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Sample records for liverwort blasia pusilla

  1. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

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    Anton Liaimer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analysed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin.

  2. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

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    Liaimer, Anton; Jensen, John B.; Dittmann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analyzed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin. PMID:27847500

  3. Genetic Diversity of Nostoc Symbionts Endophytically Associated with Two Bryophyte Species

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    Costa, José-Luis; Paulsrud, Per; Rikkinen, Jouko; Lindblad, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of the endophytic Nostoc symbionts of two thalloid bryophytes, the hornwort Anthoceros fusiformis and the liverwort Blasia pusilla, was examined using the tRNALeu (UAA) intron sequence as a marker. The results confirmed that many different Nostoc strains are involved in both associations under natural conditions in the field. The level of Nostoc diversity within individual bryophyte thalli varied, but single DNA fragments were consistently amplified from individual symbiotic col...

  4. Using essential oils to control moss and liverwort in containers

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    Nabil Khadduri

    2011-01-01

    Liverwort and moss are economically significant weeds across a range of US container production sites, including forest seedling greenhouse culture in the Pacific Northwest. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of essential oils, or distilled plant extracts, in controlling liverwort and moss container weeds over three seasons of trials. When applied at the...

  5. Data to the Malaysian liverwort flora, I

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    Pócs Tamás

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 120 liverwort specimens collected in peninsular Malaysia for oil body studies belonged to 80 species, 6 of which (Frullania subocellata S. Hatt., Chiloscyphus integerrimus Schiffn., Bazzania assamica (Steph. S. Hatt., Bazzania bilobata Kitag., Telaranea quadriseta (Steph. J. Engel & G. L. Merrill and Radula assamica Steph. proved to be new for Malaysia and 9 to its peninsular part or to Selangor or Pahang states. The most interesting occurrences were of Frullania subocellata, hitherto known only from Seram Island, Chiloscyphus integerrimus, known from Java, and Telaranea quadriseta, an Australian element. The majority of the collected species are of Indomalesian distribution. Microphotos and distribution maps of the more interesting species are provided.

  6. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts.

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    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S Robbert; Shaw, Blanka; Patiño, Jairo; Désamoré, Aurélie; Goffinet, Bernard; Cox, Cymon J; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Shifts in sexual systems are one of the key drivers of species diversification. In contrast to angiosperms, unisexuality prevails in bryophytes. Here, we test the hypotheses that bisexuality evolved from an ancestral unisexual condition and is a key innovation in liverworts. We investigate whether shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems are significantly biased toward unisexuality, even though bisexuality is coupled with increased diversification. Sexual systems are strongly conserved deep within the liverwort tree but become much more labile toward the present. Bisexuality appears to be a key innovation in liverworts. Its effects on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have the opposite effect when compared to angiosperms, leading to contrasting diversification patterns between the two groups. The high prevalence of unisexuality among liverworts suggests, however, a strong selection for sexual dimorphism. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S. Robbert

    2016-01-01

    on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have...... shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems...

  8. Cluster formation in liverwort-associated methylobacteria and its implications

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    Kutschera, U.; Thomas, J.; Hornschuh, M.

    2007-08-01

    Pink-pigmented methylotropic bacteria of the genus Methylobacterium inhabit the surfaces of plant organs. In bryophytes, these methylobacteria enhance cell growth, but the nature of this plant-microbe interaction is largely unknown. In this study, methylobacteria were isolated from the upper surface of the free-living thalli of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. Identification of one strain by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other data show that these microbes represent an undescribed species of the genus Methylobacterium ( Methylobacterium sp.). The growth-promoting activity of these wild-type methylobacteria was tested and compared with that of the type strain Methylobacterium mesophilicum. Both types of methylobacteria stimulated surface expansion of isolated gemmae from Marchantia polymorpha by about 350%. When suspended in water, the liverwort-associated bacteria ( Methylobacterium sp.) formed dense clusters of up to 600 cells. In liquid cultures of Methylobacterium mesophilicum, single cells were observed, but no clustering occurred. We suggest that the liverwort-associated methylobacteria are co-evolved symbionts of the plants: Cluster formation may be a behavior that enhances the survival of the epiphytic microbes during periods of drought of these desiccation-tolerant lower plants.

  9. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla.

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    Carvalho-Paulo, Dario; de Morais Magalhães, Nara G; de Almeida Miranda, Diego; Diniz, Daniel G; Henrique, Ediely P; Moraes, Isis A M; Pereira, Patrick D C; de Melo, Mauro A D; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Sherry, David F; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla , that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy ( n = 249 cells) with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period ( n = 250 cells). Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes may play

  10. Phenology and abundance of Enoicyla pusilla in conifer stands

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    M. J. Lombardero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study. We study the abundance of Enoicyla pusilla (Burmeister in pine plantations and the effects of silvicultural thinning on insect population. This species is considered a rare member of the order Trichoptera, reported as absent or occasional in conifer forests. It has been suggested that the proliferation of conifer plantations may be a threat for this species by favoring population isolation. Area of study. Plantations of native and non-native pines in Galicia (NW of Spain.Material and Methods. We used different traps systems, including 28 pitfall traps, to compared populations of insects in 14 thinned and unthinned plots of Pinus pinaster and P. radiata distributed across 3 forest stands. Traps were checked every 15 days during one year.Main results.  We caught 1.219 larvae of E. pusilla. It was the third most abundant species captured in pitfall traps. Larval activity extended from January to late July. They were more abundant in the stands of P. radiata, probably because the denser foliage produced limits sunlight and helped to maintain litter moisture. Additionally needles of P. radiata had lower toughness and higher nitrogen content, which probably makes it a higher quality resource for the detritivorous larvae. Thinning did not affect larvae population.Research highlights: Although managed forests cannot match the biodiversity value of native mixed species stands, if managed appropriately, they may provide habitat for native fauna while also allowing for forest productionKey words: caddisfly; Pinus pinaster; Pinus radiate; plantations; thinning.

  11. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla

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    Dario Carvalho-Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla, that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy (n = 249 cells with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period (n = 250 cells. Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes

  12. New Localities of Rare Liverworts in the Central Poland

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    Staniaszek-Kik Monika

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports new localities of four liverwort species, i.e., Fossombronia foveolata Lindb., Gymnocolea inflata (Huds. Dumort., Leiomylia anomala (Hook. J.J. Engel & Braggins and Odontoschisma denudatum (Mart. Dumort., found in Central Poland. The new sites are situated in peat bog habitats and swamp forest in the depression cone of lignite opencast mine near Bełchatów in Central Poland. All of the reported species are very rare and have only few localities in Central Poland.

  13. Antihyperglycemic activity of Arbutus unedo, Ammoides pusilla and Thymelaea hirsuta.

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    Bnouham, M; Merhfour, F Z; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Maâllem, S; Ziyyat, A

    2007-08-01

    The effect of the water extract (WE) of three medicinal plants used as antidiabetic medication in Eastern Morocco (Arbutus unedo: Au, Ammoides pusilla: Ap and Thymelaea hirsuta: Th) was tested in rats with the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT). In the OGTT the rats received water, glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) or WE (500 mg/kg for Au and 250 mg/kg for Th and Ap) 30 min before glucose loading (glucose: 1 g/kg). The WE of Au, Ap and Th produced a significant decrease in glycemia after glucose loading. In the IVGTT the WE of Ap and Th produced a significant decrease in glycemia 60 min after i.v. glucose loading (0.5 g/kg). The addition of the WE of Au (500 mg/kg), Ap or Th (250 mg/kg) induced a significant inhibition of jejunal glucose absorption, (31.6%, 28.5% and 40.5% respectively). This effect could explain in part the significant antihyperglycemic effect observed in the OGTT model but it does not exclude other effects on glucose homeostasis, particularly for Ap and Th. Toxicity tests (high LD50 value) suggest no adverse effect of the use of these plants.

  14. Diel Variations in Optical Properties of Micromonas pusilla, a Prasinophyte

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    DuRand, Michele D.; Green, Rebecca E.; Sosik, Heidi M.; Olson, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted on cultures of Micromonas pusilla, a marine prasinophyte, to investigate how cell growth and division affect the optical properties over the light:dark cycle. Measurements were made of cell size and concentration, attenuation and absorption coefficients, flow cytometric light scattering (in forward and side directions), chlorophyll and carbon content. Refractive index was calculated using the anomalous diffraction approximation Cells were about 1.5 micrometers in diameter and exhibited phased division, with the major division burst occurring during the night. Typical diel variations were observed, with cells increasing in size and light scattering during the day as they photosynthesize and decreasing at night upon division. The cells were in ultradian growth, with more than one division per day, at a light level of 120 Mu-mol photons m/sq/sec. Since these cells are similar in size to small phytoplankton that are typically abundant in field samples, these results can be used in the interpretation of diel variations in light scattering in natural populations of phytoplankton.

  15. First record of Microlynchia pusilla (Diptera: Hippoboscidae in Northeastern Brazil Primeiro registro de Microlynchia pusilla (Diptera: Hippoboscidae no Nordeste do Brasil

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    Honara Morgana da Silva

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the occurrence of Microlynchia pusilla in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN on Leptotila verreauxi approximans from a deciduous forest fragment located in the municipality of Macaíba. A specimen of L. v. approximans was collected in June 2012, wrapped in paper towels and kept under refrigeration in a plastic bag for later analysis of parasite fauna, taxidermy, and eventual storage in the Ornithological Collection of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN. During the search for ectoparasites, a specimen of M. pusilla was found among feathers of the ventral region; it was collected and stored in the Entomological Collection ‘Adalberto Antônio Varela-Freire’ of the same university. This report extends the knowledge about geographical distribution and confirms the association of M. pusilla with hosts Columbiformes, contributing to the knowledge of the family Hippoboscidae in the country.Este trabalho registra a ocorrência de Microlynchia pusilla no estado do Rio Grande do Norte em Leptotila verreauxi approximans oriunda de um fragmento de floresta estacional decidual localizado no município de Macaíba. Um espécime de L. v. approximans foi coletado em junho de 2012, envolvido em papel toalha e conservado sob refrigeração em saco plástico para posterior análise da fauna parasitária, taxidermia e depósito na Coleção Ornitológica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN. Durante a busca por ectoparasitos foi encontrado um espécime de M. pusilla nas penas da região ventral, o qual foi coletado e depositado na Coleção Entomológica Adalberto Antônio Varela-Freire da mesma universidade. Este relato amplia o conhecimento sobre a distribuição geográfica de M. pusilla e confirma sua associação com hospedeiros Columbiformes, contribuindo para o conhecimento da família Hippoboscidae no país.

  16. Two reported cytotypes of the emergent orchid model species Erycina pusilla are two different species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeh, Hsuan Yu; Lin, Choun Sea; Jong, de Hans; Chang, Song-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Each species is characterized by a specific set of chromosomes, which is described as the chromosome portrait or karyotype. In general, such a karyotype is the same for all individuals in the population. An exception to that rule has recently been found in the orchid Erycina pusilla, which has

  17. Species of leafy liverworts in protected forest of simancik 1, regency of deli serdang, north sumatera

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    Pasaribu, Nursahara; Sartina Siregar, Etti; Rahmi, Wardatur

    2018-03-01

    Data and information of leafy liverworts diversity in Sumatera, especially North Sumatera, are still less reported. Research is conducted in order to invent and describe the morphological character of leafy liverworts in Protected Forest of Simancik I, regency of Deli Serdang, North Sumatera. Samples were collected along the hiking tracks of study site. Twenty two spesies belonging to 12 genera and 6 families were found. They were only one species of Frullaniaceae, eleven species of Lejeuneaceae, two species of Lepidoziaceae, two species of Lophocoleaceae, four species of Plagiochilaceae and two species of Radulaceae. Those species were found as epiphyte on the tree truck and some on the decaying wood. The highest diversity of leafy liverworts was from Lejeuneaceae which consisted of two subfamilies: Lejeuneoideaea and Ptychanthoideae and seven genera which are Lejeunea, Archilejeunea, Lopholejeunea, Dendrolejeunea, Ptychantus, Mastigolejeunea and Thysananthus while the lowest diversity was from Frullaniaceae.

  18. Growth on ATP Elicits a P-Stress Response in the Picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla.

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    LeAnn P Whitney

    Full Text Available The surface waters of oligotrophic oceans have chronically low phosphate (Pi concentrations, which renders dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP an important nutrient source. In the subtropical North Atlantic, cyanobacteria are often numerically dominant, but picoeukaryotes can dominate autotrophic biomass and productivity making them important contributors to the ocean carbon cycle. Despite their importance, little is known regarding the metabolic response of picoeukaryotes to changes in phosphorus (P source and availability. To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate P utilization in oligotrophic environments, we evaluated transcriptomes of the picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla grown under Pi-replete and -deficient conditions, with an additional investigation of growth on DOP in replete conditions. Genes that function in sulfolipid substitution and Pi uptake increased in expression with Pi-deficiency, suggesting cells were reallocating cellular P and increasing P acquisition capabilities. Pi-deficient M. pusilla cells also increased alkaline phosphatase activity and reduced their cellular P content. Cells grown with DOP were able to maintain relatively high growth rates, however the transcriptomic response was more similar to the Pi-deficient response than that seen in cells grown under Pi-replete conditions. The results demonstrate that not all P sources are the same for growth; while M. pusilla, a model picoeukaryote, may grow well on DOP, the metabolic demand is greater than growth on Pi. These findings provide insight into the cellular strategies which may be used to support growth in a stratified future ocean predicted to favor picoeukaryotes.

  19. Spatial distribution and general population characteristics of Pseudanchialina pusilla (Crustacea: Mysida) in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.

    'un projet de recherche marine multidisciplinaire sur le programme d'évaluation des ressources du vivant . P. pusilla présente une large gamme de variations dans la dynamique des populations de la zone d'étude et leur densité de population sur l'ensemble de... la zone d'étude variait de 0 à 12000 ind.1000 m-3. La plus forte abondance durant la mousson du sud-ouest (SWM) de 2004 (43,4% de la population totale de l'échantillonnage), suivie par l'inter mousson (IM) de 2005 (37,0%) et le Nord- mousson (NEM...

  20. Biosynthesis and Total Synthesis of Pyrronazol B: a Secondary Metabolite from Nannocystis pusilla.

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    Witte, Swjatoslaw N R; Hug, Joachim J; Géraldy, Magalie N E; Müller, Rolf; Kalesse, Markus

    2017-11-13

    The first stereoselective total synthesis of the natural product pyrronazol B, which contains a chlorinated pyrrole-oxazole-pyrone framework, has been achieved. Genome sequencing of the myxobacterial producer strain Nannocystis pusilla Ari7 led to the identification of the putative biosynthetic gene cluster. The proposed biosynthetic pathway was supported by feeding experiments with stable isotopes of three biosynthetic building blocks, namely l-proline, l-serine, and l-methionine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Porzana fusca and Porzana pusilla and phylogenetic relationship of 16 Rallidae species.

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    Chen, Peng; Han, Yuqing; Zhu, Chaoying; Gao, Bin; Ruan, Luzhang

    2017-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Porzana fusca and Porzana pusilla were determined. The two avian species share a high degree of homology in terms of mitochondrial genome organization and gene arrangement. Their corresponding mitochondrial genomes are 16,935 and 16,978 bp and consist of 37 genes and a control region. Their PCGs were both 11,365 bp long and have similar structure. Their tRNA gene sequences could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA Ser (AGY) , which lost its "DHU" arm. Based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial DNA genes of 16 Rallidae species, reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and analysis of the molecular clock of P. fusca and P. pusilla indicated that these species from a sister group, which in turn are sister group to Rallina eurizonoides. The genus Gallirallus is a sister group to genus Lewinia, and these groups in turn are sister groups to genus Porphyrio. Moreover, molecular clock analyses suggested that the basal divergence of Rallidae could be traced back to 40.47 (41.46‒39.45) million years ago (Mya), and the divergence of Porzana occurred approximately 5.80 (15.16‒0.79) Mya.

  2. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in an aquatic liverwort as possible bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation

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    Arroniz-Crespo, M.; Nunez-Olivera, E. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Martinez-Abaigar, J. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain)], E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es

    2008-01-15

    We examined, under laboratory conditions, the physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to artificially enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 82 days, especially considering the responses of five hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This species lives in mountain streams, where it is exposed to low temperatures and high UV levels, and this combination is believed to increase the adverse effects of UV. Enhanced UV radiation hardly caused any change in several physiological variables indicative of vitality, such as F{sub v}/F{sub m} and chlorophylls/phaeopigments ratio (OD430/OD410). Thus, this liverwort seemed to be tolerant to UV radiation, probably due to the accumulation of three UV-absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: p-coumaroylmalic acid, 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxycoumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid, and 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxy-7-O-{beta}-glucosyl-coumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid. These compounds might serve as bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation. - Several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of an aquatic liverwort are induced by enhanced UV radiation and might serve as bioindicators of changes in UV levels.

  3. Arabinogalactan proteins occur in the free-living cyanobacterium genus Nostoc and in plant-Nostoc symbioses.

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    Jackson, Owen; Taylor, Oliver; Adams, David G; Knox, J Paul

    2012-10-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are a diverse family of proteoglycans associated with the cell surfaces of plants. AGP have been implicated in a wide variety of plant cell processes, including signaling in symbioses. This study investigates the existence of putative AGP in free-living cyanobacterial cultures of the nitrogen-fixing, filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc punctiforme and Nostoc sp. strain LBG1 and at the symbiotic interface in the symbioses between Nostoc spp. and two host plants, the angiosperm Gunnera manicata (in which the cyanobacterium is intracellular) and the liverwort Blasia pusilla (in which the cyanobacterium is extracellular). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that three AGP glycan epitopes (recognized by monoclonal antibodies LM14, MAC207, and LM2) are present in free-living Nostoc cyanobacterial species. The same three AGP glycan epitopes are present at the Gunnera-Nostoc symbiotic interface and the LM2 epitope is detected during the establishment of the Blasia-Nostoc symbiosis. Bioinformatic analysis of the N. punctiforme genome identified five putative AGP core proteins that are representative of AGP classes found in plants. These results suggest a possible involvement of AGP in cyanobacterial-plant symbioses and are also suggestive of a cyanobacterial origin of AGP.

  4. Increasing P-stress and viral infection impact lipid remodeling of the picophytoplankter Micromonas pusilla

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    Maat, D. S.; Bale, N. J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.; Brussaard, C. P. D.

    2015-09-01

    The intact polar lipid (IPL) composition of phytoplankton is plastic and dependent on environmental factors. Previous studies have shown that phytoplankton under phosphorus (P)-stress substitute phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) with sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs). However, these studies focused merely on P-depletion, while phytoplankton in the natural environment often experience P-limitation whereby the degree of limitation depends on the supply rate of the limiting nutrient. Here we demonstrate a linear increase in SQDG : PG and DGDG : PG ratios with increasing cellular P-stress in the picophotoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla, obtained by P-replete, P-limited (chemostat) and P-starved (no supply of P) culturing conditions. These ratios were not affected by the degree of the P-limiting conditions itself (i.e. 0.97 and 0.32 μmax chemostats), suggesting there is a minimum requirement of PGs for the maintenance of cell growth. Viral infection reduced the increase in SQDG : PG and DGDG : PG ratios in P-starved cells, but the extent did depend on the growth rate of the cultures before infection. The membrane of M. pusilla virus MpV itself was lacking some IPLs compared to the host as, e.g. no monogalactosyldiacylglycerols could be detected. Growth of the phytoplankton cultures under enhanced CO2 concentration did not affect the lipid remodeling results. The present study provides new insights into how the P-related trophic state of an ecosystem as well as viral infection can affect phytoplankton IPL composition, and therefore influence food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycling.

  5. Differential effects of lichens versus liverworts epiphylls on host leaf traits in the tropical montane rainforest, Hainan Island, China.

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    Zhou, Lingyan; Liu, Fude; Yang, Wenjie; Liu, Hong; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Zhongsheng; An, Shuqing

    2014-01-01

    Epiphylls widely colonize vascular leaves in moist tropical forests. Understanding the effects of epiphylls on leaf traits of host plants is critical for understanding ecological function of epiphylls. A study was conducted in a rain forest to investigate leaf traits of the host plants Photinia prunifolia colonized with epiphyllous liverworts and foliicolous lichens as well as those of uncolonized leaves. Our results found that the colonization of lichens significantly decreased leaf water content (LWC), chlorophyll (Chl) a and a + b content, and Chl a/b of P. prunifolia but increased Chl b content, while that of liverworts did not affect them as a whole. The variations of net photosynthetic rates (P n ) among host leaves colonized with different coverage of lichens before or after removal treatment (a treatment to remove epiphylls from leaf surface) were greater than that colonized with liverworts. The full cover of lichens induced an increase of light compensation point (LCP) by 21% and a decrease of light saturation point (LSP) by 54% for their host leaves, whereas that of liverworts displayed contrary effects. Compared with the colonization of liverworts, lichens exhibited more negative effects on the leaf traits of P. prunifolia in different stages of colonization. The results suggest that the responses of host leaf traits to epiphylls are affected by the epiphyllous groups and coverage, which are also crucial factors in assessing ecofunctions of epiphylls in tropical forests.

  6. In vitro study of Vellozia pusilla pohl (Velloziaceae), a Brazilian plant species: antitumoral activity and labeling of blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado de; Feliciano, Glaucio; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Vellozia pusilla Pohl is a species of the botanic family Velloziaceae that occurs in the subtropical regions of South America and, although it lives under conditions of high solar irradiation and low water availability, shows great longevity. The methanol extract of roots, stem and leaf sheaths of this species showed an anti tumoral activity through the inhibition of the enzyme Topoisomerase I when analyzed by an in vitro bioassay employing DNA repair or recombination deficient mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the evaluation of the effect of Vellozia pusilla methanol extract on the labeling of RBC, blood of mice was treated with 99m Tc tracer solutions. The percentage of radioactivity (% ATI) bound to plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) was determined. The %ATI in the insoluble fraction of plasma (IF) was also evaluate, and the results showed that there was a decrease in %ATI in this fraction that represents the plasmatic proteins. (author)

  7. Growth in liverworts of the Marchantiales is promoted by epiphytic methylobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U.; Koopmann, V.

    2005-07-01

    Liverworts, the most basal lineage of extant land plants, have been used as model systems in the reconstruction of adaptations to life on land. In this study, we used gemmae (specialized propagules) that were isolated from mature gemma cups of two distantly related species of liverworts, Marchantia polymorpha L. and Lunularia cruciata L. (order Marchantiales). We show that methylobacteria (genus Methylobacterium), microbes that inhabit the surfaces of land plants where they secrete phytohormones (cytokinines), promote the growth of isolated gemmae cultivated on agar plates. As a control, two species of higher plants, maize (Zea mays L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were raised aseptically from sterile seeds (i.e., caryopses, achenes). Inoculation of these propagules with methylobacteria was without effect on growth in the above-ground phytosphere (expansion of stems and leaves). We conclude that normal development in Marchantia and Lunularia is dependent on (and possibly regulated by) epiphytic methylobacteria, whereas representative higher plants grow at optimal rates in the absence of these prokaryotic epiphytes.

  8. Discovery of a dsRNA virus infecting the marine photosynthetic protist Micromonas pusilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Noordeloos, A.A.M.; Sandaa, R.-A.; Heldal, M.; Bratbak, G.

    2004-01-01

    We report the isolation of the first double-stranded (ds) RNA virus in the family Reoviridae that infects a protist (microalga Micromonas pusilla, Prasinophyceae). The dsRNA genome was composed of 11 segments ranging between 0.8 and 5.8 kb, with a total size of approximately 25.5 kb. The virus (MpRNAV-01B) could not be assigned to the genus level because host type, genome size, and number of segments smaller than 2 kb did not correspond to either of the two existing 11-segmented dsRNA genera Rotavirus and Aquareovirus. MpRNAV-01B has a particle size of 65-80 nm, a narrow host range, a latent period of 36 h, and contains five major proteins (120, 95, 67, 53, and 32 kDa). MpRNAV-01B was stable to freeze-thawing, resistant to chloroform, ether, nonionic detergents, chelating and reducing agents. The virus was inactivated at temperatures above 35 deg. C and by ionic detergent, ethanol, acetone, and acidic conditions (pH 2-5)

  9. Increasing P limitation and viral infection impact lipid remodeling of the picophytoplankter Micromonas pusilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Douwe S.; Bale, Nicole J.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2016-03-01

    The intact polar lipid (IPL) composition of phytoplankton is plastic and dependent on environmental factors. Previous studies have shown that phytoplankton under low phosphorus (P) availability substitutes phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) with sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs). However, these studies focused merely on P depletion, while phytoplankton in the natural environment often experience P limitation whereby the strength depends on the supply rate of the limiting nutrient. Here we report on the IPL composition of axenic cultures of the picophotoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla under different degrees of P limitation, i.e., P-controlled chemostats at 97 and 32 % of the maximum growth rate, and P starvation (obtained by stopping P supply to these chemostats). P-controlled cultures were also grown at elevated partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) to mimic a future scenario of strengthened vertical stratification in combination with ocean acidification. Additionally, we tested the influence of viral infection for this readily infected phytoplankton host species. Results show that both SQDG : PG and DGDG : PG ratios increased with enhanced P limitation. Lipid composition was, however, not affected by enhanced (750 vs. 370 µatm) pCO2. In the P-starved virally infected cells the increase in SQDG : PG and DGDG : PG ratios was lower, whereby the extent depended on the growth rate of the host cultures before infection. The lipid membrane of the virus MpV-08T itself lacked some IPLs (e.g., monogalactosyldiacylglycerols; MGDGs) in comparison with its host. This study demonstrates that, besides P concentration, also the P supply rate, viral infection and even the history of the P supply rate can affect phytoplankton lipid composition (i.e., the non-phospholipid : phospholipid ratio), with possible consequences for the nutritional quality of phytoplankton.

  10. Characterization of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Takahashi, Koji; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-06-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase generates an electrochemical gradient of H(+) across the plasma membrane that provides the driving force for solute transport and regulates pH homeostasis and membrane potential in plant cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in H(+)-ATPase and subsequent binding of a 14-3-3 protein is the major common activation mechanism for H(+)-ATPase in vascular plants. However, there is very little information on the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in nonvascular plant bryophytes. Here, we show that the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which is the most basal lineage of extant land plants, expresses both the penultimate threonine-containing H(+)-ATPase (pT H(+)-ATPase) and non-penultimate threonine-containing H(+)-ATPase (non-pT H(+)-ATPase) as in the green algae and that pT H(+)-ATPase is regulated by phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine. A search in the expressed sequence tag database of M. polymorpha revealed eight H(+)-ATPase genes, designated MpHA (for M. polymorpha H(+)-ATPase). Four isoforms are the pT H(+)-ATPase; the remaining isoforms are non-pT H(+)-ATPase. An apparent 95-kD protein was recognized by anti-H(+)-ATPase antibodies against an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) isoform and was phosphorylated on the penultimate threonine in response to the fungal toxin fusicoccin in thalli, indicating that the 95-kD protein contains pT H(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, we found that the pT H(+)-ATPase in thalli is phosphorylated in response to light, sucrose, and osmotic shock and that light-induced phosphorylation depends on photosynthesis. Our results define physiological signals for the regulation of pT H(+)-ATPase in the liverwort M. polymorpha, which is one of the earliest plants to acquire pT H(+)-ATPase.

  11. The epiphytic orchids Ionopsis utricularioides and Psygmorchis pusilla associate with different Ceratobasidium lineages at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Borges da Silva Valadares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Orchidaceae, association with symbiotic fungi is required for seed germination and seedling development, thereby being the main energy source during the first steps of germination. Colombia is one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity of orchids, with an estimated 3,200 species, but few studies on orchid mycorrhiza have been conducted. In our study, we isolated and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region of fungi from two co-occurring Colombian epiphytic orchids, I. utricularioides and P. pusilla, both belonging to the subtribe Oncidiinae. All sequences were recognized as belonging to the genus Ceratobasidium, known to be a common orchid mycorrhizal fungus in both tropical and temperate orchids. One sequence was 100% similar to fungi isolated from I. utricularioides in Costa Rica in a previous study. I. utricularioides was confirmed to be a specialist, associating with only one clade of mycorrhizal fungi. However, P. pusilla was shown to be a generalist, associating with three clades. This finding indicates that the variation in mycorrhizal specificity could be an important factor in the co-existence of orchids. The high affinity between the subtribe Oncidiinae and Ceratobasidium was also reinforced.

  12. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  13. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Dey, Amanda; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Tsipoura, Nellie

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  14. A novel experimental system using the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and its fungal endophytes reveals diverse and context-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessica M; Hauser, Duncan A; Hinson, Rosemary; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    Fungal symbioses are ubiquitous in plants, but their effects have mostly been studied in seed plants. This study aimed to assess the diversity of fungal endophyte effects in a bryophyte and identify factors contributing to the variability of outcomes in these interactions. Fungal endophyte cultures and axenic liverwort clones were isolated from wild populations of the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. These collections were combined in a gnotobiotic system to test the effects of fungal isolates on the growth rates of hosts under laboratory conditions. Under the experimental conditions, fungi isolated from M. polymorpha ranged from aggressively pathogenic to strongly growth-promoting, but the majority of isolates caused no detectable change in host growth. Growth promotion by selected fungi depended on nutrient concentrations and was inhibited by coinoculation with multiple fungi. The M. polymorpha endophyte system expands the resources for this model liverwort. The experiments presented here demonstrate a wealth of diversity in fungal interactions even in a host reported to lack standard mycorrhizal symbiosis. In addition, they show that some known pathogens of vascular plants live in M. polymorpha and can confer benefits to this nonvascular host. This highlights the importance of studying endophyte effects across the plant tree of life. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Stopover ecology of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at coastal deltas of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchwell, Roy T.

    Avian migration is one of the wonders of the natural world. Stored fats are the main source of nutrients and fuel for avian migration and it is assumed the fat deposition at stopover sites is a critical component of a successful migration. Stopover sites are crucial in the successful migration of many birds, but particularly for arctic-breeding shorebirds that migrate long distances from breeding to wintering grounds. Despite the importance of stopover sites, it is often difficult to determine the importance of these sites to migrating shorebirds. I investigated three aspects of stopover ecology of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) foraging at coastal deltas on the Beaufort Sea coast, Alaska. First, I quantified the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of the benthic macroinvertebrate community living within the mudflats. I found that there were two ecological groups of macroinvertebrates using river deltas, one originated in terrestrial freshwater habitats and most importantly could withstand freezing in delta sediments over the winter, and the other originated from the marine environment, could not withstand freezing and had to migrate to intertidal habitats each summer from deeper water areas that did not freeze over the winter. Stable isotope analysis allowed me to describe the origin of carbon consumed by invertebrates in intertidal habitats. I predicted freshwater invertebrates would consume terrestrial carbon, and marine invertebrates would consume marine carbon, but I found that both groups utilized the same carbon, which was a mixture of terrestrial and marine sources. My second research question determined the importance of delta foraging habitat for fall migrating Semipalmated Sandpipers. I mapped the temporal distribution and abundance of birds and quantified this relationship to invertebrate distribution and abundance. I researched fattening rates of shorebirds by measuring triglycerides in the blood of shorebirds I captured. I

  16. Molecular Phylogeny and Phylogeography of the Australian Freshwater Fish Genus Galaxiella, with an Emphasis on Dwarf Galaxias (G. pusilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmack, Peter J.; Bagley, Justin C.; Adams, Mark; Hammer, Michael P.; Johnson, Jerald B.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella) endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci). These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater species. PMID:22693638

  17. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltman, Peter H.; Guo, Jian; Reistetter, Emily Nahas; Purvine, Samuel; Ansong, Charles K.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Wong, Chee-Hong; Wei, Chia-Lin; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Mills, Ken

    2016-07-19

    Micromonas is a unicellular green alga that belongs to the prasinophytes, a sister lineage to land plants. This picoeukaryotic (<2 μm diameter) alga is widespread in the marine environment but still not understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine the mRNA and protein level changes that take place over the course of the day-night cycle using mid-exponential nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 grown and analyzed in biological triplicate. During the experiment, samples were collected at key transition points during the diel for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. We also sequenced matched mRNA samples from the same time points, using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels using both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including the codon usage and the length of the 3’ UTR. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel as relationships between the transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  18. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Waltman

    Full Text Available Micromonas is a unicellular motile alga within the Prasinophyceae, a green algal group that is related to land plants. This picoeukaryote (<2 μm diameter is widespread in the marine environment but is not well understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine shifts in mRNA and protein expression over the course of the day-night cycle using triplicated mid-exponential, nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545. Samples were collected at key transition points during the diel cycle for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. In conjunction, matched mRNA samples from the same time points were sequenced using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as we observed in the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels from both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including codon usage as well as 3' UTR length and structure. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel cycle as well as the relationships between transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  19. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on dwarf galaxias (G. pusilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Unmack

    Full Text Available The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci. These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater

  20. Range size heritability and diversification patterns in the liverwort genus Radula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Wang, Jian; Renner, Matt A M; Gradstein, S Robbert; Laenen, Benjamin; Devos, Nicolas; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Why some species exhibit larger geographical ranges than others, and to what extent does variation in range size affect diversification rates, remains a fundamental, but largely unanswered question in ecology and evolution. Here, we implement phylogenetic comparative analyses and ancestral area estimations in Radula, a liverwort genus of Cretaceous origin, to investigate the mechanisms that explain differences in geographical range size and diversification rates among lineages. Range size was phylogenetically constrained in the two sub-genera characterized by their almost complete Australasian and Neotropical endemicity, respectively. The congruence between the divergence time of these lineages and continental split suggests that plate tectonics could have played a major role in their present distribution, suggesting that a strong imprint of vicariance can still be found in extant distribution patterns in these highly mobile organisms. Amentuloradula, Volutoradula and Metaradula species did not appear to exhibit losses of dispersal capacities in terms of dispersal life-history traits, but evidence for significant phylogenetic signal in macroecological niche traits suggests that niche conservatism accounts for their restricted geographic ranges. Despite their greatly restricted distribution to Australasia and Neotropics respectively, Amentuloradula and Volutoradula did not exhibit significantly lower diversification rates than more widespread lineages, in contrast with the hypothesis that the probability of speciation increases with range size by promoting geographic isolation and increasing the rate at which novel habitats are encountered. We suggest that stochastic long-distance dispersal events may balance allele frequencies across large spatial scales, leading to low genetic structure among geographically distant areas or even continents, ultimately decreasing the diversification rates in highly mobile, widespread lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Retrospective bioindication of stratospheric ozone and ultraviolet radiation using hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of herbarium samples of an aquatic liverwort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, Saul [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Nunez-Olivera, Encarnacion, E-mail: encarnacion.nunez@unirioja.e [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Martinez-Abaigar, Javier; Tomas, Rafael [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Huttunen, Satu [Department of Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 Finland (Finland)

    2009-08-15

    We analyzed bulk UV absorbance of methanolic extracts and levels of five UV-absorbing compounds (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) in 135 herbarium samples of the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia from northern Europe. Samples had been collected in 1850-2006 (96% in June-August). Both UV absorbance and compound levels were correlated positively with collection year. p-Coumaroylmalic acid (C1) was the only compound showing a significant (and negative) correlation with stratospheric ozone and UV irradiance in the period that real data of these variables existed. Stratospheric ozone reconstruction (1850-2006) based on C1 showed higher values in June than in July and August, which coincides with the normal monthly variation of ozone. Combining all the data, there was no long-term temporal trend from 1850 to 2006. Reconstructed UV showed higher values in June-July than in August, but again no temporal trend was detected in 1918-2006 using the joint data. This agrees with previous UV reconstructions. - On the basis of the levels of p-coumaroylmalic acid in liverwort samples, reconstructions of both ozone and UV radiation showed no significant temporal trend in, respectively, 1850-2006 and 1918-2006.

  2. Abscisic acid induces biosynthesis of bisbibenzyls and tolerance to UV-C in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Akito; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2015-09-01

    Environmental stresses are effective triggers for the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites in plants, and phytohormones such as jasmonic acid and abscisic acid are known to mediate such responses in flowering plants. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the regulation of secondary metabolism in bryophytes remains unclear. In this study, the induction mechanism of secondary metabolites in the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha was investigated. Abscisic acid (ABA) and ultraviolet irradiation (UV-C) were found to induce the biosynthesis of isoriccardin C, marchantin C, and riccardin F, which are categorized as bisbibenzyls, characteristic metabolites of liverworts. UV-C led to the significant accumulation of ABA. Overexpression of MpABI1, which encodes protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) as a negative regulator of ABA signaling, suppressed accumulation of bisbibenzyls in response to ABA and UV-C irradiation and conferred susceptibility to UV-C irradiation. These data show that ABA plays a significant role in the induction of bisbibenzyl biosynthesis, which might confer tolerance against UV-C irradiation in M. polymorpha. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Retrospective bioindication of stratospheric ozone and ultraviolet radiation using hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of herbarium samples of an aquatic liverwort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, Saul; Nunez-Olivera, Encarnacion; Martinez-Abaigar, Javier; Tomas, Rafael; Huttunen, Satu

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed bulk UV absorbance of methanolic extracts and levels of five UV-absorbing compounds (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) in 135 herbarium samples of the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia from northern Europe. Samples had been collected in 1850-2006 (96% in June-August). Both UV absorbance and compound levels were correlated positively with collection year. p-Coumaroylmalic acid (C1) was the only compound showing a significant (and negative) correlation with stratospheric ozone and UV irradiance in the period that real data of these variables existed. Stratospheric ozone reconstruction (1850-2006) based on C1 showed higher values in June than in July and August, which coincides with the normal monthly variation of ozone. Combining all the data, there was no long-term temporal trend from 1850 to 2006. Reconstructed UV showed higher values in June-July than in August, but again no temporal trend was detected in 1918-2006 using the joint data. This agrees with previous UV reconstructions. - On the basis of the levels of p-coumaroylmalic acid in liverwort samples, reconstructions of both ozone and UV radiation showed no significant temporal trend in, respectively, 1850-2006 and 1918-2006.

  4. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Challenges the Records of the Extant Liverwort Ptilidium pulcherrimum in Eocene Baltic Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Lee, Gaik Ee; Váňa, Jiří; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Krings, Michael; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of liverworts in amber, a fossilized tree resin, is often exquisite. Twenty-three fossil species of liverworts have been described to date from Eocene (35-50 Ma) Baltic amber. In addition, two inclusions have been assigned to the extant species Ptilidium pulcherrimum (Ptilidiales or Porellales). However, the presence of the boreal P. pulcherrimum in the subtropical or warm-temperate Baltic amber forest challenges the phytogeographical interpretation of the Eocene flora. A re-investigation of one of the fossils believed to be P. pulcherrimum reveals that this specimen in fact represents the first fossil evidence of the genus Tetralophozia, and thus is re-described here as Tetralophozia groehnii sp. nov. A second fossil initially assigned to P. pulcherrimum is apparently lost, and can be reassessed only based on the original description and illustrations. This fossil is morphologically similar to the extant North Pacific endemic Ptilidium californicum, rather than P. pulcherrimum. Divergence time estimates based on chloroplast DNA sequences provide evidence of a Miocene origin of P. pulcherrimum, and thus also argue against the presence of this taxon in the Eocene. Ptilidium californicum originated 25-43 Ma ago. As a result, we cannot rule out that the Eocene fossil belongs to P. californicum. Alternatively, the fossil might represent a stem lineage element of Ptilidium or an early crown group species with morphological similarities to P. californicum.

  5. AgarTrap: a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for sporelings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha.

  6. Moss and liverwort xyloglucans contain galacturonic acid and are structurally distinct from the xyloglucans synthesized by hornworts and vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Maria J; Darvill, Alan G; Eberhard, Stefan; York, William S; O'Neill, Malcolm A

    2008-11-01

    Xyloglucan is a well-characterized hemicellulosic polysaccharide that is present in the cell walls of all seed-bearing plants. The cell walls of avascular and seedless vascular plants are also believed to contain xyloglucan. However, these xyloglucans have not been structurally characterized. This lack of information is an impediment to understanding changes in xyloglucan structure that occurred during land plant evolution. In this study, xyloglucans were isolated from the walls of avascular (liverworts, mosses, and hornworts) and seedless vascular plants (club and spike mosses and ferns and fern allies). Each xyloglucan was fragmented with a xyloglucan-specific endo-glucanase and the resulting oligosaccharides then structurally characterized using NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF and electrospray mass spectrometry, and glycosyl-linkage and glycosyl residue composition analyses. Our data show that xyloglucan is present in the cell walls of all major divisions of land plants and that these xyloglucans have several common structural motifs. However, these polysaccharides are not identical because specific plant groups synthesize xyloglucans with unique structural motifs. For example, the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha synthesize XXGGG- and XXGG-type xyloglucans, respectively, with sidechains that contain a beta-D-galactosyluronic acid and a branched xylosyl residue. By contrast, hornworts synthesize XXXG-type xyloglucans that are structurally homologous to the xyloglucans synthesized by many seed-bearing and seedless vascular plants. Our results increase our understanding of the evolution, diversity, and function of structural motifs in land-plant xyloglucans and provide support to the proposal that hornworts are sisters to the vascular plants.

  7. Evolution of a pseudogene: exclusive survival of a functional mitochondrial nad7 gene supports Haplomitrium as the earliest liverwort lineage and proposes a secondary loss of RNA editing in Marchantiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth-Malonek, Milena; Wahrmund, Ute; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker

    2007-04-01

    Gene transfer from the mitochondrion into the nucleus is a corollary of the endosymbiont hypothesis. The frequent and independent transfer of genes for mitochondrial ribosomal proteins is well documented with many examples in angiosperms, whereas transfer of genes for components of the respiratory chain is a rarity. A notable exception is the nad7 gene, encoding subunit 7 of complex I, in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which resides as a full-length, intron-carrying and transcribed, but nonspliced pseudogene in the chondriome, whereas its functional counterpart is nuclear encoded. To elucidate the patterns of pseudogene degeneration, we have investigated the mitochondrial nad7 locus in 12 other liverworts of broad phylogenetic distribution. We find that the mitochondrial nad7 gene is nonfunctional in 11 of them. However, the modes of pseudogene degeneration vary: whereas point mutations, accompanied by single-nucleotide indels, predominantly introduce stop codons into the reading frame in marchantiid liverworts, larger indels introduce frameshifts in the simple thalloid and leafy jungermanniid taxa. Most notably, however, the mitochondrial nad7 reading frame appears to be intact in the isolated liverwort genus Haplomitrium. Its functional expression is shown by cDNA analysis identifying typical RNA-editing events to reconstitute conserved codon identities and also confirming functional splicing of the 2 liverwort-specific group II introns. We interpret our results 1) to indicate the presence of a functional mitochondrial nad7 gene in the earliest land plants and strongly supporting a basal placement of Haplomitrium among the liverworts, 2) to indicate different modes of pseudogene degeneration and chondriome evolution in the later branching liverwort clades, 3) to suggest a surprisingly long maintenance of a nonfunctional gene in the presumed oldest group of land plants, and 4) to support the model of a secondary loss of RNA-editing activity in marchantiid

  8. Site Safety and Food Affect Movements of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla Migrating Through the Upper Bay of Fundy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J. Sprague

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The upper Bay of Fundy is a critical stopover site for Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla during their fall migration. However, little is known about factors that influence selection of feeding and roosting sites by these birds, or the extent to which birds move between different sites during their time in the region. Using radio-telemetry, we studied movement patterns, examined habitat use, and tested hypotheses associated with factors influencing foraging and roost-site selection. Movements of radio-tagged sandpipers were tracked in the upper Bay of Fundy in August 2004 and 2005. In 2004, sandpipers from the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia and Chignecto Bay, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, were tracked, and in 2005, sandpipers were tracked only in Chignecto Bay. Sandpipers were highly mobile in both the Minas Basin 2004 and Chignecto Bay 2005, making daily movements of up to 20 km between foraging and roosting sites, although very little movement was detected in Chignecto Bay in 2004. Migrating sandpipers appeared to select foraging sites based on relative safety, as measured by distance to cover, provided that these sites offered an adequate food supply. Similarly, roosting sandpipers preferred sites that were far from nearby trees that might offer cover to predators. This preference for safe sites became more apparent later in their stay in the Bay of Fundy, when birds were heavier and, therefore, possibly more vulnerable to predation. Semipalmated Sandpipers appear to be flexible during their time in the upper Bay of Fundy, displaying year-to-year and site-to-site variability in movement and mudflat usage. Therefore, multiple, synchronized population counts should be conducted at known roost sites in order to more accurately estimate Semipalmated Sandpiper abundance in this region. Furthermore, in a highly dynamic system where food can be variable, landscape features such as distance to cover may be important factors to consider when

  9. Retrospective bioindication of stratospheric ozone and ultraviolet radiation using hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of herbarium samples of an aquatic liverwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Saúl; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Tomás, Rafael; Huttunen, Satu

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed bulk UV absorbance of methanolic extracts and levels of five UV-absorbing compounds (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) in 135 herbarium samples of the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia from northern Europe. Samples had been collected in 1850-2006 (96% in June-August). Both UV absorbance and compound levels were correlated positively with collection year. p-Coumaroylmalic acid (C1) was the only compound showing a significant (and negative) correlation with stratospheric ozone and UV irradiance in the period that real data of these variables existed. Stratospheric ozone reconstruction (1850-2006) based on C1 showed higher values in June than in July and August, which coincides with the normal monthly variation of ozone. Combining all the data, there was no long-term temporal trend from 1850 to 2006. Reconstructed UV showed higher values in June-July than in August, but again no temporal trend was detected in 1918-2006 using the joint data. This agrees with previous UV reconstructions.

  10. Deciphering the Evolution and Development of the Cuticle by Studying Lipid Transfer Proteins in Mosses and Liverworts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina A. Salminen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants conquered land, they developed specialized organs, tissues, and cells in order to survive in this new and harsh terrestrial environment. New cell polymers such as the hydrophobic lipid-based polyesters cutin, suberin, and sporopollenin were also developed for protection against water loss, radiation, and other potentially harmful abiotic factors. Cutin and waxes are the main components of the cuticle, which is the waterproof layer covering the epidermis of many aerial organs of land plants. Although the in vivo functions of the group of lipid binding proteins known as lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are still rather unclear, there is accumulating evidence suggesting a role for LTPs in the transfer and deposition of monomers required for cuticle assembly. In this review, we first present an overview of the data connecting LTPs with cuticle synthesis. Furthermore, we propose liverworts and mosses as attractive model systems for revealing the specific function and activity of LTPs in the biosynthesis and evolution of the plant cuticle.

  11. Methylobacterium marchantiae sp. nov., a pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium isolated from the thallus of a liverwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, S; Kämpfer, P; Wellner, S; Spröer, C; Kutschera, U

    2011-04-01

    A pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, designated strain JT1(T), was isolated from a thallus of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. and was analysed by using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the strain in a clade with Methylobacterium adhaesivum AR27(T), Methylobacterium fujisawaense DSM 5686(T), Methylobacterium radiotolerans JCM 2831(T) and Methylobacterium jeotgali S2R03-9(T), with which it showed sequence similarities of 97.8, 97.7, 97.2 and 97.4 %, respectively. However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JT1(T) and these and the type strains of other closely related species were lower than 70 %. Cells of JT1(T) stained Gram-negative and were motile, rod-shaped and characterized by numerous fimbriae-like appendages on the outer surface of their wall (density up to 200 µm(-2)). Major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c and C(16 : 0). Based on the morphological, physiological and biochemical data presented, strain JT1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, for which the name Methylobacterium marchantiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JT1(T) ( = DSM 21328(T)  = CCUG 56108(T)).

  12. Ciprofloxacin vs. temperature: Antibiotic toxicity in the free-floating liverwort Ricciocarpus natans from a climate change perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; de Brito, Júlio César Moreira; Bicalho, Elisa Monteze; Silva, Janaína Guernica; de Fátima Gomides, Maria; Garcia, Queila Souza; Figueredo, Cleber Cunha

    2018-07-01

    The physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Ricciocarpus natans to ciprofloxacin (Cipro) exposure under different growth temperatures were investigated. Cipro appears to act as an inhibitor of mitochondrial Complex III by blocking the oxidation of quinol, resulting in the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). H 2 O 2 accumulation upon Cipro exposure is responsible for decreased photosynthesis in plants. The amount of H 2 O 2 in plants is kept under control by antioxidant enzymes, whose activities are central to the responses of plants to Cipro yet are influenced by temperature. Increased temperature favored Cipro uptake by plants as well as its deleterious effects on mitochondrial activity; however, it also favored the activity of antioxidant enzymes, thereby preventing the exacerbation of the deleterious effects of Cipro. The uptake of Cipro by plants appears to be largely a passive process, although some uptake must be driven by an energy-consuming process. Ricciocarpus natans should be considered for programs aimed at the reclamation of Cipro since this plant exhibits high Cipro-tolerance, the capacity for accumulation and increased uptake rates of the antibiotic with increasing temperatures (from 20 to 30 °C). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Agra, arboreal beetles of Neotropical forests: pusilla group and piranha group systematics and notes on their ways of life (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini, Agrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Revisions of two new species groups of the genus Agra Fabricius are presented with the following species described as new: pusilla group - Agra cruciaria sp. n. (Brazil, Agra grace sp. n. (Ecuador, Perú, Agra max sp. n. (Brazil, Agra minasianus sp. n. (Brazil, Agra notpusilla sp. n. (Brazil, Agra pseudopusilla sp. n. (Brazil; piranha group - Agra ce sp. n. (Perú, Agra risseri sp. n. (Bolivia, Brazil, Agra maia sp. n. (Bolivia, Agra piranha sp. n. (Ecuador; Agra tiputini sp. n. (Ecuador. Species of these two groups have adults that are the smallest in the entire genus, although this does not indicate they are closely related based on other attributes. All species are Amazonian in distribution.

  14. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: A case study in the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured F v /F m , DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of F v /F m and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte-based UV

  15. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: A case study in the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier, E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-06-15

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured F{sub v}/F{sub m}, DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of F{sub v}/F{sub m} and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte

  16. Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical constituents of liverwort (Porella cordaeana extracts have been identified using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS. The methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were rich in terpenoids such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (53.12%, 51.68%, 23.16%, and monoterpene hydrocarbons (22.83%, 18.90%, 23.36%, respectively. The dominant compounds in the extracts were β-phellandrene (15.54%, 13.66%, 12.10% and β-caryophyllene (10.72%, 8.29%, 7.79%, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against eleven food microorganisms using the microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC varied from 0.50 to 2.00 mg/mL for yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 635, Zygosacharomyces bailii 45, Aerobasidium pullulans L6F, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 71, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 70, Pichia anomala CBS 5759, Pichia anomala DBVPG 3003 and Yarrowia lipolytica RO13, and from 1.00 to 3.00 mg/mL for bacterial strains (Salmonella enteritidis 155, Escherichia coli 555 and Listeria monocytogenes 56Ly. Methanol extract showed better activity in comparison with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. High percentages of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons could be responsible for the better antimicrobial activity.

  17. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Cobalt, Arsenic and Selenium in the Blood of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla from Suriname, South America: Age-related Differences in Wintering Site and Comparisons with a Stopover Site in New Jersey, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand contaminant exposure and to compare levels of contaminants in organisms at different ages to determine if there is bioaccumulation, and to compare levels encountered in different geographical areas. In this paper, we report levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt, arsenic and selenium in the blood of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla wintering in Suriname as a function of age, and compare them to blood levels in northbound migrants at a stopover in Delaware Bay, New Jersey. We found (1 young birds had higher levels of cadmium, cobalt, and lead than adults (after second year birds; (2 there were no age-related differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium; (3 only four of the possible 16 inter-metal correlations were significant, at the 0.05 level; (4 the highest correlation was between cadmium and lead (Kendall tau = 0.37; and (5 the adult sandpipers had significantly higher levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium in Suriname than in New Jersey, while the New Jersey birds had significantly higher levels of arsenic. Suriname samples were obtained in April, after both age classes had spent the winter in Suriname, which suggests that sandpipers are accumulating higher levels of trace elements in Suriname than in Delaware Bay. The levels of selenium may be within a range of concern for adverse effects, but little is known about adverse effect levels of trace elements in the blood of wild birds.

  18. Two pectin lyase genes, pnl-1 and pnl-2, from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae differ in a cellulose-binding domain and in their expression during infection of Malva pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yangdou; Shih, Jenny; Li, Jieran; Goodwin, Paul H

    2002-07-01

    Two pectin lyase genes, designated pnl-1 and pnl-2, were cloned from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae, a pathogen of round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla). pnl-1 was isolated using cDNA from infected plant material; pnl-2 was isolated using cDNA from 3-day-old mycelia grown in mallow-cell-wall extract (MCWE) broth. pnl-1 is the first pectinase gene described thus far to encode a cellulose-binding domain (CBD), which is common in cellulases and xylanases, whereas pnl-2 encodes a pectin lyase that lacks a CBD. In pure culture, pnl-1 expression could be detected when purified pectin or glucose was the sole carbon source, but not when MCWE was the sole carbon source. The lack of pnl-1 expression appeared to be due to gene repression by some unknown factor(s) in the cell-wall extract. In contrast, expression of pnl-2 was detected in cultures when MCWE, but not when purified pectin or glucose, was the sole carbon source. In infected tissue, detection of pnl-1 expression by Northern-blot hybridization and by RT-PCR began with the onset of the necrotrophic phase of infection. Expression ofpnl-2 was not detectable by Northern-blot hybridization, but was observed byRT-PCR in both the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The differences between pnl-1 and pnl-2 (i.e. pnl-1 encoding a CBD and differences in the expression patterns of both genes) may be related to the requirements of C. gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae to be able to grow in host tissue under the different conditions present during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection.

  19. Nostopeptolide plays a governing role during cellular differentiation of the symbiotic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaimer, Anton; Helfrich, Eric J N; Hinrichs, Katrin; Guljamow, Arthur; Ishida, Keishi; Hertweck, Christian; Dittmann, Elke

    2015-02-10

    Nostoc punctiforme is a versatile cyanobacterium that can live either independently or in symbiosis with plants from distinct taxa. Chemical cues from plants and N. punctiforme were shown to stimulate or repress, respectively, the differentiation of infectious motile filaments known as hormogonia. We have used a polyketide synthase mutant that accumulates an elevated amount of hormogonia as a tool to understand the effect of secondary metabolites on cellular differentiation of N. punctiforme. Applying MALDI imaging to illustrate the reprogramming of the secondary metabolome, nostopeptolides were identified as the predominant difference in the pks2(-) mutant secretome. Subsequent differentiation assays and visualization of cell-type-specific expression of nostopeptolides via a transcriptional reporter strain provided evidence for a multifaceted role of nostopeptolides, either as an autogenic hormogonium-repressing factor or as a chemoattractant, depending on its extracellular concentration. Although nostopeptolide is constitutively expressed in the free-living state, secreted levels dynamically change before, during, and after the hormogonium differentiation phase. The metabolite was found to be strictly down-regulated in symbiosis with Gunnera manicata and Blasia pusilla, whereas other metabolites are up-regulated, as demonstrated via MALDI imaging, suggesting plants modulate the fine-balanced cross-talk network of secondary metabolites within N. punctiforme.

  20. Salicornia pusilla Woods (Eenbloemige zeekraal) na 25 jaar weer aangetroffen in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorsel, van René C.M.J.; Janssen, John A.M.; Zonderland, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Terschelling. Het areaal van deze soort is beperkt tot Noordwest-Europa (Ierland, Groot-Brittanië, Nederland, België en Noordwest-Frankrijk). In dit artikel worden eerdere vondsten van deze soort kort gememoreerd. De verschillen met de twee andere Nederlandse Zeekraal-soorten worden besproken,

  1. Sex differences and plasticity in dehydration tolerance: insight from a tropical liverwort

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, Rose A.; Burton, James F.; McLetchie, D. Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Adaptations allowing plants to cope with drying are particularly relevant in the light of predicted climate change. Dehydration tolerance (DhT, also dehydration-tolerant) is one such adaptation enabling tissue to survive substantial drying. A great deal of work has been conducted on highly DhT species. However, bryophytes showing less intense and variable DhT are understudied, despite the potential for these species to provide an informative link between highly tolerant an...

  2. Parboiled rice hull mulch in containers reduces liverwort and bittercress growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of preemergence herbicides for weed control is not always possible; some crops and many enclosed production sites are not labeled for herbicide applications. The objective of this research was to determine the utility of parboiled rice hull mulch for controlling two of the most common weeds in ...

  3. Diversity and habitat differentiation of mosses and liverworts in the cloud forest of. Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradstein S. Rob

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the understory and canopy of 4 ha oflower montane cloud forest at Monteverde, Costa Rica, yielded 190 bryophyte species: 133 hepatics, 56 mosses and 1 homwort. Thick branches of the lower canopy were by far the richest habitat in terms of number of species (99, trunks from 1m upwards had 65 species, lianas, shrubs, saplings, or living leaves in the understory had about 36-46 species each, and 16 species were found on rotten logs. The figures are illustrative of the great diversification of microhabitats of bryophytes in a tropical montane cloud forest. About 36% ofthe species, including more than half ofthe corticolous ones, occurred exclusively in the canopy. It appeared thatthe percentage ofbryophyte species restricted to the canopy may be the same in lowland and montane rain forests, in spite of the great differences in species abundance and composition in the two kinds of forest.  Ciento noventa especies de briofitas (133 hepáticas, 56 musgos, 1 antocerote fueron encontradas en un inventario hecho en 4 hectáreas del sotobosque y el dosel en el bosque nublado (1500 m de Monteverde, Costa Rica. Las ramas gruesas del dosel fueron la porción más rica en termino de numero de especies (99, en troncos había 65 especies, lianas, arbustos, árboles juveniles o hojas vivas en el sotobosque tenían entre 36-46 especies cada una, y 16 especies fueron encontradas en troncos en descomposición. Las cifras ilustran la gran diversidad de microhabitats de briofitas en el bosque nublado. Cerca de 36% de las especies, incluyendo mas de la mitad de los corticolos, se presentaron exclusivamente en el dosel. Parece que el porcentaje de especies de briofitas restringidas al dosel podría ser el mismo en bosques de tierras bajas y en bosques nublados, a pesar de la gran diferencia en abundancia y composición taxonómica de las briofitas en las dos clases de bosque.

  4. Antimicrobial Potential and Chemical Characterization of Serbian Liverwort (Porella arboris-vitae: SEM and TEM Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Porella arboris-vitae extracts was determined by solid phase microextraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS, and 66 constituents were identified. The dominant compounds in methanol extract of P. arboris-vitae were β-caryophyllene (14.7%, α-gurjunene (10.9%, α-selinene (10.8%, β-elemene (5.6%, γ-muurolene (4.6%, and allo-aromadendrene (4.3% and in ethanol extract, β-caryophyllene (11.8%, α-selinene (9.6%, α-gurjunene (9.4%, isopentyl alcohol (8.8%, 2-hexanol (3.7%, β-elemene (3.7%, allo-aromadendrene (3.7%, and γ-muurolene (3.3% were the major components. In ethyl acetate extract of P. arboris-vitae, undecane (11.3%, β-caryophyllene (8.4%, dodecane (6.4%, α-gurjunene (6%, 2-methyldecane (5.1%, hemimellitene (4.9%, and D-limonene (3.9% were major components. The antimicrobial activity of different P. arboris-vitae extracts was evaluated against selected food spoilage microorganisms using microbroth dilution method. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC varied from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/mL and 1.25 to 2 mg/mL for yeast and bacterial strains, respectively. Significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations due to the effect of methanolic and ethanolic P. arboris-vitae extracts on S. Enteritidis have also been observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results provide the evidence of antimicrobial potential of P. arboris-vitae extracts and suggest its potential as natural antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  5. Marchantin A, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl ether, isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, inhibits protozoal growth in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sophie; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Bwalya, Angela Gono

    2012-01-01

    recombinant enzymes (PfFabI, PfFabG and PfFabZ) of the PfFAS-II pathway of P. falciparum for malaria prophylactic potential and showed moderate inhibitory activity against PfFabZ (IC(50)=18.18µM). In addition the cytotoxic effect of marchantin A was evaluated. This is the first report describing...

  6. Phytochemical Constituents, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties of a Liverwort, Lepidozia borneensis Stephani from Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of 80% methanol extract of Lepidozia borneensis. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were analysed using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH assays while the effects of L. borneensis on the proliferation of MCF-7 cell line were evaluated by using MTT assay. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 12.42 ± 0.47 mg GAE/g and 9.36 ± 1.29 mg CE/g, respectively. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 35 compounds. The extract was found to induce cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line with IC50 value of 47.33 ± 7.37 µg/mL. Cell cycle analysis showed that the extract induced significant arrest at G0/G1 at 24 hours of treatment. After 72 hours of treatment, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 and G2-M phases had decreased significantly as compared to their control. Apoptosis occurred during the first 24 hours and significantly increased to 30.8% after 72 hours of treatment. No activation of caspase 3 was observed. These findings suggest that L. borneensis extract has the potential as natural antioxidant and anticancer agents.

  7. Inhibition of intestinal adenoma formation in APC(Min/+ mice by Riccardin D, a natural product derived from liverwort plant Dumortiera hirsuta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutation of tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC, is the primary molecular event in the development of most intestinal carcinomas. Animal model with APC gene mutation is an effective tool for study of preventive approaches against intestinal carcinomas. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Riccardin D, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound, as a chemopreventive agent against intestinal adenoma formation in APC(Min/+ mice. METHODS: APC(Min/+ mice were given Riccardin D by p.o. gavage for 7 weeks. Mice were sacrificed, and the number, size and histopathology of intestinal polyps were examined under a microscope. We performed immunohistochemical staining, western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in intestinal polyps to investigate the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of Riccardin D. RESULTS: Riccardin D treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of intestinal adenoma formation, showing a reduction of polyp number by 41.7%, 31.1% and 44.4%, respectively, in proximal, middle and distal portions of small intestine. The activity of Riccardin D against polyp formation was more profound in colon, wherein Riccardin D decreased polyp number by 79.3%. Size distribution analysis revealed a significant reduction in large-size polyps (2-3 mm by 40.0%, 42.5% and 33.3%, respectively, in proximal, middle and distal portions of small intestine, and 77.8% in colon. Histopathological analysis of the intestinal polyps revealed mostly hyperplastic morphology without obvious dysplasia in Riccardin D-treated mice. Molecular analyses of the polyps suggested that the inhibitory effect of Riccardin D on intestinal adenoma formation was associated with its abilities of reduction in cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antiangiogenesis, inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and suppression of inflammatory mediators in polyps. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that Riccardin D exerts its chemopreventive effect against intestinal adenoma formation through multiple mechanisms including anti-proliferative, apoptotic, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Novas ocorrências de hepáticas (Marchantiophyta para o estado da Bahia, Brasil New records of liverworts (Marchantiophyta from Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Na Serra da Jibóia, foram registradas 13 espécies de novas ocorrências, sendo oito para a região Nordeste: Bazzania aurescens Spruce, Calypogeia peruviana Nees & Mont., Cephalozia crassifolia (Lindenb. & Gottsche Fulford, Lepidozia cupressina (Sw. Lindenb., Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook. S.F. Gray, Plagiochilla diversifolia Lindenb. & Gottsche, Radula kegelli Gottsche ex Steph. e Riccardia fucoidea (Sw. Schiffin., e cinco espécies referidas pela primeira vez para o Estado: Metzgeria albinea Spruce, Plagiochila gymnocalycina (Lehm. & Lindenb. Mont., P. simplex (Sw. Lindenb., Riccardia amazonica (Spruce S.W. Arnell e Symphyogyna aspera Steph. Para cada espécie são fornecidos comentários taxonômicos, ecológicos e distribuição geográfica mundial e no Brasil, além de indicação de literatura contendo descrição e ilustração. Foram realizadas ilustrações para algumas espécies.In Serra da Jibóia were recorded 13 species of new ocurrence wich are eight species from region Northeastern: Bazzania aurescens Spruce, Calypogeia peruviana Nees & Mont., Cephalozia crassifolia (Lindenb. & Gottsche Fulford, Lepidozia cupressina (Sw. Lindenb., Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook. S.F. Gray, Plagiochilla diversifolia Lindenb. & Gottsche, Radula kegelli Gottsche ex Steph. and Riccardia fucoidea (Sw. Schiffin., and five are recorded for the first time from Bahia, State: Metzgeria albinea Spruce, Plagiochila gymnocalycina (Lehm. & Lindenb. Mont., P. simplex (Sw. Lindenb., Riccardia amazonica (Spruce S.W. Arnell and Symphyogyna aspera Steph. from Bahia, State. For each specie are provided taxonomics and ecological comments, geographical general and in Brazil distribution, and indication of literature with description and ilustration. Some species were ilustrated.

  9. Studies in the liverwort genus Fossombronia (Metzgeriales from southern Africa. 6. New species from Lesotho, Swaziland and Mpumalanga and new records from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Perold

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Fossombronia are described: F. angulifolia Perold from Lesotho and F. swaziensis Perold from Swaziland and Mpumalanga. F. angulifolia is characterised by erect or semi-erect, 2-4-lobed, angular leaves, by mostly incompletely reticulate spores and by rather short elaters  F.  swaziensis can be recognised by large, rounded or sometimes shallowly notched leaves, which are rather stiff and bi- to multistratose basally, by quite large perigonial bracts in the male plants and by spores which have irregular areolae containing tubercular inclusions

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 203761 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 017 ... 38832:3226 ... 38833:3539 ... 564608:3539 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MHPPLTLENHPLCKDVVIALKRCHRDNPWARAWGACNEQKWALDDCLKKQKLFKFRANHAKAKAQQDRLRRRVEKYGHATTNGQFKG

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 746637 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 218 ... 38832:274 ... 38833:414 ... 564608:414 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MAQLPSYEVDDGEDSMPGAPGEGPMTDSMQGPPVEVPTSDSM...PGAPGEVPTMDSMHGPPVEVPTMDSMHGAPVEVPMMDSMPGAPVEVPTMDSMQGPPVEVPTMDSMQGAPGEGPMTDSMHGAPGEGPTMDSMNSGNPTKCVVPDWCSTYPPEMQKSKPECQCPDDSHP

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 780231 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 401 ... 38832:1362 ... 38833:877 ... 564608:877 predicted protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MQDSMHDTMHDSIQDSMHDSIQDSMQDSM...AKEEEEPAEPPAKEEEAHAEPPAKEEEAHAEPPAKEEDYAEPPAKEEDYAEPPAKEEAHSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMHSMDSMDSMDSMDSMHSMDSMDSMDSM...DSMHSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMDSMHSMDTSIDAVDAAANVTDAADTAGAAANVTDAADTAGAAAEEKPPENASVDSLDSLLDG

  13. gene from soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... 2Plant Biotechnology Institute, National Research Council, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0W9, Canada. .... pusilla. RNA extraction, first-strand cDNA synthesis and quantitative .... expression in the other four chosen tissues, root, stem,.

  14. Non-Indigenous Marine Species (NIMS) in Biofouling on RAN Vessels: Threat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Gulf of Mexico, and its range extends from the Caribbean to Brazil and Hawaii. It was first recorded in Australia on the German barque “Gorch Flock” in...4.2.2.10 Paracaprella pusilla (caprellid) P. pusilla is a tropical species native to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and now common along the Atlantic coast...is found predominately in mangrove areas common to this region. This species was identified on HMAS Wewak (May 2004) on its return to HMAS Cairns

  15. Botanical species lists for Moor House National Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Rawes, M.

    1981-01-01

    This Occasional Paper brings together published work, Reserve Records and field information on flowering plants, ferns, mosses, liverworts, lichens, fungi and algae. It is an update of the 1978 version.

  16. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  17. A comparison of alpha and beta diversity patterns of ferns, bryophytes and macrolichens in tropical montane forests of southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Mandl, N A; Lehnert, M; Kessler, M; Gradstein, S R

    2010-01-01

    We present a first comparison of patterns of alpha and beta diversity of ferns, mosses, liverworts and macrolichens in neotropical montane rainforests, and explore the question whether specific taxa may be used as surrogates for others. In three localities in southern Ecuador, we surveyed terrestrial and epiphytic species assemblages in ridge and slope forests in 28 plots of 400 m² each. The epiphytic habitat was significantly richer in ferns, liverworts, and macrolichens than the terrestrial...

  18. Phytohormone Profiling across the Bryophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Záveská Drábková

    Full Text Available Bryophytes represent a very diverse group of non-vascular plants such as mosses, liverworts and hornworts and the oldest extant lineage of land plants. Determination of endogenous phytohormone profiles in bryophytes can provide substantial information about early land plant evolution. In this study, we screened thirty bryophyte species including six liverworts and twenty-four mosses for their phytohormone profiles in order to relate the hormonome with phylogeny in the plant kingdom.Samples belonging to nine orders (Pelliales, Jungermanniales, Porellales, Sphagnales, Tetraphidales, Polytrichales, Dicranales, Bryales, Hypnales were collected in Central and Northern Bohemia. The phytohormone content was analysed with a high performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.As revealed for growth hormones, some common traits such as weak conjugation of both cytokinins and auxins, intensive production of cisZ-type cytokinins and strong oxidative degradation of auxins with abundance of a major primary catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid were pronounced in all bryophytes. Whereas apparent dissimilarities in growth hormones profiles between liverworts and mosses were evident, no obvious trends in stress hormone levels (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid were found with respect to the phylogeny.The apparent differences in conjugation and/or degradation strategies of growth hormones between liverworts and mosses might potentially show a hidden link between vascular plants and liverworts. On the other hand, the complement of stress hormones in bryophytes probably correlate rather with prevailing environmental conditions and plant survival strategy than with plant evolution.

  19. New and interesting marine and littoral diatoms from sea point, near Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Steenbras, South Western Cape and mentions that the species had not until then been re corded from South African waters. ? 591, 592. C. serpentina var. pusilla (GREvILLE) PERAGALLO. ? Small individuals of this variety, sometimes less than the 25?SO... ~ given for length (1-lusTaD 1. C.: 50) are easily overlooked when both C. serpentina var. pusilla and C. an,gu/osa are present in a sample. They can only be distin guished by counting the striae viz. 14?20 in 10 it for C. angulosa and 22?25 in 10...

  20. Activity-guided isolation of cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl constituents from Dumortiera hirsuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masao; Ikeda, Risa; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the ether extract of Dumortiera hirsute (Japanese liverwort), using cytotoxicity testing with cultured HL 60 and KB cells, resulted in the isolation of a new cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl compound, along with the two known bis-bibenzyls: isomarchantin C and isoriccardin C. The structural determination of the new bis-bibenzyl through extensive NMR spectral data indicated a derivative of marchantin A, which has been isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The cytotoxicity of the bis-bibenzyls was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using cultured HL 60 and KB cells.

  1. Site occupancy of brown-headed nuthatches varies with habitat restoration and range-limit context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Stanton; Frank R. Thompson; Dylan C. Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about species’ responses to habitat restoration can inform subsequent management and reintroduction planning. We used repeated call-response surveys to study brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) patch occupancy at the current limits of its apparently expanding range in an area with active habitat restoration. We fit a probit occupancy...

  2. Resource configuration and abundance affect space use of a cooperatively breeding resident bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Stanton; Dylan C. Kesler; Frank R. Thompson III

    2014-01-01

    Movement and space use of birds is driven by activities associated with acquiring and maintaining access to critical resources. Thus, the spatial configuration of resources within home ranges should influence bird movements, and resource values should be relative to their locations. We radio-tracked 22 Brown-headed Nuthatches (Sitta pusilla) and...

  3. Cost of Parasitism Incurred by Two Songbird Species and Their Quality As Cowbird Hosts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk Burhans; Frank R. Thompson III

    2000-01-01

    We measured the costs of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism incurred by Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea). We predicted that the frequent occurrence of nest desertion as a response to cowbird parasitism in Field Sparrows would be reflected by a higher cost of...

  4. Análisis filogénetico del género Pseudopaludicola (Anura: Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones filogenéticas entre las especies del género Pseudopaludicola son analizadas en base a caracteres externos y osteológicos. Se estudiaron once especies de Physalaemus las que fueron empleadas como grupo externo en análisis donde se trataron ambos géneros en conjunto. Se hicieron corridas enraizando alternativamente en las distintas especies de Physalaemus y sumando además a Leplodactylus en la matriz verificándose la monofilia del género Pseudopaludicola. Como resultado de este análisis se obtuvieron tres topologias de relaciones entre las especies del género, siendo el consenso estricto: (ternelsi mineira (sallica falcipes(myslacalis (pusilla (boliviana (ceralophyes /lanera. En este trabajo se apoya la monofilia del grupo pusilla proponiéndose una hipótesis distinta de relaciones entre sus integrantes a la propuesta por Lynch (1989. Phylogenetics relationships between ftogs of the leptodactylid genus Pseudopaludicola are analyzed using both osteological and external characters. Some species of Physalaemus (eleven are included in the analysis with Pseudopaludicola. Rooting with Leptodactylus or with any species of Physalaemus the monophyly ofthe genus is maintained. Three different trees for Pseudopaludicola were obtained, their strict consensus is: (temetzi mineira (saltica falcipes (mystacalis (pusilla (boliviana (ceratophyes /lanera. According to Lynch (1989 the pusilla group is monophyletic, but the internal arrangement among its species is different in this analysis.

  5. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  6. Density-dependent mass gain by Wilson's Warblers during stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    The need restore energetic reserves at stopover sites constrains avian migration ecology. To describe that constraint, we examined relationships among mass gained by Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) during stopover, abundance of Wilson's Warblers (i.e. capture rate), and arthropod abundance during autumn migration. We found that amount...

  7. Do staging semipalmated sandpipers spend the high-tide period in flight over the Ocean to Avoid Falcon Attacks along Shore?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, D.; Dekker, I.; Christie, D.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of aerial predators and migrant Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) was studied at Mary's Point in the upper Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, during August of 2009 and 2010. Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) were locally reintroduced and increased from one active nest

  8. Microglia and neurons in the hippocampus of migratory sandpipers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla and the spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia are long- and short-distance migrants, respectively. C. pusilla breeds in the sub-arctic and mid-arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the north and east coasts of South America. A. macularia breeds in a broad distribution across most of North America from the treeline to the southern United States. It winters in the southern United States, and Central and South America. The autumn migration route of C. pusilla includes a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean, whereas autumn route of A. macularia is largely over land. Because of this difference in their migratory paths and the visuo-spatial recognition tasks involved, we hypothesized that hippocampal volume and neuronal and glial numbers would differ between these two species. A. macularia did not differ from C. pusilla in the total number of hippocampal neurons, but the species had a larger hippocampal formation and more hippocampal microglia. It remains to be investigated whether these differences indicate interspecies differences or neural specializations associated with different strategies of orientation and navigation.

  9. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, United States-Great Britain (on behalf of Canada), 39 Stat..., Gallinago stenura Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala Wilson's, Gallinago delicata (the “common” snipe hunted in..., Spizella pusilla Five-striped, Aimophila quinquestriata Fox, Passerella iliaca Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia...

  10. Front affecting the distribution of seabirds in the northern Bering Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Nancy M.; L Hunt Jr., George; Cooney, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    We observed seabirds aggregated at a front marking the boundary between two water masses in the Bering Sea. Least Auklets (Aethia pusilla) were most abundant at the front; surface-feeding species including Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Red Phalaropes (Phalaropusfuscus) were also present.

  11. Some new or noteworthy species of Mortierella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gams, W.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Mortierella are described and distributed over the sections defined by Gams (1970) which include the following new species: Section Pusilla: M. roseo-nana; Section Alpina: M. globalpina and M. polygonia Section Simplex: M. amoeboidea; Section Hygrophila : M. elongatula, M.

  12. Heritable Variation in Quinone-Induced Haustorium Development in the Parasitic Plant Triphysaria1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Denneal S.; Yoder, John I.

    2001-01-01

    We are using the facultative hemiparasite, Triphysaria, as a model for studying host-parasite signaling in the Scrophulariaceae. Parasitic members of this family form subterranean connections, or haustoria, on neighboring host roots to access host water and nutrients. These parasitic organs develop in response to haustorial-inducing factors contained in host root exudates. A well-characterized inducing factor, 2, 6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (DMBQ), can be used to trigger in vitro haustorium formation in the roots of Triphysaria. We have assayed three species, Triphysaria eriantha (Benth.) Chuang and Heckard, Triphysaria pusilla (Benth.) Chuang and Heckard, and Triphysaria versicolor Fischer and C. Meyer, for haustorium development in response to DMBQ. There were significant differences between the species in their ability to recognize and respond to this quinone. Ninety percent of T. versicolor individuals responded, whereas only 40% of T. pusilla and less than 10% of T. eriantha formed haustoria. Within field collections of self-pollinating T. pusilla, differential responsiveness to DMBQ was seen in distinct maternal families. Assaying haustorium development in subsequent generations of self-pollinated T. pusilla showed that DMBQ responsiveness was heritable. Reciprocal crosses between T. eriantha and T. versicolor demonstrated that DMBQ responsiveness was influenced by maternal factors. These results demonstrate heritable, natural variation in the recognition of a haustorial-inducing factor by a parasitic member of the Scrophulariaceae. PMID:11299366

  13. Phytoplankton Virus Production Negatively Affected by Iron Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, H.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fe-limited monocultures of the ubiquitous algae Micromonas pusilla and Phaeocystis globosa were infected with their respective viruses (MpV and PgV) to ascertain the effect of Fe-limitation on phytoplankton host-virus dynamics. The effect of the viral shunt on Fe concentrations and bioavailability

  14. Effect of rice hull mulch on nutrient concentration of fertilized irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parboiled rice hulls are an effective mulch for controlling weeds in nursery containers. A layer of rice hulls between 1.25 and 2.5 cm deep has been shown to provide effective control of liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa), and creeping woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata...

  15. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area:

  16. A review of the taxonomical and ecological studies on Netherlands’ Algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1939-01-01

    The earliest account of the Netherlands’ Algae appeared in 1781 in D. de Gorter, Flora VII Prov. Belgii foederati indigen. Here, however, in the Algae lichens and liverworts have been incorporated. The true Algae, of which 35 are enumerated, are principally marine, though also aërophytical and

  17. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams. VIII. The genus Jensenia Lindb. (Hepaticae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gronde, van der Keympe

    1980-01-01

    A study of recent material of the dendroid thallose liverwort genus Jensenia (Metzgeriales) from the Colombian Andes revealed the existence of three taxa in the area: J. erythropus (Gott.) Grolle var. erythropus, J. erythropus var. nobandae van der Gronde var. nov. and J. florschuetzii van der

  18. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams IV. A catalogue of the Hepaticae of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Hekking, W.H.A.

    1979-01-01

    □ The main purpose of this catalogue is to provide a complete listing of the species of liverworts hitherto known from Colombia and to summarize our present knowledge of species distribution within the country. It was prepared parallel to a catalogue of the mosses (Musci), which is being published

  19. bryophyte extracts with activity against plant pathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The effects of extracts from 17 different bryophyte species were investigated against economically important plant pathogenic fungi ... remedies of diseases in various forms. Similarly, before the discovery of the synthetic ... and divided into the classes Anthocerotae (horn- worts), Hepaticae (liverworts) and Musci ...

  20. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES VOL 15, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    P. grisea is lichen found on walls, rocks, and trees, attached by short threads which grow from the underside ... obtained from the back of Dialum guinense tree in. Ezimo, Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State. ..... Nicholson, B. E., 1966. The Oxford Book of Flowerless. Plants: Ferns, Fungi, Mosses and Liverworts,.

  1. Biological Soil Crust Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    www.soilcrust.org Crust 101 Advanced Gallery References CCERS site Links Biological Soil Crusts Textbook Corrections Level of Development Index Biological soil crusts are the community of organisms , mosses, liverworts and lichens. A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. Drylands: Common

  2. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  3. Phytoplankton of the Boguchany reservoir in 2016-2017 at the stations in front of the hydroelectric dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Usoltseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species structure and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton of the dam area of the Boguchany Reservoir were studied in the first years of operation of the hydroelectric power station in 2016-2017. Two peaks of algal bloom are noted in spring and summer. Mass species were: diatom Stephanodiscus minutulus and dinophyte Gymnodinium baicalense in spring; diatoms Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria crotonensis, blue-green Dolichospermum lemmermannii, D. flosaquae, D. flosaquae f. spiroides and Aphanizomenon flosaquae; green Sphaerocystis planctonica and dinophyte Ceratium hirundinella in summer; diatoms F. crotonensis and A. formosa, cryptophytic Rhodomonas pusilla and Cryptomonas ovata in autumn. The cryptophyte R. pusilla and the Cryptomonas species were dominated under the ice. The maximum number of phytoplankton (9 million cells in liter was recorded in the spring. According to the indixes of saprobity, the purity of water corresponded to II-III quality classes (pure and moderately polluted water.

  4. New records of amphoroid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from Cachoeira River, Northeast Brazil

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    KP Cavalcante

    Full Text Available Amphoroid taxa have been revised in recent decades. Many species formerly assigned to Amphora have been transferred to other recently proposed genera, as Seminavis (Naviculaceae and Halamphora (Catenulaceae. In Brazil, there are few studies focused on amphoroid taxonomy. This study presents a taxonomic investigation of five uncommon amphoroid taxa from Brazilian diatom flora: Seminavis pusilla, S. strigosa, Amphora ectorii, Halamphora ghanensis and Halamphora sp. Seminavis strigosa is identical in valve morphology and morphometrical data to Amphora twenteana, and its synonymy is proposed. Seminavis pusilla, poorly found in Brazilian waters, has expanded its distribution. Halamphora ghanensis is a new record to American continent while Amphora ectorii are new to Brazilian aquatic systems. Halamphora sp. has distinct ultrastructural features in relation to similar species and is probably new for science.

  5. Three cryptic new species of Aristea (Iridaceae from southern Africa

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    P. Goldblatt

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Field work in southern Africa over the past several years has resulted in the discovery of three new species of the sub- Saharan African and Madagascan genus Aristea Aiton, which now comprises some 53 species. Aristea has a pronounced centre in southern Africa and a centre of diversity in the winter rainfall zone of the subcontinent, where all three new species occur, one extending eastward into the adjacent southern edge of the summer rainfall zone. All three novelties have been collected in the past but were confused with related species. A elliptica (subgenus Eucapsulares, confused in the past with A. pusilla (Thunb. Ker Gawl., has a more robust habit, usually with 4 or 5 flower clusters per flowering stem, pale blue flowers, smooth ellipsoid seeds with flattened surface cells, and pollen shed as monads, whereas A. pusilla usually has 1-3 flower clusters per flowering stem, dark blue flowers, pollen shed as tetrads, and globose seeds with faint foveate sculpturing and colliculate surface cells. A. nana (also subgenus  Eucapsulares, known from few collections, and also confused with A. pusilla or A. anceps Eckl. ex Klatt. has the unbranched and leafless flowering stem of the latter but has large green floral spathes, flowers borne on long pedicels, and lacks a leaf subtending the single terminal flower cluster in contrast to nearly sessile flowers in A. pusilla and A. anceps, and in the latter, dry, rusty spathes. A. cistiflora (subgenus Pseudaristea closely resembles A. teretifoha Goldblatt & J.C.Manning but has linear to narrowly sword-shaped leaves and ± secund flowers with the outer tepals only slightly smaller than the inner and with small, dark brown markings at the bases of all the tepals. In contrast, A. teretifolia has narrower, sometimes terete leaves and flowers held upright with the outer tepals notice-ably smaller than the inner and bearing dark markings covering the lower half, whereas the inner tepals are unmarked.

  6. Měkkýši navrhované PR Údolí Vrchlice u Kutné Hory

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    Lucie Juřičková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings the first malacological research of the proposal nature reserve Vrchlice Valley (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic after hundred years. Altogether, 44 mollusc species have been recorded in a very diverse mosaic of floodplain forests, cliffs and meadows. Rare or locally important species Vertigo pusilla, Semilimax semilimax, Daudebardia rufa, Isognomostoma isognomostomos, Oxyloma elegans, Vitrea crystallina and Laciniaria plicata were recorded in the area of the reserve.

  7. Exploring trophic strategies of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda): Comparison between habitat types and native vs introduced distribution ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Macarena; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Lacerda, Mariana Baptista; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Masunari, Setuko

    2014-02-01

    The trophic ecology of non-native species is a key aspect to understand their invasion success and the community effects. Despite the important role of caprellid amphipods as trophic intermediates between primary producers and higher levels of marine food webs, there is very little information on their feeding habits. This is the first comprehensive study on the trophic strategies of two co-occurring introduced caprellids in the Spanish coasts: Caprella scaura and Paracaprella pusilla. The diet of 446 specimens of C. scaura and 230 of P. pusilla was analyzed to investigate whether there were differences in the feeding habits in relation to habitat characteristics (natural vs artificial hard substrata), type of host substrata (bryozoans and hydroids) and native vs introduced distribution ranges (Brazil vs Spain). Results revealed differences in diet preferences of the two species that have important implications for their trophic behaviour and showed a limited food overlap, which may favour their coexistence in introduced areas. In general terms, P. pusilla is a predator species, showing preference by crustacean prey in all of its life stages, while C. scaura feeds mainly on detritus. Although no sex-related diet shifts were observed in either of the species, evidence of ontogenetic variation in diet of C. scaura was found, with juveniles feeding on more amount of prey than adults. No diet differences were found between native and introduced populations within the same habitat type. However, P. pusilla exhibited a shift in its diet when different habitats were compared in the same distribution area, and C. scaura showed a flexible feeding behaviour between different host substrata in the same habitat type. This study shows that habitat characteristics at different scales can have greater influence on the feeding ecology of exotic species than different distribution ranges, and support the hypothesis that a switch between feeding strategies depending on habitat

  8. Flora and Fauna on Backs of Large Papuan Moss-Forest Weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressitt, J L; Sedlacek, J; Szent-Ivany, J J

    1965-12-31

    Large, living, flightless weevils feeding on leaves of woody plants high moss forest on various New Guinea mountain ranges have plant growth on their backs. Fungi and algae have been found on 11 species of Gymnopholus, lichens on six species, and liverworts on one species. In other genera of weevils, on the same mountains, there are additional specific associations with fungi, algae, lichens, and liverworts. The fungi and lichens, at least, are inhabited by oribatid mites of a new family, which may spread the plants from beetle to beetle. Also, nematodes, rotifers, psocids, and diatoms occur among the plants. Specialized scales or hairs, and a secretion, in depressions on the weevils' backs, appear to be associated with cpcouragement of the plant growth. Mutualistic symbiotic relationships seem to be clearly indicated.

  9. Fertile Prototaxites taiti: a basal ascomycete with inoperculate, polysporous asci lacking croziers

    OpenAIRE

    Honegger, R.; Edwards, Dianne; Axe, Lindsey; Strullu-Derrien, C.

    2018-01-01

    The affinities of Prototaxites have been debated ever since its fossils, some attaining tree-trunk proportions, were discovered in Canadian Lower Devonian rocks in 1859. Putative assignations include conifers, red and brown algae, liverworts and fungi (some lichenised). Detailed anatomical investigation led to the reconstruction of the type species, P. logani, as a giant sporophore (basidioma) of an agaricomycete (= holobasidiomycete), but evidence for its reproduction remained elusive. Tissu...

  10. Geographical, Temporal and Environmental Determinants of Bryophyte Species Richness in the Macaronesian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Silvia C.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Santos, Ana M. C.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Patiño, Jairo; Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Species richness on oceanic islands has been related to a series of ecological factors including island size and isolation (i.e. the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography, EMIB), habitat diversity, climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and more recently island ontogeny (i.e. the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography, GDM). Here we evaluate the relationship of these factors with the diversity of bryophytes in the Macaronesian region (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde). The predictive power of EMIB, habitat diversity, climate and the GDM on total bryophyte richness, as well as moss and liverwort richness (the two dominant bryophyte groups), was evaluated through ordinary least squares regressions. After choosing the best subset of variables using inference statistics, we used partial regression analyses to identify the independent and shared effects of each model. The variables included within each model were similar for mosses and liverworts, with orographic mist layer being one of the most important predictors of richness. Models combining climate with either the GDM or habitat diversity explained most of richness variation (up to 91%). There was a high portion of shared variance between all pairwise combinations of factors in mosses, while in liverworts around half of the variability in species richness was accounted for exclusively by climate. Our results suggest that the effects of climate and habitat are strong and prevalent in this region, while geographical factors have limited influence on Macaronesian bryophyte diversity. Although climate is of great importance for liverwort richness, in mosses its effect is similar to or, at least, indiscernible from the effect of habitat diversity and, strikingly, the effect of island ontogeny. These results indicate that for highly vagile taxa on oceanic islands, the dispersal process may be less important for successful colonization than the availability of suitable ecological

  11. Plant-Associated Methylobacteria as Co-Evolved Phytosymbionts: A Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Due to their wall-associated pectin metabolism, growing plant cells emit significant amounts of the one-carbon alcohol methanol. Pink-pigmented microbes of the genus Methylobacterium that colonize the surfaces of leaves (epiphytes) are capable of growth on this volatile C1-compound as sole source of carbon and energy. In this article the results of experiments with germ-free (gnotobiotic) sporophytes of angiosperms (sunflower, maize) and gametophytes of bryophytes (a moss and two liverwort sp...

  12. Correlates of monoicy and dioicy in hornworts, the apparent sister group to vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Renner, Susanne S

    2013-11-02

    Whether male and female gametes are produced by single or separate individuals shapes plant mating and hence patterns of genetic diversity among and within populations. Haploid-dominant plants ("bryophytes": liverworts, mosses and hornworts) can have unisexual (dioicous) or bisexual (monoicous) gametophytes, and today, 68% of liverwort species, 57% of moss species, and 40% of hornwort species are dioicous. The transitions between the two sexual systems and possible correlations with other traits have been studied in liverworts and mosses, but not hornworts. Here we use a phylogeny for 98 of the 200 species of hornworts, the sister group to vascular plants, representing roughly equal proportions of all monoicous and all dioicous species, to test whether transitions in sexual systems are predominantly from monoicy to dioicy as might be expected based on studies of mosses. We further investigate possible correlations between sexual system and spore size, antheridium number, ploidy level, and diversification rate, with character selection partly based on findings in mosses and liverworts. Hornworts underwent numerous transitions between monoicy and dioicy. The transition rate from dioicy to monoicy was 2× higher than in the opposite direction, but monoicous groups have higher extinction rates; diversification rates do not correlate with sexual system. A correlation important in mosses, that between monoicy and polyploidy, apparently plays a small role: of 20 species with chromosome counts, only one is polyploid, the monoicous Anthoceros punctatus. A contingency test revealed that transitions to dioicy were more likely in species with small spores, supporting the hypothesis that small but numerous spores may be advantageous for dioicous species that depend on dense carpets of gametophytes for reproductive assurance. However, we found no evidence for increased antheridium-per-chamber numbers in dioicous species. Sexual systems in hornworts are labile, and the higher

  13. Historical review of bryological research in Fruška Gora Mt. (Serbia

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    Ilić Miloš M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruška Gora is a mountain located in the southern part of Pannonian plane and it is poorly bryologicaly investigated as well as most parts of Serbia. First data on bryophytes, for this region, were published in 1949 by Teodor Soška in his paper Pregled mahovina i lišajeva u okolini Beograda (Review of mosses and lichens in the vicinity of Belgrade. Soška listed 34 species of mosses and 8 liverworts species for this region. Later, in 1955, Zlatko Pavletić in his capital work Prodromus flore briofita Jugoslavije (Prodromus of Yugoslavian bryophyte flora, stated 26 moss species and 3 liverwort species, without indicating specific localities, but all of them were Soška’s original results. In 1966, the second botanist with original findings of bryophytes on Fruška Gora was Popović, who recorded 2 liverwort and 19 moss species, for this mountain, also without specific localities. By far, the most comprehensive data were given by Cvetić and Sabovljević in 2004. Their study A contribution to the bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora (Vojvodina, Serbia counted total number of 118 mosses and 14 liverworts, on 16 localities within National park Fruška Gora. The latest study on bryophytes of Fruška Gora was in 2013, and it is the first and so far, the last study of bryophyte assemblages on grasslands. Authors of this paper recorded 18 species of mosses from 29 releveé. Complete bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora is still unknown. Considering the fact that this is the region with high biodiversity, dense hydrological network and a rather complex geology, Fruška Gora certainly deserves further bryological researches.

  14. Biocrusts modulate warming and rainfall exclusion effects on soil respiration in a semi-arid grassland

    OpenAIRE

    Escolar, Cristina; Maestre, Fernando T.; Rey, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Soil surface communities composed of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi, bacteria and lichens (biocrusts) largely affect soil respiration in dryland ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have large effects on biocrusts and associated ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have experimentally assessed how expected changes in temperature and rainfall will affect soil respiration in biocrust-dominated ecosystems. We evaluated the impacts of biocrust development, increa...

  15. On the occurrence of bryophytes and macrolichens in different lowland rain forest types at Mabura Hill, Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Gradstein, Stephan Robbert

    1990-01-01

    A floristic and ecological study of bryophytes and macrolichens in different lowland rain forest types around Mabura Hill, Guyana, South America, yielded 170 species: 52 mosses, 82 liverworts and 36 macrolichens. Lejeuneaceae account for about 30% of the species and are the dominant cryptogamic family of the lowland rain forest. Special attention was paid to the flora of the forest canopy, by using mountaineering techniques. It appeared that 50% of the bryophyte species and 86% of the macroli...

  16. Moose von Inselbergen in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Frahm, Jan-Peter; Porembski, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Acht Leber- und zehn Laubmoosarten werden von Inselbergen aus Benin angegeben. Fünf der Lebermoose (Acrolejeunea emergens, Riccia atropurpurea, R. congoana, R. discolor, R. moenkemeyeri) und alle Laubmoose (Archidium ohioense, Brachymenium acuminatum, B. exile, Bryum arachnoideum, B. argenteum, Bryum deperssum, Garckea moenkemeyeri, Hyophila involuta, Philonotis mniobryoides und Weissia cf. edentula) werden neu für Benin angegeben. Eight liverworts and ten mosses are reported from inselber...

  17. Bryophyte diversity patterns in flooded and tierra firme forests in the Araracuara Region, Colombian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Juan C.; Idarraga, Alvaro; Alvarez, Esteban

    2004-01-01

    We investigated patterns of bryophyte species richness and composition in two forest types of Colombian Amazonia, non-flooded tierra firme forest and floodplain forest of the Caquetá River. A total of 109 bryophyte species were recorded from 14 0.2 ha plots. Bryophyte life forms and habitats were analyzed, including the canopy and epiphylls. Bryophyte species did not show significant differences between landscapes but mosses and liverworts were different and with opposite responses balancing ...

  18. Multigene phylogeny of land plants with special reference to bryophytes and the earliest land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickrent, D L; Parkinson, C L; Palmer, J D; Duff, R J

    2000-12-01

    A widely held view of land plant relationships places liverworts as the first branch of the land plant tree, whereas some molecular analyses and a cladistic study of morphological characters indicate that hornworts are the earliest land plants. To help resolve this conflict, we used parsimony and likelihood methods to analyze a 6, 095-character data set composed of four genes (chloroplast rbcL and small-subunit rDNA from all three plant genomes) from all major land plant lineages. In all analyses, significant support was obtained for the monophyly of vascular plants, lycophytes, ferns (including PSILOTUM: and EQUISETUM:), seed plants, and angiosperms. Relationships among the three bryophyte lineages were unresolved in parsimony analyses in which all positions were included and weighted equally. However, in parsimony and likelihood analyses in which rbcL third-codon-position transitions were either excluded or downweighted (due to apparent saturation), hornworts were placed as sister to all other land plants, with mosses and liverworts jointly forming the second deepest lineage. Decay analyses and Kishino-Hasegawa tests of the third-position-excluded data set showed significant support for the hornwort-basal topology over several alternative topologies, including the commonly cited liverwort-basal topology. Among the four genes used, mitochondrial small-subunit rDNA showed the lowest homoplasy and alone recovered essentially the same topology as the multigene tree. This molecular phylogeny presents new opportunities to assess paleontological evidence and morphological innovations that occurred during the early evolution of terrestrial plants.

  19. Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Nalini Junior, Herminio A.; Friese, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k 0 -standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

  20. The biogeochemistry and occurrence of unusual plant species inhabiting acidic, metal-rich water, Red Mountain, Bonnifield district, Alaska Range: Chapter J in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents results on the occurrence and biogeochemistry of unusual plant species, and of their supporting sediment, in an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Tintina Gold Province (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). The extraordinary plant assemblage found growing in the acidic metal-rich waters that drain the area is composed predominantly of bryophytes (liverworts and mosses). Ferricrete-cemented silty alluvial sediments within seeps and streams are covered with the liverwort Gymnocolea inflata, whereas the mosses Polytrichum commune and P. juniperinum inhabit the area adjacent to the water and within the splash zone. Both the liverwort-encrusted sediment and Polytrichum thalli have high concentrations of major- and trace-metal cations (for example, Al, As, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Soils in the area do not reflect the geochemical signature of the mineral deposit, and we suspect that they are most influenced by the chemistry of airborne dust (aeolian material) derived from outside the area.

  1. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian Indian Amber.

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    Jochen Heinrichs

    Full Text Available Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea. We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  2. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian) Indian Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Bechteler, Julia; Lee, Gaik Ee; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Hedenäs, Lars; Singh, Hukam; Pócs, Tamás; Nascimbene, Paul C; Peralta, Denilson F; Renner, Matt; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea). We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  3. La fauna de caprélidos (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea de la costa de Coquimbo, centro-norte de Chile, con una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies The caprellid fauna (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea from the coast of Coquimbo, Northern-central Chile, with a taxonomic key for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M. GUERRA-GARCÍA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Los caprélidos son comunes y abundantes en muchos hábitats litorales del ambiente marino. Sin embargo este grupo de anfípodos no ha sido muy bien estudiado en la costa chilena. El estudio de los caprélidos se ha visto dificultado por su gran variabilidad morfológica y el hecho de que la literatura así como los especímenes de los museos son difíciles de localizar. El objetivo de este estudio fue entregar las herramientas taxonómicas para la identificación de las especies de crustáceos caprélidos comunes en el centro-norte de la costa de Chile. Se muestrearon distintos hábitats (boyas, bolones intermareales, praderas de algas y fanerógamas marinas y se encontraron seis especies distintas de caprélidos: Caprellina longicollis (Nicolet, 1849, Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, C. scaura Templeton, 1836, C. verrucosa Boeck, 1871; Deutella venenosa Mayer, 1890 y Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890. Caprella scaura, C. verrucosa y D. venenosa fueron muy abundantes sobre las algas, hidrozoos y briozoos asociados a boyas. Caprella equilibra, también presente en boyas, fue más abundante bajo piedras en zonas intermareales rocosas expuestas, donde también se encontraron ejemplares de D. venenosa y de P. pusilla. Caprella scaura también se encontró sobre algas rojas de las playas arenosas, especialmente sobre Gracilaria chilensis y sobre la fanerógama marina Heterozostera tasmanica, donde cohabitó junto a Caprellina longicollis. Paracaprella pusilla constituye una nueva cita para las costas pacíficas sudamericanas, siendo nueva para la fauna de Chile. La especie D. venenosa, que se cita por primera vez después de la descripción original de Mayer en el año 1890, es considerada una especie endémica de la costa central de ChileCaprellids are abundant in many littoral habitats of the marine environment. Nevertheless, this group of amphipods has been scarcely studied along the coast of Chile. The study of the Caprellidea is particularly

  4. Morfoanatomia foliar de microorquídeas de Ornithocephalus Hook. e Psygmorchis Dodson & Dressler Leaf anatomy of micro-orchids of Ornithocephalus Hook. and Psygmorchis Dodson & Dressler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayza Carla Lopes Della Colleta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a morfoanatomia foliar de Ornithocephalus bicornis Lindl. ex Benth., Ornithocephalus myrticola Lindl., Psygmorchis pusilla (L. e Psygmorchis glossomystax (Rchb. f., a fim de identificar caracteres de valor taxonômico e significado ecológico. Folhas expandidas foram coletadas na região de Alta Floresta, MT. As amostras foram incluídas em metacrilato, cortadas em micrótomo de mesa e corados com azul de toluidina. As lâminas foram montadas em resina sintética ou gelatina glicerinada. Epidermes foliares foram dissociadas e testes histoquímicos aplicados. As plantas observadas neste estudo são epífitas, carnosas e não apresentam pseudobulbos. A epiderme é uniestratificada e delgada com exceção de O. bicornis que é espessa, apresentando cutícula delgada e lisa. As espécies estudadas apresentam folhas anfiestomáticas com os estômatos presentes no mesmo nível das células epidérmicas. Os estômatos geralmente são anomocíticos e tetracíticos em O. myrticola, P. pusilla e P. glossomystax. Em O. bicornis ocorrem tetracítico, anisocítico e actinocítico. As células-guarda são de paredes periclinais espessas e as câmaras subestomática são pequenas, exceto em P. pusilla. Com exceção de O. bicornis, o mesofilo das espécies é heterogêneo, sendo constituído de diferentes tipos de parênquima. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais. As espécies foram consideradas mesófilas.Leaf anatomy of O. bicornis Lindl. ex Benth., O. myrticola Lindl., P. pusilla (L. and P. glossomystax (Rchb. f. was analyzed to identify valuable taxonomic and ecological traits. Expanded leaves were collected in the Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, region. Leaf samples embedded in methacrylate were cut with a table microtome and stained with toluidine blue. Slides were mounted in synthetic resin or in glycerin gelatin. Leaf tissues were dissociated and histochemical tests applied. Plants observed in this study are succulent epiphytes without

  5. The mossy north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Ruben G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe

    2016-01-01

    , as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness...... and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change...

  6. Contribution to the Diatom flora of Southern Africa. II. Diatoms from the Hog's Back Region of the Amatola Mountains, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malcolm, HG

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available roots of trees i~ the stream: 9 forms. Finn 26. The same: from liverworts [Aneura (Riccardia) fast igiata L. and L.] on Rhoj stones in running water: 48 forms. an 27. The same: from surface of mud in pools upstream: 35 forms. 28. The same: from... figures of the girdle view (Kieselalg. 2: 170. F. 678), of the typical form are unlike those seen in my material where they are groggily obese, having an intercalary band three to four times as wide as the valve. Similar girdle ~iews are seen in Fray...

  7. Biosynthetic routes of hydroxylated carotenoids (xanthophylls) in Marchantia polymorpha, and production of novel and rare xanthophylls through pathway engineering in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Miho; Maoka, Takashi; Misawa, Norihiko

    2015-03-01

    MpBHY codes for a carotene β-ring 3(,3')-hydroxylase responsible for both zeaxanthin and lutein biosynthesis in liverwort. MpCYP97C functions as an ε-ring hydroxylase (zeinoxanthin 3'-hydroxylase) to produce lutein in liverwort. Xanthophylls are oxygenated or hydroxylated carotenes that are most abundant in the light-harvesting complexes of plants. The plant-type xanthophylls consist of α-xanthophyll (lutein) and β-xanthophylls (zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin and neoxanthin). The α-xanthophyll and β-xanthophylls are derived from α-carotene and β-carotene by carotene hydroxylase activities, respectively. β-Ring 3,3'-hydroxylase that mediates the route of zeaxanthin from β-carotene via β-cryptoxanthin is present in higher plants and is encoded by the BHY (BCH) gene. On the other hand, CYP97A (or BHY) and CYP97C genes are responsible for β-ring 3-hydroxylation and ε-ring 3'-hydroxylation, respectively, in routes from α-carotene to lutein. To elucidate the evolution of the biosynthetic routes of such hydroxylated carotenoids from carotenes in land plants, we identified and functionally analyzed carotenoid hydroxylase genes of liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. Three genes homologous to higher plants, BHY, CYP97A, and CYP97C, were isolated and named MpBHY, MpCYP97A, and MpCYP97C, respectively. MpBHY was found to code for β-ring hydroxylase, which is responsible for both routes starting from β-carotene and α-carotene. MpCYP97C functioned as an ε-ring hydroxylase not for α-carotene but for zeinoxanthin, while MpCYP97A showed no hydroxylation activity for β-carotene or α-carotene. These findings suggest the original functions of the hydroxylation enzymes of carotenes in land plants, which are thought to diversify in higher plants. In addition, we generated recombinant Escherichia coli cells, which produced rare and novel carotenoids such as α-echinenone and 4-ketozeinoxanthin, through pathway engineering using bacterial carotenogenic genes

  8. Brioflora del parque natural de la Albufera de Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    Gimeno, C.; Puche, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    [ES] Se ha confeccionado el catálogo de los táxones recolectados dentro de los límites del Parque Natural de la Albufera de Valencia, así como los citados en la bibliografía. Incluye un total de cuarenta y ocho briófitos de los cuales treinta y siete son musgos y once hepáticas. [EN] In this work a list of bryophytes from Albufera de Valencia Natural Park (SE Spain) is given, with 48 taxa, 37 mosses and 11 liverworts.

  9. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication.

  10. Water pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Pellia neesiana (Gottsche) Limpr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; Lentini, Marco; Conte, Barbara; Esposito, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of freshwater pollution in the heavily contaminated Sarno River (Campania, South Italy), using Pellia neesiana (Pelliaceae Metzgeriales) in order to propose this liverwort as a potential bioindicator, able to record the effects of water pollution, particularly the one related to metal (loid) contamination. Samples of P. neesiana in nylon bags were disposed floating for one week on the waters of Sarno River in three sites characterised by an increasing pollution. As control, some specimens were cultured in vitro in Cd- and Pb-added media, at the same pollutants' levels as measured in the most polluted site. P. neesiana cell ultrastructure was modified and severe alterations were observed in chloroplasts from samples exposed in the most polluted site, and Cd- and Pb-cultured samples. Concurrently, a strong increase in the occurrence of Heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) was detected in gametophytes following the pollution gradient. In conclusion, ultrastructural damages can be directly related to HSP 70 occurrence in liverwort tissues, and proportional to the degree of pollution present in the river; thus our study suggests P. neesiana as an affordable bioindicator of freshwaters pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant-associated methylobacteria as co-evolved phytosymbionts: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2007-03-01

    Due to their wall-associated pectin metabolism, growing plant cells emit significant amounts of the one-carbon alcohol methanol. Pink-pigmented microbes of the genus Methylobacterium that colonize the surfaces of leaves (epiphytes) are capable of growth on this volatile C1-compound as sole source of carbon and energy. In this article the results of experiments with germ-free (gnotobiotic) sporophytes of angiosperms (sunflower, maize) and gametophytes of bryophytes (a moss and two liverwort species) are summarized. The data show that methylobacteria do not stimulate the growth of these angiosperms, but organ development in moss protonemata and in thalli of liverworts is considerably enhanced. Since methylobacteria produce and secrete cytokinins and auxin, a model of plant-microbe-interaction (symbiosis) is proposed in which the methanol-consuming bacteria are viewed as coevolved partners of the gametophyte that determine its growth, survival and reproduction (fitness). This symbiosis is restricted to the haploid cells of moisture-dependent "living fossil" plants; it does not apply to the diploid sporophytes of higher embryophytes, which are fully adapted to life on land and apparently produce sufficient amounts of endogenous phytohormones.

  12. Structural evolution of the 4/1 genes and proteins in non-vascular and lower vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Sergey Y; Milyutina, Irina A; Bobrova, Vera K; Ryazantsev, Dmitry Y; Erokhina, Tatiana N; Zavriev, Sergey K; Agranovsky, Alexey A; Solovyev, Andrey G; Troitsky, Alexey V

    2015-12-01

    The 4/1 protein of unknown function is encoded by a single-copy gene in most higher plants. The 4/1 protein of Nicotiana tabacum (Nt-4/1 protein) has been shown to be alpha-helical and predominantly expressed in conductive tissues. Here, we report the analysis of 4/1 genes and the encoded proteins of lower land plants. Sequences of a number of 4/1 genes from liverworts, lycophytes, ferns and gymnosperms were determined and analyzed together with sequences available in databases. Most of the vascular plants were found to encode Magnoliophyta-like 4/1 proteins exhibiting previously described gene structure and protein properties. Identification of the 4/1-like proteins in hornworts, liverworts and charophyte algae (sister lineage to all land plants) but not in mosses suggests that 4/1 proteins are likely important for plant development but not required for a primary metabolic function of plant cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  13. Plant-Associated Methylobacteria as Co-Evolved Phytosymbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Due to their wall-associated pectin metabolism, growing plant cells emit significant amounts of the one-carbon alcohol methanol. Pink-pigmented microbes of the genus Methylobacterium that colonize the surfaces of leaves (epiphytes) are capable of growth on this volatile C1-compound as sole source of carbon and energy. In this article the results of experiments with germ-free (gnotobiotic) sporophytes of angiosperms (sunflower, maize) and gametophytes of bryophytes (a moss and two liverwort species) are summarized. The data show that methylobacteria do not stimulate the growth of these angiosperms, but organ development in moss protonemata and in thalli of liverworts is considerably enhanced. Since methylobacteria produce and secrete cytokinins and auxin, a model of plant-microbe-interaction (symbiosis) is proposed in which the methanol-consuming bacteria are viewed as coevolved partners of the gametophyte that determine its growth, survival and reproduction (fitness). This symbiosis is restricted to the haploid cells of moisture-dependent “living fossil” plants; it does not apply to the diploid sporophytes of higher embryophytes, which are fully adapted to life on land and apparently produce sufficient amounts of endogenous phytohormones. PMID:19516971

  14. Composition and distribution patterns of bryophytes at a reclaimed surface mine in Grundy County, Illinois, with a list of vascular plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorfer, J.R.

    1981-12-01

    Bryological surveys and collections were made in order to assess the natural colonization of mosses (and liverworts) on acid minesoils of a reclamation demonstration site located adjacent to Goose Lake Prairie State Park in northeastern Illinois. Four types of fine-textured mineral soils were recognized within the site; these were designated as abandoned (cultivated) field soil, oil minesoil (spoil), reclaimed minesoil 1972 to 1973, and reclaimed minesoil 1975 to 1976. The two reclaimed minesoils were distinguished by reclamation efforts begun in 1972 and 1975. Thirty moss taxa and one liverwort species were found on the site, and two additional moss species were found in areas adjacent to the site. Of the 33 bryophyte taxa recognized, 14 species of mosses were new reports for Grundy County. Comparative distribution patterns indicate that the major pioneer species of mosses on reclaimed minesoil were Barbula unguiculata, Ceratodon purpureus, Ditrichum pallidum, and Funaria hygrometrica. On the other hand, Bryum caespiticium and Weissia controversa were considered later seral species rather than primary invaders. Distribution patterns also indicate that mosses were generally unable to colonize unshaded bare reclaimed minesoil. However, moss colonization was successful in those areas where the harsh microhabitat conditions were ameliorated by vascular vegetation. Shoots of both living and dead higher plants most likely affect the proliferation of mosses by shading the soil surface, which results in increased moisture and decreased temperature at the soil surface in contrast to conditions of fully exposed soil.

  15. Antibacterial activity of some bryophytes used traditionally for the treatment of burn infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Singh, Shweta; Nath, Virendra; Sahu, Vinay; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2011-05-01

    Plagiochasma appendiculatum L. & L. (Aytoniaceae), Conocephalum conicum (L.) Necker (Conocephalaceae), Bryum argenteum Hedw. (Bryaceae), and Mnium marginatum (With.) P. Beauv. (Mniaceae) are bryophytes (liverworts and mosses) used by traditional healers for the treatment of burn, cuts, wounds, and skin disorders. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of four bryophytes against some common bacteria responsible for burn infections. Different fractions of bryophytes were screened using the disc diffusion (qualitative) and broth microdilution (quantitative) methods, according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical and Laboratory Standards. Chloroform fractions of liverworts were more active against Gram negative strains while butanol fractions of mosses had significant activity against Gram positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain of those tested with the butanol fraction of M. marginatum (moss), with the strongest inhibition zone of 102.92% and minimum inhibitory concentration of 30 μg mL(-1). Our findings support the use of the bryophytes in traditional medicine for burn infections because of their significant antibacterial activity.

  16. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon

    2010-08-01

    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Freshwater fish as a dietary source of vitamin A in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; Chamnan, Chhoun; Loeung, Deap

    2007-01-01

    determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in samples of raw, whole fish from 29 fish species and in raw, edible parts from 24 species. Replicate samples were analysed in seven selected species. Two species, Parachela siamensis and Rasbora tornieri had very high vitamin A contents >1500 RAE/100 g...... raw, whole fish, and six species (Barbodes altus, Barbodes gonionatus, Dermogenys pusilla, Puntioplites proctozysron and Thynnichthys thynnoides) had high contents of 500-1500RAE/100 g raw, whole fish. Two species, Puntioplites proctozysron and Thynnichthys thynnoides had high vitamin A contents...... of carotenoid bioefficacy for the control of vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. Journal of Nutrition, 132, 2920S-2926S]. Dehydroretinoids (vitamin A(2)) are not converted to all-trans-retinol but have similar metabolic functions. In this paper, RAE refers to the functional bioefficacy as defined...

  18. Breeding habitat use by sympatric and allopatric populations of Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, J.M.; Stanley, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) habitat use in allopatric and sympatric populations in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming in order to better understand the different habitat needs and interactions of these two species. Foraging Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers used very similar habitat, both selecting larger, more open shrubs. In spite of similar foraging habitat, comparisons of habitat use by the two species at the sympatric sites yielded no evidence of foraging habitat partitioning or exclusion. There was evidence of nesting habitat partitioning. Wilson's Warblers nested on the ground, with some evidence that they used smaller, more densely stemmed shrubs under which to nest. Yellow Warblers are shrub nesters and selected larger, more open shrubs in which to nest. Results provide no evidence that Yellow Warblers can be blamed for population declines in Wilson's Warblers.

  19. [Algo-bacterial communities of the Kulunda steppe (Altai region, Russia) soda lakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samylina, O S; Sapozhnikov, F V; Gaĭnanova, O Iu; Riabova, A V; Nikitin, M A; Sorokin, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    The composition and macroscopic structure of the floating oxygenic phototrophic communities from Kulunda steppe soda lakes (Petukhovskoe sodovoe, Tanatara VI, and Gorchiny 3) was described based on the data of the 2011 and 2012 expeditions (Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology). The algo-bacterial community with a green alga Ctenocladus circinnatus as an edificator was the typical one. Filamentous Geitlerinema sp. and Nodosilinea sp. were the dominant cyanobacteria. Apart from C. circinnatus, the algological component of the community contained unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis and cf. Chlorella minutissima, as well as diatoms (Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brchysira brebissonii, Brachysira zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia communis, and Nitzschia sp.1). The latter have not been previously identified in the lakes under study. In all lakes, a considerable increase in salinity was found to result in changes in the composition and macroscopic structure of algo-bacterial communities.

  20. Polychaetes from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara with the description of a new species of Polydora (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. ÇINAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft-bottom material collected from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara (off Küçükçekmece included a total of 67 species belonging to 24 polychaete families. Three species (Brania pusilla, Lysidice cf. margaritacea and Sabellaria spinulosa are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Three alien species (Polydora cornuta, Prionospio pulchra and Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata were found at the shallow-water stations. Different polychaete assemblages occurred in the area and the mud percentage of sediment and salinity were the main factors related to their distribution. A new Polydora species, which is mainly characterized in having brownish pigmentation solely on the antero-dorsal sides of the body, and falcate major spines with only a bulge (anterior ones or with a bulge and a small tooth, is described.

  1. Microhabitat partitioning between leiuperidae and bufonidae species (amphibia: anura) in tropical dry forest areas in Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Torres, Argelina; Bonilla Gomez, Maria Argenis

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed partitioning of microhabitats by five species of frogs in the families, Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, r. granulosa), and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla) in six different localities of the Colombian Caribbean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhabitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA) and flooded pastures without trees (PISA) were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhabitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhabitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhabitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  2. Species diversity of the Genus Hoya (Asclepiadaceae in Bukit Batikap Sanctuary Forest, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI RAHAYU

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The Genus Hoya (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae is being appreciated as exotic ornamental plant in Europe, USA and Australia, while in Indonesia as the country of origin still neglected. Indonesia was predicted have the highest Hoya species diversity (about 60 species from 150 species in the world. Among the major Islands in Indonesia, Kalimantan was predicted have the highest diversity in Hoya species. The inventory of the species has been done in the Bukit Batikap Sanctuary Forest, Muller Mountain in Central Kalimantan. Nine Hoya species of about thirties species in Kalimantan were found in Bukit Batikap, namely: H. coronaria Blume, H. cf. erythrostemma Kerr., H. latifolia G. Don., H. mitrata Kerr., H. nummularioides Const., H. pusilla Rintz, H. revoluta Wight, H. scortechinii King & Gamble, and Hoya cf. vaccinioides Hook.f.

  3. USE OF DIATOMS TO ASSES WATER QUALITY OF ANTHROPOGENICALLY MODIFIED MATYSÓWKA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Noga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matysówka stream is small, under 6 km long watercourse, which is a right-bank tributary of Strug River. In 2009–2011studies on the subject of diversity of diatom communities using diatom indices IPS, GDI and TDI for water quality assessment were conducted. On the stream 271 diatom taxa were identified, among which: Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, Navicula cryptotenella, N. gregaria, N. lanceolata, N. tripunctata, Nitzschia linearis, N. pusilla, N. recta, Planothidium frequentissimum, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata were the most frequent. Middle and lower section of Matysówka stream was characterized by increased concentrations of phosphates, nitrites, ammonium, total phosphorus and nitrogen, BOD5. On the basis of diatom indices IPS and GDI waters were characterized as III–IV quality classes, while the TDI index revealed the worst water quality classes (IV–V.

  4. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-06-29

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  5. Isogermacrene A, a proposed intermediate in sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Thomas; König, Wilfried A; Muhle, Hermann

    2004-08-01

    In the essential oil of the liverwort Saccogyna viticulosa, collected on the island of Madeira, the new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons isogermacrene A (5) and its Cope rearrangement product iso-beta-elemene (6) were identified. 5 is proposed to act as the biogenetic precursor of several new sesquiterpenes identified in the volatiles of S. viticulosa. These include iso-alpha-humulene, alpha-gorgonene, gorgona-1,4(15), 11-triene and gorgon- 11-en-4-ol. In addition, the Cope product of zierene, isozierene, allo-aromadendra-4(15),10(14)-diene, aromadendra-4(15),10(14)-dien-1-ol and a prenylguaiane diterpene alcohol, named viticulol, were identified as new natural products.

  6. A contribution to the bryoflora of the Western Ghats in Karnataka State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Uwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldtrips of the authors in 2012, a list of species collected in a small area of the Western Ghats (Coorg District, state of Karnataka is presented. It includes 18 species of liverworts and hornworts as well as 76 species of mosses. 27 species of mosses are newly reported for the state of Karnataka, 6 species are new for Coorg province. Holomitrium javanicum Dozy & Molk. is reported as new to India. Campylopus sedgwickii Dix. described from Sri Lanka and so far only known from the type locality is a new synonym of C. recurvus Mitt. The list gives a rough inventory of the bryoflora in altitudes between 900 m and 1750 m and can be regarded as typical for the northern Western Ghats.

  7. Radioimmunoassay for the determination of free and conjugated abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    The characterization and application of a radioimmunoassay specific for free and conjugated abscisic acid (ABA) is reported, The antibodies produced against a bovine serum albumin-(+-)-ABA conjugate have a high affinity for ABA (Ka= 1.3 x 10 9 l mol -1 ). Trans, trans-ABA and related compounds, such as xanthoxin, phaseic acid, dihydrophaseic acid, vomifoliol or violaxanthin do not interfere with the assay. The detection limit of this method is 0.25 x 10 -12 mol ABA, the measuring range extends to 20 x 10 -12 mol, and average recoveries are 103%. Because of the high specificity of this immunoassay, no extract purification steps are required prior to analysis. Several hundred plants can be analyzed per day in a semi-automatic assay performance. ABA has been detected in all higher plant families examined, but was absent in the blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis, the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, and two species of fungi. (orig.) [de

  8. Ring strain and total syntheses of modified macrocycles of the isoplagiochin type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Speicher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocycles of the bisbibenzyl-type are natural products that are found exclusively in bryophytes (liverworts. The molecular framework of the subtype “isoplagiochin” is of substantial structural interest because of the chirality of the entire molecule, which arises from two biaryl axes in combination with two helical two-carbon units in a cyclic arrangement. From a structural as well as a synthetic point of view we report on the total synthesis of compounds which possess more rigid two-carbon biaryl bridges like stilbene (E or Z or even tolane moieties which were introduced starting with a Sonogashira protocol. The McMurry method proved to be a powerful tool for the cyclization to these considerably ring-strained macrocycles.

  9. The evolution of plant secretory structures and emergence of terpenoid chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Secretory structures in terrestrial plants appear to have first emerged as intracellular oil bodies in liverworts. In vascular plants, internal secretory structures, such as resin ducts and laticifers, are usually found in conjunction with vascular bundles, whereas subepidermal secretory cavities and epidermal glandular trichomes generally have more complex tissue distribution patterns. The primary function of plant secretory structures is related to defense responses, both constitutive and induced, against herbivores and pathogens. The ability to sequester secondary (or specialized) metabolites and defense proteins in secretory structures was a critical adaptation that shaped plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions. Although this review places particular emphasis on describing the evolution of pathways leading to terpenoids, it also assesses the emergence of other metabolite classes to outline the metabolic capabilities of different plant lineages.

  10. [Diversity of Plants Belonging to the Genus Ligularia (Asteraceae) Based on Terpenoids and Synthetic Studies on Some Terpenoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    The terpenoid constituents of Ligularia virgaurea (30 samples), Ligularia pleurocaulis (8 samples), Ligularia dictyoneura (8 samples), Ligularia brassicoides (5 samples), Ligularia lingiana (1 sample), and Ligularia liatroides (1 sample)(all belonging to section Senecillis of Ligularia, Asteraceae and collected in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces, China), from which 220 compounds were isolated, including 113 novel ones, are reviewed. Five chemotypes were identified in L. virgaurea based on their chemical constituents, while three clades were detected from the base sequences. Although intra-specific diversity was found in L. virgaurea, more samples were needed of other species in order to reach a definite conclusion. Inter-specific diversity was also examined in section Senecillis but was restricted due to the scarcity of samples. Synthetic studies on chiral natural products to determine their absolute configurations, especially those of riccardiphenols A and B as well as crispatanolide, which were all isolated from the liverwort, are briefly reviewed.

  11. Evolution of heavy metal tolerance in bryophytes II. An ecological and experimental investigation of the copper moss, Scopelophila cataractae (Pottiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA))

    1987-06-01

    About six bryophyte species (including both mosses and liverworts) are generally thought to be restricted to copper-enriched substrates and are consequently known as copper mosses. One of these, Scopelophila cataractae (Pottiaceae), is known from several sites in southern Arizona and occurs at six localities in the Eastern US. Chemical analyses of substrates from the eastern US localities showed that all but one population grew on copper-enriched soil. The one substrate sample low in copper was very high in iron. Plants from five of the six eastern US localities for S. cataractae were grown experimentally on four soil types ranging from highly to not contaminated, and all grew best on the soil contaminated with copper, lead, and zinc. There was no significant variation in growth between populations on the four soil treatments. This lack of population differentiation is in contrast to flowering plants and may be related to the absence of sexual reproduction in S. cataractae in North America.

  12. Development of schizogenous intercellular spaces in plants

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    Kimitsune eIshizaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange is essential for multicellular organisms. In contrast to the circulatory systems of animals, land plants have tissues with intercellular spaces (ICSs, called aerenchyma, that are critical for efficient gas exchange. Plants form ICSs by two different mechanisms: schizogeny, where localized cell separation creates spaces; and lysogeny, where cells die to create intercellular spaces. In schizogenous ICS formation, specific molecular mechanisms regulate the sites of cell separation and coordinate extensive reorganization of cell walls. Emerging evidence suggests the involvement of extracellular signaling, mediated by peptide ligands and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, in the regulation of cell wall remodeling during cell separation. Recent work on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has demonstrated a critical role for a plasma membrane-associated plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in ICS formation. In this review, I discuss the mechanism of schizogenous ICS formation, focusing on the potential role of extracellular signaling in the regulation of cell separation.

  13. ent-Jungermannenone C Triggers Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Cell Differentiation in Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zongwei; Xiao, Xinhua; Wu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaozhou; Liu, Weilong; Liu, Yaxi; Li, Houhua; Chen, Guoqiang; Wu, Yingli; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2018-02-23

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy that is characterized by clonal proliferation of myeloid blasts. Despite the progress that has been made in the treatment of various malignant hematopoietic diseases, the effective treatment of AML remains very challenging. Differentiation therapy has emerged as a promising approach for leukemia treatment, and new and effective chemical agents to trigger the differentiation of AML cells, especially drug-resistant cells, are urgently required. Herein, the natural product jungermannenone C, a tetracyclic diterpenoid isolated from liverworts, is reported to induce cell differentiation in AML cells. Interestingly, the unnatural enantiomer of jungermannenone C (1) was found to be more potent than jungermannenone C in inducing cell differentiation. Furthermore, compound 1 targets peroxiredoxins I and II by selectively binding to the conserved cysteine residues and leads to cellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. Accordingly, ent-jungermannenone C (1) shows potential for further investigation as an effective differentiation therapy against AML.

  14. A primary survey on bryophyte species reveals two novel classes of nucleotide-binding site (NBS genes.

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    Jia-Yu Xue

    Full Text Available Due to their potential roles in pathogen defense, genes encoding nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain have been particularly surveyed in many angiosperm genomes. Two typical classes were found: one is the TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL class and the other is the CC-NBS-LRR (CNL class. It is seldom known, however, what kind of NBS-encoding genes are mainly present in other plant groups, especially the most ancient groups of land plants, that is, bryophytes. To fill this gap of knowledge, in this study, we mainly focused on two bryophyte species: the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, to survey their NBS-encoding genes. Surprisingly, two novel classes of NBS-encoding genes were discovered. The first novel class is identified from the P. patens genome and a typical member of this class has a protein kinase (PK domain at the N-terminus and a LRR domain at the C-terminus, forming a complete structure of PK-NBS-LRR (PNL, reminiscent of TNL and CNL classes in angiosperms. The second class is found from the liverwort genome and a typical member of this class possesses an α/β-hydrolase domain at the N-terminus and also a LRR domain at the C-terminus (Hydrolase-NBS-LRR, HNL. Analysis on intron positions and phases also confirmed the novelty of HNL and PNL classes, as reflected by their specific intron locations or phase characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis covering all four classes of NBS-encoding genes revealed a closer relationship among the HNL, PNL and TNL classes, suggesting the CNL class having a more divergent status from the others. The presence of specific introns highlights the chimerical structures of HNL, PNL and TNL genes, and implies their possible origin via exon-shuffling during the quick lineage separation processes of early land plants.

  15. Studies in American orchids VII Studies in American orchids VII

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    Garay Leslie A.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla rubra (Lam. Urb. in Fedde Rep. Beih, 5: 157, 1920 / Elleanthus Kalbreyeri Garay, nom. nov. / Elleanthus lancifolius Presl, Rel. Haenk. 97, 1827 / Pleurothallis cardiothallis Rchb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 15: 158, 1857 / Pleurothallis excelsa Garay, sp. nov. / Platystele Johnstonii (Ames Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele propinqua (Ames, Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele xiphochila (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov. / Lepanthopsis serrulata (Cogn. Hespenheide & Garay, comb. nov. / Masdevallia bulbophyllopsis Krzl. in Fedde Rep. 17: 412, 1921. / Masdevallia heteroptera Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 3: 590, 1875. / Masdevallia velutina  Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 4: 420, 1875 / Epidendrum bracteolatum Presl, ReI. Haenk. 100, 1827 / Epidendrum infaustum Rchb. f. in Hamb. Gartenz. 19: 13, 1863 / Epidendrum jejunum Rchb. f. in Otia Bot. Hamb, 12, 1878 / Epidendrum vernixium Rchb. f. & Warsc. in Bonpl. 2: 110, 1854 / Maxillaria ochracea (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov / Odontoglossum narthecioides (Krzl. Garay, comb. nov. / Sigmatostalix auriculata, Garay, sp. nov. / Sigmatostalix  Brownii Garay,· sp. nov / Rusbyella pusilla (C. Schweinf. Garay, comb. nov / Sphyrastylis ecuadorensis Garay, sp. nov / Pterostemma  calceolaris Garay, sp. nov.Vanilla rubra (Lam. Urb. in Fedde Rep. Beih, 5: 157, 1920 / Elleanthus Kalbreyeri Garay, nom. nov. / Elleanthus lancifolius Presl, Rel. Haenk. 97, 1827 / Pleurothallis cardiothallis Rchb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 15: 158, 1857 / Pleurothallis excelsa Garay, sp. nov. / Platystele Johnstonii (Ames Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele propinqua (Ames, Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele xiphochila (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov. / Lepanthopsis serrulata (Cogn. Hespenheide & Garay, comb. nov. / Masdevallia bulbophyllopsis Krzl. in Fedde Rep. 17: 412, 1921. / Masdevallia heteroptera Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 3: 590, 1875. / Masdevallia velutina  Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 4: 420, 1875 / Epidendrum bracteolatum Presl, ReI. Haenk. 100, 1827

  16. Analysis of vegetation in an Imperata grassland of Barak valley, Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapati, Ashim Das; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Imperata grassland at Dorgakona, Barak valley, North Eastern India was analyzed for species composition and diversity pattern in relation to traditional management practices. 19 families were in the burnt and unburnt plots of the study site with Poaceae as the most dominant one. 29 species occurred in the burnt plot and 28 in the unburnt plot. Most of the species were common in both the plots. The pattern of frequency diagrams indicated that the vegetation was homogeneous. Imperata cylindrica, a rhizomatous grass was the dominant species based on density (318.75 and 304.18 nos. m(-2)), basal cover (158.22 and 148.34 cm2 m(-2)) and Importance value index (IVI) (132.64 and 138.74) for the burnt and unburnt plots respectively. Borreria pusilla was the co-dominant species constituting Imperata-Borreria assemblage of the studied grassland. It was observed that B. pusilla (162.25 nos. m(-2) and 50.37 nos. m(-2), I. cylindrica (318.75 nos. m(-2) and 304.18 nos. m(-2)) and Setaria glauca (24.70 nos. m(-2) and 16.46 nos. m(-2) were benefited from burning as shown by the values sequentially placed for burnt and unburnt plots. Certain grasses like Chrysopogon aciculatus and Sacciolepis indica were restricted to burnt plot while Oxalis corniculata showed its presence to unburnt plot. Grasses dominated the grassland as revealed by their contribution to the mean percentage cover of 72% in burnt plot and 76% in umburnt plot. The dominance-diversity curves in the study site approaches a log normal series distribution suggesting that the resources are shared by the constituent species. Seasonal pattern in diversity index suggested definite influence of climatic seasonality on species diversity; rainy season was conducive for maximum diversity (1.40 and 1.38 in the burnt and unburnt plots, respectively). Dominance increased with concentration of fewer species (0.0021 in burnt plot and 0.0055 in unbumt plot) in summer and behaves inversely to index of diversity. This study showed

  17. Comparative Analysis of Chloroplast psbD Promoters in Terrestrial Plants

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    Shuichi Shimmura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The transcription of photosynthesis genes encoded by the plastid genome is mainly mediated by a prokaryotic-type RNA polymerase called plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP. Standard PEP-dependent promoters resemble bacterial sigma-70-type promoters containing the so-called -10 and -35 elements. On the other hand, an unusual light- and stress-responsive promoter (psbD LRP that is regulated by a 19-bp AAG-box immediately upstream of the -35 element has been mapped upstream of the psbD-psbC operon in some angiosperms. However, the occurrence of the AAG-box containing psbD LRP in plant evolution remains elusive. We have mapped the psbD promoters in eleven embryophytes at different evolutionary stages from liverworts to angiosperms. The psbD promoters were mostly mapped around 500–900 bp upstream of the psbD translational start sites, indicating that the psbD mRNAs have unusually long 5′-UTR extensions in common. The -10 elements of the psbD promoter are well-conserved in all embryophytes, but not the -35 elements. We found that the AAG-box sequences are highly conserved in angiosperms and gymnosperms except for gnetaceae plants. Furthermore, partial AAG-box-like sequences have been identified in the psbD promoters of some basal embryophytes such as moss, hornwort, and lycophyte, whereas liverwort has the standard PEP promoter without the AAG-box. These results suggest that the AAG-box sequences of the psbD LRP may have evolved from a primitive type of AAG-box of basal embryophytes. On the other hand, monilophytes (ferns use another type of psbD promoter composed of a distinct cis-element upstream of the potential -35 element. Furthermore, we found that psbD expression is not regulated by light in gymnosperms or basal angiosperms, although they have the well-conserved AAG-box sequences. Thus, it is unlikely that acquisition of the AAG-box containing psbD promoter is directly associated with light-induced transcription of the psb

  18. Changes in epiphyte communities as the shrub, Acer circinatum, develops and ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchty, A.M.; Rosso, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest tall shrub Acer circinatum (vine maple) can host diverse and abundant epiphyte communities. A chronosequence approach revealed that these communities gradually shift in composition as the shrub progresses through its life cycle. Different epiphytic life forms occupy different spatial and temporal niches on shrub stems. These life forms generally shift upwards along the shrub stem as the stem ages and develops, in accordance with the similar gradient hypothesis. We postulate the following sequence of events. An initial wave of colonization occurs as new substrate is laid down. Over time, superior competitors gradually engulf and overgrow competitively inferior primary colonizers. Concurrently, shrub stem microclimate changes as shrub stems grow, age, and layer, causing the processes of competition and colonization to shift in favor of different epiphytic life forms during different life stages of the shrub stem. We define four separate shrub stem life stages: life classes 1a??4 describe, respectively, young upright a??whipsa??; vigorous, upright, mature stems; declining stems beginning to bend towards the forest floor; and horizontal, decadent stems. As space on the shrub stem is filled through growth and colonization, interspecific competition intensifies. Successful competitors persist and spread, while poor competitors are increasingly restricted to the stem tips, where interspecific competition is less intense. In these forests, Usnea, green-algal foliose lichens, and moss tufts excel as the primary colonizers and become common on the outer portions of shrub stems over time, as long as the overstory is not too dense. Moss mats are also good primary colonizers, but excel as secondary colonizers, often coming to dominate decadent shrub stems. Although all life forms can be primary colonizers, the remaining forms (cyanolichens, liverworts, and Antitrichia curtipendula) are effective secondary colonizers. Liverworts are also effective

  19. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisermann, Knut; Schulz, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2000 and 2400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala). The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus), the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus), the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens), the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzi), and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus). Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Serensen similarity index 0.85), indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, approximately 27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia), and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring.

  20. The distribution of seabirds and fish in relation to ocean currents in the southeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Wells, John L.; MacCharles, Andrea; Fadely, Brian S.; Montevecchi, W.A.; Gaston, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late August 1988, we studied the distribution of seabirds in the southeastern Chukchi Sea, particularly in waters near a major seabird colony at Cape Thompson. Foraging areas were characterized using hydrographic data obtained from hydroacoustic surveys for fish. Murres (Uria spp.) and Black-legged Kitttiwakes Rissa tridactyla breeding at Cape Thompson fed mostly on Arctic cod, which are known from previous studies to be the most abundant pelagic fish in the region. Our hydroacoustic surveys revealed that pelagic fish were distributed widely, but densities were estimated to be low (e.g., 0.1-10 g∙m-3) throughout the study area and a few schools were recorded. Large feeding flocks of murres and kittiwakes were observed over fish schools with densities estimated to exceed 15 g∙m-3. Fish densities were higher in shallow Alaska Coastal Current waters than offshore in Bering Sea waters, and most piscivorous seabirds foraged in coastal waters. Poor kittiwake breeding success and a low frequency of fish in murre and kittiwake stomachs in late August suggested that fish densities were marginal for sustaining breeding seabirds at that time. Planktivorous Least Auklets Aethia pusilla and Parakeet Auklets Cyclorrhynchus psittacula foraged almost exclusively in Bering Sea waters. Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris and Tufted Puffins Fratercula cirrhata foraged in transitional waters at the front between Coastal and Bering Sea currents.

  1. Rare birds in Slovenia in 2015 – Slovenian Rarities Committee’s Report

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    Hanžel Jurij

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report by the Slovenian Rarities Committee presents records of rare bird species in Slovenia in 2015, with some addenda for previous years. The numbers in brackets refer to the number of records (first number and individuals (second number recorded between 1 Jan 1950 and 31 Dec 2014. Since 1 Jan 2013, submission to the Committee has been required for 37 additional species, 17 of which are regional rarities. Records of these species are not numbered, since records from previous years were not collected by the Committee. One new species, the Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti, was added to category A. Other notable observations were the first record of Parrot Crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus after 1909, the second record of Baillon’s Crake Zapornia pusilla, the third and fourth records of Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra, the fourth of Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus, the fifth of Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi and the sixth of Grey Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius. Four species were added to category E: Bahama Pintail Anas bahamensis, Rosy-billed Pochard Netta peposaca, Harris’s Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria. The list of birds recorded in Slovenia (as of 31 Dec 2015 contains 386 species (371 in category A, 6 in category B, 9 exclusively in category C; 4 species are both in categories A and C. Category D contains 6 species, while category E contains 38, two of which are classified into subcategory E*. These two categories are not part of the list.

  2. Taxonomy of North and South Island snipe (Aves : Scolopacidae : Coenocorypha), with analysis of a remarkable collection of snipe bones from Greymouth, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.; Miskelly, C.M.; Ching, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The taxonomy of the extinct New Zealand snipe (Coenocorypha spp.), formerly resident in both the North and South islands, is addressed by morphometric analysis of fossil bones from widespread localities in both islands compared with a large sample of South Island snipe bones from a fossil site at Cobden Quarry, Greymouth. A single radiocarbon age of 3656 ± 80 yr BP and the presence of the Pacific rat Rattus exulans, introduced to New Zealand c. 650 yr BP or perhaps as early as 2000 yr BP, indiates a Late Holocene age for the Cobden fauna. Comparisons of the North and South Island fossil bones with historically known or extant taxa from offshore islands support the specific distinction of North and South Island birds, and their referral to C. barrierensis Oliver, 1995 or North Island snipe and C. iredalei Rothschild, 1921 or South Island snipe, respectively. In addition, the mensural data support the elevation of the Snares Island snipe to species level as C. huegeli. The data support the taxonomic status quo for Chatham Island snipe C. pusilla, Auckland Island snipe C. aucklandica, and Antipodes Island snipe C. a. meinertzhagenae Rothschild, 1927. The status of the extinct Forbes' snipe C. chathamica was not examined. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  3. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

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    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  4. Bioindicators of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Western Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K

    2017-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O. keta, chinook O. tshawytscha, and sockeye O. nerka) were collected near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. The total OCPs concentration (HCHs + DDTs) was found in each organism, including the Pacific walrus (70-90,263 ng/g lipid), the seabirds (29-16,095 ng/g lipid), and the Pacific salmon (41-7103 ng/g lipid). The concentrations and possible sources of OCPs in marine organisms as biological indicators are discussed.

  5. Importance of the 2014 Colorado River Delta pulse flow for migratory songbirds: Insights from foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Abigail J.; Greeney, Harold F.; van Riper, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Lower Colorado River provides critical riparian areas in an otherwise arid region and is an important stopover site for migrating landbirds. In order to reverse ongoing habitat degradation due to drought and human-altered hydrology, a pulse flow was released from Morelos Dam in spring of 2014, which brought surface flow to dry stretches of the Colorado River in Mexico. To assess the potential effects of habitat modification resulting from the pulse flow, we used foraging behavior of spring migrants from past and current studies to assess the relative importance of different riparian habitats. We observed foraging birds in 2000 and 2014 at five riparian sites along the Lower Colorado River in Mexico to quantify prey attack rates, prey attack maneuvers, vegetation use patterns, and degree of preference for fully leafed-out or flowering plants. Prey attack rate was highest in mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in 2000 and in willow (Salix gooddingii) in 2014; correspondingly, migrants predominantly used mesquite in 2000 and willow in 2014 and showed a preference for willows in flower or fruit in 2014. Wilson’s warbler (Cardellina pusilla) used relatively more low-energy foraging maneuvers in willow than in tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) or mesquite. Those patterns in foraging behavior suggest native riparian vegetation, and especially willow, are important resources for spring migrants along the lower Colorado River. Willow is a relatively short-lived tree dependent on spring floods for dispersal and establishment and thus spring migrants are likely to benefit from controlled pulse flows.

  6. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  7. The Effects of Salinity on Growth and Distribution of Four Freshwater Diatom Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayati, Attayeb A

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower salinity limits of Nitzschia acicularis, Nitzschia pusilla, Nitzschia palea and Synedra acus, which were isolated from the Damour River, Lebanon, were determined from laboratory cultures. Growth responses of the investigated diatoms showed maximum growth in the enriched Damour River natural water (salinity = 0.24 ppt). With an increase in salinity there was a gradual decrease in the growth until the upper limit was reached. At higher salt concentrations near the upper limit a lag phase was observed, during the first two days of the growing culture, where the growth was greatly declined. This reduction in growth can be attributed to high osmotic stress experienced by the investigated diatoms when transferred to flasks containing salinities near the extremes of their tolerance. The investigated diatoms appear to be very resistant and capable of adaptation to new situations because they grew better after this two days lag period. The results of this study also showed that all the investigated diatom species have broader salinity tolerance limits than those reported in the literature and this would enable their distribution at localities with higher or lower salinities than those typical of the Damour River, Lebanon. (author)

  8. Effects of vegetation, corridor width and regional land use on early successional birds on powerline corridors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Askins

    Full Text Available Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management.

  9. Three new species of Diascia (Scrophulariaceae from the Western Cape, South Africa

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    K. E. Steiner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new annual species of Diascia Link & Otto are described from the Western Cape Province of South Africa. D. collina is characterized by greyish magenta flowers with two divergent yellow sacs containing oil-secreting trichomes. It is restricted to granite outcrops in the vicinity of Saldanha Bay, from the West Coast National Park and Langebaan north to Vredenburg. D. pusilla is closely related to D. collina. but differs from that species in having smaller flowers with shorter, ± parallel sacs, and posticous filaments that lack a protuberance where they bend sharply backwards towards the upper lip. It occurs in grey to whitish sands usually near seasonally moist or wet areas. It has not been found more than 35 km from the coast and ranges from Modderrivier, south o f Darling, north to Lambert’s Bay. D. appendiculata is related to D. diffusa (Thunb. Benth. and is characterized by having small, mainly reddish lilac to greyish magenta flowers, two shallow depressions in the corolla tube at the base of the upper lip, and posticous filaments with sterile appendages. It is known from only six localities in the general vicinity of Citrusdal and occurs in fynbos vegetation on lower mountain slopes or flats, in loose alluvial sands derived from Table Mountain Sandstone.

  10. To flock or fight: neurochemical signatures of divergent life histories in sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, James L; Wilson, Leah C; Schrock, Sara E

    2012-06-26

    Many bird species exhibit dramatic seasonal switches between territoriality and flocking, but whereas neuroendocrine mechanisms of territorial aggression have been extensively studied, those of seasonal flocking are unknown. We collected brains in spring and winter from male field sparrows (Spizella pusilla), which seasonally flock, and male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), which are territorial year-round in much of their range. Spring collections were preceded by field-based assessments of aggression. Tissue series were immunofluorescently multilabeled for vasotocin, mesotocin (MT), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, tyrosine hydroxylase, and aromatase, and labeling densities were measured in many socially relevant brain areas. Extensive seasonal differences are shared by both species. Many measures correlate significantly with both individual and species differences in aggression, likely reflecting evolved mechanisms that differentiate the less aggressive field sparrow from the more aggressive song sparrow. Winter-specific species differences include a substantial increase of MT and CRH immunoreactivity in the dorsal lateral septum (LS) and medial amygdala of field sparrows but not song sparrows. These species differences likely relate to flocking rather than the suppression of winter aggression in field sparrows, because similar winter differences were found for two other emberizids that are not territorial in winter--dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), which seasonally flock, and eastern towhees (Pipilo erythropthalmus), which do not flock. MT signaling in the dorsal LS is also associated with year-round species differences in grouping in estrildid finches, suggesting that common mechanisms are targeted during the evolution of different life histories.

  11. Arthropod prey of Wilson's Warblers in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, J.C.; Dugger, K.M.; Starkey, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  12. Diet of Wilson's warblers and distribution of arthropod prey in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Dugger, Kate; Starkey, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  13. Poročilo o obročkanju ptic v Sloveniji v letu 2016 in pojavljanje mušje listnice Phylloscopus inornatus v 25 letih v Sloveniji

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    Vrezec Al

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, data on 176 bird species were gathered during bird ringing activities in Slovenia. A total of 65,711 birds of 165 different species were ringed. Furthermore, 148 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 245 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1840 local recoveries were made. The most frequently ringed species was the Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. Among the ringed nestlings, Great Tits Parus major, Tree Sparrows Passer montanus and White Storks Ciconia ciconia predominated. Considering recoveries of birds ringed or found abroad, the most frequent were finds based on colour rings, especially of Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Mute Swans Cygnus olor and Common Terns Sterna hirundo. As far as local recoveries are concerned, most data were collected for Great Tit and Siskin Spinus spinus. Among rare species, two Yellow-browed Warblers Phylloscopus inornatus were ringed, one Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola, one Little Emberiza pusilla and one Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala, the latter as a singing male, which probably also bred in 2016. The catch frequency of the Yellow-browed Warblers has indeed been increasing in Slovenia in the last 25 years, but this is still a rare and irregular vagrant on autumn migration.

  14. Bird ringing in Slovenia in 2014 and results of the first telemetry study of an African migrant

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    Vrezec Al

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 162 bird species were recorded during the bird ringing activities in Slovenia. Of 155 species, 62,275 birds were ringed, and 107 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 148 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1395 local recoveries were recorded. The most frequently ringed species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Great Tit Parus major. As far as ringed nestlings are concerned, Great Tits and Barn Swalllows Hirundo rustica predominated. Considering the recoveries ringed of found birds abroad, the commonest were Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Mute Swans Cygnus olor. The farthest recovery was a Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (5171 km away. Among the more interesting finds was also the so far southernmost recovery of a Sand Martin Riparia riparia found in Israel. Let us also mention the first recovery of a Corncrake Crex crex, which bred and was ringed in 2013 at Planinsko polje (central Slovenia and was found in the 2014 breeding season in the Czech Republic. Among rare species, two Little Buntings Emberiza pusilla were caught and ringed. After nine years, the Roller Coracias garrulus bred again in Slovenia in 2014 and its nestlings were ringed. The paper also brings the description of the migration route of the first African migrant, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra, marked with a GPS/GSM telemetric device, which migrated across the Adriatic Sea, Sicily and Sahara to Nigeria.

  15. Caprellidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from the Red Sea and Suez Canal, with the redescription of Metaprotella africana and Paradeutella multispinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeina, Amr F; Guerra-García, José M

    2016-04-06

    The Caprellidae from the Red Sea are reviewed based on the literature data and new collections from the Hurghada coasts. So far, only six valid species has been reported from the Red Sea and Suez Canal: Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, Hemiaegina minuta Mayer, 1890, Metaprotella africana Mayer, 1903, Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 and Paradeutella multispinosa Schellenberg, 1928 and Pseudocaprellina pambanensis Sundara Raj, 1927. The type material of M. africana (deposited in the Muséum nacional d'Histoire naturelle, Paris) and Paradeutella multispinosa (deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin) are redescribed and illustrated in detail. P. pambanensis and H. minuta were the most abundant species in the collections along the northern coast. Most of the sampling effort has been focused on algae from shallow waters; additional substrates such as sediments, hydroids and coral rubble, especially from areas deeper than 15 meters should be explored. The number of caprellid species in the Red Sea is low compared to adjacent waters, as the Mediterranean Sea. However, further research and more extensive caprellid collections should be conducted along the coasts of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Sudan and Eritrea, which are still unexplored.

  16. Use of Occupancy Models to Evaluate Expert Knowledge-based Species-Habitat Relationships

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    Monica N. Iglecia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla, occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as "optimal habitat" by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  17. DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE IN RIVERS AND STREAMS AND ON CULTIVATED SOILS OF THE PODKARPACIE REGION IN THE YEARS 2007–2011

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    Teresa Noga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms Bacillariophyceae are a specialized, systematic group of algae, living in different types of ecosystems, and they are very good indicators of water quality. Recently, detailed studies have been carried out in the territory of the Podkarpacie Province on the diversity of diatoms in running waters. The area of study covers mostly the catchment of the biggest rivers of the province (mainly the River Wisłok and cultivated soils. Running waters in the Podkarpacie Province are characterized by a huge species richness of diatoms, 738 different taxa have been found so far. The highest number of taxa was noted in the Wisłok River (400, while the Żołynianka and Różanka streams and the Mleczka were also characterized by huge diversity (from 200 to over 350 taxa. In the majority of studied sites diatoms of alkaline (pH>7 and nutrient rich (eutrophic waters dominated: Navicula lanceolata, N. gregaria, N. capitatoradiata, Nitzschia palea, N. dissipata ssp. dissipata, Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, A. pyrenaicum, Amphora pediculus, Diatoma vulgaris, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, Planothidium lanceolatum, Cocconeis pediculus and C. placentula var. lineata. About 150 taxa were indentified on cultivated soils, among which the largest populations were formed by Hantzschia amphioxys, Mayamaea atomus, Nitzschia palea, N. pusilla, Pinnularia obscura and Stauroneis thermicola.

  18. Structure of a bat assemblage (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Serra do Caraça Reserve, South-east Brazil

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    Falcão Fábio de C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.

  19. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe’s alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:26535576

  20. Therapeutic potential of bryophytes and derived compounds against cancer

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    Abhijit Dey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes, taxonomically placed between the algae and the pteridophytes, are divided into three classes such as Liverworts, Hornworts and Mosses. Indigenous use involves this small group of plants to treat various diseases. Bryophytes have been investigated pharmacologically for active biomolecules. Several constituents with therapeutic potential have been isolated, characterized and investigated for antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidative, antiinflamatory and anticancerous efficacy. The present review deals with the literature covering the anticancerous potential of bryophytes. Apart from the examples of the compounds and the containing bryophyte genera, the authors have tried to include the examples of cancer cell lines on which the efficacy have been tested and the mode of action of certain cytotoxic agents. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from bryophytes were found to possess potent cytotoxic properties. Different types of terpenoids and bibenzyls have been reported among the most potent cytotoxic compounds. Most of these compounds were found to induce apoptosis by activating a number of genes and enzymes. Biochemical markers such as DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, proteolysis of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase, activation of caspases, inhibition of antiapoptotic nuclear transcriptional factor-kappaB, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase etc. have been found to be associated with apoptotic and necrotic response. This review summarizes recent scientific findings and suggests further investigations to evaluate the cytotoxic efficacy of bryophytes.

  1. Total flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province (China: Phylogeny and ecological factors.

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    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available The flavonoids in bryophytes may have great significance in phylogeny and metabolism research. However, to date there has been little research on bryophyte metabolites, especially flavonoids. To redress this somewhat, we determined flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain through a colorimetric assay and considered the factors influencing the results. This is the first time that the flavonoid contents of bryophytes have been examined in detail. The results revealed a range of total flavonoid concentrations in 90 samples collected from Tianmu Mountain from 1.8 to 22.3 mg/g (w/w. The total flavonoid contents of liverworts were generally higher than those of mosses; acrocarpous mosses had generally higher values than that of pleurocarpous mosses. The total flavonoid contents of bryophytes growing at lower light levels were general higher than those growing in full-sun. The total flavonoid contents of epiphytic bryophytes were highest, while those of aquatic bryophytes were the lowest. Total flavonoid contents of species growing at low-latitudes were much higher than those at high-latitude individuals. In conclusion, total flavonoid contents of bryophytes have some connection with plant phylogeny; more flavonoids might be contained in relatively primitive bryophytes. Meanwhile, the effects of ecological factors on total flavonoid contents of bryophytes exist; light and habitat (especially tree habitat and river habitat might be representative factor.

  2. Identification, expression, and taxonomic distribution of alternative oxidases in non-angiosperm plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimanis, Karina; Staples, James F; Hüner, Norman P A; McDonald, Allison E

    2013-09-10

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal ubiquinol oxidase present in the respiratory chain of all angiosperms investigated to date, but AOX distribution in other members of the Viridiplantae is less clear. We assessed the taxonomic distribution of AOX using bioinformatics. Multiple sequence alignments compared AOX proteins and examined amino acid residues involved in AOX catalytic function and post-translational regulation. Novel AOX sequences were found in both Chlorophytes and Streptophytes and we conclude that AOX is widespread in the Viridiplantae. AOX multigene families are common in non-angiosperm plants and the appearance of AOX1 and AOX2 subtypes pre-dates the divergence of the Coniferophyta and Magnoliophyta. Residues involved in AOX catalytic function are highly conserved between Chlorophytes and Streptophytes, while AOX post-translational regulation likely differs in these two lineages. We demonstrate experimentally that an AOX gene is present in the moss Physcomitrella patens and that the gene is transcribed. Our findings suggest that AOX will likely exert an influence on plant respiration and carbon metabolism in non-angiosperms such as green algae, bryophytes, liverworts, lycopods, ferns, gnetophytes, and gymnosperms and that further research in these systems is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Abscisic acid (ABA) and key proteins in its perception and signaling pathways are ancient, but their roles have changed through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Atallah, Nadia M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Banks, Jo Ann; McAdam, Scott A M

    2017-09-02

    Homologs of the Arabidopsis core abscisic acid (ABA) signaling component OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) are best known for their role in closing stomata in angiosperm species. We recently characterized a fern OST1 homolog, GAMETOPHYTES ABA INSENSITIVE ON ANTHERDIOGEN 1 (GAIA1), which is not required for stomatal closure in ferns, consistent with physiologic evidence that shows the stomata of these plants respond passively to changes in leaf water status. Instead, gaia1 mutants reveal a critical role in ABA signaling for spore dormancy and sex determination, in a system regulated by antagonism between ABA and the gibberellin (GA)-derived fern hormone antheridiogen (A CE ). ABA and key proteins, including ABA receptors from the PYR/PYL/RCAR family and negative regulators of ABA-signaling from Group A of the type-2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), in addition to OST1 homologs, can be found in all terrestrial land plant lineages, ranging from liverworts that lack stomata, to angiosperms. As land plants have evolved and diversified over the past 450 million years, so too have the roles of this important plant hormone and the genes involved in its signaling and perception.

  4. Dero (Allodero lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil

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    FH. Oda

    Full Text Available Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A. lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A. lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  5. Quantification of complex modular architecture in plants.

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    Reeb, Catherine; Kaandorp, Jaap; Jansson, Fredrik; Puillandre, Nicolas; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Cornette, Raphaël; Jabbour, Florian; Coudert, Yoan; Patiño, Jairo; Flot, Jean-François; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2018-04-01

    Morphometrics, the assignment of quantities to biological shapes, is a powerful tool to address taxonomic, evolutionary, functional and developmental questions. We propose a novel method for shape quantification of complex modular architecture in thalloid plants, whose extremely reduced morphologies, combined with the lack of a formal framework for thallus description, have long rendered taxonomic and evolutionary studies extremely challenging. Using graph theory, thalli are described as hierarchical series of nodes and edges, allowing for accurate, homologous and repeatable measurements of widths, lengths and angles. The computer program MorphoSnake was developed to extract the skeleton and contours of a thallus and automatically acquire, at each level of organization, width, length, angle and sinuosity measurements. Through the quantification of leaf architecture in Hymenophyllum ferns (Polypodiopsida) and a fully worked example of integrative taxonomy in the taxonomically challenging thalloid liverwort genus Riccardia, we show that MorphoSnake is applicable to all ramified plants. This new possibility of acquiring large numbers of quantitative traits in plants with complex modular architectures opens new perspectives of applications, from the development of rapid species identification tools to evolutionary analyses of adaptive plasticity. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. DNA barcoding, ecology and geography of the cryptic species of Aneura pinguis and their relationships with Aneura maxima and Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Marchantiophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączkiewicz, Alina; Szczecińska, Monika; Sawicki, Jakub; Stebel, Adam; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Aneura pinguis is a thalloid liverwort species with broad geographical distribution. It is composed of cryptic species, however, the number of cryptic species within A. pinguis is not known. Five cpDNA regions (matK, rbcL, rpoC1, trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) and the entire nuclear ITS region were studied in 130 samples of A. pinguis from different geographical regions. The relationships between the cryptic species of A. pinguis, A. maxima and A. mirabilis were analyzed. All of the examined samples were clustered into 10 clades corresponding to 10 cryptic species of A. pinguis (marked A to J). Aneura mirabilis and A. maxima were nested among different cryptic species of A. pinguis, which indicates that A. pinguis is a paraphyletic taxon. Subgroups were found in cryptic species A, B, C and E. As single barcodes, all tested DNA regions had 100% discriminant power and fulfilled DNA barcode criteria for species identification; however, the only combination detected in all subgroups was trnL-trnF with trnH-psbA or ITS2. The distances between cryptic species were 11- to 35-fold higher than intraspecific distances. In all analyzed DNA regions, the distances between most pairs of cryptic A. pinguis species were higher than between A. maxima and A. mirabilis. All cryptic species of A. pinguis clearly differed in their habitat preferences, which suggests that habitat adaptation could be the main driving force behind cryptic speciation within this taxon.

  7. Volatile compounds in cryptic species of the Aneura pinguis complex and Aneura maxima (Marchantiophyta, Metzgeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Wasiak, Wiesław; Bączkiewicz, Alina; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Aneura pinguis is one of the liverwort species complexes that consist of several cryptic species. Ten samples collected from different regions in Poland are in the focus of our research. Eight of the A. pinguis complex belonging to four cryptic species (A, B, C, E) and two samples of closely related species Aneura maxima were tested for the composition of volatile compounds. The HS-SPME technique coupled to GC/FID and GC/MS analysis has been applied. The fiber coated with DVB/CAR/PDMS has been used. The results of the present study, revealed the qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of the volatile compounds between the studied species. Mainly they are from the group of sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The statistical methods (CA and PCA) showed that detected volatile compounds allow to distinguish cryptic species of A. pinguis. All examined cryptic species of the A. pinguis complex differ from A. maxima. Species A and E of A. pinguis, in CA and PCA, form separate clusters remote from two remaining cryptic species of A. pinguis (B and C) and A. maxima. Relationship between the cryptic species appeared from the chemical studies are in accordance with that revealed on the basis of DNA sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microtubule dynamics of the centrosome-like polar organizers from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha.

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    Buschmann, Henrik; Holtmannspötter, Michael; Borchers, Agnes; O'Donoghue, Martin-Timothy; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    The liverwort Marchantia employs both modern and ancestral devices during cell division: it forms preprophase bands and in addition it shows centrosome-like polar organizers. We investigated whether polar organizers and preprophase bands cooperate to set up the division plane. To this end, two novel green fluorescent protein-based microtubule markers for dividing cells of Marchantia were developed. Cells of the apical notch formed polar organizers first and subsequently assembled preprophase bands. Polar organizers were formed de novo from multiple mobile microtubule foci localizing to the nuclear envelope. The foci then became concentrated by bipolar aggregation. We determined the comet production rate of polar organizers and show that microtubule plus ends of astral microtubules polymerize faster than those found on cortical microtubules. Importantly, it was observed that conditions increasing polar organizer numbers interfere with preprophase band formation. The data show that polar organizers have much in common with centrosomes, but that they also have specialized features. The results suggest that polar organizers contribute to preprophase band formation and in this way are involved in controlling the division plane. Our analyses of the basal land plant Marchantia shed new light on the evolution of plant cell division. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. The importance of ecological constraints on the control of multi-species treeline dynamics in eastern Nunavik, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour-Tremblay, Geneviève; De Vriendt, Laurent; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    Treelines are temperature-sensitive ecotones that should be able to expand in response to global warming; however, they are also controlled by ecological constraints. These constraints can create bottlenecks for tree regeneration, hindering treeline advances. Near Kangiqsualujjuaq (Nunavik, subarctic Québec), previous studies suggested successful recruitment of Larix laricina above the altitudinal treeline, while Picea mariana establishment remains scarce. We studied regeneration of both species to identify factors responsible for such contrasting responses. • We measured seeds and wings to evaluate species dispersal potential. We compared seed viability and tolerance to shrub leachates with germination trials. To evaluate seedbed preferences, we compared seedling occurrence on the different seedbeds with seedbed relative abundance in the field. • Seed germination was similar between L. laricina and P. mariana, whereas dispersal potential was higher for the latter. Germination of P. mariana seeds was more strongly inhibited by shrub leachates than were L. laricina seeds. In the field, we found only a few Picea seedlings, but numerous seedlings of Larix had established disproportionally on several seedbeds. While Betula glandulosa, mosses, and Vaccinium uliginosim impeded Larix establishment, numerous seedlings were found on lichens, mineral soil, and liverworts. The low occurrence of suitable seedbeds for Picea, mainly mineral soil, could explain the seedling scarcity of this species. • This study highlighted that allelopathy and unsuitable seedbeds could contribute to regeneration failure of P. mariana in eastern Nunavik and emphasizes the need to consider ecological preferences of species before predicting treeline expansion under a warmer climate.

  10. The origin and evolution of phototropins

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    Fay-Wei eLi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant phototropism, the ability to bend toward or away from light, is predominantly controlled by blue-light photoreceptors, the phototropins. Although phototropins have been well-characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, their evolutionary history is largely unknown. In this study, we complete an in-depth survey of phototropin homologs across land plants and algae using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data. We show that phototropins originated in an ancestor of Viridiplantae (land plants + green algae. Phototropins repeatedly underwent independent duplications in most major land-plant lineages (mosses, lycophytes, ferns, and seed plants, but remained single-copy genes in liverworts and hornworts—an evolutionary pattern shared with another family of photoreceptors, the phytochromes. Following each major duplication event, the phototropins differentiated in parallel, resulting in two specialized, yet partially overlapping, functional forms that primarily mediate either low- or high-light responses. Our detailed phylogeny enables us to not only uncover new phototropin lineages, but also link our understanding of phototropin function in Arabidopsis with what is known in Adiantum and Physcomitrella (the major model organisms outside of flowering plants. We propose that the convergent functional divergences of phototropin paralogs likely contributed to the success of plants through time in adapting to habitats with diverse and heterogeneous light conditions.

  11. Inter- and interspecific serological relationships in Pellia epiphylla complex

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    Aleksandra Wojnicka-Półtorak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic proteins were used as markers for the study of relationships between three liverwort species from P. epiphylla complex. It has recently been shown that the electrophoretic phenotypes of this species suggested an amphiploid origin of P. borealis. Two sibling species: P. epiphylla -species S and -species N could have probably represented the parental species for P. borealis. We examined three clones of P. borealis from different localities using immunodiffusion. Then we compared them with P. epiphylla species S and N as well as with the mixture of proteins of P. epiphylla S and N samples. The results indicate that polyploid P. borealis shows an identical immunological pattern to that of the mixture of proteins of putative parental species. Only in one case the result resembled much more the pattern of P. epiphylla S proteins. The sibling species P. epiphylla S and N showed antigenic difference but the nature of the differences requires further studies. Antigenic pro-perties of proteins from P. epiphylla S and N and of their allopolyploid - P. borealis, indicated some specifity of the protein spectrum in each of the parental species and intermediate character of proteins in the polyploid forms.

  12. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  13. Biostimulation of inoculation with Glomus proliferum and application of humic acid in the in vitro growth of Lunularia cruciata

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    Camila Pinheiro Nobre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the growth of the liverwort Lunularia cruciata, inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF Glomus proliferum (15 spores per Petri dish, in Strullu-Romand Variant (SRV medium modified and enriched with humic acid (HA at different concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg C L−1, as well as the sporulation of the AMF. We assessed the absolute growth rate (AGR and relative growth rate (RGR at inoculation, as well as at 7, 14, 21, 28, 43, 52 and 60 days after inoculation (DAI, whereas we assessed sporulation at 25, 43, 60 and 70 DAI. The main determinant of L. cruciata growth was the presence of AMF. With and without G. proliferum inoculation, respectively, the AGR peaked at 39 and 42 DAI, and the RGR was 0.0474 and 0.0387 cm² cm−2 d−1. Doses of 20 and 80 mg C L−1 of HA had a positive influence on the growth of L. cruciata. With and without HA, respectively, the AGR peaked at 38 and 39 DAI, and the RGR was 0.0484 and 0.0422 cm² cm−2 d−1. The sporulation of G. proliferum, which was as high as 199 spores plate−1, was influenced by HA, especially at 20 and 80 mg C L−1.

  14. The Mechanism Forming the Cell Surface of Tip-Growing Rooting Cells Is Conserved among Land Plants.

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    Honkanen, Suvi; Jones, Victor A S; Morieri, Giulia; Champion, Clement; Hetherington, Alexander J; Kelly, Steve; Proust, Hélène; Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Prescott, Helen; Dolan, Liam

    2016-12-05

    To discover mechanisms that controlled the growth of the rooting system in the earliest land plants, we identified genes that control the development of rhizoids in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. 336,000 T-DNA transformed lines were screened for mutants with defects in rhizoid growth, and a de novo genome assembly was generated to identify the mutant genes. We report the identification of 33 genes required for rhizoid growth, of which 6 had not previously been functionally characterized in green plants. We demonstrate that members of the same orthogroup are active in cell wall synthesis, cell wall integrity sensing, and vesicle trafficking during M. polymorpha rhizoid and Arabidopsis thaliana root hair growth. This indicates that the mechanism for constructing the cell surface of tip-growing rooting cells is conserved among land plants and was active in the earliest land plants that existed sometime more than 470 million years ago [1, 2]. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Atractiellomycetes belonging to the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina) form mycorrhizae with terrestrial and epiphytic neotropical orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottke, Ingrid; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Herrera, Paulo; Cruz, Dario; Bauer, Robert; Haug, Ingeborg; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2010-01-01

    Distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the diverse mycorrhizal associations of land plants. All previously known mycorrhiza-forming Basidiomycota associated with trees, ericads, liverworts or orchids are hosted in Agaricomycetes, Agaricomycotina. Here we demonstrate for the first time that Atractiellomycetes, members of the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina), are mycobionts of orchids. The mycobionts of 103 terrestrial and epiphytic orchid individuals, sampled in the tropical mountain rainforest of Southern Ecuador, were identified by sequencing the whole ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and part of 28S rDNA. Mycorrhizae of 13 orchid individuals were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Simple septal pores and symplechosomes in the hyphal coils of mycorrhizae from four orchid individuals indicated members of Atractiellomycetes. Molecular phylogeny of sequences from mycobionts of 32 orchid individuals out of 103 samples confirmed Atractiellomycetes and the placement in Pucciniomycotina, previously known to comprise only parasitic and saprophytic fungi. Thus, our finding reveals these fungi, frequently associated to neotropical orchids, as the most basal living basidiomycetes involved in mycorrhizal associations of land plants. PMID:20007181

  16. Bryological exploration: field-trip based learning to develop competencies of science teacher candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisanti; Astriani, D.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was analyze the competencies of science teacher candidate after the bryological exploration. The intended competence of science teacher candidate was the ability to apply the concept and science ability to explore plant diversity that could be found around the environment.This field trip was conducted by exploring liverworts, hornworts, and mosses as well. This descriptive research was conducted during March until April 2017 at Universitas Negeri Surabaya (UNESA) and Sumber Brantas Arboretum in Malang, as the location of exploration. The subjects of this study were 76 candidate of teachers from science educations department, which is divided into three classes. The competences observed on this study were describing, identifying, collecting specimens, furthermore. The research instruments were observation sheets, product assessment sheets, and response questionnaire. The data were analyzed descriptive-quantitatively, in percentage and then categorized. The results of this study indicated that: the describing skill was categorized as ‘good’ identifying skill and collecting bryophytes was categorized as ‘very good’ and communicating skills was categorized ‘good’. In addition, the teacher candidates gave a very good response to field-trip-based learning. It can be concluded that the bryological exploration can develop the competences of science teacher candidates of Science Education Department of UNESA.

  17. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

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    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  18. Methylobacteria isolated from bryophytes and the 2-fold description of the same microbial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, S; Kutschera, U

    2013-02-01

    On the surface of healthy land plants (embryophytes), numerous non-pathogenic bacteria have been discovered and described. Among these epiphytic microbes, pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic microbes of the genus Methylobacterium are of special significance, because these microorganisms consume methanol emitted via the stomatal pores and secrete growth-promoting phytohormones. Methylobacterium funariae, Schauer and Kutschera 2011, a species isolated in our lab from the common cord moss, described as a nova species in this journal, was recently characterized for a second time as a "new taxon" under a different name, "M. bullatum." Based on a phylogenetic analysis, we show that these taxa are identical. In addition, we provide novel information on the exact cell size, and describe the correct type locality of this bacterial species, which was classified as a phytosymbiont. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis that certain methylobacteria may preferentially colonize bryophytes. With reference to our recent discovery that thalli of ferns form, like liverworts and moss protonemata, associations with methylobacteria, we argue that the haploid phase of cryptogames are preferred host organisms of these pink-pigmented microbial phytosymbionts.

  19. Bryophytes and revegetation of coal spoils in southern Iowa. [14 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvey, K.; Farrar, D.R.; Glenn-Lewin, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Strip mining of coal in southern Iowa has left many scattered areas of coal spoils which provide a type of habitat unique to the region. The occurrence and distribution of 29 mosses and 2 liverworts on these spoils was determined and related to the general process of spoil revegetation. The spoil bryophyte flora was compared with Conard's (1956) list of bryophytes for the region. An increase in per cent cover and in species diversity of bryophytes was observed with increasing age of spoils, and was correlated with increased vascular plant cover. Dicranella heteromalla and Ceratodon purpureus were found to be common throughout the spoils, whereas all other species were limited to more protected sites, especially on north-facing slopes. Mosses did not appear to colonize very exposed areas on the spoils, but were limited to areas with some protection provided, especially by vascular plants. Several disjunct or highly localized moss populations were found including one new state record and thirteen new county records.

  20. Bryophytes from Tuxedni Wilderness area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The bryoflora of two small maritime islands, Chisik and Duck Island (2,302 ha), comprising Tuxedni Wilderness in western lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. The field study was conducted from sites selected to represent the totality of environmental variation within Tuxedni Wilderness. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare the bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 286 bryophytes were identified: 230 mosses and 56 liverworts. Bryum miniatum, Dichodontium olympicum, and Orthotrichum pollens are new to Alaska. The annotated list of species for Tuxedni Wilderness expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Central Pacific Coast district. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Tuxedni Wilderness primarily includes taxa of boreal (61%), montane (13%), temperate (11%), arctic-alpine (7%), cosmopolitan (7%), distribution; 4% of the total moss flora are North America endemics. A brief summary of the botanical exploration of the general area is provided, as is a description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types of Chisik and Duck Islands.

  1. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  2. Ecology and functional roles of biological soil crusts in semi-arid ecosystems of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Cantón, Yolanda; Castillo-Monroy, Andrea P.; Cortina, Jordi; Escolar, Cristina; Escudero, Adrián; Lázaro, Roberto; Martínez, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs), composed of lichens, cyanobacteria, mosses, liverworts and microorganisms, are key biotic components of arid and semi-arid ecosystems worldwide. Despite they are widespread in Spain, these organisms have been historically understudied in this country. This trend is beginning to change as a recent wave of research has been identifying BSCs as a model ecological system. Many studies and research projects carried out in Spain have explored the role of BSCs on water, carbon and nitrogen fluxes, the interactions between BSCs and vascular plants, their dynamics after disturbances, and their response to global change, among other topics. In this article we review the growing body of research on BSCs available from semi-arid areas of Spain, highlighting its importance for increasing our knowledge on this group of organisms. We also discuss how it is breaking new ground in emerging research areas on the ecology of BSCs, and how it can be use to guide management and restoration efforts. Finally, we provide directions for future research on the ecology of BSCs in Spain and abroad. PMID:25908884

  3. Light-induced modification of plant plasma membrane ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, I; Deeken, R; Hedrich, R; Roelfsema, M R G

    2010-09-01

    Light is not only the driving force for electron and ion transport in the thylakoid membrane, but also regulates ion transport in various other membranes of plant cells. Light-dependent changes in ion transport at the plasma membrane and associated membrane potential changes have been studied intensively over the last century. These studies, with various species and cell types, revealed that apart from regulation by chloroplasts, plasma membrane transport can be controlled by phytochromes, phototropins or channel rhodopsins. In this review, we compare light-dependent plasma membrane responses of unicellular algae (Eremosphaera and Chlamydomonas), with those of a multicellular alga (Chara), liverworts (Conocephalum), mosses (Physcomitrella) and several angiosperm cell types. Light-dependent plasma membrane responses of Eremosphaera and Chara are characterised by the dominant role of K(+) channels during membrane potential changes. In most other species, the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of plasma membrane anion channels represents a general light-triggered event. Cell type-specific responses are likely to have evolved by modification of this general response or through the development of additional light-dependent signalling pathways. Future research to elucidate these light-activated signalling chains is likely to benefit from the recent identification of S-type anion channel genes and proteins capable of regulating these channels.

  4. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae): loss of an inverted repeat region and comparative analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Li, Ruyi; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae) is a domestic variety of yew species in local China. This plant is one of the sources for paclitaxel, which is a promising antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs during the last decade. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of T. chinensis var. mairei. The T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome is 129,513 bp in length, with 113 single copy genes and two duplicated genes (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG). Among the 113 single copy genes, 9 are intron-containing. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome has lost one of the large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperm such as Cycas revoluta and Ginkgo biloba L. Compared to related species, the gene order of T. chinensis var. mairei has a large inversion of ~110kb including 91 genes (from rps18 to accD) with gene contents unarranged. Repeat analysis identified 48 direct and 2 inverted repeats 30 bp long or longer with a sequence identity greater than 90%. Repeated short segments were found in genes rps18, rps19 and clpP. Analysis also revealed 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Patterns of bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania

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    Danguolė Andriušaitytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research data on bryophyte diversity in arable land throughout the territory of Lithuania. The bryoflora was analyzed regarding systematic structure and morphological forms, life-history strategies, mode of reproduction and frequency of species. Bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania was compared with that of Slovakia and the British Isles, which are positioned in different geographical regions of Europe. A total of 97 species of bryophytes of 25 families and 48 genera were ascertained. Dominance of acrocarpous mosses and thalloid liverworts, high representation of Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, Mielichhoferiaceae and Ricciaceae families as well as Bryum, Dicranella, Pohlia and Riccia genera, wide distribution of annual shuttles and ephemeral colonists, high reproduction effort of the species (frequent sporophytes and asexual propagules were specific features of the bryophytes of the studied habitats as a result of adaptations to regular disturbances. The distribution of species into six frequency groups seemed to be uneven. The most abundant group of species with the lowest frequency (1–3 records covered 53.6% of all species. The group contained about 90% of all many-year potential life span species recorded in the habitat. Species with short life span were distributed quite evenly throughout frequency groups. No regionally-specific species were ascertained in the studied habitat. Most of arable-land-specific species recorded in Lithuania is distributed throughout different regions of Europe.

  6. Major new sources of biological ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T.; Henderson-Begg, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all research on biological ice nucleation has focussed on a limited number of bacteria. Here we characterise several major new sources of biogenic ice nuclei. These include mosses, hornworts, liverworts and cyanobacteria. Ice nucleation in the eukaryotic bryophytes appears to be ubiquitous. The temperature at which these organisms nucleate is that at which the difference in vapour pressure over ice and water is at or close to its maximum. At these temperatures (-8 to -18 degrees C) ice will grow at the expense of supercooled water. These organisms are dependent for their water on occult precipitation - fog, dew and cloudwater which by its nature is not collected in conventional rain gauges. Therefore we suggest that these organism produce ice nuclei as a water harvesting mechanism. Since the same mechanism would also drive the Bergeron-Findeisen process, and as moss is known to become airborne, these nuclei may have a role in the initiation of precipitation. The properties of these ice nuclei are very different from the well characterised bacterial nuclei. We will also present DNA sequence data showing that, although related, the proteins responsible are only very distantly related to the classical bacterial ice nuclei.

  7. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

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    Knut Eisermann

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2 000 and 2 400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus, the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus, the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens, the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii, and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus. Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Sørensen similarity index 0.85, indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, ~27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson’s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla. The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia, and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 577-594. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Las alturas del norte de Centroamérica han sido reconocidas como región de aves endémicas, pero se conoce poco sobre las comunidades de aves en bosques nubosos de Guatemala. De 1997 a 2001 se han detectado 142 especies de aves entre 2 000 y 2 400 msnm en el bosque nuboso y áreas agr

  8. Cytogenetics and cytotaxonomy of some Brazilian species of Cymbidioid orchids

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    Leonardo Pessoa Félix

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cymbidioid phylad presents the widest chromosome number variation among orchids, with records varying from 2n = 10 in Psygmorchis pusilla to 2n = 168 in two species of Oncidium. In the present work, a total of 44 species were studied belonging to 20 Cymbidioid genera, as a contribution to clarifying the karyological evolution of the group. All the plants investigated were collected in Brazil, mainly in the northeast region. The chromosome variation found was similar to that previously registered in the literature. Chromosome numbers observed were: 2n = 54 (subtribe Eulophiinae, 2n = 44, 46, 92 (subtribe Cyrtopodiinae, 2n = 54, ca. 108 (subtribe Catasetinae, 2n = 52, ca. 96 (subtribe Zygopetalinae, 2n = 40, 80 (subtribe Lycastinae, 2n = 40, 42 (subtribe Maxillariinae, 2n = 40 (subtribe Stanhopeinae, 2n = 56 (subtribe Ornithocephalinae, and 2n = 12, 20, 30, 36, 42, 44, 56, 112, ca. 168 (subtribe Oncidiinae. Interphase nuclei varied widely from simple chromocenter to complex chromocenter types, with no apparent cytotaxonomic value. In the genera Catasetum and Oncidium, the terrestrial and lithophytic species presented higher ploidy levels than the epiphytic species, suggesting a higher adaptability of the polyploids to those habitats. The primary base number x = 7 seems to be associated to the haploid chromosome numbers of most Cymbidioid groups, although n = 7 was observed only in two extant genera of Oncidiinae. For each tribe, subtribe and genus the probable base numbers were discussed along with the possible relationships to the primary base number x1 = 7 admitted for the whole phylad.O clado Cymbidioid apresenta a mais ampla variação cromossômica numérica entre as orquidáceas, com registros desde 2n = 10 em Psygmorchis pusilla, até 2n = 168 em duas espécies de Oncidium. No presente trabalho, foram estudadas um total de 44 espécies pertencentes a 20 gêneros deste grupo, visando contribuir para esclarecer a evolução cariol

  9. Trias de Tripolitaine (Libye. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et palynologiques Trias of Tripolitania (Libya. New Biostratigraphic and Palynological Data (Part Two

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    Massa D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le Trias du nord-ouest de la Libye (Tripolitaine, a été antérieurement étudié en grand détail sur les zones d'affleurements. Les datations proposées étaient peu précises voire inexactes. . . Dans ce travail ont été étudiés les sondages pétroliers antérieurement forés. Cinq unités ont été définies pour le Trias, basées sur les électrofaciès et sur les séquences lithologiques. On peut établir facilement les corrélations régionales de ces unités, toujours caractérisables malgré d'importantes variations d'épaisseur. En combinant les données de la micropaléontologie et de la palynologie, il est possible de proposer une biostratigraphie satisfaisante des différentes unités du Trias. Le Permien moyen/supérieur est daté par une microflore assez classique. Le Scythien supérieur, transgressif est caractérisé par la microfaune, notamment Meandrospira pusilla. Le Trias moyen (Anisien et Ladinien est daté par palynologie. Le Carnien renferme une riche association de Spores, de Pollens, de Foraminifères, d'Algues et de Coprolites. Le Norien semble bien être représenté entre le Carnien supérieur et l'Infra-Lias, bien que l'association palynologique soit peu diversifiée. IL semble bien établi que le Trias soit complet, sans lacunes. On tentera de reconstituer les milieux de dépôts successifs. On recherchera les affinités et les différences entre le Trias tripolitain et le Trias des domaines germanique, alpin et mésogéen. The outcrops of the Trias of North-West Libya (Tripolitania have been studied in great detail. The proposed age dating was not always precise and sometimes not exact. This recent study was done on several oil exploration wells. Five Units have been defined for the Trias, based on Electrofacies and on lithological sequences. These Units are easily correlated in the region, maintaining their character despite important thickness variations. Combining the micropaleontological and palynological

  10. Marine bird abundance around the Pribilof Islands: A multi-year comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Jaime; Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Decker, Mary Beth; Hunt, George L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We examined trends in the abundance and distribution of 12 species of marine birds around the Pribilof Islands, southeastern Bering Sea, over the period from 1977 to 2004. We contrasted patterns among piscivores and planktivores and related these to known and hypothesized changes in the abundance and distribution of prey in the vicinity of the islands. Planktivorous and piscivorous species of marine birds showed different patterns of abundance over time. Planktivorous seabirds that breed away from the Pribilof Islands (e.g., short-tailed shearwaters [ Puffinus tenuirostris], fork-tailed storm-petrels [ Oceanodroma furcata] and red phalaropes [ Phalaropus fulicarius]) were scarce in the 1970s, were abundant in the 1980s, and declined in abundance in the 1990s and from 1999 to 2004. Planktivorous alcids combined (parakeet [ Aethia psittacula], crested [ A. cristatella] and least [ A. pusilla]) that breed on the Pribilof Islands showed a similar remarkable four-fold increase from the 1970s to the 1980s, but then a small increase into the 1990s followed by a rapid decline in the 2000s to numbers similar to those present during the 1970s. The abundance of piscivores kittiwakes ( Rissa spp.) and murres ( Una spp.) was high in the 1970s and declined through the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. In 1999 and 2004, the total number of all seabirds at sea around the Pribilof Islands was well below the numbers seen at any other survey period. We hypothesize that changes in the abundances and types of seabirds present through time reflect changes in the structure of the marine ecosystem of the eastern Bering Sea shelf. We suggest that changes in pathways of energy flow may be responsible for these shifts, though the possibility that there has been a reduction in productivity cannot be ruled out given the scarcity of available data.

  11. Foraging ecology as related to the distribution of planktivorous auklets in the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, George L.; Harrison, Nancy M.; Piatt, John F.

    1993-01-01

    We review recent accounts of the foraging ecologies of  five species of small auklets found in the Bering Sea. These birds eat a wide variety of zooplankton and micronekton. Least Auklets Aethia pusilla and Whiskered Auklets A. pygmaea, as far as is known, primarily eat copepods, whereas Created Auklets A. cristatella appear to specialize on euphausiids, at least during the breeding season. The diet of Parakeet Auklets Cyclorrhynchus psittacula is much broader than that of most other Aethia species, and includes many gelatinous species and their commensals. Little is known of the diet of Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus in the Bering Sea, although elsewhere they take large copepods, euphausiids, and larval fish.There are considerable differences in the at-sea distributions and foraging behaviors of these five species of auklet. Least Auklets in the norhtern Bering Sea concentrate their foraging activities over strongly stratified water and near fronts where pycnoclines may approach the surface. In the Aleutian Islands, Least Auklets forage where oceanic and tidal currents strike the shelf between the islands and rise toward the surface carrying plankton. Least Auklets and Crested Auklets are often found in large flocks, whereas Parakeet Auklets are rarely found in groups of more than three birds and are usually widely dispersed. The few at-sea observations of Whiskered Auklets have been of small flocks in turbulent waters of island passes. We relate prey types taken, foraging dispersion, and the use of hydrographic features by these auklet species.

  12. The first hop: Use of Beaufort Sea deltas by hatch-year semipalmated sandpipers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchwell, Roy T.; Kendall, Steve J.; Brown, Stephen C.; Blanchard, Arny L.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Powell, Abby

    2018-01-01

    River deltas along Alaska’s Beaufort Sea coast are used by hatch-year semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) after leaving their terrestrial natal sites, but the drivers of their use of these stopover sites on the first “hop” of fall migration are unknown. We quantified sandpiper temporal distribution and abundance as related to food resources at three river deltas during the beginning of their fall migration (post-breeding period) to compare the habitat quality among these deltas. We conducted population counts, sampled invertebrates, and captured birds to collect blood samples from individuals for triglyceride and stable isotope analyses to determine fattening rates and diet. Patterns of sandpiper and invertebrate abundance were complex and varied among deltas and within seasons. River deltas were used by sandpipers from late July to late August, and peak sandpiper counts ranged from 1000 to 4000 individuals, of which 98% were hatch-year semipalmated sandpipers. Isotopic signatures from blood plasma samples indicated that birds switched from a diet of upland tundra to delta invertebrate taxa as the migration season progressed, suggesting a dependence on delta invertebrates. Despite differences in diet among deltas, we found no differences in fattening rates of juvenile sandpipers as indicated by triglyceride levels. The number of sandpipers was positively associated with abundance of Amphipoda and Oligochaeta at the Jago and Okpilak-Hulahula deltas; an isotopic mixing model indicated that sandpipers consumed Amphipoda and Oligochaeta at Jago, mostly Chironomidae at Okpilak-Hulahula and Spionidae at Canning. Regardless of the difference in sandpiper diets at the Beaufort Sea deltas, their similar fattening rates throughout the season indicate that all of these stopover sites provide a critical food resource for hatch-year sandpipers beginning their first migration.

  13. Songbird response to increased willow (Salix spp.) growth in Yellowstone's northern range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Lisa M; Hansen, Andrew J; Renkin, Roy; Lawrence, Rick

    2011-09-01

    After nearly a century of height suppression, willows (Salix spp.) in the northern range of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., are increasing in height growth as a possible consequence of wolf (Canis lupus) restoration, climate change, or other factors. Regardless of the drivers, the recent release of this rare but important habitat type could have significant implications for associated songbirds that are exhibiting declines in the region. Our objective was to evaluate bird response to releasing willows by comparing willow structure and bird community composition across three willow growth conditions: height suppressed, recently released, and previously tall (i.e., tall prior to the height increase of released willows). Released and previously tall willows exhibited high and similar vertical structure, but released willows were significantly lower in horizontal structure. Suppressed willows were significantly shorter and lower in horizontal cover than released or previously tall willows. Bird richness increased along a gradient from lowest in suppressed to highest in previously tall willows, but abundance and diversity were similar between released and previously tall willows, despite lower horizontal cover in the released condition. Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) were found in all three growth conditions; however, Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus), Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodii) were present in released and previously tall willows only. Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) was found in previously tall willows only, appearing to specialize on tall, dense willows. The results of our a priori habitat models indicated that foliage height diversity was the primary driver of bird richness, abundance, and diversity. These results indicate that vertical structure was a more important driver of bird community variables than horizontal

  14. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

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    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  15. Sedimentary environments in the south-western Barents Sea during the last deglaciation and the Holocene: a case study outside the Ingøydjupet trough

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    Mauro Pau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A lithological and foraminiferal study of newly acquired sediment cores outside the Ingøydjupet (Ingøy Deep trough has been carried out to improve constraints on the last deglacial history in the south-western Barents Sea. Three lithofacies and three foraminiferal facies were identified. The lowermost lithological unit is a diamicton interpreted as glacial till. It contains a low-abundance, ecologically mixed foraminiferal assemblage, presumably resulting from glacial reworking. Above the diamicton, a layer of ice-rafted debris (IRD, likely associated with intensive iceberg production, marks the initial destabilization of the marine-based ice sheet. At this time, ca. 15.6–15.0 Ky B.P., opportunistic foraminiferal species Nonionellina labradorica and Stainforthia spp. reached peak abundance. During the south-western Barents Sea ice-margin retreat, presumably corresponding to the Bølling interstadial, a sequence of glaciomarine laminations was deposited conformably on the layer of IRD. Sedimentation rates were apparently high (estimated about 0.4 cm per year and the foraminiferal fauna was dominated by Elphidium spp. and Cassidulina reniforme, species common for glacier-proximal environments. A hiatus at the top of the deglacial unit is likely linked to the high bottom-current activity associated with a strengthened inflow of Atlantic water masses into the Barents Sea. The uppermost lithological unit is represented by the Holocene marine sandy mud. It contains a high-abundance, high-diversity foraminiferal fauna with common cassidulinids, Cibicides spp., Epistominella pusilla and planktic species.

  16. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  17. Seeds of Brassicaceae weeds have an inherent or inducible response to the germination stimulant karrikinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rowena L; Stevens, Jason C; Griffiths, Erin M; Adamek, Markus; Gorecki, Marta J; Powles, Stephen B; Merritt, David J

    2011-10-01

    Karrikinolide (KAR(1)) is a smoke-derived chemical that can trigger seeds to germinate. A potential application for KAR(1) is for synchronizing the germination of weed seeds, thereby enhancing the efficiency of weed control efforts. Yet not all species germinate readily with KAR(1), and it is not known whether seemingly non-responsive species can be induced to respond. Here a major agronomic weed family, the Brassicaceae, is used to test the hypothesis that a stimulatory response to KAR(1) may be present in physiologically dormant seeds but may not be expressed under all circumstances. Seeds of eight Brassicaceae weed species (Brassica tournefortii, Raphanus raphanistrum, Sisymbrium orientale, S. erysimoides, Rapistrum rugosum, Lepidium africanum, Heliophila pusilla and Carrichtera annua) were tested for their response to 1 µm KAR(1) when freshly collected and following simulated and natural dormancy alleviation, which included wet-dry cycling, dry after-ripening, cold and warm stratification and a 2 year seed burial trial. Seven of the eight Brassicaceae species tested were stimulated to germinate with KAR(1) when the seeds were fresh, and the remaining species became responsive to KAR(1) following wet-dry cycling and dry after-ripening. Light influenced the germination response of seeds to KAR(1), with the majority of species germinating better in darkness. Germination with and without KAR(1) fluctuated seasonally throughout the seed burial trial. KAR(1) responses are more complex than simply stating whether a species is responsive or non-responsive; light and temperature conditions, dormancy state and seed lot all influence the sensitivity of seeds to KAR(1), and a response to KAR(1) can be induced. Three response types for generalizing KAR(1) responses are proposed, namely inherent, inducible and undetected. Given that responses to KAR(1) were either inherent or inducible in all 15 seed lots included in this study, the Brassicaceae may be an ideal target for

  18. Biological responses of Crested and Least auklets to volcanic destruction of nesting habitat in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Gary S.; Piatt, John F.; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2018-01-01

    Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella) and Least Auklets (A. pusilla) are crevice-nesting birds that breed in large mixed colonies at relatively few sites in the Aleutian Island archipelago, Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and Sea of Okhotsk. Many of these colonies are located on active volcanic islands. The eruption of Kasatochi volcano, in the central Aleutians, on August 7, 2008, completely buried all crevice-nesting seabird habitat on the island. This provided an opportunity to examine the response of a large, mixed auklet colony to a major geological disturbance. Time-lapse imagery of nesting habitat indicated that both species returned to the largest pre-eruption colony site for several years, but subsequently abandoned it within 5 yr after the eruption. In 2010, a rockfall site in a cove north of the old colony site began to accumulate talus, and groups of auklets were observed using the site in 2011. Use of the new colony appeared to coincide with the abandonment of the old colony site by both species, though surface counts suggested that Least Auklets shifted to the new colony sooner than Crested Auklets. At-sea surveys of seabirds before and after the eruption indicated that both Crested and Least auklets shifted their at-sea distributions from the waters around Kasatochi Island to nearby Koniuji Island. In combination, at-sea counts and colony time-lapse imagery indicated that Crested and Least auklets using Kasatochi responded to the volcanic disturbance and complete loss of nesting habitat at the main colony on Kasatochi with dispersal either to newly created habitat on Kasatochi or to an alternate colony on a nearby island.

  19. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  1. Seasonal Variation in Group Size Is Related to Seasonal Variation in Neuropeptide Receptor Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leah C; Goodson, James L; Kingsbury, Marcy A

    2016-01-01

    In many species, seasonal variation in grouping behavior is widespread, with shifts towards territoriality in the breeding season and grouping in the winter. Compared to the hormonal and neural mechanisms of seasonal territorial aggression, the mechanisms that promote seasonal grouping have received little attention. We collected brains in spring and winter from wild-caught males of two species of emberizid sparrows that seasonally flock (the field sparrow, Spizella pusilla, and the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis) and two species that do not seasonally flock (the song sparrow, Melospiza melodia, and the eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus). We used receptor autoradiography to quantify seasonal plasticity in available binding sites for three neuropeptides known to influence social behavior. We examined binding sites for 125I-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), 125I-sauvagine (SG, a ligand for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors) and 125I-ornithine vasotocin analog (OVTA, a ligand for the VT3 nonapeptide). For all species and ligands, brain areas that exhibited a seasonal pattern in binding density were characterized by a winter increase. Compared to nonflocking species, seasonally flocking species showed different binding patterns in multiple brain areas. Furthermore, we found that winter flocking was associated with elevated winter 125I-VIP binding density in the medial amygdala, as well as 125I-VIP and 125I-OVTA binding density in the rostral arcopallium. While the functional significance of the avian rostral arcopallium is unclear, it may incorporate parts of the pallial amygdala. Our results point to this previously undescribed area as a likely hot spot of social modulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Modeling the flocking propensity of passerine birds in two Neotropical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Lars Y; Cooper, Robert J; Petit, Lisa J

    2007-08-01

    We examined the importance of mixed-species flock abundance, individual bird home range size, foraging height, and foraging patch characteristics in predicting the propensity for five Neotropical passerine bird species (Slaty Antwren, Myrmotherula schisticolor; Golden-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus; Slate-throated Redstart, Myioborus miniatus; Wilson's Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla; and Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia) to forage within flocks, rather than solitarily. We used study plots in primary mid-elevation forest and in shade coffee fields in western Panama. We expected that all species would spend as much time as possible flocking, but that the social and environmental factors listed above would limit compatibility between flock movements and individual bird movements, explaining variability in flocking propensity both within and among species. Flocking propensity was well predicted by home range size and flock abundance together, for four of the five species. While flock abundance was uniform across plots, home range sizes varied among species and plots, so that home range size appeared to be the principle factor limiting flocking propensity. Estimates of flock abundance were still required, however, for calculating flocking propensity values. Foraging height and patch characteristics slightly improved predictive ability for the remaining species, M. miniatus. In general, individual birds tended to join flocks whenever one was available inside their home range, regardless of a flock's specific location within the home range. Flocking propensities of individual species were lower in shade coffee fields than in forests, and probably vary across landscapes with variations in habitat. This variability affects the stability and species composition of flocks, and may affect survival rates of individual species.

  3. Change in numbers of resident and migratory shorebirds at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico, USA (1985–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Morgan A.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Colon, Jose A.; Ramos Alvarez, Katsi R.; Diaz, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    North American migratory shorebirds have declined markedly since the 1980s, underscoring the importance of population surveys to conduct status and trend assessments. Shorebird surveys were conducted during three multi-year periods between 1985 and 2014 and used to assess changes in numbers and species composition at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico, USA, a site of regional importance in the eastern Caribbean. Eight fewer species (total = 21) were recorded in 2013–2014 as compared to the 29 from 1985–1992; all eight species were Nearctic migrants. Small calidrids had the highest population counts; however, this suite of species and all others experienced a ≥ 70% decline. Combined counts from the salt flats and neighboring wetlands in 2013–2014 were lower than counts only from the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats in two previous multi-year survey periods, which indicated a real change in numbers not just a shift in wetland use. Invertebrate prey density was lower in 2013–2014 than in 1994. Body fat condition of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), an index of habitat quality, did not differ between 1985–1992 and 2013–2014. These findings do not exclude the possibility that other species might be affected by lower prey density, or that local declines in numbers reflect changes at hemispheric, not local, scales. The magnitude of change between local and hemispheric scales closely matched for some species. Continued monitoring at the salt flats is warranted to help gauge the status of shorebirds in Puerto Rico and discern the probable cause of declines. Monitoring other sites in the Caribbean is needed for stronger inferences about regional status and trends.

  4. Behavioral response of Corophium volutator to shorebird predation in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C MacDonald

    Full Text Available Predator avoidance is an important component of predator-prey relationships and can affect prey availability for foraging animals. Each summer, the burrow-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator is heavily preyed upon by Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla on mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada. We conducted three complementary studies to determine if adult C. volutator exhibit predator avoidance behavior in the presence of sandpipers. In a field experiment, we monitored vertical distribution of C. volutator adults in bird exclosures and adjacent control plots before sandpipers arrived and during their stopover. We also made polymer resin casts of C. volutator burrows in the field throughout the summer. Finally, we simulated shorebird pecking in a lab experiment and observed C. volutator behavior in their burrows. C. volutator adults were generally distributed deeper in the sediment later in the summer (after sandpipers arrived. In August, this response was detectably stronger in areas exposed to bird predation than in bird exclosures. During peak predator abundance, many C. volutator adults were beyond the reach of feeding sandpipers (>1.5 cm deep. However, burrow depth did not change significantly throughout the summer. Detailed behavioral observations indicated that C. volutator spent more time at the bottom of their burrow when exposed to a simulated predator compared to controls. This observed redistribution suggests that C. volutator adults move deeper into their burrows as an anti-predator response to the presence of sandpipers. This work has implications for predators that feed on burrow-dwelling invertebrates in soft-sediment ecosystems, as density may not accurately estimate prey availability.

  5. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  6. Causes of ring-related leg injuries in birds - evidence and recommendations from four field studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Griesser

    Full Text Available One of the main techniques for recognizing individuals in avian field research is marking birds with plastic and metal leg rings. However, in some species individuals may react negatively to rings, causing leg injuries and, in extreme cases, the loss of a foot or limb. Here, we report problems that arise from ringing and illustrate solutions based on field data from Brown Thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla (2 populations, Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus and Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens (Malurus coronatus. We encountered three problems caused by plastic rings: inflammations triggered by material accumulating under the ring (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens, contact inflammations as a consequence of plastic rings touching the foot or tibio-tarsal joint (Brown Thornbills, and toes or the foot getting trapped in partly unwrapped flat-band colour rings (Siberian Jays. Metal rings caused two problems: the edges of aluminium rings bent inwards if mounted on top of each other (Brown Thornbills, and too small a ring size led to inflammation (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens. We overcame these problems by changing the ringing technique (using different ring types or larger rings, or using different adhesive. Additionally, we developed and tested a novel, simple technique of gluing plastic rings onto metal rings in Brown Thornbills. A review of studies reporting ring injuries (N = 23 showed that small birds (35 g tend to get rings stuck over their feet. We give methodological advice on how these problems can be avoided, and suggest a ringing hazard index to compare the impact of ringing in terms of injury on different bird species. Finally, to facilitate improvements in ringing techniques, we encourage online deposition of information regarding ringing injuries of birds at a website hosted by the European Union for Bird Ringing (EURING.

  7. Desenvolvimento dos frutos nas espécies selvagens de amendoim (Arachis spp. Fruit development in wild species of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. Mendes Conagin

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies selvagens de amendoim apresentam frutos completamente diferentes dos frutos do amendoim cultivado (Arachis hypogaea L.. Nesta espécie os frutos têm duas a cinco sementes justapostas dentro de uma única loja; externamente são observadas constrições na casca do fruto as quais em alguns casos se acentuam não chegando, entretanto, a produzir unia separação entre as sementes. Nas espécies selvagens os frutos apresentam duas sementes apenas, completamente separadas uma da outra por uma constrição muito profunda ou mesmo por um istmo de comprimento variável. Para êsses frutos foi adotada a denominação de "frutos catenados" e o estudo de seu desenvolvimento foi feito nas espécies Arachis monticola Krapovickas et Rigoni e A. villosa Benth. var. correntina Burk. O ovário, unilocular, tem normalmente dois óvulos. A futura separação das duas sementes se origina num tecido intercalar que se forma em ovários ainda jovens e que separa em duas a cavidade inicial única. Êste tecido tem a estrutura de um "peg" e, como êle, desidrata-se durante o processo de amadurecimento do fruto, tomando-se sêco e quebradiço; por essa razão, ao colhêr os frutos, a maioria dêles se apresenta unisseminado. Em 50% dos casos os óvulos se desenvolvem igualmente, conduzindo à formação de frutos com duas sementes. Quando os dois óvulos não se desenvolvem ao mesmo tempo, é mais freqüente o colapso do óvulo apical, cujo crescimento é paralisado cm diversos estados de desenvolvimento; isto conduz à formação de frutos com apenas uma semente ou com uma semente abortada. Além dessas duas, as seguintes espécies apresentam frutos catenados: Arachis Diogoi Hoehne f. typica Hoehne, A. glabrata Benth., A. pusilla Benth., A. marginata Gardn. (segundo Burkart, A. prostrata Benth. (segundo Burkart, e mais três espécies ainda não identificadas, mas que constam da coleção da Seção de Citologia como V. 44, V. 82 e V. 85. A V. 44 deve

  8. Evaluation of the enter surface dose, dose in organ and E effective dose, received by personnel and patients in studies of endoscopic retrograde cholangeopancreatography in the General Hospital of Mexico; Evaluacion de la dosis de entrada superficie, dosis en organo y dosis efectiva E, recibidas por personal y pacientes en estudios de colangiopancreatografia retrograda endoscopica en el Hospital General de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Gama T, G [Calidad XXI SA de CV, Zacatecas 67-007 Col. Roma, 06700 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Beristain, M; Espino, H [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The ESD for patient and personal is measured: gastroenterologuist endoscopist G1, A1 Assistant and A2 instrumentist that carried out 22 independent therapeutic procedures of CPRE, in a fluoroscopy equipment Toshiba trademark with tube under the table, operated in automatic exposure mode, CAE to average tensions of 80 kVp. The measurement is carried out with film dosemeters of double emulsion Kodak Type 2 trademark, calibrated in terms of H{sup *} for the energy of the {sup 137} Cs, first it is determined the films sensitivity like function of the optical density DO, and second the ESD for the effective energy of the radiation beam (50 keV), in three different points from the dosemeter (C, D and H). The films was placed for the personnel in: right hand, front (eye), thyroid and thorax (under D and out F of the lead apron); in the case of the patient three positions were used: thorax, hepatic region and pelvis. The mean values of the ESD and it standard deviation SD in mGy units are determined by: study, personnel, film position in doctor and patient, dosemeter measurement point. The calculated doses in organ are also determined for the patient in the thorax region, liverwort and pelvis its are agreement with the NRPB SR 262 report. Finally the H{sub E} and E for medical personnel and patients are estimated demonstrating that its are not exceeded the annual dose limits for the case of the OEP. In the case of the the OEP have for the D thorax an ESD{sub max} = 0.04 mGy that one corresponds an H{sub E} = 0.02 and E = 0.01 mSv. (Author)

  9. ITS1: a DNA barcode better than ITS2 in eukaryotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Cun; Liu, Chang; Huang, Liang; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Chen, Haimei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Cai, Dayong; Li, Jian-Qin

    2015-05-01

    A DNA barcode is a short piece of DNA sequence used for species determination and discovery. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS/ITS2) region has been proposed as the standard DNA barcode for fungi and seed plants and has been widely used in DNA barcoding analyses for other biological groups, for example algae, protists and animals. The ITS region consists of both ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Here, a large-scale meta-analysis was carried out to compare ITS1 and ITS2 from three aspects: PCR amplification, DNA sequencing and species discrimination, in terms of the presence of DNA barcoding gaps, species discrimination efficiency, sequence length distribution, GC content distribution and primer universality. In total, 85 345 sequence pairs in 10 major groups of eukaryotes, including ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, liverworts, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, monocotyledons, eudicotyledons, insects and fishes, covering 611 families, 3694 genera, and 19 060 species, were analysed. Using similarity-based methods, we calculated species discrimination efficiencies for ITS1 and ITS2 in all major groups, families and genera. Using Fisher's exact test, we found that ITS1 has significantly higher efficiencies than ITS2 in 17 of the 47 families and 20 of the 49 genera, which are sample-rich. By in silico PCR amplification evaluation, primer universality of the extensively applied ITS1 primers was found superior to that of ITS2 primers. Additionally, shorter length of amplification product and lower GC content was discovered to be two other advantages of ITS1 for sequencing. In summary, ITS1 represents a better DNA barcode than ITS2 for eukaryotic species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De Los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T G Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  11. Bryophyte-Feeders in a Basal Brachyceran Lineage (Diptera: Rhagionidae: Spaniinae: Adult Oviposition Behavior and Changes in the Larval Mouthpart Morphology Accompanied with the Diet Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yume Imada

    Full Text Available Dipteran larval morphology exhibits overwhelming variety, affected by their diverse feeding habits and habitat use. In particular, larval mouthpart morphology is associated with feeding behavior, providing key taxonomic traits. Despite most larval Brachycera being carnivorous, a basal brachyceran family, Rhagionidae, contains bryophyte-feeding taxa with multiple feeding habits. To elucidate the life history, biology, and morphological evolution of the bryophyte-feeding rhagionids, the larval feeding behavior and morphology, and the adult oviposition behavior of four species belonging to three genera of Spaniinae (Spania Meigen, Litoleptis Chillcott and Ptiolina Zetterstedt are described. Moreover, changes of the larval morphology associated with the evolution of bryophyte-feeding are traced by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Spania and Litoleptis (thallus-miners of thallose liverworts share a toothed form of apical mandibular sclerite with an orifice on its dorsal surface, which contrasts to those of the other members of Rhagionidae possessing a blade-like mandibular hook with an adoral groove; whereas, Ptiolina (stem borer of mosses exhibits a weak groove on the adoral surface of mandible and highly sclerotized maxilla with toothed projections. Based on the larval feeding behavior of the thallus-miners, it is inferred that the toothed mandibles with the dorsal orifice facilitate scraping plant tissue and then imbibing it with a great deal of the sap. A phylogeny indicated that the bryophyte-feeding genera formed a clade with Spaniopsis and was sister to Symphoromyia, which presumably are detritivores. This study indicates that the loss or reduction of adoral mandibular groove and mandibular brush is coincident with the evolution of bryophyte-feeding, and it is subsequently followed by the occurrence of dorsal mandibular orifice and the loss of creeping welts accompanying the evolution of thallus-mining.

  12. Boreal bog plants: nitrogen sources and uptake of recently deposited nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordbakken, J.F.; Ohlson, M.; Hoegberg, P.

    2003-01-01

    The main goals of this study were to determine the δ 15 N signature of quantitatively important boreal bog plants as basis for discussing their N sources, and to assess the effects of five different 3 year N treatments (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 kg N ha -1 year -1 ) on the bog plants and surface peat at different depths (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 cm) by using 15 N as tracer. Plants and peat were analyzed for N concentration, 15 N natural abundance and 15 N at.%. From the results we draw three main conclusions: First, the relative importance of different N sources is species-specific among bog plants. Second, an annual addition of 5 kg N ha -1 year -1 was sufficient to significantly increase the N concentration in Sphagnum mosses, liverworts and shallow rooted vascular plants, and an annual addition of 40 kg N ha -1 year -1 during 3 years was not sufficient to increase the N concentration in deep rooted plants, although the 15 N content increased continuously, indicating a possible longer term effect. Third, an annual addition of 40 kg N ha -1 year -1 during 3 years increased the N content in surface peat at depths of 5 and 10 cm, but not at depths of 20 and 40 cm, indicating the capacity of the living Sphagnum mosses and the surface peat to take up deposited N, and thereby function as a filter. - Living Sphagnum mosses and surface peat function as a filter for added nitrogen

  13. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with briophytes in Brotas, State of São Paulo, Brazil Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associadas a briófitas em Brotas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rossi Gorni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosses and liverworts can be colonized by various invertebrates, including fresh water oligochaete worms. However, little information is available on the habits and habitats of this oligochaetes in Brazil. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the occurrence of naidids in mosses, as well as to broaden the knowledge about the habitats of these oligochaetes. Sampling of bryophytes adhered to rock substrates in the rapids of the Jacaré Pepira River (municipality of Brotas, São Paulo, Brazil and to a vertical rock wall of a waterfall near the river revealed 191 Naididae individuals of the species Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 and Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. We believe this to be the first record of naidids associated with mosses in Brazil.Musgos e hepáticas podem ser colonizados por diversos invertebrados, incluindo os vermes Oligochaeta. Contudo, existe pouca informação na literatura brasielira sobre os hábitos e hábitats destes oligoquetos. Portanto, o presente trabalho foi realizado para examinar a ocorrência de naidídeos em musgos, bem como aumentar o conhecimento dos habitats destes anelídeos. A coleta de briófitas aderidas a substratos rochosos nas corredeiras do Rio Jacaré Pepira (Brotas-SP e à parede rochosa vertical de uma cachoeira localizada nas proximidades do referido rio revelou 191 indivíduos de três espécies de Naididae: Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 e Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. Acredita-se que este seja o primeiro registro de Naididae vivendo em briófitas no Brasil.

  14. Dihydroptychantol A, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl derivative, induces autophagy and following apoptosis associated with p53 pathway in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xia; Wu, William K.K.; Sun Bin; Cui Min; Liu Shanshan; Gao Jian; Lou Hongxiang

    2011-01-01

    Dihydroptychantol A (DHA), a novel macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound extracted from liverwort Asterella angusta, has antifungal and multi-drug resistance reversal properties. Here, the chemically synthesized DHA was employed to test its anti-cancer activities in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Our results demonstrated that DHA induced autophagy followed by apoptotic cell death accompanied with G 2 /M-phase cell cycle arrest in U2OS cells. DHA-induced autophagy was morphologically characterized by the formation of double membrane-bound autophagic vacuoles recognizable at the ultrastructural level. DHA also increased the levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy. Surprisingly, DHA-mediated apoptotic cell death was potentiated by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, suggesting that autophagy may play a protective role that impedes the eventual cell death. Furthermore, p53 was shown to be involved in DHA-meditated autophagy and apoptosis. In this connection, DHA increased nuclear expression of p53, induced p53 phosphorylation, and upregulated p53 target gene p21 Waf1/Cip1 . In contrast, cytoplasmic p53 was reduced by DHA, which contributed to the stimulation of autophagy. In relation to the cell cycle, DHA decreased the expression of cyclin B 1 , a cyclin required for progression through the G 2 /M phase. Taken together, DHA induces G 2 /M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U2OS cells. DHA-induced apoptosis was preceded by the induction of protective autophagy. DHA-mediated autophagy and apoptosis are associated with the cytoplasmic and nuclear functions of p53.

  15. Effect of plagiochin E, an antifungal macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl), on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-zhen WU; Ai-xia CHENG; Ling-mei SUN; Hong-xiang LOU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of plagiochin E (PLE), an antifungal macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl) isolated from liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L, on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans. Methods: The effect of PLE on chitin synthesis in Candida albicans was investigated at the cellular and molecular lev-els. First, the ultrastructural changes were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Second, the effects of PLE on chitin synthetase (Chs) activi-ties in vitro were assayed using 6-O-dansyl-N-acetylglucosamine as a fluorescent substrate, and its effect on chitin synthesis in situ was assayed by spheroplast regeneration. Finally, real-time RT-PCR was performed to assay its effect on the expression of Chs genes (CHS). Results: Observation under TEM showed that the structure of the cell wall in Candida albicans was seriously damaged, which suggested that the antifungal activity of PLE was associated with its effect on the cell wail. Enzymatic assays and spheroplast regeneration showed that PLE inhibited chitin synthesis in vitro and in situ. The results of the PCR showed that PLE significantly downregulated the expression of CHS1, and upregulated the expression of CHS2 and CHS3. Because different Chs is regulated at different stages of transcription and post-translation, the downregulation of CHS1 would decrease the level of Chs 1 and inhibit its activity, and the inhibitory effects of PLE on Chs2 and Chs3 would be at the post-translational level or by the inhibi-tion on the enzyme-active center. Conclusion: These results indicate that the antifungal activity of PLE would be attributed to its inhibitory effect on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans.

  16. Diaspore bank of bryophytes in tropical rain forests: the importance of breeding system, phylum and microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-Silva, Adaíses S; Válio, Ivany Ferraz Marques; Rydin, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Diaspore banks are crucial for the maintenance and resilience of plant communities, but diaspore banks of bryophytes remain poorly known, especially from tropical ecosystems. This is the first study to focus on the role of diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests. Our aim was to test whether microhabitat (substrate type) and species traits (breeding system, phylum) are important in explaining the diaspore bank composition. Using samples cultivated in the laboratory, we assessed the number of species and shoots emerging from bark, decaying wood and soil from two sites of the Atlantic rain forest (montane and sea level) in Brazil by comparing the contribution of species by phylum (mosses, liverworts) and breeding system (monoicous, dioicous). More species emerged from bark (68) and decaying wood (55) than from soil (22). Similar numbers of species were found at both sites. Mosses were more numerous in terms of number of species and shoots, and monoicous species dominated over dioicous species. Substrate pH had only weak effects on shoot emergence. Species commonly producing sporophytes and gemmae had a high contribution to the diaspore banks. These superficial diaspore banks represented the extant vegetation rather well, but held more monoicous species (probably short-lived species) compared to dioicous ones. We propose that diaspore bank dynamics are driven by species traits and microhabitat characteristics, and that short-term diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests contribute to fast (re)establishment of species after disturbances and during succession, particularly dioicous mosses investing in asexual reproduction and monoicous mosses investing in sexual reproduction.

  17. Distribution and diversity of Tardigrada along altitudinal gradients in the Hornsund, Spitsbergen (Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Zawierucha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two transects were established and sampled along altitudinal gradients on the slopes of Ariekammen (77°01′N; 15°31′E and Rotjesfjellet (77°00′N; 15°22′E in Hornsund, Spitsbergen. In total 59 moss, lichen, liverwort and mixed moss–lichen samples were collected and 33 tardigrade species of Hetero- and Eutardigrada were found. The α diversity ranged from 1 to 8 per sample; the estimated number of species based on all analysed samples was 52±17 for the Chao 2 estimator and 41 for the incidence-based coverage estimator. According to the results of detrended canonical correspondence analysis, altitude and type of substratum were the most important factors influencing tardigrade communities in the investigated area. Macrobiotus crenulatus, M. hufelandi hufelandi and Hypsibius pallidus dominated in the lower elevations, whereas Echiniscus wendti and E. merokensis merokensis prevailed in samples from higher plots. Macrobiotus islandicus islandicus was collected most often from mosses collected from rock whereas Isohypsibius coulsoni from mosses collected from soil. Analyses of covariance were employed to test for differences in species richness between the transects in relation to altitude. Contrary to expectations, there were significant differences in species richness between the transects, but richness was not significantly related to altitude. Interestingly, significant effects of colonies of seabirds, little auk (Alle alle, on the tardigrades communities were detected. Additionally, in one of the samples first ever males of Milnesium asiaticum were found. Their measurements and microphotographs are provided herein.

  18. Jungermanniales (Marchantiophyta da Chapada da Ibiapaba, Ceará, Brasil Jungermanniales (Marchantiophyta of the Ibiapaba Plateau, Ceará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A Chapada da Ibiapaba, localiza-se ao norte do estado do Ceará, possuindo uma extensão de 110 km com alitudes variando entre 800 e 1100 m. No inventário florístico de briófitas realizado na área, foram encontradas 15 espécies de hepáticas folhosas, pertencentes a odaem Jungermanniales, distribuídas em oito gêneros e seis famílias. Das espécies encontradas, cinco representam novos registros para o estado do Ceará e quatro para a região Nordeste. Chiloscyphus serratus (Mitt. J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. é citada pela segunda vez para o Brasil. São fornecidos chaves de identificação para as famílias e espécies, distribuição geográfica, comentários referentes à ambiente, substratos e caracteres taxonômicos pertinentes, além de ilustração para Heteroscyphus contortuplicatus (Nees & Mont. Grolle.The Ibiapaba Plateau, north zone of Ceara, Brazil, has a length of 110 km with altitudes between 800 and 1.100 m. In the bryophytes floristic survey conducted in the area, 15 species of liverworts were found, wich belong to the order Jungermanniales, distributed in eight genera and six families. Among the species found, five represent new records for the state of Ceara and four for the Northeast region. Chiloscyphus serratus (Mitt. J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. is cited by the second time for Brazil. Identification keys to the families and species, geographic distribution, comments on the environment, substrate and important taxonomic characters are provided for the species found. An Illustration has been made for Heteroscyphus contortuplicatus (Nees & Mont. Grolle.

  19. Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T. G. Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition. PMID:24819926

  20. Evaluation of the enter surface dose, dose in organ and E effective dose, received by personnel and patients in studies of endoscopic retrograde cholangeopancreatography in the General Hospital of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, S.; Gama T, G.; Beristain, M.; Espino, H.

    2006-01-01

    The ESD for patient and personal is measured: gastroenterologuist endoscopist G1, A1 Assistant and A2 instrumentist that carried out 22 independent therapeutic procedures of CPRE, in a fluoroscopy equipment Toshiba trademark with tube under the table, operated in automatic exposure mode, CAE to average tensions of 80 kVp. The measurement is carried out with film dosemeters of double emulsion Kodak Type 2 trademark, calibrated in terms of H * for the energy of the 137 Cs, first it is determined the films sensitivity like function of the optical density DO, and second the ESD for the effective energy of the radiation beam (50 keV), in three different points from the dosemeter (C, D and H). The films was placed for the personnel in: right hand, front (eye), thyroid and thorax (under D and out F of the lead apron); in the case of the patient three positions were used: thorax, hepatic region and pelvis. The mean values of the ESD and it standard deviation SD in mGy units are determined by: study, personnel, film position in doctor and patient, dosemeter measurement point. The calculated doses in organ are also determined for the patient in the thorax region, liverwort and pelvis its are agreement with the NRPB SR 262 report. Finally the H E and E for medical personnel and patients are estimated demonstrating that its are not exceeded the annual dose limits for the case of the OEP. In the case of the the OEP have for the D thorax an ESD max = 0.04 mGy that one corresponds an H E = 0.02 and E = 0.01 mSv. (Author)

  1. Identification of Putative Precursor Genes for the Biosynthesis of Cannabinoid-Like Compound in Radula marginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajammul Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The liverwort Radula marginata belongs to the bryophyte division of land plants and is a prospective alternate source of cannabinoid-like compounds. However, mechanistic insights into the molecular pathways directing the synthesis of these cannabinoid-like compounds have been hindered due to the lack of genetic information. This prompted us to do deep sequencing, de novo assembly and annotation of R. marginata transcriptome, which resulted in the identification and validation of the genes for cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway. In total, we have identified 11,421 putative genes encoding 1,554 enzymes from 145 biosynthetic pathways. Interestingly, we have identified all the upstream genes of the central precursor of cannabinoid biosynthesis, cannabigerolic acid (CBGA, including its two first intermediates, stilbene acid (SA and geranyl diphosphate (GPP. Expression of all these genes was validated using quantitative real-time PCR. We have characterized the protein structure of stilbene synthase (STS, which is considered as a homolog of olivetolic acid in R. marginata. Moreover, the metabolomics approach enabled us to identify CBGA-analogous compounds using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 1085 transcription factors (TF from 39 families. Comparative analysis showed that six TF families have been uniquely predicted in R. marginata. In addition, the bioinformatics analysis predicted a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Our results collectively provide mechanistic insights into the putative precursor genes for the biosynthesis of cannabinoid-like compounds and a novel transcriptomic resource for R. marginata. The large-scale transcriptomic resource generated in this study would further serve as a reference transcriptome to explore the Radulaceae family.

  2. The first complete chloroplast genome sequence of a lycophyte,Huperzia lucidula (Lycopodiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Paul G.; Karol, Kenneth G.; Mandoli, Dina F.; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Arumuganathan, K.; Ellis, Mark W.; Mishler, Brent D.; Kelch,Dean G.; Olmstead, Richard G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    We used a unique combination of techniques to sequence the first complete chloroplast genome of a lycophyte, Huperzia lucidula. This plant belongs to a significant clade hypothesized to represent the sister group to all other vascular plants. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate the organelles, rolling circle amplification (RCA) to amplify the genome, and shotgun sequencing to 8x depth coverage to obtain the complete chloroplast genome sequence. The genome is 154,373bp, containing inverted repeats of 15,314 bp each, a large single-copy region of 104,088 bp, and a small single-copy region of 19,671 bp. Gene order is more similar to those of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts than to gene order for other vascular plants. For example, the Huperziachloroplast genome possesses the bryophyte gene order for a previously characterized 30 kb inversion, thus supporting the hypothesis that lycophytes are sister to all other extant vascular plants. The lycophytechloroplast genome data also enable a better reconstruction of the basaltracheophyte genome, which is useful for inferring relationships among bryophyte lineages. Several unique characters are observed in Huperzia, such as movement of the gene ndhF from the small single copy region into the inverted repeat. We present several analyses of evolutionary relationships among land plants by using nucleotide data, amino acid sequences, and by comparing gene arrangements from chloroplast genomes. The results, while still tentative pending the large number of chloroplast genomes from other key lineages that are soon to be sequenced, are intriguing in themselves, and contribute to a growing comparative database of genomic and morphological data across the green plants.

  3. Bryophyte communities as biomonitors of environmental factors in the Goujiang karst bauxite, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Zhihui

    2015-12-15

    Bauxite mining on karst results in several ecological and environmental issues including heavy metal pollution, soil erosion and the destruction of vegetation. In turn, these may affect the distribution of plant communities and endanger human health. In general, bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are pioneer plants, lacking roots, vascular systems and well-developed cuticles. Due to their high sensitivity to the environment, they are often used to monitor air and soil pollution. A total of 25 bryophyte taxa from 19 genera and 9 families were recorded on Goujiang karst bauxite near the city of Zunyi in the Guizhou Province of southwestern China. Eleven principal bryophyte communities were identified, most of which consisted of only one species (monospecific assemblage), although the proportion of these single-species communities differed at the six locations. The levels of heavy metals also differed in soil from the six locations: iron, 8748.9-10,023μg/g; zinc, 146.7-240.9μg/g; copper, 24.6-60.4μg/g; and nickel, 35.6-95.1μg/g. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the bryophyte communities and environmental variables revealed the effect of gradient (slope), altitude and heavy metals in the soil on the distribution of the principal bryophyte communities. More than 36% of bryophyte taxa identified reproduced asexually by gemmae, as gemmiferous bryophyte communities tolerate substrates with high levels of heavy metals more readily than non-gemmiferous communities do. The distribution of heavy metals in the soil is reflected in the distribution of the bryophyte communities. The distribution characteristics of the principal bryophyte communities and of the gemmiferous bryophyte communities are useful in monitoring heavy metal pollution in karst bauxite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Insights into the Evolution of Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins from 1000 Plant Transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kim L; Cassin, Andrew M; Lonsdale, Andrew; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Soltis, Douglas E; Miles, Nicholas W; Melkonian, Michael; Melkonian, Barbara; Deyholos, Michael K; Leebens-Mack, James; Rothfels, Carl J; Stevenson, Dennis W; Graham, Sean W; Wang, Xumin; Wu, Shuangxiu; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Carpenter, Eric J; Bacic, Antony; Doblin, Monika S; Schultz, Carolyn J

    2017-06-01

    The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall-based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs), and proline-rich proteins. Using motif and amino acid bias, a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline, we identified HRGPs in sequences from the 1000 Plants transcriptome project (www.onekp.com). Our analyses provide new insights into the evolution of HRGPs across major evolutionary milestones, including the transition to land and the early radiation of angiosperms. Significantly, data mining reveals the origin of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored AGPs in green algae and a 3- to 4-fold increase in GPI-AGPs in liverworts and mosses. The first detection of cross-linking (CL)-EXTs is observed in bryophytes, which suggests that CL-EXTs arose though the juxtaposition of preexisting SP n EXT glycomotifs with refined Y-based motifs. We also detected the loss of CL-EXT in a few lineages, including the grass family (Poaceae), that have a cell wall composition distinct from other monocots and eudicots. A key challenge in HRGP research is tracking individual HRGPs throughout evolution. Using the 1000 Plants output, we were able to find putative orthologs of Arabidopsis pollen-specific GPI-AGPs in basal eudicots. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Insights into the Evolution of Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins from 1000 Plant Transcriptomes1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassin, Andrew M.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Miles, Nicholas W.; Melkonian, Michael; Melkonian, Barbara; Wu, Shuangxiu; Edger, Patrick P.; Carpenter, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall-based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs), and proline-rich proteins. Using motif and amino acid bias, a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline, we identified HRGPs in sequences from the 1000 Plants transcriptome project (www.onekp.com). Our analyses provide new insights into the evolution of HRGPs across major evolutionary milestones, including the transition to land and the early radiation of angiosperms. Significantly, data mining reveals the origin of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored AGPs in green algae and a 3- to 4-fold increase in GPI-AGPs in liverworts and mosses. The first detection of cross-linking (CL)-EXTs is observed in bryophytes, which suggests that CL-EXTs arose though the juxtaposition of preexisting SPn EXT glycomotifs with refined Y-based motifs. We also detected the loss of CL-EXT in a few lineages, including the grass family (Poaceae), that have a cell wall composition distinct from other monocots and eudicots. A key challenge in HRGP research is tracking individual HRGPs throughout evolution. Using the 1000 Plants output, we were able to find putative orthologs of Arabidopsis pollen-specific GPI-AGPs in basal eudicots. PMID:28446636

  6. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldén, Anna; Ovaskainen, Otso; Kotiaho, Janne S; Laaka-Lindberg, Sanna; Halme, Panu

    2014-01-01

    Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L.) retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered) and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old-growth forests.

  7. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oldén

    Full Text Available Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L. retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old

  8. Use of aquaculture ponds and other habitats by autumn migrating shorebirds along the lower Mississippi river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Sarah E; Krementz, David G

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  9. Influence of pycnocline topography and water-column structure on marine distributions of alcids (Aves: Alcidae) in Anadyr Strait, Northern Bering Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, J. Christopher

    1991-01-01

    Systematic ship-board surveys were used to simultaneously record seabird abundances and resolve coarse-scale (3 to 10 km) horizontal and fine-scale (1 to 10 m) vertical variability in water-column structure and bathymetry for portions of the coastal zone in Anadyr Strait near western St. Lawrence Island, northern Bering Sea, Alaska, during August and September 1987. Three plankton-feeding alcids, parakeet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula), crested (Aethia cristatella) and least (A. pusilla) auklets, each exhibited distinct associations for different pycnocline characteristics. Least auklets were more abundant in mixed water, but they also occurred within stratified water where the pycnocline and upper-mixed layer were shallow (≤8 m) and thin (≤10 m), respectively. Low body mass (85 g), high buoyancy, and relatively poor diving ability may have restricted this auklet to areas where water-column strata nearly intersected the surface, or to areas from which strata were absent altogether due to strong vertical mixing. Parakeet and crested auklets, which are larger-bodied (ca. 260 g) planktivores with presumably greater diving ability, were more abundant in stratified water, and both species exhibited less specific affinities for water-column characteristic at intermediate and shallow levels. All three auklets avoided locations with strong pycnocline gradients (≤0.22σtm−1), a crude index of the strong, subsurface shear in water velocities characteristic of this region. Auklet distributions in Anadyr Strait were consistent with: (1) strata accessibility, as estimated from relationships between body mass and relative diving ability, (2) possible avoidance of strong subsurface water motions, and (3) habits and distributions of plankton prey. In contrast, largebodied (>450 g) alcids [i.e., common (Uria aalge) and thick-billed (U. lomvia) murres, pigeon guillemots (Cephus columba), tufted (Fratercula cirrhata), and horned (F. corniculata) puffins feeding on fish or

  10. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.

    2016-10-01

    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  11. Influence of human development and predators on nest survival of tundra birds, Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebezeit, J R; Kendall, S J; Brown, S; Johnson, C B; Martin, P; McDonald, T L; Payer, D C; Rea, C L; Streever, B; Wildman, A M; Zack, S

    2009-09-01

    Nest predation may influence population dynamics of birds on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, USA. Anthropogenic development on the ACP is increasing, which may attract nest predators by providing artificial sources of food, perches, den sites, and nest sites. Enhanced populations or concentrations of human-subsidized predators may reduce nest survival for tundra-nesting birds. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nest survival decreases in proximity to human infrastructure. We monitored 1257 nests of 13 shorebird species and 619 nests of four passerine species at seven sites on the ACP from 2002 to 2005. Study sites were chosen to represent a range of distances to infrastructure from 100 m to 80 km. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to evaluate the effects of background (i.e., natural) factors and infrastructure on nest survival. We documented high spatial and temporal variability in nest survival, and site and year were both included in the best background model. We did not detect an effect of human infrastructure on nest survival for shorebirds as a group. In contrast, we found evidence that risk of predation for passerine nests increased within 5 km of infrastructure. This finding provides quantitative evidence of a relationship between infrastructure and nest survival for breeding passerines on the ACP. A posteriori finer-scale analyses (within oil field sites and individual species) suggested that Red and Red-necked Phalaropes combined (Phalaropus fulicarius, P. lobatus) had lower productivity closer to infrastructure and in areas with higher abundance of subsidized predators. However, we did not detect such a relationship between infrastructure and nest survival for Semipalmated and Pectoral Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla, C. melanotos), the two most abundant shorebirds. High variability in environmental conditions, nest survival, and predator numbers between sites and years may have contributed to these inconsistent results

  12. Phytoplankton virus production negatively affected by iron limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans A Slagter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fe-limited monocultures of the ubiquitous algae Micromonas pusilla and Phaeocystis globosa were infected with their respective viruses (MpV and PgV to ascertain the effect of Fe-limitation on phytoplankton host-virus dynamics. The effect of the viral shunt on Fe concentrations and bioavailability is starting to gain attention, since not only is Fe released through lysis, but also its solubility is increased by the simultaneous release of Fe-binding dissolved organic ligands. However, the effect of Fe-limitation on the process of viral lysis itself is poorly understood. In this study fine adjustment of a seawater-based culture medium including the use of ultra-clean trace metal conditions and protocols allowed for Fe-limited growth at nanomolar amounts as opposed to micromolar amounts typically employed in culturing. Viral lysates derived from Fe-limited and Fe-replete (for comparison hosts were cross-inoculated in hosts of both Fe treatments, to judge the quality of the resulting lysate as well as the effect of Fe introduction after initial infection. For both phytoplankton host-virus systems, the virus burst size reduced strongly under Fe stress, i.e. on average 28 ±1% of replete. Moreover, the MpV virus progeny showed highly reduced infectivity of 30±7%, whereas PgV infectivity was not affected. A small addition of Fe to Fe-limited cultures coming from the Fe-replete lysate counteracted the negative effect of Fe-limitation on phytoplankton virus production to some extent (but still half of replete, implying that the physiological history of the host at the moment of infection was an important underlying factor. These results indicate that Fe-limitation has the strong potential to reduce the loss of phytoplankton due to virus infection, thereby affecting the extent of Fe-cycling through the viral shunt. To what extent this affects the contribution of viral lysis-induced organic ligand release needs further study.

  13. The Neogene Environment of the Beardmore Glacier, Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Cantrill, D. J.; Francis, J. E.; Roof, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Discontinuous sequences of Neogene marine and non-marine glacigenic sequences, including the Meyer Desert Formation (MDF), occur throughout the Transantarctic Mountains. The upper 85m of the MDF, consisting of interbedded diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones and siltstones, outcrops in the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at 85° 07'S, 166° 35'E. The location is about 170 km south of the confluence of the Beardmore Glacier with the Ross Ice Shelf and about 500 km north of the South Pole The glacial, fluvioglacial and glaciolacustrine facies of the MDF represent a dynamic glacial margin which advanced and retreated on at least four occasions. On at least one occasion, the retreat was sufficiently long for plants and animals to colonize the head of a major fjord which existed in the place of the existing Beardmore Glacier. From the fossils we have identified at least 18 species of plants, 3 species of insects, 2 species of freshwater mollusks, and a species of fish. The plant fossils consist of pollen, seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, wood, and in situ plants. The plants include a cryptogamic flora of mosses and liverworts, conifers, and angiosperms in the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Nothofagaceae, Ranunculaceae, Hippuridaceae, ?Caryophyllaceae, and ?Chenopodiaceae or ?Myrtaceae. The plants grew in a weakly developed soil developed on a complex periglacial environment that included moraines, glacial outwash streams, well-drained gravel ridges, and poorly drained depressions in which peat and marl were being deposited. The fossil assemblage represents a mosaic tundra environment of well- and poorly-drained micro-sites, in which nutrient availability would have been patchily distributed. Antarctica has been essentially in a polar position since the Early Cretaceous and at 85° S receives no sunlight from the middle of March until the end of September. Today, the annual radiation received is about 42% that of Tierra del Fuego at 55° S. During the Neogene

  14. Temporal changes of meadow and peatbog vegetation in the landscape of a small-scale river valley in Central Roztocze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Szum is a right-side tributary of the Tanew River crossing the southern escarpment zone of the Central Roztocze region (SE Poland. Downstream of the strict river break in a section between the 10th and 12th km of the river course in the Szum valley, meadow and peatbog complexes have developed, associated with semi-hydrogenic and marshy soils. In an area of approx. 13 ha of the most valuable non-forest habitats, a variety of plant communities have been identified, including habitats of the Natura 2000 network and habitats that are protected under the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment (2001. These are, for instance, meadow associations Lysimachio vulgaris-Filipenduletum, Lythro-Filipenduletum, Filipendulo ulmariae-Menthetum longifoliae, Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei, and Cirsietum rivularis. The moss–sedge and sphagnum bog communities comprise noteworthy associations Caricetum limosae, Rhynchosporetum albae, Caricetum lasiocarpae, Caricetum paniceo-lepidocarpae, Caricetum davallianae, and Sphagnetum magellanici. These communities are composed of ca. 160 vascular plant species and 40 moss and liverwort species. In 1999–2014, the greatest changes occurred within macroforb meadows, i.e. small Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei and Cirsietum rivularis patches have been transformed into Lysimachio vulgaris-Filipenduletum, while some patches of the latter association have been transformed into a Caricetum acutiformis rush. Several patches of bog-spring associations Caricetum paniceo-lepidocarpae and Carici canescentis-Agrostietum caninae have been irretrievably destroyed. Sphagnetum magellanici appears to be the least stable community among the preserved peatbogs. The changes of meadow and peatbog vegetation observed for the last 15 years are a consequence of natural processes that take place in the river valley and to a large extent human activity connected with the so-called small-scale water retention as well as the presence of a beaver

  15. How biological crusts are stabilizing the soil surface? The devolpment of organo-mineral interactions in the initial phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Veste, M.; Wiehe, W.; Lange, P.

    2009-04-01

    First colonizers of new land surfaces are cryptogames which often form biological soil crusts (BSC) covering the first millimetre of the top soil in many ecosystems from polar to desert ecosystems. These BSC are assemblages of cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi and/or lichens. The development of soil surface crusts plays a major role for the further vegetation pattern through changes to the physico-chemical conditions and influencing various ecosystem processes. We studied the development of BSC on quaternary substrate of an initial artificial water catchment in Lusatia, Germany. Due to lack of organic matter in the geological substrate, photoautotrophic organisms like green algae and cyanobacteria dominated the initial phases of ecosystem development and, hence, of organo-mineral ineractions. We combined SEM/EDX and FTIR microscopy to study the contact zone of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of green algae and cyanobacteria with quartz, spars and mica on a >40 µm scale in undisturbed biological soil crusts, which had a maximum thickness of approx. 2 mm. SEM/EDX microscopy was used to determine the spatial distribution of S, Ca, Fe, Al, Si and K in the profiles, organic compounds were identified using FTIR microscopy. Exudates of crust organisms served as cementing material between sand particles. The crust could be subdivided into two horizontal layers. The upper layer, which had a thickness of approx. 200 µm, is characterized by accumulation of Al and K, but absence of Fe in microbial derived organic matter, indicating capture of weathering products of feldspars and mica by microbial exudates. The pore space between mineral particles was entirely filled with organic matter here. The underlying layer can be characterized by empty pores and organo-mineral bridges between the sand particles. Contrarily to the upper layer of the crust, Fe, Al and Si were associated with organic matter here but K was absent. Highest similarity of the FTIR

  16. Distribution and floristics of moss- and lichen-dominated soil crusts in a patterned Callitris glaucophylla woodland in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, David J.

    1999-05-01

    The distribution and abundance of soil crust lichens and bryophytes was examined in a patterned Callitris glaucophylla woodland in eastern Australia. Twenty-one lichen species and 26 bryophyte species were collected within thirty quadrats along a sequence of runoff, interception and runoff zones. Crust cover was significantly greatest in the interception zones (79.0 %), followed by the runoff zones (24.0 %), and lowest in the groved, runon zones (6.6 %). Lichens and bryophytes were distributed across all geomorphic zones, and, although there were significantly more moss species in the interception zones (mean = 9.1) compared with either the runoff (4.2) or runon (3.2) zones, the number of lichen species did not vary between zones. Ordination of a reduced data set of 32 species revealed a separation of taxa into distinct groups corresponding to the three geomorphic zones. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the 32 species and thirteen environmental variables revealed that the most important factors associated with the distribution of species were sheet and scarp erosion, soil stability and coherence, litter cover and crust cover. Surface cracking, microtopography and plant cover were of intermediate importance. The CCA biplot revealed that the timbered runon zones (groves) were dominated by `shade-tolerant' mosses Fissidens vittatus and Barbula hornschuchiana, whilst the heavily eroded runoff zones supported sparse populations of `erosion tolerant' lichens ( Endocarpon rogersii) and mosses (Bryum argenteum and Didymodon torquatus). Interception zones supported a rich suite of `crust forming' mosses and lichens capable of tolerating moderate inundation by overland flow. Two other groups of taxa were identified by this analysis: the `pioneer' group, comprising mainly nitrogen-fixing lichens which occupy the zone of active erosion at the lower edge of the groves, and the `opportunists' dominated by liverworts, occupying the shallow depressions or bays at the

  17. Evolution of Fractal Parameters through Development Stage of Soil Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Abelardo; Florentino, Adriana; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface characteristics are subjected to changes driven by several interactions between water, air, biotic and abiotic components. One of the examples of such interactions is provided through biological soil crusts (BSC) in arid and semi-arid environments. BSC are communities composed of cyanobacteria, fungi, mosses, lichens, algae and liverworts covering the soil surface and play an important role in ecosystem functioning. The characteristics and formation of these BSC influence the soil hydrological balance, control the mass of eroded sediment, increase stability of soil surface, and influence plant productivity through the modification of nitrogen and carbon cycle. The site of this work is located at Quibor and Ojo de Agua (Lara state, Venezuela). The Quibor Depression in Venezuela is a major agricultural area being at semi-arid conditions and limited drainage favor the natural process of salinization. Additionally, the extension and intensification of agriculture has led to over-exploitation of groundwater in the past 30 years (Méndoza et al., 2013). The soil microbial crust develops initially on physical crusts which are mainly generated since wetting and drying, being a recurrent feature in the Quíbor arid zone. The microbiotic crust is organic, composed of macro organisms (bryophytes and lichens) and microorganisms (cyanobacteria, fungi algae, etc.); growing on the ground, forming a thickness no greater than 3 mm. For further details see Toledo and Florentino (2009). This study focus on characterize the development stage of the BSC based on image analysis. To this end, grayscale images of different types of biological soil crust at different stages where taken, each image corresponding to an area of 12.96 cm2 with a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels (Ospina et al., 2015). For each image lacunarity and fractal dimension through the differential box counting method were calculated. These were made with the software ImageJ/Fraclac (Karperien, 2013

  18. The Late Pleistocene-Holocene community development in Central and SE-Europe in direct fossil record: scope of the approach, common patterns and inter-regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Ivan; Lozek, Vojen

    2010-05-01

    continuous sedimentary sequences from different regions of Czech Republic and Slovakia (850 community samples, 29,800 MNI) and neighbouring countries of Central Europe. Despite common general trends we demonstrated stricking local and regional specificities. Among other they include (a) continuous survival of several woodland elements (Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus, Micotus subterraneus, Microtus agrestis) throughout Weichselian (including LGM) in the Carpathians, (b) prolonged survival of the glacial elements Ochotona pusilla and Microtus gregalis in Pannonian basin and (c) Dicrostonyx gulielmi in the Carpathian foredeep, contrasting to (d) the early disappearance of them in S-Germany and Bohemia, and (e) similar difference were found also in other cenologic traits. While the glacial communities were nearly homogenous in their structure throughout whole the region, the Holocene development produced a considerable faunal provincialism, which was the most pronounced during Boreal. In contrast to central Europe, the available sequences from the SE-Europe and Asia Minor show only minute faunal changes during the Vistulian and Holocene, no essential rearrangements in community structure were observed (at least as the core species are concerned) and except for Lagurus no glacial immigrant did invade the region. At the same time a degree of local provincialism was continuously high and, in a regional scale, it continuously exceeded that of the Boreal central Europe.

  19. Are population dynamics of shorebirds affected by El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) while on their non-breeding grounds in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Patrick D.; Haase, Ben J. M.; Elner, Robert W.; Smith, Barry D.; Kenyon, Jamie K.

    2007-08-01

    Declines in avian populations are a global concern, particularly for species that migrate between Arctic-temperate and tropical locations. Long-term population studies offer opportunities to detect and document ecological effects attributable to long-term climatic cycles such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In this study, we report possible population-level effects of such climatic cycles on shorebird species that use two non-breeding season sites in Ecuador (Santa Elena peninsula area, near La Libertad). During our 9-year study period (1991/1992-1999/2000), there was a particularly strong ENSO warm phase event during 1997/1998. Population trend data for three species of shorebird, Western Sandpipers ( Calidris mauri), Semipalmated Sandpipers ( C. pusilla), and Least Sandpipers ( C. minutilla), indicated abundances generally declined during the 1990s, but there was an increase in the proportion of first-year birds and their abundance in the years following the 1997/1998 ENSO warm phase. There was some support for variation in apparent survivorship associated with the onset of the ENSO warm phase event in our population models, based on capture-mark-recapture data. Following the 1997/1998 ENSO event onset, individuals for all three species were significantly lighter during the non-breeding season ( F1,3789 = 6.6, p = 0.01). Least-squares mean mass (controlling for size, sex and day of capture) for first-year birds dropped significantly more than for adults following ENSO (first-year mass loss = 0.69 ± 0.12 g; adult mass loss = 0.34 ± 0.11 g, F1,3789 = 5.31, p = 0.021), and least-squares mean mass dropped most during the period when sandpipers prepare for northward migration by gaining mass and moulting into breeding plumage. Least Sandpipers may have declined the most in mean mass following ENSO (0.76 ± 0.19 g), whereas Semipalmated Sandpipers were 0.52 ± 0.12 g lighter, and Western Sandpipers 0.40 ± 0.13 g lighter, but overall variation among

  20. The analysis of the biomass and starch content of duckweed growing in swine wastewater%猪场污水中浮萍生物量和淀粉含量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昭; 姚广保; 张艺琼; 赵云

    2012-01-01

    以四川常见的青萍(Lemna minor)、少根紫萍(Spirodela olygorrhiza)、稀脉浮萍(L.perpusilla)和紫萍(S.polyrrhiza)为研究对象,研究了猪场污水浓度和接种量对其生物产量和淀粉含量的影响.结果表明在5%的猪场污水中,浮萍科的4个种都有较高的生长速率.在35.4 g/m2的接种量时,青萍的淀粉含量最高可以达到干重的32.9%;在17.7 g/m2的接种量时,少根紫萍、稀脉浮萍和紫萍的最高淀粉含量分别可达到干重的44.4%、38.o%和35.5%.在单位时间内,紫萍具有更大的生物产量,每公顷每年的产量(鲜重)89.7t,但淀粉含量偏低.经综合研究比较,在四川地区气候条件下,少根紫萍能够制造更多淀粉,每公顷每年大约能生产淀粉11.4t,适宜作为能源植物推广.%The biomass and starch content of duckweed Lemna minor, Spirodela olygorrhiza , L. per-pusilla and S. polyrrhiza, collected from Chengdu in Sichuan. were investigated when they were cultured in swine wastewater. The results showed the common duckweed could grow fast in the 5 % swine waste water. At an optimal initial inoculum size of 35. 4 g/m2, the maximum starch content of Lemna minor was 32. 9% on a dry weight basis. At an optimal initial inoculum size of 17. 7g/m2. the highest starch content of S. olygorrhiza, L. perpusilla and S. polyrrhiza was 44. 4% ,38. 0% and 35. 5% on a dry weight basis, respectively. In the climate condition of Chengdu, S. polyrrhiza could produce the most biomass and S. olygorrhiza could produce the most starch. S. polyrrhiza could produce 89. 7 tons biomass(fresh weight) per hectare per year. S. olygorrhiza could produce 11. 4 tons starch per hectare per year and would be able to be a new energy plant widely used.

  1. Técnica para preparo angioarquitetônico hepático de ratos Preparation technique for angioarquitetonic liver model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitormauro Araújo da Silva

    2000-09-01

    the objective of the present study is to demonstrate the technique for accomplishment of veined corrosing casting of the rat's liver. 10 Rattus norvegicus albinus (Wistar were used, with corporal mass between 250 and 300g, to verify the functionality of the method. The technique for preparation of vascular model presents three fundamental times: catetherization of the portal vein, intra-abdominal vena cava and intra-thoracic vena cava; prepare and infusion of the solution of acrylic; erosion in hydrochloric acid and maceration of the anatomic piece. We concluded that, this technique is feasible and it presents as advantage a low cost (30 dollars and with the use of two colors different from ink it can separate the portal vascular system of the hepatic veins drainage system, therefore being capable to mold the structure vascular liverwort of rats.

  2. Evolution of RLSB, a nuclear-encoded S1 domain RNA binding protein associated with post-transcriptional regulation of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Stata, Matt; Siford, Rebecca; Sage, Tammy L; Sage, Rowan F; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A; Berry, James O

    2016-06-29

    RLSB, an S-1 domain RNA binding protein of Arabidopsis, selectively binds rbcL mRNA and co-localizes with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) within chloroplasts of C3 and C4 plants. Previous studies using both Arabidopsis (C3) and maize (C4) suggest RLSB homologs are post-transcriptional regulators of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA. While RLSB accumulates in all Arabidopsis leaf chlorenchyma cells, in C4 leaves RLSB-like proteins accumulate only within Rubisco-containing bundle sheath chloroplasts of Kranz-type species, and only within central compartment chloroplasts in the single cell C4 plant Bienertia. Our recent evidence implicates this mRNA binding protein as a primary determinant of rbcL expression, cellular localization/compartmentalization, and photosynthetic function in all multicellular green plants. This study addresses the hypothesis that RLSB is a highly conserved Rubisco regulatory factor that occurs in the chloroplasts all higher plants. Phylogenetic analysis has identified RLSB orthologs and paralogs in all major plant groups, from ancient liverworts to recent angiosperms. RLSB homologs were also identified in algae of the division Charophyta, a lineage closely related to land plants. RLSB-like sequences were not identified in any other algae, suggesting that it may be specific to the evolutionary line leading to land plants. The RLSB family occurs in single copy across most angiosperms, although a few species with two copies were identified, seemingly randomly distributed throughout the various taxa, although perhaps correlating in some cases with known ancient whole genome duplications. Monocots of the order Poales (Poaceae and Cyperaceae) were found to contain two copies, designated here as RLSB-a and RLSB-b, with only RLSB-a implicated in the regulation of rbcL across the maize developmental gradient. Analysis of microsynteny in angiosperms revealed high levels of conservation across eudicot species and for both paralogs in

  3. A revision of ant-mimicking spiders of the family Corinnidae (Araneae) in the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Robert J

    2015-05-20

    The Corinnidae of the western Pacific are revised. The formerly sparassid genus Anchognatha Thorell, 1881, and the gnaphosid genus Battalus Karsch, 1878, are transferred to the Castianeirinae. The Corinninae include only the introduced Creugas gulosus Thorell, 1878 and Medmassa christae sp. nov. from the northern Torres Strait islands. Medmassa pallipes (L. Koch, 1873) and Medmassa pusilla Simon, 1896 are newly synonymised with Creugas gulosus. The Castianeirinae from the Western Pacific including Australia includes Battalus Karsch, 1878, Copa Simon, 1886, Leichhardteus Raven & Baehr, 2013, Nyssus Walckenaer, 1805, Poecilipta Simon, 1897, and eight new genera: Disnyssus gen. nov., Iridonyssus gen. nov., Kolora gen. nov., Leptopicia gen. nov., Melanesotypus gen. nov., Nucastia gen. nov., Ozcopa gen. nov. and Ticopa gen. nov. Battalus includes B. adamparsonsi sp. nov., B. baehrae sp. nov., B. bidgemia sp. nov., B. byrneae sp. nov., B. diadens sp. nov., B. helenstarkae sp. nov., B. microspinosus sp. nov., B. rugosus sp. nov., B. spinipes Karsch, 1878, B. wallum sp. nov., B. zuytdorp sp. nov. and B. semiflavus (Simon, 1896), new combination (transferred from Medmassa). Copa, an otherwise African and Sri Lankan genus, includes C. kabana sp. nov. Disnyssus gen. nov. includes D. helenmirrenae sp. nov. and D. judidenchae sp. nov. Iridonyssus gen. nov. includes I. auripilosus sp. nov., I. formicans sp. nov., I. kohouti sp. nov. and I. leucostaurus sp. nov. Kolora gen. nov. includes K. cushingae sp. nov., K. cooloola sp. nov. and K. lynneae sp. nov., and K. sauverubens (Simon, 1896) new combination (transferred from Corinnomma Karsch, 1880). Leichhardteus includes Leichhardteus yagan sp. nov., Leichhardteus evschlingeri sp. nov., Leichhardteus strzelecki sp. nov., as well as eight recently described species. Leptopicia gen. nov. includes only Methesis bimaculata (Simon, 1896) new combination (transferred from Methesis Simon, 1896). Melanesotypus guadal gen. et sp. nov. is

  4. The spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea: a relimitation and revision at the generic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rix

    2010-02-01

    .; the 20 previously described species of Textricella are thus transferred into Eterosonycha or other newly described genera. The Textricellini includes 10 genera from Australasia and Chile: Eterosonycha has four species, including the type E. alpina Butler (=Textricella parva Hickman syn. n., E. complexa (Forster, E. aquilina sp. n. and E. ocellata sp. n.; Epigastrina gen. n. has three species, including the type E. fulva (Hickman, E. loongana sp. n. and E. typhlops sp. n.; Guiniella gen. n. is monotypic, with G. tropica (Forster; Raveniella gen. n. has three species, including the type R. luteola (Hickman, R. hickmani (Forster and R. peckorum sp. n.; Rayforstia gen. n. has 12 species, including the type R. vulgaris (Forster, the two new species R. lordhowensis sp. n. and R. raveni sp. n., and the nine additional species R. antipoda (Forster, R. insula (Forster, R. mcfarlanei (Forster, R. plebeia (Forster, R. propinqua (Forster, R. salmoni (Forster, R. scuta (Forster, R. signata (Forster and R. wisei (Forster; Normplatnicka gen. n. has three species, including the type N. lamingtonensis (Forster, N. chilensis sp. n. and N. barrettae sp. n.; Eperiella gen. n. has two species, including the type E. alsophila sp. n., and E. hastings sp. n.; Algidiella gen. n. is monotypic, with A. aucklandica (Forster; Taliniella gen. n. has two species, including the type T. nigra (Forster, and T. vinki sp. n.; and Tinytrella gen. n. is monotypic, with T. pusilla (Forster. The micropholcommatine tribe Patelliellini trib. n. includes only one monotypic genus, Patelliella gen. n., represented by the enigmatic species Patelliella adusta sp. n. from Lord Howe Island. The subfamily Taphiassinae subfam. n. includes two genera of distinctive, heavily punctate Micropholcommatidae from Australasia: Taphiassa Simon has six species, including the type T. impressa Simon, T. punctata (Forster, T. castanea sp. n., T. globosa sp. n., T. magna sp. n. and T. robertsi sp. n.; the genus Parapua Forster

  5. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20

  6. Tufa in Northern England: depositional facies, carbonate mineral fabrics, and role of biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, E.; Mawson, M.; Perri, E.; Tucker, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Tufas are widely scattered in northern England, being concentrated in areas of limestone (Carboniferous and Permian), where there are springs, seepages, streams and waterfalls with waters supersatured in respect of calcite. Some deposits are clearly related to faults. Tufas have been examined in Gordale and Malham (SW Yorkshire), Teesdale and Weardale (Co. Durham), Sunderland (Tyne & Wear) and Great Asby Fell (Cumbria). A variety of tufa types are developed: spring-related pisoids and moss tufa, fluviatile barrage and waterfall tufa, and seepage and spring tufa with microbial oncoids in a paludal setting. We present preliminary data and observations on tufa in the Teesdale area, which forms along the valley-side adjacent to the River Tees. Locally here, a tiny stream draining agricultural land runs over a sandstone outcrop at the top of a 30 metre high slope; water descends the 30-60 degrees slope, creating tiny waterfalls and pools across an area reaching 10 metres wide, on the way down towards the river. Three main facies are recognizable in the tufa deposits: carbonate crusts, moss tufa and pisoids. In the upper part of the slope tufa occurs as sub-vertical 0.5-5 cm thick carbonate crusts forming "sheets" with a bulbous external surface covered by a green biofilm, with some insect larvae. Encrustations form upon surfaces of rock exposures and pebbles, and coat plant fragments (leaves, twigs, pine cones). Tufa precipitation, particularly on mosses, liverworts and leaves (moss tufa), creates a series of rimmed pools, a few decimetres across and centimetres deep. Apart from the presence of moss, which gives the tufa has a vacuolar texture, the main constituents are cyanobacteria and diatoms. The moss tufa deposit may reach a metre or more in height and several metres in width, notably towards the base of the slope, adjacent to the river. Within the small pools on the slope, pisoids and partially calcified plant remains accumulate. They also occur abundantly in the

  7. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var.Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea, var. 2.hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3. aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris. The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit and the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections. The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed and are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating