, oxidation states, solubility. The phenylarsonic compounds are the least toxic and are used as feed additives in swine and poultry rations. However, roxarsone has a higher absolute toxicity than arsanilic acid. The mechanism of action is related to its reaction with sulfhydryl groups values to enzyme function and to its ability to uncouple oxydative phosphorylation. Most animals excrete arsenic quite readily. Toxicoses caused by inorganic and aliphatic organic arsenicals result in a different clinical syndrome than that from the phenylarsonic compounds. Arsenic poisoning may be confused with other types of intoxication. The specific antidote for inorganic arsenical poisoning is dimercaprol (BAL).

  19. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  1. Mapping the global distribution of livestock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Robinson

    Full Text Available Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator. Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org, as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.

  2. Applied and environmental chemistry of animal manure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure consists of predominantly urine and feces, but also may contain bedding materials, dropped feed, scurf and other farming wastes. The estimated amount of manure produced in 12 major livestock producing countries is 9 x109 Mg of manure annually. Manures are rich in plant nutrients. Howev...

  3. Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melissa Rojas-Downing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for livestock products is expected to double by 2050, mainly due to improvement in the worldwide standard of living. Meanwhile, climate change is a threat to livestock production because of the impact on quality of feed crop and forage, water availability, animal and milk production, livestock diseases, animal reproduction, and biodiversity. This study reviews the global impacts of climate change on livestock production, the contribution of livestock production to climate change, and specific climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in the livestock sector. Livestock production will be limited by climate variability as animal water consumption is expected to increase by a factor of three, demand for agricultural lands increase due to need for 70% growth in production, and food security concern since about one-third of the global cereal harvest is used for livestock feed. Meanwhile, the livestock sector contributes 14.5% of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, driving further climate change. Consequently, the livestock sector will be a key player in the mitigation of GHG emissions and improving global food security. Therefore, in the transition to sustainable livestock production, there is a need for: a assessments related to the use of adaptation and mitigation measures tailored to the location and livestock production system in use, and b policies that support and facilitate the implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.

  4. From Waste to Watts: The fermentation of animal waste occuring in a digester producing methane gasses as a side product and converted to energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S.

    2015-12-01

    The waste product from animals is readily available all over the world, including third world countries. Using animal waste to produce green energy would allow low cost energy sources and give independence from fossil fuels. But which animal produces the most methane and how hard is it to harvest? Before starting this experiment I knew that some cow farms in the northern part of the Central California basin were using some of the methane from the waste to power their machinery as a safer, cheaper and greener source through the harnessed methane gas in a digester. The fermentation process would occur in the digester producing methane gasses as a side product. Methane that is collected can later be burned for energy. I have done a lot of research on this experiment and found that many different farm and ranch animals produce methane, but it was unclear which produced the most. I decided to focus my study on the waste from cows, horses, pig and dogs to try to find the most efficient and strongest source of methane from animal waste. I produced an affordable methane digester from plastic containers with a valve to attach a hose. By putting in the waste product and letting it ferment with water, I was able to produce and capture methane, then measure the amount with a Gaslab meter. By showing that it is possible to create energy with this simple digester, it could reduce pollution and make green energy easily available to communities all over the world. Eventually this could result into our sewer systems converting waste to energy, producing an energy source right in your home.

  5. Method for Estimating Water Withdrawals for Livestock in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Livestock water use includes ground water and surface water associated with livestock watering, feedlots, dairy operations, and other on-farm needs. The water may be used for drinking, cooling, sanitation, waste disposal, and other needs related to the animals. Estimates of water withdrawals for livestock are needed for water planning and management. This report documents a method used to estimate withdrawals of fresh ground water and surface water for livestock in 2005 for each county and county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Categories of livestock included dairy cattle, beef and other cattle, hogs and pigs, laying hens, broilers and other chickens, turkeys, sheep and lambs, all goats, and horses (including ponies, mules, burros, and donkeys). Use of the method described in this report could result in more consistent water-withdrawal estimates for livestock that can be used by water managers and planners to determine water needs and trends across the United States. Water withdrawals for livestock in 2005 were estimated by using water-use coefficients, in gallons per head per day for each animal type, and livestock-population data. Coefficients for various livestock for most States were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey water-use program personnel or U.S. Geological Survey water-use publications. When no coefficient was available for an animal type in a State, the median value of reported coefficients for that animal was used. Livestock-population data were provided by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. County estimates were further divided into ground-water and surface-water withdrawals for each county and county equivalent. County totals from 2005 were compared to county totals from 1995 and 2000. Large deviations from 1995 or 2000 livestock withdrawal estimates were investigated and generally were due to comparison with reported withdrawals, differences in estimation techniques, differences in livestock

  6. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing.

  7. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  8. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somia El-Maghraby; Galal A Nawwar; Reda FA Bakr; Nadia Helmy; Omnia MHM Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods: The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results:White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24%in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions:Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide.

  9. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm(3)). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ammonium and skatole biodegradation by swine waste microflora in a flow-through bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal waste disposal and odor control have become a major issue for animal production facilities. As an attempt to improve efficiency and profit margins, many livestock operations have become large concentrated rearing facilities. As a result, many concerns over potentially adverse environmental im...

  11. A perspective on livestock production and greenhouse gasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    agriculture are less than 6%, simply because the contribution of their energy .... Based on the direct water needs of pigs, farmers in South Africa supply 4.52 m3 ... Natural rangelands that are not utilized by livestock or game would result in water being wasted. ... methods to earn carbon credits from the livestock value chain.

  12. Improving livestock production through co-operative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Umaru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the positive role livestock Co-operatives can play in enhancing animal production. Livestock Co-operative Societies such as those for Artificial insemination, Dairy, Beef and Poultry production have been discussed. The paper also dwells on the benefits derivable from such organisations. The practice of Co-operative Societies in livestock production has been applied by different countries in different livestock sub-sectors. This paper concludes that establishing such Co-operatives will significantly improve livestock production in Nigeria.

  13. Fate and Transport of 17β-estradiol Beneath Animal Waste Holding Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, L. A.; Tyner, J. S.; Hawkins, S. A.; Lee, J.; Buchanan, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Steroidal hormones, such as 17β-estradiol (E2), are prevalent in animal waste and are a common subject of study due to potential stream and groundwater contamination. These particular hormones are labeled as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) because of their developmental effects in reptiles and amphibians. Dairy waste at concentrated animal feeding operations is typically stored in a pond that is regulated by law to include an underlying soil liner with a minimal hydraulic conductivity to limit leaching beneath the pond, yet some studies have traced stream and groundwater contamination to these ponds. Previous studies have shown that the soil underlying earthen ponds are always unsaturated. This increases the pore water velocity relative to a given flux, which itself is dictated almost entirely by an organic seal that forms at the bottom of a waste pond. This increased velocity results in more rapid transport and less retention time within the vadose zone where E2 could biodegrade into its daughter product, estrone (E1). And since the soil is unsaturated and therefore has a negative pressure, preferential flow should not serve as a method of transport. On the contrary, E2 and E1 may sorb to mobile colloids increasing their mobility. This study will evaluate the use of biochar, an increasingly common activated carbon source, as a soil liner amendment. Biochar has a specific surface area that can exceed 1,500 m2/g and is high in organic matter, which E2 sorbs to strongly. The biochar amendment should be most effective and enduring as a layer located at the bottom of the soil liner so that the leachate has been treated by the soil prior to contact. Another proposed amendment technique is to uniformly mix the biochar within the soil liner to increase the leachate contact time with the biochar, but realistically could prove to be too costly and energy-intensive. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to analyze hormone persistence and transport processes and

  14. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp. in the United Kingdom: results of genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in 1,705 fecal samples from humans and 105 fecal samples from livestock animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlin, J; Amar, C; Pedraza-Díaz, S; Nichols, G L

    2000-11-01

    Cryptosporidium present in 1,705 fecal samples from humans and 105 from livestock animals were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein. Overall, genotype 1 (human exclusive type) was detected in 37.8% of the samples from humans, genotype 2 (broad host range) was detected in 61.5%, a third genotype designated genotype 3 (Cryptosporidium meleagridis) was detected in 0.3%, and both genotypes 1 and 2 were recovered from 0.4%. All samples from livestock yielded genotype 2. Among 469 patients infected during eight drinking water-related outbreaks, five outbreaks were predominantly due to genotype 1, and three were due to genotype 2. Fifty-four samples were collected from patients involved with five swimming pool-associated outbreaks: two outbreaks were due to genotype 1, one was due to genotype 2, and the remaining two involved both genotypes 1 and 2. Among 26 family outbreaks and 1 children's nursery outbreak (2 to 3 members per group), the same genotype was recovered from the different members of each outbreak: 13 were due to genotype 1, and 14 were due to genotype 2. In eighteen patients reporting contact with animals and/or farms, genotype 1 was recovered from one patient and genotype 2 was recovered from the remaining 17. Among the sporadic cases, there were distinct geographical and temporal variations in the distribution of the genotypes. The spring peak in cases was due to genotype 2. Genotype 1 was significantly more common in patients infected during the late-summer-autumn peak and in those with a history of foreign travel.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Animal Waste Lagoon Seepage on the Geochemistry of an Underlying Shallow Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNab, W W; Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K

    2006-03-07

    Dairy facilities and similar confined animal operation settings pose a significant nitrate contamination threat via oxidation of animal wastes and subsequent transport to shallow groundwater. While nitrate contamination resulting from application of animal manure as fertilizer to fields is well recognized, the impact of manure lagoon leakage on groundwater quality is less well characterized. In this study, a dairy facility located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California has been instrumented with monitoring wells as part of a two-year multidisciplinary study to evaluate nitrate loading and denitrification associated with facility operations. Among multiple types of data collected from the site, groundwater and surface water samples have been analyzed for major cations, anions, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic carbon, and selected dissolved gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne). Modeling of putative geochemical processes occurring within the dairy site manure lagoons shows substantial off-gassing of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in response to mineralization of organic matter. The gas ebullition appears to strip dissolved gases, including Ar and Ne, from the lagoon water leaving concentrations that are undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The resulting fractionated dissolved gas signature serves as an effective tracer for the lagoon water in the underlying shallow groundwater and can be used to constrain inverse geochemical models that assess mixing fractions of lagoon water and local groundwater water. Together with ion exchange and mineral equilibria reactions, identification of lagoon seepage helps explain key attributes of the local groundwater chemistry, including input and cycling of nitrogen, across the site.

  16. ANALYSIS OF LIVESTOCK AT REGIONAL LEVEL IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu BECIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the livestock sector generates significant outputs for the agricultural and the national economy. Geographical distribution of the livestock production systems varies between regions of development, due local traditions, production conditions, and consumer choices options. This paper analysis the livestock sector at regional level for all animal species considered for production. For the research method, based on regional analysis has been considered statistical approach, based of national database for year 2011. The results indicates different concentration of livestock at regional level, even if animal density per 100 ha was calculate in order to consider the different dimension of agriculture land of each region.

  17. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  18. Agent Based Model of Livestock Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, D. J.; Emelyanova, I. V.; Donald, G. E.; Garner, G. M.

    The modelling of livestock movements within Australia is of national importance for the purposes of the management and control of exotic disease spread, infrastructure development and the economic forecasting of livestock markets. In this paper an agent based model for the forecasting of livestock movements is presented. This models livestock movements from farm to farm through a saleyard. The decision of farmers to sell or buy cattle is often complex and involves many factors such as climate forecast, commodity prices, the type of farm enterprise, the number of animals available and associated off-shore effects. In this model the farm agent's intelligence is implemented using a fuzzy decision tree that utilises two of these factors. These two factors are the livestock price fetched at the last sale and the number of stock on the farm. On each iteration of the model farms choose either to buy, sell or abstain from the market thus creating an artificial supply and demand. The buyers and sellers then congregate at the saleyard where livestock are auctioned using a second price sealed bid. The price time series output by the model exhibits properties similar to those found in real livestock markets.

  19. Love and death of cattle : the paradox in Suri attitudes toward livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2003-01-01

    Livestock herding peoples are known for their close involvement with their animals, valuing them in multiple ways. This paper addresses the issue of the nature of emotional and moral commitment to livestock animals, particularly cattle, among a group of livestock herders in southwest Ethiopia, the S

  20. Participatory Livestock Farmer Training for improvement of animal health in rural and peri-urban smallholder dairy herds in Jinja, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Byarugaba, D.K.; Nakavuma, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  Within the framework of a research project investigating methods to decrease mastitis incidence, farmer groups for participatory training in a modified Farmer Field School approach were initiated in order to improve animal health and farmer knowledge in mastitis control technologies...... knowledge and experience from training in systematic clinical examination of animals, evaluation of the farm environments, and identification of improvements. Much of the acquired new knowledge was about basic dairy cow management and husbandry practices. In addition, they gave examples of how they were now...

  1. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  2. Microbiological Safety of Animal Wastes Processed by Physical Heat Treatment: An Alternative To Eliminate Human Pathogens in Biological Soil Amendments as Recommended by the Food Safety Modernization Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2017-03-01

    Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure. Physical heat treatments can be considered an effective method to inactivate pathogens in animal wastes. However, microbial inactivation in animal wastes can be affected by many factors, such as composition of animal wastes, type and physiological stage of the tested microorganism, and heat source. Following some current processing guidelines for physical heat treatments may not be adequate for completely eliminating pathogens from animal wastes. Therefore, this article primarily reviews the microbiological safety and economic value of physically heat-treated animal wastes as biological soil amendments.

  3. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  4. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alba

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Sequence Type (ST1, Clonal Complex(CC1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA- lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100% similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  5. Internal parasite management in grazing livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niranjan; Rao, Thakur Krishan Shankar; Varghese, Anju; Rathor, Veer Singh

    2013-10-01

    It is a challenging task to control internal parasites in grazing livestock even by applying multi label and multi directional approach. It is impossible to draw general recommendations to control parasitic diseases due to varied geo-climatic conditions and methods adopted for rearing the livestock in the country like India. In view of increasing incidence of anti-parasitic drug resistance in animals, there is an urgent need to design sustainable parasite control strategy which must include on the host as well as off the host control measures to harvest the maximum productivity from the animal for an indefinite period.

  6. A review of RT-PCR technologies used in veterinary virology and disease control: sensitive and specific diagnosis of five livestock diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin; Reid, Scott M; Mertens, Peter; Oura, Chris A L; van Rijn, Piet A; Slomka, Marek J; Banks, Jill; Brown, Ian H; Alexander, Dennis J; King, Donald P

    2009-10-20

    Real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods in the field of molecular diagnostics and research. The potential of this format to provide sensitive, specific and swift detection and quantification of viral RNAs has made it an indispensable tool for state-of-the-art diagnostics of important human and animal viral pathogens. Integration of these assays into automated liquid handling platforms for nucleic acid extraction increases the rate and standardisation of sample throughput and decreases the potential for cross-contamination. The reliability of these assays can be further enhanced by using internal controls to validate test results. Based on these advantageous characteristics, numerous robust rRT-PCRs systems have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock. Here, we review the rRT-PCR assays that have been developed for the detection of five RNA viruses that cause diseases that are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), namely: foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bluetongue disease, avian influenza and Newcastle disease. The performance of these tests for viral diagnostics and disease control and prospects for improved strategies in the future are discussed.

  7. Accounting for Leases of Biological Livestock Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Petro Suk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is the analysis and assessment of options of animals lease, disclosure of accounting for lease transactions and settlements between landlords and tenants. Biological livestock assets can be transferred in the financial and operating leases. The specific features of the lease are due to the fact that: a) the animals, as living organisms require constant care, regardless of their legal and de facto owner; b) a significant part of animal products produced in the farms ...

  8. 畜禽粪便、污泥、农村垃圾中温联合厌氧消化技术研究%Study on mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion with livestock manure, sludge and rural waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一威

    2012-01-01

    利用中温厌氧消化工艺,在CSTR反应器内对畜禽粪便、污水处理厂污泥及农村生活垃圾3种原料进行联合厌氧消化试验研究,重点探讨了3种原料的配比问题.结果表明,在温度为37℃,停留时间为20d,粪便、污泥、垃圾TS之比为6∶3∶1,容积负荷为3.61 g/(L·d)的条件下,系统稳定性和处理效果都比较理想,单位VS的产气率为0.36~0.39 L/g,VS去除率为45.1%~49.4%.%In order to solve the environmental pollution problems caused by manure, sludge and rural organic waste, we studied the joint treatment on the three pollutants by mesophilic anaerobic digestion processing. The anaerobic co-digestion experiments were carried out in a continual stir tank reactor under 37℃, operated with a HRT of 20 d, and focused on the proportion of the mixtures ratios. The experiment results showed when livestock manure, waste activated sludge and rural organic waste have the ratio was 6:3:1 on the TS basis, with an OLR of 3.61 g/(L·d), the optimal operate conditions of the process were perfect in terms of the stability and performance. The volatile solids removal efficiency, specific biogas production in these conditions achieved 45.1% ~ 49.4% and 0.36-0.39 L/g respectively.

  9. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only milk and meat but also other fundamental positive externalities and ecosystem services, such as conservation of genetic resources, water flow regulation, pollination, climate regulation, landscape maintenance, recreation and ecotourism and cultural heritage. In recent decades, the mountain livestock, mainly represented by dairy cattle, has been affected by a dramatic reduction of farms, a strong increase of animals per farm, an increase in indoor production systems, more extensive use of specialised non-indigenous cattle breeds and the increasing use of extra-farm concentrates instead of meadows and pastures for fodder. This paper firstly describes the livestock sector in the Italian Alps and analyses the most important factors affecting their sustainability. Secondly, it discusses the need to assess the ecosystem services offered by forage- based livestock systems in mountains with particular attention to greenhouse gas emission and its mitigation by carbon sequestration. In conclusion, comparison between the different elements of the environmental sustainability of mountain livestock systems must be based on a comprehensive overview of the relationships among animal husbandry, environment and socio-economic context.

  10. Smart investments in sustainable food production: revisiting mixed crop-livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Thornton, P K; Notenbaert, A M; Wood, S; Msangi, S; Freeman, H A; Bossio, D; Dixon, J; Peters, M; van de Steeg, J; Lynam, J; Parthasarathy Rao, P; Macmillan, S; Gerard, B; McDermott, J; Seré, C; Rosegrant, M

    2010-02-12

    Farmers in mixed crop-livestock systems produce about half of the world's food. In small holdings around the world, livestock are reared mostly on grass, browse, and nonfood biomass from maize, millet, rice, and sorghum crops and in their turn supply manure and traction for future crops. Animals act as insurance against hard times and supply farmers with a source of regular income from sales of milk, eggs, and other products. Thus, faced with population growth and climate change, small-holder farmers should be the first target for policies to intensify production by carefully managed inputs of fertilizer, water, and feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to markets, new varieties, and technologies.

  11. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): Guideline for the evaluation of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa in livestock and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, T; Olson, M E; O'Handley, R M; Schetters, T; Bowman, D; Vercruysse, J

    2014-08-29

    The current guideline was written to aid in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoan parasites, with Giardia spp. as the leading example. The information provided in this guideline deals with aspects of how to conduct controlled studies using experimental infection models (dose determination and dose confirmation) and efficacy studies in commercial facilities (field effectiveness studies). Furthermore, the selection of suitable animals, housing, infection procedure, choice of diagnostic technique and data analysis are discussed. This guideline is intended to assist investigators in conducting specific studies, to provide specific information for registration authorities involved in the decision-making process, to assist in the approval and registration of new drugs and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of uniform procedures. The primary parameter for drug efficacy is the reduction in either parasite excretion or parasite counts and a minimum efficacy of 90% is required against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa. A supporting efficacy parameter is a significant difference in the proportion of infected animals between treated and non-treated groups. Persistent efficacy is considered as an additional claim to therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animal may be injured shall be repaired. (b) Floors of livestock pens, ramps, and driveways shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide good footing for livestock. Slip resistant or waffled floor... the opinion of the inspector, to protect them from the adverse climatic conditions of the locale...

  13. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  14. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  15. Global Climate Change: Role of Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.K. Naqvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is seen as a major threat to the survival of many species, ecosystems and the sustainability of livestock production systems in many parts of the world. Green house gases (GHG are released in the atmosphere both by natural sources and anthropogenic (human related activities. An attempt has been made in this article to understand the contribution of ruminant livestock to climate change and to identify the mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emission in livestock. The GHG emissions from the agriculture sector account for about 25.5% of total global radiative forcing and over 60% of anthropogenic sources. Animal husbandry accounts for 18% of GHG emissions that cause global warming. Reducing the increase of GHG emissions from agriculture, especially livestock production should therefore be a top priority, because it could curb warming fairly rapidly. Among the GHGs, CH4 is considered to be the largest potential contributor to the global warming phenomenon. Ruminant livestock such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane. Indian livestock system is a large contributor to GHGs and therefore also to the global warming phenomenon. Methane emission from enteric fermentation from Indian livestock ranged from 7.26 to 10.4 MT/year. In India more than 90% of the total methane emission from enteric fermentation is being contributed by the large ruminants (cattle and buffalo and rest from small ruminants and others. Generally CH4 reduction strategies can be grouped under two broad categories such as management and nutritional strategies. Although the reduction in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises if they are to find industry acceptability.

  16. Interaction between temperature and ammonia in mesophilic digesters for animal waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcelo L; Angenent, Largus T

    2009-05-01

    Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) were operated during a period of 988 days to evaluate the effect of temperature, ammonia, and their interconnectivity on the methane yield of anaerobic processes for animal waste treatment. During period 1 (day 0-378), the methane yield was 0.31 L CH(4)/g volatile solids (VS) for all digesters (with no statistical differences among them) at a temperature and total ammonium-N levels of 25 degrees C and approximately 1200 mg NH(4)(+)-N/L, respectively. During period 2 (day 379-745), the methane yield at 25 degrees C decreased by 45% when total ammonium-N and ammonia-N were increased in two of the four ASBRs to levels >4000 mg NH(4)(+)-N/L and >80 mg NH(3)-N/L, respectively. During period 3 (day 746-988), this relative inhibition was reduced from 45% to 13% compared to the low-ammonia control reactors when the operating temperature was increased from 25 degrees C to 35 degrees C (while the free ammonia levels increased from approximately 100 to approximately 250 mg NH(3)-N/L). The 10 degrees C increase in temperature doubled the rate constant for methanogenesis, which overwhelmed the elevated toxicity effects caused by the increasing concentration of free ammonia. Thus, the farmer/operator may alleviate ammonia toxicity by increasing the operating temperature within the mesophilic range. We extrapolated our data to correlate temperature, ammonia, and methane yield and to hypothesize that the difference between high- and low-ammonia reactors is negligible at the optimum mesophilic temperature of 38 degrees C.

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING FOR THE CONVERSION OF ANIMAL WASTE TO METHANE IN BATCH BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Aworanti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to predict the behaviour of microbial processes leading to the production of biogas from animal waste. Mathematical model were developed for the prediction of the behaviour of microbial processes. The development of the models was based upon a material balance analysis of the digester operation, substrate utilization, cell growth and product formation. The model was solved using Runge kutta numerical technique embedded in polymath software. The digesters’ operations simulated with a starting valve of 300g/dm3 as the concentration of the substrate and 1.5g/dm3 as the concentration of the cell, within a period of 13days. The results of the simulation show that the substrate concentration shows exponential decline from (300g/dm3 to 6.88g/dm3, the cells growth shows exponential trend from (1.5g/dm3to 39g/dm3 The rate of growth of cell was increased from (0.5g/dm3-2.53g/dm3, death increased from (0.015g/dm3 to 0.161g/dm3 over the 13days and the biogas production which is the product also follow the exponential trend from (zeroconcentration to 219g/dm3. In all the model does the prediction well on all the parameters simulated, so it was can be used to predict the product formation rate as well as the design of reactor or digester.

  18. Analysing Incentive and Cost Sharing Issues in Livestock Disease Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biira, Juliet

    This PhD thesis tackles two main issues in livestock health management: a) the incentives for animal disease prevention on Danish livestock farms and b) allocation of costs of animal disease outbreaks and animal disease preparedness, among stakeholders involved in the livestock sector. The main...... be arranged and lastly, a theoretical contribution to how disease preparedness costs could be shared. An exploration of literature on issues regarding animal disease prevention in the Danish livestock sector is used in paper 1, while an empirical approach is used in paper 2, 3 and 4. A theoretical approach...... to elaborate on the private and public incentives that influence Danish farmers to prevent animal diseases. The paper reveals that public incentives could be improved by clearly stating repercussions for not following certain regulations and the current compensation strategy could be adjusted in a way...

  19. Use of a Sentinel System for Field Measurements of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Inactivation in Soil and Animal Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, M. B.; Walker, M. J.; Bowman, D. D.; Anthony, L. C.; Ghiorse, W C

    1999-01-01

    A small-volume sentinel chamber was developed to assess the effects of environmental stresses on survival of sucrose-Percoll-purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil and animal wastes. Chambers were tested for their ability to equilibrate with external chemical and moisture conditions. Sentinel oocysts were then exposed to stresses of the external environment that affected their viability (potential infectivity), as indicated by results of a dye permeability assay. Preliminary laborato...

  20. The Impact of Stakeholders' Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-01-25

    Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers) were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a 'western' international organization. This study demonstrates the differences in

  1. Fuel gas production from animal waste. Report of quarterly review meeting, Palo Alto, California, December 13--14, 1976. Dynatech report No. 1573

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wentworth, R. L.; Wise, D. L.

    1977-02-01

    A quarterly review coordination meeting was held with all the contractors on the ERDA fuel gas from animal waste program. Included in this reort are a meeting schedule and reports from the various contractors giving a description of their work during the reporting period. Progress in the following studies is reported: Monfort waste conversion demonstration; engineering report on fuel gas production from animal residue; biological conversion of biomass to methane; anaerobic fermentation of animal and crop residues; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; and anaerobic fermentation of agricultural wastes--potential for improvement and implementation. (JGB)

  2. Environmental and human health challenges of industrial livestock and poultry farming in China and their mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu

    2017-10-01

    Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks. Gaseous pollutants and bioaerosols are emitted directly from CAFOs, which have health implications on animal producers and neighboring communities. A range of pollutants are excreted with the animal waste, including nutrients, pathogens, natural and synthetic hormones, veterinary antimicrobials, and heavy metals, which can enter local farmland soils, surface water, and groundwater, during the storage and disposal of animal waste, and pose direct and indirect human health risks. The extensive use of antimicrobials in CAFOs also contributes to the global public health concern of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Efforts on treating the large volumes of manure generated in CAFOs should be enhanced (e.g., by biogas digesters and integrated farm systems) to minimize their impacts on the environment and human health. Furthermore, the use of veterinary drugs and feed additives in industrial livestock and poultry farming should be controlled, which will not only make the animal food products much safer to the consumers, but also render the manure more benign for treatment and disposal on farmlands. While improving the sustainability of animal farming, China also needs to promote healthy food consumption, which not only improves public health from avoiding high-meat diets, but also slows down the expansion of industrial animal farming, and thus reduces the associated environmental and public health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  4. Use of a sentinel system for field measurements of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation in soil and animal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M B; Walker, M J; Bowman, D D; Anthony, L C; Ghiorse, W C

    1999-05-01

    A small-volume sentinel chamber was developed to assess the effects of environmental stresses on survival of sucrose-Percoll-purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil and animal wastes. Chambers were tested for their ability to equilibrate with external chemical and moisture conditions. Sentinel oocysts were then exposed to stresses of the external environment that affected their viability (potential infectivity), as indicated by results of a dye permeability assay. Preliminary laboratory experiments indicated that temperatures between 35 and 50 degrees C and decreases in soil water potential (-0.003 to -3.20 MPa) increased oocyst inactivation rates. The effects of two common animal waste management practices on oocyst survival were investigated on three dairy farms in Delaware County, N.Y., within the New York City watershed: (i) piling wastes from dairy youngstock (including neonatal calves) and (ii) spreading wastes as a soil amendment on an agricultural field. Sentinel containers filled with air-dried and sieved (2-mm mesh) youngstock waste or field soil were wetted and inoculated with 2 million oocysts in an aqueous suspension and then placed in waste piles on two different farms and in soil within a cropped field on one farm. Controls consisted of purified oocysts in either phosphate-buffered saline or distilled water contained in sealed microcentrifuge tubes. Two microdata loggers recorded the ambient temperature at each field site. Sentinel experiments were conducted during the fall and winter (1996 to 1997) and winter (1998). Sentinel containers and controls were removed at 2- to 4-week intervals, and oocysts were extracted and tested by the dye permeability assay. The proportions of potentially infective oocysts exposed to the soil and waste pile material decreased more rapidly than their counterpart controls exposed to buffer or water, indicating that factors other than temperature affected oocyst inactivation in the waste piles and soil. The

  5. Visualization of Microfloral Metabolism for Marine Waste Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Ogura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine biomass including fishery products are precious protein resources for human foods and are an alternative to livestock animals in order to reduce the virtual water problem. However, a large amount of marine waste can be generated from fishery products and it is not currently recycled. We evaluated the metabolism of digested marine waste using integrated analytical methods, under anaerobic conditions and the fertilization of abandoned agricultural soils. Dynamics of fish waste digestion revealed that samples of meat and bony parts had similar dynamics under anaerobic conditions in spite of large chemical variations in input marine wastes. Abandoned agricultural soils fertilized with fish waste accumulated some amino acids derived from fish waste, and accumulation of l-arginine and l-glutamine were higher in plant seedlings. Therefore, we have proposed an analytical method to visualize metabolic dynamics for recycling of fishery waste processes.

  6. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters) as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Sampson N. Mamphweli; Meyer, Edson L.; Anthony I. Okoh; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken d...

  7. Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with the emphasis ... is essential in implementing efficient breeding systems to cope with climate change. Sophisticated statistical models continue to support animal breeding and ...

  8. Genetics of behavioural adaptation of livestock to farming conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canario, L; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Dupont-Nivet, M; Phocas, F

    2013-01-01

    .... The genetic variation in livestock behaviour is considerable. Animals and genotypes with a larger behavioural capacity for adaptation may cope more readily with varying farming conditions than those with a lower capacity for adaptation...

  9. Water Quality Signal of Animal Agriculture at USGS Monitoring Stations is Related to Animal Confinement and/or Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades, with the total number of livestock producers declining dramatically and the average size of the remaining operations increasing substantially. The result has been a pronounced trend towards greater spatial concentration and confinement of livestock. The change raises important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture in regions where livestock waste production has become more intensive but recovery, handling, and application of animal wastes to cropland more systematized. In previous research, we developed three separate national-level SPARROW models of surface water contaminants (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria). Based on USGS monitoring and ancillary data from more than 400 US stream and river basins, the models include point and nonpoint sources of contaminants, land-to-water transport factors, and in-stream loss processes; parameter estimation is by non-linear regression. In this study we report on a pattern in the statistical results for the three models: The source coefficients (quantity of contaminant delivered to streams per unit of contaminant input) for unconfined animals are consistently larger and more statistically significant than those for confined animals. The implicit meaning is that something associated with waste management on large farms and/or animal confinement (e.g. retention period, recovery of manure for application to crops and subsequent crop uptake, and/or better waste treatment) reduces the average water quality signal of this scale of animal agriculture (per unit of manure input) to barely detectable at downstream monitoring stations, while the water quality signal from unconfined animal agriculture is more clear. The county-level data for confined and unconfined manure inputs (defined primarily by farm size) are from the USDA, and are spatially distributed in the model GIS by 1-km land use data

  10. Fruit and vegetable waste (FV) from the market places: A potential source for animal feeding?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo, J.; Yepes, S. A.; Yepes, A. M.; Bustamante, G.; Mahecha, L.

    2009-07-01

    The generation of organic solid waste and its inappropriate management is considered one of the main environmental problems in the world associated with emissions of methane from landfill sites, with emission of dusts, odors and hazardous gases, and with contamination of water. There are different sources for the generation of solid wastes; the market places are considered one of then on a global scale. (Author)

  11. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  12. Prospects of Livestock Production in Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raziq*, M. Younas1 and Z. Rehman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan and makes about 44% of the total geographical area of the country. Most of the area is rangelands with only 5% arable. Animal agriculture is centuries old occupation of the people of Balochistan. Livestock are one of the major important sectors of the province having about 20% of the national stock. However, with little manufacturing facilities and under-developed infrastructure, the provincial economy lags far behind other parts of the country. This is the cradle of many precious livestock breeds and livestock make an important part of the socio-cultural and socioeconomic survival of its inhabitants. The biodiversity of animal genetic resources plays very pivotal role in the economy of the province and each breed has its own uniqueness and socioeconomic importance. The exact value of such precious animal genetic resource has never been realized as yet and no serious steps have been taken for its improvement. It is the utmost need of the time to rethink on the policies relating to livestock production in the province while keeping the needs of the growing population, socio-cultural change and the global warming issues in mind.

  13. agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of agricultural products that may .... process of livestock wastes; the putrefaction process .... attitudes, and better approaches to agricultural waste.

  14. Animal or Plant Disease, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Animal or Plant Disease dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'WI...

  15. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  16. Importance of information and communication technology tools among livestock farmers: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Meena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural extension services in most of the developing countries including India are usually designed around crop husbandry, while public sector initiatives towards animal husbandry are often dominated by animal breeding and health services (Morton and Matthewman 1996.ICT has been used in abroad widely for the study and improvement of various aspects of livestock production, research and education. Mainly the ICT is playing a greater role in livestock disease control, dairy herd management, livestock production and for marketing of livestock and livestock produce.

  17. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale,...

  18. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  19. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. T. Cu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4 production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  20. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem worldwide and the routine use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has sparked debate on whether this practice might constitute an environmental and public health concern. At a broiler farm, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (TcR) levels among heterotrophic culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence/prevalence of a number of tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a regional state forest that has not been in agricultural use for decades. Shortly after our sampling, the farm closed down and all the waste was removed. This unique change in situation offered us an unusual opportunity to examine the reversibility of any impact of the chicken waste on the soil microbial community. Two years after the event, several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were still detected in the waste-impacted soil, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data showed that their relative abundance remained at substantial levels. A mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pSU1, was identified in several chicken-waste-exposed soil bacteria of three different genera. Quantification of the plasmid's mobilization gene suggested that pSU1 had contributed to the prevalence and persistence of tet(L) in the waste-impacted soil. A second mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pBSDMV9, isolated from the same soil, contained a region with 98.8% nucleotide identity to pSU1. The mosaic structure of the plasmids and the highly conserved nature of the tet(L) genes suggested that plasmid rearrangement favoring the acquisition of tet(L) may have occurred in the soil relatively recently. Additionally, in one chicken-waste

  2. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology.

  3. An experimental study on the thermal valorization of municipal and animal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvuka, Despina; Sfakiotakis, Stelios [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Crete (Greece); Panopoulos, Kyriakos D. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas / Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4th klm. Nat. Rd. Ptolemais-Kozani-P.O. box 95 – GR 50200 Ptolemais (Greece)

    2013-07-01

    Poultry wastes and refused derived fuel disposal through thermochemical processes, such as combustion, has been proposed. These fuels have calorific values that in many cases exceed 20MJ kg-1. An extensive analysis has been performed of pyrolysis and combustion results obtained by thermal analysis measurements. The weight loss data were recorded continuously, under dynamic conditions, in the range 25-1300 deg C. A first order parallel reactions model and a power low model fitted the experimental results accurately for pyrolysis and combustion, respectively. The pyrolysis of poultry waste was a complex process, occurring up to 1300 deg C with high activation energies.

  4. An experimental study on the thermal valorization of municipal and animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Vamvuka, Stelios Sfakiotakis, Kyriakos D. Panopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry wastes and refused derived fuel disposal through thermochemical processes, such as combustion, has been proposed. These fuels have calorific values that in many cases exceed 20MJ kg-1. An extensive analysis has been performed of pyrolysis and combustion results obtained by thermal analysis measurements. The weight loss data were recorded continuously, under dynamic conditions, in the range 25-1300ºC. A first order parallel reactions model and a power low model fitted the experimental results accurately for pyrolysis and combustion, respectively. The pyrolysis of poultry waste was a complex process, occurring up to 1300°C with high activation energies.

  5. Use of antimicrobial agents in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, S W; Gautier, P

    2012-04-01

    Antimicrobial agents, especially antibacterial agents, are used throughout the world, across a diverse array of extensive and intensive livestock production systems, to protect the health and welfare of livestock and to improve their performance. While some agents that are used in livestock belong to classes that have no counterpart in human medicine, this is not the case for the most widely used agents: the tetracyclines, penicillins, macrolides and sulphonamides. Many bacterial diseases of livestock cause devastating losses of animal life and productivity. As a result, their keepers can lose their livelihoods and see a dramatic reduction in income, so there is often a great sense of urgency to treat affected animals early. However, there are a large number of bacterial pathogens that cause disease and it is frequently difficult to reach a conclusive diagnosis prior to instituting treatment. There are many ways in which existing uses of antimicrobial agents can be improved, amongst the most important are increased utilisation of veterinary professional services, the introduction of enhanced infection control measures, improved point-of-care diagnostic tests, and the application of physiologically based population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling.

  6. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  7. La morera (Morus alba, Linn.: una especie de interés para la alimentación animal Mulberry (Morus alba, Linn.: a species of interest for livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J Martín

    2007-12-01

    ón, sobre todo para alimentar especies menores en los diferentes subprogramas pecuarios de la agricultura urbana.Mulberry is a multipurpose plant which originated in China. For more than 5 000 years it has been the only feedstuff for the silkworm, due to its excellent nutritional qualities, especially its high content of protein and energy. In addition, it is used in several regions of the world for livestock feeding. For such reasons, in 1996 the researchers of the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", taking into consideration the need to search for new sources of forages for animal feeding, re-considered the possibility of introducing to the country four mulberry varieties from Costa Rica, based on relationships established with the Tropical Agronomic Center of Research and Training (CATIE from that country, with the objective of evaluating their performance under different edaphoclimatic conditions and carrying out trials with different animal species. In order to achieve these objectives a multidisciplinary group was created involving specialists from several institutions and studies were performed which have allowed to characterize the bromatological and phytochemical composition of the varieties introduced, learn the effect of the factors of agronomic management for determining the production potential of total and edible biomass, as well as the intake, digestibility and animal response. Thus, this plant was demonstrated to have great adaptive capacity to different edaphoclimatic conditions all over the country; it can produce between 10 and 12 t DM/ha/year (edible biomass, has a DM digestibility higher than 80%, and the values of live weight gain and milk production are similar to the ones obtained with the use of imported concentrates. Nowadays mulberry has become a species known and used all over the country by entrepreneurs and farmers and has great acceptance, especially for feeding small species in the different livestock subprograms of

  8. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-02-22

    LWP. Ensuring land security, installing proper grazing management, improved forage seed supply and application of soil and water conservation are expected to enhance WP on GL. Given the relationship of production factors with crop biomass and associated WP, interventions targeted to improve provision of inputs, credit, extension and training support due emphasis to the poor would increase CR yield and reduce part of water use for feed production. Optimizing feed value of CR with treatment and supplementation, following water efficient forage production methods and maintenance of healthy productive animals are expected to amplify the benefits from livestock and eventually improve LWP.

  9. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards.

  10. Evaluation Of Electricity Generation From Animal Based Wastes In A Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduyemi Oladejo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Electric current from organic waste of poultry droppings were generated with A Microbial Fuel Cell MFC technology to evaluate affects of temperature 30 to 50oC 100gl 300gl and 500gl slurry concentrations prepared with the distilled water and inoculated when introduced into the anodic chamber. A constant concentration of 50gl of the oxidizing agent Potassium ferricyanide at the cathode chamber was prepared to evaluate the voltage and current generated by the set up for 7 days in each case. Higher slurry concentrations were observed to generate higher initial current and voltage than in lower concentrations. Higher slurry concentrations also demonstrated sustained power generation up to the day 6 before decline. A maximum current of 1.1V and 0.15 mA was achieved while the temperature variation was observed to have minimal effect within the range considered at low concentration. A MFC is a biochemical-catalyzed system capable of generating electricity as a by-product also providing an alternative method of waste treatment. Application Alternative power source and waste treatment.

  11. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  12. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation. 311.38 Section 311.38 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... exposed to radiation. Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been administered...

  13. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2017-05-29

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AMONG ENTERIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL WASTES AND IMPACTED SURFACE WATERS: COMPARISON WITH NARMS FINDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human infection with bacteria exhibiting mono or multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) has been a growing problem in the US, and studies have implicated livestock as a source of MAR bacteria primarily through foodborne transmission routes. However, waterborne transmission of...

  16. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica;

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex( CC) 1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in ...

  17. Livestock and the promise of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludu, Jagjit S; Plastow, Graham S

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of the middle class in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China is resulting in increasing global demand for animal-based food products. This increase represents a unique opportunity for Canadian livestock producers to export their products to new markets and expand Canada's reputation as a global provider of safe and highest quality food items. This article has two major themes. First, current Canadian contributions to livestock genomics in the cattle and swine industries are outlined. Second, important future opportunities are discussed, including the high throughput collection of phenotypic data, development of environmentally friendly livestock, emergence of decision support software, and the use of Web 2.0. Through the use of genomic technologies, livestock producers can not only ensure that the nutritional demands of Canada are secured, but also play a pivotal role in ensuring the rest of the world is fed as well. Furthermore, investment through initiatives led by Genome Canada has ensured that Canada is favorably positioned to contribute cutting-edge solutions to meet this global challenge. Ultimately, genomic-based innovations will enable producers to increase efficiency, lower production costs, decrease the use of prophylactics, and limit the expenditure of resources.

  18. The Development and Impact of the Livestock Guru: Meeting the Knowledge Needs of Poor Livestock Keepers in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock keepers comprise 2/3rds of the 2.8 billion households living on less than two dollars per day. However, as a group they tend to be marginalised and excluded from formal service provision, particularly in relation to animal health. Therefore, the following paper describes the development of the Livestock Guru, a multi-media learning programme created to meet the knowledge needs of poor livestock keepers in Tamil Nadu, India. The findings from the study illustrate the importance of both appropriate visuals, voice-overs but also the need for addressing issues in the environment in which learning will take place.

  19. Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

    2002-04-01

    Consequences of the ban of meat and bone meal (MBM) and animal fat with regard to livestock feeding, cropping, ecology and economy where investigated with an inter-disciplinary approach for Germany and the European Union. Calculations were made for different production systems with pigs and poultry on the basis of statistical data for the production and for the feed markets as well as from requirement data for the respective species and production system. (1.) The ban of MBM from feeding caused a need for alternative protein sources. If all the amount of protein from MBM is to be replaced by soybean meal, in Germany and the EU about 0.30 and 2.30 x 10(6) t would be needed each year (supplementary amino acids not considered). Alternatively, doubling the grain legume acreage in Germany to about 420,000 ha would supply a similar amount of protein. A wider application of phase feeding with adjusted dietary amino acid concentrations, however, would allow for saving protein to an extent which is similar to the amount of protein that was contributed by MBM in recent years. Thus, the ban is a minor problem in terms of ensuring amino acid supply. (2.) However, alternative plant ingredients cannot compensate for the gap in P supply that is caused by the ban. An additional demand for inorganic feed phosphates of about 14,000 and 110,000 t per year is given in Germany and the EU, respectively. So far, this gap is filled almost completely by increased mining of rock phosphates. Alternatively, a general application of microbial phytase to all diets would largely fill this gap. Until the ban, MBM contributed to 57% of the supplementation of P that was needed for pigs and poultry. The ban of MBM makes large amounts of P irreversibly disappearing from the food chain. (3.) Energy from slaughter offal and cadavers can be utilized in different technologies, in the course of which the efficiency of energy utilisation depends on the technology applied. It is efficient in the cement work

  20. Leptospirosis in man, in wild and in domestic animals at waste disposal sites in Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebek, Z; Sixl, W; Valova, M; Schaffler, R

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined 65 Rattus rattus, 28 pigs, 12 donkeys, 67 goats, 5 sheep, 1 cow and 1 dog as well as 196 inhabitants at two settlements on the waste disposal sites at the periphery of Cairo. Rattus norvegicus were positive in 55.4% for L. ictero-haemorrhagiae, pigs in 14.3% for L. pomona and in 3.6% for L. ictero-haemorrhagiae. 2 out of 12 donkeys were positive for L. pomona, 1 of them for L. pyrogenes and L. icterohaemorrhagiae as well, goats in 1.5% for L. grippotyphosa. Human sera reacted positively in 8.7% of the cases, 7.1% of which with L. bratislava, 1.0% with L. icterohaemorrhagiae and 0.5% with L. grippotyphosa and L. sejroe respectively.

  1. Database Application for a Youth Market Livestock Production Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…

  2. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  3. The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. We compared the attitudes of different stakeholders within the livestock industries in east (E) and southeast (SE) Asia. Farmers were more motivated to improve animal welfare during transport and slaughter by peer pressure, business owners by monetary gain, and business managers by what is prescribed by their company. Veterinarians showed the most support for improving animal welfare. The results suggest that the role that stakeholders play in their sector of the livestock industry must be considered when attempting to change attitudes towards animal welfare during transport and slaughter. Abstract Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that

  4. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to ... and wildlife, minilivestock, livestock farming systems and other disciplines. ... Selenium and tocopherol effects on parasitaemia, organ weights and ...

  5. Wolf depredation on livestock in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) on cattle, sheep, and other livestock in Minnesota currently is a minor problem except to a few individual farmers. Indices to the seriousness of the problem are available only from recent years, so historical trends cannot be detected. From 1976 through 1980 the number of farms in the wolf range suffering verified losses to wolves ranged from 9 to 19 (mean of x = 13) per year out of about 12,230. From 1977 through 1980, the highest cattle losses claimed by farmers were 0.45 per 1,000 cattle available in 1979; the highest sheep losses claimed were 1.18 per 1,000 available in 1980. Many claims of losses (especially of calves) are based on missing animals, and few wolves are involved in the verified losses. Most losses occur in summer when livestock are released to graze in open and wooded pasture. Herd management practices, such as calving in forested or brushy pastures and disposal of carcasses in or near pastures, are responsible for many instances of wolf depredation. Failure to distinguish wolves from coyotes (Canis latrans) has contributed to an exaggerated view of the importance of wolves as livestock predators. Recently the number of wolves killed in depredation control has declined, whereas the number of livestock killed has remained fairly stable. Results of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's depredation- control program in 1979 and 1980 suggest that highly restricted trapping, coupled with other management methods, has potential for reducing both livestock losses and the number of wolves that need to be killed.

  6. Method of treating human and animal waste products and products so obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taluntais, A.F.

    1977-08-17

    Animal slurry was complexed with an aldehyde and a nitrogenous substance with free amine or amide groups to give a substantially sterile and odorless fertilizer which slowly released nutrients into the soil when spread. For example, 11.3 kg 37% HCHO was mixed with 45 g pig slurry and 9 kg urea added. The mixture was adjusted to pH 2.5 with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, allowed to stand overnight, neutralized with CaCO/sub 3/, and mixed with 8 kg peat moss. The product was a compost-like controlled release fertilizer of 32.2% dry matter content.

  7. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (previously the Tropical Journal of Animal Science) is an international, scholarly and peer-reviewed journal published ... The Journal publishes original research works in basic and applied livestock ...

  8. Narrowing the socio-economic gender gap through empowerment of women in micro livestock farming: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Assan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro livestock  appears to be the most sustainable means of producing high quality animal protein for the expanding populations of the lesser developing countries. Diversification in animal agriculture through inclusion of non-conventional livestock such as micro livestock species (goat, sheep, poultry, rabbits, guinea pigs, pigeon, ducks, snails, grasscutter etc provide options that would guarantee fully participation of women in livestock production to alleviate rural households protein shortage or deficiencies. The micro livestock   are likely to become increasingly important source of animal protein as a result of rapid increase in human population and in the light of dwindling land sizes and natural resources in general. This is on the backdrop that micro livestock have  diverse economic and social functions in rural communities, and different types of micro livestock have been associated with women due to their  significant potential for alleviating malnutrition and food insecurity. Therefore, supporting micro livestock should be considered as a means to empower women in  rural development which has the capacity to improve household nutrition and food security.  This discussion looks at the opportunities of empowering women through micro livestock as a mean of alleviating poverty and  solving the food insecurity challenges in rural communities. The challenges which women might face in engaging in micro livestock are also highlighted. The basis of micro livestock farming may be taken from the perspective of animal products supply being outpaced with the increased human population in Africa. In this case, alternative sources of animal protein such as micro livestock need to be promoted, and if not, livestock products will be  beyond the reach of the majority of the ordinary persons.  The space for classic livestock rearing have decreased, and this scenario will suit the keeping of smaller animals which are prolific and easy to

  9. Development and evaluation of online video teaching resources to enhance student knowledge of livestock handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupiec, C; Pope, S; Taylor, R; Carroll, D; Ward, M H; Celi, P

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of online audiovisual materials to support the acquisition of animal handling skills by students of veterinary and animal science. A series of video clips (Livestock Handling modules) demonstrating livestock handling procedures was created and delivered online to students enrolled in the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney. The effectiveness of these modules for supporting student learning was evaluated via an online survey. The survey also sought feedback on how students could be better prepared for handling livestock. The survey indicated that students found the videos a useful part of their learning experience, particularly by familiarising them with correct handling procedures and emphasising the importance of safety when handling livestock. Students also highlighted that online delivery supported flexible learning. Suggested improvements of the Livestock Handling modules centred around broadening the content of the videos and improving the user-friendliness of online access. Student feedback regarding how the Faculty could better prepare them for livestock handling was dominated by requests for more opportunities to practise animal handling using live animals. The Livestock Handling audiovisual tool is a valuable supplementary resource for developing students' proficiency in safe and effective handling of livestock. However, the results also clearly reveal a perception by students that more hands-on experience is required for acquisition of animal handling skills. These findings will inform future development of the Faculty's animal handling program. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia. The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a ‘western’ international organization. This study demonstrates the

  11. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  12. Human anthrax outbreak associated with livestock exposure: Georgia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navdarashvili, A; Doker, T J; Geleishvili, M; Haberling, D L; Kharod, G A; Rush, T H; Maes, E; Zakhashvili, K; Imnadze, P; Bower, W A; Walke, H T; Shadomy, S V

    2016-01-01

    Human anthrax cases reported in the country of Georgia increased 75% from 2011 (n = 81) to 2012 (n = 142). This increase prompted a case-control investigation using 67 culture- or PCR-confirmed cases and 134 controls matched by residence and gender to investigate risk factor(s) for infection during the month before case onset. Independent predictors most strongly associated with disease in the multivariable modelling were slaughtering animals [odds ratio (OR) 7·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·9-18·1, P 1 km; 15 (12%) of 125 had sick livestock; and 11 (9%) of 128 respondents reported finding dead livestock. We recommend joint public health and veterinary anthrax case investigations to identify areas of increased risk for livestock anthrax outbreaks, annual anthrax vaccination of livestock in those areas, and public awareness education.

  13. Comparative features of retroviral infections of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evermann, J F

    1990-01-01

    Retroviral infections of livestock have become of increasing importance due to their usefulness as comparative models for human retroviral infections and their effects upon animal health and marketability of animals and animal products nationally and internationally. This paper presents a perspective on the retroviruses of economic concern in veterinary medicine with emphasis on the importance of understanding the modes of virus transmission and the species specificity of the viruses. The retroviruses reviewed include the oncovirus, bovine leukosis virus, and the lentiviruses, equine infectious anemia virus; maedi/visna virus, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and bovine visna-like virus. The comparative features amongst these animal retroviruses and those of humans must be recognized by the veterinary and medical professions since the similarities in virus replication and spread by blood transfer can provide important clues in controlling and perhaps preventing human retroviruses infections, such as the human immunodeficiency virus.

  14. Genetic Engineering and Competitiveness of Livestock Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A.Pinkert

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to modify whole animal genetics has grown considerably in the last two decades. We have seen concerns regarding food safety and protection of breeding rights of genetically modified animals compel redirection of genetic engineering experimentation toward biomedical applications. Indeed, it has been nearly twenty years since the first transgenic livestock appeared in the literature, yet at this time, there are no commercially viable agricultural species. In contrast to commercialization concerns, in a variety of existing transgenic animal models, basic research into the regulation and function of specific genes (including both gain-of-function and ablation of potentially deleterious gene products has persevered. Pioneering efforts in transgenic animal technology have markedly influenced our appreciation of the factors that govern gene regulation and expression, and have contributed significantly to our understanding of the biology of mammalian development.

  15. Incidence and management of poisonings in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, L A

    1990-10-01

    Insecticides, nitrates, gossypol, copper, and plants are a few of the common toxicoses observed in livestock in a particular specie due to various factors. Some species may have anatomical or physiological uniquenesses making them more susceptible to certain agents. Another specie may be exposed to some agents more frequently than others, increasing the likelihood of toxicosis in that specie. Once recognized, therapy is often unrewarding due to the advanced stage of the condition when first recognized, the stress involved in administering the treatment, and the unfeasibility of multiple treatments on many animals. Because of the poor response to treatment and the large number of animals potentially at risk, prevention assumes a greater importance in food animals than in companion animals. Prevention consists of making the diagnosis, findings and removing the source of the toxicant, and educating the owner on how future problems can be avoided.

  16. LivestockPlus: Forages, sustainable intensification, and food security in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K; Paul, Birthe; White, Douglas; Rao, I M; Van Der Hoek, Rein; Castro, Aracely; Boval, Maryline; Lerner, Amy; Schneider, Laura; Peters, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The increased use of grain-based feed for livestock during the last two decades has contributed, along with other factors, to a rise in grain prices that has reduced human food security. This circumstance argues for feeding more forages to livestock, particularly in the tropics where many livestock are reared on small farms. Efforts to accomplish this end, referred to as the 'LivestockPlus' approach, intensify in sustainable ways the management of grasses, shrubs, trees, and animals. By decoupling the human food and livestock feed systems, these efforts would increase the resilience of the global food system. Effective LivestockPlus approaches take one of two forms: (1) simple improvements such as new forage varieties and animal management practices that spread from farmer to farmer by word of mouth, or (2) complex sets of new practices that integrate forage production more closely into farms' other agricultural activities and agro-ecologies.

  17. Consumer Perception of Animal Welfare and Livestock Production in the Araucania Region , Chile Percepción de los Consumidores sobre el Bienestar Animal y la Producción Ganadera en Región de La Araucanía, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of animal welfare (AW in developed countries, a survey was carried out among 384 consumers in Temuco, Chile, to establish their knowledge and perceptions about animals handling during production, to detect preferences for meat produced under AW principles, their willingness to pay a higher price for this and to distinguish different consumer segments. Approximately 60% of people surveyed knew about livestock management practices, half of them considered that these practices had a negative effect on the animals, but only 32.1% have changed their meat consumption habits due to this. Seventy percent of the people surveyed had over 50% of knowledge about AW aspects. There is a strong preference and willingness to pay a higher price for meat produced under AW principles. Consumers have a positive perception of the fact that the meat that they consume comes from pasture-fed animals, raised in the open, and raised, transported and slaughtered following humane principles. Three segments were identified by using cluster analysis: the most numerous (58.6% considers confinement and feeding with concentrates as positive; the second group (25.5% showed a strong rejection of the use of hormones, feeding with broiler litter and concentrates, and places a positive value on raising animals in the open. The smallest segment (15.4% placed the highest value on humane treatment of the animals, plus a positive value on concentrates use and rejected confined raising. The conclusion is that a large part of the population perceives AW as a desirable condition when purchasing beefConsiderando la importancia del bienestar animal (BA en los países desarrollados, se realizó una encuesta a 384 consumidores de Temuco, Chile, para determinar el conocimiento y percepción sobre el manejo productivo de animales bovinos y ovinos y BA, detectar la preferencia y disposición a pagar por carne producida con animales tratados con las normas BA y distinguir

  18. Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide on the enzymatic production of biodiesel from waste animal fat using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollardo, Aldricho Alpha; Lee, Hong-Shik; Lee, Dohoon; Kim, Sangyong; Kim, Jaehoon

    2017-09-09

    Waste animal fat is a promising feedstock to replace vegetable oil that widely used in commercial biodiesel process, however the high content of free fatty acid in waste fat makes it unfeasible to be processed with commercial base-catalytic process. Enzymatic process is preferable to convert waste fat into biodiesel since enzyme can catalyze both esterification of free fatty acid and transesterification of triglyceride. However, enzymatic reaction still has some drawbacks such as lower reaction rates than base-catalyzed transesterification and the limitation of reactant concentration due to the enzyme inhibition of methanol. Supercritical CO2 is a promising reaction media for enzyme-catalyzed transesterification to overcome those drawbacks. The transesterification of waste animal fat was carried out in supercritical CO2 with varied concentration of feedstock and methanol in CO2. The CO2 to feedstock mass ratio of 10:1 showed the highest yield compared to other ratios, and the highest FAME yield obtained from waste animal fat was 78%. The methanol concentration effect was also observed with variation 12%, 14%, and 16% of methanol to feedstock ratio. The best yield was 87% obtained at the CO2 to feedstock ratio of 10: 1 and at the methanol to feedstock ratio of 14% after 6 h of reaction. Enzymatic transesterification to produce biodiesel from waste animal fat in supercritical fluid media is a potential method for commercialization since it could enhance enzyme activity due to supercritical fluid properties to remove mass transfer limitation. The high yield of FAME when using high mass ratio of CO2 to oil showed that supercritical CO2 could increase the reaction and mass transfer rate while reducing methanol toxicity to enzyme activity. The increase of methanol concentration also increased the FAME yield because it might shift the reaction equilibrium to FAME production. This finding describes that the application of supercritical CO2 in the enzymatic reaction

  19. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. The past half-century has seen marked growth in food production, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the proportion of the world’s people that are hungry, despite a doubling of the total population. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by 2050. So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cultivated land areas and an increase of water and energy consumption. The environmental assessment of human activities is presently a hot topic. It is not only important from an ecological perspective, but also from the view of efficient utilization of limited natural resources. The livestock sector that increasingly competes for scarce resources (land, water, and energy has a severe impact on air, water and soil quality because of its emissions. The environmental impact of food of animal origin is currently quantified by so-called CO2eq-footprints. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to achieve a sustainable supply of food, especially of animal origin, because land and other production factors are not unlimited resources. This lecture deals with related problems linked to the production of foods of animal origin and some possible sustainable solutions for the increasing demand of these products, by means of a detailed analysis of the carbon footprint by the livestock, as well as the land requirement, biodiversity, energy and water footprint in livestock production.

  20. Co-composting of distillery wastes with animal manures: carbon and nitrogen transformations in the evaluation of compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Bernal, M P; Moral, R

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the solid wastes generated by the winery and distillery industry by means of co-composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two piles, using exhausted grape marc and cattle manure or poultry manure, respectively (at ratios, on a fresh weight basis, of 70:30), were composted by the Rutgers static pile composting system. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were monitored, such as pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, water-soluble carbon, water-soluble polyphenols, different forms of nitrogen (organic nitrogen, ammonium and nitrate) and humification indices (humification ratio, humification index, percentage of humic acid-like C, polymerisation ratio and cation exchange capacity), as well as the germination index. Organic matter losses followed first-order kinetics equation in both piles, the highest organic matter mineralisation rate being observed with exhausted grape marc and cow manure. On the other hand, the mixture with the lowest C/N ratio, using exhausted grape marc and poultry manure, showed the highest initial ammonium contents, probably due to the higher and more labile N content of poultry manure. The increase in the cation exchange capacity revealed the organic matter humification during composting. In contrast, other humification parameters, such as the humification ratio and the humification index, did not show the expected evolution and, thus, could not be used to assess compost maturity. Composting produced a degradation of the phytotoxic compounds, such as polyphenols, to give composts without a phytotoxic character. Therefore, composting can be considered as an efficient treatment to recycle this type of wastes, due to composts presented a stable and humified organic matter and without phytotoxic effects, which makes them suitable for their agronomic use.

  1. Innovation in Livestock Genetic Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mofakkarul Islam, M.; Renwick, A.; Lamprinopoulou, C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of genetic selection technologies in livestock breeding offers unique opportunities to enhance the productivity, profitability and competitiveness of the livestock industry. However, there is a concern that the uptake of these technologies has been slower in the sheep and beef sector

  2. Impacts of European livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, M.A.; Vries, De Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering t

  3. Effect evaluation of a health education program on brucellosis in both the population engaged in animal husbandry and non-livestock feeding population%天津市静海县养殖人群与非养殖人群布鲁杆菌病宣传干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 吕杰; 闫继梅; 王文权; 刘怡芳; 郝杰; 赵春蕾; 徐文体; 张颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the score of health knowledge and behavior on brucellosis in both the population engaged in animal husbandry and non-livestock feeding population before and after the health education,and to explore appropriate health education methods for different populations.Methods Farmers engaged in animal husbandry and non-livestock feeding population in Jinghai County,Tianjin were randomly selected.Health Care Seminar was given to farmers engaged in animal husbandry,and media and propaganda broadcast were given to non-livestock feeding population for one month.The effects were compared before and after intervention by questionnaires.Results A total of 500 farmers engaged in animal husbandry and 502 non-livestock feeding population were surveyed by questionnaires.250 farmers engaged in animal husbandry were surveyed before and after intervention,and 257,245 non-livestock feeding population were surveyed before and after intervention,respectively.Before the intervention,the brucellosis awareness rate of farmers engaged in animal husbandry [18.8% (47/250)] was higher than that of non-livestock feeding population [5.8%(15/257),x2=19.84,P < 0.05].After the intervention,the brucellosis awareness rates of the two groups were significantly improved,and the rate of farmers engaged in animal husbandry [100.0% (250/250)] remained higher than that [68.6% (168/245)] of nonlivestock feeding population.After the intervention,the recognition rates in health behavior of the two groups were improved in both groups,the rate of farmers engaged in animal husbandry was higher than that of non-livestock feeding population.Conclusions Health Care Seminar can significantly improve the awareness and knowledge of brucellosis in farmers engaged in animal husbandry; media,radio and other forms of publicity coverage may be more suitable for non-livestock feeding population.%目的 比较干预前后养殖人群和非养殖人群布鲁杆菌病(布病)知识和健康行为

  4. Livestock Predation by Puma ( Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  5. Controlling malaria using livestock-based interventions: a one health approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana O Franco

    Full Text Available Where malaria is transmitted by zoophilic vectors, two types of malaria control strategies have been proposed based on animals: using livestock to divert vector biting from people (zooprophylaxis or as baits to attract vectors to insecticide sources (insecticide-treated livestock. Opposing findings have been obtained on malaria zooprophylaxis, and despite the success of an insecticide-treated livestock trial in Pakistan, where malaria vectors are highly zoophilic, its effectiveness is yet to be formally tested in Africa where vectors are more anthropophilic. This study aims to clarify the different effects of livestock on malaria and to understand under what circumstances livestock-based interventions could play a role in malaria control programmes. This was explored by developing a mathematical model and combining it with data from Pakistan and Ethiopia. Consistent with previous work, a zooprophylactic effect of untreated livestock is predicted in two situations: if vector population density does not increase with livestock introduction, or if livestock numbers and availability to vectors are sufficiently high such that the increase in vector density is counteracted by the diversion of bites from humans to animals. Although, as expected, insecticide-treatment of livestock is predicted to be more beneficial in settings with highly zoophilic vectors, like South Asia, we find that the intervention could also considerably decrease malaria transmission in regions with more anthropophilic vectors, like Anopheles arabiensis in Africa, under specific circumstances: high treatment coverage of the livestock population, using a product with stronger or longer lasting insecticidal effect than in the Pakistan trial, and with small (ideally null repellency effect, or if increasing the attractiveness of treated livestock to malaria vectors. The results suggest these are the most appropriate conditions for field testing insecticide-treated livestock in an

  6. Genomic selection to improve livestock production in developing countries with a focus on India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadarmideen, Haja; Do, Duy Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    growth will increase the demand for food as well as animal products, particularly in emerging economic giants like India. Moreover, the urbanization has considerable impact on patterns of food consumption in general and on demand for livestock products, in particular and the increased income growth led......Global livestock production has increased substantially during the last decades, in both number of animals and productivity. Meanwhile, the human population is projected to reach 9.6 billions by 2050 and most of the increase in the projection takes place in developing countries. Rapid population...... to more expenditure on livestock products. Since livestock production in developed countries has well adopted livestock genomic selection tools to improve both productivity and quality of animal products, opportunities to increase productivity in developing countries via genomic tools/selection have...

  7. Household Animal and Human Medicine Use and Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Risk Factors for Emerging Zoonotic Disease and Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roess, A A; Winch, P J; Akhter, A; Afroz, D; Ali, N A; Shah, R; Begum, N; Seraji, H R; El Arifeen, S; Darmstadt, G L; Baqui, A H

    2015-11-01

    Animal antimicrobial use and husbandry practices increase risk of emerging zoonotic disease and antibiotic resistance. We surveyed 700 households to elicit information on human and animal medicine use and husbandry practices. Households that owned livestock (n = 265/459, 57.7%) reported using animal treatments 630 times during the previous 6 months; 57.6% obtained medicines, including antibiotics, from drug sellers. Government animal healthcare providers were rarely visited (9.7%), and respondents more often sought animal health care from pharmacies and village doctors (70.6% and 11.9%, respectively), citing the latter two as less costly and more successful based on past performance. Animal husbandry practices that could promote the transmission of microbes from animals to humans included the following: the proximity of chickens to humans (50.1% of households reported that the chickens slept in the bedroom); the shared use of natural bodies of water for human and animal bathing (78.3%); the use of livestock waste as fertilizer (60.9%); and gender roles that dictate that females are the primary caretakers of poultry and children (62.8%). In the absence of an effective animal healthcare system, villagers must depend on informal healthcare providers for treatment of their animals. Suboptimal use of antimicrobials coupled with unhygienic animal husbandry practices is an important risk factor for emerging zoonotic disease and resistant pathogens.

  8. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  9. IMPLICATIONS OF MYCOTOXINS IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer DENLI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of foods and feeds is a significant problem in worldwide. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi, particularly by many species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Claviceps and Alternaria in many agricultural crops, especially in cereals and most oilseeds. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearelenone and fumonisins are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance. Mycotoxins have various acute and chronic effects on animals (especially monogastrics depending on species and susceptibility of an animal within a species. The most applied method to prevent mycotoxicosis in animals involves the addition to the diet of additives with the ability to bind or metabolize mycotoxin in the gastrointestinal digesta, aluminosilicates, activated charcoal, yeast and several polymers have been tested regarding the adsorption of mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of different species. The efficiency of mycotoxin binders, however, differs considerably depending mainly on the chemical structure of both the adsorbent and the toxin. This review describes the most implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds.

  10. Effect of Bacillus subtilis microecological probiotics on livestock breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui ZHOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of green and healthy microecologics, Bacillus subtilis could balance the intestinal flora, promote the nutrient absorption and enhance immunity. Microecologics is one of the ideal antibiotics alternative, which are effective in preventing and treating animal disease and promoting the growth and development of the animal. Because of its advantages, such as no toxin side effect and no residual or drug-resistant, microecologics has been used in livestock breeding widely. Here, we concluded the characteristics and mechanism of Bacillus subtilis,elaborated application of microecologics on livestock breeding, discussed its problems and suggested its solved methods. In the end, the future of microecologics was expected in order to provide a reference for subsequent livestock breeding.

  11. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions attributable to livestock range from 8 to 51%. This variability creates confusion among policy makers and the public as it suggests that there is a lack of consensus among scientists with regard to the contribution of livestock to global GHG...... fixed fossil C through combustion. These deviances from internationally accepted protocols create confusion and direct attention from anthropomorphic practices which have the most important contribution to global GHG emissions. Global estimates of livestock GHG emissions are most reliable when...

  12. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  13. Contribution of livestock to food production in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FITZHUGH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global basis, livestock products - meat, milk, eggs and fibre - account for 40% of the value of total marketed agricultural product. Animal products provide essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals to help ensure nutritionally balanced diets. In developing countries, livestock traction and manure also contribute to food production through improved cultivation and soil fertility which increase crop yields. On average, the proportional contribution of livestock product to dietary calories and protein in developed countries is double that for developing countries. Demand for livestock products is fuelled by the population increase, income growth and urbanisation in developing countries. Therefore, over the past decade, consumption of livestock product has sharply increased in developing countries, while slightly decreasing in developed countries where consumption is already relatively high on average. Increased demand in developing countries increases income for producers, but also stresses the environment through pollution, soil erosion, overgrazing and deforestation. Research involving global partnerships of scientists and institutes can help ensure that the increased demands for livestock product in developing countries will be met in economically feasible and environmentally sustainable ways.;

  14. Agroterrorism targeting livestock: a review with a focus on early detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Knutsson, R.

    2013-01-01

    Agroterrorism targeting livestock can be described as the intentional introduction of an animal disease agent against livestock with the purpose of causing economic damage, disrupting socioeconomic stability of a country, and creating panic and distress. This type of terrorism can be alluring to ter

  15. Airborne pariculate matter from livestock production systems: A review of an air pollution problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-Lopez, M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Zhao, Y.; Calvet, S.; Torres, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock housing is an important source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM can threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter in livestock houses is mainly coarse, primary in origin, and organic; it can adsorb an

  16. Airborne pariculate matter from livestock production systems: A review of an air pollution problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-Lopez, M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Zhao, Y.; Calvet, S.; Torres, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock housing is an important source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM can threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter in livestock houses is mainly coarse, primary in origin, and organic; it can adsorb

  17. Challenges and priorities for modelling livestock health and pathogens in the context of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özkan, Şeyda; Vitali, Andrea; Lacetera, Nicola; Amon, Barbara; Bannink, André; Bartley, Dave J.; Blanco-penedo, Isabel; Haas, De Yvette; Dufrasne, Isabelle; Elliott, John; Eory, Vera; Fox, Naomi J.; Garnsworthy, Phil C.; Gengler, Nicolas; Hammami, Hedi; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Leclère, David; Lessire, Françoise; Macleod, Michael; Robinson, Timothy P.; Ruete, Alejandro; Sandars, Daniel L.; Shrestha, Shailesh; Stott, Alistair W.; Twardy, Stanislaw; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure; Ahmadi, Bouda Vosough; Weindl, Isabelle; Wheelhouse, Nick; Williams, Adrian G.; Williams, Hefin W.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Østergaard, Søren; Kipling, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to impair livestock health, with consequences for animal welfare, productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and human livelihoods and health. Modelling has an important role in assessing the impacts of climate change on livestock systems and the efficacy of potential a

  18. Agroterrorism targeting livestock: a review with a focus on early detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Knutsson, R.

    2013-01-01

    Agroterrorism targeting livestock can be described as the intentional introduction of an animal disease agent against livestock with the purpose of causing economic damage, disrupting socioeconomic stability of a country, and creating panic and distress. This type of terrorism can be alluring to ter

  19. Assessing the impact of aflatoxin consumption on animal health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the impact of aflatoxin consumption on animal health and ... However, the ability of the livestock sector to contribute to improving nutritional security is ... information on the impact of aflatoxins on livestock health and productivity, with ...

  20. 1992 Livestock Grazing Action Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The plan outlines a grazing program involving intensive amounts of livestock to achieve specific wildlife habitat goals and objectives during the 1993 growing...

  1. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-02

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required.

  2. Climate change impacts and adaptations on small-scale livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruvinga, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimated the impacts of climate change and adaptations on small-scale livestock production. The study is based on a survey of 1484 small-scale livestock rural farmers across the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Regression estimates finds that with warming, the probability of choosing the following species increases; goats, dual purpose chicken (DPC, layers, donkeys and ducks. High precipitation increases the probability of choosing the following animals; beef, goats, DPC and donkeys. Further, socio-economic estimates indicate that livestock selection choices are also conditioned by gender, age, marital status, education and household size. The paper therefore concluded that as climate changes, rural farmers switch their livestock combinations as a coping strategy. Unfortunately, rural farmers face a limited preferred livestock selection pool that is combatable to harsh climate which might translate to a bleak future for rural livestock farmers.

  3. 9 CFR 329.5 - Movement of article or livestock detained; removal of official marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of article or livestock detained; removal of official marks. 329.5 Section 329.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... it is located when so detained, for refrigeration, freezing, or storage purposes if such movement...

  4. 9 CFR 201.43 - Payment and accounting for livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment and accounting for livestock and live poultry. 201.43 Section 201.43 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Accounts and...

  5. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS AC...

  6. 9 CFR 309.16 - Livestock suspected of having biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... include the use of inplant screening procedures designed to detect the presence of antimicrobial residues... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock suspected of having biological residues. 309.16 Section 309.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  7. Improving Access to Livestock Markets for Sustainable Rangeland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We find that traders' rent seeking behavior and high transport costs act as .... According to the new institutional economic theory, competition, such as that between ... In addition, efficient livestock markets are capable of facilitating the destocking of animals during periods ...... Land Tenure and Conflict Resolution: A Game.

  8. enhancing adaptive utilization of browse trees for improved livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHIBINGA

    This study analyzed the feeding strategies employed by agro- pastoralists in Southern Zambia and important browse species used in extreme weather conditions, in ... agro-pastoralists do not practice pasture management and fodder conservation for their animals. Of the ..... Distance to the water supply for livestock is.

  9. Intestinal health: Key to maximise growth performance in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beever, D.E.; Collet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production is changing worldwide. It is also the case that the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in Europe, the shift in animal production centres to Brazil or Eastern Europe, increase in demand for traceability and natural production, and the emergence of new diseases, are all forcing

  10. The Idea of 'Ethical Accounting' for a Livestock Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the idea of a decision-support system for a livestock farm, called “ethical accounting”, to be used as an extension of traditional cost accounting. “Ethical accounting” seeks to make available to the farmer information about how his decisions affect the interests of farm animals...

  11. Intestinal health: Key to maximise growth performance in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beever, D.E.; Collet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production is changing worldwide. It is also the case that the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in Europe, the shift in animal production centres to Brazil or Eastern Europe, increase in demand for traceability and natural production, and the emergence of new diseases, are all forcing li

  12. Occurrence of a Severe Acute Livestock Poisoning by Borehole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of a Severe Acute Livestock Poisoning by Borehole Water in Marsabit ... The borehole had been out of use for 3 years and after its rehabilitation, 7,000 animals died ... The signs progressed into methemoglobinuria, sever pain, trebling, ... and cooked appearance of visceral organs were observed at postmortem.

  13. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  14. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Makaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  15. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters) as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. PMID:24048207

  16. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-17

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  17. Reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Lagan, Paula; McKay, Karen; McClintock, Julie; Casement, Veronica; Charreyre, Catherine; Allan, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24 dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Details of the study, analysis of samples and performance of the candidate vaccines are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 141-C Large Animal Barn and Biology Laboratory (Hog Barn), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-027

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-24

    The 141-C waste site is a former large animal barn and biology laboratory within the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. Strontium-90, arsenic, and multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected within residual demolition debris at concentrations exceeding cleanup criteria. The site has been remediated by removing approximately 900 bank cubic meters of soil and debris within the former building footprint to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  20. Stress Affected Livestock As Seen By Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Garry B.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared thermography, down through the years, has most typically been applied to inanimate objects, for example; building enclosures, roof assemblies and several others. With the significant advancements in computers, thermographic software/hardware and scanning techniques, the application field has advanced dramatically. Recently, the Canadian Government's Public Works Regional Facilities Maintenance and Agriculture branches have devoted numerous man-hours to thermographically scanning various livestock, such as; cattle and swine. These totally new research experiments are possibly embarking on new solutions for Agriculture Canada's livestock exporting ventures. The primary influencing factor which Agriculture Canada is trying to analyze and manipulate is stress. Significant research into human related stress has proved invaluable. In comparison, little is known concerning animal stress. The end result which all wholesalers, retailers and consumers are concerned with is, top quality meat products. These high quality products are especially desired by foreign countries. Thermography has given the scientists at Agriculture Canada the inside track for inspecting an animal prior to and during the initial meat processing process, for monitoring meat quality related to stress. This paper reveals the present day innovative research techniques which the Canadian Government is conducting on beef cattle.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Quantifying Methane Emissions from Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The rearing of animals for domestic consumption and export invariably lead to the production of methane as a product of digestion. This study investigated the emission of methane from Malaysian livestock between 1980 and 2008. Approach: Seven categories of animals identified were camel, buffalo, sheep, goats, horse, pigs and poultry. The estimation of methane was based on the IPCC Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods. Methane emission from cattle rose by 44% within the period from 45....

  2. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  3. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  4. 75 FR 57736 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study... National Animal Health Monitoring System Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study. DATES: We will... INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study....

  5. Impact of BSE on livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, A

    2003-09-01

    The small number of BSE cases diagnosed in Italy from January 2001 to 12 September 2001 (a total of 28, one every 9000 head) does not allow for a statistical analysis of the relationship between this disease and the livestock systems. However, some indications can be noted: (a) only dairy cattle, which represent three-quarters of the cattle raised in Italy, are involved; (b) 58% of the cases belong to medium-large farms that breed 27% of all head; (c) 13 out of 28 cases are 5-year-old animals and 26 out of 28 are between 5 and 7 years of age; (d) 15 of 28 cases come from Lombardia, where 27% of Italian dairy cattle are raised. The following factors may have affected the livestock system: (1) trends of beef meat consumption; (2) changes in livestock management; (3) changes in animal feeding; (4) possible effects on selection. A strong decline in beef meat consumption (4 kg/year) has been observed in the UK and other European countries since 1996 (the year of the discovery of the relationship between BSE and nvCJD). In Italy, from January 2001 the consumption of beef meat has declined as well as slaughter: a drop of 31% in the total slaughtered head in the period January-February, a drop of 14% in January-May. A fall in the price of calves has promoted, in some dairy farms, the start of the production of light beef less than one year old (advantages in the marketing of meat favour this initiative), a phenomenon which is not yet well established. Traceability and certification of meat have improved, thanks to breeders' associations and interprofessional agreements. The breeders associations have also started insurance initiatives against BSE risks. In Italy the employment of plant protein meals would increase the total feedstuff consumption by about 7%. Direct effects of BSE could slow down the genetic progress (GP) of cattle populations within breed and country. Indirect effects on GP may also happen as a consequence of an increase in the replacement rate (rr). This

  6. Challenges and opportunities for smallholder livestock production in post-conflict South Kivu, eastern DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Brigitte L; Musale, Dieudonné Katunga; Chiuri, Wanjiku L; Gassner, Anja; Peters, Michael

    2012-08-01

    A survey on smallholder livestock production with emphasis on monogastric animals was conducted in 20 villages of seven so-called 'groupements' of South Kivu province in DR Congo, situated along a north to south-west axis with the town of Bukavu in the center. This land adjacent to Lake Kivu is located at elevations ranging around 900- 1900 m asl, experiencing tropical highland climate. A diagnostic survey helped to rapidly obtain in-depth knowledge of constraints and opportunities in this environment. Correspondence analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to investigate the association of production constraints with particular livestock species and to understand the factors that govern the number of livestock that people owned (converted to tropical livestock units [TLU]), respectively. Responses of 112 informants demonstrated that livestock is an integral part of the region's mixed farming systems. Low livestock numbers per household at present reflect the poverty as a consequence of recent violent conflicts. Currently, farmers focus on small livestock, like poultry, swine, cavies (i.e., Guinea pigs) and rabbits. Families keep livestock to accumulate household reserves that are strongly invested in children's education. Major issues of animal husbandry were related to animal diseases and lack of feed resources, particularly in the dry season. Lack of feed or forages were unrelated to a particular livestock species. Livestock holdings depended on animal diversity, location, land size available and respondents' education level. The potential introduction of improved forages is challenged by their dry-season tolerance, compatibility with cropping on small farms; and people's readiness to cultivate forages.

  7. A longitudinal study on enteropathogenic infections of livestock in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiyun A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was conducted on selected livestock farms to determine the prevalence of enteropathogens in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic animals. The enteropathogens assayed from faecal samples and rectal swabs were bacteria (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, parasites (coccidia, gastrointestinal nematodes and Cryptosporidium spp. and viruses (group A rotavirus and parvovirus. The prevalence of the enteropathogens in various animal species was related to age and month of the year. Generally, younger animals presented a higher prevalence of infection by enteropathogens than older animals while most infections occurred between the months of January and April.

  8. Smart indoor climate control in precision livestock farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Wang, Xiaoshuai

    2016-01-01

    One of the major objectives of precision livestock farming (PLF) is to provide an optimal thermal climate control in the animal occupant zones for promoting animal production and wellbeing. To achieve this goal, smart climate models that reflect the needs of different animal species and ages...... condition in AOZ. In addition, the paper presents a fundamental principle of development of an integrated indoor climate sensor to reflect animal thermal wellbeing and techniques that could be used for a smart system design and control are discussed....

  9. Examination of gastrointestinal helminth in livestock grazing in grassland of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, M. Motahar-Hussain; Islam, M-Khyrul; Hur, Jin; Lee, John-Hwa

    2000-01-01

    To determine association of grassland with parasitic diseases of livestock in Bangladesh, the 'Tracer' animals (two cow calves and two goats) were released for a month in a grassland used for communal grazing of livestock near school premise in Kanthal, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. After slaughtering of the tracer animals, their gastrointestinal tract examination revealed six species of nematode and one cestode. The nematode species were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, Mecistocirrus digitatus, Oesophagostomum spp., Trichuris spp. and Bunostomum sp. The cestode was one of the genus Moniezia. With this preliminary study, grasslands are thought to be one of the main sources of gastrointestinal parasitic diseases of livestock in Bangladesh. PMID:11002657

  10. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-12-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses as in the case of blue tongue virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus adds additional level of complexity. The increased incidence of emerging and reemerging viral diseases could be attributed to several factors including deforestation and surge in direct contact of livestock and humans with wild animals and birds. This special issue of "Indian Journal of Virology" is focused on diverse aspects of above diseases: isolation and characterization of viruses, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention measures and vaccine development.

  11. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  12. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from Indian livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K

    2012-10-26

    Greenhouse gas (GHG; methane and nitrous oxide) emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management of Indian livestock were estimated from the last two Indian livestock census datasets (2003 and 2007) using IPCC Tier 2 (2006) guidelines. The total annual GHG emissions from Indian livestock increased in 2007 compared to the year 2003 with an annual growth rate of 1.52% over this period. The contributions of GHG by dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep and other animals (yak, mithun, horse, donkeys, pigs and poultry) were 30.52, 24.0, 37.7, 4.34, 2.09 and 3.52%, respectively, in 2007. Enteric fermentation was the major source of methane, accounting for 89.2% of the total GHG emissions, followed by manure methane (9.49%). Nitrous oxide emissions accounted for 1.34%. GHG emissions (CO(2)-eq. per kg of fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM)) by female animals were considerably lower for crossbred cows (1161 g), followed by buffaloes (1332 g) and goats (2699 g), and were the highest for indigenous cattle (3261 g) in 2007. There was a decreasing trend in GHG emissions (-1.82% annual growth rate) in relation to milk production from 2003 to 2007 (1818 g and 1689 g CO(2)-eq. per kg FPCM in 2003 and 2007, respectively). This study revealed that GHG emissions (total as well as per unit of products) from dairy and other categories of livestock populations could be reduced substantially through proper dairy herd management without compromising animal production. In conclusion, although the total GHG emissions from Indian livestock increased in 2007, there was a decreasing trend in GHG production per kg of milk production or animal products.

  13. The Emergence and Spread of Multiple Livestock-Associated Clonal Complex 398 Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strains among Animals and Humans in the Republic of Ireland, 2010–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Gráinne I.; Yvonne Abbott; Aisling Burns; Finola Leonard; McManus, Brenda A.; Brian O'Connell; David C Coleman; Shore, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Clonal complex (CC) 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) are associated with carriage and infection among animals and humans but only a single case of CC398 MRSA has been reported in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). The present study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CC398 MRSA (n = 22) and MSSA (n = 10) from animals and humans in the ROI from 2010–2014. Isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing, D...

  14. Training to improve stockperson beliefs and behaviour towards livestock enhances welfare and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, G J; Hemsworth, P H

    2014-04-01

    The principle that supervising and managing animals affects farm animal welfare is widely recognised within the livestock industries. However,the manner in which the stockperson affects animal welfare, both directly and indirectly, is probably not fully appreciated. Together with the opportunity to perform their tasks well, stockpeople require a range of well-developed husbandry skills and knowledge to effectively care for and manage farm animals. There are three main factors that can be considered to contribute to a stockperson's work performance: capacity, willingness and opportunity. Capacity includes variables such as skills, health, ability and knowledge, while willingness includes motivation, job satisfaction, attitude to the animals and work attitude, and opportunity includes working conditions, actions of co-workers and organisational policies and rules. This paper briefly reviews the influence of the stockperson on livestock welfare and productivity and the opportunities to improve the stockperson's performance through training. It is clear that there is a continuing need for livestock industries to train their personnel to effectively care for and handle their stock. Underestimating the role and impact of the stockperson will seriously risk the welfare and productivity of livestock. Indeed, the stockperson may be the most influential factor affecting animal handling, welfare and productivity. Furthermore, it is likely that, in the near future, both the livestock industries and the general community will place an increasing emphasis on ensuring the competency of stockpeople to manage the welfare of livestock.

  15. A BIOPHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SETTLED LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY HOUSING DUSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carresse Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and composition of agricultural dusts are influenced by animal species, production strategy, housing type and ventilation efficiency. Agricultural dust within animal houses is complex and consists of feed particles, microbes and their products, dander, fecal matter, gases, metals and other organic and inorganic components. Livestock and poultry production facilities may be categorized as confinement, semi-confinement or pasture-based. Characterization of animal husbandry building dust will provide insight into understanding exposures experienced by animals, workers and farm visitors. The goal was to characterize biophysiochemical features of livestock dusts from swine, small ruminant, equine, poultry and cattle husbandry units. Settled dust samples were collected from livestock and poultry housing units at the University Farm and other livestock farms across the state. Morphological features were determined by electron microscopy and gravimetry. Biochemical evaluation consisted of pH determination and trace metal detection via mass spectrometry. Biological assessment centered on bacterial characterization via selective media, DNA analysis and endotoxin quantitation. Morphological analyses revealed higher levels of respirable and thoracic particles in poultry, swine, small ruminant and equine units compared to the dairy unit (p<0.01. Dusts were slightly acidic with the exception of the NCAT small ruminant unit (p<0.05. Dust endotoxin levels were consistent and bacterial species detected include Listeria and Escherichia coli. These findings suggest animal husbandry buildings harbor higher levels of smaller respirable and thoracic dust particles compared to inhalable particles. This information may be helpful in understanding dust exposures experienced by animals, farmers and agricultural workers.

  16. Livestock intensification and the influence of dietary change: A calorie-based assessment of competition for crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-12-15

    Animal production exerts significant demands on land, water and food resources and is one of the most extensive means by which humans modify natural systems. Demand for animal source foods has more than tripled over the past 50years due to population growth and dietary change. As a result, the livestock sector has transitioned towards intensive and concentrated production systems. Typically, studies have divided types of animal production into intensive, mixed and grazing production systems. However, because a large percentage of animal production originates from mixed systems, dividing by such production types can make it difficult to quantify competition for crop production between direct human consumption and use as feed. To this end we employ a calorie-based approach to determine which animal calories were 'free' - in that they did not compete with human consumption for crop use - and consider to what extent alternative scenarios could have reduced this competition between food and feed. We find that growth in non-feed animal systems has only been able to keep pace with population growth and that feed-fed production has necessarily met increases in human dietary demand for animal products. Through solutions such as moderating diets for animal calories, choosing less resource-demanding animal products and maintaining the relative contribution of non-feed systems, between 1.3 and 3.6 billion fewer people would be in competition with feed for crop use. We also estimate that the feed crop calories required to support consumer waste of animal calories could feed an additional 235 million people. With human demand for animal products expected to continue increasing in the coming decades, the findings here provide insights into potential solutions and what the magnitude of their effect may be and suggest that there exist real opportunities for humankind to substantially reduce competition for crop use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The roles of livestock in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Grace, D; Njuki, J; Johnson, N; Enahoro, D; Silvestri, S; Rufino, M C

    2013-03-01

    Livestock play a significant role in rural livelihoods and the economies of developing countries. They are providers of income and employment for producers and others working in, sometimes complex, value chains. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor, especially for women and pastoralist groups, and they provide an important source of nourishment for billions of rural and urban households. These socio-economic roles and others are increasing in importance as the sector grows because of increasing human populations, incomes and urbanisation rates. To provide these benefits, the sector uses a significant amount of land, water, biomass and other resources and emits a considerable quantity of greenhouse gases. There is concern on how to manage the sector's growth, so that these benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. Livestock and environment interactions in developing countries can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, manures from ruminant systems can be a valuable source of nutrients for smallholder crops, whereas in more industrial systems, or where there are large concentrations of animals, they can pollute water sources. On the other hand, ruminant systems in developing countries can be considered relatively resource-use inefficient. Because of the high yield gaps in most of these production systems, increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector through sustainable intensification practices presents a real opportunity where research and development can contribute to provide more sustainable solutions. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that production systems become market-orientated, better regulated in cases, and socially acceptable so that the right mix of incentives exists for the systems to intensify. Managing the required intensification and the shifts to new value chains is also essential to avoid a potential increase in zoonotic, food-borne and other diseases. New diversification options and improved

  18. Livestock Farming Under Climate Change Conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koelle, B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available for livestock farming under changing environmental conditions. Farming with livestock can be challenging, especially when farming in arid areas. This handbook is primarily informed by the experience of farmers in the South African winter rainfall area....

  19. Production of methanol from biomass waste via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, S K; Shamsul, N S; Ghani, J A; Chia, S K; Liew, H S; Samsudin, A S

    2013-02-01

    The production of methanol from agricultural, forestry, livestock, poultry, and fishery waste via pyrolysis was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted in a tube furnace at 450-500 °C. Sugarcane bagasse showed the methanol production (5.93 wt.%), followed by roots and sawdust with 4.36 and 4.22 wt.%, respectively. Animal waste offered the lowest content of methanol, as only 0.46, 0.80, and 0.61 wt.% were obtained from fishery, goat, and cow waste, respectively. It was also observed that the percentage of methanol increased with an increase in volatile compounds while the percentage of ethanol increased with the percentage of ash and fix carbon. The data indicate that, pyrolysis is a means for production of methanol and ethanol after further optimization of the process and sample treatment.

  20. MODELING OF INDICATORS OF LIVESTOCK IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Darda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of livestock in food without dangerous country. The analysis of the dynamics of production indicators waspsmainly livestock products. The problems offorecasting-ing performance of LivestockDevelopment of the Russian Federationon the basis of the a-analytical models ofalignment and connected series.

  1. A review of RT-PCR technologies used in veterinary virology and disease control: sensitive and specific diagnosis of five livestock diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin; Reid, Scott M.; Mertens, Peter; Oura, Chris A.L.; van Rijn, Piet A.; Slomka, Marek J.; Banks, Jill; Brown, Ian H; Alexander, Dennis J.; King, Donald P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods in the field of molecular diagnostics and research. The potential of this format to provide sensitive, specific and swift detection and quantification of viral RNAs has made it an indispensable tool for state-of-the-art diagnostics of important human and animal viral pathogens. Integration of these assays into automated liquid handling platforms for nucleic a...

  2. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  3. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  4. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  5. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland

    2015-01-01

    When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste...... in the vertebrate steroidogenesis, may occur at substantial levels in animal manure and should be addressed. In agricultural practices the animal manure can be applied to the soil as raw manure, but also as a solid or liquid manure fraction, since current livestock production facilities utilizes a recently...... developed technology, which separates raw animal manure into a solid and a liquid fraction. This technology offers an improved handling and refined distribution of the manure nutrients to the farmlands and the possibility to reduce the environmental impact of manure nutrients, especially avoiding...

  6. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or suspect. 50.4 Section 50.4 Animals and... Indemnity § 50.4 Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed... captive cervids are classified as exposed to tuberculosis when such cattle, bison, and captive cervids...

  7. Resíduos de anabolizantes na produção animal: importância e métodos de detecção Anabolic residues in livestock prodution: relevancy and detection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Keila Maria Roncato Duarte; Fabiana Maria Siqueira Mariano da Silva; Ferreira Meirelles

    2002-01-01

    Com o desenvolvimento da indústria farmacêutica e o conseqüente surgimento de novas substâncias promotoras do crescimento animal, o setor agropecuário necessita de tecnologias cada vez mais eficientes e sensíveis para detectar possíveis resíduos deixados por este vasto número de substâncias anabolizantes, principalmente esteróides com atividades estrogênicas, androgênicas e progestogênicas. Tais substâncias, quando presentes na carne, gordura, ovos, entre outros, podem ser detectadas e quanti...

  8. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A; Kraiem, T; Naoui, S; Belayouni, H

    2014-01-01

    Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC-MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds...etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,...etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PREPARATION OF LIVESTOCK WASTEWATER FOR IRRIGATION OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domashenko Y. E.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors propose various techniques for the preparation of livestock waste for agricultural use, particularly for irrigation. We have considered resource-saving environmentally safe technology for processing livestock waste pig farms based on the use of the reagent preparation phosphogypsum – residuals of phosphoric acid and fertilizers. The technology was tested and endorsed at the operating company LLC "Aksai field" of the Rostov region. Also based on this technology, we have offered the following technical solution: livestock wastewater is exposed to the vortex field with movable ferromagnetic particles, which contributes to more complete disinfecting effect. Further improvement of the technological scheme of training for livestock waste allowed to get more modern technical solution, including sewage treatment acidifying reagent is a suspension of phosphogypsum and slightly basic by oxychloride brand Aqua-Aurat. With the aim of reducing the cost and simplifying the technology of training we offered using a reagent, obtained from natural raw materials - silica-coagulant on the basis of nepheline instead of the low-base oxychloride brand Aqua-AuraTM. Aluminosilicate coagulant on the basis of nepheline may be used at high values of COD up to 2000 mg O/l and TBOD to 1500 mg O/l, which is a limitation for the use of such coagulants in the preparation of livestock wastewater pig farms. All the proposed technologies are based on the positions of resource and energy efficiency and environmental safety

  10. Techno-economic analysis of a food waste valorization process via microalgae cultivation and co-production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed from algal biomass and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Venus, Joachim; Pommeret, Aude; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-12-01

    A techno-economic study of food waste valorization via fungal hydrolysis, microalgae cultivation and production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed was simulated and evaluated by Super-Pro Designer®. A pilot-scale plant was designed with a capacity of 1 metric ton day(-1) of food waste with 20 years lifetime. Two scenarios were proposed with different products: Scenario (I) plasticizer & lactic acid, Scenario (II) plasticizer & animal feed. It was found that only Scenario I was economically feasible. The annual net profits, net present value, payback period and internal rate of return were US$ 422,699, US$ 3,028,000, 7.56 years and 18.98%, respectively. Scenario II was not economic viable due to a deficit of US$ 42,632 per year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the price of lactic acid was the largest determinant of the profitability in Scenario I, while the impact of the variables was very close in Scenario II.

  11. Evidence-based identification of the most important livestock related zoonotic diseases in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kohei; Fèvre, Eric M; Waiswa, Charles; Kaboyo, Winyi; Eisler, Mark C; Welburn, Susan C

    2011-08-01

    Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to assess the risks from such farming. A framework for identifying livestock farming-related significant zoonoses was developed. The process consisted of screening of medical record summaries for zoonotic diagnoses, selection of the zoonoses which are related to livestock farming, case estimation of the identified zoonoses and evidence-based reassurance of the importance of diseases. Medical records in the Mulago National Referral Hospital were used for the analysis. Leaders and residents of 75 Local Councils (LC1s: villages; 48 urban, 11 peri-urban and 16 rural) randomly selected in Kampala were interviewed for information regarding livestock farming systems, value chains and use of medical service units. Twelve zoonoses were identified in the screening and four out of them were related to livestock farming: animal sourced food-borne gastroenteritis, brucellosis, Taenia solium neuro-cysticercosis and Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis. Livestock farming, value chain and severity of the diseases confirmed that all four diseases were important. Poor geographical correlation between animals in peri-urban and rural areas and patients in urban areas suggested that the majority of these zoonoses were caused by informally-marketed foods.

  12. Indicators for on-farm self-assessment of animal welfare – Example: dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The “on-farm self-assessment” specified by the Animal Welfare Act from 2014 requires the livestock keeper to assess and monitor appropriate animal-based measures (“animal welfare indicators”) with the aim to achieve higher individual responsibility of livestock keepers for the well-being of their animals. The assessment serves to raise awareness among livestock keepers and to enable them to identify any weaknesses existing. As the Animal Welfare Act does not contain any secondary legislation,...

  13. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  14. The Emergence and Spread of Multiple Livestock-Associated Clonal Complex 398 Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strains among Animals and Humans in the Republic of Ireland, 2010-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne I Brennan

    Full Text Available Clonal complex (CC 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA are associated with carriage and infection among animals and humans but only a single case of CC398 MRSA has been reported in the Republic of Ireland (ROI. The present study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CC398 MRSA (n = 22 and MSSA (n = 10 from animals and humans in the ROI from 2010-2014. Isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing, DNA microarray profiling and PCR for CC398-associated resistance genes. All MRSA underwent SCCmec IV or V subtyping. Four distinct CC398-MRSA incidents were identified from (i a man in a nursing home (spa type t011-SCCmec IVa, immune evasion complex (IEC negative, (ii a horse and veterinarian who had recently travelled to Belgium (t011-IVa, IEC positive, (iii pigs (n = 9 and farm workers (n = 9 on two farms, one which had been restocked with German gilts and the other which was a finisher farm (t034-VT, IEC negative, 3/9 pigs; t011-VT, IEC negative, 6/9 pigs & 9/9 farm workers, and (iv a child who had worked on a pig farm in the UK (t034-VT, IEC negative. Isolates also carried different combinations of multiple resistance genes including erm(A, erm(B, tet(K, tet(M & tet(L, fexA, spc, dfrG, dfrK aacA-aphD and aadD further highlighting the presence of multiple CC398-MRSA strains. CC398 MSSA were recovered from pigs (n = 8 and humans (n = 2. CC398 MSSA transmission was identified among pigs but zoonotic transmission was not detected with animal and human isolates exhibiting clade-specific traits. This study highlights the importation and zoonotic spread of CC398 MRSA in the ROI and the spread of CC398 MSSA among pigs. Increased surveillance is warranted to prevent further CC398 MRSA importation and spread in a country that was considered CC398 MRSA free.

  15. Constraints and challenges of meeting the water requirements of livestock in Ethiopia: cases of Lume and Siraro districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenu, Kebede; Markemann, André; Roessler, Regina; Siegmund-Schultze, Marianna; Abebe, Girma; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2013-10-01

    Compared to the total water use in livestock production systems, water for livestock drinking is small in amount but is an important requirement for health and productivity of animals. This study was carried out to assess constraints and challenges of meeting drinking water requirements of livestock in rural mixed smallholder crop-livestock farming districts in the Ethiopian Rift Valley area. Data was collected by individual interviews with randomly selected respondents and farmer group discussions. Farmers ranked feed and water scarcity as the two most important constraints for livestock husbandry, although the ranking order differed between districts and villages. Poor quality water was a concern for the communities in proximity to urban settlements or industrial establishments. Water provision for livestock was challenging during the dry season, since alternative water sources dried up or were polluted. Though rainwater harvesting by dugout constructions was practiced to cope with water scarcity, farmers indicated that mismanagement of the harvested water was posing health risks on both livestock and people. A sustainable water provision for livestock in the area, thus, depends on use of different water sources (intermittent or perennial) that should be properly managed. Industrial establishments should adopt an environment-friendly production to minimize pollution of water resources used for livestock consumption. Technical support to farmers is required in proper design and use of existing rainwater harvesting systems. Further investigations are recommended on effect of poor quality water (perceived by farmers) on performance of livestock.

  16. ANALISIS MANFAAT DAN BIAYA SOSIAL LIMBAH INDUSTRI TAHU DAN LIMBAH PETERNAKAN DI DAERAH PEDESAAN (Benefit and Social Cost Analysis of Tofu Industry and Livestock Waste Product in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Anggraeni Kusumastuti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Desa Sumber Mulyo, Kabupaten Gunung Kidul dikenal sebagai pusat industri tahu, dan berpotensi sebagai penyedia pakan ternak yang berasal dari limbah industri tahu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui biaya dan manfaat sosial pemanfaatan limbah terhadap total pendapatan rumah tangga. Data primer diperoleh dari produsen tahu dan non-produsen tahu, masing-masing 18 dan 22 responden dari produsen non-tahu. Analisis input-output digunakan untuk analisis penghasilan total rumah tangga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kontribusi penggunaan limbah tahu dan pupuk terhadap penghasilan rumah tangga adalah kecil. Penghitungan depresiasi dengan pengukuran kualitas air menunjukkan penghasilan produsen tahu turun dari Rp.56.241.540,-/tahun menjadi 48.750.320,-/tahun. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa peternak sapi dan produsen tahu masih berada dalam usaha tradisional. Dampak negatif dari faktor eksternal dari usaha mereka tidak diperhitungkan.   ABSTRACT Sumber Mulyo Village, Gunung Kidul district is wellknown as the center of tofu industry and potential for feedlot raising. This is supported by the use of tofu waste as feedlot feed. The objective of the research was to find out the amount of social cost and benefit of the waste use towards total household income. Primary data were collected from 18 respondents of tofu producers and 22 respondents of non tofu producers. Input-Output analysis was used for total household income analysis. The results of the study showed that the contribution of the use of tofu waste and the manure of feedlot towards total household income were small. The counting of cost depreciation by water quality measurements causes the income of tofu producers decreases from 56.241.540 rupiah per year to 48.750.320 rupiah per year. This indicated that cattle farmers and tofu producers still on the traditional effort. The impact of negative externality from theur effort was not counted.

  17. Transgenic animals resistant to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiley, L

    2016-04-01

    The list of transgenic animals developed to test ways of producing livestock resistant to infectious disease continues to grow. Although the basic techniques for generating transgenic animals have not changed very much in the ten years since they were last reviewed for the World Organisation for Animal Health, one recent fundamental technological advance stands to revolutionise genome engineering. The advent of technically simple and efficient site-specific gene targeting has profound implications for genetically modifying livestock species.

  18. Rural livestock asset portfolio in northern Ethiopia: a microeconomic analysis of choice and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegebu, Fredu Nega; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Tollens, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Livestock fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of what type of animal to keep and on accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. Using a panel data of 385 rural households in a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia, this paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households' livestock holding to identify determinants of choice and accumulation of livestock overtime. Choice is analyzed for a principal animal, the animal that constituted the largest value of livestock assets a household possessed, using a multinomial logit model. Results indicate that rural households differ in their choice of what type of animal to keep. Agro-climatic conditions, sex and age of household head, presence of an adult male member in a household, and liquidity are the major factors that influence the type of principal animal households keep. Conditional on the principal animal selected, we analyzed the factors that determine the accumulation of the chosen animals by correcting for selection bias. Area of land cultivated is the most significant factor that explains the number of animals households keep. Other factors include sex of household head, diversification into nonfarm self-employment, and shocks.

  19. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  20. Cystatin C: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector contributes largely to the economy of India. Different systemic diseases like renal diseases, neurological and cardiovascular diseases cause huge loss in production and productive potential of livestock in India, which is considered as a major concern for both small and large ruminants. Early detection of diseseses is essential to combat the economic loss. An efficient biochemical marker can be developed which would provide more specific, sensitive and reliable measurement of functions of different organs. Determination of endogenous marker Cystatin C may fulfill the above need which can provide a detection platform not only for Kidney function but also for assaying other organs' function. Cystatin C is a low molecular weight protein which is removed from the bloodstream by glomerular filtration in the kidneys. Thus, it may act as a potential biological tool in diagnosis of renal and other systemic diseases in livestock. This mini-review focuses on the Cystatin C and its clinical importance which can be extensively employed in the livestock sector. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 200-205

  1. Resíduos de anabolizantes na produção animal: importância e métodos de detecção Anabolic residues in livestock prodution: relevancy and detection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o desenvolvimento da indústria farmacêutica e o conseqüente surgimento de novas substâncias promotoras do crescimento animal, o setor agropecuário necessita de tecnologias cada vez mais eficientes e sensíveis para detectar possíveis resíduos deixados por este vasto número de substâncias anabolizantes, principalmente esteróides com atividades estrogênicas, androgênicas e progestogênicas. Tais substâncias, quando presentes na carne, gordura, ovos, entre outros, podem ser detectadas e quantificadas por uma série de métodos, dentre os quais, descrevemos os cromatográficos, baseados principalmente em cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa (CG-EM, cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE, cromatografia em camada delgada de alta eficiência (CCDAE e os métodos imunológicos, como radioomunoensaio (RIA e ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. Estes métodos têm como vantagens o elevado número de amostras que podem ser analisadas por período de tempo, aliadas à alta sensibilidade na detecção de resíduos.With the development of the pharmaceutical industry, and consequently appearance of new substances which promote animal growth, the agricultural sector needs technologies more and more efficient and sensitive to detect possible residues left by this vast number of anabolic substances, mainly steroids with estrogenic, androgenic and progesterogenics activities. Such substances, when present in meat, fat, and eggs among others, can be detected and quantified by a series of methods, among the ones which we described the chromatographic methods, based mainly on gaseous chromatography coupled to the mass espectrometry (CG-MS, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and the immunological methods, as radioimmunoassay (RIA and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. These methods have as advantages the high number of samples that can be analyzed by period of time, toghether

  2. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  3. Estimation of Production Amount of Livestock and Poultry Manure and Environmental Impact Assessment in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing; LIAO; Dongliang; HUANG; Zepu; JIANG; Guangpo; WEI; Panxia; LIANG; Yuning; WANG; Yangrui; LI

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to estimate production of major livestock and poultry manure and contaminant content,and find out current situation of manure pollution,so as to provide reference for pollution control of livestock and poultry breeding industry in Guangxi.Based on the related statistic data in 2010 and the excretion coefficient of different livestock and poultry,the manure and its contaminant production amount of main livestock and poultry in Guangxi were estimated.Then the annual livestock and poultry manure load of farmland and the loss of contaminant were also calculated to analyze the ecological pressure resulted from livestock and poultry breeding in Guangxi.Following results were obtained:in 2010,the production amount of the livestock and poultry manure in Guangxi was 9141.30×104tons,including nutrient TN42.07×104tons and TP 13.62×104tons;the annual livestock and poultry manure and N,P pure nutrient load of farmland was 21t/hm2,98kg/hm2,and 32 kg/hm2respectively;the production amount of manure contaminants was BOD5383.43×104tons,COD Cr435.42×104tons,and NH3-N 42.08×104tons;according to 30%loss rate,the loss amount of COD Cr and NH3-N was higher than the sum of industrial and life waste water.It was concluded that the livestock and poultry breeding industry had little impact on soil environment,but posed a grave threat to water environment.

  4. Clinical assessment of selenium status of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, H D; Herdt, T H

    1992-12-01

    Assessment of the selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine, but variations in reported values between laboratories and between methods may be > 30%. Reliable interpretations require considerable experience with an assay and an extensive database from field and research case samples of a variety of species. The Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (MSU-ADHL) has offered Se analyses by acid-digestion and fluorometric detection since 1982. This laboratory expects serum Se values (nanograms per milliliter) of livestock to increase gradually with age from starting ranges for neonates of 50 to 80 for calves and sheep and 70 to 90 for foals and pigs. Expected or "normal" values for the adults are in the ranges of 70 to 100 for cattle, 120 to 150 for sheep, 130 to 160 for horses, and 180 to 220 for swine. Normal liver Se concentrations are considered to range between 1.2 and 2.0 micrograms/g on a dry weight basis, regardless of the species or age. Based on samples submitted to MSU-AHDL between September 1990 and August 1991, contemporary feeding practices in the Michigan area resulted in mean serum Se values (nanograms per milliliter) of 75 +/- 19 for adult Holsteins, 170 +/- 27 for adult swine (mixed breeds), and 137 +/- 30 for adult race horses. Within that period of time, two field cases of Se toxicity were diagnosed. One involved feeder pigs with a recorded high serum Se value of 1,525 ng/mL due to a commercial premix manufacturing error.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Lessons learned from past experience with intensive livestock management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, G M; Rault, J L; Glatz, P C

    2014-04-01

    The main impetus for 'modern' intensive animal production occurred after the Second World War, when Western governments developed policies to increase the availability of cheap, safe food for their populations. Livestock benefit under intensive husbandry by protection from environmental extremes and predators, and better nutritional and health management. Nevertheless, there are costs to the animal, such as impaired social behaviour, limited choice of living environment or pen mates, poor environmental stimulation and behavioural restrictions. The rapid progress in genetic selection of production traits has also, in some cases, adversely affected welfare by creating anatomical and metabolic problems. Above all, the intensively housed animal is heavily reliant on the stockperson and, therefore, inadequate care and husbandry practices by the stockperson may be the largest welfare risk. In a future in which the food supply may be limited as the world's population grows and land availability shrinks, intensive animal production is likely to expand. At the same time, ethical considerations surrounding intensive farming practices may also become more prominent. Novel technologies provide the opportunity to enhance both the productivity and welfare of intensively kept animals. Developing countries are also establishing more intensive commercial systems to meet their growing need for animal protein. Intensive livestock production in such countries has the potential for major expansion, particularly if such developments address the key constraints of poor welfare, inadequate nutrition, poor reproduction, poor housing, and high mortality often seen with traditional systems, and if farmer access to emerging market opportunities is improved. However, as shown by previous experience, inadequate regulation and staff who lack the appropriate training to care for the welfare of intensively housed livestock can be major challenges to overcome.

  6. The sociocultural sustainability of livestock farming: an inquiry into social perceptions of dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, B K; Oosting, S J; Bock, B B; Wiskerke, J S C

    2011-08-01

    Over the past 50 years, the scale and intensity of livestock farming have increased significantly. At the same time, Western societies have become more urbanised and fewer people have close relatives involved in farming. As a result, most citizens have little knowledge or direct experience of what farming entails. In addition, more people are expressing concerns over issues such as farm animal welfare. This has led to increasing public demand for more sustainable ways of livestock farming. To date, little research has been carried out on the social pillar of sustainable livestock farming. The aim of this study is to provide insights into the sociocultural sustainability of livestock farming systems. This study reviews the key findings of earlier published interdisciplinary research about the social perceptions of dairy farming in the Netherlands and Norway (Boogaard et al., 2006, 2008, 2010a and 2010b) and synthesises the implications for sociocultural sustainability of livestock farming. This study argues that the (sociocultural) sustainable development of livestock farming is not an objective concept, but that it is socially and culturally constructed by people in specific contexts. It explains the social pillar of the economics/ecological/social model sustainability in terms of the fields of tensions that exist between modernity, traditions and naturality - 'the MTN knot' - each of which has positive and negative faces. All three angles of vision can be seen in people's attitudes to dairy farming, but the weight given to each differs between individuals and cultures. Hence, sociocultural sustainability is context dependent and needs to be evaluated according to its local meaning. Moreover, sociocultural sustainability is about people's perceptions of livestock farming. Lay people might perceive livestock farming differently and ascribe different meanings to it than experts do, but their 'reality' is just as real. Finally, this study calls for an ongoing

  7. The changing role of cell culture in the generation of transgenic livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Whitelaw, C B; Farini, E; Webster, J

    1999-01-01

    Transgenesis may allow the generation of farm animals with altered phenotype, animal models for research and animal bioreactors. Although such animals have been produced, the time and expense involved in generating transgenic livestock and then evaluating the transgene expression pattern is very restrictive. If questions about the ability and efficiency of expression could be asked solely in vitro rapid progress could be achieved. Unfortunately, experiments addressing transcriptional control ...

  8. The changing role of cell culture in the generation of transgenic livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Whitelaw, C. B.; Farini, E.; Webster, J

    1999-01-01

    Transgenesis may allow the generation of farm animals with altered phenotype, animal models for research and animal bioreactors. Although such animals have been produced, the time and expense involved in generating transgenic livestock and then evaluating the transgene expression pattern is very restrictive. If questions about the ability and efficiency of expression could be asked solely in vitro rapid progress could be achieved. Unfortunately, experiments addressing transcriptional control ...

  9. Livestock-associated MRSA carriage in patients without direct contact with livestock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda M L van Rijen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Livestock-associated MRSA (MC398 has emerged and is related to an extensive reservoir in pigs and veal calves. Individuals with direct contact with these animals and their family members are known to have high MC398 carriage rates. Until now it was assumed that MC398 does not spread to individuals in the community without pig or veal calf exposure. To test this, we identified the proportion of MC398 in MRSA positive individuals without contact with pigs/veal calves or other known risk factors (MRSA of unknown origin; MUO. METHODS: In 17 participating hospitals, we determined during two years the occurrence of MC398 in individuals without direct contact with livestock and no other known risk factor (n = 271 and tested in a post analysis the hypothesis whether hospitals in pig-dense areas have higher proportions of MC398 of all MUO. RESULTS: Fifty-six individuals (20.7% without animal contact carried MC398. In hospitals with high pig-densities in the adherence area, the proportion of MC398 of all MUO was higher than this proportion in hospitals without pigs in the surroundings. CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of the individuals carrying MUO carried MC398. So, MC398 is found in individuals without contact to pigs or veal calves. The way of transmission from the animal reservoir to these individuals is unclear, probably by human-to-human transmission or by exposure to the surroundings of the stables. Further research is needed to investigate the way of transmission.

  10. 78 FR 26486 - Recordkeeping for Approved Livestock Facilities and Slaughtering and Rendering Establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... animals and humans caused by specific types of bacteria that are part of the Mycobacterium group. The... diseases in the United States and to facilitate the control and eradication of such diseases. The... interstate movement of animals that could spread livestock or poultry diseases. The regulations in Sec....

  11. 9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section 329.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.6 Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any carcass...

  12. Numerical Prediction of Buoyant Air Flow in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    not include the effect of room geometry, obstacles or heat sources. This paper describes the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict air flow patterns and temperature distribution in a ventilated space. Good agreement is found when results of numerical predictions are compared with experimental data.......In modern livestock buildings air distribution and air quality are important parameters to animal welfare and to the health of full-tithe employees in animal production. Traditional methods for calculating air distribution in farm buildings are mainly based on formulas for air jets which do...

  13. Potential for biological nitrification inhibition to reduce nitrification and N2O emissions in pasture crop-livestock systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subbarao, G V; Rao, I M; Nakahara, K; Sahrawat, K L; Ando, Y; Kawashima, T

    2013-01-01

    .... Methane with a GWP (global warming potential) of 21, and nitrous oxide (N2O) with a GWP of 300, are largely emitted from animal production agriculture, where livestock production is based on pasture and feed grains...

  14. Cytogenetics in animal production

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy), lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities) or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities). Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biolo...

  15. Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Livestock Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and N. Sri Balaji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of farm animals is a prime concern over the years for researchers. Several reproductive technologies have been employed to achieve this. Assisted reproductive technologies like Artificial insemination, Superovulation, In vitro Fertilization, Embryo Transfer have been introduced to overcome reproductive problems, to increase the offspring from selected female’s and to reduce the generation intervals in farm animals. The progress achieved during the last few years in the assisted reproductive technologies field has been phenomenal. Artificial Insemination (AI is the most effective method being used for the genetic improvement of animals. Reproductive capacity and efficiency has been improved tremendously since the introduction of artificial insemination. The development of cloning using various cells from the animal body has created opening of a fascinating scientific arena. These technologies have been propounded as saviors of indigenous livestock breeds. These alternative reproductive techniques are available not only for manipulation of reproductive processes but also proven to be powerful tools in curbing the spread of vertically transmitted diseases. The successful reproductive technologies such as AI and Embryo transfer need be applied on a large scale, emerging biotechnogies such as MOET, IVF and Cloning provides powerful tool for rapidly changing the animal populations, genetically. This advanced reproduction technologies will definitely play an important role in the future perspective and visions for efficient reproductive performance in livestock. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 238-240

  16. Identification of selection signatures in livestock species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gouveia, João José de Simoni; Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa da; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Oliveira, Sônia Maria Pinheiro de

    2014-01-01

    .... Domestication followed by breed formation and selection schemes has allowed the formation of very diverse livestock breeds adapted to a wide variety of environments and with special characteristics...

  17. Geographical determinants and environmental implications of livestock production intensification in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Pierre; Chilonda, Pius; Franceschini, Gianluca; Menzi, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Under growing and urbanizing demand, livestock production is rapidly evolving in South, East and South-east Asia, with both an increase of production and a shift to intensive production systems. These changes infer impacts on the environment, on public health and on rural development. Environmental impacts are mainly associated with a mismanagement of animal excreta, leading to pollution of surface water, ground water and soils by nutrients, organic matter, and heavy metals. In the framework of the Livestock Environment and Development Initiative, this research aims at assessing, on a regional scale, the impacts of livestock production on nutrient fluxes. Phosphate (P(2)O(5)) mass balances were chosen as an indicator and were calculated on the basis of spatially modelled livestock densities, estimated excretion values and crop uptake. The results show a strong West--East gradient regarding the distribution of monogastrics, with clear concentration in densely populated areas and around urban centres. P(2)O(5) overloads are estimated on 23.6% of the study area's agricultural land, mainly located in eastern China, the Ganges basin and around urban centres such as Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City and Manila. On average, livestock manure is estimated to account for 39.4% of the agricultural P(2)O(5) supply (the remaining share being supplied by chemical fertilisers). Livestock is the dominant agricultural source of P(2)O(5) around urban centres and in livestock specialised areas (southern and north-eastern China), while chemical fertilisers are dominant in crop (rice) intensive areas.

  18. Combustion of a fuel mix containing animal waste, industry and household waste in FB-boilers; Foerbraenning av en braenslemix bestaaende av animaliskt avfall, industri- och hushaallsavfall i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Moradian, Farzad

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this project is to evaluate how the operation conditions and the combustion chemistry is changed in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Boiler when adding approx. 20 wt-% Biomal into the fuel mixture. The following issues were addressed in the project: 1. How does the new chemical composition of the fuel mix influence bed agglomeration, deposit growth, ash flows, flue gases and particle size distribution? 2. Is it possible to run the boiler at a reduced bed temperature of about 750 deg C due to the increased moisture content originating from the biomal fuel? The project is based on combustion tests in the two Waste to Energy boilers at 20 MWth each owned by Boraas Energy and Environment AB (BEM). Furthermore, results from the Waste Refinery Project 'Reduced bed temperature in FB-boilers burning waste - part II' has been used as reference in some cases. At normal conditions the boilers are run on a fuel mixture containing 80 % sorted industrial waste and 20 % household waste. This fuel mixture consists mainly of paper, plastics and wood. In Boraas the organic part of the household waste is sorted out and used for biogas production. With the addition of biomal, which consists of animal by-products crushed to a pumpable fuel, the chemical composition of the fuel mixture is changed to some extent. The results from the combustion tests shows that biomal influences the chemical fuel composition, but also that there are large variations in the ordinary waste fuel composition as well. The most evident changes with addition of biomal are: 1. Increased moisture. 2. Reduced heat value. 3. Increased amount nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. 4. Decreased amount lead due to the low concentration in biomal. However, there were no changes in sodium, potassium, sulphur and chlorine, elements important for increased/reduced fuel related problems, derived from biomal. The increase of calcium and phosphorus with biomal derive from bone and the calcium

  19. Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

  20. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production......Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....

  1. Fatigue: a major cause of commercial livestock truck accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Woods

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The author outlines the principles underlying the standards employed by the Australian Marine Safety Authority to regulate live animal carriers, vessels used for sea transport of livestock, that operate from Australia. The standards are contained in regulations adopted by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority known as Marine Orders. The Cargo and Cargo Handling — Livestock Marine Order has evolved over time with subsequent ‘issues’ of the order as a consequence of operational experience and specific research. Recent changes have focused on the need to have adequate redundancy in systems and equipment of ships. A history of the development of these regulations is given and is followed by a description of the principles employed to develop the provisions contained in the regulations.

  2. Active Fault Tolerant Control of Livestock Stable Ventilation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    of fault. Designing a fault tolerant control scheme for the climate control system. In the first step, a conceptual multi-zone model for climate control of a live-stock building is derived. The model is a nonlinear hybrid model. Hybrid systems contain both discrete and continuous components. The parameters......Modern stables and greenhouses are equipped with different components for providing a comfortable climate for animals and plant. A component malfunction may result in loss of production. Therefore, it is desirable to design a control system, which is stable, and is able to provide an acceptable...... degraded performance even in the faulty case. In this thesis, we have designed such controllers for climate control systems for livestock buildings in three steps: Deriving a model for the climate control system of a pig-stable. Designing a active fault diagnosis (AFD) algorithm for different kinds...

  3. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production......Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....

  4. Enhancing livestock through genetic engineering--recent advances and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, G

    2009-03-01

    Transgenic technology allows for the stable introduction of exogenous genetic information into livestock genomes. With its ability to enhance existing or introduce entirely novel characteristics at unprecedented magnitude and speed this emerging technology is expected to have a profound impact on the genetic improvement of livestock in the future. The continual advances in animal genomics towards the identification of genes that influence livestock production traits and impact on human health will increase its ability and versatility for the purposeful modification of livestock animals to enhance their welfare, produce superior quality food and biomedical products and reduce the environmental impact of farming. In contrast to biomedicine, which has so far been the main driver for this technology platform, the potential opportunities for animal agriculture are more challenging because of the greater demands on cost, efficiency, consumer acceptance and relative value of the product. While various transgenic concepts for the genetic improvement of livestock animals for agriculture are being evaluated the integration of this technology into practical farming systems remains some distance in the future.

  5. The Economic Impact of Merapi Volcano Eruption in Livestock Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Merapi volcano eruption has impact significantly to the most of surrounding farming areas, including livestock, which belongs to rural peoples as the main sources of income. Estimated loss of economic values of resources amounted to IDR 5821 billion, covering among others: salak pondok, farm animals (dairy, beef cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and poultry and food crops (maize and rice field business. The areas mostly hit by the eruption include the districts of Boyolali, Klaten and Magelang of Central Java, and District of Sleman in DIY. Livestock sub sector of the economy in these areas suffers losses in terms of death of animals, sold and unsold animals, fodder crops, and reduced of milk production. It has been estimated that these losses have reached IDR 88,320 billion. Rehabilitation and reconstruction programs are necessary for both short and longer terms efforts to recover people livelihood which derived particularly from livestock farming.

  6. Genomic selection to improve livestock production in developing countries with a focus on India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadarmideen, Haja; Do, Duy Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    not been fully explored. The future of livestock breeding focuses on both product quality and productivity, animal welfare, disease resistance and reducing environmental pollution. Among the breeding tools, molecular genetics and genomics and modern reproductive techniques such ovum-pick up and in vitro......Global livestock production has increased substantially during the last decades, in both number of animals and productivity. Meanwhile, the human population is projected to reach 9.6 billions by 2050 and most of the increase in the projection takes place in developing countries. Rapid population...... growth will increase the demand for food as well as animal products, particularly in emerging economic giants like India. Moreover, the urbanization has considerable impact on patterns of food consumption in general and on demand for livestock products, in particular and the increased income growth led...

  7. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  8. Study on Measures and Policies to Reduce Pollution in Raising Livestock and Poultry in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonghong; LIANG; Yongxiang; GUAN; Hao; WU; Zichen; WANG

    2013-01-01

    As a developed province in China,Jiangsu Province is competitive in the livestock and poultry production industry.With the development and growing intensity of livestock and poultry industry,animal pollution has become the major source of panel agricultural pollution.This paper studied the characteristics of livestock and poultry industry in Jiangsu Province:large amount of livestock poultry,imbalanced development of livestock and regional differences,large pollution,large amount of pollution emission,uneven distribution of livestock and great pressure on reducing pollution.Besides,the ways to deal with pollution in Jiangsu Province were analyzed:fertilizer accumulation,biogas process technology,animal stools disposal center,ferment bed technology,and comprehensive disposal technology.Governments’policies on pollution reduction were expounded.In the end,several suggestions were put forward,such as strengthening management,innovating treatment,intensifying governments’responsibility,enlarging financial input and creating favorable atmosphere to protect environment.

  9. Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Wielgus

    Full Text Available Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987-2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5-6% for cattle with increased wolf control--up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered.

  10. Spatio-temporal characteristics of livestock and their effects on pollution in China based on geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Liu, Yongyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen

    2016-07-01

    Livestock pollution, caused by rural household's scatter breeding mainly, is one of the major non-point sources. Different animal manures are abundant with different nutrients. Adopting the policies, management practices, and technologies related to livestock production based on livestock structure analysis can improve the efficiency on preventing pollution. Based on statistical data, the component structure of livestock was analyzed and corresponding effect on pollution was evaluated during the period of 1992-2012 in China. The results showed that the average annual growth rate (AAGR) of total China was 1.58 % during the 20 years. Larger amounts of livestock were concentrated in Southwest China and East China. In the view of component structure, each type of livestock had different distribution characteristics and constant increasing amounts were presented during the 20 years. Cattle took the largest proportion in almost every province, and the number of heads was over 40 % of all the livestock quantity for most provinces. Pollution of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) caused by livestock excretion in East and Southeast China was much more serious than that in other regions. However, the load of COD was far less than that of TN and TP. Cattle accounted most for the livestock pollution, and swine was the second one. The intensity characteristics of TN, TP, and COD were different from that of total pollution loads. The spatio-temporal characteristics of amounts and component structure of livestock were influenced by three kinds of factors (natural, economic, and social), such as climate, topography, modes of production, feed grain sector, related policies, and area of the study regions. Different livestock excrements had different impacts on environment. According to various livestock structures and economy conditions, different disposal methods should be adopted.

  11. Assessment of Economic Viability of Mini-livestock Production in Delta State, Nigeria:Implication for Extension Delivery Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene; Achoja Felix Odemero

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the popularity, role and economic viability of mini-livestock keeping in Delta State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of mini-livestock farmers, identify the types of animals reared as mini-livestock in the area, ascertain the reasons for keeping mini-livestock by farmers, determine the benefit level of mini-livestock farmers, and identify the problems facing mini-livestock farmers in the study area. Using snowball sampling technique, 674 respondents were sampled with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Various descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analyses. The results of the study indicated various types of mini-livestock reared in the study area, mainly snail farming or heliciculture (about 90%) and rearing of cane rat (84.27%); the most important reasons for keeping mini-livestock were income (99.6%), employment (99.26%) and food (94.96%). The result further indicated that protein consumption and improved income were the most important benefits to respondents. In spite of these benefits, the respondents faced some constraints, amongst which were lack of technical information (X=4.70), lacking of enough space for expansion (X=4.58), inadequate training (X=4.20), poor extension delivery services (X=4.20) and problems of feed availability (X=3.86). In spite of these constraints, the production of mini-livestock was found to be profitable in the study area. Based on the findings, it was recommended, among others, that mini-livestock farmers in the study area should be trained on various aspects of the management of mini-livestock especially by organising workshops for them. Key words: mini-livestock, cane rat, guinea pig, viability, snail, heliciculture

  12. Adsorption Properties of Adsorption Tower Filled with Calcium Superphosphate on NH3 Emitted from Composting System of Animal Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dandan LUI; Yunxiao CHONG; Qitang WU; Genyi WU; Dechun HE; Jinrong QIU; Zhencheng XU

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the adsorption properties of the adsorption tower filled with calcium superphosphate on ammonia volatilized with aer- ation. [Method] Adsorption tower filled with calcium superphosphate was adopted as experimental apparatus, which was constructed by poly vinyl chloride (PVC) circular tubes. With hartshorn as the source of ammonia volatilization, the effect of different ratios of height to diameter of the tower filled with equal amount of calcium super-phosphate on ammonia adsorption was investigated. In addition, adsorption tower with height-diameter ratio of 9.9 was selected to adsorb the ammonia emitted from the composting systems of pig manure and chicken manure with optimized and reg- ulated carbon-nitrogen ratio. [Result] Under certain volatilization rate, calcium super- phosphate particles in the adsorption tower could effectively adsorb the ammonia, and the adsorption efficiency was enhanced with the increase of height-diameter ra-tio, which could reach above 90% with height-diameter ratio of more than 1.1; the ammonia emitted from composting systems of pig manure and chicken manure with optimized and regulated carbon-nitrogen ratio could be completely absorbed using adsorption tower with height-diameter ratio of 9.9 filled with calcium superphosphate accounting for about 8% of the weight of composting materials. [Conclusion] Experi- mental results of this study provided reference for the application of adsorption tower filled with calcium superphosphate in the treatment of waste gas emitted from com- posting materials.

  13. Anaerobic digestion technology in livestock manure treatment for biogas production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Ismail M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Ghazi, Tinia I.; Omar, Rozita

    2012-06-15

    This article reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production from livestock manure wastes and compares the operating and performance data for various anaerobic process configurations. It examines different kinds of manure waste treatment techniques and the influence of several parameters on biogas and methane yield. The comparison indicates that a variety of different operational conditions, various reactor configurations such as batch reactors, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and continuous one- and two-stage systems, present a suitable technology for the AD of livestock manure waste. Main performance indicators are biogas and methane yield, degradation of volatile solids (VS), higher loading, and process stability with a short retention time. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. 9 CFR 53.6 - Disinfection of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of animals. 53.6 Section 53.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., PLEUROPNEUMONIA, RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.6 Disinfection...

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS FROM LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY EXCREMENTS IN DONGTING LAKE%洞庭湖区畜禽排泄物的环境效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭瑛; 李丽立; 吴信; 张彬; 印遇龙; 李凤娜

    2011-01-01

    洞庭湖湿地是长江中游重要的生态功能区,其生态功能的退化制约了湖区经济的可持续发展.近些年来,随着湖区集约化畜牧业的迅速发展,畜禽粪尿等排泄物对湖区生态环境构成了严重威胁.从畜禽养殖量、粪尿等污染物的年排泄量、粪便猪粪当量及负荷量、土地畜禽粪便负荷承受程度4个方面估算并分析了洞庭湖各县(市区)畜禽养殖业的环境威胁性.结果表明:2007年洞庭湖区各类畜禽粪尿排泄总量为3 172.79万t,相当于猪粪当量2 921.13万t.全年畜禽粪尿流失总量达1 110.48万t.畜禽排泄物中年流失化学需氧量50.80万t,氨氮7.81万t.从畜禽粪便负荷量警报值及分级结果看,畜禽排泄物对岳阳楼区、汩罗市的环境威胁比较严重,对云溪区、临澧县、武陵区、岳阳县、津市市和湘阴县生态环境亦有一定的影响.%As the most important Eco-functional districts of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River,Dongting Lake wetland’s ecological functions restrict the sustainable development of economy in this area.With the rapid development of husbandry, the waste from livestock seriously threatens to the ecological environment of regional lake. Judging from the amount of livestock and poultry, environmental threats from excretions of livestock and poultry in Dongting Lake counties(urban)were estimated and analyzed in this study,which included the amount of livestock wastes such as feces and urine,feces equivalent capacity of swine, extent of land to bear the animal manure load. The results showed that various kinds of animal feces and urine excretion of Dongting Lake area were 31.727 9 million t in total,equivalent to pig feces equivalent of 29.211 3 million t,in 2007. The run-off amount of livestock and poultry manure reached a total of 11.1048 milliont. The amount of COD and ammonia from livestock and poultry excretions were more than 508 000 and 78 100 t. Jugding from livestock and

  16. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2) Dete

  17. Recovery of valuable nitrogen compounds from agricultural liquid wastes: potential possibilities, bottlenecks and future technological challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Klapwijk, A.; Willers, H.C.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural liquid livestock wastes are an important potential source of valuable nitrogen-containing compounds such as ammonia and proteins. Large volumetric quantities of these wastes are produced in areas with a high livestock production density. Much technological research has been carried out

  18. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...

  19. Possible additional exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds from waste incineration. Biomonitoring using human milk and animal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Murk, A. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    In the ambit of an Environmental Health Survey Program relative to a MSW facility, which has been operating near to Lisbon since 1999 a biomonitoring study using human breast milk has been performed. Specific aims of this study were: (1) determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases dioxin maternal body burden and accordingly perinatal (intra-uterus and lactacional) exposure; (2) to investigate the possibility of increased human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds via locally produced food items from animal origin. Therefore, levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been determined in human milk samples collected in the vicinity of the incinerator and in a control area, for comparison. From the same areas, cow and sheep milk and eggs from free-range chickens have also been collected to get an indication of possible local additional exposure to air-borne dioxins via the food chain. Analyses of TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) were mainly performed with a reporter gene assay for dioxin-like activity, the DR-CALUX bioassay (Dioxin Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression).To determine congeners profile, some human milk samples have also been analysed for PCDD/Fs and relevant dioxin-like PCBs, by using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Both the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, and of the Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa have approved the study protocol.

  20. Selenium Nanoparticles for Stress-Resilient Fish and Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Daware, Akshay; Tribedi, Prosun; Krishnani, K K; Minhas, P S

    2015-12-01

    The fisheries and livestock sectors capture the highest share of protein-rich animal food and demonstrate accelerated growth as an agriculture subsidiary. Environmental pollution, climate change, as well as pathogenic invasions exert increasing stress impacts that lead the productivity momentum at a crossroads. Oxidative stress is the most common form of stress phenomenon responsible for the retardation of productivity in fisheries and livestock. Essential micronutrients play a determinant role in combating oxidative stress. Selenium, one of the essential micronutrients, appears as a potent antioxidant with reduced toxicity in its nanoscale form. In the present review, different methods of synthesis and characterization of nanoscale selenium have been discussed. The functional characterization of nano-selenium in terms of its effect on growth patterns, feed digestibility, and reproductive system has been discussed to elucidate the mechanism of action. Moreover, its anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant potentiality, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy, and fatty acid reduction in liver have been deciphered as the new phenomena of nano-selenium application. Biologically synthesized nano-selenium raises hope for pharmacologically enriched, naturally stable nanoscale selenium with high ecological viability. Hence, nano-selenium can be administered with commercial feeds for improvising stress resilience and productivity of fish and livestock.

  1. Selenium Nanoparticles for Stress-Resilient Fish and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Daware, Akshay; Tribedi, Prosun; Krishnani, K. K.; Minhas, P. S.

    2015-09-01

    The fisheries and livestock sectors capture the highest share of protein-rich animal food and demonstrate accelerated growth as an agriculture subsidiary. Environmental pollution, climate change, as well as pathogenic invasions exert increasing stress impacts that lead the productivity momentum at a crossroads. Oxidative stress is the most common form of stress phenomenon responsible for the retardation of productivity in fisheries and livestock. Essential micronutrients play a determinant role in combating oxidative stress. Selenium, one of the essential micronutrients, appears as a potent antioxidant with reduced toxicity in its nanoscale form. In the present review, different methods of synthesis and characterization of nanoscale selenium have been discussed. The functional characterization of nano-selenium in terms of its effect on growth patterns, feed digestibility, and reproductive system has been discussed to elucidate the mechanism of action. Moreover, its anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant potentiality, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy, and fatty acid reduction in liver have been deciphered as the new phenomena of nano-selenium application. Biologically synthesized nano-selenium raises hope for pharmacologically enriched, naturally stable nanoscale selenium with high ecological viability. Hence, nano-selenium can be administered with commercial feeds for improvising stress resilience and productivity of fish and livestock.

  2. Genetic aspects of enteric methane emission in ruminants livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the importance of enteric methane (CH4 emission in ruminants and relevant to the current on knowledge relevant to genetic aspects of enteric CH4 production, highlighting future research needs and directions. Global average temperature has increased by about 0.7°C in the last century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC reported that anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG, including carbon dioxide (CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and halocarbons, have been responsible for most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the twentieth century. Agriculture, particularly livestock, is increasingly being recognized as both a contributor to the process and a potential victim of it. Policy interventions and technical solutions are required to address both the impact of livestock production on climate change and the effects of climate change on livestock production. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, declared that in the next 50 years, the world’s farmers will be called upon to produce more food than has been produced in the past 10,000 years, and to do so in environmentally sustainable ways. Therefore, the GHG reduction should be treated as a public good. The United States congress is prospecting to define a price on GHG emissions. Limiting the concentration of CO2 and other GHG in Earth’s atmosphere requires a technological and economic revolution. A cost-effective way could be the genetic improvement of livestock, which produces permanent and cumulative changes in performance. Animal variation in enteric CH4 emission has been reported in the literature, providing potential for improvement through genetic selection. 

  3. Some challenges in progressive control of livestock originated zoonotic diseases in Pakistan-a pilot survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Furqan; Awan; Muhammad; Muddassir; Ali; Umair; Iqbal; Irfan; Khattak; Muhammad; Hassan; Mushtaq

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To document the recent livestock related practices and possible unhygienic ways of pathogen entry.Identification of the potential risk factors for the spread of infection is important to design an evidence-based disease control programme.Methods:Rapid assessment method was adopted and a purposive sample of 60 dairy farmers were interviewed.The following factors were noted for contributing in primary and secondary transmission of zoonotic infections:(i) persons who come in close contact with animals and their secretions,(ii) management strategies of farm animals(sheds and environment),(iii) management practices adopted at farms,(iv) small scale farmers and rural livestock production systems,(v)milk collection systems.Results:This research unveiled the certain routes of zoonotic disease transmission.Certain management practices,precautionary measures and strategies were the pivotal risk factors.Conclusions:The study emphasizes the need to educate the poor livestock keepers.

  4. Some challenges in progressive control of livestock originated zoonotic diseases in Pakistan-a pilot survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Furqan Awan; Muhammad Muddassir Ali; Umair Iqbal; Irfan Khattak; Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the recent livestock related practices and possible unhygienic ways of pathogen entry. Identification of the potential risk factors for the spread of infection is important to design an evidence-based disease control programme. Methods:Rapid assessment method was adopted and a purposive sample of 60 dairy farmers were interviewed. The following factors were noted for contributing in primary and secondary transmission of zoonotic infections: (i) persons who come in close contact with animals and their secretions, (ii) management strategies of farm animals (sheds and environment), (iii) management practices adopted at farms, (iv) small scale farmers and rural livestock production systems, (v) milk collection systems. Results:This research unveiled the certain routes of zoonotic disease transmission. Certain management practices, precautionary measures and strategies were the pivotal risk factors. Conclusions:The study emphasizes the need to educate the poor livestock keepers.

  5. Importance of ticks and their chemical and immunological control in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Hu, Song-hua; Chen, Wan-jun; Arijo, Abdullah G; Xiao, Chen-wen

    2006-11-01

    The medical and economic importance of ticks has long been recognized due to their ability to transmit diseases to humans and animals. Ticks cause great economic losses to livestock, and adversely affect livestock hosts in several ways. Loss of blood is a direct effect of ticks acting as potential vector for haemo-protozoa and helminth parasites. Blood sucking by large numbers of ticks causes reduction in live weight and anemia among domestic animals, while their bites also reduce the quality of hides. However, major losses caused by ticks are due to their ability to transmit protozoan, rickettsial and viral diseases of livestock, which are of great economic importance world-wide. There are quite a few methods for controlling ticks, but every method has certain shortcomings. The present review is focused on ticks importance and their control.

  6. Review: Importance of ticks and their chemical and immunological control in livestock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAJPUT Zahid Iqbal; HU Song-hua; CHEN Wan-jun; ARIJO Abdullah G.; XIAO Chen-wen

    2006-01-01

    The medical and economic importance of ticks has long been recognized due to their ability to transmit diseases to humans and animals. Ticks cause great economic losses to livestock, and adversely affect livestock hosts in several ways. Loss of blood is a direct effect of ticks acting as potential vector for haemo-protozoa and helminth parasites. Blood sucking by large numbers of ticks causes reduction in live weight and anemia among domestic animals, while their bites also reduce the quality of hides. However, major losses caused by ticks are due to their ability to transmit protozoan, rickettsial and viral diseases of livestock, which are of great economic importance world-wide. There are quite a few methods for controlling ticks, but every method has certain shortcomings. The present review is focused on ticks importance and their control.

  7. Agricultural uses of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pile, R.S.; Behrends, L.L.; Burns, E.R.; Maddox, J.J.; Madewell, C.E.; Mays, D.A.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    A major concern of the Tennessee Valley Authority is to ensure efficient use of Tennessee Valley resources in achieving optimum economic development without degrading the environment. As part of this effort, TVA is exploring many uses for waste heat. Activities to develop ways to use waste heat in agricultural production are described. Primary objectives are to: (1) identify potential agricultural uses of waste heat, (2) develop and test technologies and management criteria for more productive uses, (3) demonstrate technologies in commercial-scale production facilities, and (4) provide technical assistance for commercial application. Waste heat research and development projects under investigation or being planned by TVA independently or cooperatively include: (1) controlled environment greenhouses, (2) biological ecycling of nutrients from livestock manures, (3) soil heating and irrigation, and (4) environmental control for livestock housing. (MHR)

  8. Environmental and economic impacts of livestock productivity increase in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luis Alfaro

    2012-12-01

    Livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not matching the annual 2.5 % growth of its population. Regional per capita meat and milk production corresponds, respectively, to about 13 and 8 % of developed countries indicators. Livestock performances in this region have decreased within the last 30 years. In fact, SSA, with a 12 % bovine extraction rate against a world average of 21 %, includes about 16 % of world cattle, only producing 6 and 2.6 % of global meat and milk, respectively. These low performances have economic and environmental consequences reflecting the necessity for upgrading livestock managing skills in the region. This effort includes various components such as sanitary prophylaxis, reproduction, nutrition, and in particular, substantial increase in livestock yield for human consumption. This will allow for an improved animal and pasture management and soil preservation, enhancing meat production and decreasing methane and nitrogen emissions from enteric fermentation and manure processing. These environmental gains due to increased livestock off-take rates can represent relevant credits in the global Environmental Carbon Market under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto protocol. These credits can be used for investments in livestock essential services and marketing facilities leading to improved productivity.

  9. The Livestock Roles in the Wellbeing of Rural Communities of Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Maria Varela Bettencourt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households, such as food supply, source of income, asset saving, source of employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock and livestock species play in rural communities of Timor-Leste, highlighting the importance of animal production for the wellbeing and rural development, and relate the functions performed by livestock production with economic, social and cultural attributes of the communities. The data used in this study were collected in 2011 through a questionnaire survey in three rural communities in the district of Bobonaro, namely in a mountain area, an irrigation plain and a coastal zone, and were complemented with secondary data. Livestock production in Timor-Leste is predominantly familiar being chickens, pigs, goats, cattle, horses, buffaloes and sheep the main species. Beyond the economic function, each livestock species also performs social and cultural functions.

  10. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: Feasibility of abatement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, Richard, E-mail: richard.carew@agr.gc.c [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, 4200 Highway 97, P.O. Box 5000, Summerland, British Columbia, VOH1Z0 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    An updated national ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH{sub 3} emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322 kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH{sub 3} emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Quebec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH{sub 3} emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods. - Livestock NH{sub 3} emissions are higher in areas characterized by intensive livestock production with diet manipulation and land spreading offering the greatest potential for NH{sub 3} abatement options.

  11. Sustainable Livestock Production in The Perspective of National Food Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeppy D Soedjana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the role that livestock play in various dimensions of food security. Food security is defined as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of individuals to consume food according to their respective socio-economic conditions are important dimensions. It describes the place of livestock products in human nutrition, the contribution of livestock to the national food supply and the way that livestock can affect food access, as a direct source of food and a source of income. Access to food is the most basic human right, especially for Indonesia with more than 240 million people with annual growth of 1.3%. To secure food availability, a sustainable food production growth more than 2% per year, including animal protein sources, is needed. It is necessary to strengthen food supply by maximizing available resources; improve food distribution system to guarantee a stable food supply and public access; encourage diversified food consumption; and prevent as well as resolve food scarcity. Furthermore, within the national objectives for self-sufficiency in rice, corn, soybean, and white sugar, the current annual percapita consumption of livestock products has reached 6.96 kg (meat, 7.3 kg (eggs and 16.5 kg (milk, which indicates good progress to stimulate sustainable domestic livestock production.

  12. The pattern of anthrax cases on livestock in West Nusa Tenggara Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enymartindah

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study on anthrax in endemic area was carried out from 1984 to 1994 in West Nusa Tenggara Province (NTB to uncover the occurrence of anthrax and the pattern of the disease in livestock. Data of anthrax incidence had been compiled for the 11 years from Animal Health Section and Type B Laboratory of the Livestock Service Office, NTB Province in Mataram. This was done to get the information about locations and times when the cases occurred, and the vaccination status of livestock in the anthrax area. The pattern of anthrax in livestock was analyzed by using time series analysis, and the long term trend was then illustrated by linier regression . During the years, anthrax cases in livestock were reported high in Sumbawa island, while the cases in Lombok island were relatively low. There were no anthrax cases reported from East Lombok District . The long term trend of anthrax occurrence in livestock from 1984 to 1994 tended to decrease (Y= 6,04 - 0,0162 X.

  13. The livestock reservoir for antimicrobial resistance: a personal view on changing patterns of risks, effects of interventions and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to provide an updated overview on the use of antimicrobial agents in livestock, the associated problems for humans and current knowledge on the effects of reducing resistance in the livestock reservoir on both human health and animal production. There is still...

  14. Flower production of Aster tripolium is affected by behavioral differences in livestock species and stocking densities : the role of activity and selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, Stefanie; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.

    Semi-natural grasslands are an important habitat for endangered plant and animal species. In grasslands, low-intensity livestock grazing is frequently applied as a tool for nature conservation. We aim to investigate how different livestock species in various densities influence the state and flower

  15. Flower production of Aster tripolium is affected by behavioral differences in livestock species and stocking densities : the role of activity and selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, Stefanie; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Semi-natural grasslands are an important habitat for endangered plant and animal species. In grasslands, low-intensity livestock grazing is frequently applied as a tool for nature conservation. We aim to investigate how different livestock species in various densities influence the state and flower

  16. Implementing a probabilistic definition of freedom from infection to facilitate trade of livestock: Putting theory into praxis for the example of bovine herpes virus-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppers, M.E.; Stegeman, J.A.; Kramps, J.A.; Stark, K.D.C.

    2012-01-01

    International trade of livestock and livestock products poses a significant potential threat for spread of diseases, and importing countries therefore often require that imported animals and products are free from certain pathogens. However, absolute freedom from infection cannot be documented, sinc

  17. Strategies to alleviate poverty and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia: intensification vs production efficiency of livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briske, David D; Zhao, Mengli; Han, Guodong; Xiu, Changbai; Kemp, David R; Willms, Walter; Havstad, Kris; Kang, Le; Wang, Zhongwu; Wu, Jianguo; Han, Xingguo; Bai, Yongfei

    2015-04-01

    Semi-nomadic pastoralism was replaced by sedentary pastoralism in Inner Mongolia during the 1960's in response to changes in land use policy and increasing human population. Large increases in numbers of livestock and pastoralist households (11- and 9-fold, respectively) during the past 60 yrs have variously degraded the majority of grasslands in Inner Mongolia (78 M ha) and jeopardize the livelihoods of 24 M human inhabitants. A prevailing strategy for alleviating poverty and grassland degradation emphasizes intensification of livestock production systems to maintain both pastoral livelihoods and large livestock numbers. We consider this strategy unsustainable because maximization of livestock revenue incurs high supplemental feed costs, marginalizes net household income, and promotes larger flock sizes to create a positive feedback loop driving grassland degradation. We offer an alternative strategy that increases both livestock production efficiency and net pastoral income by marketing high quality animal products to an increasing affluent Chinese economy while simultaneously reducing livestock impacts on grasslands. We further caution that this strategy be designed and assessed within a social-ecological framework capable of coordinating market expansion for livestock products, sustainable livestock carrying capacities, modified pastoral perceptions of success, and incentives for ecosystem services to interrupt the positive feedback loop that exists between subsistence pastoralism and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia.

  18. Impacts of feeding less food-competing feedstuffs to livestock on global food system sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schader, Christian; Muller, Adrian; Scialabba, Nadia El-Hage; Hecht, Judith; Isensee, Anne; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Smith, Pete; Makkar, Harinder P S; Klocke, Peter; Leiber, Florian; Schwegler, Patrizia; Stolze, Matthias; Niggli, Urs

    2015-12-06

    Increasing efficiency in livestock production and reducing the share of animal products in human consumption are two strategies to curb the adverse environmental impacts of the livestock sector. Here, we explore the room for sustainable livestock production by modelling the impacts and constraints of a third strategy in which livestock feed components that compete with direct human food crop production are reduced. Thus, in the outmost scenario, animals are fed only from grassland and by-products from food production. We show that this strategy could provide sufficient food (equal amounts of human-digestible energy and a similar protein/calorie ratio as in the reference scenario for 2050) and reduce environmental impacts compared with the reference scenario (in the most extreme case of zero human-edible concentrate feed: greenhouse gas emissions -18%; arable land occupation -26%, N-surplus -46%; P-surplus -40%; non-renewable energy use -36%, pesticide use intensity -22%, freshwater use -21%, soil erosion potential -12%). These results occur despite the fact that environmental efficiency of livestock production is reduced compared with the reference scenario, which is the consequence of the grassland-based feed for ruminants and the less optimal feeding rations based on by-products for non-ruminants. This apparent contradiction results from considerable reductions of animal products in human diets (protein intake per capita from livestock products reduced by 71%). We show that such a strategy focusing on feed components which do not compete with direct human food consumption offers a viable complement to strategies focusing on increased efficiency in production or reduced shares of animal products in consumption.

  19. An improved titration model reducing over estimation of total volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion of energy crop, animal slurry and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, B J Jobling; Thai, S-M; Fritz, T; Esteves, S R; Dinsdale, R M; Guwy, A J

    2014-09-15

    Titration methodologies have been used for the many years for low cost routine monitoring of full scale anaerobic digestion plants. These methodologies have been correlated to indicate the carbonate alkalinity and the volatile fatty acids (VFA) content within digesters. Two commonly used two end-point titration methods were compared using a dataset of 154 samples from energy crop and animal slurry digestates and were shown to be inaccurate in the estimation of tVFA. Using this dataset correlated with HPLC VFA analysis, two empirical bivariate linear regression equations were derived, where the validation dataset showed an absolute tVFA mean error improvement from ±3386 and ±3324 mg kg(-1) tVFA to ±410 and ±286 mg kg(-1) tVFA, respectively. The same equation was then applied to a food waste dataset where an absolute tVFA mean error was improved from ±3828 to ±576 mg kg(-1) tVFA. The newly derived titration equations can provide greater confidence in digester performance monitoring and are tools that can improve digester management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumer attitudes towards the development of animal-friendly husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kole, A.P.W.; Kroon, van der S.M.A.; Lauwere, de C.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Recent policy developments in the area of livestock husbandry have suggested that, from the perspective of optimizing animal welfare, new animal husbandry systems should be developed that provide opportunities for livestock animals to be raised in environments where they are permitted to e

  1. Micronutrients in Soils, Crops, and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Umesh C.; Wu, Kening; Liang, Siyuan

    in forages, which are sufficient for optimum crop yields, are not adequate to meet the needs of livestock. Selenium is a trace mineral, which is not required by plants, and maximum forage yields can be obtained on soils with very low amounts of soil Se. However, if animals are fed feed crops and forages with low Se, they could suffer from serious muscular disorders and other diseases. White muscle disease caused by Se deficiency is the most common disorder and is found in calves and lambs. Sufficiency levels of micronutrients for crops have been discussed in relation to the animal requirement.

  2. MARKETTING SITUATIONS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDS IN WELMERA AND DENDI WEREDA OF WEST SHOA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MESFIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the status of livestock feed resources and market situations in Welmera and Dendi weredas of West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. The objective of the survey was to assess the potentials and constraints of feed resources and related marketing practices and suggest appropriate intervention options to overcome the constraints. Majority (76% of the interviewed farmers have faced shortage of livestock feeds. The diminishing trend of grazing land from time to time, roughage, concentrate feeds are the factors contributing to feed shortage. Moreover, the increasing trend in selling price of hay and concentrate feeds aggravates more to the problem. This situation is limiting livestock productiv in the highlands of Ethiopia. Under this condition, farmers purchase feeds to both local and crossbred animals. The purchased feeds include: hay, straw, grazing area, oilseed cakes, wheat bran and wet grass. Among these, the grazing area purchased takes the highest (52% proportion. Farmers and traders participate in purchasing of livestock feeds. The proportion of farmers that purchase feeds is higher (30% than that of the traders (1%. To alleviate the problems related to shortage of livestock feeds and decline of animal production and productivity, rearing of improved crossbred dairy cattle under intensive management and forage/fodder development and feeds conservation schemes should be promoted in a wider scale. Considering the ever-increasing price of feeds, there is a need to shift from purchased commercial feeds to the use of farm produced feed resources.

  3. Biosecurity Measures Applied in the United Arab Emirates - a Comparative Study Between Livestock and Wildlife Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaber, A L; Saegerman, C

    2016-03-09

    In 2013, the livestock population in the UAE exceeded 4.3 million heads with sheep and goats accounting for 90% of this. The overall number of captive wild ungulates (gazelle types) is difficult to assess as there is no registration system in place or enforced in the UAE with regard to the possession of wildlife. Those animal collections, mainly owned by high-ranking families, are therefore not registered and kept far from public viewing. Nonetheless, some collections are housing more than 30 000 ungulates in one location. The primary objective of this study was to describe the biosecurity measures currently applied in UAE ungulate facilities for different wildlife and livestock sectors. A secondary objective was to use the output from this biosecurity survey to investigate which sector could be categorized into risk groups for disease introduction and spread. Between October 2014 and May 2015, biosecurity questionnaire data were collected in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah, Fujeirah, Ajman, Umm al Quwain and Sharjah from 14 wildlife collections, 30 livestock farms and 15 mixed (wildlife and livestock farms). These investigations through questionnaires allowed us to quantify and assess statistically biosecurity practices and levels for both livestock and wildlife sectors. In both sectors, biosecurity measures could be improved and only a few facilities had high biosecurity scores. The group of small unregistered farms (Ezba) represented the highest risk of disease transmission to other animals due to their lack of biosecurity awareness.

  4. Livestock to 2020: the next food revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Christopher L.; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Steinfeld, Henning; Ehui, Simeon K.; Courbois, Claude

    1999-01-01

    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this comprehensive and even-handed attempt at defining the nature, extent, scope, and implications of what they term the "Livestock Revolution” in developing countries. Looking forward to 2020, they argue convincingly that the structural shifts in world agricult...

  5. Comparison of Rift Valley fever virus replication in North American livestock and wildlife cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes outbreaks of endemic disease across Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in high morbidity and mortality among young domestic livestock, frequent abortions in pregnant animals, and potentially severe or fatal disease in humans. The possibility of RVFV spr...

  6. Modelling risk aversion to support decision-making for controlling zoonotic livestock diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Ge, L.

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious livestock diseases are becoming a significant burden for both animal and human health and are rapidly gaining the attention of decision-makers who manage public health programmes. If control decisions have only monetary components, governments are generally regarded as being risk

  7. 78 FR 14801 - Veterinary Oversight of Antimicrobial Use in Livestock: Impact on Stakeholders; Public Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Resource Research Center, USDA Animal and Plant Health & Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, Centers... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Oversight of Antimicrobial Use in Livestock... areas that may lack access to adequate veterinary services. The meetings are jointly sponsored by FDA...

  8. Heavy metal and disinfectant resistance genes among livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argudin, Maria Angeles; Lauzat, Birgit; Kraushaar, Britta;

    2016-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has emerged in animal production worldwide. Most LA-MRSA in Europe belong to the clonal complex (CC)398. The reason for the LA-MRSA emergence is not fully understood. Besides antimicrobial agents used for therapy, other su...

  9. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  10. The use of wastewater in livestock production and its socioeconomic and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Abid, Muhammad; Zhang, Liqin; Alugongo, Gibson Maswayi

    2017-07-01

    Although epidemiological studies have found a significant amount of toxins in surface water, a complex link between animals' access to wastewater and associated animal and human welfare losses needs to be explored. The scarcity of safe water has put stress on the utilization of wastewater for crops and livestock production. The access of animals to wastewater is related to the emergence of dangerous animal's diseases, hampering productivity, increasing economic losses, and risking human health along the food chain. This review explores use of wastewater for agriculture, epidemiological evidence of microbial contamination in wastewater, and animal and human welfare disruption due to the use of wastewater for crop and livestock production. More specifically, the review delves into animals exposure to wastewater for bathing, drinking, or grazing on a pasture irrigated with contaminated water and related animal and human welfare losses. We included some scientific articles and reviews published from 1970 to 2017 to support our rational discussions. The selected articles dealt exclusively with animals direct access to wastewater via bathing and indirect access via grazing on pasture irrigated with contaminated wastewater and their implication for animal and human welfare losses. The study also identified that some policy options such as wastewater treatments, constructing wastewater stabilization ponds, controlling animal access to wastewater, and dissemination of necessary information to ultimate consumers related to the source of agricultural produce and wastewater use in animal and crop production are required to protect the human and animal health and welfare.

  11. Attitudes of livestock farmers and sensitivity of livestock farming systems to drought conditions in the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dobremez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock farming systems in the French Alps are particularly exposed to the predicted climate change and most of them have already experienced periods of drought since the beginning of the 2000s. Faced with this risk, livestock farmers have put in place a certain number of measures and envisage introducing others in the future. For the present study, surveys were conducted among livestock farmers to identify these measures and analyses were carried out to characterise the attitudes of livestock farmers to drought conditions and to evaluate changes in the sensitivity of their livestock farming systems. With the exception of those farms with extensive irrigated areas, all the farms are seeking solutions to deal with the risks arising from droughts. One solution is to purchase fodder to compensate for the decrease in the harvests that normally provide animal feed in the winter; the amounts purchased vary with the length of wintering required. For the grazing periods, the high mountain livestock breeders and the dairy systems of the Northern Alps rely above all on extending and over-sizing the pasture areas in relation to the needs of the herds. The livestock farms of the Southern Alps also rely on the diversity of vegetation areas and a certain flexibility in the practices used to adapt to conditions experienced during the year. A succession of dry years could result in more radical breakdowns in the livestock systems. It should also be remembered that climate change is only one of the factors influencing the types of changes taking place on farms.Les systèmes d'élevage des Alpes françaises sont fortement exposés au changement climatique annoncé et la plupart subissent déjà des épisodes de sécheresse depuis le début des années 2000. Face à ces aléas, les éleveurs ont mis en œuvre un certain nombre de leviers et envisagent d'en activer d'autres à l'avenir. Des enquêtes en exploitation ont permis d’identifier ces leviers. Leur

  12. The benefits of biogas as a livestock waste management technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    survey approach to collect data from farm households at Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. We surveyed 312 farmers that consisted of 165 biogas adopters and 147 non-adopters in 2013. By using propensity score matching techniques, the research employed treatment effects analysis according to the nearest...

  13. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Alabi, Peter I; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I B

    2013-03-06

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  14. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH and livestock marketers (LM in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5% of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262. Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  15. Breaking the chain: Rift Valley fever virus control via livestock vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Nichol, Stuart T

    2012-06-01

    Rift Valley fever virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen of livestock and humans that causes widespread and devastating outbreaks of severe and often fatal disease throughout Africa and portions of the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks can involve tens to hundreds of thousands of human cases, and millions of livestock. The severity of the disease varies by species, but in sheep and cattle 'abortion storms', high neonatal (∼70%), and adult mortality (20-30%) are features. Human cases are generally self-limiting, but severe complications such as hepatitis, retinitis, delayed-onset encephalitis, or a hemorrhagic syndrome with a case fatality of 10-20% can occur. There are no commercially available human vaccines. Livestock provide key ecological links between the Aedes sp. mosquito vector and humans. High viremias in livestock lead to spillover of RVFV into other anthrophillic vectors (Culex and Anopheles sp. mosquitoes), and, importantly, close contact with infected animal tissues and fluids or aborted fetal materials from these animals is a major risk factor for severe and lethal human infections. Vaccination programs targeting livestock during non-epidemic periods or as an early countermeasure against nascent outbreaks could therefore eliminate one of the main sources of human infection and limit the overall scope of epidemics. To this end, research groups have recently reported novel next generation RVFV vaccines that are safe for use in pregnant and young animals. Preventing RVFV infection of livestock by vaccination is a key element in breaking the chain of human epidemics, and could lead to control of this significant public health threat.

  16. Integrated Parasite Management for Livestock - Alternative control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Paul1

    Full Text Available Internal parasites are considered by some to be one of the most economically important constraints in raising livestock. The growing concern about the resistance of internal parasites to all classes of dewormers has caused people to look for alternatives. As dewormers lose their effectiveness, the livestock community fears increasing economic losses from worms. There is no one thing that can be given or done to replace chemical dewormers. It will take a combination of extremely good management techniques and possibly some alternative therapies. It is not wise to think that one can just stop deworming animals with chemical dewormers. It is something one will need to change gradually, observing and testing animals and soil, in order to monitor the progress. Alternative parasite control is an area that is receiving a lot of interest and attention. Programs and research will continue in the pursuit of parasite control, using alternative and more management-intensive methods. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 431-435

  17. CFD Simulation of Air Velocity Distribution in Occupied Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.; Bjerg, B.

    In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants in the de......In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants...... in the design of ventilation systems. However, it is not appropriate to include the detailed geometry of a large group of lying or standing animals affecting the air flow in the building. It is necessary to have relatively simple models of the animals, which are easier to implement in the computer models....... In this study laboratory measurements in a ventilated test room with "pig simulators" are compared with CFD-simulations....

  18. Livestock and health: understanding the links between agriculture and health

    OpenAIRE

    Catelo, Maria Angeles

    2006-01-01

    "The linkages between livestock and health are significant, particularly for the poor, whether as livestock raisers or as consumers of meat and milk, or even as users of the environment. The processes of livestock production and consumption bring both benefits and problems for human health... Livestock production and consumption can lead to four main types of human health risks: (1) diseases transmitted from livestock to humans; (2) environmental pollution; (3) foodborne diseases and risks; a...

  19. The Relationship between Livestock Ownership and Child Stunting in Three Countries in Eastern Africa Using National Survey Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M Mosites

    Full Text Available Livestock ownership has the potential to improve child nutrition through various mechanisms, although direct evaluations of household livestock and child stunting status are uncommon. We conducted an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS datasets from Ethiopia (2011, Kenya (2008-2009, and Uganda (2010 among rural children under 5 years of age to compare stunting status across levels of livestock ownership. We classified livestock ownership by summing reported household numbers of goats, sheep, cattle and chickens, as well as calculating a weighted score to combine multiple species. The primary association was assessed separately by country using a log-binomial model adjusted for wealth and region, which was then stratified by child diarrheal illness, animal-source foods intake, sub-region, and wealth index. This analysis included n = 8079 children from Ethiopia, n = 3903 children from Kenya, and n = 1645 from Uganda. A ten-fold increase in household livestock ownership had significant association with lower stunting prevalence in Ethiopia (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98 and Uganda (PR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97, but not Kenya (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07. The weighted livestock score was only marginally associated with stunting status. The findings varied slightly by region, but not by wealth, diarrheal disease, or animal-source food intake. This analysis suggested a slightly beneficial effect of household livestock ownership on child stunting prevalence. The small effect size observed may be related to limitations of the DHS dataset or the potentially complicated relationship between malnutrition and livestock ownership, including livestock health and productivity.

  20. Quality management for the road transportation of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dalla Villa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport can be a significant stress factor for livestock and can result in poor animal welfare and economic losses. Quality management measures are actively employed in fields different from animal welfare and could be applied to improve the welfare of animals and reduce the consequent losses during road transportation and related activities Training and education of staff comprise one possible measure, Web-geographic information system technology used to monitor the true state of transported animals is another innovation that promises major progress. With this technology, behavioural and environmental parameters can be monitored and registered in real time. The resulting data could be useful to control the transport environment and the conduct of staff. Although some parameters cannot be represented through numerical relationships, behavioural and environmental measurements can be used in a risk analysis system to minimise risks of poor welfare during animal transportation. The European Union Joint Research Centre and the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’ in Teramo are working on an experimental project to prove the feasibility of a navigation system for long road journeys as referred to in Regulation (EC 1/2005 of the European Union. Such a system enables the collection of data on transported animals and the verification that welfare requirements are being met at any given moment during the journey.

  1. Integrated assessment of runoff from livestock farming operations: analytical chemistry, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Durhan, Elizabeth J.; Evans, Nicola; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kolodziej, Edward P.; Foreman, William T.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Makynen, Elizabeth A.; Seidl, Sara M.; Thomas, Linnea M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Weberg, Matthew A.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2014-01-01

    Animal waste from livestock farming operations can contain varying levels of natural and synthetic androgens and/or estrogens, which can contaminate surrounding waterways. In the present study, surface stream water was collected from 6 basins containing livestock farming operations. Aqueous concentrations of 12 hormones were determined via chemical analyses. Relative androgenic and estrogenic activity was measured using in vitro cell assays (MDA-kb2 and T47D-Kbluc assays, respectively). In parallel, 48-h static-renewal in vivo exposures were conducted to examine potential endocrine-disrupting effects in fathead minnows. Mature fish were exposed to surface water dilutions (0%, 25%, 50%, and 100%) and 10-ng/L of 17α-ethynylestradiol or 50-ng/L of 17β-trenbolone as positive controls. Hepatic expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor α mRNA, gonadal ex vivo testosterone and 17β-estradiol production, and plasma vitellogenin concentrations were examined. Potentially estrogenic and androgenic steroids were detected at low nanogram per liter concentrations. In vitro estrogenic activity was detected in all samples, whereas androgenic activity was detected in only 1 sample. In vivo exposures to the surface water had no significant dose-dependent effect on any of the biological endpoints, with the exception of increased male testosterone production in 1 exposure. The present study, which combines analytical chemistry measurements, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures, highlights the integrated value and future use of a combination of techniques to obtain a comprehensive characterization of an environmental chemical mixture. 

  2. Human-livestock contacts and their relationship to transmission of zoonotic pathogens, a systematic review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klous, Gijs; Huss, Anke; Heederik, Dick J J; Coutinho, Roel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micro-organisms transmitted from vertebrate animals - including livestock - to humans account for an estimated 60% of human pathogens. Micro-organisms can be transmitted through inhalation, ingestion, via conjunctiva or physical contact. Close contact with animals is crucial for transmis

  3. Livestock systems and competing claims for land at the wildlife-bsed tourism/livestock interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaminuka, P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses competition for land between communal grazing livestock systems and emerging preferences for wildlife-based tourism land uses in the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Renewed efforts to improve livestock production as a tool for rural development in Southern Africa come at a

  4. Livestock systems and competing claims for land at the wildlife-bsed tourism/livestock interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaminuka, P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses competition for land between communal grazing livestock systems and emerging preferences for wildlife-based tourism land uses in the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Renewed efforts to improve livestock production as a tool for rural development in Southern Africa come at a t

  5. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-01-01

    Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic enginee...

  6. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-01-01

    Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic enginee...

  7. A new method for estimating greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrancos, José; Briz, Susana; Nolasco, Dácil; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2013-08-01

    It is widely known that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Emission factors for the aforementioned gases have been proposed in order to calculate the contribution of livestock farming to global climate change. However, these emission factors depend on many additional factors such as the housing system, environmental conditions, etc., which implies some uncertainties in their estimation. Therefore, works that aim at improving experimental calculation of these emissions are crucial to provide reliable estimates of the emissions produced by livestock. The purpose of this work was to apply a new methodology inspired by the accumulation chamber method to estimate emission rates from livestock buildings. The work was based on measuring the increase of gas emissions inside the livestock building by means of the remote sensing technique Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR). Previously to the measurements, livestock building cattle was confined outside of the building. Utilization of fan ventilation system favoured the homogenization of air inside the building. This experiment proved that evolution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations inside the livestock building behaved like an accumulation chamber unlike the N2O which did not show such behaviour. Results showed CH4, CO2 and NH3 emissions of 167 ± 54,700 ± 200 and 1.3 ± 0.2 kg head-1 year-1, respectively. One of the main parameters affecting the estimated emission factors is the type of animal feeding. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of food composition on CH4 and CO2 emission in a relative larger number of operating cattle buildings since the methodology herein proposed is an easy and cheap tool to study livestock emission factors and their variability.

  8. Is There Any Chance for Crop and Livestock Integration in Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang R Prawiradiputra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of livestock and crops, especially food crops, or recently known as crop-livestock systems is very familiar in Indonesia as well as in South-East Asia. The system has been practiced for decades and still carrying out until now. In Indonesian traditional farming system, livestock plays an important role in the system. In Indonesia, there are five types of farming system namely extensive farming, non-intensive farming, intensive farming, very intensive farming and conservation farming system. However, there are some constraints in each system. This paper describes some constraints in Indonesian farming systems especially in crop-animal systems, such as land, manpower, money, technology, informations and farmer organization.

  9. Adipokines as metabolic modulators of ovarian functions in livestock: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smruti Ranjan Mishra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is the principal fat storing tissue which secretes various molecules known as adipokines. The major adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, chemerin and apelin. Adipokines are regarded as the and ldquo;marker of body metabolic status'' which maintains the body energy homeostasis. An adequate energy level is essential for the onset of puberty and ovarian functions. Adipokines act as energy sensor and signal the body energy level to hypothalamic neurons to regulate many physiological activities including ovarian functions such as onset of puberty, estrus behavior, follicular development and ovulation followed by corpus luteum (CL formation and function in livestock. However, adipose tissue dysfunctions limit adipokines secretion leading to an imbalance in body energy level which ultimately affects the reproduction in livestock. This mini-review highlights the modulatory roles of various adipokines in ovarian functions of livestock. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 206-213

  10. What are the livestock industries doing, and what do they need from us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L

    1999-02-01

    Livestock industries are facing global competition and revolutionary changes. While facing this global competition, the similarities of many animal meat products require that they compete on a cost-of-production basis. Additional issues include the environmental impact of animal agriculture, the role of animal products in human nutrition, food safety and quality, biotechnology, animal welfare, and market access. Progressive producers are becoming more aware of the needs of their customers and are striving to improve product quality. Checkoff funds are used to finance promotion, research, and consumer information programs and are increasingly used to finance producer education. Industrialization trends in the livestock industries are changing the needs of constituencies, delivery mechanisms, and relationships with the people involved. Characteristics of closed operations include high production cost, outdated technology, smaller size, older operators, and lack of management focus. Successful operations tend to be growing in capacity, are system-oriented, maintain high throughput, keep accurate records, use outside consultants, and control production costs. Modern livestock production has lowered the cost of production by integrating new production and management technologies. In order for producers to be successful in the future, access to technology, capital, and timely information will be critical. Animal scientists have many common objectives with livestock industries. Their work in research, teaching, and extension is critical for continued progress. However, people in the industries sometimes have the perception that academic arrogance, discipline myopia, uncoordinated research, slow technology transfer, increasing research costs, and counter-productive tenure systems prevent animal scientists from being as relevant and responsive as they could be. Support from the industries is essential as animal scientists and academic departments seek political and funding

  11. Technology Innovation Of Organic Waste Decomposition In Providing Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prawirodigdo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations in Indonesia indicated that an inactive ovary was a chronically reproduction problem in ruminants. There was a tendency that nutrition deficiency inhibited ovulation, oestrus occurrence, and conception in ruminants. Obviously, there is a correlation between sufficient nutrient consumption and reproduction performance of such animals. Thus, application of the production/reproduction technology innovation for improving ruminant’s productivity in the villages needs to be supported by the availability of sufficient feed. Whilst, there is a competition among ruminants in fulfilling feed requirement. On the other hand, there are large amounts of organic waste of food and plantation estate industries which are potential for non-traditional feedstuffs. The examples of such organic wastes are: 4,817,630 ton dry matter (DM of cacao pod, 314,042.51 ton DM of coffee pulp and hulls, and 29,700,000 ton DM of palm frond, leaves and trunks. Unfortunately, such materials contain anti-nutritive substance. Nevertheless, technology innovation for decomposing organic waste is available and its validity has been proven to be satisfactory and appropriate. Regarding the limitation of feedstuffs, introduction of technology innovation for organic waste decomposition to provide feed for improving livestock productivity is promising to be applied.

  12. Recovery status of bacteriophages of different livestock farms of Veterinary College, Adhartal, Jabalpur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Shukla and S. D. Hirpurkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted to know the presence of bacteriophage in sewage material which can play a very important role during therapy against the some antibiotic resistance organisms. During study waste water samples were collected from different depths of the wastewater collection tanks located in livestock farms of different species (Cattle, pig, goat and poultry. These samples were subjected primarily to rapid detection by streak plate method for the detection of lytic activity followed by primary isolation of phage against two most common bacteria of environment, namely, B. subtilis and E. coli by Double agar layer (DAL method. Recovery of phages was maximum from pig feces (67% followed by dairy cattle farm waste (63%, buffalo farm waste (50%, goat farm waste (13%. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 117-119

  13. Staphylococcus aureus CC398: host adaptation and emergence of methicillin resistance in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Lance B; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik; Aziz, Maliha; Larsen, Jesper; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Pearson, Talima; Waters, Andrew E; Foster, Jeffrey T; Schupp, James; Gillece, John; Driebe, Elizabeth; Liu, Cindy M; Springer, Burkhard; Zdovc, Irena; Battisti, Antonio; Franco, Alessia; Zmudzki, Jacek; Schwarz, Stefan; Butaye, Patrick; Jouy, Eric; Pomba, Constanca; Porrero, M Concepción; Ruimy, Raymond; Smith, Tara C; Robinson, D Ashley; Weese, J Scott; Arriola, Carmen Sofia; Yu, Fangyou; Laurent, Frederic; Keim, Paul; Skov, Robert; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected among parsimony-informative SNPs, allowing for the generation of a highly accurate phylogenetic reconstruction of the CC398 clonal lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that MSSA from humans formed the most ancestral clades. The most derived lineages were composed predominantly of livestock-associated MRSA possessing three different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) types (IV, V, and VII-like) including nine subtypes. The human-associated isolates from the basal clades carried phages encoding human innate immune modulators that were largely missing among the livestock-associated isolates. Our results strongly suggest that livestock-associated MRSA CC398 originated in humans as MSSA. The lineage appears to have undergone a rapid radiation in conjunction with the jump from humans to livestock, where it subsequently acquired tetracycline and methicillin resistance. Further analyses are required to estimate the number of independent genetic events leading to the methicillin-resistant sublineages, but the diversity of SCCmec subtypes is suggestive of strong and diverse antimicrobial selection associated with food animal production. Modern food animal production is characterized by densely concentrated animals and routine antibiotic use, which may facilitate the emergence of novel antibiotic-resistant zoonotic pathogens. Our findings strongly support the idea

  14. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, Mark A.; de Vries, Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution of livestock is expressed as shares of the emitted compounds and land used, as compared to the whole agricultural sector. The results show that the livestock sector contributes significantly to agricultural environmental impacts. This contribution is 78% for terrestrial biodiversity loss, 80% for soil acidification and air pollution (ammonia and nitrogen oxides emissions), 81% for global warming, and 73% for water pollution (both N and P). The agriculture sector itself is one of the major contributors to these environmental impacts, ranging between 12% for global warming and 59% for N water quality impact. Significant progress in mitigating these environmental impacts in Europe will only be possible through a combination of technological measures reducing livestock emissions, improved food choices and reduced food waste of European citizens.

  15. Pollution characteristics and environmental risk assessment of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiangji; Gao, Shixiang; Shan, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    Scientific interest in pollution from antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during recent years. However, there have been few studies on the vertical exposure characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in different exposure matrices from different livestock farms. This study explores the distribution and migration of antibiotics from feed to manure, from manure to soil, and from soil to vegetables, by investigating the exposure level of typical antibiotics in feed, manure, soil, vegetables, water, fish, and pork in livestock farms. A screening environmental risk assessment was conducted to identify the hazardous potential of veterinary antibiotics from livestock farms in southeast China. The results show that adding antibiotics to drinking water as well as the excessive use of antibiotic feed additives may become the major source of antibiotics pollution in livestock farms. Physical and chemical properties significantly affect the distribution and migration of various antibiotics from manure to soil and from soil to plant. Simple migration models can predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil and plants. The environmental risk assessment results show that more attention should be paid to the terrestrial eco-risk of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin, and to the aquatic eco-risk of chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. This is the first systematic analysis of the vertical pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in southeast China. It also identifies the ecological and human health risk of veterinary antibiotics.

  16. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM: Nutrigenomics in livestock: Systems biology meets nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, J J; Vailati-Riboni, M; McCann, J C; Zhou, Z; Bionaz, M

    2015-12-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies to study an animal's genome, proteome, and metabolome (i.e., "omics" tools) constituted a setback to the use of reductionism in livestock research. More recent development of "next-generation sequencing" tools was instrumental in allowing in-depth studies of the microbiome in the rumen and other sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Omics, along with bioinformatics, constitutes the foundation of modern systems biology, a field of study widely used in model organisms (e.g., rodents, yeast, humans) to enhance understanding of the complex biological interactions occurring within cells and tissues at the gene, protein, and metabolite level. Application of systems biology concepts is ideal for the study of interactions between nutrition and physiological state with tissue and cell metabolism and function during key life stages of livestock species, including the transition from pregnancy to lactation, in utero development, or postnatal growth. Modern bioinformatic tools capable of discerning functional outcomes and biologically meaningful networks complement the ever-increasing ability to generate large molecular, microbial, and metabolite data sets. Simultaneous visualization of the complex intertissue adaptations to physiological state and nutrition can now be discerned. Studies to understand the linkages between the microbiome and the absorptive epithelium using the integrative approach are emerging. We present examples of new knowledge generated through the application of functional analyses of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data sets encompassing nutritional management of dairy cows, pigs, and poultry. Published work to date underscores that the integrative approach across and within tissues may prove useful for fine-tuning nutritional management of livestock. An important goal during this process is to uncover key molecular players involved in the organismal adaptations to nutrition.

  17. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...... is controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied....... In the design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature...

  18. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Getchell

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creation, and health services. Lack of pasture for grazing livestock was also cited as being important. Other most frequently mentioned livestock problems included 'gall sickness' (a vaguely defined condition not necessarily referring to anaplasmosis, parasites (both external and internal, chicken diseases and ingestion of plastic bags discarded in the environment. When livestock owners were questioned during individual interviews, most were able to identify the presence of parasites in either the live or dead animal. However, it seems likely that this is limited to the identification of tapeworms. It was found that most livestock owners use a combination of treatments, ranging from traditional to folklore to commercial. There were some difficulties in using the participatory methods since it was the first time that the facilitators and the communities had been exposed to them. Many communities had difficulty in dealing with the concept of finding solutions within the community, which is such an integral part of participatory methods.

  19. Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balthrop, J.; Brand, B.; Cowie, R.A.; Danier, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Jonge, de L.H.; Jackson, F.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Piotrowski, C.

    2011-01-01

    Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the gen

  20. Chlorate analyses in matrices of animal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium chlorate is being developed as a potential food-safety tool for use in the livestock industry because of its effectiveness at decreasing concentrations of certain Gram-negative pathogens in gastrointestinal tracts of food animals. A number of studies with sodium chlorate in animals have demon...

  1. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris) in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolipaka, S S; Tamis, W L M; van 't Zelfde, M; Persoon, G A; de Iongh, H H

    2017-01-01

    Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1) the sex and age class of tigers, (2) season, and (3) the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Quantifying Methane Emissions from Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu O. Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The rearing of animals for domestic consumption and export invariably lead to the production of methane as a product of digestion. This study investigated the emission of methane from Malaysian livestock between 1980 and 2008. Approach: Seven categories of animals identified were camel, buffalo, sheep, goats, horse, pigs and poultry. The estimation of methane was based on the IPCC Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods. Methane emission from cattle rose by 44% within the period from 45.61-65.57 Gg. Results: Buffalo recorded a drop in methane emission by 54% from 17.12-7.86 Gg while the methane emission from sheep initially rose by 350% in 1992 only to drop by another 56% by 2008. Goats emission only declined by 17% from 1.79 Gg in 1980-1.49 Gg by 2008. Methane emission from horse has been consistent at around 0.14 Gg. The decreasing stock of pigs has led to a drop in methane emission from these set of animals with most of the emission coming from manure management. Conclusion: The healthy export market for poultry has seen a rise in methane emission by 274% from 2.18 Gg in 1980-8.17 Gg by 2008. The overall increase in methane emission from all the livestock is 20% from 81.83 Gg in 1980-98.76 Gg in 2008. With the aggressive drive of government to boost cattle and goat production, there is the likelihood of an increase in methane emission in the future and mitigation options will have to be applied.

  3. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  4. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    identification of the genomic region that contains the genes, but the confidence interval of the regions is usually large and may contain several genes. Candidate gene approach is limited to our restricted knowledge of the biological function of the genes. Sequencing of genomes and expressed sequences tags can provide identifying gene position and metabolic pathways associated with phenotypic trait. Integrating these strategies using bioinformatics software will allow identifying of novel genes for animal production. Then, animal breeding programs will include the information from DNA directly on evaluation of genetic value of livestock production.

  5. Molecular and Statistical Analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Carriage in Wildlife and Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on Ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of Campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter carriage and the following explanatory variables: animal species (beef, dairy, swine, raccoon, other), farm type (swine, beef, dairy), type of sample (livestock or wildlife) and Campylobacter species (jejuni, coli, other). Models included a random effect to account for clustering by farm where samples were collected. Samples were subtyped using a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative fingerprinting assay. A total of 92 livestock and 107 wildlife faecal samples were collected, and 72% and 27% tested positive for Campylobacter, respectively. Pooled faecal samples from livestock were significantly more likely to test positive for Campylobacter than wildlife samples. Relative to dairy cattle, pig samples were at significantly increased odds of testing positive for Campylobacter. The odds of isolating Campylobacter jejuni from beef cattle samples were significantly greater compared to dairy cattle and raccoon samples. Fifty unique subtypes of Campylobacter were identified, and only one subtype was found in both wildlife and livestock samples. Livestock Campylobacter isolates were significantly more likely to exhibit antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compared to wildlife Campylobacter isolates. Campylobacter jejuni was more likely to exhibit AMR when compared to C. coli. However, C. jejuni isolates were only resistant to tetracycline, and C.  coli isolates exhibited multidrug resistance patterns. Based on differences in prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and resistant Campylobacter between

  6. Laser researches on livestock semen and oocytes: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Abdel-Salam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a brief review of the past and present literature pertinent to laser effects on sperm motility parameters, improvement of oocyte maturation and characterization of semen in livestock. The aim was, on one hand, to make the readers aware of such knowledge and on the other hand to trigger the interest of the animal reproduction scientific community in attempting some laser techniques that have not yet been fully exploited in the field of artificial insemination. With respect to the conventional methods, laser is a more sensitive and less costly technology that can be used for improving artificial insemination and embryo production system. Since 1980s, laser treatment came on the biological samples scene; its applications have continuously been developed thereafter. Exploitation of laser light by various researchers for improving the reproductive efficiency of sperm cells and the maturation rate in different livestock is demonstrated herein. Laser irradiation, in principal, can increase the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP and consequently increases the energy provided to the cell. Since sperm motility and oocyte maturation depend on the energy consumption, an increase in the energy supply to the cells will be of great importance. In addition, the authors also discuss the use of laser spectrochemical analytical techniques, such as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS and laser induced fluorescence (LIF, in characterization of semen samples.

  7. Seroepidemiological study of livestock brucellosis in a pastoral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, B; Biffa, D; Abunna, F; Regassa, A; Godfroid, J; Skjerve, E

    2012-05-01

    A seroepidemiological study of Brucella infections in multiple livestock species in the Borana pastoral system of Ethiopia was performed between December 2007 and October 2008. A cross-sectional multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select 575 cattle, 1073 camels and 1248 goats from the target populations. Sera were collected from the animals, and serially tested using Rose Bengal test and complement fixation test. Overall prevalence and prevalence with respect to explanatory variables were established, and potential risk factors for seropositivity were analysed using a multivariable logistic regression. The results showed that 8·0% (95% CI 6·0-10·6), 1·8% (95% CI 1·1-2·8) and 1·6% (95% CI 1·0-2·5) of the tested cattle, camels and goats, respectively, had antibodies to Brucella antigen. Positive reactors were found in 93·8% of the villages with more frequent detection of positive cattle (93·3%) than camels (56·3%) and goats (37·5%). Risk factors identified for cattle were: keeping more livestock species at household level (OR 4·1, 95% CI 1·9-8·9), increasing age of the animal (OR 2·8, 95% CI 1·3-6·0) and wet season (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·6-6·9). Increase in household-level species composition (OR 4·1, 95% CI 1·2-14·2) and wet season (OR 3·7, 95% CI 1·5-9·1) were found to be risk factors for seropositivity in camels and goats, respectively. Existence of more than one seroreactor animal species in most villages and association of increased livestock species composition with seropositivity may add more credence to the possibility of cross-species transmission of Brucella infections. Although no attempt to isolate Brucella spp. was made, our results suggest that cattle are more likely maintenance hosts of Brucella abortus which has spread to goats and camels. This should be substantiated by further isolation and identification of Brucella organisms to trace the source of infection and transmission dynamics in various hosts kept under

  8. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mikolon, Andrea; Parveen, Shahana; Khan, M. Salah Uddin; Haider, Najmul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Titu, Abu Mohammad Naser; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong financial incentives

  9. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods: Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results: Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion: Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong

  10. Domestication of ruminant livestock and the impact of nematode parasites:possible implications for the reindeer industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Waller

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In a balanced ecological system, both host and nematode parasite populations are firmly controlled by a complex array of interacting factors. However domestication of livestock has tipped the balance in favour of the parasites. This is due to increasing the proportion of susceptible animals in the herd or flock (lactating females and weaned young animals, increasing stocking rate, increasing productivity demands and decreasing the movement of the animals. In contrast with microbial infections, where multiplication takes place entirely within the host, metazoan parasites have both a parasitic phase and a free-living phase. Every worm present has been separately acquired by the ingestion of free-living stages on pasture. Immunity to nematodes develops slowly, it is labile, and its maintenance is dependent upon a good nutritional state of the animal. Consequently, worm parasites are ubiquitous wherever livestock are kept and they impose a constant and often a high infectious pressure on grazing animals. Nematode infections in grazing livestock are almost always a mixture of species. All have deleterious effects and collectively lead to chronic ill thrift. Economic evaluations repeatedly show that the major losses due to parasites are on animal production, rather than on mortality. This paper focuses on the problems of nematode parasites; problems associated with drug use (anthelmintic resistance, environmental impact and costs of nematode infections for the common ruminant livestock industries (cattle, sheep, goats, with possible analogies for the semi-domesticated reindeer industry.

  11. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results: High grazing...... habitat types for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape in Europe. Hay cutting and livestock grazing is known to affect a number of organisms, but the response to grazing may vary across classes of organisms and with the intensity of Published: 20...

  12. Correlation of water with carbon/energy footprints for effective agricultural and livestock products classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Eros; Marinello, Francesco; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    World population is increasing and human diet is becoming of considerable concern for human welfare. Natural resources are overexploited and governments need policies for a good management of the environment. Sustainable agriculture can provide some solutions, as it minimizes inputs, wastes or pollution. The aim of the present study is to provide a combined analysis of different footprints approaches in order to allow comparison of different agricultural and livestock products in terms of efficiency of resource exploitation. Time is the real important variable that influences the footprint. Water use efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and energy indexes are included in this study. The study takes advantage of indexes collected from a wide bibliography focused on different fresh agricultural products: the target is the definition of a time table of footprints for agricultural products. Starting from a top-down prospective, an analysis of the environmental footprint for different products is an approach to understand which products can be more sustainable for human diet. This study distinguishes different clusters in different sub-cluster of vegetable products and animal products. The classification is based on a comparison of water consumption in relation to yield, greenhouse gas emissions equivalent and energy for a given product quantity. Additionally time is considered, which affects sustainability, in terms of inputs caught for a period. The footprint is spread out in time, thus changing its relevance with respect to the exploitation of a resource. Ultimately, this works wants to propose a new original basis for sustainability metrics, allowing an effective quantitative comparison of food products for a more conscious human diet.

  13. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... sport of livestock within individual countries and farms are taken into account. ..... animal marketing. The biggest stress occurs in ..... Relationship between food deprivation before transport and aggression in pigs held in ...

  14. Clinical and subclinical infections with Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are frequent parasites of livestock, companion animals, and wildlife, raising questions about the clinical significance of such infections. Infections with both parasites have a wide spectrum of symptoms that can vary between asymptomatic infections to serious infection ...

  15. local perspectives and preferences of animal health management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TAYO BABALOBI

    understand local preferences for animal health management practices and observe if there is any ... (CBAHW ) in rural livestock health and production management. Sheep and goats ..... The principles, practices and privatisation of the CBAH ...

  16. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term.

  17. Editing livestock genomes with site-specific nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Daniel F; Tan, Wenfang; Hackett, Perry B; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 5 years there has been a major transformation in our ability to precisely manipulate the genomes of animals. Efficiencies of introducing precise genetic alterations in large animal genomes have improved 100000-fold due to a succession of site-specific nucleases that introduce double-strand DNA breaks with a specificity of 10(-9). Herein we describe our applications of site-specific nucleases, especially transcription activator-like effector nucleases, to engineer specific alterations in the genomes of pigs and cows. We can introduce variable changes mediated by non-homologous end joining of DNA breaks to inactive genes. Alternatively, using homology-directed repair, we have introduced specific changes that support either precise alterations in a gene's encoded polypeptide, elimination of the gene or replacement by another unrelated DNA sequence. Depending on the gene and the mutation, we can achieve 10%-50% effective rates of precise mutations. Applications of the new precision genetics are extensive. Livestock now can be engineered with selected phenotypes that will augment their value and adaption to variable ecosystems. In addition, animals can be engineered to specifically mimic human diseases and disorders, which will accelerate the production of reliable drugs and devices. Moreover, animals can be engineered to become better providers of biomaterials used in the medical treatment of diseases and disorders.

  18. Modelling global methane emissions from livestock: Biological and nutritional controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    The available observations of methane production from the literature have been compiled into a ruminant methane data base. This data base includes 400 treatment mean observations of methane losses from cattle and sheep, and minor numbers of measurements from other species. Methane loss varied from 2.0 to 11.6 percent of dietary gross energy. Measurements included describe the many different weights and physiological states of the animals fed and diets ranging from all forage to all concentrate diets or mixtures. An auxiliary spreadsheet lists approximately 1000 individual animal observations. Many important concepts have emerged from our query and analysis of this data set. The majority of the world's cattle, sheep, and goats under normal husbandry circumstances likely produce methane very close to 6 percent of their daily diets gross energy (2 percent of the diet by weight). Although individual animals or losses from specific dietary research circumstances can vary considerably, the average for the vast majority of groups of ruminant livestock are likely to fall between 5.5 to 6.5 percent. We must caution, however, that little experimental data is available for two-thirds of the world's ruminants in developing countries. Available evidence suggests similar percentage of emissions, but this supposition needs confirmation. More importantly, data is skimpy or unavailable to describe diet consumption, animal weight, and class distribution.

  19. 25 CFR 700.725 - Livestock trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 700.725 Section 700.725 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands... of $1 per head per day for each cow, bull, horse, mule or donkey and 25¢ per head per day for each...

  20. Study on Biological Characteristics of Livestock Eperythrozoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Haisheng; Xie Minghua; Mu Qionghua

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study of infection and morphological characteristics of 12 kinds of livestock Eperythrozoon,disinfection test by drugs in vitro,disinfection test by ultraviolet light,Eperythrozoon survival test at different times and temperatures,drug sensitivity test and clinical treatment of infected swines were carried out on Eperythrozoon suis and Eperythrozoon wenyonii to further study the biological characteristics. Test results showed that infection level of livestock Eperythrozoon was high,while morbidity was low. Eperythrozoon suis and Eperythrozoon wenyonii could survive for 1 year at 3- 5 ℃,180 d at 16- 26 ℃ and 30 min at- 20 ℃,while which died instantly at 65 ℃. Eperythrozoon was sensitive to general chemical disinfection drugs,while not sensitive to ultraviolet light disinfection. Transmission of Eperythrozoon mainly included contagious transmission and vertical transmission. Results of drug sensitivity test showed that Eperythrozoon was sensitive to Tetracycline and antigen insect drugs. Sizes and shapes of different livestock Eperythrozoon were different. The study provided a scientific basis for the effective prevention and treatment of livestock Eperythrozoonosis.

  1. Loomakasvatus, 2007 = Livestock farming, 2007 / Tiiu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Tiiu

    2007-01-01

    2007. aastal tapeti ning müüdi tapaks 105 000 tonni loomi ja linde, toodeti 689 700 tonni piima ning 155,8 miljonit muna. Diagramm. Tabelid. Vt. samas: Loomade ja piima kokkuost, 2007 = Purchase of livestock and milk, 2007

  2. Loomakasvatus, 2007 = Livestock farming, 2007 / Tiiu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Tiiu

    2007-01-01

    2007. aastal tapeti ning müüdi tapaks 105 000 tonni loomi ja linde, toodeti 689 700 tonni piima ning 155,8 miljonit muna. Diagramm. Tabelid. Vt. samas: Loomade ja piima kokkuost, 2007 = Purchase of livestock and milk, 2007

  3. Baccharis Pteronioides Toxicity in Livestock and Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the early 1900’s, Baccharis pteronioides DC has been intermittently associated with livestock poisoning in the southwestern United States. In 2004, nearly 100 free ranging cows were reported poisoned by B. pteronioides in southern New Mexico. Initial field studies and post mortem examination...

  4. Using a One Health approach to assess the impact of parasitic disease in livestock: how does it add value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Jonathan; Bruce, Mieghan

    2017-01-01

    Human population increases, with greater food demands, have resulted in a rapid evolution of livestock food systems, leading to changes in land and water use. The scale of global livestock systems mean that changes in animal health status, particularly in parasite levels, have impacts that go beyond farm and sector levels. To quantify the true impact of parasites in livestock, frameworks that look at both resources and services valued in markets and those that have no true market value are required. Mitigating the effects of parasitic disease in livestock will not only increase productivity, but also improve animal welfare and human health, whilst reducing the environmental burden of livestock production systems. To measure these potential benefits, a One Health approach is needed. This paper discusses the types of methods and the data collection tools needed for a more holistic perspective and provides a framework with its application to coccidiosis in poultry. To build a body of knowledge that allows the ranking of parasite diseases in a wider animal health setting, such One Health frameworks need to be applied more frequently and with rigour. The outcome will improve the allocation of resources to critical constraints on parasite management.

  5. Different shades of grey: Compromise products to encourage animal friendly consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary production and consumption are often characterised by negative externalities, for example regarding animal welfare. Despite consumer concerns about animal welfare standards in livestock production systems, the market share of organic meat is still low. The current paper investigates to

  6. Animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is ba...

  7. Comparison of Rift Valley fever virus replication in North American livestock and wildlife cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Natasha N; Indran, Sabarish V; Bryant, P K; Richt, Juergen A; Wilson, William C

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes disease outbreaks across Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in high morbidity and mortality among young domestic livestock, frequent abortions in pregnant animals, and potentially severe or fatal disease in humans. The possibility of RVFV spreading to the United States or other countries worldwide is of significant concern to animal and public health, livestock production, and trade. The mechanism for persistence of RVFV during inter-epidemic periods may be through mosquito transovarial transmission and/or by means of a wildlife reservoir. Field investigations in endemic areas and previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that RVFV can infect a wide range of animals, including indigenous wild ruminants of Africa. Yet no predominant wildlife reservoir has been identified, and gaps in our knowledge of RVFV permissive hosts still remain. In North America, domestic goats, sheep, and cattle are susceptible hosts for RVFV and several competent vectors exist. Wild ruminants such as deer might serve as a virus reservoir and given their abundance, wide distribution, and overlap with livestock farms and human populated areas could represent an important risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess a variety of cell lines derived from North American livestock and wildlife for susceptibility and permissiveness to RVFV. Results of this study suggest that RVFV could potentially replicate in native deer species such as white-tailed deer, and possibly a wide range of non-ruminant animals. This work serves to guide and support future animal model studies and risk model assessment regarding this high-consequence zoonotic pathogen.

  8. Comparison of Rift Valley fever virus replication in North American livestock and wildlife cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha N Gaudreault

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV causes disease outbreaks across Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in high morbidity and mortality among young domestic livestock, frequent abortions in pregnant animals, and potentially severe or fatal disease in humans. The possibility of RVFV spreading to the US or other countries worldwide is of significant concern to animal and public health, livestock production and trade. The mechanism for persistence of RVFV during inter-epidemic periods may be through mosquito transovarial transmission and/or by means of a wildlife reservoir. Field investigations in endemic areas and previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that RVFV can infect a wide range of animals, including indigenous wild ruminants of Africa. Yet no predominant wildlife reservoir has been identified, and gaps in our knowledge of RVFV permissive hosts still remain. In North America, domestic goats, sheep and cattle are susceptible hosts for RVFV and several competent vectors exist. Wild ruminants such as deer might serve as a virus reservoir and given their abundance, wide distribution, and overlap with livestock farms and human populated areas could represent an important risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess a variety of cell lines derived from North American livestock and wildlife for susceptibility and permissiveness to RVFV. Results of this study suggest that RVFV could potentially replicate in native deer species such as white-tailed deer, and possibly a wide range of non-ruminant animals. This work serves to guide and support future animal model studies and risk model assessment regarding this high-consequence zoonotic pathogen.

  9. Role of parasitic vaccines in integrated control of parasitic diseases in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Veer; Shyma, K P

    2015-05-01

    Parasitic infections adversely affect animal's health and threaten profitable animal production, thus affecting the economy of our country. These infections also play a major role in the spread of zoonotic diseases. Parasitic infections cause severe morbidity and mortality in animals especially those affecting the gastrointestinal system and thus affect the economy of livestock owner by decreasing the ability of the farmer to produce economically useful animal products. Due to all these reasons proper control of parasitic infection is critically important for sustained animal production. The most common and regularly used method to control parasitic infection is chemotherapy, which is very effective but has several disadvantages like drug resistance and drug residues. Integrated approaches to control parasitic infections should be formulated including grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts, and parasitic vaccines. India ranks first in cattle and buffalo population, but the majority of livestock owners have fewer herds, so other measures like grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts are not much practical to use. The most sustainable and economical approach to control parasitic infection in our country is to vaccinate animals, although vaccines increase the initial cost, but the immunity offered by the vaccine are long lived. Thus, vaccination of animals for various clinical, chronic, subclinical parasitic infections will be a cheaper and effective alternative to control parasitic infection for long time and improve animal production.

  10. Selection and Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for Waste Stream Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, W. M.; Hall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Human and animal wastes pose a threat to the quality of groundwater, surface water and drinking water. This is especially of concern for private and public water supplies in agricultural areas of Wisconsin where land spreading of livestock waste occurs on thin soils overlaying fractured bedrock. Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for source identification requires the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Due to cost, these tests are often not an option for homeowners, municipalities or state agencies with limited resources. The Water and Environmental Analysis Laboratory sought to develop chemical methods to provide lower cost processes to determine sources of fecal waste using fecal sterols, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary) and human care/use products in ground and surface waters using solid phase extraction combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The two separate techniques allow for the detection of fecal sterol and other chemical markers in the sub part per billion-range. Fecal sterol ratios from published sources were used to evaluate drinking water samples and wastewater from onsite waste treatment systems and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products indicative of human waste included: acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, paraxanthine, sulfamethoxazole, and the artificial sweeteners; acesulfame, saccharin, and sucralose. The bovine antibiotic sulfamethazine was also targeted. Well water samples with suspected fecal contamination were analyzed for fecal sterols and PPCPs. Results were compared to traditional MST results from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Chemical indicators were found in 6 of 11 drinking water samples, and 5 of 11 were in support of MST results. Lack of detection of chemical indicators in samples contaminated with fecal waste supports the need for confirmatory methods and advancement of chemical indicator detection technologies.

  11. Modeling, Estimation and Control of Indoor Climate in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang

    The main objective of this research is to design an efficient control system for the indoor climate of a large-scale partition-less livestock building, in order to maintain a healthy, comfortable and economically energy consuming indoor environment for the agricultural animals and farmers....... With necessary assumptions and simplifications, the dominant air flow distributions are investigated and the phenomenon of horizontal variations is well depicted. The designed entire control system consists of an outer feedback closed-loop dynamic controller and an inner feed-forward redundancy optimization....... By assigning different weights in the objective function which is based on energy consumption considerations and the covariance of the high frequency component disturbances, the optimal control command generated from the dynamic controller are reallocated to the end effectors. This strategy enhances...

  12. Developing Livestock Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, C; Robertson, A; Hullinger, P

    2006-10-24

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of livestock diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each livestock facility within the US. At the present time, the only national database of livestock facilities that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data.' The NASS data provides facility data at the county level for various livestock types (i.e., beef cows, milk cows, cattle on feed, other cattle, total hogs and pigs, sheep and lambs, milk goats, and angora goats). However, the number and sizes of facilities for the various livestock types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of livestock, and some livestock are of more than one type (e.g., 'other cattle' that are being fed for slaughter are also 'cattle on feed'). In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of animals or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D.'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or animals. At the same time, it must account for all the animals, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual livestock operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national livestock facility database with twenty-eight facility types. The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed within the NASS database. The second step converts the NASS

  13. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    About 25% of European livestock intake is based on permanent and sown grasslands. To fulfill rising demand for animal products, an intensification of livestock production may lead to an increased consumption of crop and compound feeds. In order to preserve an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture, a more forage based livestock alimentation may be an advantage. However, besides management, grassland productivity is highly vulnerable to climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration), and spatial information about European grassland productivity in response to climate change is scarce. The process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE-GM, containing an explicit representation of grassland management (i.e., herbage mowing and grazing), is used here to estimate changes in potential productivity and potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density across European grasslands over the period 1961-2010. Here "potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density" denotes the maximum density of livestock that can be supported by grassland productivity in each 25 km × 25 km grid cell. In reality, livestock density could be higher than potential (e.g., if additional feed is supplied to animals) or lower (e.g., in response to economic factors, pedo-climatic and biotic conditions ignored by the model, or policy decisions that can for instance reduce livestock numbers). When compared to agricultural statistics (Eurostat and FAOstat), ORCHIDEE-GM gave a good reproduction of the regional gradients of annual grassland productivity and ruminant livestock density. The model however tends to systematically overestimate the absolute values of productivity in most regions, suggesting that most grid cells remain below their potential grassland productivity due to possible nutrient and biotic limitations on plant growth. When ORCHIDEE-GM was run for the period 1961-2010 with variable climate and rising CO2, an increase of potential annual production (over 3%) per decade

  14. Co-Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Waste With Other Waste Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    becomes a valuable resource. Co-digestion treatment has been successfully applied to several agricultural and industrial organic waste types in recent years. In Denmark, for example, the co-digestion concept has been successfully used since the mid 1980’s for the treatment of livestock waste......Several characteristics make anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) difficult. By co-digestion of OFMSW with several other waste types it will be possible to optimize the anaerobic process by waste management. The co-digestion concept involves the treatment...... of several waste types in a single treatment facility. By combining many types of waste it will be possible to treat a wider range of organic waste types by the anaerobic digestion process (figure 1). Furthermore, co-digestion enables the treatment of organic waste with a high biogas potential that makes...

  15. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  16. Livestock-associated methicillin and multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is present among industrial, not antibiotic-free livestock operation workers in North Carolina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Rinsky

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Administration of antibiotics to food animals may select for drug-resistant pathogens of clinical significance, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In the United States, studies have examined prevalence of MRSA carriage among individuals exposed to livestock, but prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA carriage and the association with livestock raised with versus without antibiotic selective pressure remains unclear. We aimed to examine prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and molecular characteristics of S. aureus among industrial livestock operation (ILO and antibiotic-free livestock operation (AFLO workers and household members in North Carolina. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study were interviewed and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting S. aureus isolates were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, multi-locus sequence type, and absence of the scn gene (a marker of livestock association. RESULTS: Among 99 ILO and 105 AFLO participants, S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence was 41% and 40%, respectively. Among ILO and AFLO S. aureus carriers, MRSA was detected in 7% (3/41 and 7% (3/42, respectively. Thirty seven percent of 41 ILO versus 19% of 42 AFLO S. aureus-positive participants carried MDRSA. S. aureus clonal complex (CC 398 was observed only among workers and predominated among ILO (13/34 compared with AFLO (1/35 S. aureus-positive workers. Only ILO workers carried scn-negative MRSA CC398 (2/34 and scn-negative MDRSA CC398 (6/34, and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar S. aureus and MRSA prevalence among ILO and AFLO-exposed individuals, livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA (tetracycline-resistant, CC398, scn-negative were only present among ILO-exposed individuals. These findings support growing concern about antibiotics use and confinement in livestock production, raising questions about the potential for

  17. Matching Social and Biophysical Scales in Extensive Livestock Production as a Basis for Adaptation to Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, N. F.; Bestelmeyer, B.

    2015-12-01

    Global livestock production is heterogeneous, and its benefits and costs vary widely across global contexts. Extensive grazing lands (or rangelands) constitute the vast majority of the land dedicated to livestock production globally, but they are relatively minor contributors to livestock-related environmental impacts. Indeed, the greatest potential for environmental damage in these lands lies in their potential for conversion to other uses, including agriculture, mining, energy production and urban development. Managing such conversion requires improving the sustainability of livestock production in the face of fragmentation, ecological and economic marginality and climate change. We present research from Mongolia and the United States demonstrating methods of improving outcomes on rangelands by improving the fit between the scales of social and biophysical processes. Especially in arid and semi-arid settings, rangelands exhibit highly variable productivity over space and time and non-linear or threshold dynamics in vegetation; climate change is projected to exacerbate these challenges and, in some cases, diminish overall productivity. Policy and governance frameworks that enable landscape-scale management and administration enable range livestock producers to adapt to these conditions. Similarly, livestock breeds that have evolved to withstand climate and vegetation change improve producers' prospects in the face of increasing variability and declining productivity. A focus on the relationships among primary production, animal production, spatial connectivity, and scale must underpin adaptation strategies in rangelands.

  18. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06. Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm. Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48 and feed ingredients (49 samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%. Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits.

  19. Modelling the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews how the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds is mimicked by livestock herd simulation models. Twelve models simulating the dynamics of dairy, beef, sheep and sow herds were examined. All models basically included options to alter input and output...... of reproductive animals in a manner which could be related to health problems. Direct effects of diseases on growth or milk production were, however, addressed in only a few models and were confined to a few basic relations if modelled. The lack of effects on individual animal production in the models may relate...... and their interactions could be studied by applying the same standards of analysis to simulated data as to real herd data. © 1992....

  20. Impact of exporting dependence on livestock production systems, industry structure, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, K L; Kirton, A H

    1997-02-01

    From 84 to 93% of New Zealand's annual production from livestock is exported to over 100 markets throughout the world. This export dependence has produced production systems that are low-cost because the Mediterranean maritime climate allows animals to graze outdoors throughout the year without provision for housing and with minimal requirements for cropping, harvesting, and forage storage. These systems exploit the inherent tendencies for ruminants to have annual production cycles that can be synchronized to use the seasonal availability of pasture, but this means that processing facilities must handle peak supply for brief periods. Processing technology can reduce the impact of peaks in supply that may not match market demand. The disadvantages of seasonality in processing costs are outweighed by lower production costs, as well as by the opportunity to manage large numbers of animals per labor unit. Cooperative structures that are owned by livestock producers are a common feature, especially in New Zealand's dairy industry. This continued preference for cooperatives may reflect the need to have a guaranteed processor for a perishable product such as milk, as well as sharing the risk in an export industry that has scant control over prices received. In addition, management systems for ruminant livestock can only respond slowly to changes in market demand because their production cycles last at least 12 mo and only one or two offspring are produced in each cycle. Export marketing of livestock products is complicated by trade barriers and by dumping of subsidized surpluses. Negotiations to eliminate these practices may mean that livestock production systems in many countries will have to adopt some principles similar to those developed in New Zealand, not because of export dependence but because this dependence has created low-cost systems.