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Sample records for liver stem cell

  1. Role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei-Bo; Xu; Chao; Liu

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is an aggressive disease with a high mortality rate. Management of liver cancer is strongly dependent on the tumor stage and underlying liver disease. Unfortunately, most cases are discovered when the cancer is already advanced, missing the opportunity for surgical resection. Thus, an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for liver cancer initiation and progression will facilitate the detection of more reliable tumor markers and the development of new small molecules for targeted therapy of liver cancer. Recently, there is increasing evidence for the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", which postulates that liver cancer originates from the malignant transformation of liver stem/progenitor cells(liver cancer stem cells). This cancer stem cell model has important significance for understanding the basic biology of liver cancer and has profound importance for the development of new strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis. Our review of the literature shows that identification of the cellular origin and the signaling pathways involved is challenging issues in liver cancer with pivotal implications in therapeutic perspectives. Although the dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes/cholangiocytes in hepatocarcinogenesis cannot be excluded, neoplastic transformation of a stem cell subpopulation more easily explains hepatocarcinogenesis. Elimination of liver cancer stem cells in liver cancer could result in the degeneration of downstream cells, which makes them potential targets for liver cancer therapies. Therefore, liver stem cells could represent a new target for therapeutic approaches to liver cancer in the near future.

  2. Liver stem cells - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The brief and concise preface written by prof. Takahiro Ochiya is particularly well addressed to scholars belonging to different scientific fields: cellular and molecular biology, liver and cancer biology, tissue engineering and stem cell therapy. By a few lines prof Ochiya is telling us that we are getting exciting results, at the lab and the preclinical level, in treating liver injuries thanks to the unprecedented advances in our knowledge on liver stem cells biology....

  3. Liver stem cells: from preface to advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Kanwal; Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Zahra, Nureen; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Liver is a major metabolic organ of the body and is known to comprise of two epithelial cell lineages, namely, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes which are known to originate from hepatoblasts during fetal developing stages. Upon acute injury, the hepatocytes and cholangiocytes undergo cellular division to compensate the loss, however, chronic damage may suppress this proliferative ability and as a consequence hepatic and extra-hepatic stem cells may contribute for liver regeneration. Facultative liver stem cells (oval cells) may emerge, proliferate and contribute in replacing damaged hepatic cells. Similarly, bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are also known for contributing in liver regeneration having their ability of self renewal and differentiation. However, a closer look is still required to bridge the existing knowledge gaps between functionality and limitations. Thereby, we have discussed the detailed mechanistic insights of both hepatic and extra-hepatic stem cells including, stem/progenitor cells, adult/fetal hepatocytes, oval cells, bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells. We have also focused on few in vitro and in vivo studies elucidating therapeutic applications and challenges related to the liver stem cells. We believe that such conversations may provide invaluable contribution for realistic advancement in the state of therapeutic stem-cell transplantation.

  4. Stem cell differentiation and human liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Li Zhou; Claire N Medine; Liang Zhu; David C Hay

    2012-01-01

    Human stem cells are scalable cell populations capable of cellular differentiation.This makes them a very attractive in vitro cellular resource and in theory provides unlimited amounts of primary cells.Such an approach has the potential to improve our understanding of human biology and treating disease.In the future it may be possible to deploy novel stem cell-based approaches to treat human liver diseases.In recent years,efficient hepatic differentiation from human stem cells has been achieved by several research groups including our own.In this review we provide an overview of the field and discuss the future potential and limitations of stem cell technology.

  5. Stem cells in liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll, D. van

    2008-01-01

    Failure of the liver, the largest vital organ in the body, unequivocally results in death. Hepatic failure most commonly evolves over a period of several years as a result of chronic liver disease, most often viral hepatitis or alcoholic liver damage. In rarer cases, the organ shuts down within

  6. Stem cells in liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll, D. van

    2008-01-01

    Failure of the liver, the largest vital organ in the body, unequivocally results in death. Hepatic failure most commonly evolves over a period of several years as a result of chronic liver disease, most often viral hepatitis or alcoholic liver damage. In rarer cases, the organ shuts down within week

  7. Fetal and adult liver stem cells for liver regeneration and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, H C; Lange, Claudia; Kneser, U; Lambrecht, W; Zander, A R; Rogiers, X; Kluth, D

    2006-01-01

    For the development of innovative cell-based liver directed therapies, e.g. liver tissue engineering, the use of stem cells might be very attractive to overcome the limitation of donor liver tissue. Liver specific differentiation of embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells is currently under investigation. Different types of fetal liver (stem) cells during development were identified, and their advantageous growth potential and bipotential differentiation capacity were shown. However, ethical and legal issues have to be addressed before using fetal cells. Use of adult stem cells is clinically established, e.g. transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells. Other bone marrow derived liver stem cells might be mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, the transdifferentiation potential is still in question due to the observation of cellular fusion in several in vivo experiments. In vitro experiments revealed a crucial role of the environment (e.g. growth factors and extracellular matrix) for specific differentiation of stem cells. Co-cultured liver cells also seemed to be important for hepatic gene expression of MSC. For successful liver cell transplantation, a novel approach of tissue engineering by orthotopic transplantation of gel-immobilized cells could be promising, providing optimal environment for the injected cells. Moreover, an orthotopic tissue engineering approach using bipotential stem cells could lead to a repopulation of the recipients liver with healthy liver and biliary cells, thus providing both hepatic functions and biliary excretion. Future studies have to investigate, which stem cell and environmental conditions would be most suitable for the use of stem cells for liver regeneration or tissue engineering approaches.

  8. Liver-specific gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells is induced by liver cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia Lange; Philipp Bassler; Michael V. Lioznov; Helge Bruns; Dietrich Kluth; Axel R. Zander; Henning C. Fiegel

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The origin of putative liver cells from distinct bone marrow stem cells, e.g. hematopoietic stem cells or multipotent adult progenitor cells was found in recent in vitro studies. Cell culture experiments revealed a key role of growth factors for the induction of liver-specific genes in stem cell cultures. We investigated the potential of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow to differentiate into hepatocytic cells in vitro. Furthermore,we assessed the influence of cocultured liver cells on induction of liver-specific gene expression.METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cells were marked with green fluorescent protein (GFP) by retroviral gene transduction. Clonal marked MSC were either cultured under liver stimulating conditions using fibronectin-coated culture dishes and medium supplemented with SCF, HGF,EGF, and FGF-4 alone, or in presence of freshly isolated rat liver cells. Cells in cocultures were harvested and GFP+ or GFP- cells were separated using fluorescence activated cell sorting. RT-PCR analysis for the stem cell marker Thy1 and the hepatocytic markers CK-18, albumin, CK-19,and AFP was performed in the different cell populations.RESULTS: Under the specified culture conditions, rat MSC cocultured with liver cells expressed albumin-, CK-18,CK-19, and AFP-RNA over 3 weeks, whereas MSC cultured alone did not show liver specific gene expression.CONCLUSION: The results indicate that (1) rat MSC from bone marrow can differentiate towards hepatocytic lineage in vitro, and (2) that the microenvironment plays a decisive role for the induction of hepatic differentiation of rMSC.

  9. Nano scaffolds and stem cell therapy in liver tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Laila M.; Fawzy, Sherin M.

    2015-08-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been constantly developing of late due to the major progress in cell and organ transplantation, as well as advances in materials science and engineering. Although stem cells hold great potential for the treatment of many injuries and degenerative diseases, several obstacles must be overcome before their therapeutic application can be realized. These include the development of advanced techniques to understand and control functions of micro environmental signals and novel methods to track and guide transplanted stem cells. A major complication encountered with stem cell therapies has been the failure of injected cells to engraft to target tissues. The application of nanotechnology to stem cell biology would be able to address those challenges. Combinations of stem cell therapy and nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have achieved significant advances. These combinations allow nanotechnology to engineer scaffolds with various features to control stem cell fate decisions. Fabrication of Nano fiber cell scaffolds onto which stem cells can adhere and spread, forming a niche-like microenvironment which can guide stem cells to proceed to heal damaged tissues. In this paper, current and emergent approach based on stem cells in the field of liver tissue engineering is presented for specific application. The combination of stem cells and tissue engineering opens new perspectives in tissue regeneration for stem cell therapy because of the potential to control stem cell behavior with the physical and chemical characteristics of the engineered scaffold environment.

  10. Stem cells in liver regeneration and their potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Ioannis; Kolios, George

    2013-10-01

    Stem cells constitute a population of "primitive cells" with the ability to divide indefinitely and give rise to specialized cells under special conditions. Because of these two characteristics they have received particular attention in recent decades. These cells are the primarily responsible factors for the regeneration of tissues and organs and for the healing of lesions, a feature that makes them a central key in the development of cell-based medicine, called Regenerative Medicine. The idea of wound and organ repair and body regeneration is as old as the mankind, reflecting the human desire for inhibiting aging and immortality and it is first described in the ancient Greek myth of Prometheus. It is of interest that the myth refers to liver, an organ with remarkable regenerative ability after loss of mass and function caused by liver injury or surgical resection. Over the last decade there has been an important progress in understanding liver physiology and the mechanisms underlying hepatic development and regeneration. As liver transplantation, despite its difficulties, remains the only effective therapy for advanced liver disease so far, scientific interest has nowadays been orientated towards Regenerative Medicine and the use of stem cells to repair damaged liver. This review is focused on the available literature concerning the role of stem cells in liver regeneration. It summarizes the results of studies concerning endogenous liver regeneration and stem cell experimental protocols. Moreover, this review discusses the clinical studies that have been conducted in humans so far.

  11. Characteristics of liver cancer stem cells and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Li, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Liver cancer is an aggressive malignant disease with a poor prognosis. Patients with liver cancer are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and thus miss the opportunity for surgical resection. Chemotherapy and radiofrequency ablation, which target tumor bulk, have exhibited limited therapeutic efficacy to date. Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of undifferentiated cells existed in liver cancer, which are considered to be responsible for liver cancer initiation, metastasis, relapse and chemoresistance. Elucidating liver CSC characteristics and disclosing their regulatory mechanism might not only deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of liver cancer but also facilitate the development of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the clinical management of liver cancer. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in liver CSC research in terms of the origin, identification, regulation and clinical correlation.

  12. Stem cell-derived hepatocytes for functional liver replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eChrist

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC represent an alternate cell source to substitute for primary hepatocytes in hepatocyte transplantation because of their multiple differentiation potential and nearly unlimited availability. They may differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and maintain specific hepatocyte functions also after transplantation into the regenerating livers of mice or rats both under injury and non-injury conditions. Depending on the underlying liver disease their mode of action is either to replace the diseased liver tissue or to support liver regeneration through their anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic as well as their pro-proliferative action.

  13. Therapeutic Implications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ausiliatrice Puglisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, represent an attractive tool for the establishment of a successful stem-cell-based therapy of liver diseases. A number of different mechanisms contribute to the therapeutic effects exerted by MSCs, since these cells can differentiate into functional hepatic cells and can also produce a series of growth factors and cytokines able to suppress inflammatory responses, reduce hepatocyte apoptosis, regress liver fibrosis, and enhance hepatocyte functionality. To date, the infusion of MSCs or MSC-conditioned medium has shown encouraging results in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure and in end-stage liver disease in experimental settings. However, some issues under debate hamper the use of MSCs in clinical trials. This paper summarizes the biological relevance of MSCs and the potential benefits and risks that can result from translating the MSC research to the treatment of liver diseases.

  14. Gastrointestinal stem cells. III. Emergent themes of liver stem cell biology: niche, quiescence, self-renewal, and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theise, Neil D

    2006-02-01

    This essay will address areas of liver stem/progenitor cell studies in which consensus has emerged and in which controversy still prevails over consensus, but it will also highlight important themes that inevitably should be a focus of liver stem/progenitor cell investigations in coming years. Thus concepts regarding cell plasticity, the existence of a physiological/anatomic stem cell niche, and whether intrahepatic liver stem/progenitor cells comprise true stem cells or progenitor cells (or both) will be approached in some detail.

  15. Liver cancer stem cell markers: Progression and therapeutic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Hui; Luo, Qing; Liu, Ling-Ling; Song, Guan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation in cancer, have been proposed to be cancer-initiating cells, and have been shown to be responsible for chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence. The identification of CSC subpopulations inside a tumor presents a new understanding of cancer development because it implies that tumors can only be eradicated by targeting CSCs. Although advances in liver cancer detection and treatment have increased the possibility of curing the disease at early stages, unfortunately, most patients will relapse and succumb to their disease. Strategies aimed at efficiently targeting liver CSCs are becoming important for monitoring the progress of liver cancer therapy and for evaluating new therapeutic approaches. Herein, we provide a critical discussion of biological markers described in the literature regarding liver cancer stem cells and the potential of these markers to serve as therapeutic targets. PMID:27053846

  16. LIVER AND BONE MARROW STEM/PROGENITOR CELLS AS REGULATORS OF REPARATIVE REGENERATION OF DAMAGED LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Lundup

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the modern information about effectiveness of liver insufficiency treatment by stem/ progenitor cells of liver (oval cells and bone marrow (hemopoietic cells and mesenchymal cells was presented. It is shown that medical action of these cells is referred on normalization of liver cell interaction and reorganization of processes of a reparative regeneration in damaged liver. It is believed that application of mesenchymal stromal cells from an autological bone marrow is the most perspective strategy. However, for definitive judgement about regenerative possibilities of the autological bone marrow cells it is necessary to carry out large-scale double blind clinical researches. 

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells support hepatocyte function in engineered liver grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Yoshie; Yagi, Hiroshi; Inomata, Kenta; Matsubara, Kentaro; Hibi, Taizo; Abe, Yuta; Kitago, Minoru; Shinoda, Masahiro; Obara, Hideaki; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that organ decellularization is a promising approach to facilitate the clinical application of regenerative therapy by providing a platform for organ engineering. This unique strategy uses native matrices to act as a reservoir for the functional cells which may show therapeutic potential when implanted into the body. Appropriate cell sources for artificial livers have been debated for some time. The desired cell type in artificial livers is primary hepatocytes, but in addition, other supportive cells may facilitate this stem cell technology. In this context, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is an option meeting the criteria for therapeutic organ engineering. Ideally, supportive cells are required to (1) reduce the hepatic cell mass needed in an engineered liver by enhancing hepatocyte function, (2) modulate hepatic regeneration in a paracrine fashion or by direct contact, and (3) enhance the preservability of parenchymal cells during storage. Here, we describe enhanced hepatic function achieved using a strategy of sequential infusion of cells and illustrate the advantages of co-cultivating bone marrow-derived MSCs with primary hepatocytes in the engineered whole-liver scaffold. These co-recellularized liver scaffolds colonized by MSCs and hepatocytes were transplanted into live animals. After blood flow was established, we show that expression of adhesion molecules and proangiogenic factors was upregulated in the graft.

  18. Stem Cells in Liver Diseases and Cancer: Recent Advances on the Path to New Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Rountree, C. Bart; Mishra, Lopa; Willenbring, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells have potential for therapy of liver diseases, but may also be involved in the formation of liver cancer. Recently, the AASLD Henry M. and Lillian Stratton Basic Research Single Topic Conference “Stem Cells in Liver Diseases and Cancer: Discovery and Promise” brought together a diverse group of investigators to define the status of research on stem cells and cancer stem cells in the liver and identify problems and solutions on the path to clinical translation. This report summarizes...

  19. Methods of Liver Stem Cell Therapy in Rodents as Models of Human Liver Regeneration in Hepatic Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Goradel, Nasser; Darabi, Masoud; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Ejtehadifar, Mostafa; Zahedi, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Cell therapy is a promising intervention for treating liver diseases and liver failure. Different animal models of human liver cell therapy have been developed in recent years. Rats and mice are the most commonly used liver failure models. In fact, rodent models of hepatic failure have shown significant improvement in liver function after cell infusion. With the advent of stem-cell technologies, it is now possible to re-programme adult somatic cells such as skin or hair-follicle cells from individual patients to stem-like cells and differentiate them into liver cells. Such regenerative stem cells are highly promising in the personalization of cell therapy. The present review article will summarize current approaches to liver stem cell therapy with rodent models. In addition, we discuss common cell tracking techniques and how tracking data help to direct liver cell therapy research in animal models of hepatic failure.

  20. MBD3 inhibits formation of liver cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruizhi; He, Qihua; Han, Shuo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Liu, Jinwen; Su, Ming; Wei, Shiruo; Wang, Xuan; Shen, Li

    2017-01-01

    Liver cancer cells can be reprogrammed into induced cancer stem cells (iCSCs) by exogenous expression of the reprogramming transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (OSKM). The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex is essential for reprogramming somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the function of NuRD in the induction of liver CSCs. We showed that suppression of methyl-CpG binding domain protein 3 (MBD3), a core subunit of the NuRD repressor complex, together with OSKM transduction, induces conversion of liver cancer cells into stem-like cells. Expression of the transcription factor c-JUN is increased in MBD3-depleted iCSCs, and c-JUN activates endogenous pluripotent genes and regulates iCSC-related genes. These results indicate that MBD3/NuRD inhibits the induction of iCSCs, while c-JUN facilitates the generation of CSC-like properties. The iCSC reprogramming approach devised here provides a novel platform for dissection of the disordered signaling in liver CSCs. In addition, our results indicate that c-JUN may serve as a potential target for liver cancer therapy. PMID:27894081

  1. Regenerative medicine using dental pulp stem cells for liver diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkoshi, Shogo; Hara, Hajime; Hirono, Haruka; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Katsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a refractory disease and its prognosis, if not treated using liver transplantation, is extremely poor. It is a good candidate for regenerative medicine, where stem cell-based therapies play a central role. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to differentiate into multiple cell lineages including hepatocytes. Autologous cell transplant without any foreign gene induction is feasible using MSCs, thereby avoiding possible risks of tumorigenesis and immune rejection. Dental pulp also contains an MSC population that differentiates into hepatocytes. A point worthy of special mention is that dental pulp can be obtained from deciduous teeth during childhood and can be subsequently harvested when necessary after deposition in a tooth bank. MSCs have not only a regenerative capacity but also act in an anti-inflammatory manner via paracrine mechanisms. Promising efficacies and difficulties with the use of MSC derived from teeth are summarized in this review. PMID:28217369

  2. Role of stem cells during diabetic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ying; Garner, Jessica; Wu, Nan; Phillip, Levine; Han, Yuyan; McDaniel, Kelly; Annable, Tami; Zhou, Tianhao; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Huang, Qiaobing; Alpini, Gianfranco; Meng, Fanyin

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most severe endocrine metabolic disorders in the world that has serious medical consequences with substantial impacts on the quality of life. Type 2 diabetes is one of the main causes of diabetic liver diseases with the most common being non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Several factors that may explain the mechanisms related to pathological and functional changes of diabetic liver injury include: insulin resistance, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The realization that these factors are important in hepatocyte damage and lack of donor livers has led to studies concentrating on the role of stem cells (SCs) in the prevention and treatment of liver injury. Possible avenues that the application of SCs may improve liver injury include but are not limited to: the ability to differentiate into pancreatic β-cells (insulin producing cells), the contribution for hepatocyte regeneration, regulation of lipogenesis, glucogenesis and anti-inflammatory actions. Once further studies are performed to explore the underlying protective mechanisms of SCs and the advantages and disadvantages of its application, there will be a greater understand of the mechanism and therapeutic potential. In this review, we summarize the findings regarding the role of SCs in diabetic liver diseases.

  3. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijk, Ewart W; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-02-26

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah(-/-) Il2rg(-/-) rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat.

  4. EMP-1 is a junctional protein in a liver stem cell line and in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Sherley, James L; Chen, Jeremy J W; Chiu, Chien-Chang; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Liang, Ja-Der; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Sheu, Jin-Chuan

    2005-09-09

    In an attempt to discover cell markers for liver stem cells, a cDNA microarray analysis was carried out to compare the gene expression profiles between an adult liver stem cell line, Lig-8, and mature hepatocytes. Several genes in the categories of extracellular matrix, cell membrane, cell adhesion, transcription factor, signal molecule, transporter, and metabolic enzyme were shown to be differentially expressed in Lig-8 cells. Among them, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 has been previously implicated with stem cell phenotypes. Antiserum to EMP-1 was produced to localize its expression. On monolayers of Lig-8 cells, EMP-1 was expressed along the intercellular border. In the liver harboring proliferating oval cells, the liver progenitors, EMP-1 was localized as ribbon bands, a staining pattern for epithelial junctions, all the way through bile duct epithelia, oval cell ductules, and into peri-hepatocytic regions. These peri-hepatocytic regions were proved to be bile canaliculi by co-localization of EMP-1 and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, an enzyme located on bile canaliculi. This report is the first to indicate EMP-1 to be a junctional protein in the liver.

  5. Novel therapeutic Strategies for Targeting Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Oishi, Xin Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis was first proposed over 40 years ago. Advances in CSC isolation were first achieved in hematological malignancies, with the first CSC demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia. However, using similar strategies and technologies, and taking advantage of available surface markers, CSCs have been more recently demonstrated in a growing range of epithelial and other solid organ malignancies, suggesting that the majority of malignancies are dependent on such a compartment.Primary liver cancer consists predominantly of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC. It is believed that hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs could be the origin of some HCCs and ICCs. Furthermore, stem cell activators such as Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways also expedite tumorigenesis, and these pathways could serve as molecular targets to assist in designing cancer prevention strategies. Recent studies indicate that additional factors such as EpCAM, Lin28 or miR-181 may also contribute to HCC progression by targeting HCC CSCs. Various therapeutic drugs that directly modulate CSCs have been examined in vivo and in vitro. However, CSCs clearly have a complex pathogenesis, with a considerable crosstalk and redundancy in signaling pathways, and hence targeting single molecules or pathways may have a limited benefit for treatment. Many of the key signaling molecules are shared by both CSCs and normal stem cells, which add further challenges for designing molecularly targeted strategies specific to CSCs but sparing normal stem cells to avoid side effects. In addition to the direct control of CSCs, many other factors that are needed for the maintenance of CSCs, such as angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, invasion and migration, hypoxia, immune evasion, multiple drug resistance, and radioresistance, should be taken into consideration when designing therapeutic strategies for HCC.Here we provide a brief

  6. Immature hematopoietic stem cells undergo maturation in the fetal liver.

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    Kieusseian, Aurelie; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe; Burlen-Defranoux, Odile; Godin, Isabelle; Cumano, Ana

    2012-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are defined by their capacity to reconstitute adult conventional mice, are first found in the dorsal aorta after 10.5 days post coitus (dpc) and in the fetal liver at 11 dpc. However, lympho-myeloid hematopoietic progenitors are detected in the dorsal aorta from 9 dpc, raising the issue of their role in establishing adult hematopoiesis. Here, we show that these progenitors are endowed with long-term reconstitution capacity, but only engraft natural killer (NK)-deficient Rag2γc(-/-) mice. This novel population, called here immature HSCs, evolves in culture with thrombopoietin and stromal cells, into HSCs, defined by acquisition of CD45 and MHC-1 expression and by the capacity to reconstitute NK-competent mice. This evolution occurs during ontogeny, as early colonization of fetal liver by immature HSCs precedes that of HSCs. Moreover, organ culture experiments show that immature HSCs acquire, in this environment, the features of HSCs.

  7. Selective tropism of liver stem cells to hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the selective tropism of liver stem cells to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in an animal model and its feasibility as a vector to deliver therapeutic genes for targeted therapy of HCC.METHODS: WB-F344, a kind of rat liver stem cell,was infected with recombinant virus to establish a cell line with stable, high-level expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). An animal model of HCC in Wistar rats was established by implanting HCC cells (CBRH7919) combined with an immunosuppressive drug.EGFP labeled liver stem cells were injected into caudal veins of the animals and distribution was observed at different time points after injection. SDF-1 and c-kit expression in non-tumor liver and tumor tissue were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the relationshiop between the expression and migration of liver stem cells.Furthermore, hepatic stem cells were injected via the portal vein, hepatic artery, caudal vein, or directly into the pericancerous liver tissue, respectively, and effects on migration, localization, and proliferation of the hepatic stem cells within the tumor tissue were observed and analyzed.RESULTS: Recombinant adenovirus could deliver the EGFP gene to hepatic stem cells. A new stem cell line,named WB-EGFP, was established that stably expressed EGFP. WB-EGFP cells still showed selective tropism towards HCC and EGFP expression was stable in vivo.According to immunohistochemistry results, SDF-1 may not be related to the mechanisms of tropism of hepatic stem cells. Different application sites affected the distribution of liver stem cells. Injection via the portal vein was superior with regard to selective migration,localization, and proliferation of the hepatic stem cells within the tumor tissue.CONCLUSION: Liver stem cells have the biological behavior of selective migration to HCC in vivo and they could localize and proliferate within HCC tissue stably expressing the target gene. Liver stem cells are a potential tool for a targeted

  8. Adult liver stem cells in hepatic regeneration and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nantasanti, Sathidpak

    2015-01-01

    An alternative source of livers for transplantation in patients with (genetic) liver diseases and liver failure is needed because liver donors are scarce. HPC-derived hepatocyte-like cells could be one of the options. Because dogs and humans share liver-pathologies and disease-pathways, the dog is c

  9. Hepatic Stellate Cells Support Hematopoiesis and are Liver-Resident Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Kordes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hematopoiesis can occur in the liver, when the bone marrow fails to provide an adequate environment for hematopoietic stem cells. Hepatic stellate cells possess characteristics of stem/progenitor cells, but their contribution to hematopoiesis is not known thus far. Methods: Isolated hepatic stellate cells from rats were characterized with respect to molecular markers of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC and treated with adipocyte or osteocyte differentiation media. Stellate cells of rats were further co-cultured with murine stem cell antigen-1+ hematopoietic stem cells selected by magnetic cell sorting. The expression of murine hematopoietic stem cell markers was analyzed by mouse specific quantitative PCR during co-culture. Hepatic stellate cells from eGFP+ rats were transplanted into lethally irradiated wild type rats. Results: Desmin-expressing stellate cells were associated with hematopoietic sites in the fetal rat liver. Hepatic stellate cells expressed MSC markers and were able to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro. Stellate cells supported hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells during co-culture similar to bone marrow MSC, but failed to differentiate into blood cell lineages after transplantation. Conclusion: Hepatic stellate cells are liver-resident MSC and can fulfill typical functions of bone marrow MSC such as the differentiation into adipocytes or osteocytes and support of hematopoiesis.

  10. Interleukin-1 regulates hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in the midgestation mouse fetal liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orelio, Claudia; Peeters, Marian; Haak, Esther; van der Horn, Karin; Dzierzak, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic progenitors are generated in the yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros region during early mouse development. At embryonic day 10.5 the first hematopoietic stem cells emerge in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros. Subsequently, hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors are found in the fetal liver. The fetal liver is a potent hematopoietic site, playing an important role in the expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells. However, little is known concerning the regulation of fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells. In particular, the role of cytokines such as interleukin-1 in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cells in the embryo has been largely unexplored. Recently, we observed that the adult pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 is involved in regulating aorta-gonad-mesonephros hematopoietic progenitor and hematopoietic stem cell activity. Therefore, we set out to investigate whether interleukin-1 also plays a role in regulating fetal liver progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Design and Methods We examined the interleukin-1 ligand and receptor expression pattern in the fetal liver. The effects of interleukin-1 on hematopoietic progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells were studied by FACS and transplantation analyses of fetal liver explants, and in vivo effects on hematopoietic stem cell and progenitors were studied in Il1r1−/− embryos. Results We show that fetal liver hematopoietic progenitor cells express the IL-1RI and that interleukin-1 increases fetal liver hematopoiesis, progenitor cell activity and promotes hematopoietic cell survival. Moreover, we show that in Il1r1−/− embryos, hematopoietic stem cell activity is impaired and myeloid progenitor activity is increased. Conclusions The IL-1 ligand and receptor are expressed in the midgestation liver and act in the physiological regulation of fetal liver hematopoietic progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells. PMID

  11. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells improve liver function and ascites in decompensated liver cirrhosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Lin, Hu; Shi, Ming; Xu, Ruonan; Fu, Junliang; Lv, Jiyun; Chen, Liming; Lv, Sa; Li, Yuanyuan; Yu, Shuangjie; Geng, Hua; Jin, Lei; Lau, George K K; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC), a life-threatening complication of chronic liver disease, is one of the major indications for liver transplantation. Recently, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transfusion has been shown to lead to the regression of liver fibrosis in mice and humans. This study examined the safety and efficacy of umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) in patients with decompensated LC. A total of 45 chronic hepatitis B patients with decompensated LC, including 30 patients receiving UC-MSC transfusion, and 15 patients receiving saline as the control, were recruited; clinical parameters were detected during a 1-year follow-up period. No significant side-effects and complications were observed in either group. There was a significant reduction in the volume of ascites in patients treated with UC-MSC transfusion compared with controls (P decompensated LC. UC-MSC transfusion, therefore, might present a novel therapeutic approach for patients with decompensated LC.

  12. Interleukin-1 regulates hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in the midgestation mouse fetal liver

    OpenAIRE

    Orelio, Claudia; Peeters, Marian; Haak, Esther; van der Horn, Karin; Dzierzak, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Hematopoietic progenitors are generated in the yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros region during early mouse development. At embryonic day 10.5 the first hematopoietic stem cells emerge in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros. Subsequently, hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors are found in the fetal liver. The fetal liver is a potent hematopoietic site, playing an important role in the expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells. However, little is know...

  13. Feeder-independent continuous culture of the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line is a bipotent cell line, i.e., capable of forming either bile ductules or hepatocyte monolayers in vitro, that was derived from the primary culture of pig embryonic stem cells. The cell line has been strictly feeder-dependent in that cell replication morphology,...

  14. Transplantation of mouse fetal liver cells for analyzing the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Kristbjorn Orri; Stull, Steven W; Keller, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew and differentiate through progenitor cell stages into all types of mature blood cells. Gene-targeting studies in mice have demonstrated that many genes are essential for the generation and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. For definitively analyzing the function of these cells, transplantation studies have to be performed. In this chapter, we describe methods to isolate and transplant fetal liver cells as well as how to analyze donor cell reconstitution. This protocol is tailored toward mouse models where embryonic lethality precludes analysis of adult hematopoiesis or where it is suspected that the function of fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is compromised.

  15. Porcine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Stem Cell Characteristics and Cell Activities While Enhancing the Expression of Liver-Specific Genes after Acute Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute liver failure (ALF is a kind of complicated syndrome. Furthermore, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs can serve as a useful cell resource for autotransplantation due to their abundance and micro-invasive accessability. However, it is unknown how ALF will influence the characteristics of ADMSCs and whether ADMSCs from patients suffering from end-stage liver diseases are potential candidates for autotransplantation. This study was designed to compare various properties of ALF-derived ADMSCs with normal ADMSCs in pig models, with regard to their cellular morphology, cell proliferative ability, cell apoptosis, expression of surface antigens, mitochondrial and lysosomal activities, multilineage potency, and expression of liver-specific genes. Our results showed that ALF does not influence the stem cell characteristics and cell activities of ADMSCs. Intriguingly, the expression levels of several liver-specific genes in ALF-derived ADMSCs are higher than in normal ADMSCs. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the stem cell characteristics and cell activities of ADMSCs were not altered by ALF and these cells can serve as a new source for regenerative medicine.

  16. Convenient and efficient enrichment of the CD133+ liver cells from rat fetal liver as a source of liver stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihui; You, Nan; Dou, Kefeng

    2012-01-01

    Although stem cells are commonly isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or magnetic affinity cell sorting, they are very expensive, and they need known markers. However, there is no specific marker for liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs). Here, we describe a convenient and efficient method (three-step method) to enrich LSPCs. The fetal liver cells (FLCs) were firstly enriched by Percoll discontinuous gradient centrifugation from the rat fetal liver. Then the FLCs in culture were purified to be homogeneous in size by differential trypsinization and differential adherence. Finally, fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPCs) were enriched from purified FLCs by Percoll continuous gradient centrifugation. Flow cytometric analysis combining with marker CD133 was used to detect the purity of FLSPCs and evaluate the isolating effects of the three-step method.

  17. Liver stem cell-derived β-cell surrogates for treatment of type 1 diabetes☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the common embryonic origin of liver and pancreas as well the similar glucose-sensing systems in hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells, it should not be surprising that liver stem cells/hepatocytes can transdifferentiate into insulin-producing cells under high-glucose culture conditions or by genetic reprogramming. Persistent expression of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1) transcription factor or its super-active form Pdx1-VP16 fusion protein in hepatic cells reprograms these cells into pancreatic β-cell precursors. In vitro culture at elevated glucose concentrations or in vivo exposure to a hyperglycemia are required for further differentiation and maturation of liver-derived pancreatic β-cell precursor into functional insulin-producing pancreatic β-like cells. Under appropriate conditions, multiple pancreatic transcription factors can work in concert to reprogram liver stem/adult liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. If such autologous liver-derived insulin-producing cells can be made to escape the type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity, they may serve as a valuable cell source for future cell replacement therapy without the need for life-long immunosuppression. PMID:16890895

  18. Differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells in liver after partial hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Tao Zhan; Yu Wang; Lai Wei; Bin Liu; Hong-Song Chen; Xu Cong; Ran Fei

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells in liver after partial hepatectomy.METHODS: Bone marrow cells were collected from the tibia of rat with partial hepatectomy, the medial and left hepatic lobes were excised. The bone marrow stem cells (Thy+CD3-CD45RA- cells) were enriched from the bone marrow cells by depleting red cells and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The sorted bone marrow stem cells were labeled by PKH26-GL in vitro and autotransplanted by portal vein injection. After 2wk, the transplanted bone marrow stem cells in liver were examined by the immunohistochemistry of albumin (hepatocyte-specific marker).RESULTS: The bone marrow stem cells (Thy+CD3-CD45RA- cells) accounted for 2.8% of bone marrow cells without red cells. The labeling rate of 10μM PKH26-GL on sorted bone marrow stem cells was about 95%.There were sporadic PKH26-GL-labeled cells among hepatocytes in liver tissue section, and some of the cells expressed albumin.CONCLUSION: Rat bone marrow stem cells can differentiate into hepatocytes in regenerative environment and may participate in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

  19. Fetal liver hepatic progenitors are supportive stromal cells for hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Song; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-04-27

    Previously we showed that the ~2% of fetal liver cells reactive with an anti-CD3epsilon monoclonal antibody support ex vivo expansion of both fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); these cells express two proteins important for HSC ex vivo expansion, IGF2, and angiopoietin-like 3. Here we show that these cells do not express any CD3 protein and are not T cells; rather, we purified these HSC-supportive stromal cells based on the surface phenotype of SCF(+)DLK(+). Competitive repopulating experiments show that SCF(+)DLK(+) cells support the maintenance of HSCs in ex vivo culture. These are the principal fetal liver cells that express not only angiopoietin-like 3 and IGF2, but also SCF and thrombopoietin, two other growth factors important for HSC expansion. They are also the principal fetal liver cells that express CXCL12, a factor required for HSC homing, and also alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), indicating that they are fetal hepatic stem or progenitor cells. Immunocytochemistry shows that >93% of the SCF(+) cells express DLK and Angptl3, and a portion of SCF(+) cells also expresses CXCL12. Thus SCF(+)DLK(+) cells are a highly homogenous population that express a complete set of factors for HSC expansion and are likely the primary stromal cells that support HSC expansion in the fetal liver.

  20. GMP-grade human fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cells for clinical transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Aghayan, Hamid-Reza; Goodarzi, Parisa; Arjmand, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy seems a promising avenue in regenerative medicine. Within various stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells have progressively used for cellular therapy. Because of the age-related decreasing in the frequency and differentiating capacity of adult MSCs, fetal tissues such as fetal liver, lung, pancreas, spleen, etc. have been introduced as an alternative source of MSCs for cellular therapy. On the other hand, using stem cells as advanced therapy medicinal products, must be performed in compliance with cGMP as a quality assurance system to ensure the safety, quality, and identity of cell products during translation from the basic stem cell sciences into clinical cell transplantation. In this chapter the authors have demonstrated the manufacturing of GMP-grade human fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  1. An Efficient Protocol for Deriving Liver Stem Cells from Neonatal Mice: Validating Its Differentiation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugapriya Dhanasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of liver regeneration depends on the availability of suitable cell types and their potential to differentiate into functional hepatocytes. To identify the stem cells which have the ability to differentiate into hepatocytes, we used neonatal liver as source. However, the current protocol for isolating stem cells from liver involves enzymes like collagenase, hyaluronidase exposed for longer duration which limits the success. This results in the keen interest to develop an easy single step enzyme digestion protocol for isolating stem cells from liver for tissue engineering approaches. Thus, the unlimited availability of cell type favors setting up the functional recovery of the damaged liver, ensuring ahead success towards treating liver diseases. We attempted to isolate liver stem derived cells (LDSCs from mouse neonatal liver using single step minimal exposure to enzyme followed by in vitro culturing. The cells isolated were characterized for stem cell markers and subjected to lineage differentiation. Further, LDSCs were induced to hepatocyte differentiation and validated with hepatocyte markers. Finally, we developed a reproducible, efficient protocol for isolation of LDSCs with functional hepatocytes differentiation potential, which further can be used as in vitro model system for assessing drug toxicity assays in various preclinical trials.

  2. Convenient and efficient enrichment of the CD133+ liver cells from rat fetal liver cells as a source of liver stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-hui; Li, Ren; Dou, Ke-feng

    2011-03-01

    Although the stem cells are commonly isolated by FACS or MACS, they are very expensive and these is no specific marker for liver stem/progentior cells (LSPCs). This paper applied a convenient and efficient method to enrich LSPCs. The fetal liver cells (FLCs) were firstly enriched by Percoll discontinuous gradient centrifugation (PDGC) from the rat fetal liver. Then the FLCs in culture were purified to be homogeneous in size by differential trypsinization and differential adherence (DTDA). Flow cytometric analysis revealed more than half of the purified FLCs expressed alternative markers of LSPCs (CD117, c-Met, Sca-1, CD90, CD49f and CD133). In other words, the purified FLCs were heterogeneous. Therefore, they were sequentially layered into six fractions by Percoll continuous gradient centrifugation (PCGC). Both CD133 and CD49f expressed decreasingly from fraction 1 to 6. In fraction 1 and 2, about 85% FLCs expressed CD133, which were revealed to be LSPCs by high expressions of AFP and CK-19, low expressions of G-6-P and ALB. To conclude, the purity of CD133(+) LSPCs enriched by combination of PDGC, DTDA and PCGC is close to that obtained by MACS. This study will greatly contribute to two important biological aspects: liver stem cells isolation and liver cell therapy.

  3. Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Infusion (AMBI therapy for Chronic Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar JS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver Cirrhosis is the end stage of chronic liver disease which may happen due to alcoholism, viral infections due to Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C viruses and is difficult to treat. Liver transplantation is the only available definitive treatment which is marred by lack of donors, post operative complications such as rejection and high cost. Autologous bone marrow stem cells have shown a lot of promise in earlier reported animal studies and clinical trials. We have in this study administered in 22 patients with chronic liver disease, autologous bone marrow stem cell whose results are presented herewith.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Hepatic Differentiation of Adult Somatic Stem Cells and Extraembryonic Stem Cells for Treating End Stage Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of liver donors is a major handicap that prevents most patients from receiving liver transplantation and places them on a waiting list for donated liver tissue. Then, primary hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial livers have emerged as two alternative treatments for these often fatal diseases. However, another problem has emerged. Functional hepatocytes for liver regeneration are in short supply, and they will dedifferentiate immediately in vitro after they are isolated from liver tissue. Alternative stem-cell-based therapeutic strategies, including hepatic stem cells (HSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, are more promising, and more attention has been devoted to these approaches because of the high potency and proliferation ability of the cells. This review will focus on the general characteristics and the progress in hepatic differentiation of adult somatic stem cells and extraembryonic stem cells in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of end stage liver diseases. The hepatic differentiation of stem cells would offer an ideal and promising source for cell therapy and tissue engineering for treating liver diseases.

  5. Hepatic differentiation of embryonic stem cells by murine fetal liver mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takamichi; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Ikai, Iwao

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocytes derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a potential cell source for regenerative medicine. However, it has been technically difficult to differentiate ESCs into mature hepatocytes because the definitive growth factors and molecular mechanisms governing hepatocyte differentiation have not yet been well defined. The CD45(-)CD49f(+/-)Thy1(+)gp38(+) mesenchymal cells that reside in murine fetal livers induce hepatic progenitor cells to differentiate into mature hepatocytes by direct cell-cell contact. Utilizing these cells, we employ a two-step procedure for hepatic maturation of ESCs: first, ESCs are differentiated into endodermal cells or hepatic progenitor cells, and second, ESC-derived endodermal cells are matured into functional hepatocytes by coculture with murine fetal liver mesenchymal cells. The ESC-derived hepatocyte-like cells possess hepatic functions, including ammonia removal activity, albumin secretion ability, glycogen synthesis and storage, and cytochrome P450 enzymatic activity.

  6. Recent Strategies Combining Biomaterials and Stem Cells for Bone, Liver and Skin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Sabrina; Salerno, Simona; Ahmed, Haysam Mohamed Magdy; Piscioneri, Antonella; Bartolo, Loredana De

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on the combination of biomaterials with stem cells as a promising strategy for bone, liver and skin regeneration. At first, we describe stem cell-based constructs for bone tissue engineering with special attention to recent advanced approaches based on the use of biomaterial scaffolds with renewable stem cells that have been used for bone regeneration. We illustrate the strategies to improve liver regeneration by using liver stem cells and biomaterials and/or devices as therapeutic approaches. In particular, examples of biomaterials in combination with other technologies are presented since they allow the differentiation of stem cells in hepatocytes. After a description of the role and the benefit of MSCs in wound repair and in skin substitutes we highlight the suitability of biomaterials in guiding stem cell differentiation for skin regeneration and cutaneous repair in both chronic and acute wounds. Finally, an overview of the types of bioreactors that have been developed for the differentiation of stem cells and are currently in use, is also provided. The examples of engineered microenvironments reported in this review indicate that a detailed understanding of the various factors and mechanisms that control the behavior of stem cells in vivo has provided useful information for the development of advanced bioartificial systems able to control cell fate.

  7. Hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in cocultures with fetal liver cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia Lange; Helge Bruns; Dietrich Kluth; Axel R Zander; Henning C Fiegel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in co-cultures with fetal liver cells (FLC) and the possibility to expand differentiated hepatocytic cells.METHODS: MSCs were marked with green fluorescent protein (GFP) by retroviral gene transduction. Clonal marked MSCs were either cultured under liver stimulating conditions using fibronectin-coated culture dishes and medium supplemented with stem cell factor (SCF),hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) alone, or in presence of freshly isolated FLC. Cells in co-cultures were harvested, and GFP+ or GFP- cells were separated using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the liver specific markers cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), albumin,and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was performed in different cell populations.RESULTS: Under the specified culture conditions, rat MSCs co-cultured with FLC expressed albumin, CK-18,and AFP-RNA over two weeks. At wk 3, MSCs lost hepatooytic gene expression, probably due to overgrowth of the cocultured FLC. FLC also showed a stable liver specific gene expression in the co-cultures and a very high growth potential.CONCLUSION: The rat MSCs from bone marrow can differentiate hepatocytic cells in the presence of FLC in vitro and the presence of MSCs in co-cultures also prorides a beneficial environment for expansion and differentiation of FLC.

  8. Human Liver Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Proliferation, NK Activity, and Dendritic Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human liver stem cells (HLSCs are a mesenchymal stromal cell-like population resident in the adult liver. Preclinical studies indicate that HLSCs could be a good candidate for cell therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of HLSCs on T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs, and dendritic cells (DCs in allogeneic experimental settings. We found that HLSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by a mechanism independent of cell contact and dependent on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. When compared with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, HLSCs were more efficient in inhibiting T-cell proliferation. At variance with MSCs, HLSCs did not elicit NK degranulation. Moreover, HLSCs inhibited NK degranulation against K562, a NK-sensitive target, by a mechanism dependent on HLA-G release. When tested on DC generation from monocytes, HLSCs were found to impair DC differentiation and DCs ability to induce T-cell proliferation through PGE2. This study shows that HLSCs have immunomodulatory properties similar to MSCs, but, at variance with MSCs, they do not elicit a NK response.

  9. Human Liver Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Proliferation, NK Activity, and Dendritic Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Stefania; Grange, Cristina; Tapparo, Marta; Pasquino, Chiara; Romagnoli, Renato; Dametto, Ennia; Amoroso, Antonio; Tetta, Ciro; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Human liver stem cells (HLSCs) are a mesenchymal stromal cell-like population resident in the adult liver. Preclinical studies indicate that HLSCs could be a good candidate for cell therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of HLSCs on T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs), and dendritic cells (DCs) in allogeneic experimental settings. We found that HLSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by a mechanism independent of cell contact and dependent on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. When compared with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), HLSCs were more efficient in inhibiting T-cell proliferation. At variance with MSCs, HLSCs did not elicit NK degranulation. Moreover, HLSCs inhibited NK degranulation against K562, a NK-sensitive target, by a mechanism dependent on HLA-G release. When tested on DC generation from monocytes, HLSCs were found to impair DC differentiation and DCs ability to induce T-cell proliferation through PGE2. This study shows that HLSCs have immunomodulatory properties similar to MSCs, but, at variance with MSCs, they do not elicit a NK response.

  10. Long-term culture of genome-stable bipotent stem cells from adult human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; van Boxtel, Ruben; Hamer, Karien; Blokzijl, Francis; Verstegen, Monique M A; Ellis, Ewa; van Wenum, Martien; Fuchs, Sabine A; de Ligt, Joep; van de Wetering, Marc; Sasaki, Nobuo; Boers, Susanne J; Kemperman, Hans; de Jonge, Jeroen; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; Strom, Stephen; Vries, Robert R G; van der Laan, Luc J W; Cuppen, Edwin; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Despite the enormous replication potential of the human liver, there are currently no culture systems available that sustain hepatocyte replication and/or function in vitro. We have shown previously that single mouse Lgr5+ liver stem cells can be expanded as epithelial organoids in vitro and can be

  11. Long-term culture of genome-stable bipotent stem cells from adult human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Huch (Meritxell); H. Gehart (Helmuth); R. Van Boxtel (Ruben); K. Hamer (Karien); F. Blokzijl (Francis); M.M.A. Verstegen (Monique); E. Ellis (Ewa); M. Van Wenum (Martien); S.A. Fuchs (Sabine A.); J. de Ligt (Joep); M. van de Wetering (M.); N. Sasaki (Nobuo); S.J. Boers (Susanne J.); H. Kemperman (Hans); J. de Jonge (Jeroen); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); E.E.S. Nieuwenhuis (Edward); R. Hoekstra (Ruurdtje); S. Strom (Stephen); R.R.G. Vries (Robert R.G.); L.J.W. van der Laan (Luc); E. Cuppen (Edwin); H.C. Clevers (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDespite the enormous replication potential of the human liver, there are currently no culture systems available that sustain hepatocyte replication and/or function in vitro. We have shown previously that single mouse Lgr5+ liver stem cells can be expanded as epithelial organoids in vitro

  12. Long-Term Culture of Genome-Stable Bipotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; van Boxtel, Ruben; Hamer, Karien; Blokzijl, Francis; Verstegen, Monique M. A.; Ellis, Ewa; van Wenum, Martien; Fuchs, Sabine A.; de Ligt, Joep; van de Wetering, Marc; Sasaki, Nobuo; Boers, Susanne J.; Kemperman, Hans; de Jonge, Jeroen; Ijzermans, Jan N. M.; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; Strom, Stephen; Vries, Robert R. G.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Cuppen, Edwin; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Despite the enormous replication potential of the human liver, there are currently no culture systems available that sustain hepatocyte replication and/or function in vitro. We have shown previously that single mouse Lgr5+ liver stem cells can be expanded as epithelial organoids in vitro and can be

  13. Gastrointestinal toxicity, systemic inflammation, and liver biochemistry in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver toxicity is frequently seen in relation to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but pathogenesis and the risk factors are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between liver toxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, and levels of immune-r...

  14. Gastrointestinal toxicity, systemic inflammation, and liver biochemistry in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Karina; Pontoppidan, Peter; Uhlving, Hilde Hylland

    2017-01-01

    Liver toxicity is frequently seen in relation to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but pathogenesis and the risk factors are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between liver toxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, and levels of immun...

  15. Stem cells for end stage liver disease: How far have we got?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefania Lorenzini; Stefano Gitto; Elena Grandini; Pietro Andreone; Mauro Bernardi

    2008-01-01

    End stage liver disease (ESLD) is a health problem worldwide. Liver transplantation is currently the only effective therapy, but its many drawbacks include a shortage of donors, operative damage, risk of rejection and in some cases recidivism of the pre-transplant disease. These factors account for the recent growing interest in regenerative medicine. Experiments have sought to identify an optimal source of stem cells,sufficient to generate large amounts of hepatocytes to be used in bioartificial livers or injected in vivo to repair the diseased organ. This update aims to give non-stem cell specialists an overview of the results obtained to date in this fascinating field of biomedical research.

  16. Autologous CD34~+ and CD133~+ stem cells transplantation in patients with end stage liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosny; Salama; Abdel-Rahman; N; Zekri; Abeer; A; Bahnassy; Eman; Medhat; Hanan; A; Halim; Ola; S; Ahmed; Ghada; Mohamed; Sheren; A; Al; Alim; Ghada; M; Sherif

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To assess the utility of an autologous CD34 + and CD133 + stem cells infusion as a possible therapeutic modality in patients with end-stage liver diseases.METHODS:One hundred and forty patients with endstage liver diseases were randomized into two groups.Group 1,comprising 90 patients,received granulocyte colony stimulating factor for five days followed by autologous CD34 + and CD133 + stem cell infusion in the portal vein.Group 2,comprising 50 patients,received regular liver treatment only and served a...

  17. Successful transplantation of human hepatic stem cells with restricted localization to liver using hyaluronan grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachael A; Wauthier, Eliane; Lozoya, Oswaldo; McClelland, Randall; Bowsher, James E; Barbier, Claire; Prestwich, Glenn; Hsu, Edward; Gerber, David A; Reid, Lola M

    2013-02-01

    Cell therapies are potential alternatives to organ transplantation for liver failure or dysfunction but are compromised by inefficient engraftment, cell dispersal to ectopic sites, and emboli formation. Grafting strategies have been devised for transplantation of human hepatic stem cells (hHpSCs) embedded into a mix of soluble signals and extracellular matrix biomaterials (hyaluronans, type III collagen, laminin) found in stem cell niches. The hHpSCs maintain a stable stem cell phenotype under the graft conditions. The grafts were transplanted into the livers of immunocompromised murine hosts with and without carbon tetrachloride treatment to assess the effects of quiescent versus injured liver conditions. Grafted cells remained localized to the livers, resulting in a larger bolus of engrafted cells in the host livers under quiescent conditions and with potential for more rapid expansion under injured liver conditions. By contrast, transplantation by direct injection or via a vascular route resulted in inefficient engraftment and cell dispersal to ectopic sites. Transplantation by grafting is proposed as a preferred strategy for cell therapies for solid organs such as the liver.

  18. Bone marrow stem cells contribute to alcohol liver fibrosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, Evangelos; Newsome, Philip N; Boyle, Shelagh; Brown, Rachael; Pryde, Anne; McCall, Shonna; Hayes, Peter C; Bickmore, Wendy A; Harrison, David J; Plevris, John N

    2010-09-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMSC) contribution to liver repair varies considerably and recent evidence suggests these cells may contribute to liver fibrosis. We investigated the mobilization and hepatic recruitment of bone marrow (BM) stem cells in patients with alcohol liver injury and their contribution to parenchymal/non-parenchymal liver cell lineages. Liver biopsies from alcoholic hepatitis (AH) patients and male patients, who received a female liver transplant and developed AH, were analyzed for BM stem cell content by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunostaining. Y chromosome analysis was performed, along with co-staining for hepatocyte, biliary, myofibroblast, and Ki-67 markers. Blood CD34(+) levels were quantified in AH patients by flow cytometry. AH patients had increased CD34(+) cell counts in liver tissue (1.834% +/- 0.605%; P < 0.05) and in blood (0.195% +/- 0.063%; P < 0.05) as compared with matched controls (0.299% + 0.208% and 0.067% +/- 0.01%). A proportion of hepatic myofibroblasts were BM-derived (7.9%-26.8%) as deemed by the co-localization of Y chromosome/alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) staining. In the cross-sex liver grafts with AH, 5.025% of the myofibroblasts were co-staining for CD34, suggesting that a population of CD34(+) cells were contributing to the hepatic myofibroblast population. There was no evidence of BM contribution to hepatocyte or biliary cell differentiation, nor evidence of increased hepatocyte regeneration. Alcohol liver injury mobilizes CD34(+) stem cells into the circulation and recruits them into the liver. These BMSCs contribute to the hepatic myofibroblast population but not to parenchymal lineages and do not promote hepatocyte repair.

  19. Autologous Stem Cells Transplantation in Egyptian Patients with Liver Cirrhosis on Top of Hepatitis C Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tayeb, Hoda; El Dorry, Ahmed; Amer, Nehad; Mowafy, Nadia; Zimaity, Maha; Bayoumy, Essam; Saleh, Shereen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Use of pluripotent stem cells is an ideal solution for liver insufficiencies. This work aims is to evaluate the safety and feasibility of autologous stem cells transplantation (SCT) in Egyptian patients of liver cirrhosis on top of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Subjects and Results 20 patients with HCV induced liver cirrhosis were divided into 2 groups. Group I: included 10 patients with liver cirrhosis Child score ≥9, for whom autologous stem cell transplantation was done using granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for stem cells mobilization. Separation and collection of the peripheral blood stem cells was done by leukapheresis. G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (G-CSF PB-MNCs) were counted by flow cytometry. Stem cell injection into the hepatic artery was done. Group II: included 10 patients with HCV induced liver cirrhosis as a control group. Follow up and comparison between both groups were done over a follow up period of 6 months. The procedure was well tolerated. Mobilization was successful and the total number of G-CSF PB-MNCs in the harvests ranged from 25×106 to 191×106. There was improvement in the quality of life, serum albumin, total bilirubin, liver enzymes and the Child-Pugh score of group I over the first two-three months after the procedure. Conclusion SCT in HCV induced liver cirrhosis is a safe procedure. It can improve the quality of life and hepatic functions transiently with no effect on the life expectancy or the fate of the liver cirrhosis. PMID:26634069

  20. In vivo liver regeneration potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells from diverse origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Kim, Yonghak; Sharkis, Saul; Marchionni, Luigi; Jang, Yoon-Young

    2011-05-11

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a potential source of hepatocytes for liver transplantation to treat end-stage liver disease. In vitro differentiation of human iPSCs into hepatic cells has been achieved using a multistage differentiation protocol, but whether these cells are functional and capable of engrafting and regenerating diseased liver tissue is not clear. We show that human iPSC-derived hepatic cells at various differentiation stages can engraft the liver in a mouse transplantation model. Using the same differentiation and transplantation protocols, we also assessed the ability of human iPSCs derived from each of the three developmental germ layer tissues (that is, ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) to regenerate mouse liver. These iPSC lines, with similar but distinct global DNA methylation patterns, differentiated into multistage hepatic cells with an efficiency similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Human hepatic cells at various differentiation stages derived from iPSC lines of different origins successfully repopulated the liver tissue of mice with liver cirrhosis. They also secreted human-specific liver proteins into mouse blood at concentrations comparable to that of proteins secreted by human primary hepatocytes. Our results demonstrate the engraftment and liver regenerative capabilities of human iPSC-derived multistage hepatic cells in vivo and suggest that human iPSCs of distinct origins and regardless of their parental epigenetic memory can efficiently differentiate along the hepatic lineage.

  1. Purification of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells containing all the repopulation potential for normal adult rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oertel, Michael; Menthena, Anuradha; Chen, Yuan-Qing

    2008-01-01

    and characteristic properties in vitro and their proliferative and differentiation potential in vivo after transplantation into normal adult rat liver. RESULTS: Rat ED14 FLSPC were purified to 95% homogeneity and exhibited cell culture and gene expression characteristics expected for hepatic stem/progenitor cells...

  2. In vitro culture of isolated primary hepatocytes and stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells for liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenxia; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-08-01

    Various liver diseases result in terminal hepatic failure, and liver transplantation, cell transplantation and artificial liver support systems are emerging as effective therapies for severe hepatic disease. However, all of these treatments are limited by organ or cell resources, so developing a sufficient number of functional hepatocytes for liver regeneration is a priority. Liver regeneration is a complex process regulated by growth factors (GFs), cytokines, transcription factors (TFs), hormones, oxidative stress products, metabolic networks, and microRNA. It is well-known that the function of isolated primary hepatocytes is hard to maintain; when cultured in vitro, these cells readily undergo dedifferentiation, causing them to lose hepatocyte function. For this reason, most studies focus on inducing stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in vitro. In this review, we mainly focus on the nature of the liver regeneration process and discuss how to maintain and enhance in vitro hepatic function of isolated primary hepatocytes or stem cell-derived HLCs for liver regeneration. In this way, hepatocytes or HLCs may be applied for clinical use for the treatment of terminal liver diseases and may prolong the survival time of patients in the near future.

  3. Liver Development and In vitro Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells to Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshad Pournasr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells are characterized with two specific properties: self renewal and differentiationpotential. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells that can be differentiatedinto three kind of germ layers; ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm. These properties makethem ideal for developmental research, toxicology and transplantation in animal model ofhuman diseases. These cells can be differentiated spontaneously into three germ layercells, but in direct differentiation, molecules and growth factors involved in natural developmentof desired cells must well characterized to gain a proper differentiation in vitro.There are increasing numbers of death because of liver disease and failure of organtransplantation in our country and the world. This made stem cell scientists to work onembryonic stem cell differentiation to hepatocyte like cells to create an accessible cellsource in regenerative medicine of liver disease in the future, and also to establish stemcell derived hepatocyte for in vitro screening of drugs.In this review we will summarize the process of liver development including moleculesand growth factors incorporate in the liver development as a template for in vitro differentiationof mouse and human embryonic stem cells and then we will discuss the relatedstudies and techniques for analyzing functionality of differentiated cells.

  4. Immunohistochemical characterization of hepatic stem cell-related cells in developing human liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; HU Yong; WANG Jian; ZHOU Ji; ZHANG Taiping; YU Hongyu

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the expression characteristics of the various kinds of possible markers in hepatic stem cells(HSCs)and other HSC-related cells in human fetal liver in various developmental stages.It is significant to investigate the immunohistochemical expression for better understanding of the origin,difierentiation and migration of HSCs in the developing human liver.H-E staining and immunohistochemical methods were used to observe the expression of hepatic/cholangiocellular differentiation markers(AFF,GST-π,CK7,CK19)and hematopoietic stem cell markers(CD34 and c-kit)in several kinds of HSC-related cells in thirty cases of fetal liver samples (4-35 weeks after pregnancy).AFP expression appears in fetal hepatocytes at four weeks'gestation.It Deaks at 16-24 weeks'gestation and decreases gradually afterwards.Finally,weak signals were only found in some ductal plate cells and a few limiting plate cells.GST-π was detected in hepatic cord cells from the sixth week and in the ductal plate cells from the eighth week.Twenty-six weeks later,only some ductal plate cells and a few limiting plate cells show positive signals.CK19 expression peaks during the 6th-11th weeks in hepatic cord cells and decreases gradually afterwards,except for the ductal plates.CK7 expression was limited in the ductal plate cells and bile ducts cells from the 14th week.CD34 and c-kit were detected at the eighth week in some ductal plate cells and a few mononuclear cells in the hepatic cords/mesenchymal tissue of portal areas.After 21 weeks.CD34 and c-kit were found only in ductal plate cells and a few mononuclear cells in the hepatic mesenchymal tissue of portal areas.Fetal hepatocytes at 4-16 weeks'gestation are mainly constituted by HSCs characterized with bi-potential differentiation capacity.At 16 weeks'gestation,most hepatic cord cells begin to differentiate into hepatocytes and abundant HSCs remain in ductal plate(the origin site of Hering canals).It is also indicated mat the

  5. Label-free quantitative proteomics of CD133-positive liver cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Sheng-Ta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD133-positive liver cancer stem cells, which are characterized by their resistance to conventional chemotherapy and their tumor initiation ability at limited dilutions, have been recognized as a critical target in liver cancer therapeutics. In the current work, we developed a label-free quantitative method to investigate the proteome of CD133-positive liver cancer stem cells for the purpose of identifying unique biomarkers that can be utilized for targeting liver cancer stem cells. Label-free quantitation was performed in combination with ID-based Elution time Alignment by Linear regression Quantitation (IDEAL-Q and MaxQuant. Results Initially, IDEAL-Q analysis revealed that 151 proteins were differentially expressed in the CD133-positive hepatoma cells when compared with CD133-negative cells. We then analyzed these 151 differentially expressed proteins by MaxQuant software and identified 10 significantly up-regulated proteins. The results were further validated by RT-PCR, western blot, flow cytometry or immunofluorescent staining which revealed that prominin-1, annexin A1, annexin A3, transgelin, creatine kinase B, vimentin, and EpCAM were indeed highly expressed in the CD133-positive hepatoma cells. Conclusions These findings confirmed that mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics can be used to gain insights into liver cancer stem cells.

  6. Stem cells for liver tissue repair:Current knowledge and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells from extra- or intrahepatic sources have been recently characterized and their usefulness for the generation of hepatocyte-like lineages has been demonstrated.Therefore,they are being increasingly considered for future applications in liver cell therapy.In that field,liver cell transplantation is currently regarded as a possible alternative to whole organ transplantation,while stem cells possess theoretical advantages on hepatocytes as they display higher in vitro culture performances and could be used in autologous transplant procedures.However,the current research on the hepatic fate of stem cells is still facing difficulties to demonstrate the acquisition of a full mature hepatocyte phenotype,both in vitro and in vivo.Furthermore,the lack of obvious demonstration of in vivo hepatocyte-like cell functionality remains associated to low repopulation rates obtained after current transplantation procedures.The present review focuses on the current knowledge of the stern cell potential for liver therapy.We discuss the characteristics of the principal cell candidates and the methods to demonstrate their hepatic potential in vitro and in vivo.We finally address the question of the future clinical applications of stem cells for liver tissue repair and the technical aspects that remain to be investigated.

  7. Organoids from adult liver and pancreas: Stem cell biology and biomedical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindley, Christopher J; Cordero-Espinoza, Lucía; Huch, Meritxell

    2016-12-15

    The liver and pancreas are critical organs maintaining whole body metabolism. Historically, the expansion of adult-derived cells from these organs in vitro has proven challenging and this in turn has hampered studies of liver and pancreas stem cell biology, as well as being a roadblock to disease modelling and cell replacement therapies for pathologies in these organs. Recently, defined culture conditions have been described which allow the in vitro culture and manipulation of adult-derived liver and pancreatic material. Here we review these systems and assess their physiological relevance, as well as their potential utility in biomedicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transplantation of human stem cell-derived hepatocytes in an animal model of acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Pettinato, Giuseppe; Beeston, John T; Lee, David D; Wen, Xuejun; Mangino, Martin J; Fisher, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    Hepatocyte cell transplantation can be life-saving in patients with acute liver failure (ALF); however, primary human hepatocyte transplantation is limited by the scarcity of donor hepatocytes. We investigated the effect of stem cell-derived, hepatocyte-like cells in an animal xenotransplant model of ALF. Intraperitoneal d-galactosamine was used to develop a lethal model of ALF in the rat. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), human mesenchymal stem cells, and human iPSC combined with human endothelial cells (iPSC + EC) were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells and transplanted into the spleens of athymic nude rats with ALF. A reproducible lethal model of ALF was achieved with nearly 90% death within 3 days. Compared with negative controls, rats transplanted with stem cell-derived, hepatocyte-like cells were associated with increased survival. Human albumin was detected in the rat serum 3 days after transplantation in more than one-half the animals transplanted with hepatocyte-like cells. Only animals transplanted with iPSC + EC-derived hepatocytes had serum human albumin at 14 days posttransplant. Transplanted hepatocyte-like cells homed to the injured rat liver, whereas the ECs were only detected in the spleen. Transplantation of stem cell-derived, hepatocyte-like cells improved survival with evidence of in vivo human albumin production. Combining ECs may prolong cell function after transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ijin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haeryoung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients.

  10. An efficient method of sorting liver stem cells by using immuno-magnetic microbeads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fei He; Yin-Kun Liu; Dong-Mei Gao; Jun Chen; Peng-Yuan Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To develop a method to isolate liver stem cells fast and efficiently.METHODS: Fetal mouse liver cells were characterized by cell surface antigens (c-Kit and CD45/TER119) using flow cytometry. The candidate liver stem cells were sorted by using immuno-magnetic microbeads and identified by clone-forming culture, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays.RESULTS: The c-Kit-(CD45/TER119)-cell population with 97.9% of purity were purified by immuno-magnetic microbeads at one time. The yield of this separation was about 6% of the total sorting cells and the cell viability was above 98%. When cultured in vitro these cells had high clone-forming and self-renewing ability and expressed markers of hepatocytes and bile duct cells.Functionally mature hepatocytes were observed after 21 d of culture.CONCLUSION: This method offers an excellent tool for the enrichment of liver stem cells with high purity and viability, which could be used for further studies. It is fast, efficient, simple and not expensive.

  11. Thinking outside the liver: induced pluripotent stem cells for hepatic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, Mekala; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2013-06-14

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) unraveled a mystery in stem cell research, after identification of four re-programming factors for generating pluripotent stem cells without the need of embryos. This breakthrough in generating iPSCs from somatic cells has overcome the ethical issues and immune rejection involved in the use of human embryonic stem cells. Hence, iPSCs form a great potential source for developing disease models, drug toxicity screening and cell-based therapies. These cells have the potential to differentiate into desired cell types, including hepatocytes, under in vitro as well as under in vivo conditions given the proper microenvironment. iPSC-derived hepatocytes could be useful as an unlimited source, which can be utilized in disease modeling, drug toxicity testing and producing autologous cell therapies that would avoid immune rejection and enable correction of gene defects prior to cell transplantation. In this review, we discuss the induction methods, role of reprogramming factors, and characterization of iPSCs, along with hepatocyte differentiation from iPSCs and potential applications. Further, we discuss the location and detection of liver stem cells and their role in liver regeneration. Although tumor formation and genetic mutations are a cause of concern, iPSCs still form a promising source for clinical applications.

  12. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  13. Human fetal liver stromal cells expressing erythropoietin promote hematopoietic development from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ji, Lei; Yue, Wen; Shi, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Ruo-Yong; Li, Yan-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Xi, Jia-Fei; He, Li-Juan; Nan, Xue; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Blood cells transfusion and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transplantation are important methods for cell therapy. They are widely used in the treatment of incurable hematological disorder, infectious diseases, genetic diseases, and immunologic deficiency. However, their availability is limited by quantity, capacity of proliferation and the risk of blood transfusion complications. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been shown to be an alternative resource for the generation of hematopoietic cells. In the current study, we describe a novel method for the efficient production of hematopoietic cells from hESCs. The stable human fetal liver stromal cell lines (hFLSCs) expressing erythropoietin (EPO) were established using the lentiviral system. We observed that the supernatant from the EPO transfected hFLSCs could induce the hESCs differentiation into hematopoietic cells, especially erythroid cells. They not only expressed fetal and embryonic globins but also expressed the adult-globin chain on further maturation. In addition, these hESCs-derived erythroid cells possess oxygen-transporting capacity, which indicated hESCs could generate terminally mature progenies. This should be useful for ultimately developing an animal-free culture system to generate large numbers of erythroid cells from hESCs and provide an experimental model to study early human erythropoiesis.

  14. Musashi 2 contributes to the stemness and chemoresistance of liver cancer stem cells via LIN28A activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tian; Lv, Hongwei; Wu, Fuquan; Wang, Changzheng; Li, Ting; Lv, Guishuai; Tang, Liang; Guo, Linna; Tang, Shanhua; Cao, Dan; Wu, Mengchao; Yang, Wen; Wang, Hongyang

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small subset of cancer cells, are responsible for tumor initiation, progression, relapse and metastasis. Musashi 2 (MSI2), a RNA-binding protein, was proposed to be a potent oncogene playing key roles in myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal malignancies. However, it remains elusive how MSI2 regulates stem cell features in HCC. Herein, we demonstrated that MSI2 was highly expressed in liver CSCs. Overexpression or knockdown of MSI2 altered CSC-related gene expression, self-renewal as well as resistance to chemotherapy in HCC cell lines. In mouse xenograft models, MSI2 could markedly enhance tumorigenicity. Mechanistically, overexpression of MSI2 resulted in the upregulation of Lin28A. Stemness and chemotherapeutic drug resistance induced by MSI2 overexpression were dramatically reduced by Lin28A knockdown. Moreover, MSI2 and LIN28A levels positively correlated with the clinical severity and prognosis in HCC patients. In conclusion, MSI2 might play a crucial role in sustaining stemness and chemoresistance of liver CSCs via LIN28A-dependent manner in HCC. Our findings revealed that MSI2 and Lin28A might be used as potential therapeutic targets for eradicating liver CSCs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells along a hepatocyte lineage and its application in liver regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial liver(BAL)as alternatives to liver transplantation offer the possibility of effective treatment for many inherited and acquired hepatic disorders.Unfortunately,the limited availability of donated livers and the variability of their derived hepatocytes make it difficult to obtain enough viable human hepatocytes for the hepatocyte-based therapies.Embryonic stem cells (ESCs),which could be isolated directly from the blastocyst inner cell mass,have permanent self-renewal capability and developmental pluripotency and therefore might be an ideal cell source in the treatment of hepatic discords.However,differentiation of hESCS into hepatocytes with significant numbers remains a challenge.This review updates our current understanding of differentiation of ESCs into hepatic lineage cells,their future therapeutic uses and problems in liver regeneration.

  16. Gene expression profiling of liver cancer stem cells by RNA-sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Y Ho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence supports that tumor growth and cancer relapse are driven by cancer stem cells. Our previous work has demonstrated the existence of CD90(+ liver cancer stem cells (CSCs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Nevertheless, the characteristics of these cells are still poorly understood. In this study, we employed a more sensitive RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq to compare the gene expression profiling of CD90(+ cells sorted from tumor (CD90(+CSCs with parallel non-tumorous liver tissues (CD90(+NTSCs and elucidate the roles of putative target genes in hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CD90(+ cells were sorted respectively from tumor and adjacent non-tumorous human liver tissues using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The amplified RNAs of CD90(+ cells from 3 HCC patients were subjected to RNA-Seq analysis. A differential gene expression profile was established between CD90(+CSCs and CD90(+NTSCs, and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR on the same set of amplified RNAs, and further confirmed in an independent cohort of 12 HCC patients. Five hundred genes were differentially expressed (119 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes between CD90(+CSCs and CD90(+NTSCs. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the over-expressed genes in CD90(+CSCs were associated with inflammation, drug resistance and lipid metabolism. Among the differentially expressed genes, glypican-3 (GPC3, a member of glypican family, was markedly elevated in CD90(+CSCs compared to CD90(+NTSCs. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GPC3 was highly expressed in forty-two human liver tumor tissues but absent in adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Flow cytometry indicated that GPC3 was highly expressed in liver CD90(+CSCs and mature cancer cells in liver cancer cell lines and human liver tumor tissues. Furthermore, GPC3 expression was positively correlated with the number of CD90(+CSCs in liver tumor tissues. CONCLUSIONS

  17. Advances in mesenchymal stem cells combined with traditional Chinese medicine therapy for liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Dong; Shi-bing Su

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a primary cause of liver cirrhosis, and even hepatocarcinoma. Recently, the usage of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been investigated to improve liver ifbrosis. It has been reported that the differentiation, proliferation and migration of MSCs can be regulated by traditional Chinese medicine treatment;however, the mechanisms are still unclear. In this article, the authors review the characteristics of MSCs such as multidirectional differentiation and homing, and its application in animal experiments and clinical trials. The authors also list areas that need further investigation, and look at the future prospects of clinical application of MSCs.

  18. Three-dimentional growth of liver / stem cells in vitro under simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mei Fu

    Liver is a important and largest parenchymatous organ in vivo, and have complex and diverse structures and functions. In the world, there are many peoples suffers from liver injury and dis-ease, especially in Asia, but serious shortage of donor organ, especially for organic pathological changes, is a big problem in the world. Stem cells have the capabilities to self-renew and differ-entiate into multiple lineages, and are very significant in both theoretical research and clinical applications. Compared with traditional cell culture, cells of 3D growth are more close to their situation in vivo. The specific physics environment in space provides a great opportunity for 3D growth of cells and tissues. Due to the chance for entering into the space is so scarce, to mimic microgravity effects using a rotating cell culture system (RCCS) designed by NASA, and some other methods were studied for cellular 3D growth in vitro. Neonatal mouse liver Cells, hepatic progenitor/stem cells from fetal liver and WB-F344 cells were cultured in a 1:1 mixture of DMEM and F-12 supplemented with 10 % FCS and several factors, and seeded into the RCCS, 6-well and 24-well plates. Their growth characteristic, metabolism, differentiation and gene expression were studied by SEM, Histochemistry, Flow Cytometry, RT-PCR and so on. The results showed: 1. Neonatal mouse liver Cells (1day after birth) seem easy to grow for a three-dimentional-like structure, when the cells were cultured in the RCCS, a cell aggregate formed after 1 day of culture and were kept during 10 days culture. The size of aggregate was about 1 2 mm in diameter. 2. Hepatic progenitor/stem cells from fetal liver seem a good cell resource for liver disease'cell therapy. They expressed AFP and CKs, and no mature hepato-cytes marker and bile duct epithelial cells marker were detected. When were transplanted into Nod-Scid mice, they had multi-potential differentiation. 3. WB-F344 cells, a liver epithelial cell line, could grew well on

  19. A Convenient and Efficient Method to Enrich and Maintain Highly Proliferative Human Fetal Liver Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuan; Wang, Shu; Dou, Ya-ling; Guo, Xiang-fei; Chen, Zhao-li; Wang, Xin-wei; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Qiu, Zhi-gang; Jin, Min; Li, Jun-wen

    2015-06-01

    Pluripotent human hepatic stem cells have broad research and clinical applications, which are, however, restricted by both limited resources and technical difficulties with respect to isolation of stem cells from the adult or fetal liver. In this study, we developed a convenient and efficient method involving a two-step in situ collagenase perfusion, gravity sedimentation, and Percoll density gradient centrifugation to enrich and maintain highly proliferative human fetal liver stem cells (hFLSCs). Using this method, the isolated hFLSCs entered into the exponential growth phase within 10 days and maintained sufficient proliferative activity to permit subculture for at least 20 passages without differentiation. Immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry results showed that these cells expressed stem cell markers, such as c-kit, CD44, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), oval cell marker-6 (OV-6), epithelial marker cytokeratin 18 (CK18), biliary ductal marker CK19, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Gene expression analysis showed that these cells had stable mRNA expression of c-Kit, EpCAM, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), CK19, CK18, AFP, and claudin 3 (CLDN-3) throughout each passage while maintaining low levels of ALB, but with complete absence of cytochrome P450 3A4 (C3A4), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), telomeric repeat binding factor (TRF), and connexin 26 (CX26) expression. When grown in appropriate medium, these isolated liver stem cells could differentiate into hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, or endothelial cells. Thus, we have demonstrated a more economical and efficient method to isolate hFLSCs than magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). This novel approach may provide an excellent tool to isolate highly proliferative hFLSCs for tissue engineering and regenerative therapies.

  20. Stages based molecular mechanisms for generating cholangiocytes from liver stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Hui; Ren, Li-Na; Chen, Tao; Liu, Li-Ye; Tang, Li-Jun

    2013-11-07

    Except for the most organized mature hepatocytes, liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs) can differentiate into many other types of cells in the liver including cholangiocytes. In addition, LSPCs are demonstrated to be able to give birth to other kinds of extra-hepatic cell types such as insulin-producing cells. Even more, under some bad conditions, these LSPCs could generate liver cancer stem like cells (LCSCs) through malignant transformation. In this review, we mainly concentrate on the molecular mechanisms for controlling cell fates of LSPCs, especially differentiation of cholangiocytes, insulin-producing cells and LCSCs. First of all, to certificate the cell fates of LSPCs, the following three features need to be taken into account to perform accurate phenotyping: (1) morphological properties; (2) specific markers; and (3) functional assessment including in vivo transplantation. Secondly, to promote LSPCs differentiation, systematical attention should be paid to inductive materials (such as growth factors and chemical stimulators), progressive materials including intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways, and implementary materials (such as liver enriched transcriptive factors). Accordingly, some recommendations were proposed to standardize, optimize, and enrich the effective production of cholangiocyte-like cells out of LSPCs. At the end, the potential regulating mechanisms for generation of cholangiocytes by LSPCs were carefully analyzed. The differentiation of LSPCs is a gradually progressing process, which consists of three main steps: initiation, progression and accomplishment. It's the unbalanced distribution of affecting materials in each step decides the cell fates of LSPCs.

  1. Peroxiredoxin II Is Essential for Maintaining Stemness by Redox Regulation in Liver Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taeho; Bak, Yesol; Park, Young-Ho; Jang, Gyu-Beom; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Young Nyun; Bak, In Seon; Kim, Jin-Man; Yoon, Do-Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2016-05-01

    Redox regulation in cancer stem cells (CSCs) is viewed as a good target for cancer therapy because redox status plays an important role in cancer stem-cell maintenance. Here, we investigated the role of Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II), an antioxidant enzyme, in association with maintenance of liver CSCs. Our study demonstrates that Prx II overexpressed in liver cancer cells has high potential for self-renewal activity. Prx II expression significantly corelated with expression of epithelial-cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM) and cytokerain 19 in liver cancer tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Downregulation of Prx II in Huh7 cells with treatment of siRNA reduced expression of EpCAM and CD133 as well as Sox2 in accordance with increased ROS and apoptosis, which were reversed in Huh7-hPrx II cells. Huh7-hPrx II cells exhibited strong sphere-formation activity compared with mock cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exposure enhanced sphere formation, cell-surface expression of EpCAM and CD133, and pSTAT3 along with activation of VEGF receptor 2 in Huh7-hPrx II cells. The result also emerged in Huh7-H-ras(G12V) and SK-HEP-1-H-ras(G12V) cells with high-level expression of Prx II. Prx II was involved in regulation of VEGF driving cancer stem cells through VEGFR-2/STAT3 signaling to upregulate Bmi1 and Sox2. In addition, knockdown of Prx II in Huh7-H-ras(G12V) cells showed significant reduction in cell migration in vitro and in tumorigenic potential in vivo. Taken together, all the results demonstrated that Prx II plays a key role in the CSC self-renewal of HCC cells through redox regulation. Stem Cells 2016;34:1188-1197.

  2. Role of stem cells during diabetic liver injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Ying; Garner, Jessica; Wu, Nan; Phillip, Levine; Han, Yuyan; McDaniel, Kelly; Annable, Tami; Zhou, Tianhao; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Huang, Qiaobing; Alpini, Gianfranco; Meng, Fanyin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes mellitus is one of the most severe endocrine metabolic disorders in the world that has serious medical consequences with substantial impacts on the quality of life. Type 2 diabetes is one of the main causes of diabetic liver diseases with the most common being non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease. Several factors that may explain the mechanisms related to pathological and functional changes of diabetic liver injury include: insulin resistance, oxidative stress and endoplasmic r...

  3. Complement proteins C7 and CFH control the stemness of liver cancer cells via LSF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Hyang Sook; Lee, Sang Eun; Song, Joon Seon; Rhee, Je-Keun; Singh, Shree Ram; Chang, Suhwan; Jang, Se Jin

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-initiating cells are important for the formation and maintenance of tumor bulks in various tumors. To identify surface markers of liver tumor-initiating cells, we performed primary tumorsphere culture and analyzed the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) antigen genes using NanoString. Interestingly, we found significant upregulation of the complement proteins (p = 1.60 × 10(-18)), including C7 and CFH. Further studies revealed that C7 and CFH are required to maintain stemness in liver cancer cells. Knockdown of C7 and CFH expression abrogated tumorsphere formation and induced differentiation, whereas overexpression stimulated stemness factor expression as well as in vivo cell growth. Mechanistically, by studying C7 and CFH-dependent LSF-1 expression and its direct role on stemness factor transcription, we found that LSF-1 is involved in this regulation. Taken together, our data demonstrate the unprecedented role of complement proteins on the maintenance of stemness in liver tumor-initiating cells.

  4. In vitro cultivation and differentiation of fetal liver stem cells from mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Qing FENG; Li Ying DU; Zhen Quan GUO

    2005-01-01

    During embryonic development, pluripotent endoderm tissue in the developing foregut may adopt pancreatic fate or hepatic fate depending on the activation of key developmental regulators. Transdifferentiation occurs between hepatocytes and pancreatic cells under specific conditions. Hepatocytes and pancreatic cells have the common endodermal progenitor cells. In this study we isolated hepatic stem/progenitor cells from embryonic day (ED) 12-14 Kun-Ming mice with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The cells were cultured under specific conditions. The cultured cells deploy dithizone staining and immunocytochemical staining at the 15th, 30th and 40th day after isolation. The results indicated the presence of insulin-producing cells. When the insulin-producing cells were transplanted into alloxaninduced diabetic mice, the nonfasting blood glucose level was reduced. These results suggested that fetal liver stem/progenitor cells could be converted into insulin-producing cells under specific culture conditions. Fetal liver stem/progenitor cells could become the potential source of insulin-producing cells for successful cell transplantation therapy strategies of diabetes.

  5. Comparative studies of different cryopreservation methods for mesenchymal stem cells derived from human fetal liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Plamen; Hristova, Elena; Konakchieva, Rossitza; Michova, Antoaneta; Dimitrov, Josif

    2010-03-29

    Fetal stem cells possess some intriguing characteristics, which delineate them as promising cellular therapeutics. They are less immunogenic, at lower stage of differentiation and have higher potential for repopulation and migration. Furthermore, the fetal stem cells secrete a set of cytokines and growth factors, which stimulate the regeneration of the recipient tissue. The present study indicated that the adhesive fraction of human fetal liver cells possessed the morphological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as potential to differentiate into adipocyte and osteoblast lineages. The immunophenotypic analysis showed that the cells expressed CD13, CD73, CD90 and CD105 (typical for mesenchymal stem cells) and lacked the haematopoietic lineage markers CD34 and CD45. Addressing the issue of the low-temperature storage of the human fetal liver cells, four different methods for cryopreservation were assessed: conventional slow freezing, program freezing and two vitrification protocols. The obtained results demonstrated that the cells were cryotolerant and maintained their properties and differentiation potential after thawing. Program freezing showed to be the most efficient method for cryopreservation of the investigated cells.

  6. MicroRNAs involved in neoplastic transformation of liver cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xinchuan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been verified by characterizing side population (SP cells based on efflux of Hoechst 33342 dye from stem cells. Recent advances in microRNA (miRNA biology have revealed that miRNAs play an important role in embryonic development and tumorigenesis. However, it is still unclear which miRNAs participate in the neoplastic transformation of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs during hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods To identify the unique set of miRNAs differentially regulated in LCSCs, we applied SP sorting to primary cultures of F344 rat HCC cancer cells treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN and normal syngenic fetal liver cells, and the stem-like characteristics of SP cells were verified through detecting expression of CD90.1, AFP and CK-7. Global miRNA expression profiles of two groups of SP cells were screened through microarray platform. Results A total of 68 miRNAs, including miR-10b, miR-21, miR-470*, miR-34c-3p, and let-7i*, were identified as overexpressed in SP of HCC cells compared to fetal liver cells. Ten miRNAs were underexpressed, including miR-200a* and miR-148b*. These miRNAs were validated using stem-loop real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Conclusions Our results suggest that LCSCs may have a distinct miRNA expression fingerprint during hepatocarcinogenesis. Dissecting these relationships will provide a new understanding of the function of miRNA in the process of neoplastic transformation of LCSCs.

  7. Liver Graft versus Host Disease after Allogeneic Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation: Update on Etiopathogenesis and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihăilă, R-G

    2016-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is the main complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and is more frequent after peripheral stem cell transplants. Graft versus leukemia or lymphoma component of them is beneficial to eradicate residual tumor mass after previous treatment and conditioning regimen. A severe GVHD may endanger the patient's life. The most important liver manifestations of GVHD are increased serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin values. The last allows to estimate the GVHD severity. Sometimes, an increase of aminotransferases can mimic an acute hepatitis. Donor-derived hematopoietic cells appeared to turn in mesenchymal liver cells. Activated CD4(+) T cells, humoral and complement activation, a large number of cytokines and cytokine receptors are involved in GVHD development. Correct and early recognition of GVHD and its differentiation from the other liver diseases are essential for the medical practice.

  8. Establishment and identification of induced pluripotent stem cells in liver cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Ming Zhang; Jian-Jun Li; Peng Yan; Jian-Ting Hu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To induce pluripotent stem (IPS) cells from fibrocytes that are separated from liver cancer patients. Methods: The fibrocytes were reprogrammed to IPS cells by lentiviral vector, stained and identified by immunohistochemistry. Results: The IPS cells were successfully established from fibrocytes after infection, and IPS cell clones formed in round shape under a microscopy. The induction rate was 0.013%±0.007%. No tumor formed at the back of nude mice within 8 weeks after the inoculation of cell clones. However, tetatoma appeared in nude mice within 1 week after IPS inoculation. A few tumors formed in nude mice within 4 weeks after the inoculation of cell clones. However, subcutaneous tumors formed within 1 week after IPS inoculation. The induced IPS cells showed three germ layers in tetatoma. Nanog and OCT4 in the induced IPS cells showed hypomethylation. SSEA-A, TRA-1-6-, TRA-1-81 and Nanog were highly expressed in the induced IPS cells, indicating the IPS cells possessed the similar ability as the stem cells. Conclusion: The IPS cells of liver cancer patients can be established effectively from fibrocytes and can be cultured stably in vitro, which provides an approach for the treatment of intermediate or advanced stage liver cancer.

  9. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells Promote Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model of Toxic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Koellensperger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the persisting lack of donor organs and the risks of allotransplantations, the possibility of liver regeneration with autologous stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSC is an intriguing alternative. Using a model of a toxic liver damage in Sprague Dawley rats, generated by repetitive intraperitoneal application of retrorsine and allyl alcohol, the ability of human ADSC to support the restoration of liver function was investigated. A two-thirds hepatectomy was performed, and human ADSC were injected into one remaining liver lobe in group 1 (n = 20. Injection of cell culture medium performed in group 2 (n = 20 served as control. Cyclosporine was applied to achieve immunotolerance. Blood samples were drawn weekly after surgery to determine liver-correlated blood values. Six and twelve weeks after surgery, animals were sacrificed and histological sections were analyzed. ADSC significantly raised postoperative albumin (P < 0.017, total protein (P < 0.031, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (P < 0.001, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.04 levels compared to injection of cell culture medium alone. Transplanted cells could be found up to twelve weeks after surgery in histological sections. This study points towards ADSC being a promising alternative to hepatocyte or liver organ transplantation in patients with severe liver failure.

  10. Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Stem Cell Marker LGR5 in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zahida; Orr, Anne; Michalopoulos, George K; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan

    2017-01-01

    Aims In regenerating liver, hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are recruited in response to injury; however, few highly specific human HPC markers exist for the hepatocyte lineage. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), a Wnt-associated stem cell marker, has been extensively studied in intestinal stem cells, but little is known about its expression in human liver. We hypothesized that LGR5+ HPCs are induced in the regenerative response to pediatric liver injury. Methods and results Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize LGR5 expression in pediatric liver explants (n = 36). We found cytoplasmic LGR5 expression in all cases; although, much less was observed in acute hepatic necrosis compared to chronic liver diseases. In the latter cases, >50% of hepatocytes were LGR5+, signifying a robust regenerative response mainly in the periphery of regenerative nodules. Only weak LGR5 staining was noted in bile ducts, suggesting hepatocyte-specific expression at the interface. Conclusions Although we observed some degree of regenerative response in all cases, LGR5 was highly expressed in chronic liver disease, possibly due to alternate regeneration and reprogramming pathways. LGR5 is predominant in peri-septal hepatocytes rather than epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) positive ductular reactions in chronic pediatric liver diseases and may represent a transitional HPC phenotype for the hepatocyte lineage. These studies are the first to support a unique role for LGR5 in human hepatocyte regeneration and as a potential predictive biomarker for recovery of liver function in children. Future work will also investigate the molecular mechanisms behind LGR5 expression.

  11. [Analysis of sensitivity of stromal stem cells (CFU-f) from rat bone marrow and fetal liver to 5-fluorouracil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiushina, O V; Damaratskaia, E I; Bueverova, E I; Nikonova, T M; Butorina, N N; Molchanova, E A; Starostin, V I

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of stromal stem cells (CFU-f) from rat bone marrow and fetal liver to the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was compared in vivo and in vitro. Cells from both tissues demonstrated a similar resistance to 5-FU in vitro; however, stromal stem cells from fetal liver proved notably more sensitive to 5-FU compared to marrow CFU-f in vivo. Cells forming colonies of different size were identified in stem cell populations from both tissues. Cells giving rise to small colonies had a higher resistance to 5-FU both in vivo and in vitro.

  12. Remarkable heterogeneity displayed by oval cells in rat and mouse models of stem cell-mediated liver regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Peter; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Rasmussen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The experimental protocols used in the investigation of stem cell-mediated liver regeneration in rodents are characterized by activation of the hepatic stem cell compartment in the canals of Hering followed by transit amplification of oval cells and their subsequent differentiation along hepatic...... lineages. Although the protocols are numerous and often used interchangeably across species, a thorough comparative phenotypic analysis of oval cells in rats and mice using well-established and generally acknowledged molecular markers has not been provided. In the present study, we evaluated and compared...... the molecular phenotypes of oval cells in several of the most commonly used protocols of stem cell-mediated liver regeneration-namely, treatment with 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial (70%) hepatectomy (AAF/PHx); a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet; a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro...

  13. Intraportal mesenchymal stem cell transplantation prevents acute liver failure through promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Feng Sang; Xiao-Lei Shi; Bin Han; Tao Huang; Xu Huang; Hao-Zhen Ren; Yi-Tao Ding

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been regarded as a potential treatment for acute liver failure (ALF), but the optimal route was unknown. The present study aimed to explore the most effective MSCs trans-plantation route in a swine ALF model. METHODS: The swine ALF model induced by intravenous injection of D-Gal was treated by the transplantation of swine MSCs through four routes including intraportal injection (InP group), hepatic intra-arterial injection (AH group), pe-ripheral intravenous injection (PV group) and intrahepatic injection (IH group). The living conditions and survival time were recorded. Blood samples before and after MSCs trans-plantation were collected for the analysis of hepatic function. The histology of liver injury was interpreted and scored in terminal samples. Hepatic apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Apoptosis and proliferation related protein expressions including cleaved caspase-3, survivin, AKT, phospho-AKT (Ser473), ERK and phospho-ERK (Tyr204) were analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: The average survival time of each group was 10.7 ± 1.6 days (InP), 6.0±0.9 days (AH), 4.7±1.4 days (PV), 4.3± 0.8 days (IH), respectively, when compared with the average survival time of 3.8±0.8 days in the D-Gal group. The sur-vival rates between the InP group and D-Gal group revealed a statistically signiifcant difference (P CONCLUSIONS: Intraportal injection was superior to other pathways for MSC transplantation. Intraportal MSC trans-plantation could improve liver function, inhibit apoptosis and prolong the survival time of swine with ALF. The transplanted MSCs may participate in liver regeneration via promoting cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis during the initial stage of ALF.

  14. Evidence against a stem cell origin of new hepatocytes in a common mouse model of chronic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Johanna R; Malato, Yann; Gormond, Coralie; Willenbring, Holger

    2014-08-21

    Hepatocytes provide most liver functions, but they can also proliferate and regenerate the liver after injury. However, under some liver injury conditions, particularly chronic liver injury where hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, liver stem cells (LSCs) are thought to replenish lost hepatocytes. Conflicting results have been reported about the identity of LSCs and their contribution to liver regeneration. To address this uncertainty, we followed candidate LSC populations by genetic fate tracing in adult mice with chronic liver injury due to a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet. In contrast to previous studies, we failed to detect hepatocytes derived from biliary epithelial cells or mesenchymal liver cells beyond a negligible frequency. In fact, we failed to detect hepatocytes that were not derived from pre-existing hepatocytes. In conclusion, our findings argue against LSCs, or other nonhepatocyte cell types, providing a backup system for hepatocyte regeneration in this common mouse model of chronic liver injury.

  15. Evidence against a Stem Cell Origin of New Hepatocytes in a Common Mouse Model of Chronic Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna R. Schaub

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocytes provide most liver functions, but they can also proliferate and regenerate the liver after injury. However, under some liver injury conditions, particularly chronic liver injury where hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, liver stem cells (LSCs are thought to replenish lost hepatocytes. Conflicting results have been reported about the identity of LSCs and their contribution to liver regeneration. To address this uncertainty, we followed candidate LSC populations by genetic fate tracing in adult mice with chronic liver injury due to a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet. In contrast to previous studies, we failed to detect hepatocytes derived from biliary epithelial cells or mesenchymal liver cells beyond a negligible frequency. In fact, we failed to detect hepatocytes that were not derived from pre-existing hepatocytes. In conclusion, our findings argue against LSCs, or other nonhepatocyte cell types, providing a backup system for hepatocyte regeneration in this common mouse model of chronic liver injury.

  16. Triple Staining Including FOXA2 Identifies Stem Cell Lineages Undergoing Hepatic and Biliary Differentiation in Cirrhotic Human Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, Charles E; Bebawee, Remon; Matarlo, Joe; Locker, Joseph; Pattamanuch, Nicole; Gupta, Sanjeev; Rogler, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    Recent investigations have reported many markers associated with human liver stem/progenitor cells, "oval cells," and identified "niches" in diseased livers where stem cells occur. However, there has remained a need to identify entire lineages of stem cells as they differentiate into bile ducts or hepatocytes. We have used combined immunohistochemical staining for a marker of hepatic commitment and specification (FOXA2 [Forkhead box A2]), hepatocyte maturation (Albumin and HepPar1), and features of bile ducts (CK19 [cytokeratin 19]) to identify lineages of stem cells differentiating toward the hepatocytic or bile ductular compartments of end-stage cirrhotic human liver. We identified large clusters of disorganized, FOXA2 expressing, oval cells in localized liver regions surrounded by fibrotic matrix, designated as "micro-niches." Specific FOXA2-positive cells within the micro-niches organize into primitive duct structures that support both hepatocytic and bile ductular differentiation enabling identification of entire lineages of cells forming the two types of structures. We also detected expression of hsa-miR-122 in primitive ductular reactions expected for hepatocytic differentiation and hsa-miR-23b cluster expression that drives liver cell fate decisions in cells undergoing lineage commitment. Our data establish the foundation for a mechanistic hypothesis on how stem cell lineages progress in specialized micro-niches in cirrhotic end-stage liver disease.

  17. Hepatic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Perfused 3D Porous Polymer Scaffold for Liver Tissue Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Mette; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan

    A huge shortage of liver organs for transplantation has motivated the research field of tissue engineering to develop bioartificial liver tissue and even a whole liver. The goal of NanoBio4Trans is to create a vascularized bioartificial liver tissue, initially as a liver-support system. Due...... to limitations of primary hepatocytes regarding availability and maintenance of functionality, stem cells and especially human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPS cells) are an attractive cell source for liver tissue engineering. The aim of this part of NanoBio4Trans is to optimize culture and hepatic...... differentiation of hIPS-derived definitive endoderm (DE) cells in a 3D porous polymer scaffold built-in a perfusable bioreactor. The use of a microfluidic bioreactor array enables the culture of 16 independent tissues in one experimental run and thereby an optimization study to be performed....

  18. Transdifferentiation of Fetal Liver-delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Cardiomyocyte-like Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Jing; Cheng Jian-bin; Jia Feng-peng; Lei Han

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To explore the possibility to induce mesenchymal stem cells from human fetal livers (FMSCs) to differentiate along cardiac lineage and the way to obtain high rate of differentiation. Methods Cells from passage 6-9 were plated at the density of 1.5 × 104/cm2 and were treated with the combination of 5-azacytine(5-aza), retinoitic acid(RA) and Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in different doses when near confluence. 24 hours later, the treatment was removed by changing into normal medium without inducers. Different culture conditions were tried, including temperature, oxygen content and medium. Results When FMSCs were treated with highdose combination ( 5-aza 50 μM +RA 10-1 μM +DMSO 1%) and modified combination(5-aza 50 μM+RA 10-3 μM + DMSO 0.8 %) in cardiac differentiation medium (CDM), at 37℃ and 20% O2, the cardiac differentiation was induced. When near confluence, cells became round and tended to gather together to form ball-like structures. 3 weeks after treatment, the cells were harvested and stained with anti-desmin and cardiac troponin I antibodies, and about 40% of the cells were positively stained. No beating cells observed during observation. Conclusions FMSCs have the potential to differentiate along cardiac lineage, and the stimulus for the cardiac differentiation is different from those for MSCs from different species.

  19. Human telomerase activity, telomerase and telomeric template expression in hepatic stem cells and in livers from fetal and postnatal donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Eva; Reid, Lola M

    2009-10-01

    Although telomerase activity has been analyzed in various normal and malignant tissues, including liver, it is still unknown to what extent telomerase can be associated with specific maturational lineage stages. We assessed human telomerase activity, protein and gene expression for the telomerase reverse transcriptase, as well as expression of the telomeric template RNA hTER in hepatic stem cells and in various developmental stages of the liver from fetal to adult. In addition, the effect of growth factors on telomerase activity was analyzed in hepatic stem cells in vitro. Telomerase was found to be highly active in fetal liver cells and was significantly higher than in hepatic stem cells, correlating with gene and protein expression levels. Activity in postnatal livers from all donor ages varied considerably and did not correlate with age or gene expression levels. The hter expression could be detected throughout the development. A short stimulation by growth factors of cultured hepatic stem cells did not increase telomerase activity. Telomerase is considerably active in fetal liver and variably in postnatal livers. Although telomerase protein is present at varying levels in liver cells of all donor ages, gene expression is solely associated with fetal liver cells.

  20. A Distinct Subpopulation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Muse Cells, Directly Commit to the Replacement of Liver Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, H; Kushida, Y; Nojima, M; Kuroda, Y; Wakao, S; Ishida, K; Endo, F; Kume, K; Takahara, T; Nitta, H; Tsuda, H; Dezawa, M; Nishizuka, S S

    2016-02-01

    Genotyping graft livers by short tandem repeats after human living-donor liver transplantation (n = 20) revealed the presence of recipient or chimeric genotype cases in hepatocytes (6 of 17, 35.3%), sinusoidal cells (18 of 18, 100%), cholangiocytes (15 of 17, 88.2%) and cells in the periportal areas (7 of 8, 87.5%), suggesting extrahepatic cell involvement in liver regeneration. Regarding extrahepatic origin, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been suggested to contribute to liver regeneration but compose a heterogeneous population. We focused on a more specific subpopulation (1-2% of BM-MSCs), called multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, for their ability to differentiate into liver-lineage cells and repair tissue. We generated a physical partial hepatectomy model in immunodeficient mice and injected green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human BM-MSC Muse cells intravenously (n = 20). Immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and species-specific polymerase chain reaction revealed that they integrated into regenerating areas and expressed liver progenitor markers during the early phase and then differentiated spontaneously into major liver components, including hepatocytes (≈74.3% of GFP-positive integrated Muse cells), cholangiocytes (≈17.7%), sinusoidal endothelial cells (≈2.0%), and Kupffer cells (≈6.0%). In contrast, the remaining cells in the BM-MSCs were not detected in the liver for up to 4 weeks. These results suggest that Muse cells are the predominant population of BM-MSCs that are capable of replacing major liver components during liver regeneration.

  1. 肝脏干细胞的临床应用%Clinical application of Liver stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施鹏旭; 巩鹏

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells research has generated markedly increasing interest and liver stem cells have enormous potential for clinical applications.Based on the development of modern cell biology,molecular biology and genetics,the fundamental study and clinical application of liver stem cells have been greatly progressed.This paper reviews current development of liver stem cells for clinical application.%干细胞的研究成为当今关注的热点,其中肝脏干细胞的研究更是令人瞩目.在现代细胞生物学、分子生物学及遗传学研究的推动下,对肝脏干细胞的基础研究,及其在临床上的应用有了较大的进展,本文对近年来的主要进展进行了综述.

  2. Investigation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in the Mouse Model of Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To date liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage liver diseases. Considering the potential of pluripotency and differentiation into tridermal lineages, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs may serve as an alternative of cell-based therapy. Herein, we investigated the effect of iPSC transplantation on thioacetamide- (TAA- induced acute/fulminant hepatic failure (AHF in mice. Firstly, we demonstrated that iPSCs had the capacity to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (iPSC-Heps that expressed various hepatic markers, including albumin, α-fetoprotein, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-3β, and exhibited biological functions. Intravenous transplantation of iPSCs effectively reduced the hepatic necrotic area, improved liver functions and motor activity, and rescued TAA-treated mice from lethal AHF. 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate cell labeling revealed that iPSCs potentially mobilized to the damaged liver area. Taken together, iPSCs can effectively rescue experimental AHF and represent a potentially favorable cell source of cell-based therapy.

  3. Stem cell injury and restitution after ionizing irradiation in intestine, liver, salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Lee, Sun Joo; Jang, Won Suk [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    There is little information about radiation injury on stem cell resident in other organs. In addition there is little experimental model in which radiation plays a role on proliferation stem cell in adult organ. This study was carried out to evaluate the early response of tissue injury and restitution in intestine, liver, salivary gland and lymph node, and to develop in vivo model to investigate stem cell biology by irradiation. The study is to assay the early response to radiation and setup an animal model for radiation effect on cellular response. Duodenal intestine, liver, submandibular salivary gland and mesenteric lymph node were selected to compare apoptosis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression to radiosensitivity. For the effect of radiation on cellular responses, rats were irradiated during starvation. Conclusionly, this study showed the value of apoptosis in detection system for evaluating cellular damage against radiation injury. Because apoptosis was regularly inducted depending on tissue-specific pattern, dose and time sequence as well as cellular activity. Furthermore in vivo model in the study will be helped in the further study to elucidate the relationship between radiation injury and starvation or malnutrition. (author). 22 refs., 6 figs

  4. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells is effective in treating liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhao; Jun-Jie Li; Da-Yong Cao; Xiao Li; Lin-Ying Zhang; Yong He; Shu-Qiang Yue

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To compare the influence of different transplant sites in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy for liver fibrosis.METHODS:MSCs isolated from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were induced into hepatocyte-like cells.Liver fibrosis in SD rats was induced with carbon tetrachloride.Following hepatocyte induction in vitro,4',6-diamidino2-phenylindole (DAPI)-labeled MSCs were transplanted by intravenous,intrahepatic,and intraperitoneal injection.Histopathological staining,immunohistochemistry,and biochemical analysis were used to compare the morphological and functional liver regeneration among different MSC injection modalities.The expression di-ferences of interleukins,growth factor,extracellular matrix,matrix metalloproteinases,and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase were examined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).RESULTS:Four days after exposure to hepatocyte differentiation medium,MSCs that did not express hepatocyte markers could express α-fetoprotein,albumin,and cytokeratin 18.The results of histopathological staining,immunohistochemistry,and biochemical analysis indicated that intravenous injection is more effective at rescuing liver failure than other injection modalities.DAPI-labeled cells were found around liver lobules in all three injection site groups,but the intravenous group had the highest number of cells.PCR and ELISA analysis indicated that interleukin-10 (IL-10)was highest in the intravenous group,whereas il1β,il6,tnfα and tgfβ,which can be regulated by IL10 and are promoters of liver fibrosis,were significantly lower than in the other groups.CONCLUSION:MSC administration is able to protect against liver fibrosis.Intravenous injection is the most favorable treatment modality through promotion of IL10 expression.

  5. Modulating the Substrate Stiffness to Manipulate Differentiation of Resident Liver Stem Cells and to Improve the Differentiation State of Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Cozzolino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many cell types, several cellular processes, such as differentiation of stem/precursor cells, maintenance of differentiated phenotype, motility, adhesion, growth, and survival, strictly depend on the stiffness of extracellular matrix that, in vivo, characterizes their correspondent organ and tissue. In the liver, the stromal rigidity is essential to obtain the correct organ physiology whereas any alteration causes liver cell dysfunctions. The rigidity of the substrate is an element no longer negligible for the cultivation of several cell types, so that many data so far obtained, where cells have been cultured on plastic, could be revised. Regarding liver cells, standard culture conditions lead to the dedifferentiation of primary hepatocytes, transdifferentiation of stellate cells into myofibroblasts, and loss of fenestration of sinusoidal endothelium. Furthermore, standard cultivation of liver stem/precursor cells impedes an efficient execution of the epithelial/hepatocyte differentiation program, leading to the expansion of a cell population expressing only partially liver functions and products. Overcoming these limitations is mandatory for any approach of liver tissue engineering. Here we propose cell lines as in vitro models of liver stem cells and hepatocytes and an innovative culture method that takes into account the substrate stiffness to obtain, respectively, a rapid and efficient differentiation process and the maintenance of the fully differentiated phenotype.

  6. Influence of serum from liver-damaged rats on differentiation tendency of bone marrow-derived stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Hong; Jian-Zhi Chen; Feng Zhou; Ling Xue; Guo-Qiang Zhao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies in both rodents and humans indicated that bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells were able to home to the liver after they were damaged and demonstrated plasticity in becoming hepatocytes. However, the question remains as to how these stem cells are activated and led to the liver and where the signals initiating the mechanisms of activation and differentiation of stem cells originate. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serum from liver-damaged rats on differentiation tendency of bone marrow-derived stem cells.METHODS: Serum samples were collected from rats treated with a 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)/carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) program for varying time points and then used as stimulators of cultured BM stem cells. Expression of M2- and L-type isozymes of rat pyruvate kinase, albumin as well as integrin-β1 were then examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to estimate the differentiation state of BM stem cells.RESULTS: Expression of M2-type isozyme of pyruvate kinase (M2-PK), a marker of immature hepatocytes, was detected in each group stimulated with experimental serum, but not in controls including mature hepatocytes, BM stem cells without serum stimulation, and BM stem cells stimulated with normal control serum. As a marker expressed in the development of liver, the expression signal of integrin-β1 was also detectable in each group stimulated with experimental serum. However, expression of L-type isozyme of pyruvate kinase (L-PK) and albumin, marker molecules of mature hepatocytes, was not detected in groups stimulated with experimental serum.CONCLUSION: Under the influence of serum from rats with liver failure, BM stem cells begin to differentiate along a direction to hepatocyte lineage and to possess some features of immature hepatocytes.

  7. Association between expression of Carboxypeptidase 4 and stem cell markers and their clinical significance in liver cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lichao; Guo, Chunguang; Burnett, Joseph; Pan, Jian; Yang, Zhihua; Ran, Yuliang; Sun, Duxin

    2017-01-01

    The development of liver cancer would undergo a sequential progression from chronic inflammatory liver disease, cirrhosis to neoplasia. During these pathophysiological changes, abnormal liver microenvironment might induce the hepatocytes to die, abnormally proliferate and initiate cancer stem cells. Metallocarboxypeptidases (MCPs) involved in multiple biological functions including inflammation, fibrosis and stem cell niche formation. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of carboxypeptidase 4 (CPA4) in hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer tissues, and revealed its clinical significance in liver cancer progression. We firstly found that the CPA4 levels in tissues were significantly higher in liver cancer patients than those in other three groups. Then, elevated levels of CPA4 was observed in 57/100 (57%) liver cancer samples, and significantly correlated with Grade and Stage. We also identified a significant positive correlation between aberrant elevation of CPA4 and overexpression of stem cell markers including CD90, AFP and CD34 with follow-up data (n=100). Further Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that high levels of CPA4 and CD90 were significant predictors of poor overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression model showed that CPA4 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with liver cancer. This study demonstrated for the first time that high CPA4 expression was closely correlated with hepatocarcinogenesis, and might be used as an independent poor prognostic factor in liver cancer.

  8. Liver cancer stem cells are selectively enriched by low-dose cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has indicated the importance of cancer stem cells in carcinogenesis. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of low-dose cisplatin on enriched liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs. Human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells were treated with concentrations of cisplatin ranging from 1 to 5 μg/mL. Cell survival and proliferation were evaluated using a tetrazolium dye (MTT assay. LCSCs were identified using specific markers, namely aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1 and CD133. The percentage of ALDH1+ or CD133+ cells was examined by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of ALDH1 and/or CD133 in HepG2 cells was determined by immunocytochemical analysis. Low-dose cisplatin treatment significantly decreased cell survival in HepG2 cells after 24 or 72 h. However, the percentage of LCSCs in the surviving cells was greatly increased. The percentage of ALDH1+ or CD133+ cells was increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner after treatment with 1-4 μg/mL cisplatin, whereas 5 μg/mL cisplatin exposure slightly reduced the number of positive cells. These findings indicate that low-dose cisplatin treatment may efficiently enrich the LCSC population in HepG2 cells.

  9. Phenotypic and functional analysis of human fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollini, Pierre; Faes-Van't Hull, Eveline; Kaiser, Stefan; Kapp, Ursula; Leyvraz, Serge

    2007-04-01

    Steady-state hematopoiesis and hematopoietic transplantation rely on the unique potential of stem cells to undergo both self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. Fetal liver (FL) represents a promising alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but limited by the total cell number obtained in a typical harvest. We reported that human FL nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) repopulating cells (SRCs) could be expanded under simple stroma-free culture conditions. Here, we sought to further characterize FL HSC/SRCs phenotypically and functionally before and following culture. Unexpanded or cultured FL cell suspensions were separated into various subpopulations. These were tested for long-term culture potential and for in vivo repopulating function following transplantation into NOD/SCID mice. We found that upon culture of human FL cells, a tight association between classical stem cell phenotypes, such as CD34(+) /CD38(-) and/or side population, and NOD/SCID repopulating function was lost, as observed with other sources. Although SRC activity before and following culture consistently correlated with the presence of a CD34(+) cell population, we provide evidence that, contrary to umbilical cord blood and adult sources, stem cells present in both CD34(+) and CD34(-) FL populations can sustain long-term hematopoietic cultures. Furthermore, upon additional culture, CD34-depleted cell suspensions, devoid of SRCs, regenerated a population of CD34(+) cells possessing SRC function. Our studies suggest that compared to neonatal and adult sources, the phenotypical characteristics of putative human FL HSCs may be less strictly defined, and reinforce the accumulated evidence that human FL represents a unique, valuable alternative and highly proliferative source of HSCs for clinical applications.

  10. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation via different approaches in treatment of liver cirrhosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Lixia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC transplantation via different approaches in the treatment of liver cirrhosis in mice. Methods A total of 46 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into normal control group with 5 mice and liver cirrhosis model group with 41 mice. Subcutaneously injected carbon tetrachloride olive oil was used to establish the mouse model of liver cirrhosis. A total of 36 mice with liver cirrhosis were randomly divided into control group, caudal vein BMSC transplantation group, and spleen BMSC transplantation group, with 12 mice in each group. Whole bone marrow adherent culture was performed to obtain the third-generation BMSCs, and flow cytometry was used for cell surface identification. BMSCs were injected into the mice through the caudal vein or spleen. Blood samples were collected at 4 weeks after transplantation to measure liver function. HE and Masson staining and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA immunohistochemistry were performed for liver sections. Liver injury and fibrosis in mice were examined. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between groups. Results At 8 weeks after the establishment of the model, the mice in the model group had sparse and dark yellow hair, reduced food consumption and activity, and a reduction in body weight. After transplantation, compared with the model control group, the caudal vein BMSC transplantation group and spleen BMSC transplantation group showed a significant increase in albumin and significant reductions in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (all P<0.01. There were no significant differences between the two transplantation approaches (P>0.05. After transplantation, there were significant changes in diseased tissue, alleviated liver cirrhosis, reduced collagen fiber and necrotic area, and a good structure. Immunohistochemistry showed both transplantation groups showed significant reductions in

  11. Autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are involved in rat liver regeneration following repeat partial hepatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; MU, HONG; Shen, Zhongyang; SONG, ZHUOLUN; Chen, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuliang

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have been considered to be attractive and readily available adult mesenchymal stem cells, and they are becoming increasingly popular for use in regenerative cell therapy, as they are readily accessible through minimally invasive techniques. The present study investigated whether autologous ADSC transplantation promoted liver regeneration following a repeat partial hepatectomy in rats. The rats were divided into three groups as follows: 70%...

  12. Stem cell-derived models to improve mechanistic understanding and prediction of human drug-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Christopher; Antoine, Daniel J; Bonner, Frank; Crozier, Jonathan; Denning, Chris; Fontana, Robert J; Hanley, Neil A; Hay, David C; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Juhila, Satu; Kitteringham, Neil; Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Norris, Alan; Pridgeon, Chris; Ross, James A; Young, Rowena Sison; Tagle, Danilo; Tornesi, Belen; van de Water, Bob; Weaver, Richard J; Zhang, Fang; Park, B Kevin

    2017-02-01

    Current preclinical drug testing does not predict some forms of adverse drug reactions in humans. Efforts at improving predictability of drug-induced tissue injury in humans include using stem cell technology to generate human cells for screening for adverse effects of drugs in humans. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells means that it may ultimately be possible to develop personalized toxicology to determine interindividual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the complexity of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury means that no current single-cell model, whether of primary liver tissue origin, from liver cell lines, or derived from stem cells, adequately emulates what is believed to occur during human drug-induced liver injury. Nevertheless, a single-cell model of a human hepatocyte which emulates key features of a hepatocyte is likely to be valuable in assessing potential chemical risk; furthermore, understanding how to generate a relevant hepatocyte will also be critical to efforts to build complex multicellular models of the liver. Currently, hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from stem cells still fall short of recapitulating the full mature hepatocellular phenotype. Therefore, we convened a number of experts from the areas of preclinical and clinical hepatotoxicity and safety assessment, from industry, academia, and regulatory bodies, to specifically explore the application of stem cells in hepatotoxicity safety assessment and to make recommendations for the way forward. In this short review, we particularly discuss the importance of benchmarking stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells to their terminally differentiated human counterparts using defined phenotyping, to make sure the cells are relevant and comparable between labs, and outline why this process is essential before the cells are introduced into chemical safety assessment. (Hepatology 2017;65:710-721).

  13. MR tracking of SPIO-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in rats with liver fibrosis could not monitor the cells accurately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Li, Dan; Qian, Jiesheng; Li, Zhengran; Pang, Pengfei; Shan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is effective in tracking superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in rats with liver fibrosis. SPIO-labeling-induced signal reduction on MR images was completely reversed within 15 days after transplantation. It is still unclear whether the signal changes in MR imaging could reflect the number of transplanted cells in the liver. In the present study, BMSCs of male rats were doubly labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and SPIO and injected intravascularly into female rats with liver fibrosis. At different time points after injection, MR imaging was performed. The distribution of SPIO particles and EGFP-positive cells was determined by Prussian blue staining and EGFP immunohistochemistry, respectively. The distribution of transplanted BMSCs in various organs was assessed by detection of the SRY gene using real-time quantitative PCR. At 15 days post transplantation, the numbers of transplanted cells were significantly decreased in the lung, kidney, spleen and muscle, but not liver and heart, in comparison with those at 7 days after transplantation. EGFP staining-positive cells were observed in the liver intralobular parenchyma, while Prussian blue staining was negative at 42 days after transplantation. Taken together, SPIO particles and EGFP-labeled BMSCs show a different tissue distribution pattern in rats with liver fibrosis after a long-term period of monitoring. SPIO-based MR imaging may not be suitable for long-term tracking of transplanted BMSCs in vivo.

  14. Passage of bone-marrow-derived liver stem cells in a proliferating culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Feng Cai; Ji-Sheng Chen; Shu-Ying Su; Zuo-Jun Zhen; Huan-Wei Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of passage of bonemarrow-derived liver stem cells (BDLSCs) in culture systems that contain cholestatic serum. METHODS: Whole bone marrow cells of rats were purified with conditioning selection media that contained 50 mL/L cholestatic serum. The selected BDLSCs were grown in a proliferating culture system and a differentiating culture system. The culture systems contained factors that stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of BDLSCs. Each passage of the proliferated stem cells was subjected to flow cytometry to detect stem cell markers. The morphology and phenotypic markers of BDLSCs were characterized using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and electron microscopy. The metabolic functions of differentiated cells were also determined by glycogen staining and urea assay. RESULTS: The conditioning selection medium isolated BDLSCs directly from cultured bone marrow cells. The selected BDLSCs could be proliferated for six passages and maintained stable markers in our proliferating system. When the culture system was changed to a differentiating system, hepatocyte-like colony-forming units (H-CFUs) were formed. H-CFUs expressed markers of embryonic hepatocytes (alpha-fetoprotein, albumin and cytokeratin 8/18), biliary cells (cytokeratin 19), hepatocyte functional proteins (transthyretin and cytochrome P450-2b1), and hepatocyte nuclear factors 1α and -3β). They also had glycogen storage and urea synthesis functions, two of the critical features of hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: BDLSCs can be selected directly from bone marrow cells, and pure BDLSCs can be proliferated for six passages. The differentiated cells have hepatocyte-like phenotypes and functions. BDLSCs represent a new method to provide a readily available alternate source of cells for clinical hepatocyte therapy.

  15. Stem cell-derived models to improve mechanistic understanding and prediction of human drug induced liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Christopher; Antoine, Daniel J.; Bonner, Frank; Crozier, Jonathan; Denning, Chris; Fontana, Robert J.; Hanley, Neil A.; Hay, David C.; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Juhila, Satu; Kitteringham, Neil; Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Norris, Alan; Pridgeon, Chris; Ross, James A.; Sison Young, Rowena; Tagle, Danilo; Tornesi, Belen; van de Water, Bob; Weaver, Richard J.; Zhang, Fang; Park, B. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Current preclinical drug testing does not predict some forms of adverse drug reactions in humans. Efforts at improving predictability of drug-induced tissue injury in humans include using stem cell technology to generate human cells for screening for adverse effects of drugs in humans. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells means that it may ultimately be possible to develop personalised toxicology to determine inter-individual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the complexity of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) means that no current single cell model, whether of primary liver tissue origin, from liver cell lines, or derived from stem cells, adequately emulates what is believed to occur during human DILI. Nevertheless, a single cell model of a human hepatocyte which emulates key features of a hepatocyte is likely to be valuable in assessing potential chemical risk; furthermore understanding how to generate a relevant hepatocyte will also be critical to efforts to build complex multicellular models of the liver. Currently, hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from stem cells still fall short of recapitulating the full mature hepatocellular phenotype. Therefore, we convened a number of experts from the areas of preclinical and clinical hepatotoxicity and safety assessment, from industry, academia and regulatory bodies, to specifically explore the application of stem cells in hepatotoxicity safety assessment, and to make recommendations for the way forward. In this short review, we particularly discuss the importance of benchmarking stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells to their terminally-differentiated human counterparts using defined phenotyping, to make sure the cells are relevant and comparable between labs, and outline why this process is essential before the cells are introduced into chemical safety assessment. PMID:27775817

  16. Long-lasting inhibitory effects of fetal liver mesenchymal stem cells on T-lymphocyte proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giuliani

    Full Text Available Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC are multipotent progenitor cells that have transient immunomodulatory properties on Natural Killer (NK cells, Dendritic Cells (DC, and T cells. This study compared the use of MSC isolated from bone marrow and fetal liver (FL-MSC to determine which displayed the most efficient immunosuppressive effects on T cell activation. Although both types of MSC exhibit similar phenotype profile, FL-MSC displays a much more extended in vitro life-span and immunomodulatory properties. When co-cultured with CD3/CD28-stimulated T cells, both BM-MSC and FL-MSC affected T cell proliferation by inhibiting their entry into the cell cycle, by inducing the down-regulation of phospho-retinoblastoma (pRb, cyclins A and D1, as well as up-regulating p27(kip1 expression. The T cell inhibition by MSC was not due to the soluble HLA-G5 isoform, but to the surface expression of HLA-G1, as shown by the need of cell-cell contact and by the use of neutralizing anti-HLA-G antibodies. To note, in a HLA-G-mediated fashion, MSC facilitated the expansion of a CD4(low/CD8(low T subset that had decreased secretion of IFN-γ, and an induced secretion of the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10. Because of their longer lasting in vitro immunosuppressive properties, mainly mediated by HLA-G, and their more efficient induction of IL-10 production and T cell apoptosis, fetal liver MSC could be considered a new tool for MSC therapy to prevent allograft rejection.

  17. Cryopreserved hepatic progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells can arrest progression of liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arundhati; Raju, Sheena; Viswanathan, Chandra

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocytes generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are considered to be an excellent candidate for restoring the liver function deficiencies. We have earlier standardized a three-step differentiation protocol to generate functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) from hESCs, which expressed the major hepatic markers. We have also found that the HLCs remain stable and functional even after extended period of in vitro culture and cryopreservation. In the present study, we have aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of cryopreserved-thawed hESC-derived hepatic progenitor cells following transplantation in carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrotic rat livers. Significant therapeutic effects, including improved hepatic histology and normal serum biochemistry of hepatic enzymes along with increased survival rate, were observed in the cell transplanted rats. This result is an encouraging indication to develop methods for clinical application of hESC-derived hepatic lineage cells.

  18. Fetal liver cell transplantation : role and nature of the fetal haemopoietic stem cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Löwenberg (Bob)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractFetal liver cell transplantation deserves intensified interest because, according to previous experimental evidence, it may represent a useful approach to reduce or avoid severe Graft-versus-Host (GvH) reactions following treatment with allogeneic haemopoietic cell grafts. The applicatio

  19. Biology and clinical implications of CD133{sup +} liver cancer stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Stephanie, E-mail: stefma@hku.hk [Department of Clinical Oncology, State Key Laboratory for Liver Research, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, accounting for 80%–90% of all liver cancers. The disease ranks as the fifth most common cancer worldwide and is the third leading cause of all cancer-associated deaths. Although advances in HCC detection and treatment have increased the likelihood of a cure at early stages of the disease, HCC remains largely incurable because of late presentation and tumor recurrence. Only 25% of HCC patients are deemed suitable for curative treatment, with the overall survival at just a few months for inoperable patients. Apart from surgical resection, loco-regional ablation and liver transplantation, current treatment protocols include conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. But due to the highly resistant nature of the disease, the efficacy of the latter regimen is limited. The recent emergence of the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept lends insight into the explanation of why treatment with chemotherapy often may seem to be initially successful but results in not only a failure to eradicate the tumor but also possibly tumor relapse. Commonly used anti-cancer drugs in HCC work by targeting the rapidly proliferating and differentiated liver cancer cells that constitute the bulk of the tumor. However, a subset of CSCs exists within the tumor, which are more resistant and are able to survive and maintain residence after treatment, thus, growing and self-renewing to generate the development and spread of recurrent tumors in HCC. In the past few years, compelling evidence has emerged in support of the hierarchic CSC model for solid tumors, including HCC. And in particular, CD133 has drawn significant attention as a critical liver CSC marker. Understanding the characteristics and function of CD133{sup +} liver CSCs has also shed light on HCC management and treatment, including the implications for prognosis, prediction and treatment resistance. In this review, a detailed summary of the recent progress

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium prevents radiation-induced liver injury by inhibiting inflammation and protecting sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Xing; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Sun, Jing; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Huang, Yan-; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2015-07-01

    Current management of radiation-induced liver injury is limited. Sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) apoptosis and inflammation are considered to be initiating events in hepatic damage. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory actions during hepatic irradiation, acting via paracrine mechanisms. This study aims to examine whether MSC-derived bioactive components are protective against radiation-induced liver injury in rats. MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) was generated from rat bone marrow-derived MSCs. The effect of MSC-CM on the viability of irradiated SECs was examined by flow cytometric analysis. Activation of the Akt and ERK pathways was analyzed by western blot. MSC-CM was also delivered to Sprague-Dawley rats immediately before receiving liver irradiation, followed by testing for pathological features, changes in serum hyaluronic acid, ALT, and inflammatory cytokine levels, and liver cell apoptosis. MSC-CM enhanced the viability of irradiated SECs in vitro and induced Akt and ERK phosphorylation in these cells. Infusion of MSC-CM immediately before liver irradiation provided a significant anti-apoptotic effect on SECs and improved the histopathological features of injury in the irradiated liver. MSC-CM also reduced the secretion and expression of inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. MSC-derived bioactive components could be a novel therapeutic approach for treating radiation-induced liver injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  1. GP73-regulated oncolytic adenoviruses possess potent killing effect on human liver cancer stem-like cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Ma, Buyun; Liu, Tao; Yang, Yu; Xie, Wenjie; Liu, Xianglei; Huang, Fang; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Xiumei; Liu, Xinyuan; Wang, Yigang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, are highly metastatic, chemo-resistant and tumorigenic, and are critical for cancer development, maintenance and recurrence. Oncolytic adenovirus could targetedly kill CSCs and has been acted as a promising anticancer agent. Currently, a novel GP73-regulated oncolytic adenovirus GD55 was constructed to specifically treat liver cancer and exhibited obvious cytotoxicity effect. However, there remains to be confirmed that whether GD55 could effectively eliminate liver CSCs. We first utilized the suspension culture to enrich the liver CSCs-like cells, which acquires the properties of liver CSCs in self-renewal, differentiation, quiescence, chemo-resistance and tumorigenicity. The results indicated that GD55 elicited more significant cytotoxicity and stronger oncolytic effect in liver CSC-like cells compared to common oncolytic virus ZD55. Additionally, GD55 possessed the greater efficacy in suppressing the growth of implanted tumors derived from liver CSC-like cells than ZD55. Furthermore, GD55 induced remarkable apoptosis of liver CSC-like cells in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited the propogation of cells and angiogenesis in xenograft tumor tissues. Thus, GD55 may virtually represent an attractive therapeutic agent for targeting liver CSCs to achieve better clinical outcomes for HCC patients. PMID:27121064

  2. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells protect against experimental liver fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Chang Zhao; Jun-Xia Lei; Rui Chen; Wei-Hua Yu; Xiu-Ming Zhang; Shu-Nong Li; Peng Xiang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Recent reports have shown the capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. MSCs administration could repair injured liver, lung, or heart through reducing inflammation, collagen deposition, and remodeling. These results provide a clue to treatment of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of infusion of bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs on the experimental liver fibrosis in rats.METHODS: MSCs isolated from BM in male Fischer 344 rats were infused to female Wistar rats induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or dimethylnitrosamine (DMN).There were two random groups on the 42nd d of CCl4:CCl4/MSCs, to infuse a dose of MSCs alone; CCl4/saline,to infuse the same volume of saline as control. There were another three random groups after exposure to DMN: DMN10/MSCs, to infuse the same dose of MSCs on d 10; DMN10/saline, to infuse the same volume of saline on d 10; DMN20/MSCs, to infuse the same dose of MSCson d 20. The morphological and behavioral changes ofrats were monitored everyday. After 4-6 wk of MSCs administration, all rats were killed and fibrosis index were assessed by histopathology and radioimmunoassay. Smooth muscle alpha-actin (alpha-SMA) of liver were tested by immunohistochemistry and quantified by IBAS 2.5 software. Male rats sex determination region on the Y chromosome (sry) gene were explored by PCR.RESULTS: Compared to controls, infusion of MSCsreduced the mortality rates of incidence in CCl4-induced model (10% vs 20%) and in DMN-induced model (2040% vs 90%).The amount of collagen deposition and alpha-SMA staining was about 40-50% lower in liver of rats with MSCs than that of rats without MSCs. The similar results were observed in fibrosis index. And the effect of the inhibition of fibrogenesis was greater in DMN10/MSCs than in DMN20/MSCs. The sry gene was positive in the liver of rats with MSCs treatment by PCR.CONCLUSION: MSCs treatment can protect against

  3. Dynamic tracking of stem cells in an acute liver failure model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarek Ezzat; Dipok Kumar Dhar; Massimo Malago; Steven WM Olde Damink

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate a dual labeling technique, which would enable real-time monitoring of transplanted em- bryonic stem cell (ESC) kinetics, as well as long-term tracking.METHODS: Liver damage was induced in C57/BL6 male mice (n = 40) by acetaminophen (APAP) 300 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) positive C57/BL6 mouse ESCs were stained with the near-infrared fluorescent lipophilic tracer 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR) immediately before transplantation into the spleen. Each of the animals in the cell therapy group (n = 20) received 5 × 106 ESCs 4 h following treatment with APAP. The control group (n = 20) received the vehicle only. The distribution and dynamics of the cells were monitored in real-time with the IVIS Lumina-2 at 30 min post transplantation, then at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, and after one and 2 wk. Immunohistochemical examination of liver tissue was used to identify expression of GFP and albumin. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was measured as an indication of liver damage.RESULTS: DiR-stained ESCs were easily tracked with the IVIS using the indocyanine green filter due to its high background passband with minimal background autofluorescence. The transplanted cells were confined inside the spleen at 30 min post-transplantation, gradually moved into the splenic vein, and were detectable in parts of the liver at the 3 h time-point. Within 24 h of transplantation, homing of almost 90% of cells was confirmed in the liver. On day three, however, the DiR signal started to fade out, and ex vivo IVIS imaging of different organs allowed signal detection at time-points when the signal could not be detected by in vivo imaging, and confirmed that the highest photon emission was in the liver (P < 0.0001). At 2 wk, the DiRsignal was no longer detectable in vivo; however, immunohistochemistry analysis of constitutively-expressed GFP was used to provide an insight into the distribution of

  4. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  5. Highly proliferative primitive fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells are fueled by oxidative metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesia, Javed K; Xu, Zhuofei; Broekaert, Dorien; Boon, Ruben; van Vliet, Alex; Eelen, Guy; Vanwelden, Thomas; Stegen, Steve; Van Gastel, Nick; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Carmeliet, Geert; Carmeliet, Peter; Khurana, Satish; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2015-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the fetal liver (FL) unlike adult bone marrow (BM) proliferate extensively, posing different metabolic demands. However, metabolic pathways responsible for the production of energy and cellular building blocks in FL HSCs have not been described. Here, we report that FL HSCs use oxygen dependent energy generating pathways significantly more than their BM counterparts. RNA-Seq analysis of E14.5 FL versus BM derived HSCs identified increased expression levels of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and the citric acid cycle (TCA). We demonstrated that FL HSCs contain more mitochondria than BM HSCs, which resulted in increased levels of oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Higher levels of DNA repair and antioxidant pathway gene expression may prevent ROS-mediated (geno)toxicity in FL HSCs. Thus, we here for the first time highlight the underestimated importance of oxygen dependent pathways for generating energy and building blocks in FL HSCs.

  6. Highly proliferative primitive fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells are fueled by oxidative metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed K. Manesia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in the fetal liver (FL unlike adult bone marrow (BM proliferate extensively, posing different metabolic demands. However, metabolic pathways responsible for the production of energy and cellular building blocks in FL HSCs have not been described. Here, we report that FL HSCs use oxygen dependent energy generating pathways significantly more than their BM counterparts. RNA-Seq analysis of E14.5 FL versus BM derived HSCs identified increased expression levels of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos and the citric acid cycle (TCA. We demonstrated that FL HSCs contain more mitochondria than BM HSCs, which resulted in increased levels of oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Higher levels of DNA repair and antioxidant pathway gene expression may prevent ROS-mediated (genotoxicity in FL HSCs. Thus, we here for the first time highlight the underestimated importance of oxygen dependent pathways for generating energy and building blocks in FL HSCs.

  7. Systems approach to characterize the metabolism of liver cancer stem cells expressing CD133

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Wonhee; Ryu, Jae Yong; Kim, Hyun Uk; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Eun Byul; Lee, Sang Yup; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2017-04-01

    Liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) have attracted attention because they cause therapeutic resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Understanding the metabolism of LCSCs can be a key to developing therapeutic strategy, but metabolic characteristics have not yet been studied. Here, we systematically analyzed and compared the global metabolic phenotype between LCSCs and non-LCSCs using transcriptome and metabolome data. We also reconstructed genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) for LCSC and non-LCSC to comparatively examine differences in their metabolism at genome-scale. We demonstrated that LCSCs exhibited an increased proliferation rate through enhancing glycolysis compared with non-LCSCs. We also confirmed that MYC, a central point of regulation in cancer metabolism, was significantly up-regulated in LCSCs compared with non-LCSCs. Moreover, LCSCs tend to have less active fatty acid oxidation. In this study, the metabolic characteristics of LCSCs were identified using integrative systems analysis, and these characteristics could be potential cures for the resistance of liver cancer cells to anticancer treatments.

  8. Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Hepatic Endoderm and Its Role in Bioartificial Liver Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver carries out a range of functions essential for bodily homeostasis. The impairment of liver functions has serious implications and is responsible for high rates of patient morbidity and mortality. Presently, liver transplantation remains the only effective treatment, but donor availability is a major limitation. Therefore, artificial and bioartificial liver devices have been developed to bridge patients to liver transplantation. Existing support devices improve hepatic encephalopathy to a certain extent; however their usage is associated with side effects. The major hindrance in the development of bioartificial liver devices and cellular therapies is the limited availability of human hepatocytes. Moreover, primary hepatocytes are difficult to maintain and lose hepatic identity and function over time even with sophisticated tissue culture media. To overcome this limitation, renewable cell sources are being explored. Human embryonic stem cells are one such cellular resource and have been shown to generate a reliable and reproducible supply of human hepatic endoderm. Therefore, the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic endoderm in combination with tissue engineering has the potential to pave the way for the development of novel bioartificial liver devices and predictive drug toxicity assays.

  9. Investigating the interaction between hematopoietic stem cells and their niche during embryonic development: optimizing the isolation of fetal and newborn stem cells from liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huimin; Williams, Brenda; Nilsson, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a particular microenvironment termed a "niche." Within the niche, a number of critical molecules and supportive cell types have been identified to play key roles in modulating adult HSC quiescence, proliferation, differentiation, and reconstitution. However, unlike in the adult bone marrow (BM), the components of stem cell niches, as well as their interactions with fetal HSC during different stages of embryonic development, are poorly understood. During embryogenesis, hematopoietic development migrates through multiple organs, each with different cellular and molecular components and hence each with a potentially unique HSC niche. As a consequence, isolating fetal HSC from each organ at the time of hematopoietic colonization is fundamental for assessing and understanding both HSC function and their interactions with specific microenvironments. Herein, we describe methodologies for harvesting cells as well as the purification of stem and progenitors from fetal and newborn liver, spleen, and BM at various developmental stages following the expansion of hematopoiesis in the fetal liver at E14.5.

  10. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  11. A novel cell-free strategy for promoting mouse liver regeneration: utilization of a conditioned medium from adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Kuon; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Say-June

    2015-04-01

    Although stem cells have beneficial effects, their clinical application faces many issues, including high cost and safety. Because stem cell plasty is largely based on their paracrine activity, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that utilization of the stem-cell secretome instead of actual cells would not only overcome these limitations, but also have similar effects as stem cell-based therapy. Partial hepatectomized mice were divided into four groups according to the material administered via the tail vein: normal saline (saline group); 1.0 × 10(6) human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) in 0.1 mL saline (ASC group); 25-fold concentrated conditioned medium from ASCs (ASC-secretome group); and concentrated medium (media group). Specimens were obtained postoperatively. Liver regeneration was estimated by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, Lgr5 RT-PCR, proliferating cell nuclear antigen western blot, and liver weights, and liver function was estimated by albumin immunohistochemistry and liver function tests. The liver regenerative capacities of the ASC and ASC-secretome groups were not statistically different from each other, but were higher than their respective control groups. Moreover, the ASC and ASC-secretome groups promoted the phosphorylation of Akt, STAT3, and Erk1/2, and expressed higher levels of mouse albumin in immunohistochemistry. ASCs and ASC-secretome infusions to the partially hepatectomized mice produced similar outcomes in terms of liver regeneration and mouse albumin expression. Therefore, cell-free therapy, which is based on the paracrine properties of stem cells, is expected to overcome the limitations of cell-based methods and to provide a novel treatment for liver diseases.

  12. Stromal Derived Factor-1/CXCR4 Axis Involved in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Recruitment to Injured Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuai Xiao Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal stem cells (BMSCs mobilization and migration to the liver was poorly understood. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 participates in BMSCs homing and migration into injury organs. We try to investigate the role of SDF-1 signaling in BMSCs migration towards injured liver. The expression of CXCR4 in BMSCs at mRNA level and protein level was confirmed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. The SDF-1 or liver lysates induced BMSCs migration was detected by transwell inserts. CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, and anti-CXCR4 antibody were used to inhibit the migration. The Sprague-Dawley rat liver injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide. The concentration of SDF-1 increased as modeling time extended, which was determined by ELISA method. The Dir-labeled BMSCs were injected into the liver of the rats through portal vein. The cell migration in the liver was tracked by in vivo imaging system and the fluorescent intensity was measured. In vivo, BMSCs migrated into injured liver which was partially blocked by AMD3100 or anti-CXCR4 antibody. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the migration of BMSCs was regulated by SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling which involved in BMSCs recruitment to injured liver.

  13. Cross effects of resveratrol and mesenchymal stem cells on liver regeneration and homing in partially hepatectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Erdem; Simsek, Turgay; Subasi, Cansu; Gunes, Abdullah; Duruksu, Gokhan; Gurbuz, Yesim; Gacar, Gulcin; Karaoz, Erdal

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of preoperatively administered resveratrol (RV) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on regeneration of partially hepatectomized rat liver. We also evaluated the effect of RV on homing of MSCs. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and cultured in vitro. Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups. In groups, rats received (1) no treatment, (2) single dose RV, (3) MSCs and (4) RV plus MSCs before partial hepatectomy (PH). Injected MSCs were traced by labeling them with green fluorescent protein, and liver regeneration was determined by comparison of liver weight gain, histological examination and immunohistochemical staining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for mitotic cells. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor -alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were also determined in the parafin sections of liver specimens with immunohistochemical staining. Administration of RV and MSCs separately or together enhanced liver regeneration despite decreasing the TNF-α and IL-6 expression. This positive contribution was probably due to direct raising effect on HGF for RV and HGF expression for MSCs that we demonstrated with immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, RV increased the homing of MSCs in liver probably related to life prolonging effect on MSCs. These results indicate that preoperative RV as well as MSCs application enhances liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats. Paying attention to RV about the effect on liver regeneration and homing of MSCs might be the goal of further investigations.

  14. Possibility of the enhanced progression of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells therapy for treating end-stage liver diseases by regulating the notch signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Nan; Liu, Weihui; Zhong, Xiao; Dou, Kefeng; Tao, Kaishan

    2012-10-01

    Cell therapy is the most promising therapy for end-stage liver diseases (ESLDs). Fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPCs) have the advantages of a high survival rate, high proliferation, small volume, and high safety, which make them one of the ideal cells for stem cell therapy for liver diseases. During the early phase of our study, we applied a three-step separation method to enrich FLSPCs and obtained a separation efficiency that was similar to the flow cell-sorting method. Additionally, using a fulminant hepatic failure rat model, we demonstrated that FLSPCs can contribute to the recovery of hepatic morphogenesis and function. However, two problems remain to be resolved to explore the therapeutic potential of FLSPCs. First, how can FLSPCs be induced to accurately differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes? Second, how do FLSPCs maintain self-renewal? The Notch signaling plays a critical role in regulating the differentiation and self-renewal of many types of stem cells. Additionally, our previous findings have shown that the Notch signaling plays an important role in FLSPC differentiation into hepatocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that the Notch signaling may be involved in the differentiation and self-renewal of FLSPCs. We began a study on the regulatory effects and relative molecular mechanisms of the Notch signaling on FLSPCs and found the corresponding interfering target, which may become an index for the clinical application of FLSPCs.

  15. Constitutive expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes promotes proliferation and invasion of liver cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, WEI; ZHANG, YU-WEI; LI, YANG; ZHANG, JIAN-WEN; ZHANG, TONG; FU, BIN-SHENG; ZHANG, QI; JIANG, NAN

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin is an important signaling pathways involved in the tumorgenesis, progression and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In the present study, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in CSC-mediated tumorigenesis and invasion in liver CSCs was investigated. A small population of cancer stem-like side population (SP) cells (3.6%) from liver cancer samples were identified. The cells were highly resistant to drug treatment due to the enhanced expression of drug efflux pumps, such as ABC subfamily G member 2, multidrug resistance protein 1 and ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 5. Furthermore, using TOPflash and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the transcriptional regulation of Wnt/β-catenin target genes including dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor 1, axis inhibition protein 2 and cyclin D1 were observed to be markedly upregulated in liver cancer SP cells. As a consequence, SP cells possessed infinite cell proliferation potential and the ability to generating tumor spheres. In addition, upon reducing Wnt/β-catenin signaling, the rates of proliferation, tumor sphere formation and tumor invasion of SP cells were markedly reduced. Therefore, these data suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a potential therapeutic target to reduce CSC-mediated tumorigenicity and invasion in liver cancer. PMID:26956539

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes and endothelial cells in multi-component hydrogel fibers for liver tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chan; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Leong, Meng Fatt; Wan, Andrew C A

    2014-07-01

    Liver tissue engineering requires a suitable cell source, methodologies to assemble the cells within their niche microenvironments in a spatially defined manner, and vascularization of the construct in vivo for maintenance of hepatocyte viability and function. Recently, we have developed methods of encapsulating cells within separate domains in multi-component hydrogel fibers and methods of assembling fibers to form 3D-patterned tissue constructs. In the present work, we have combined these approaches to encapsulate hepatocytes and endothelial cells within their specific niches, and to assemble them into endothelialized liver tissue constructs. The hepatocytes and endothelial cells were obtained in parallel by differentiating human recombinant protein-induced human pluripotent stem cells, resulting in a construct which contained genetically identical endothelial and parenchymal elements. We were able to demonstrate that the presence of endothelial cells in the scaffold significantly improved hepatocyte function in vitro and facilitated vascularization of the scaffold when implanted in a mouse partial hepatectomy model. The in vivo studies further asserted that integration of the scaffold with host vasculature had occurred, as demonstrated by the presence of human albumin in the mouse serum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interleukin-1 regulates Hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in the midgestation mouse fetal liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio (Claudia); M. Peeters (Marian); E. Haak (Esther); K. van der Horn (Karin); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground Hematopoietic progenitors are generated in the yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros region during early mouse development. At embryonic day 10.5 the first hematopoietic stem cells emerge in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros. Subsequently, hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors are

  18. Interleukin-1 regulates Hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in the midgestation mouse fetal liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio (Claudia); M. Peeters (Marian); E. Haak (Esther); K. van der Horn (Karin); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground Hematopoietic progenitors are generated in the yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros region during early mouse development. At embryonic day 10.5 the first hematopoietic stem cells emerge in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros. Subsequently, hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors are

  19. Human fetal liver stromal cells that overexpress bFGF support growth and maintenance of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafei Xi

    Full Text Available In guiding hES cell technology toward the clinic, one key issue to be addressed is to culture and maintain hES cells much more safely and economically in large scale. In order to avoid using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs we isolated human fetal liver stromal cells (hFLSCs from 14 weeks human fetal liver as new human feeder cells. hFLSCs feeders could maintain hES cells for 15 passages (about 100 days. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is known to play an important role in promoting self-renewal of human embryonic stem (hES cells. So, we established transgenic hFLSCs that stably express bFGF by lentiviral vectors. These transgenic human feeder cells--bFGF-hFLSCs maintained the properties of H9 hES cells without supplementing with any exogenous growth factors. H9 hES cells culturing under these conditions maintained all hES cell features after prolonged culture, including the developmental potential to differentiate into representative tissues of all three embryonic germ layers, unlimited and undifferentiated proliferative ability, and maintenance of normal karyotype. Our results demonstrated that bFGF-hFLSCs feeder cells were central to establishing the signaling network among bFGF, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β, thereby providing the framework in which hES cells were instructed to self-renew or to differentiate. We also found that the conditioned medium of bFGF-hFLSCs could maintain the H9 hES cells under feeder-free conditions without supplementing with bFGF. Taken together, bFGF-hFLSCs had great potential as feeders for maintaining pluripotent hES cell lines more safely and economically.

  20. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  1. Effect of Co-Culturing of Mice Liver Cells and Embryonic Carcinomatous Stem Cells on the Rate of Differentiation to Hematopoietic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Pourfatollah

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance of co-culture in differentiation of embryonic stem cells, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effect of co-culturing fetal liver stroma cells with P19 cells on the line of differentiation. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, P19 cells were cultured directly in semisolid medium. These cells proliferated and primarily differentiated to colonies know as embryoid bodies (EBs after 8-12 days. The Ebs cells were trypsinized and dissociated to single or double cells. Then these cells were co-cultured on the mouse fetal liver feeder layer in the absence of exogenous factors. After 14-18 days, the colonies were studied morphologically by benzidine and giemsa staining and also counted under invert microscope. Results: The percentages of benzidine positive (or erythroid and negative colonies were 94% and 6% respectively and also the cells of colonies were studied by Giemsa staining. Results showed that they were myeloid or lymphoid type cells. Thus, the results show that in the presence of mouse fetal liver feeder layer, the number of erythroid colonies was increased. Conclusions: Therefore, this technique may be effective for differentiation of stem cells from different sources into hematopoietic cells and can be used in future for human cell therapy.

  2. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote the reversion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Naishun; Pan, Fan; Wang, Yingchao; Zheng, Youshi; Xu, Bo; Chen, Wenwei; Gao, Yunzhen; Cai, Zhixiong; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2016-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver injury and seriously affects human health. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation in combination with dietary modification was capable of reversing the progression of NAFLD. After establishing a rat model of NAFLD by feeding them a high-fat diet (HFD), ADSCs were transplanted via the portal vein into rats with HFD-induced NAFLD, and simultaneously fed a modified diet. Thereafter, gross liver morphology, the hepatosomatic (HSI) index and indicators of liver function, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were evaluated. Subsequently, the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs) and fatty acids (FAs) were also assayed. Furthermore, H&E and oil red O staining were used to confirm the pathological effects of NAFLD in the rat livers. Although dietary modification alone caused liver function to recover, ADSC transplantation in combination with dietary modification further decreased the HSI index, the serum levels of ALT, TBIL, TC, TGs, FAs, reduced lipid accumulation to normal levels, and reversed the hepatic pathological changes in the rat livers. Taken together, these findings suggest that ADSC transplantation assists in the reversion of NAFLD by improving liver function and promoting lipid metabolism, thereby exerting hepatoprotective effects. Thus, we suggest that ADSC transplantation is a promising, potential therapeutic strategy for NAFLD treatment.

  3. Role of ADAM17 in invasion and migration of CD133-expressing liver cancer stem cells after irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Woo; Hur, Wonhee; Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Jung-Hee; Hwang, Daehee; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biological role of CD133-expressing liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) enriched after irradiation of Huh7 cells in cell invasion and migration. We also explored whether a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) influences the metastatic potential of CSC-enriched hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells after irradiation. A CD133-expressing Huh7 cell subpopulation showed greater resistance to sublethal irradiation and specifically enhanced cell invasion and migration capabilities. We also demonstrated that the radiation-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzyme activities as well as the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor were increased more predominantly in Huh7CD133+ cell subpopulations than Huh7CD133− cell subpopulations. Furthermore, we showed that silencing ADAM17 significantly inhibited the migration and invasiveness of enriched Huh7CD133+ cells after irradiation; moreover, Notch signaling was significantly reduced in irradiated CD133-expressing liver CSCs following stable knockdown of the ADAM17 gene. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CD133-expressing liver CSCs have considerable metastatic capabilities after irradiation of HCC cells, and their metastatic capabilities might be maintained by ADAM17. Therefore, suppression of ADAM17 shows promise for improving the efficiency of current radiotherapies and reducing the metastatic potential of liver CSCs during HCC treatment. PMID:26993601

  4. Therapeutic potential of amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells on liver fibrosis model in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yu Peng

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The possible repair mechanism from our data revealed that EGFP-mAFSCs may fuse with the recipient liver cells. Overall, EGFP-mAFSCs can ameliorate liver fibrosis in mice, thus providing insight into the future development of regenerative medicine.

  5. Monocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells and fetal liver share common differentiation pathways and homeostatic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchenko, Olena; Di Stefano, Antonio; Geoerger, Birgit; Hamidi, Sofiane; Opolon, Paule; Robert, Thomas; Routhier, Mélanie; El-Benna, Jamel; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Boukour, Siham; Lescure, Bernadette; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Norol, Françoise

    2011-03-17

    The early emergence of macrophages and their large pattern of tissue distribution during development suggest that they may play a critical role in the initial steps of embryogenesis. In the present study, we show that monocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and from fetal liver follow a differentiation pathway different to that of adult cells, leading to specific functions. Embryonic and fetal monocytic cells differentiated from a CD14(low)CD16(-) precursor to form CD14(high)CD16(+) cells without producing the CD14(high)CD16(-) cell population that predominates in adult peripheral blood. Both demonstrated an enhanced expression of genes encoding tissue-degrading enzymes, chemokines, and scavenger receptors, as was previously reported for M2 macrophages. Compared with adult blood monocytes, embryonic and fetal monocytic cells secreted high amounts of proteins acting on tissue remodeling and angiogenesis, and most of them expressed the Tie2 receptor. Furthermore, they promoted vascular remodeling in xenotransplanted human tumors. These findings suggest that the regulation of human fetal and embryonic monocytic cell differentiation leads to the generation of cells endowed mainly with anti-inflammatory and remodeling functions. Trophic and immunosuppressive functions of M2-polarized macrophages link fetus and tumor development, and hESCs offer a valuable experimental model for in vitro studies of mechanisms sustaining these processes.

  6. Gene expression profiling and secretome analysis differentiate adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells and human hepatic stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Berardis

    Full Text Available Adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSC are obtained after primary culture of the liver parenchymal fraction. The cells are of fibroblastic morphology and exhibit a hepato-mesenchymal phenotype. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC derived from the liver non-parenchymal fraction, present a comparable morphology as ADHLSC. Because both ADHLSC and HSC are described as liver stem/progenitor cells, we strived to extensively compare both cell populations at different levels and to propose tools demonstrating their singularity. ADHLSC and HSC were isolated from the liver of four different donors, expanded in vitro and followed from passage 5 until passage 11. Cell characterization was performed using immunocytochemistry, western blotting, flow cytometry, and gene microarray analyses. The secretion profile of the cells was evaluated using Elisa and multiplex Luminex assays. Both cell types expressed α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, fibronectin, CD73 and CD90 in accordance with their mesenchymal origin. Microarray analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression profiles. HSC present high expression levels of neuronal markers as well as cytokeratins. Such differences were confirmed using immunocytochemistry and western blotting assays. Furthermore, both cell types displayed distinct secretion profiles as ADHLSC highly secreted cytokines of therapeutic and immuno-modulatory importance, like HGF, interferon-γ and IL-10. Our study demonstrates that ADHLSC and HSC are distinct liver fibroblastic cell populations exhibiting significant different expression and secretion profiles.

  7. CWP232228 targets liver cancer stem cells through Wnt/β-catenin signaling: a novel therapeutic approach for liver cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwan-Kyu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Hong, In-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation, which may destroy tumor masses, but not all liver CSCs contribute to tumor initiation, metastasis, and relapse. In the present study, we showed that liver CSCs with elevated Wnt/β-catenin signaling possess much greater self-renewal and clonogenic potential. We further documented that the increased clonogenic potential of liver CSCs is highly associated with changes in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity is positively correlated with CD133 expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activity. Notably, the small molecule inhibitor CWP232228, which antagonizes the binding of β-catenin to TCF in the nucleus, inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and depletes CD133+/ALDH+ liver CSCs, thus ultimately diminishing the self-renewal capacity of CSCs and decreasing tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggest that CWP232228 acts as a candidate therapeutic agent for liver cancer by preferentially targeting liver CSCs. PMID:26967248

  8. Stem cell research in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyi SUN; Shi ZUO

    2008-01-01

    The traditional view that adult human liver tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), arise from mature cell types has been challenged in recent dec-ades. The results of several studies suggest that HCC can be derived from liver stem cells. There are four levels of cells in the liver stem cell lineage: hepatocytes, hepatic stem cells/oval cells, bone marrow stem cells and hepato-pancreas stem cells. However, whether HCC is resulted from the differentiation block of stem cells and, moreover, which liver stem cell lineage is the source cell of hepatocarcinogenesis remain controversial. In this review, we focus on the current status of liver stem cell research and their roles in carcinogenesis of HCC, in order to explore new approaches for stem cell therapy of HCC.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells improve the outcomes of liver recipients via regulating CD4+ T helper cytokines in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yang; Zhong-Yang Shen; Bin Wu; Ming-Li Yin; Bo-Ya Zhang; Hong-Li Song

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) exert immunosuppressive activities in transplantation. This study aimed to determine whether BMMSCs reduce acute re-jection and improve outcomes of liver transplantation in rats. METHODS: Orthotopic liver transplantation from Lewis to Brown Norway rats was performed, which was followed by the infusion of BMMSCs through the penile superifcial dorsal vein. Normal saline infusion was used as a control. Animals were sacriifced at 0, 24, 72, or 168 hours after BMMSCs infu-sion. Liver grafts, and recipient serum and spleen tissues were obtained. Histopathology, apoptosis, serum liver enzymes, se-rum cytokines, and circulating regulatory T (Treg), Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells were assessed at each time point. RESULTS: BMMSCs signiifcantly attenuated acute rejection and improved the survival rate of allogeneic liver transplanta-tion recipients. Liver enzymes and liver apoptosis were signiif-cantly alleviated. The levels of the Th1/Th2 ratio-associated cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-γ were signiifcantly reduced and IL-10 was signiifcantly increased. The levels of the Th17/Tregs axis-associated cytokines such as IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, and TNF-α were signiifcantly reduced, whereas TGF-β concentra-tion was signiifcantly increased. Moreover, lfow cytometry analysis showed that the infusion of BMMSCs signiifcantly increased Th2 and Treg cells and decreased Th1 and Th17 cells. CONCLUSION: BMMSCs had immunomodulatory effects, at-tenuated acute rejection and improved outcomes of allogeneic liver transplantation in rats by regulating the levels of cyto-kines associated with Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells improve the outcomes of liver recipients via regulating CD4+ T helper cytokines in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yang; Zhong-Yang Shen; Bin Wu; Ming-Li Yin; Bo-Ya Zhang; Hong-Li Song

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) exert immunosuppressive activities in transplantation. This study aimed to determine whether BMMSCs reduce acute re-jection and improve outcomes of liver transplantation in rats. METHODS: Orthotopic liver transplantation from Lewis to Brown Norway rats was performed, which was followed by the infusion of BMMSCs through the penile superifcial dorsal vein. Normal saline infusion was used as a control. Animals were sacriifced at 0, 24, 72, or 168 hours after BMMSCs infu-sion. Liver grafts, and recipient serum and spleen tissues were obtained. Histopathology, apoptosis, serum liver enzymes, se-rum cytokines, and circulating regulatory T (Treg), Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells were assessed at each time point. RESULTS: BMMSCs signiifcantly attenuated acute rejection and improved the survival rate of allogeneic liver transplanta-tion recipients. Liver enzymes and liver apoptosis were signiif-cantly alleviated. The levels of the Th1/Th2 ratio-associated cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-γ were signiifcantly reduced and IL-10 was signiifcantly increased. The levels of the Th17/Tregs axis-associated cytokines such as IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, and TNF-α were signiifcantly reduced, whereas TGF-β concentra-tion was signiifcantly increased. Moreover, lfow cytometry analysis showed that the infusion of BMMSCs signiifcantly increased Th2 and Treg cells and decreased Th1 and Th17 cells. CONCLUSION: BMMSCs had immunomodulatory effects, at-tenuated acute rejection and improved outcomes of allogeneic liver transplantation in rats by regulating the levels of cyto-kines associated with Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios.

  11. Combination of 5-fluorouracil and 2-morphilino-8-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one may inhibit liver cancer stem cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Chong; Lu, Shi-Dong; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Xie, Zhi-Bo; You, Xue-Mei; Peng, Ning-Fu; Li, Le-Qun

    2016-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the impact of 2-morpholino-8-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (LY294002) combined 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the activity of CD90+ liver cancer cells derived from the human liver cancer cell line MHCC97H. MHCC97H sphere-forming cells (MSFCs) were amplified in serum-free medium and CD90+ cells were isolated from bulk MSFCs using flow cytometry. The phenotype of these CD90+ cells which show liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) behavior was validated in vitro and in a xenograft model in nude mice. MSFCs, CD90+ liver cancer cells (CD90+ LCCs), and parental MHCC97H cells were treated with no drug, LY294002 alone, 5-FU alone, or both drugs together and then compared in terms of stem cell-related gene expression, proliferation, and invasion. Stem cell phenotype increased with increasing proportion of CD90+ cells, in ascending order: parental MHCC97H cells, MSFCs, and CD90+ liver cancer cells. LY294002 reduced the expression of CD90, Nanog, SALL4, and SHP2 in a concentration-dependent manner in CD90+ LCCs and MSFCs, but not in parental cells. LY294002 blocked AKT phosphorylation via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and inhibited CD90+ LCCs proliferation and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. CD90+ liver cancer cells can express liver cancer stem cell phenotype. LY294002 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of MHCC97H-derived CD90+ LCCs and sensitized CD90+ LCCs-derived tumors to 5-FU in the current study which may provide insight into the association between the LY294002 combined 5-FU and liver cancer stem cell (LCSCs).

  12. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    '. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products....

  13. Effect of Rougan Huaqian granules combined with human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on liver fibrosis in cirrhosis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Chang Wang; Shan Yang; Jing-Jing Huang; Song-Lin Chen; Quan-Qiang Li; Yuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect ofRouganHuaqian granules combined with human mesenchymal stem cell(hMSC) transplantation on the liver fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis rats.Methods:SixtySD rats were randomly divided into five groups.The rats in control group received intraperitoneal injection of saline, while those in model control group, treatment groupA, groupB and groupC received intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride oily solution to induce liver cirrhosis within8 weeks.Then, the rats in the model control group, treatment groupA, treatment groupB, treatment groupC received vein tail injection of saline, RouganHuaqian granules, hMSC suspension andRouganHuaqian granules combined with hMSC suspension.Results:The treatment groups had significantly different liverfunction(AST levels), liver fibrosis index(laminin andHA), hepatic sinusoidal wallsα-smooth muscle actin,Ⅳ collagen and laminin protein expression andⅠ,Ⅲ collagen from the model group(P<0.05). The transplanted cells showed human hepatocyte-like cells differentiation trend in the liver. Conclusions:TheRouganHuaqian granules combined with hMSC transplantation can alleviate liver fibrosis in cirrhosis rats.

  14. Multiplication free neural network for cancer stem cell detection in H-and-E stained liver images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Diaa; Akhan, Ece; Mallah, Ma'en; Üner, Ayşegül; ćetin-Atalay, Rengül; ćetin, A. Enis

    2017-05-01

    Markers such as CD13 and CD133 have been used to identify Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) in various tissue images. It is highly likely that CSC nuclei appear as brown in CD13 stained liver tissue images. We observe that there is a high correlation between the ratio of brown to blue colored nuclei in CD13 images and the ratio between the dark blue to blue colored nuclei in H&E stained liver images. Therefore, we recommend that a pathologist observing many dark blue nuclei in an H&E stained tissue image may also order CD13 staining to estimate the CSC ratio. In this paper, we describe a computer vision method based on a neural network estimating the ratio of dark blue to blue colored nuclei in an H&E stained liver tissue image. The neural network structure is based on a multiplication free operator using only additions and sign operations. Experimental results are presented.

  15. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  16. Cryo-chemical decellularization of the whole liver for mesenchymal stem cells-based functional hepatic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Yen, Meng-Hua; Chang, Yin; Yang, Vincent W; Lee, Oscar K

    2014-04-01

    Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for severe hepatic failure to date. However, the limited supply of donor organs has severely hampered this treatment. So far, great potentials of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to replenish the hepatic cell population have been shown; nevertheless, there still is a lack of an optimal three-dimensional scaffold for generation of well-transplantable hepatic tissues. In this study, we utilized a cryo-chemical decellularization method which combines physical and chemical approach to generate acellular liver scaffolds (ALS) from the whole liver. The produced ALS provides a biomimetic three-dimensional environment to support hepatic differentiation of MSCs, evidenced by expression of hepatic-associated genes and marker protein, glycogen storage, albumin secretion, and urea production. It is also found that hepatic differentiation of MSCs within the ALS is much more efficient than two-dimensional culture in vitro. Importantly, the hepatic-like tissues (HLT) generated by repopulating ALS with MSCs are able to act as functional grafts and rescue lethal hepatic failure after transplantation in vivo. In summary, the cryo-chemical method used in this study is suitable for decellularization of liver and create acellular scaffolds that can support hepatic differentiation of MSCs and be used to fabricate functional tissue-engineered liver constructs.

  17. Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway play important roles in activating liver cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Qian; Wang, Peng; Liu, Man; Xiong, Si; Luo, Jing; Huang, Hai; Du, Qiang; Geller, David A.; Cheng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is driven and maintained by liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) that display stem cell properties. These LCSCs are promoted by the intersecting of Notch and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that LCSCs with markers CD90, CD24, CD13, and CD133 possess stem properties of self-renewal and tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice. The increased expression of these markers was correlated with advanced disease stage, larger tumors, and worse overall survival in 61 HCC cases. We also found that both Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways played important roles in increasing the stem-ness characteristics of LCSCs. Our data suggested that Notch1 was downstream of Wnt/β-catenin. The active form of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression depended on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. Moreover, Notch1 negatively contributed to Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulation. Knock down of Notch1 with lentivirus N1ShRNA up-regulated the active form of β-catenin. Ectopic expression of NICD with LV-Notch1 in LCSCs attenuated β-catenin/TCF dependent luciferase activity significantly. In addition, there was a non-proteasome mediated feedback loop between Notch1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LCSCs. The central role of Notch and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in LCSCs may provide an attractive therapeutic strategy against HCC. PMID:26735577

  18. Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway play important roles in activating liver cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Qian; Wang, Peng; Liu, Man; Xiong, Si; Luo, Jing; Huang, Hai; Du, Qiang; Geller, David A; Cheng, Bin

    2016-02-02

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is driven and maintained by liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) that display stem cell properties. These LCSCs are promoted by the intersecting of Notch and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that LCSCs with markers CD90, CD24, CD13, and CD133 possess stem properties of self-renewal and tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice. The increased expression of these markers was correlated with advanced disease stage, larger tumors, and worse overall survival in 61 HCC cases. We also found that both Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways played important roles in increasing the stem-ness characteristics of LCSCs. Our data suggested that Notch1 was downstream of Wnt/β-catenin. The active form of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression depended on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. Moreover, Notch1 negatively contributed to Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulation. Knock down of Notch1 with lentivirus N1ShRNA up-regulated the active form of β-catenin. Ectopic expression of NICD with LV-Notch1 in LCSCs attenuated β-catenin/TCF dependent luciferase activity significantly. In addition, there was a non-proteasome mediated feedback loop between Notch1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LCSCs. The central role of Notch and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in LCSCs may provide an attractive therapeutic strategy against HCC.

  19. A preliminary study for constructing a bioartificial liver device with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamuro Masaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioartificial liver systems, designed to support patients with liver failure, are composed of bioreactors and functional hepatocytes. Immunological rejection of the embedded hepatocytes by the host immune system is a serious concern that crucially degrades the performance of the device. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are considered a desirable source for bioartificial liver systems, because patient-derived iPS cells are free from immunological rejection. The purpose of this paper was to test the feasibility of a bioartificial liver system with iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells. Methods Mouse iPS cells were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells by a multi-step differentiation protocol via embryoid bodies and definitive endoderm. Differentiation of iPS cells was evaluated by morphology, PCR assay, and functional assays. iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells were cultured in a bioreactor module with a pore size of 0.2 μm for 7 days. The amount of albumin secreted into the circulating medium was analyzed by ELISA. Additionally, after a 7-day culture in a bioreactor module, cells were observed by a scanning electron microscope. Results At the final stage of the differentiation program, iPS cells changed their morphology to a polygonal shape with two nucleoli and enriched cytoplasmic granules. Transmission electron microscope analysis revealed their polygonal shape, glycogen deposition in the cytoplasm, microvilli on their surfaces, and a duct-like arrangement. PCR analysis showed increased expression of albumin mRNA over the course of the differentiation program. Albumin and urea production was also observed. iPS-Heps culture in bioreactor modules showed the accumulation of albumin in the medium for up to 7 days. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the attachment of cell clusters to the hollow fibers of the module. These results indicated that iPS cells were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells after culture

  20. The possible role of liver kinase B1 in hydroquinone-induced toxicity of murine fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Chunhong; Zhu, Jie; Bai, YuE; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yanfeng; Zhang, Shaozun; Liu, Xiangxiang; Zhou, Sheng; Huang, Wenting; Bi, Yongyi; Wang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that the increasing incidence of childhood leukemia may be due to maternal exposure to benzene, which is a known human carcinogen; however, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) acts as a regulator of cellular energy metabolism and functions to regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. We hypothesize that LKB1 contributes to the deregulation of fetal or bone hematopoiesis caused by the benzene metabolite hydroquinone (HQ). To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of HQ on murine fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells (FL-HSCs) and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs). FL-HSCs and BM-HSCs were isolated and enriched by a magnetic cell sorting system and exposed to various concentrations of HQ (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 μM) for 24 h. We found that the inhibition of differentiation and growth, as well as the apoptosis rate of FL-HSCs, induced by HQ were consistent with the changes in BM-HSCs. Furthermore, G1 cell cycle arrest was observed in BM-HSCs and FL-HSCs in response to HQ. Importantly, FL-HSCs were more sensitive than BM-HSCs after exposure to HQ. The highest induction of LKB1 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was observed with a much lower concentration of HQ in FL-HSCs than in BM-HSCs. LKB1 may play a critical role in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of HQ-treated HSCs. This research has developed innovative ideas concerning benzene-induced hematopoietic toxicity or embryotoxicity, which can provide a new experimental evidence for preventing childhood leukemia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 830-841, 2016.

  1. Evaluation of a hybrid artificial liver module based on a spheroid culture system of embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Kinya; Ikeda, Kaoru; Kusumi, Tomoaki; Inamori, Masakazu; Nakazawa, Kohji; Ijima, Hiroyuki; Funatsu, Kazumori; Kajiwara, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid artificial liver (HAL) is an extracorporeal circulation system comprised of a bioreactor containing immobilized functional liver cells. It is expected to not only serve as a temporary liver function support system, but also to accelerate liver regeneration in recovery from hepatic failure. One of the most difficult problems in developing a hybrid artificial liver is obtaining an adequate cell source. In this study, we attempt to differentiate embryonic stem (ES) cells by hepatic lineage using a polyurethane foam (PUF)/spheroid culture in which the cultured cells spontaneously form spherical multicellular aggregates (spheroids) in the pores of the PUF. We also demonstrate the feasibility of the PUF-HAL system by comparing ES cells to primary hepatocytes in in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Mouse ES cells formed multicellular spheroids in the pores of PUF. ES cells expressed liver-specific functions (ammonia removal and albumin secretion) after treatment with the differentiation-promoting agent, sodium butyrate (SB). We designed a PUF-HAL module comprised of a cylindrical PUF block with many medium-flow capillaries for hepatic differentiation of ES cells. The PUF-HAL module cells expressed ammonia removal and albumin secretion functions after 2 weeks of SB culture. Because of high proliferative activity of ES cells and high cell density, the maximum expression level of albumin secretion function per unit volume of module was comparable to that seen in primary mouse hepatocyte culture. In the animal experiments with rats, the PUF-HAL differentiating ES cells appeared to partially contribute to recovery from liver failure. This outcome indicates that the PUF module containing differentiating ES cells may be a useful biocomponent of a hybrid artificial liver support system.

  2. Plasma markers of B-cell activation and clonality in pediatric liver and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A.; Savoldo, Barbara; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Costello, Rene; Zingone, Adriana; Heslop, Helen E.; Landgren, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Transplant recipients are at risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Methods: Thirty-six pediatric transplant recipients were evaluated (18 hematopoietic stem cell and 18 liver recipients; 12 had PTLD). We studied 207 longitudinal plasma samples from these recipients for three markers of B-cell activation or clonality: immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs), soluble CD30 (sCD30), and monoclonal immunoglobulins (M-proteins). Results Kappa FLCs, lambda FLCs, and sCD30 were elevated in 20.8%, 28.0%, and 94.2% of plasma specimens, respectively. FLC and sCD30 levels increased significantly 1.18–1.82 fold per log10 Epstein Barr virus (EBV) load in peripheral blood. Five PTLD cases manifested elevated FLCs with an abnormal kappa/lambda ratio, suggesting monoclonal FLC production. M-proteins were present in 91% of PTLD cases, vs. 50–67% of other recipients with high or low EBV loads (p=0.13). Concordance of FLCs, M-proteins, and PTLD tumor light chain restriction was imperfect. For example, one PTLD case with an IgG lambda M-protein had a tumor that was kappa restricted, and another case with an M-protein had a T-cell PTLD. In an additional case, an IgM kappa M-protein and excess kappa FLCs were both detected in plasma at PTLD diagnosis; while the tumor was not restricted at diagnosis, kappa restriction was present 5 years later when the PTLD relapsed. Discussion Plasma markers of B-cell dysfunction are frequent following transplantation and associated with poor EBV control. These abnormal markers may be produced by oligoclonal B-cell populations or PTLD tumor cells, and could potentially help identify recipients at high risk of PTLD. PMID:23222884

  3. Human Muse cells, non-tumorigenic pluripotent-like stem cells, have the capacity for liver regeneration by specific homing and replenishment of new hepatocytes in liver fibrosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Masahiro; Kushida, Yoshihiro; Wakao, Shohei; Akimoto, Takahiro; Mizuma, Masamichi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Asada, Ryuta; Shimizu, Shinobu; Unno, Michiaki; Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Dezawa, Mari

    2016-11-02

    Muse cells, a novel type of non-tumorigenic pluripotent-like stem cells reside in the bone marrow, skin and adipose tissue, are collectable as cells positive for pluripotent surface marker SSEA-3. They are able to differentiate into cells representative of all three germ layers. The capacity of intravenously injected human bone marrow-Muse cells to repair the liver fibrosis model of immunodeficient mice was evaluated in this study. They exhibited the ability for differentiation spontaneously into hepatoblast/hepatocyte-lineage cells and high migration toward the serum and liver tissue of carbon tetrachloride-treated mice in vitro. In vivo, they specifically accumulated into the liver, but not into other organs except the lower rate in the lung at 2 weeks after intravenous injection into the liver fibrosis model. After homing, Muse cells spontaneously differentiated in vivo into HepPar-1 (71.1±15.2%), human albumin (54.3±8.2%) and anti-trypsin (47.9±4.6%)-positive cells without fusing with host hepatocytes, and expressed mature functional markers such as human-CYP1A2, and human-Glc-6-Pase, at 8 weeks. Recovery in serum total bilirubin and albumin, and significant attenuation of fibrosis were recognized with statistical differences between the Muse group and control groups which received the vehicle or the same number of non-Muse cells, namely cells other than Muse cells in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Thus, unlike ES and iPS cells, Muse cells are unique in their efficient migration and integration into damaged liver only by intravenous injection, nontumorigenicity, and spontaneous differentiation into hepatocytes, rendering induction into hepatocytes prior to transplantation unnecessary. They are suggested to repair liver fibrosis in two simple steps; expansion after collection from the bone marrow and intravenous injection. Such feasible strategy might provide impressive regenerative performance to liver disease patients.

  4. Stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redi, Carlo Alberto; Monti, Manuela; Merico, Valeria; Neri, Tui; Zanoni, Mario; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The application of stem cells to regenerative medicine is one of the actual hot topics in biomedicine. This research could help the cure of a number of diseases that are affecting a large share of the population. Some good results in cell replacement have already been obtained (infarcted heart, diabetes, Parkinson disease), apart from those of more traditional applications like severe burns and blood tumors. We are now facing crucial questions in stem cell biology. One of the key questions is how a cell begins to proliferate or differentiate. Genome reprogramming, both following nuclear transfer and cytoplast action, will likely highlight some of the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. In turn, these clues should be useful to the production of populations of reprogrammed cells that could develop into tissues or, in the future, into proper organs. We will overview what stem cells are, what roles they play in normal developmental processes and how stem cells could have the potential to treat diseases.

  5. Self-renewal and pluripotency is maintained in human embryonic stem cells by co-culture with human fetal liver stromal cells expressing hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lei; Liu, Yu-xiao; Yang, Chao; Yue, Wen; Shi, Shuang-shuang; Bai, Ci-xian; Xi, Jia-fei; Nan, Xue; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2009-10-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are typically maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeders or with MEF-conditioned medium. However, these xenosupport systems greatly limit the therapeutic applications of hES cells because of the risk of cross-transfer of animal pathogens. The stem cell niche is a unique tissue microenvironment that regulates the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. Recent evidence suggests that stem cells are localized in the microenvironment of low oxygen. We hypothesized that hypoxia could maintain the undifferentiated phenotype of embryonic stem cells. We have co-cultured a human embryonic cell line with human fetal liver stromal cells (hFLSCs) feeder cells stably expressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha), which is known as the key transcription factor in hypoxia. The results suggested HIF-1alpha was critical for preventing differentiation of hES cells in culture. Consistent with this observation, hypoxia upregulated the expression of Nanog and Oct-4, the key factors expressed in undifferentiated stem cells. We further demonstrated that HIF-1alpha could upregulate the expression of some soluble factors including bFGF and SDF-1alpha, which are released into the microenvironment to maintain the undifferentiated status of hES cells. This suggests that the targets of HIF-1alpha are secreted soluble factors rather than a cell-cell contact mechanism, and defines an important mechanism for the inhibition of hESCs differentiation by hypoxia. Our findings developed a transgene feeder co-culture system and will provide a more reliable alternative for future therapeutic applications of hES cells.

  6. Chimerism of allogeneic mesenchymal cells in bone marrow, liver, and spleen after mesenchymal stem cells infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshko, Alexander; Prakharenia, Irina; Kletski, Semen; Isaikina, Yanina

    2013-12-01

    Although an infusion of culture-expanded MSCs is applied in clinic to improve results of HSCs transplantation and for a treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, homing, and engraftment potential of culture-expanded MSC in humans is still obscure. We report two female patients who received allogeneic BM transplantation as a treatment of hematological diseases and a transplantation of MSCs from third-party male donors. Both patients died within one yr of infectious complications. Specimens of paraffin-embedded blocks of tissues from transplanted patients were taken. The aim of the study was to estimate possible homing and engraftment of allogeneic BM-derived MSCs in some tissues/organs of recipient. Sensitive real-time quantitative PCR analysis was applied with SRY gene as a target. MSC chimerism was found in BM, liver, and spleen of both patients. We conclude that sensitive RQ-PCR analysis is acceptable for low-level chimerism evaluation even in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens.

  7. [Changes of ultrastructure of the capillary endotheliocytes of ischemized and nonaffected muscular tissue after transplantation of human hemopoietic stem cells of fetal liver in experiment in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliutin, R V; Zadorozhna, T D; Medvets'kyĭ, E B; Driuk, M F; Petrenko, A Iu

    2010-04-01

    In experiment was investigated ultrastructure of the capillaries endothelial cells and histological peculiarities of muscular tissue on various stages after transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells of fetal liver (HSCFL). There was proved, that in ischemic environment HSCFL stimulate processes of angiogenesis, and in the case of transplantation into intact muscular tissue they are differentiating into the tissue macrophages, not interfering with muscular tissue structure.

  8. Novel, high-yield red blood cell production methods from CD34-positive cells derived from human embryonic stem, yolk sac, fetal liver, cord blood, and peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2012-08-01

    The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34(+) cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6-8-week yolk sacs, 16-18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34(+) cells.

  9. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Improve the Mouse Liver after Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication by Preventing Progress of Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Stock

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2−/− mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-dependent damage of perivenous areas of the liver lobule. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST increased to similar levels irrespective of hMSC-HC transplantation. Yet, hMSC-HC resided in the damaged perivenous areas of the liver lobules short-term preventing apoptosis and thus progress of organ destruction. Disturbance of metabolic protein expression was lower in the livers receiving hMSC-HC. Seven weeks after APAP treatment, hepatic injury had completely recovered in groups both with and without hMSC-HC. Clusters of transplanted cells appeared predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule and secreted human albumin featuring a prominent quality of differentiated hepatocytes. Thus, hMSC-HC attenuated the inflammatory response and supported liver regeneration after acute injury induced by acetaminophen. They hence may serve as a novel source of hepatocyte-like cells suitable for cell therapy of acute liver diseases.

  10. Research progress on regulatory mechanism of liver cancer stem cells%肝癌干细胞调控机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 王超

    2014-01-01

    肿瘤干细胞学说认为,肝癌的复发和转移主要与肝癌干细胞密切相关.以手术为主的传统治疗肝癌的方法只是杀死了大量快速增殖的肿瘤细胞,并未清除起决定性作用的肝癌干细胞,故术后极易复发转移.调控肝癌干细胞的信号通路及因子较多,如Wnt/β-catenin通路、TGF-β通路、Notch通路、Hedgehog通路、乙型肝炎病毒等.表观遗传学在肝癌干细胞调控机制中的作用亦很重要.深入研究肝癌干细胞的调控机制,可为防止肝癌的复发和转移提供新的治疗依据.%The theory of cancer stem cells proposed that recurrence and metastasis of liver cancer are closely related to liver cancer stem cells.The traditional surgical treatment of liver cancer simply kills those rapidly proliferating tunor cells instead of eliminating hepatic cancer stem cells which play decisive role in recurrence and metastasis.As far as people have concerned,there are many signaling pathways and regulatory factors modulating liver cancer stem cells,such as the Wnt/β-catenin pathway,TGF-β pathway,Notch pathway,Hedgehog pathway,hepatitis B virus,as well as epigenetics.Further studies on regulatory mechanisms of liver cancer stem cells are of great significance,in hope of providing new evidence for treatment and prevention of recurrence and metastasis of liver cancer.

  11. Comparison of the Treatment Efficiency of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation via Tail and Portal Veins in CCl4-Induced Mouse Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Nhung Hai; Nguyen, Nam Hai; Le, Trinh Van; Vu, Ngoc Bich; Huynh, Nghia; Nguyen, Thanh Van; Le, Huy Minh; Phan, Ngoc Kim; Pham, Phuc Van

    2016-01-01

    Because of self-renewal, strong proliferation in vitro, abundant sources for isolation, and a high differentiation capacity, mesenchymal stem cells are suggested to be potentially therapeutic for liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. In this study, we evaluated the treatment effects of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on mouse liver cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride. Portal and tail vein transplantations were examined to evaluate the effects of different injection routes on the liver cirrhosis model at 21 days after transplantation. BM-MSCs transplantation reduced aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase levels at 21 days after injection. Furthermore, BM-MSCs induced positive changes in serum bilirubin and albumin and downregulated expression of integrins (600- to 7000-fold), transforming growth factor, and procollagen-α1 compared with the control group. Interestingly, both injection routes ameliorated inflammation and liver cirrhosis scores. All mice in treatment groups had reduced inflammation scores and no cirrhosis. In conclusion, transplantation of BM-MSCs via tail or portal veins ameliorates liver cirrhosis in mice. Notably, there were no differences in treatment effects between tail and portal vein administrations. In consideration of safety, we suggest transfusion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via a peripheral vein as a potential method for liver fibrosis treatment.

  12. Inhibition of oxidative stress-elicited AKT activation facilitates PPARγ agonist-mediated inhibition of stem cell character and tumor growth of liver cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanlan Liu

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that tumor-initiating cells (TICs are the most malignant cell subpopulation in tumors because of their resistance to chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Targeting TICs may be a key innovation for cancer treatment. In this study, we found that PPARγ agonists inhibited the cancer stem cell-like phenotype and attenuated tumor growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS initiated by NOX2 upregulation were partially responsible for the inhibitory effects mediated by PPARγ agonists. However, PPARγ agonist-mediated ROS production significantly activated AKT, which in turn promoted TIC survival by limiting ROS generation. Inhibition of AKT, by either pharmacological inhibitors or AKT siRNA, significantly enhanced PPARγ agonist-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and stem cell-like properties in HCC cells. Importantly, in nude mice inoculated with HCC Huh7 cells, we demonstrated a synergistic inhibitory effect of the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone and the AKT inhibitor triciribine on tumor growth. In conclusion, we observed a negative feedback loop between oxidative stress and AKT hyperactivation in PPARγ agonist-mediated suppressive effects on HCCs. Combinatory application of an AKT inhibitor and a PPARγ agonist may provide a new strategy for inhibition of stem cell-like properties in HCCs and treatment of liver cancer.

  13. BORIS up-regulates OCT4 via histone methylation to promote cancer stem cell-like properties in human liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuying; Chen, Kefei; Liu, Zhongjian; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Rongce; Wei, Ling; Yu, Xiaoqin; He, Jingyang; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianguo; Qin, Yang; Li, Bo

    2017-09-10

    Accumulating evidence has revealed the importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in chemoresistance and recurrence. BORIS, a testes-specific CTCF paralog, has been shown to be associated with stemness traits of embryonic cancer cells and epithelial CSCs. We previously reported that BORIS is correlated with the expression of the CSC marker CD90 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These results encourage us to wonder whether BORIS exerts functions on CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells. Here, we report that BORIS was enriched in HCC tissues. Exogenous overexpression of BORIS promoted CSC-like properties, including self-renewal, chemoresistance, migration and invasion in Huh7 and HCCLM3 cells. Conversely, BORIS knockdown suppressed CSC-like properties in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells and inhibited tumorigenicity in SMMC-7721 cells. Moreover, BORIS alteration did not affect the DNA methylation status of the minimal promoter and exon 1 region of OCT4. However, BORIS overexpression enhanced the amount of BORIS bound on the OCT4 promoter and increased H3K4me2, while reducing H3K27me3; BORIS depletion decreased BORIS and H3K4me2 on the OCT4 promoter, while increasing H3K27me3. These results revealed that BORIS is associated with the CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells through the epigenetic regulation of OCT4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Establishment of human-rhesus chimeric liver using adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells%应用成人骨髓间充质干细胞建立人-猴肝脏嵌合体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何保丽; 马丽花; 陈丽玲; 刘汝文; 杨仁华

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Human-mammal chimeric liver chimera has been a vital significance for the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. OBJECTIVE:To establish an animal model of human-rhesus chimeric liver using adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. METHODS:Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, purified and cultured for the sixth generation. The number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was no less than 5×108. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells labeled with green fluorescent protein were transplanted into the liver of the embryo rhesus with pregnancy of 10 weeks under guided by type-B ultrasound. At the 1st and 3rd months of birth, the liver tissue of the infant rhesus was taken for biopsy. After routine pathological section, histological specimens were observed under fluorescence microscope to confirm if there were adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells positive for green fluorescent protein and their distribution, and detected by immunohistochemical staining to identify if human albumin expressed in the liver of infant rhesus. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Fluorescence microscope observation indicated that at the 1st and 3rd months after birth, there were surviving bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from human with green fluorescence in the liver of infant rhesus, and these cells migrated to form more concentrated distribution. The immunohistochemical results demonstrated that functional liver cells expressing human albumin were observed in the liver of infant rhesus at the 1st and 3rd months after birth, and their distribution was in accordance with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with green fluorescence. Human-rhesus chimeric liver can be established using adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which can generate functional liver cells in the liver of infant rhesus.%BACKGROUND:Human-mammal chimeric liver chimera has been a vital significance for the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow

  15. Advances in stem cell research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In 1998, biologists Thomson and Gearhart successfully derived stem cells from human embryos. One year later, several researchers discovered that adult stem cells still retain the ability to be differentiated into unrelated types of cells. Advances in stem cell research open a promising direction for applied medical science. Moreover, it may also force scientists to reconsider the fundamental theory about how cells grow up. Stem cell research was considered by Science as the top of the ten breakthroughs of science of the year[1]. This paper gives a survey of recent advances in stem cell research. 1 Overview In the 1980s, embryonic stem cell and/or embryonic germ cell line (ES cell line, EG cell line) of multifarious mammalian animals, especially those of non-human pri-mates, had been established. In 1998, Thomson and Shamblott obtained ES, EG cell lines from human blasto-cysts and gonad ridges of early human embryos, respec-tively. Their research brought up an ethical debate about whether human embryos can be used as experimental materials. It was not appeased until 1999 when research-ers discovered that stem cells from adults still retain the ability to become different kinds of tissue cells. For in-stance, brain cells can become blood cells[2], and cells from bone marrow can become cells in liver. Scientists believe, for a long time, that cells can only be developed from early pluripotent embryo cells; the differentiation potential of stem cells from mature tissues is restricted to only one of the cell types of the tissue where stem cells are obtained. Recent stem cell researches, however, sub-verted the traditional view of stem cells. These discoveries made scientists speed ahead with the work on adult stem cells, hoping to discover whether their promise will rival that of ES cells.

  16. Active targeting docetaxel-PLA nanoparticles eradicate circulating lung cancer stem-like cells and inhibit liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Jiang, Yao; Zhang, Huifeng; Sun, Bo; Hou, Chunying; Zheng, Ji; Liu, Yanyong; Zuo, Pingping

    2015-01-05

    Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer related lethality worldwide, and metastasis to distant organs is the pivotal cause of death for the vast majority of lung cancer patients. Accumulated evidence indicates that lung cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) play important roles in metastagenesis, and these circulating CSLCs may be important targets to inhibit the subsequent metastasis. The present study was aimed at establishing CSLC-targeting polylactic acid (PLA) encapsulated docetaxel nanoparticles for antimetastatic therapy. Cyclic binding peptides were screened on CSLCs in vitro and the peptide CVKTPAQSC exhibiting high specific binding ability to pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue was subsequently conjugated to the nanoparticles loaded with docetaxel (NDTX). Antimetastatic effect of CSLC-targeting nanoparticles loaded with docetaxel (TNDTX) was evaluated in a nude mouse model of liver metastasis. Results showed that, in the absence of targeting peptide, NDTX hardly exhibited any antimetastatic effect. However, TNDTX treatment significantly decreased the metastatic tumor area in the nude mouse liver. Histopathological and serological results also confirmed the antimetastatic efficacy of TNDTX. To our knowledge, this is the first report on establishing a CSLC-based strategy for lung cancer metastatic treatment, and we hope this will offer a potential therapeutic approach for management of metastatic lung cancer.

  17. Pluripotent stem cells exhibiting similar characteristics can be isolated from human fetal bone marrow,heart,liver,muscle,lung,derma,kidney,and fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Baijun; SONG Yongping; ZHAO Chunhua; SHI Mingxia; LIN Quande

    2007-01-01

    Previously,we reported that a cell population derived from human fetal bone marrow fBM),termed here Flk1+CD34-postembryonic pluripotent stem cells(PPSCs)that have the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs),could difierentiate into ectodermal,endodermal and mesodermal celI types at the single cell level in vitro,and that these cells could also difierentiate into the epithelium of liver,lung,gut,as well as the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages after transplantion into irradiated non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient(NOD/SCID) mice.In this study,we further isolated pluripotent stem cells from human fetal heart,liver,muscle,lung,derma,kidney,and fat and then analyzed the characteristics and function of these stem cells.It was found that the phenotype of the culture-expanded pluripotent stem cells from different fetal tissues was similar to BM-derived Flk1+CD34-PPSCs.i.e.Flk1 and CD44 positive,GlyA,CD34,CD45,class I-HLA and HLA-DR negative.Morphologically,these cells were fibroblast-like and the doubling time was about 30 h.More importantly,culture-expanded pluripotent stem cells from all these fetal tissues were able to differentiate into cells with morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of adipocytes,osteocytes,neurons,gilal cells and hepatocytes.These pluripotent stem cells with characteristics similar to fetal BM-derived Flk1+CD34-PPSCs can be selected and cultured from tissues other than the BM.This phenomenon may help explain the"stem cell plasticity"found in multiple human tissues.In addition,as fetal BM-derived Flk1+CD34-PPSCs,these pluripotent stem cells from different fetal tissues had the capacity for self-renewal and multi-lineage difierentiation even after being expanded for more than 40 population doublings in vitro.Thus,they may be an ideal source of stem cells for treatment of inherited or degenerative diseases.

  18. Prospect and advances in liver stem cells%肝脏干细胞研究及应用前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 邹伟; 刘鹏; 崔占峰; 刘晶

    2012-01-01

    背景:近年肝脏干细胞移植治疗终末期肝病得到人们的广泛关注,但临床应用中却面临来源有限,细胞数量不足,移植后干细胞往往弥散、流失,且分化率低,无法有效发挥其修复功能等技术问题制约.目的:总结肝脏干细胞组织工程的研究进展,并展望其应用前景.方法:应用计算机检索1999-01/2010-12 PubMed数据库相关文献,英文检索词"liver stem cell tissue engineering"分别与"three dimensional culture,biodegradable materials,biological reactor"组合,并限定文献语言种类为English.共检索到文献241篇,最终纳入符合标准的文献43篇.结果与结论:肝脏干细胞来源有限,而肝脏组织工程需要大量可靠的种子干细胞,三维培养是目前发现行之有效的体外扩增手段.在三维培养条件下,使用不同支架材料和反应器扩增效率及移植效果存在巨大差异,如何确定具有肝脏干细胞特异性的理想扩增条件、改善支架生物相容性以提高移植效率是关键技术问题.未来的研究需要进一步探讨肝脏干细胞特异性扩增生物反应器及肝脏干细胞特异性支架构建等技术难点.%BACKGROUND: The treatment of end-stage liver disease with liver stem cells transplantation has raised the concern in recent years. However, the clinical application is restricted by some technical problems, such as cell shortage, cell dispersion and loss and low differentiation rate after transplation, which will be solved effectively with rapid development of liver stem cells tissue engineering technology.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the progress of liver stem cell tissue engineering and outlook the prospect application.METHODS: We searched for the related articles in PubMed published from January 1999 and December 2010. The keywords were "liver stem cell tissue engineering, three dimensional culture, biodegradable materials, bioreactor" in English. Totally 241 articles were selected primarily, and

  19. In vitro large scale production of human mature red blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells by coculturing with human fetal liver stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jiafei; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Ruoyong; Wang, Yunfang; Nan, Xue; He, Lijuan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Lin; Yue, Wen; Pei, Xuetao

    2013-01-01

    In vitro models of human erythropoiesis are useful in studying the mechanisms of erythroid differentiation in normal and pathological conditions. Here we describe an erythroid liquid culture system starting from cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs were cultured for more than 50 days in erythroid differentiation conditions and resulted in a more than 10(9)-fold expansion within 50 days under optimal conditions. Homogeneous erythroid cells were characterized by cell morphology, flow cytometry, and hematopoietic colony assays. Furthermore, terminal erythroid maturation was improved by cosculturing with human fetal liver stromal cells. Cocultured erythroid cells underwent multiple maturation events, including decrease in size, increase in glycophorin A expression, and nuclear condensation. This process resulted in extrusion of the pycnotic nuclei in up to 80% of the cells. Importantly, they possessed the capacity to express the adult definitive β -globin chain upon further maturation. We also show that the oxygen equilibrium curves of the cord blood-differentiated red blood cells (RBCs) are comparable to normal RBCs. The large number and purity of erythroid cells and RBCs produced from cord blood make this method useful for fundamental research in erythroid development, and they also provide a basis for future production of available RBCs for transfusion.

  20. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and derived hepatocyte-like cells exhibit similar therapeutic effects on an acute liver failure mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiping Zhou

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have exhibited therapeutic effects in multiple animal models so that are promising liver substitute for transplantation treatment of end-stage liver diseases. However, it has been shown that over-manipulation of these cells increased their tumorigenic potential, and that reducing the in vitro culture time could minimize the risk. In this study, we used a D-galactosamine plus lipopolysaccharide (Gal/LPS-induced acute liver failure mouse model, which caused death of about 50% of the mice with necrosis of more than 50% hepatocytes, to compare the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs before and after induction of differentiation into hepatocyte (i-Heps. Induction of hUCMSCs to become i-Heps was achieved by treatment of the cells with a group of growth factors within 4 weeks. The resulted i-Heps exhibited a panel of human hepatocyte biomarkers including cytokeratin (hCK-18, α-fetoprotein (hAFP, albumin (hALB, and hepatocyte-specific functions glycogen storage and urea metabolism. We demonstrated that transplantation of both cell types through tail vein injection rescued almost all of the Gal/LPS-intoxicated mice. Although both cell types exhibited similar ability in homing at the mouse livers, the populations of the hUCMSCs-derived cells, as judged by expressing hAFP, hCK-18 and human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF, were small. These observations let us to conclude that the hUCMSCs was as effective as the i-Heps in treatment of the mouse acute liver failure, and that the therapeutic effects of hUCMSCs were mediated largely via stimulation of host hepatocyte regeneration, and that delivery of the cells through intravenous injection was effective.

  1. TRAIL-secreting mesenchymal stem cells promote apoptosis in heat-shock-treated liver cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Q; Zhang, Z; Feng, X; Li, T; Liu, N; Lai, J; Shuai, L; Xiong, Q; Fu, C; Zou, H; Wang, Y; Li, X; Ma, K; Bie, P

    2014-03-01

    Liver cancer is one of the top six leading causes of cancer-related death. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an important means of treating liver cancer. Residual cancer after RFA is the most frequent cause of recurrence in cases of liver cancer. The main difference between residual cancer cells and ordinary liver cancer cells is that residual cancer cells experience heat shock. The secretable form of trimeric human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (stTRAIL) induces apoptosis in a variety of human cancers but not in normal tissues. It has shown potent cancer-selective killing activity and has drawn considerable attention as a possible cancer therapy. In the present work, the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy was evaluated in hepatocellular carcinoma subjected to RFA. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were isolated and transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding stTRAIL (stTRAIL-MSCs, T-MSCs). Cells treated with heat treatment at 43 °C for 45 min served as simulated residual cancer cells. After treatment with T-MSCs, apoptosis in heat-shock-treated liver cancer cells increased significantly, and caspase-3 was upregulated. When T-MSCs were subcutaneously injected into nude mice, they localized to the tumors and inhibited tumor growth, significantly increasing survival. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that BM-MSC can provide a steady source of stTRAIL and may be suitable for use in the prevention of the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after RFA with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

  2. Endothelial protein C receptor-expressing hematopoietic stem cells reside in the perisinusoidal niche in fetal liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hiroko; Arai, Fumio; Kubota, Yoshiaki; Dahl, Maria; Suda, Toshio

    2010-07-29

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in specialized niches in adult bone marrow. However, niche and HSC maintenance mechanism in fetal liver (FL) still remains unclear. Here, we investigated the niche and the molecular mechanism of HSC maintenance in mouse FL using HSCs expressing endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR). The antiapoptotic effect of activated protein C (APC) on EPCR(+) HSCs and the expression of protease-activated receptor 1 (Par-1) mRNA in these cells suggested the involvement of the cytoprotective APC/EPCR/Par-1 pathway in HSC maintenance. Immunohistochemistry revealed that EPCR(+) cells were localized adjacent to, or integrated in, the Lyve-1(+) sinusoidal network, where APC and extracellular matrix (ECM) are abundant, suggesting that HSCs in FL were maintained in the APC- and ECM-rich perisinusoidal niche. EPCR(+) HSCs were in a relatively slow cycling state, consistent with their high expression levels of p57 and p18. Furthermore, the long-term reconstitution activity of EPCR(+) HSCs decreased significantly after short culture but not when cocultured with feeder layer of FL-derived Lyve-1(+) cells, which suggests that the maintenance of the self-renewal activity of FL HSCs largely depended on the interaction with the perisinusoidal niche. In conclusion, EPCR(+) HSCs resided in the perisinusoidal niche in mouse FL.

  3. Synergistic inhibition of characteristics of liver cancer stem-like cells with a combination of sorafenib and 8-bromo-7-methoxychrysin in SMMC-7721 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui; Cao, Xiaozheng; Xiao, Qiao; Sheng, Xifeng; Ren, Kaiqun; Quan, Meifang; Song, Zhengwei; Li, Duo; Zheng, Yu; Zeng, Wenbin; Cao, Jianguo; Peng, Yaojin

    2016-09-01

    Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, has shown its promising antitumor effect in a series of clinical trials, and has been approved as the current standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 8-Bromo‑7-methoxychrysin (BrMC) is a novel chrysin synthetic analogue that has been reported to inhibit the growth of various tumor cells and possess properties for targeting liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) . The present study investigated the synergistic targeting effects on the properties of liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSLCs) by a combination of sorafenib and BrMC in SMMC-7721 cell line. We also investigated whether this effect involves regulation of HIF-1α, Twist and NF-κB protein. We found that the sphere-forming cells (SFCs) from the SMMC‑7721 cells possessed the properties of LCSLCs. Sorafenib diminished the self-renewal capacity and downregulated the expression of stem cell biomarkers (CD133, CD44 and ALDH1) in a dose-dependent manner, while BrMC cooperated with sorafenib to strengthen this inhibition. Moreover, the combination of sorafenib and BrMC led to a remarkable decrease in the cellular migration and invasion, the downregulation of N-cadherin protein and upregulation of E-cadherin protein, and increase of cell apoptosis in LCSLCs. BrMC has a remarkable antagonistic effect on the upregulation of protein expression and DNA binding activity of NF-κB (p65) induced by sorafenib. In addition, our results indicated that the synergistic inhibition of sorafenib and BrMC on the characteristics of LCSLCs involves the downregulated expression of HIF-1α and EMT regulator Twist1. Collectively, the combination therapy of sorafenib and BrMC could be a new and promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of HCC.

  4. Delayed immune recovery following sequential orthotopic liver transplantation and haploidentical stem cell transplantation in erythropoietic protoporphyria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiers, Frans J.; Van de Vijver, Els; Delsing, Bas J. P.; Lankester, Arjan C.; Ball, Lynne M.; Rings, Edmund H. H. M.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Bredius, Robbert G. M.

    2010-01-01

    A nine-yr-old boy with EPP suffered from severe skin burns and liver failure caused by progressive cholestasis and fibrosis. OLT was performed without major complications. Four months following liver transplantation he underwent parental haploidentical HSCT. The myeloablative conditioning regimen wa

  5. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction-mediated downregulation of CD133 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness and migratory ability of liver cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Min; Li, Xuan-Fei; Liu, Hao; Wu, Xiao-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive disease with a poor outcome due to the high incidence of metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified to be responsible for tumor progression and may be generated by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics. CD133 is a specific surface marker for liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs), which is also considered as an important functional factor for tumorigenesis and overall survival in HCC. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has recently been used as a novel, safe and effective gene transfection technology. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of CD133 and EMT in LCSCs and whether the UTMD-based shRNA delivery system facilitated gene delivery in LCSCs. In the present study, CD133+ cells were isolated from the SMMC-7721 HCC cell line and then transfected with shCD133 mediated by UTMD and liposomes, respectively. Compared to the liposomes group, the UTMD group resulted in significantly improved transfection efficiency. The downregulation of CD133 reversed the EMT program, attenuated self-renewal, proliferation and migration of CD133+ LCSCs and suppressed the growth of CSC tumor xenografts. Additionally, the downregulation of CD133 led to downregulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. The present study demonstrated that CD133 plays a critical role in the regulation of the EMT process, tumor-initiating properties and migratory ability of LCSCs. The UTMD technique targeted for CD133 downregulation may be examined as a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC.

  6. Impact of stem cell marker expression on recurrence of TACE-treated hepatocellular carcinoma post liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver transplantation is the most effective therapy for cirrhosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC but its utility is limited by post-transplant tumor recurrence. Use of the Milan, size-based criteria, has reduced recurrence rate to less than 10% but many patients remain ineligible. Reduction of tumor size with local therapies has been used to “downstage” patients to allow them to qualify for transplantation, but the optimal criteria to predict tumor recurrence in these latter patients has not been established. The existence of a progenitor cell population, sometimes called cancer stem cells (CSCs, has been proposed to be one mechanism accounting for the chemotherapy resistance and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine if transcatheter arterial chemoemolization (TACE treated tumors have increased CSC marker expression and whether these markers could be used to predict tumor recurrence. Methods Formalin fixed specimens were obtained from 39 HCC liver explants (23 with no treatment and 16 after TACE. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for EpCAM, CD44, CD90, and CD133. Staining for each marker was scored 0–3 by evaluating the number and intensity of positive tumor cells in 5 hpf of tumor in each specimen. Results TACE treated tumors displayed greater necrosis and fibrosis than non-TACE treated samples but there were no differences in morphology between the viable tumor cells of both groups. In TACE treated specimens, the staining of both EpCAM and CD133 was greater than in non-TACE specimens but CD44 and CD90 were the same. In the TACE group, the presence of high EpCAM staining was associated with tumor recurrence. Four of ten EpCAM high patients recurred while 0 of 6 EpCAM low patients recurred (P = 0.040. None of the other markers predicted recurrence. Conclusion High pre-transplant EpCAM staining predicted HCC recurrence. This suggests that the abundance of

  7. ATF4 plays a pivotal role in the development of functional hematopoietic stem cells in mouse fetal liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunze; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Dan; Dong, Fang; Cheng, Hui; Wang, Weili; Pang, Yakun; Wang, Yajie; Mu, Xiaohuan; Ni, Yanli; Li, Zhuan; Xu, Huiyu; Hao, Sha; Wang, Xiaochen; Ma, Shihui; Wang, Qian-fei; Xiao, Guozhi; Yuan, Weiping; Liu, Bing; Cheng, Tao

    2015-11-19

    The fetal liver (FL) serves as a predominant site for expansion of functional hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during mouse embryogenesis. However, the mechanisms for HSC development in FL remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) significantly impaired hematopoietic development and reduced HSC self-renewal in FL. In contrast, generation of the first HSC population in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region was not affected. The migration activity of ATF4(-/-) HSCs was moderately reduced. Interestingly, the HSC-supporting ability of both endothelial and stromal cells in FL was significantly compromised in the absence of ATF4. Gene profiling using RNA-seq revealed downregulated expression of a panel of cytokines in ATF4(-/-) stromal cells, including angiopoietin-like protein 3 (Angptl3) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Addition of Angptl3, but not VEGFA, partially rescued the repopulating defect of ATF4(-/-) HSCs in the culture. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay in conjunction with silencing RNA-mediated silencing and complementary DNA overexpression showed transcriptional control of Angptl3 by ATF4. To summarize, ATF4 plays a pivotal role in functional expansion and repopulating efficiency of HSCs in developing FL, and it acts through upregulating transcription of cytokines such as Angptl3 in the microenvironment.

  8. Future of liver transplantation: Non-human primates for patient-specific organs from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhusudana Girija Sanal

    2011-01-01

    Strategies to fill the huge gap in supply versus demand of human organs include bioartificial organs, growing humanized organs in animals, cell therapy, and im-plantable bioengineered constructs. Reproducing the complex relations between different cell types, gen-eration of adequate vasculature, and immunological complications are road blocks in generation of bioengi-neered organs, while immunological complications limit the use of humanized organs produced in animals. Recent developments in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) biology offer a possibility of generating human, patient-specific organs in non-human primates (NHP) using patient-derived iPSC and NHP-derived iPSC lack-ing the critical developmental genes for the organ of interest complementing a NHP tetraploid embryo. The organ derived in this way will have the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile as the patient. This ap-proach can be curative in genetic disorders as this of-fers the possibility of gene manipulation and correction of the patient's genome at the iPSC stage before tet-raploid complementation. The process of generation of patient-specific organs such as the liver in this way has the great advantage of making use of the natural sig-naling cascades in the natural milieu probably resulting in organs of great quality for transplantation. However, the inexorable scientific developments in this direction involve several social issues and hence we need to educate and prepare society in advance to accept the revolutionary consequences, good, bad and ugly.

  9. Future of liver transplantation: non-human primates for patient-specific organs from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2011-08-28

    Strategies to fill the huge gap in supply versus demand of human organs include bioartificial organs, growing humanized organs in animals, cell therapy, and implantable bioengineered constructs. Reproducing the complex relations between different cell types, generation of adequate vasculature, and immunological complications are road blocks in generation of bioengineered organs, while immunological complications limit the use of humanized organs produced in animals. Recent developments in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) biology offer a possibility of generating human, patient-specific organs in non-human primates (NHP) using patient-derived iPSC and NHP-derived iPSC lacking the critical developmental genes for the organ of interest complementing a NHP tetraploid embryo. The organ derived in this way will have the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile as the patient. This approach can be curative in genetic disorders as this offers the possibility of gene manipulation and correction of the patient's genome at the iPSC stage before tetraploid complementation. The process of generation of patient-specific organs such as the liver in this way has the great advantage of making use of the natural signaling cascades in the natural milieu probably resulting in organs of great quality for transplantation. However, the inexorable scientific developments in this direction involve several social issues and hence we need to educate and prepare society in advance to accept the revolutionary consequences, good, bad and ugly.

  10. Several important in vitro improvements in the amplification, differentiation and tracing of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-hui Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We previously isolated fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPCs, but there is an urgent need to properly amplify FLSPCs, effectively induce FLSPCs differentiation, and steadily trace FLSPCs for in vivo therapeutic investigation. METHODS: FLSPCs were maintained in vitro as adherent culture or soft agar culture for large-scale amplification. To direct the differentiation of FLSPCs into hepatocytes, FLSPCs were randomly divided into four groups: control, 1% DMSO-treated, 20 ng/ml HGF-treated and 1% DMSO+20 ng/ml HGF-treated. To trace FLSPCs, the GFP gene was introduced into FLSPCs by liposome-mediated transfection. RESULTS: For amplifying FLSPCs, the soft agar culture were more suitable than the adherent culture, because the soft agar culture obtained more homogeneous cells. These cells were with high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, few cell organelles, high expression of CD90.1 and CD49f, and strong alkaline phosphatase staining. For inducing FLSPCs differentiation, treatment with HGF+DMSO was most effective (P<0.05, which was strongly supported by the typical morphological change and the significant decrease of OV-6 positive cells (P<0.01. In addition, the time of indocyanine green elimination, the percentage of glycogen synthetic cells, and the expressions of ALB, G-6-P, CK-8, CK-18 and CYP450-3A1 in HGF+DMSO-treated group were higher than in any other group. For tracing FLSPCs, after the selection of stable FLSPC transfectants, GFP expression continued over successive generations. CONCLUSIONS: FLSPCs can properly self-renew in soft agar culture and effectively differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells by HGF+DMSO induction, and they can be reliably traced by GFP expression.

  11. Directed hepatic differentiation from embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuesong; Zeng, Fanyi

    2011-01-01

    The liver is the largest internal organ in mammals, and is important for the maintenance of normal physiological functions of other tissues and organs. Hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and other chronic liver diseases are serious threats to human health, and these problems are compounded by a scarcity of liver donors for transplantation therapies. Directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells to liver cells is a promising strategy for obtaining hepatocytes that can be used for cell trans...

  12. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells transplantation via portal vein improves microcirculation and ameliorates liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs, carrying the similar characteristics to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, only much more abundant and easier to obtain, may be a promising treatment for liver fibrosis. We aim to investigate the therapeutic potential of ADMSCs transplantation in liver fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats as well as its underlying mechanism, and to further explore the appropriate infusion pathway. Methods ADMSCs were isolated, cultured and identified. Placebo and ADMSCs were transplanted via portal vein and tail vein respectively into carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis rats. Computed tomography (CT perfusion scan and microvessel counts were performed to measure the alteration of liver microcirculation after therapy. Liver function tests and histological findings were estimated. Results CT perfusion scan shown significant decrease of hepatic arterial perfusion index, significant increased portal vein perfusion, total liver perfusion in rats receiving ADMSCs from portal vein, and Factor VIII (FVIII immunohistochemical staining shown significant decrease of microvessels in rats receiving ADMSCs from portal vein, indicating microcirculation improvement in portal vein group. Vascular endothelial growth Factor (VEGF was significantly up-regulated in fibrosis models, and decreased after ADMSCs intraportal transplantation. A significant improvement of liver functional test and histological findings in portal vein group were observed. No significance was found in rats receiving ADMSCs from tail vein. Conclusions ADMSCs have a therapeutic effect against CCl4-mediated liver fibrosis. ADMSCs may benefit the fibrotic liver through alteration of microcirculation, evidenced by CT perfusion scan and down-regulation of VEGF. Intraportal transplantation is a better pathway than tail vein transplantation.

  13. Characteristics of adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Manuel A; Bernad, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their unlimited ability to divide specifically; a stem cell is capable of making an immense number of copies of itself, maintaining the same characteristics. Moreover, these cells are able to generate several of the cell lineages which make up the body, including cells from the heart, liver, kidney, neurons, and muscles. Investigation of the mechanisms through which this differentiation occurs, the genes involved and the possibility of increasing the efficiency with which stem cells can be isolated and/or characterized are currently among the most important fields in biology and biomedicine.To date, stems cells have been identified from four different sources: Embryonic stem cells (ESC), germinal stem cells, and those derived from embryonic carcinomas (teratocarcinomas) and from somatic tissues (somatic stem cells). The latter are called adult stem cells (ASC) when they are found in postnatal tissues. We now know that there is a great diversity among ASC, with some tissues, such as the bone marrow, containing more than one type of ASC. Adult stem cells have several characteristics that make them to be the main players in current regenerative medicine and are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for a wide variety of diseases. Specifically, HSC and MSC are being assessed in increasing numbers of clinical trials.

  14. Identification of Cancer Stem Cell Subpopulations of CD34+ PLC/PRF/5 That Result in Three Types of Human Liver Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Cheol; Nguyen, Ngoc Tue; Eun, Jong Ryeol; Zhang, Yanling; Jung, Yong Jin; Tschudy-Seney, Benjamin; Trotsyuk, Artem; Lam, Alexander; Ramsamooj, Rajendra; Zhang, Yanghong; Theise, Neil D.; Zern, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    CD34+ stem cells play an important role during liver development and regeneration. Thus, we hypothesized that some human liver carcinomas (HLCs) might be derived from transformed CD34+ stem cells. Here, we determined that a population of CD34+ cells isolated from PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells (PLC) appears to function as liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) by forming HLCs in immunodeficient mice with as few as 100 cells. Moreover, the CD34+ PLC subpopulation cells had an advantage over CD34− PLCs at initiating tumors. Three types of HLCs were generated from CD34+ PLC: hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs); cholangiocarcinomas (CC); and combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinomas (CHCs). Tumors formed in mice transplanted with 12 subpopulations and 6 progeny subpopulations of CD34+ PLC cells. Interestingly, progenies with certain surface antigens (CD133, CD44, CD90, or EPCAM) predominantly yielded HCCs. CD34+ PLCs that also expressed OV6 and their progeny OV6+ cells primarily produced CHC and CC. This represents the first experiment to demonstrate that the OV6+ antigen is associated with human CHC and CC. CD34+ PLCs that also expressed CD31 and their progeny CD31+ cells formed CHCs. Gene expression patterns and tumor cell populations from all xenografts exhibited diverse patterns, indicating that tumor-initiating cells (TICs) with distinct antigenic profiles contribute to cancer cell heterogeneity. Therefore, we identified CD34+ PLC cells functioning as LCSCs generating three types of HLCs. Eighteen subpopulations from one origin had the capacity independently to initiate tumors, thus functioning as TICs. This finding has broad implications for better understanding of the multistep model of tumor initiation and progression. Our finding also indicates that CD34+ PLCs that also express OV6 or CD31 result in types of HLCs. This is the first report that PLC/PRF/5 subpopulations expressing CD34 in combination with particular antigens defines categories of HLCs, implicating a

  15. Identification of cancer stem cell subpopulations of CD34(+) PLC/PRF/5 that result in three types of human liver carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Cheol; Nguyen, Ngoc Tue; Eun, Jong Ryeol; Zhang, Yanling; Jung, Yong Jin; Tschudy-Seney, Benjamin; Trotsyuk, Artem; Lam, Alexander; Ramsamooj, Rajendra; Zhang, Yanghong; Theise, Neil D; Zern, Mark A; Duan, Yuyou

    2015-04-15

    CD34(+) stem cells play an important role during liver development and regeneration. Thus, we hypothesized that some human liver carcinomas (HLCs) might be derived from transformed CD34(+) stem cells. Here, we determined that a population of CD34(+) cells isolated from PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells (PLC) appears to function as liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) by forming HLCs in immunodeficient mice with as few as 100 cells. Moreover, the CD34(+) PLC subpopulation cells had an advantage over CD34(-) PLCs at initiating tumors. Three types of HLCs were generated from CD34(+) PLC: hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs); cholangiocarcinomas (CC); and combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinomas (CHCs). Tumors formed in mice transplanted with 12 subpopulations and 6 progeny subpopulations of CD34(+) PLC cells. Interestingly, progenies with certain surface antigens (CD133, CD44, CD90, or EPCAM) predominantly yielded HCCs. CD34(+) PLCs that also expressed OV6 and their progeny OV6(+) cells primarily produced CHC and CC. This represents the first experiment to demonstrate that the OV6(+) antigen is associated with human CHC and CC. CD34(+) PLCs that also expressed CD31 and their progeny CD31(+) cells formed CHCs. Gene expression patterns and tumor cell populations from all xenografts exhibited diverse patterns, indicating that tumor-initiating cells (TICs) with distinct antigenic profiles contribute to cancer cell heterogeneity. Therefore, we identified CD34(+) PLC cells functioning as LCSCs generating three types of HLCs. Eighteen subpopulations from one origin had the capacity independently to initiate tumors, thus functioning as TICs. This finding has broad implications for better understanding of the multistep model of tumor initiation and progression. Our finding also indicates that CD34(+) PLCs that also express OV6 or CD31 result in types of HLCs. This is the first report that PLC/PRF/5 subpopulations expressing CD34 in combination with particular antigens defines categories of

  16. Regulation of alternative macrophage activation in the liver following acetaminophen intoxication by stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Carol R., E-mail: cgardner@pharmacy.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hankey, Pamela [Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mishin, Vladimir; Francis, Mary [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Yu, Shan [Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase (STK) is a transmembrane receptor reported to play a role in macrophage switching from a classically activated/proinflammatory phenotype to an alternatively activated/wound repair phenotype. In the present studies, STK{sup −/−} mice were used to assess the role of STK in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity as evidence suggests that the pathogenic process involves both of these macrophage subpopulations. In wild type mice, centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminase levels were observed within 6 h of acetaminophen administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Loss of STK resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity of mice to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen and increased mortality, effects independent of its metabolism. This was associated with reduced levels of hepatic glutathione, rapid upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and prolonged induction of heme oxygenase-1, suggesting excessive oxidative stress in STK{sup −/−} mice. F4/80, a marker of mature macrophages, was highly expressed on subpopulations of Kupffer cells in livers of wild type, but not STK{sup −/−} mice. Whereas F4/80{sup +} macrophages rapidly declined in the livers of wild type mice following acetaminophen intoxication, they increased in STK{sup −/−} mice. In wild type mice hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, products of classically activated macrophages, increased after acetaminophen administration. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor, CCR2, as well as IL-10, mediators involved in recruiting and activating anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages, also increased in wild type mice after acetaminophen. Loss of STK blunted the effects of acetaminophen on expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, MCP-1 and CCR2, while expression of IL-10 increased. Hepatic expression of CX3CL1, and its receptor, CX3CR1 also increased in STK{sup −/−} mice

  17. Growth and Development Symposium: Development, characterization, and use of a porcine epiblast-derived liver stem cell line: ARS-PICM-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, N C; Caperna, T J; Garrett, W M

    2013-01-01

    Totipotent embryonic stem cell lines have not been established from ungulates; however, we have developed a somatic stem cell line from the in vitro culture of pig epiblast cells. The cell line, ARS-PICM-19, was isolated via colony cloning and was found to spontaneously differentiate into hepatic parenchymal epithelial cell types, namely hepatocytes and bile duct cells. Hepatocytes form as monolayers and bile duct cells as 3-dimensional bile ductules. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the ductules were composed of radially arranged, monociliated cells with their cilia projecting into the lumen of the ductule whereas hepatocytes were arranged in monolayers with lateral canalicular structures containing numerous microvilli and connected by tight junctions and desmosomes. Extensive Golgi and rough endoplasmic reticulum networks were also present, indicative of active protein synthesis. Analysis of conditioned medium by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry indicated a spectrum of serum-protein secretion by the hepatocytes. The PICM-19 cell line maintains a range of inducible cytochrome P450 activities and, most notably, is the only nontransformed cell line that synthesizes urea in response to ammonia challenge. The PICM-19 cell line has been used for several biomedical- and agricultural-related purposes, such as the in vitro replication of hepatitis E virus, a zoonotic virus of pigs, and a spaceflight experiment to evaluate somatic stem cell differentiation and liver cell function in microgravity. The cell line was also evaluated as a platform for toxicity testing and has been used in a commercial artificial liver rescue device bioreactor. A PICM-19 subclone, PICM-19H, which only differentiates into hepatocytes, was isolated and methods are currently under development to grow PICM-19 cells without feeder cells. Feeder-cell-independent growth will facilitate the study of mesenchymal-parenchymal interactions that influence the divergent

  18. Effect of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on portal hemodynamics in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Jianzhong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo observe the effect of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs on the portal hemodynamics in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis. Methods Forty-six patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis, who were admitted to the hospital from February 2011 to January 2012, were divided into treatment group (n=23 and control group (n=23. There were no significant differences in sex, age, diagnosis, biochemical parameters, and imaging findings between the two groups. All patients provided informed consent prior to treatment. Both groups received antiviral, liver-protecting, and diuretic treatment. In addition, in the treatment group, bone marrow (200 ml was drawn from each patient, BMMSCs were isolated, purified, and cultured, and the cultured cells were processed into cell suspension (10 ml; the cell suspension was injected into the liver via the hepatic artery. After 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, the changes in portal hemodynamic parameters were evaluated. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 software; the paired t test was used for within-group comparisons. ResultsAfter 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, in the treatment group, the diameter of portal vein (DPV was significantly decreased to 13.26±1.31 mm (t=2.290, P<0.05 and 12.83±138 mm (t=3.421, P<0.01, and the diameter of splenic vein (DSV was significantly decreased to 8.39±1.38 mm (t=2.079, P<0.05 and 8.02±1.24 mm (t=2.787, P<0.01; compared with the control group, the treatment group had significantly lower DPV (t=2.382, P<0.05; t=2.602, P<0.05 and DSV (t=3.236, P<0.01; t=4.185, P<0.01. After 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, in the treatment group, the portal vein maximum velocity (PVX was significantly increased to 2072±463 cm/s (t=2.833, P<0.01 and 2058±346 cm/s (t=3.198, P<0.01; compared with the control group, the treatment group had significantly higher PVX (t=2.530, P<0.05; t=3

  19. Busulfan and cyclosphamide induce liver inflammation through NLRP3 activation in mice after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianlin; Huang, Yujin; Xia, Yuan; Chu, Peipei; Yao, Haina; Xu, Linyan; Qi, Kunming; Liu, Yun; Xu, Kailin; Zeng, Lingyu

    2015-12-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NLRP3 inflammasome on BU/CY-induced liver inflammation in mice after HSCT. HSCT mice model was established through infusion of 5 × 10(6) bone marrow mononuclear cells after conditioned with BU/CY. On day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after HSCT, mice were sacrificed for analysis of liver inflammation, cytokine secretion, NLRP3 expression and caspase-1 activation as well as release of ATP and high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1). Furthermore, NLRP3 selective inhibitor (BAY 11-7082) was administrated into mice after HSCT to evaluate its effects on liver inflammation. Severe liver inflammation and damage with elevated secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 were found in mice after HSCT. Meanwhile, elevated expressions of NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation in liver were found. In addition, increased release of ATP and HMGB1 were observed. Selective inhibition of NLRP3 decreased caspase-1 activation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18. Furthermore, NLRP3 inhibition also reduced infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils and improved liver function. In conclusion, NLRP3 was involved in BU/CY-induced liver inflammation after HSCT and selectively inhibited it ameliorated liver inflammation and improved liver function, suggesting targeting NLRP3 might be a new approach in the prophylaxis of liver inflammation after HSCT.

  20. Development, characterization and use of a porcine epiblast-derived liver stem cell line: ARS-PICM-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totipotent embryonic stem cell lines have not been established from ungulates, however, we have developed several somatic cell lines from the in vitro culture of pig epiblast cells. One such cell line, PICM-19, was isolated via colony-cloning and was found to spontaneously differentiate into hepati...

  1. Hepatic stem cells: existence and origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Xue-Fan Bai; Chang-Xing Huang

    2003-01-01

    Stem cells are not only units of biological organization,responsible for the development and the regeneration oftissue and organ systems, but also are units in evolution bynatural selection. It is accepted that there is stem cellpotential in the liver. Like most organs in a healthy adult,the liver maintains a perfect balance between cell gain andloss. It has three levels of cells that can respond to loss ofhepatocytes: (1) Mature hepatocytes, which proliferate afternormal liver tissue renewal, less severe liver damage, etc;they are numerous, unipotent, "committed" and respondrapidly to liver injury. (2) Oval cells, which are activated toproliferate when the liver damage is extensive and chronic,or if proliferation of hepatocytes is inhibited; they lie withinor immediately adjacent tothe canal of Hering (CoH); theyare less numerous, bipotent and respond by longer, but stilllimited proliferation. (3) Exogenous liver stem cells, whichmay derive from circulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)or bone marrow stem cells; they respond to allyl alcoholinjury or hepatocarcinogenesis; they are multipotent, rare,but have a very long proliferation potential. They make amore significant contribution to regeneration, and evencompletely restore normal function in a murine model ofhereditary tyrosinaemia. How these three stem cellpopulations integrate to achieve a homeostatic balanceremains enigmatic. This review focuses on the location,activation, markers of the three candidates of liver stemcell, and the most importantly, therapeutic potential ofhepatic stem cells.

  2. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, Riccardo; Zama, Daniele; Gasperini, Pietro; Morello, William; Prete, Arcangelo; Colecchia, Antonio; Festi, Davide; Pession, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    FNH is a non-malignant neoplasia of the liver rarely described in children. A significant percentage of the pediatric cases have been reported in patients with a history of malignant disease treated with chemo-radiation therapy and in children who were given HSCT. Little is known about the pathogenesis of FNH in transplanted children, but many risk factors linked to the HSCT procedure have been hypothesized. The detection of hepatic nodules, particularly in children who underwent HSCT for a previous malignancy, always raises a diagnostic dilemma. To help the physicians in the diagnostic management of this rare entity, we have retrospectively evaluated a series of transplanted children diagnosed with FNH in our Center over the last 15 yr. In this period, we found 10 new diagnoses of FNH. The diagnostic work-up included CEUS, abdominal CT, and MRI. A liver biopsy was performed in two patients. The median FUP time after diagnosing FNH was 3.8 yr, with an abdominal US and no malignant transformation were observed. Possible risk factors and indications for the management of FNH in transplanted children are reported and discussed in a comprehensive review of the literature.

  3. Bone mesenchymal stem cell transplantation via four routes for the treatment of acute liver failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihua; Fan, Xiaotang; Zhang, Lijuan; Shi, Guixiu; Aili, Maimaiti; Lu, Xiaobo; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Yuexin

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the efficiency of four BMSC transplantation methods as a therapy for liver failure. A rat model (80 Sprague-Dawley rats) of D-galactosamine (D-gal)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) was established and the rats were divided into 5 groups: a hepatic artery injection group, a portal vein injection group, a vena caudalis injection group, an intraperitoneal injection group and a control group (16 per group). Following transplantation, the liver tissue and blood samples were collected on days 1, 3 and 7, we detected the EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine)-labeled cells homing to the liver tissue and assessed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cysteine-containing aspartate-specific protease (caspase)-3 expression in the liver tissue and detected the levels of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the liver tissues. Compared with the control group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and damage to the liver tissue in the hepatic artery group, the portal vein group and the vena caudalis group improved in vivo. The expression of PCNA and HGF in the liver was higher and caspase-3 expression was lower in the hepatic artery injection group, the portal vein injection group and the vena caudalis injection group than that in the intraperitoneal injection and control groups. The EdU-labeled BMSCs were only observed homing to the liver tissue in these three groups. However, no significant differences were observed between these three groups. Liver function in the rats with ALF was improved following BMSC transplantation via 3 endovascular implantation methods (through the hepatic artery, portal vein and vena caudalis). These 3 methods were effective in transplanting BMSCs for the treatment of ALF. However, the selection of blood vessel in the implantation pathway does not affect the transplantation outcome. Transplantation via

  4. Preclinical evaluation of 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate on liver cancer and cancer stem cells with different p53 status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lamy

    Full Text Available Isothiocyanates from plants of the order Brassicales are considered promising cancer chemotherapeutic phytochemicals. However, their selective cytotoxicity on liver cancer has been barely researched. Therefore, in the present study, we systematically studied the chemotherapeutic potency of 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC. Selective toxicity was investigated by comparing its effect on liver cancer cells and their chemoresistant subpopulations to normal primary hepatocytes and liver tissue slices. Additionally, in a first assessment, the in vivo tolerability of MTBITC was investigated in mice. Growth arrest at G2/M and apoptosis induction was evident in all in vitro cancer models treated with MTBITC, including populations with cancer initiating characteristics. This was found independent from TP53; however cell death was delayed in p53 compromised cells as compared to wt-p53 cells which was probably due to differential BH3 only gene regulation i. e. Noxa and its antagonist A1. In normal hepatocytes, no apoptosis or necrosis could be detected after repeated administration of up to 50 µM MTBITC. In mice, orally applied MTBITC was well tolerated over 18 days of treatment for up to 50 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, we could show here that the killing effect of MTBITC has a definite selectivity for cancer cells over normal liver cells and its cytotoxicity even applies for chemoresistant cancer initiating cells. Our study could serve for a better understanding of the chemotherapeutic properties of isothiocyanates on human liver-derived cancer cells.

  5. Long non-coding RNA regulation of liver cancer stem cell self-renewal offers new therapeutic targeting opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasramka, Mansi A.

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) are critical regulators of gene expression, and can reprogram the transcriptome to modulate cellular processes involved in cellular growth and differentiation, and thereby contribute to tumorigenesis. In addition to effects on tumor cell growth, survival and cell signaling, lncRNA can modulate cancer stem cell (CSC) behavior, including the expression of pluripotency factors. The identification of lncRNA that are mechanistically linked to cancer stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, or aberrant signaling pathways associated with tumor growth or progression, offer new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27358893

  6. Advances in studies on hepatic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The question whether hepatic stem cells exist or not has been debated for several decades. Current researches confirm that there are hepatic stem cells in the liver. Oval cells, putative bipotential hepatic stem cells, are probably located within canals of Hering, portal tracts or branches of biliary trees. Bone marrow is a potential source of oval cells, indicating that there exists a close relationship between liver and hematopoiesis in adulthood. Hepatic stem cells are able to proliferate in vitro and can be induced to differentiate into hepatocytes. This will provide a promising approach of cell transplantation, tissue engineering and gene therapy for liver diseases. In this review, the evidence of their presence, origin, identification, proliferation in vitro, differentiation by induction, application prospects of hepatic stem cells and future directions for the field are discussed.

  7. Promoting the selection and maintenance of fetal liver stem/progenitor cell colonies by layer-by-layer polypeptide tethered supported lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Chi; Liu, Yung-Chiang; Tsai, Hsuan-Ang; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2014-12-10

    In this study, we designed and constructed a series of layer-by-layer polypeptide adsorbed supported lipid bilayer (SLB) films as a novel and label-free platform for the isolation and maintenance of rare populated stem cells. In particular, four alternative layers of anionic poly-l-glutamic acid and cationic poly-l-lysine were sequentially deposited on an anionic SLB. We found that the fetal liver stem/progenitor cells from the primary culture were selected and formed colonies on all layer-by-layer polypeptide adsorbed SLB surfaces, regardless of the number of alternative layers and the net charges on those layers. Interestingly, these isolated stem/progenitor cells formed colonies which were maintained for an 8 day observation period. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation measurements showed that all SLB-polypeptide films were protein resistant with serum levels significantly lower than those on the polypeptide multilayer films without an underlying SLB. We suggest the fluidic SLB promotes selective binding while minimizing the cell-surface interaction due to its nonfouling nature, thus limiting stem cell colonies from spreading.

  8. Gene expression profiling of MYC-driven tumor signatures in porcine liver stem cells by transcriptome sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is now well-established that cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive tumor growth and that the cancer gene, c-Myc, plays a critical role in converting cells to CSCs. However, little is known about the genes that are induced and regulated by c-Myc to generate tumors, and, in particular, tumors of the live...

  9. Measurement of liver iron concentration by superconducting quantum interference device biomagnetic liver susceptometry validates serum ferritin as prognostic parameter for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Nicole; Herich, Lena

    2016-10-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the role of serum ferritin (SF) as surrogate parameter for iron overload as an independent prognostic factor for outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) biomagnetic liver susceptometry, a noninvasive measurement of iron overload, allows measurement of the interference of an exteriorly applied small but highly constant magnetic field by the paramagnetic liver storage iron. By measuring the true iron load of patients through SQUID, we wanted to assess the effect of iron overload on patients undergoing SCT. We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis (1994-2010), comparing the effect of SF and liver iron content measured by SQUID shortly before transplantation on overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and transplant-related mortality (TRM) in 142 patients (median age 54.5 yr, range 5.6-75 yr) undergoing SCT (80% reduced intensity regimen). Patients were subdivided into five groups: myelodysplastic syndrome, de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), secondary AML, primary myelofibrosis, and others. Correlation between SF and SQUID was significant (r = 0.6; P 1000 ng/mL (P = 0.003). A significant association between SQUID and fungal infection was also seen (P = 0.004). For patients with SQUID ≥1000, the risk of proven fungal infection was increased 3.08-fold (95% CI 1.43-6.63). A similar association between SF >1000 and fungal infection was shown (P = 0.01). In univariate analysis, age was a prognostic factor for TRM (P = 0.034, HR 1.04, CI 1.00-1.08). SF ≥1000 was associated with OS (P = 0.033, HR 2.09, CI 1.06-4.11) and EFS (P = 0.016, HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.15-4.10). In multivariate analysis on EFS, only age and SF >1000 remained as independent factors (HR 1.027, P = 0.040, 95% CI 1.001-1.054 and HR 2.058, P = 0.034, 95% CI 1.056-4.008, respectively). The multivariate analysis on TRM left age and SQUID values ≥1000 in the final model (HR 1.045, P

  10. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... here Home » Glossary Back to top Glossary Adult stem cell Astrocyte Blastocoel Blastocyst Bone marrow stromal cells Bone ...

  11. Long-term reproducible expression in human fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells with a UCOE-based lentiviral vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraja Dighe

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC targeted gene transfer is an attractive treatment option for a number of hematopoietic disorders caused by single gene defects. However, extensive methylation of promoter sequences results in silencing of therapeutic gene expression. The choice of an appropriate promoter is therefore crucial for reproducible, stable and long-term transgene expression in clinical gene therapy. Recent studies suggest efficient and stable expression of transgenes from the ubiquitous chromatin opening element (UCOE derived from the human HNRPA2B1-CBX3 locus can be achieved in murine HSC. Here, we compared the use of HNRPA2B1-CBX3 UCOE (A2UCOE-mediated transgene regulation to two other frequently used promoters namely EF1α and PGK in human fetal liver-derived HSC (hflHSC. Efficient transduction of hflHSC with a lentiviral vector containing an HNRPA2B1-CBX3 UCOE-eGFP (A2UCOE-eGFP cassette was achieved at higher levels than that obtained with umbilical cord blood derived HSC (3.1x; p<0.001. While hflHSC were readily transduced with all three test vectors (A2UCOE-eGFP, PGK-eGFP and EF1α-eGFP, only the A2-UCOE construct demonstrated sustained transgene expression in vitro over 24 days (p<0.001. In contrast, within 10 days in culture a rapid decline in transgene expression in both PGK-eGFP and EF1α-eGFP transduced hflHSC was seen. Subsequently, injection of transduced cells into immunodeficient mice (NOD/SCID/Il2rg-/- demonstrated sustained eGFP expression for the A2UCOE-eGFP group up to 10 months post transplantation whereas PGK-eGFP and EF1α-eGFP transduced hflHSC showed a 5.1 and 22.2 fold reduction respectively over the same time period. We conclude that the A2UCOE allows a more efficient and stable expression in hflHSC to be achieved than either the PGK or EF1α promoters and at lower vector copy number per cell.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Negatively Regulates the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Toward Myofibroblasts in Liver Fibrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have been confirmed to have capacity to differentiate toward hepatic myofibroblasts, which contribute to fibrogenesis in chronic liver diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a ligand-activated transcription factor, has gained a great deal of recent attention as it is involved in fibrosis and cell differentiation. However, whether it regulates the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts remains to be defined. Methods: Carbon tetrachloride or bile duct ligation was used to induce mouse liver fibrosis. Expressions of PPARγ, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen α1 (I and collagen α1 (III were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot or immunofluorescence assay. Results: PPARγ expression was decreased in mouse fibrotic liver. In addition, PPARγ was declined during the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts induced by transforming growth factor β1. Activation of PPARγ stimulated by natural or synthetic ligands suppressed the differentiation of BMSCs. Additionally, knock down of PPARγ by siRNA contributed to BMSC differentiation toward myofibroblasts. Furthermore, PPARγ activation by natural ligand significantly inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts in liver fibrogenesis and alleviated liver fibrosis. Conclusions: PPARγ negatively regulates the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts, which highlights a further mechanism implicated in the BMSC differentiation.

  13. TGF-β1 pathway affects the protein expression of many signaling pathways, markers of liver cancer stem cells, cytokeratins, and TERT in liver cancer HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Ming-Na; Sun, Xun; Xu, Chun-Huan; Liu, Jing; Chen, Jing; Xu, Rui-Ling; Li, Bao-Xin

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most common human malignancies, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) pathway plays a key role in its pathogenesis. To study the relationship between TGF-β pathway and the related protein expression of many signaling pathway, markers of stem cells, CK family, and others, liver cancer HepG2 cells were transfected with siRNA directed against TGF-β1 or were treated with exogenous TGF-β1. Then, these protein levels were measured by Western blotting. After siRNA transfection, TGF-β1 protein level was decreased, indicating that the siRNA against it was effective. In exogenous TGF-β1 group, the expression of smad4, smad2/3, and β-catenin proteins was increased, whereas that of p-smad2/3, CD133, cleaved Notch1, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) proteins at 48 h was decreased. The expression of CK8 and CK18 proteins was increased at 24 h and was decreased at 48 and 96 h. In TGF-β1-silenced group, the expression of smad2/3, β-catenin, cleaved-notch1, and CK18 proteins was decreased, while that of smad4, p-smad2/3, CD133, EpCAM, and CK8 proteins was increased. TERT protein expression was slightly increased in exogenous TGF-β1 group at 48 h and in TGF-β1-silenced group at 96 h. TGF-β1 did not affect the protein expression of CK19 and HIF-1. Thus, TGF-β1 pathway plays an important role in cell regulation of liver cancer through the modulation of these proteins. These data will contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of liver cancer and the role of TGF-β pathway in this process.

  14. Tracking adult stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context,

  15. Tracking adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans

    2011-02-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian stem cells, as numerous experimental systems and genetic tools are available. In this review, we describe strategies commonly used to identify and functionally characterize adult stem cells in mice and discuss their potential, limitations and interpretations, as well as how they have informed our understanding of adult stem-cell biology. An accurate interpretation of physiologically relevant stem-cell assays is crucial to identify adult stem cells and elucidate how they self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny.

  16. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or ... A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant. A bone marrow transplant may be necessary ...

  17. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon R. Pine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

  18. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  19. The molecular pathway of low concentration of sodium arsenite in inducing differentiation of liver cancer stem cells by down-regulating promyelocytic leukemia protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-long JIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the molecular pathway of low concentration of sodium arsenite in inducing differentiation of liver cancer stem cells. Methods  Western blotting analysis, immunofluorescence assay and quantitative PCR were used to examine the gene and protein expression of promyelocytic leukemia (PML, Oct4 and Sox2 in HCC tissue and cell lines, and the molecule pathway of low concentration of sodium arsenite inducing differentiation of liver cancer stem cells was confirmed by comparing the changes in the gene and protein expression of PML,Oct4 and Sox2 in HCC cells and biological function of LCSCs after the treatment with low concentration of sodium arsenite. Results  0.5μg/ml of sodium arsenite was shown to alter the biological characteristics of LCSCs in HuH7 and primary HCC cells, including the ability to form tumor spheres, resistance to pirarubicin (P<0.01, and the capability of forming tumors after allogeneic transplantation (P<0.05. Both HCC cells and tissues expressed the gene and protein of PML,Oct4 and Sox2, and 0.5μg/ml of sodium arsenite not only downregulated the gene and protein expression of Oct4 (P<0.05 and Sox2 in HCC cells (P<0.05, but also downregulated the protein expression of PML (P<0.05. In contrast, sodium arsenite did not inhibit the gene expression of PML in Hep3B, HepG2, SMCC-7721, HuH7 and primary HCC cells. Furthermore, through down-regulated PML protein expression with arsenite, the biological characteristics of HuH7 and primary HCC cells containing LCSCs was simultaneously altered, and the expression of stem gene Oct4 and Sox2 was downregulated (P<0.05, while HCC cells proliferation was inhibited as well. Conclusions  Both HCC tissues and cells can express the PML gene and PML protein. Low concentrations of sodium arsenite would directly bind to PML protein in HCC cells, resulting in degradation of the PML protein, followed by collapse of PML-NBs, inhibition of transcription of the proliferation

  20. Clinical Outcome of Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Infusion via Hepatic Artery or Portal Vein in Patients with End-stage Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lun Huang; Tian Zhang; Ping Xie; Mao-zhu Yang; Shao-ping Deng; Le Luo; Lan-yun Luo; Hua Xue; Ling-ling Wei; Yu-tong Yao; Hai-bo Zou; Xiao-bing Huang; Yi-fan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation via the hepatic artery vs. the portal vein for end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Methods Patients with hepatic decompensation were prospectively recruited from September 2010 to September 2012 to receive HSC transplantation via the hepatic artery or the portal vein. Liver function was examined at 3, 6, and 12 months after transplantation. Liver biopsy results were analyzed using the Knodell score. Results Eighty patients (58 males and 22 females) were enrolled in the study. The Child-Pugh score was grade B in 69 cases, and grade C in the remaining 11 cases. HSC transplantation was performed via the portal vein in 36 patients and via the hepatic artery in 44 patients. ALT levels decreased while serum albumin levels increased significantly in both groups at 6 and 12 months after HSC transplantation (P Conclusions Autologous HSC transplantation improves liver function and histology in ESLD patients. The administration route of HSC has no significant impact on the efficacy of transplantation.

  1. Long Noncoding RNA lncCAMTA1 Promotes Proliferation and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties of Liver Cancer by Inhibiting CAMTA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li-Juan; Li, Yan; Wang, Shu-Dong; Wang, Xin-Sen; Fang, Fang; Wang, Wei-Yao; Lv, Peng; Zhao, Dong-Hai; Wei, Feng; Qi, Ling

    2016-09-23

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common subtype of liver malignancy, and it is characterized by poor prognosis because of cancer stem cell (CSC)-mediated high postsurgical recurrence rates. Thus, targeting CSCs, or HCC cells with CSC-like properties, is an effective strategy for HCC therapy. Here, using long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) microarray analysis, we identified a novel lncRNA termed lncCAMTA1 that is increased in both liver CSCs and HCC. High lncCAMTA1 expression in HCC indicates poor clinical outcome. In vitro and in vivo functional experiments showed that overexpression of lncCAMTA1 promotes HCC cell proliferation, CSC-like properties, and tumorigenesis. Conversely, depletion of lncCAMTA1 inhibits HCC cell proliferation, CSC-like properties, and tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that lncCAMTA1 physically associates with the calmodulin binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1) promoter, induces a repressive chromatin structure, and inhibits CAMTA1 transcription. Furthermore, CAMTA1 is required for the effects of lncCAMTA1 on HCC cell proliferation and CSC-like properties, and the expression of lncCAMTA1 and CAMTA1 is significantly negatively correlated in HCC tissues. Collectively, our study revealed the important roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of lncCAMTA1 on HCC, and suggested that lncCAMTA1 could be an effective prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  2. Long Noncoding RNA lncCAMTA1 Promotes Proliferation and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties of Liver Cancer by Inhibiting CAMTA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Ding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common subtype of liver malignancy, and it is characterized by poor prognosis because of cancer stem cell (CSC-mediated high postsurgical recurrence rates. Thus, targeting CSCs, or HCC cells with CSC-like properties, is an effective strategy for HCC therapy. Here, using long noncoding RNA (lncRNA microarray analysis, we identified a novel lncRNA termed lncCAMTA1 that is increased in both liver CSCs and HCC. High lncCAMTA1 expression in HCC indicates poor clinical outcome. In vitro and in vivo functional experiments showed that overexpression of lncCAMTA1 promotes HCC cell proliferation, CSC-like properties, and tumorigenesis. Conversely, depletion of lncCAMTA1 inhibits HCC cell proliferation, CSC-like properties, and tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that lncCAMTA1 physically associates with the calmodulin binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1 promoter, induces a repressive chromatin structure, and inhibits CAMTA1 transcription. Furthermore, CAMTA1 is required for the effects of lncCAMTA1 on HCC cell proliferation and CSC-like properties, and the expression of lncCAMTA1 and CAMTA1 is significantly negatively correlated in HCC tissues. Collectively, our study revealed the important roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of lncCAMTA1 on HCC, and suggested that lncCAMTA1 could be an effective prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  3. STEM CELLS AND PROTEOMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong-ming; GUO Tian-nan; HUANG Shi-ang

    2006-01-01

    The distinctive features of proteomics are large-scale and high throughput. The key techniques of proteomics are two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Stem cell can differentiate into all kinds of cells, tissues and organs. There are many proteins and cytokines involved in the process of differentiation. Applying proteomics techniques to the research of the complex process of stem cell differentiation is of great importance to study the mechanism and applications of stem cell differentiation.

  4. Stem cells in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cell research. Instead, scientists have explored other cell sources, including progenitor and stem cells derived from adult tissues and stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid and placenta. In addition, novel techniques for generating stem cells in the laboratory are being developed. These techniques include somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is placed into an oocyte, and reprogramming of adult cells to induce stem-cell-like behavior. Such techniques are now being used in tissue engineering applications, and some of the most successful experiments have been in the field of urology. Techniques to regenerate bladder tissue have reached the clinic, and exciting progress is being made in other areas, such as regeneration of the kidney and urethra. Cell therapy as a treatment for incontinence and infertility might soon become a reality. Physicians should be optimistic that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering will one day provide mainstream treatment options for urologic disorders.

  5. [Therapeutic use of stem cells. II. Adult stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Georges

    2004-09-30

    Many degenerative diseases are not curable by means of classical medicine. The long term objective of cell therapy is to treat the patients with their own stem cells that could be either purified from the diseased organ or from "reservoirs" of stem cells such as that constituted by the bone marrow. The existence of stem cells in the organs or reservoirs is now established in vitro and in some cases, in animal models. Numbers of technical problems linked to the scarcity of these cells still delay the clinical use of purified stem cells. However, clinical protocols using heterogeneous cell populations have already started to treat a growing number of diseases. In some case, autologous cells can be used, as it is the case for bone marrow transplantation in blood diseases. Mesenchymal cells, also purified from the bone marrow are currently used in orthopaedic diseases. Because these cells reveal a broad differentiation potential, active research programs explore their possible use for treatment of other diseases. Bone marrow also contains vascular stem cells that could be active in reappearing defective vessels responsible for ischaemic diseases. Indeed, clinical trials in which bone marrow cells are injected in the cardiac muscle of patients with myocardial infarction or in the leg muscle (gastrocnemius) of patients with hind limb ischaemia have already started. Artificial skin prepared from skin biopsies is used for the reconstitution of the derma of severely burned patients. Clinical trials have also started, using allogenic cells. The patients must be treated by immunosuppressive drugs. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson have been successfully treated by intra-cerebral injection of foetal neurones. Pancreatic islets implanted in the liver have shown to re-establish a normal glycaemia in diabetic patients. However, all these clinical trials use differentiated cells or at least progenitors which display differentiation potential and lifetime much more

  6. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human embryo

  7. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to real

  8. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    .... Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes...

  9. Stem cells in cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, Agneta; English, Denis; Sanberg, Paul R

    2006-12-01

    This commentary documents the increased number of stem cell-related research reports recently published in the cell transplantation field in the journal Cell Transplantation. The journal covers a wide range of issues in cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine and is attracting clinical and preclinical articles from around the world. It thereby complements and extends the basic coverage of stem cell physiology reported in Stem Cells and Development. Sections in Cell Transplantation cover neuroscience, diabetes, hepatocytes, bone, muscle, cartilage, skin, vessels, and other tissues, as well as tissue engineering that employs novel methods with stem cells. Clearly, the continued use of biomedical engineering will depend heavily on stem cells, and these two journals are well positioned to provide comprehensive coverage of these developments.

  10. Many facets of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Research area on stem cells is one of frontiers in biology.The collection of five research articles in this issue aims to cover timely developments in stem cell biology, ranging from generating and identifying stem cell line to manipulating stem cells, and from basic mechanism analysis to applied medical potential.These papers reflect the various research tasks in stem cell biology.

  11. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells require beta1 integrin function for colonizing fetal liver, spleen, and bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potocnik, A J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that beta1 integrin-deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had...... hematolymphoid differentiation potential in vitro and in fetal organ cultures but were unable to seed fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues. Adult beta1 integrin null HSCs isolated from mice carrying loxP-tagged beta1 integrin alleles and ablated for beta1 integrin expression by retroviral cre transduction...... failed to engraft irradiated recipient mice. Moreover, absence of beta1 integrin resulted in sequestration of HSCs in the circulation and their reduced adhesion to endothelioma cells. These findings define beta1 integrin as an essential adhesion receptor for the homing of HSCs....

  12. Cellular Mechanisms of Liver Regeneration and Cell-Based Therapies of Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarygin, Konstantin N.

    2017-01-01

    The emerging field of regenerative medicine offers innovative methods of cell therapy and tissue/organ engineering as a novel approach to liver disease treatment. The ultimate scientific foundation of both cell therapy of liver diseases and liver tissue and organ engineering is delivered by the in-depth studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration. The cellular mechanisms of the homeostatic and injury-induced liver regeneration are unique. Restoration of the mass of liver parenchyma is achieved by compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the differentiated parenchymal cells, hepatocytes, while expansion and differentiation of the resident stem/progenitor cells play a minor or negligible role. Participation of blood-borne cells of the bone marrow origin in liver parenchyma regeneration has been proven but does not exceed 1-2% of newly formed hepatocytes. Liver regeneration is activated spontaneously after injury and can be further stimulated by cell therapy with hepatocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, or mesenchymal stem cells. Further studies aimed at improving the outcomes of cell therapy of liver diseases are underway. In case of liver failure, transplantation of engineered liver can become the best option in the foreseeable future. Engineering of a transplantable liver or its major part is an enormous challenge, but rapid progress in induced pluripotency, tissue engineering, and bioprinting research shows that it may be doable. PMID:28210629

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells promote liver regeneration and prolong survival in small-for-size liver grafts: involvement of C-Jun N-terminal kinase, cyclin D1, and NF-κB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been highlighted recently for treatment of acute or chronic liver injury, by possibly differentiating into hepatocyte-like cells, reducing inflammation, and enhancing tissue repair. Despite recent progress, exact mechanisms of action are not clearly elucidated. In this study, we attempted to explore whether and how MSCs protected hepatocytes and stimulated allograft regeneration in small-for-size liver transplantation (SFSLT. METHODS: SFSLT model was established with a 30% partial liver transplantation (30PLT in rats. The differentiation potential and characteristics of bone marrow derived MSCs were explored in vitro. MSCs were infused transvenously immediately after graft implantation in therapy group. Expressions of apoptosis-, inflammatory-, anti-inflammatory-, and growth factor-related genes were measured by RT-PCR, activities of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB were analyzed by EMSA, and proliferative responses of the hepatic graft were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. RESULTS: MSCs were successfully induced into hepatocyte-like cells, osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. MSCs therapy could not only alleviate ischemia reperfusion injury and acute inflammation to promote liver regeneration, but also profoundly improve one week survival rate. It markedly up-regulated the mRNA expressions of HGF, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, IL-6, IL-10, IP-10, and CXCR2, however, down-regulated TNF-α. Increased activities of AP-1 and NF-κB, as well as elevated expressions of p-c-Jun, cyclin D1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, were also found in MSCs therapy group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that MSCs therapy promotes hepatocyte proliferation and prolongs survival in SFSLT by reducing ischemia reperfusion injury and acute inflammation, and sustaining early increased expressions of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, Cyclin D1, and NF-κB.

  14. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  15. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  16. What are Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem cells are those that can only form specific cells in the body such as blood cells based. Based on the sources of stem cells we have three types of these cells: Autologous: Sources of the patient own cells are (Autologous either the cells from patient own body or his or her cord blood. For this type of transplant the physician now usually collects the periphery rather than morrow because the procedure is easier on like a bane morrow harvest it take place outside of an operating room, and the patient does not to be under general unsetting . Allogenic: Sources of stem cells from another donore are primarily relatives (familial allogenic or completely unrelated donors. Xenogenic: In these stem cells from different species are transplanted e .g striatal porcine fetal mesan cephalic (FVM xenotransplants for Parkinson’s disease. On sites of isolation such as embryo, umbilical cord and other body tissues stem cells are named embnyonic, cord blood, and adult stem cells. The scope of results and clinical application of stem cells are such as: Neurodegenerative conditions (MS,ALS, Parkinson’s, Stroke, Ocular disorders- Glaucoma, retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Auto Immune Conditions (Lupus, MS,R. arthritis, Diabetes, etc, Viral Conditions (Hepatitis C and AIDS, Heart Disease, Adrenal Disorders, Injury(Nerve, Brain, etc, Anti aging (hair, skin, weight control, overall well being/preventive, Emotional disorders, Organ / Tissue Cancers, Blood cancers, Blood diseases

  17. Stem cells in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today.

  18. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  19. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...... scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  20. Combination of retinoic acid, dimethyl sulfoxide and 5-azacytidine promotes cardiac differentiation of human fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fuxue; Lei, Han; Hu, Yunfeng; He, Linjing; Fu, Hang; Feng, Rui; Feng, Panpan; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xi; Chang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    There are controversial reports about cardiac differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and there is still no well-defined protocol for the induction of cardiac differentiation. The effects of retinoic acid (RA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the proliferation and differentiation of human fetal liver-derived MSCs (HFMSCs) as well as the pluripotent state induced by 5-azacytidine (5-aza) in vitro were investigated. MSCs were isolated from fetal livers and cultured in accordance with previous reports. Cells were plated and were treated for 24 h by the combination of 5-aza, RA and DMSO in different doses. Different culture conditions were tested in our study, including temperature, oxygen content and medium. Three weeks later, cells were harvested for the certification of cardiac differentiation as well as the pluripotency, which indicated by cardiac markers and Oct4. It was found that the cardiac differentiation was only induced when HFMSCs were treated in the following conditions: in high-dose combination (5-aza 50 μM + RA 10(-1) μM + DMSO 1 %) in cardiac differentiation medium at 37 °C and 20 % O2. The results of immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that about 40 % of the cells positively expressed Nkx2.5, desmin and cardiac troponin I, as well as Oct4. No beating cells were observed during the period. The combined treatment with RA, DMSO and 5-aza in high-dose could promote HFMSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells and possibly through the change of their pluripotent state.

  1. Artificial Cell Microencapsulated Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine, Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2012-01-01

    Adult stem cells, especially isolated from bone marrow, have been extensively investigated in recent years. Studies focus on their multiple plasticity of transdifferentiating into various cell lineages and on their potential in cellular therapy in regenerative medicine. In many cases, there is the need for tissue engineering manipulation. Among the different approaches of stem cells tissue engineering, microencapsulation can immobilize stem cells to provide a favorable microenvironment for stem cells survival and functioning. Furthermore, microencapsulated stem cells are immunoisolated after transplantation. We show that one intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated bone marrow stem cells can prolong the survival of liver failure rat models with 90% of the liver removed surgically. In addition to transdifferentiation, bone marrow stem cells can act as feeder cells. For example, when coencapsulated with hepatocytes, stem cells can increase the viability and function of the hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20384219

  2. Immunology of Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Yang

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of pluri-potent stem cells to repair the tissues in which stem cells reside holds great promise in development of novel cell replacement therapeutics for treating chronic and degenerative diseases. However,numerous reports show that stem cell therapy, even in an autologous setting, triggers lymphocyte infiltration and inflammation. Therefore, an important question to be answered is how the host immune system responds to engrafted autologous stem cells or allogeneous stem cells. In this brief review, we summarize the progress in several related areas in this field, including some of our data, in four sections: (1) immunogenicity of stem cells; (2)strategies to inhibit immune rejection to allograft stem cells; (3) immune responses to cancer stem cells; and (4)mesenchymal stem cells in immune regulation. Improvement of our understanding on these and other aspects of immune system-stem cell interplay would greatly facilitate the development of stem cell-based therapeutics for regenerative purposes.

  3. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... why are they important? Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types ... of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2016 [cited October 9, 2017 ] Available at < //stemcells. ...

  4. Engineering Stem Cell Organoids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-01

    .... Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D...

  5. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  6. Targeting cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He AR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiwu Ruth He,1 Daniel C Smith,1 Lopa Mishra2 1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The poor outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is attributed to recurrence of the disease after curative treatment and the resistance of HCC cells to conventional chemotherapy, which may be explained partly by the function of liver cancer stem cells (CSCs. Liver CSCs have emerged as an important therapeutic target against HCC. Numerous surface markers for liver CSCs have been identified, and include CD133, CD90, CD44, CD13, and epithelial cell adhesion molecules. These surface markers serve not only as tools for identifying and isolating liver CSCs but also as therapeutic targets for eradicating these cells. In studies of animal models and large-scale genomic analyses of human HCC samples, many signaling pathways observed in normal stem cells have been found to be altered in liver CSCs, which accounts for the stemness and aggressive behavior of these cells. Antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the signaling pathways have been evaluated at different levels of preclinical and clinical development. Another strategy is to promote the differentiation of liver CSCs to less aggressive HCC that is sensitive to conventional chemotherapy. Disruption of the tumor niche essential for liver CSC homeostasis has become a novel strategy in cancer treatment. To overcome the challenges in developing treatment for liver CSCs, more research into the genetic makeup of patient tumors that respond to treatment may lead to more effective therapy. Standardization of HCC CSC tumor markers would be helpful for measuring the CSC response to these agents. Herein, we review the current strategies for developing treatment to eradicate liver CSCs and to improve the outcome for patients with

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  8. Stem Cell Organoid Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E.; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Organoid systems leverage the self-organizing properties of stem cells to create diverse multi-cellular tissue proxies. Most organoid models only represent single or partial components of a tissue, and it is often difficult to control the cell type, organization, and cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions within these systems. Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D organization within organoids to further enhance their utility in research and therapies. PMID:26748754

  9. Cardiac stem cell niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Leri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The critical role that stem cell niches have in cardiac homeostasis and myocardial repair following injury is the focus of this review. Cardiac niches represent specialized microdomains where the quiescent and activated state of resident stem cells is regulated. Alterations in niche function with aging and cardiac diseases result in abnormal sites of cardiomyogenesis and inadequate myocyte formation. The relevance of Notch1 signaling, gap-junction formation, HIF-1α and metabolic state in the regulation of stem cell growth and differentiation within the cardiac niches are discussed.

  10. [On plant stem cells and animal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yun; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of plant and animal stem cells can highlight core aspects of stem-cell biology. In both kingdoms, stem cells are defined by their clonogenic properties and are maintained by intercellular signals. The signaling molecules are different in plants and animals stem cell niches, but the roles of argonaute and polycomb group proteins suggest that there are some molecular similarities.

  11. Stemness & Niche sans Frontiers – The Cancer Stem Cell myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The niche or the environment in which the cells reside and/or develop plays a major role in influencing the behaviour and characteristics of those cells. In case of normal stem cells, the niche acts as a physical anchoring site and the adhesion molecules therein help with their interaction [1]. The niche secretes extrinsic factors that control the self-renewal and lineage differentiation of the stem cells, thereby guiding them towards a pre-determined path of differentiation. For eg. stem cells in the corneal limbus give rise to corneal epithelial cells, stem cells in liver give rise to hepatocytes etc. which happen within the same organ or tissue. The bone marrow stem cells however have been found to come out of the marrow into the circulation, reach sites far away from their origin and have been reported to home to the site of injury and help in tissue repair either by direct differentiation to the cells native to the site of injury or by paracrine effect or other mechanisms [2]. In both these examples, the stem cells of relevance tend to differentiate into a mature cell of the surrounding niche/organ. However when it comes to cancer stem cells, the niche needs to be perceived in a different light. The cancer stem cells possess the ability to mobilize to distant sites and instead of differentiating to the cell type native to the distant metastasized site, these cancer stem cells either stay in a latent state or establish the tumour there, which makes us hypothesize that they might possess the capacity to modify the environment or the niche at that distant metastasized site. For instance, tumour cells in breast cancer have been found to disseminate to the bone marrow at a very early stage of cancer and these disseminated tumor cells (DTC have been found to possess a cancer stem cell phenotype [3]. These DTCs have been reported to persist for long and have been suggested to play a role in cancer recurrence [4]. Also these DTCs acquire a highly

  12. Stem cells and cancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are the small units of multicellular creature. Regeneration and self-renewal are the ability of the stem cells. Each tissue is having particular stem cells, specific to it. These normal stem cells are converted into cancer stem cells through mutations in it. Although the expression of oncogenes is enhanced a lot, the tumor-supressing gene is lessened. Cancer stem cells are isolated and visualized through different techniques like immunocytochemical staining, spectral karyotyping, immunohistochemistry, induction method and dissection measures, then are performed histological procedures which include fascination, immunohistochemistry, dispensation, in situ hybridization and also quantitative examination of tissue flow cytometric analysis. For the analysis of quantization, statistical tests are also performed as two-sample t-test, Chi-square test, SD and arithmetic mean. Tumor cells generate glioma spheres. These are used in cancer study. Axin 1 is the gene suppressing cancer. Its removal causes the generation of liver cancer. Curcumin is the most effective for suppressing cancer as it increases the normal stem cell function and decreases the cancer stem cell function. Brahma-related gene 1 is crucial for the safeguarding of the stem cell residents in tissue-specific comportment. Different types of cancers originate through genetic mutation, tissue disorganization and cell proliferation. Tumor configuration is produced by the alteration in original cell culture having stem cells and progenitor cell populations. The developmental facets about cancer cells and cancer stem cells as well as their personal natal functions sustain an intricate steadiness to settle on their personal donations to the efficacy or harmfulness of the biological organization.

  13. Plant Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greb, Thomas; Lohmann, Jan U

    2016-01-01

    .... While the promise of organ regeneration and the end of cancer have captured our imagination, it has gone almost unnoticed that plant stem cells represent the ultimate origin of much of the food we...

  14. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  15. Human fetal mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Keelin; Chan, Jerry

    2006-09-01

    Stem cells have been isolated at all stages of development from the early developing embryo to the post-reproductive adult organism. However, the fetal environment is unique as it is the only time in ontogeny that there is migration of stem cells in large numbers into different organ compartments. While fetal neural and haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been well characterised, only recently have mesenchymal stem cells from the human fetus been isolated and evaluated. Our group have characterised in human fetal blood, liver and bone marrow a population of non-haemopoietic, non-endothelial cells with an immunophenotype similar to adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These cells, human fetal mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSC), are true multipotent stem cells with greater self-renewal and differentiation capacity than their adult counterparts. They circulate in first trimester fetal blood and have been found to traffic into the maternal circulation, engrafting in bone marrow, where they remain microchimeric for decades after pregnancy. Though fetal microchimerism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, the biological role of hfMSC microchimerism is unknown. Potential downstream applications of hfMSC include their use as a target cell for non-invasive pre-natal diagnosis from maternal blood, and for fetal cellular and gene therapy. Using hfMSC in fetal therapy offers the theoretical advantages of avoidance of immune rejection, increased engraftment, and treatment before disease pathology sets in. Aside from allogeneic hfMSC in utero transplantation, the use of autologous hfMSC has been brought a step forward with the development of early blood sampling techniques, efficient viral transduction and clonal expansion. Work is ongoing to determine hfMSC fate post-transplantation in murine models of genetic disease. In this review we will examine what is known about hfMSC biology, as well as discussing areas for future research. The

  16. Melanoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The cancer stem cell concept significantly broadens our understanding of melanoma biology. However, this concept should be regarded as an integral part of a holistic cancer model that also includes the genetic evolution of tumor cells and the variability of cell phenotypes within a dynamic tumor microenvironment. The biologic complexity and methodological difficulties in identifying cancer stem cells and their biomarkers are currently impeding the direct translation of experimental findings into clinical practice. Nevertheless, it is these methodological shortcomings that provide a new perspective on the phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of melanoma with important consequences for future therapies. The development of new combination treatment strategies, particularly with regard to overcoming treatment resistance, could significantly benefit from targeted elimination of cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge; Garcia-Martinez; Bjorn; Bakker; Klaske; M; Schukken; Judith; E; Simon; Floris; Foijer

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells(IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to reality. However,as somatic cells might have accumulated various chromosomal abnormalities,including aneuploidies throughout their lives,the resulting IPSCs might no longer carry the perfect blueprint for the tissue to be generated,or worse,become at risk of adopting a malignant fate. In this review,we discuss the contribution of aneuploidy to healthy tissues and how aneuploidy can lead to disease. Furthermore,we review the differences between how somatic cells and stem cells respond to aneuploidy.

  18. Stem cell heterogeneity revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne S; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite...... of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance....

  19. The circulating platelet count is not dictated by the liver, but may be determined in part by the bone marrow : analyses from human liver and stem cell transplantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, T.; Pittau, G.; Leite, F. J. T.; De Boer, M. T.; Meijer, K.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Huls, G.; Te Boome, L. C. J.; Kuball, J.; Nowak, G.; Fan, S. T.; Azoulay, D.; Porte, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    . Background: The platelet count varies considerably between individuals, but within an individual the platelet count is remarkably stable over time. Mechanisms controlling the platelet count are not yet established. Objective: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the liver is importa

  20. The circulating platelet count is not dictated by the liver, but may be determined in part by the bone marrow: analyses from human liver and stem cell transplantations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, T.; Pittau, G.; Leite, F.J.; Boer, M.T. De; Meijer, K.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Huls, G.A.; Boome, L.C. te; Kuball, J.; Nowak, G.; Fan, S.T.; Azoulay, D.; Porte, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The platelet count varies considerably between individuals, but within an individual the platelet count is remarkably stable over time. Mechanisms controlling the platelet count are not yet established. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the liver is important

  1. Bioprinting of human pluripotent stem cells and their directed differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells for the generation of mini-livers in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner-Jones, Alan; Fyfe, Catherine; Cornelissen, Dirk-Jan; Gardner, John; King, Jason; Courtney, Aidan; Shu, Wenmiao

    2015-10-21

    We report the first investigation into the bioprinting of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), their response to a valve-based printing process as well as their post-printing differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). HLCs differentiated from both hiPSCs and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) sources were bioprinted and examined for the presence of hepatic markers to further validate the compatibility of the valve-based bioprinting process with fragile cell transfer. Examined cells were positive for nuclear factor 4 alpha and were demonstrated to secrete albumin and have morphology that was also found to be similar to that of hepatocytes. Both hESC and hiPSC lines were tested for post-printing viability and pluripotency and were found to have negligible difference in terms of viability and pluripotency between the printed and non-printed cells. hESC-derived HLCs were 3D printed using alginate hydrogel matrix and tested for viability and albumin secretion during the remaining differentiation and were found to be hepatic in nature. 3D printed with 40-layer of HLC-containing alginate structures reached peak albumin secretion at day 21 of the differentiation protocol. This work demonstrates that the valve-based printing process is gentle enough to print human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) (both hESCs and hiPSCs) while either maintaining their pluripotency or directing their differentiation into specific lineages. The ability to bioprint hPSCs will pave the way for producing organs or tissues on demand from patient specific cells which could be used for animal-free drug development and personalized medicine.

  2. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provide Protection against Radiation-Induced Liver Injury by Antioxidative Process, Vasculature Protection, Hepatocyte Differentiation, and Trophic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Francois

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of the infusion of hMSCs for the correction of liver injuries, we performed total body radiation exposure of NOD/SCID mice. After irradiation, mir-27b level decreases in liver, increasing the directional migration of hMSCs by upregulating SDF1α. A significant increase in plasmatic transaminases levels, apoptosis process in the liver vascular system, and in oxidative stress were observed. hMSC injection induced a decrease in transaminases levels and oxidative stress, a disappearance of apoptotic cells, and an increase in Nrf2, SOD gene expression, which might reduce ROS production in the injured liver. Engrafted hMSCs expressed cytokeratin CK18 and CK19 and AFP genes indicating possible hepatocyte differentiation. The presence of hMSCs expressing VEGF and Ang-1 in the perivascular region, associated with an increased expression of VEGFr1, r2 in the liver, can confer a role of secreting cells to hMSCs in order to maintain the endothelial function. To explain the benefits to the liver of hMSC engraftment, we find that hMSCs secreted NGF, HGF, and anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10, IL1-RA contributing to prevention of apoptosis, increasing cell proliferation in the liver which might correct liver dysfunction. MSCs are potent candidates to repair and protect healthy tissues against radiation damages.

  3. The Stem Cell Conundrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of this year, Kelly Reynolds,a US-national diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), became the one of the latest overseas patient to undergo stem cell treatment at the Nanshan Hospital in Shenzhen.Confined to a wheelchair and with limited use of his hands,the 39-year old received four fetal stem cell injections over a three-week period. So far,the results have been positive and Reynolds, acording to his personal blog page, is upbeat about the long-term benefits.

  4. Origins of pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, B A J; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, S M

    2011-08-01

    Different types of pluripotent stem cells can be identified and cultured in vitro. Here an overview is presented of the various pluripotent stem cells types. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells that have been cultured in vitro provided the groundwork for future pluripotent cell cultures. Conditions established for these cells such as culture on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the importance of fetal calf serum were initially also used for the culture of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts. Embryonic stem cells derived from human blastocysts were found to require different conditions and are cultured in the presence of activin and basic fibroblast growth factor. Recently pluripotent stem cells have also been derived from mouse peri-implantation epiblasts. Since these epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) require the same conditions as the human ES cells it has been suggested that human ES cells are more similar to mouse EpiSCs than to mouse ES cells. Pluripotent cell lines have also been derived from migratory primordial germ cells and spermatogonial stem cells. The creation of pluripotent stem cells from adult cells by the introduction of reprogramming transcription factors, so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells allowed the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need of creation of a human blastocyst after cloning by somatic cells nuclear transfer. Recently it has become clear however that iPS cells may be quite different to ES cells in terms of epigenetics.

  5. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or mer

  6. Stem Cell Transplants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Parents > Stem Cell Transplants Print A A A What's in this ... Recovery Coping en español Trasplantes de células madre Stem cells are cells in the body that have the ...

  7. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo

    2008-05-09

    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  8. Stem cell therapy for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K O Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Recent advances in stem cell therapy may turn this into a realistic treatment for diabetes in the near future.

  9. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  10. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation, with appropriate stimuli, into various cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules, required for complete T cell activation, on their surface. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity systems. Mesenchymal stem cells can regulate the immune response in vitro by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells, as well as by suppressing the proliferation and function of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These special properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, such as graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safe application in different areas of medicine.

  11. Stem cells and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Margaret A; Rando, Thomas A

    2015-12-04

    Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age.

  12. Inflammation and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei

    2014-04-10

    Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche.

  13. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  14. Experimental on Antibody Targeting Liver Cancer Stem Cell Treatment%肝癌干细胞抗体靶向治疗的实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙力超; 赵璇; 孙立新; 遇珑; 杨治华; 冉宇靓

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the biological characteristics and function of the anti- hepatocellular carcinoma cancer stem cells (HCC-CSC) monoclonal antibody 15B7 in vivo and in vitro, and to investigate whether the targeting liver stem cells can inhibit recurrence, spontaneous lung metastasis and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Methods Monoclonal antibody 15B7 which could recognize HCC-CSC was identified by two-color immunofluorescence, two-color flow cytometry and subcutaneous tumor formation assay. CD133+ phenotype cells were sorted from BEL7402 cell lines by the flow cytometry and cultured in serum free medium. The function of 15B7 was identified by CCK8 cell proliferation, invasion assay, migration assay and flow cytometry. The inhibition of implanted tumor growth and spontaneous lung metastasis of monoclonal antibody 15B7 were studied by tumor treatment experiments and the survival of mice was also observed. The antigen of 15B7 was identified by western blotting. Results The results of two-color immunofluorescence and two-color flow cytometry showed that monoclonal antibody 15B7 could recognized cells which also were partly co-stained with ESA or CD133. 15B7+ or ESA+ cells or CD133+ cells sorted by flow cytometry could form mammospheres after serum-free suspension culture. 1 × 104 15B7+ cells were inoculated into the nude mice and developed visible tumors in 2 months. In vitro functional experiments showed that monoclonal antibody 15B7 could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of CD133+ cells, and the inhibition rates was 13. 8%, 15. 7% and 30. 9%, respectively. Furthermore, CD133+ cells incubated with monoclonal antibody 15B7 were induced G1 phase arrest.Animal experiment revealed that monoclonal antibody 15B7 significantly inhibited tumor growth by 60. 5%. Conclusion 15B7 not only inhibited tumor growth. The results indicated that targeting cancer stem cell antibody therapy had significant advantages and monoclonal antibody 15B7

  15. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  16. Materials as stem cell regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-06-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

  17. PTEN, Stem Cells, and Cancer Stem Cells*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Reginald; Wu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Like normal stem cells, “cancer stem cells” have the capacity for indefinite proliferation and generation of new cancerous tissues through self-renewal and differentiation. Among the major intracellular signaling pathways, WNT, SHH, and NOTCH are known to be important in regulating normal stem cell activities, and their alterations are associated with tumorigenesis. It has become clear recently that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) is also critical for stem cell...

  18. Stem cells and genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we have discussed a role of stem cells in the treatment of genetic diseases including cochlear and retinal regeneration. The most perceptive use of stem cells at the genetic diseases is cellular repair of tissues affected by a genetic mutation when stem cells without such mutation are transplanted to restore normal tissue function.

  19. Information on Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Current Research » Focus on Research Focus on Stem Cell Research Stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate into many ... they also retain the ability to produce more stem cells, a process termed self-renewal. There are multiple ...

  20. Role of SDF-1 (CXCL12) in regulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells traffic into the liver during extramedullary hematopoiesis induced by G-CSF, AMD3100 and PHZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendt, Mayela; Cardier, Jose E

    2015-12-01

    The stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) plays an essential role in the homing of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to bone marrow (BM). It is not known whether SDF-1 may also regulate the homing of HSPCs to the liver during extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). Here, we investigated the possible role of SDF-1 in attracting HSPCs to the liver during experimental EMH induced by the hematopoietic mobilizers G-CSF, AMD3100 and phenylhydrazine (PHZ). Mice treated with G-CSF, AMD3100 and PHZ showed a significant increase in the expression of SDF-1 in the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) microenvironments. Liver from mice treated with the hematopoietic mobilizers showed HSPCs located adjacent to the LSEC microenvironments, expressing high levels of SDF-1. An inverse relationship was found between the hepatic SDF-1 levels and those in the BM. In vitro, LSEC monolayers induced the migration of HSPCs, and this effect was significantly reduced by AMD3100. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence showing that SDF-1 expressed by LSEC can be a major player in the recruitment of HSPCs to the liver during EMH induced by hematopoietic mobilizers.

  1. The Herbal Compound “Diwu Yanggan” Modulates Liver Regeneration by Affecting the Hepatic Stem Cell Microenvironment in 2-Acetylaminofluorene/Partial Hepatectomy Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Bin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological Relevance. “Diwu Yanggan” (DWYG has been reported to regulate liver regeneration, modulate the immune response, ameliorate liver injury, kill virus, ameliorate liver fibrosis, and suppress hepatic cancer. However, its mechanisms are still unknown. Objectives. To investigate the effects of DWYG on oval cell proliferation in 2-AAF/PH rats and determine its mechanism. Methods. Wistar rats were randomly distributed into normal group, sham group, vehicle group, and DWYG group. Hepatic pathological changes were examined by H&E staining. The oval cell markers CD34, AFP, CK-19 and hematopoietic cell markers CD45, Thy1.1, and hepatocyte marker ALB were examined with immunohistochemistry. The percentage of CD34/CD45 double-positive cells in bone marrow was detected by flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were measured with the Bio-plex suspension array system. Results. DWYG significantly increased the survival rates of 2-AAF/PH rats and promoted liver regeneration. Furthermore, DWYG increased the ratio of CD34/CD45 double-positive cells on days 10 and 14. In addition, DWYG gradually restored IL-1, GRO/KC, and VEGF levels to those of the normal group. Conclusions. DWYG increases 2-AAF/PH rat survival rates, suppresses hepatic precarcinoma changes, and restores hepatic tissue structure and function. DWYG may act by modulating the hepatic microenvironment to support liver regeneration.

  2. Effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell adjuvant therapy on liver function and fibrosis indicators as well as the degree of inflammation in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Jin Luo; Ping-Guang Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell adjuvant therapy on liver function and fibrosis indicators as well as the degree of inflammation in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis.Methods:A total of 80 cases with hepatitis B cirrhosis in our hospital from August 2012 to November 2014 were included for study. According to different treatment methods, all included patients were divided into observation group and control group by half. Control group received conventional treatment, observation group received human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell adjuvant therapy, and then differences in the levels of liver function indicators, liver fibrosis indicators, inflammation-related indicators and illness-related indicators were compared between two groups.Results:Serum ALB, GLB and A/G values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, andα2-M, TB, APO-A1 and GGT values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum HA, LN, CIV, PⅢNP and PLD values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum TGF-β1, PCT, WBC and SIL-2R levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum FT3 and ADP values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and NO, EGF, ADM and IR values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell adjuvant therapy for patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis can optimize liver function and inhibit disease progression, and it has active clinical significance.

  3. 肝细胞生成素Cn促进肝干/祖细胞增殖的功能研究%Effect of hepatopoietin Cn on liver stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永锋; 刘勇; 常菁; 刘鹏飞; 高慧英; 周旭; 卢俊; 崔春萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:检测肝细胞刺激因子肝细胞生成素Cn( hepatopoietin Cn,HPPCn)作用肝祖细胞的功能。方法利用MTT法、AnnexinⅤ和PI荧光染色法分别检测WB-F344细胞增殖及其抗凋亡能力,Transwell法检测细胞迁移能力。建立小鼠2AAF-部分肝切除(partial hepatectomy)模型,分析高表达HPPCn对肝干/祖细胞增殖和迁移的影响。结果重组HPPCn蛋白能促进WB-F344细胞的增殖及细胞迁移,低浓度HPPCn能抑制WB-F344细胞的凋亡,并激活WB-F344细胞中SphK1、Erk1/2以及Stat3信号通路。动物模型检测结果显示,肝特异HPPCn转基因小鼠部分肝切除后,肝卵圆细胞较对照组明显增多,肝再生能力增强。结论 HPPCn能促进肝干/祖细胞增殖和存活,并通过促进肝卵圆细胞增生,提高肝再生能力。%Objective To investigate the effect of hepatopoietin Cn(HPPCn) on liver stem cells.Methods In this study, WB-F344 cell line was used, and MTT and flow cytometry assay were conducted to determine cell proliferation and apoptosis.Transwell assay was used to test the migration of WB-F344 cells.A 2AAF-partial hepatectomy(PH) mouse model was used to observe the effect of HPPCn on liver stem cell proliferation in vivo.Results HPPCn enhanced WB-F344 cell proliferation and migration and activated the SphK1, Erk and Stat3 signal pathways.The analysis of the 2AAF-PH mouse model showed that oval cells in the experimental group far outnumbered those in control and the regeneration of the liver was improved post PH.Conclusion HPPCn can increase the liver stem cell proliferation and survival while promoting the regenenation of the liver by augmenting oval cell proliferation.

  4. Generation of functional organs from stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are now well entering the exciting era of stem cells. Potential stem cell therapy holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral-sclerosis, myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, diabetes, and etc. It is generally believed that transplantation of specific stem cells into the injured tissue to replace the lost cells is an effective way to repair the tissue. In fact, organ transplantation has been successfully practiced in clinics for liver or kidney failure. However, the severe shortage of donor organs has been a major obstacle for the expansion of organ transplantation programs. Toward that direction, generation of transplantable organs using stem cells is a desirable approach for organ replacement and would be of great interest for both basic and clinical scientists. Here we review recent progress in the field of organ generation using various methods including single adult tissue stem cells, a blastocyst complementation system, tissue decellularization/recellularization and a combination of stem cells and tissue engineering.

  5. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  6. Apoptosis, stem cells, and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Andreas; Steller, Hermann

    2010-10-26

    Most metazoans have at least some ability to regenerate damaged cells and tissues, although the regenerative capacity varies depending on the species, organ, or developmental stage. Cell replacement and regeneration occur in two contexts: renewal of spent cells during tissue homeostasis (homeostatic growth), and in response to external injury, wounding, or amputation (epimorphic regeneration). Model organisms that display remarkable regenerative capacity include amphibians, planarians, Hydra, and the vertebrate liver. In addition, several mammalian organs--including the skin, gut, kidney, muscle, and even the human nervous system--have some ability to replace spent or damaged cells. Although the regenerative response is complex, it typically involves the induction of new cell proliferation through formation of a blastema, followed by cell specification, differentiation, and patterning. Stem cells and undifferentiated progenitor cells play an important role in both tissue homeostasis and tissue regeneration. Stem cells are typically quiescent or passing slowly through the cell cycle in adult tissues, but they can be activated in response to cell loss and wounding. A series of studies, mostly performed in Drosophila as well as in Hydra, Xenopus, and mouse, has revealed an unexpected role of apoptotic caspases in the production of mitogenic signals that stimulate the proliferation of stem and progenitor cells to aid in tissue regeneration. This Review summarizes some of the key findings and discusses links to stem cell biology and cancer.

  7. Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Katrin; Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Knöspel, Fanny

    2016-09-01

    In vitro liver cell culture models are gaining increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological research. The source of cells used is critical for the relevance and the predictive value of such models. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are currently considered to be the gold standard for hepatic in vitro culture models, since they directly reflect the specific metabolism and functionality of the human liver; however, the scarcity and difficult logistics of PHH have driven researchers to explore alternative cell sources, including liver cell lines and pluripotent stem cells. Liver cell lines generated from hepatomas or by genetic manipulation are widely used due to their good availability, but they are generally altered in certain metabolic functions. For the past few years, adult and pluripotent stem cells have been attracting increasing attention, due their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro However, controlling the differentiation of these cells is still a challenge. This review gives an overview of the major human cell sources under investigation for in vitro liver cell culture models, including primary human liver cells, liver cell lines, and stem cells. The promises and challenges of different cell types are discussed with a focus on the complex 2D and 3D culture approaches under investigation for improving liver cell functionality in vitro Finally, the specific application options of individual cell sources in pharmacological research or disease modeling are described.

  8. Experimental hepatology applied to stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, P; Tomat, S; Villa, E; Gasbarrini, A; Costa, A N; Conconi, M T; Forbes, S J; Farinati, F; Cozzi, E; Alison, M R; Russo, F P

    2008-01-01

    Transplantation is an accepted treatment today for many people suffering from organ failure. More and more patients are referred for transplant surgery, and the waiting lists are growing longer because not enough organs and tissues are donated for transplantation. This has led to several potentially viable alternatives being considered, including bio-artificial support devices, the transplantation of mature cells or stem/progenitor cells and the potential transplantation of xenogenic organs and cells [Burra P, Samuel D, Wendon J, Pietrangelo A, Gupta S. Strategies for liver support: from stem cells to xenotransplantation. J Hepatol 2004;41:1050-9]. Numerous investigators around the world are engaged in these investigations and the pace of discovery has begun to accelerate in recent years. To take stock of the achievements of recent years, the AISF sponsored a Single-Topic Conference, held in Padua on 26-27 May, 2006, with the participation of many leading investigators from various parts of Italy and Europe. This present paper summarizes the content of the Conference. Different issues were analysed, from the biology of stem cells to the possible use of gene therapy. The speakers were clinicians and scientists interested in diseases not only of the liver but also of other organs such as the kidney or heart. The fact that numerous specialties were represented helped the audience to understand the stem cell research area from different standpoints, and what research has achieved so far.

  9. Effects of tissue homogenate from injured liver on induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells%损伤肝组织匀浆与骨髓间充质干细胞的分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯军霞; 梅浙川; 蒋明德

    2012-01-01

    背景:目前认为,骨髓间充质干细胞能否分化为肝细胞与微环境关系密切.方法:分别用正常和损伤肝脏组织匀浆诱导骨髓间充质干细胞分化,在第0,3,7,10,14,21 天用RT-PCR 和Western blot 法检测甲胎蛋白、白蛋白的表达.结果与结论:骨髓间充质干细胞在正常及损伤的肝脏组织匀浆诱导下均表现为类上皮样改变.两组均从第3 天开始检测到甲胎蛋白的表达,并在第7 天左右达到高峰,之后表达逐渐减少,第14 天时量很少;在第7 天检测到白蛋白的表达,且随时间延长表达量逐渐增加,mRNA 水平与蛋白水平表达一致.表明肝细胞在诱导培养下逐渐从幼稚到成熟.但正常和损伤肝组织匀浆诱导的肝细胞甲胎蛋白和白蛋白的表达量差异无显著性意义(P > 0.05).结果说明急性酒精性肝损伤组织匀浆可以诱导骨髓间充质干细胞向肝细胞分化,其诱导效果与正常肝脏组织匀浆相近.%BACKGROUND: Whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into hepatocytes is closely related to microenvironment. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of the acute alcoholic liver injury tissue homogenate on induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. METHODS: BMSCs were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, cultured, purified and identified in vitro. Rat models of alcohol-induced acute liver injury were prepared. Tissue homogenate of normal and injured liver was used to induce differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The a-fetoprotein and albumin expression was detected at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days using RT-PCR and western blot methods, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After induced by tissue homogenate of normal and injured liver, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells exhibit epithelioid change. After induced by each tissue homogenate, a-fetoprotein expression was detected from the 3rd day, peaked at about 7 days, decreased thereafter, and exhibited a very

  10. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties.

  11. Stem Cell Tracking by Nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Marzia Belicchi; Yvan Torrente; Franco Rustichelli; Fabrizio Fiori; Paola Razini; Silvia Erratico; Chiara Villa

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission ...

  12. Modeling Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Immature Hepatocyte-Like Cells Reveals Activation of PLIN2 and Confirms Regulatory Functions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffmann, Nina; Ring, Sarah; Kawala, Marie-Ann; Wruck, Wasco; Ncube, Audrey; Trompeter, Hans-Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD/steatosis) is a metabolic disease characterized by the incorporation of fat into hepatocytes. In this study, we developed an in vitro model for NAFLD based on hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells. We induced fat storage in these HLCs and detected major expression changes of metabolism-associated genes, as well as an overall reduction of liver-related microRNAs. We observed an upregulation of the lipid droplet coating protein Perilipin 2 (PLIN2), as well as of numerous genes of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway, which constitutes a regulatory hub for metabolic processes. Interference with PLIN2 and PPARα resulted in major alterations in gene expression, especially affecting lipid, glucose, and purine metabolism. Our model recapitulates many metabolic changes that are characteristic for NAFLD. It permits the dissection of disease-promoting molecular pathways and allows us to investigate the influences of distinct genetic backgrounds on disease progression. PMID:27308945

  13. A brief review of recent advances in stem cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Chen; Libing Zhou; Su-yue Pan

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types, essentially with-out limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive, offering immense hope of curing Alzheimer’s disease, repairing damaged spinal cords, treating kidney, liver and lung diseases and making damaged hearts whole. Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans:embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic“somatic”or“adult”stem cells. Recent breakthrough make it possible to convert or“reprogram”specialized adult cells to assume a stem stem-like cells with different technologies. The review will brielfy dis-cuss the recent progresses in this area.

  14. Stem cell tracking by nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Erratico, Silvia; Razini, Paola; Fiori, Fabrizio; Rustichelli, Franco; Torrente, Yvan; Belicchi, Marzia

    2010-03-12

    Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and X-Ray computed microtomography (microCT). This review examines the use of nanotechnologies for stem cell tracking.

  15. Stem Cell Tracking by Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Belicchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET, single-photon emission tomography (SPECT, magnetic resonance (MR imaging, and X-Ray computed microtomography (microCT. This review examines the use of nanotechnologies for stem cell tracking.

  16. Stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, LingLing; Hong, Tao

    2008-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the neurodegenerative changes or apoptosis of neurons involved in networks, which are important to specific physiological functions. With the development of old-aging society, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is on the increase. However, it is difficult to diagnose for most of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, there are too few effective therapies. Advances in stem cell biology have raised the hope and possibility for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, stem cells have been widely attempted to treat neurodegenerative diseases of animal model. Here we review the progress and prospects of various stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell and neural stem cells and so on, for the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington' disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Lou Gehrig's disease.

  17. Stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the neurodegenerative changes or apoptosis of neurons involved in networks, which are important to specific physiological functions. With the de-velopment of old-aging society, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is on the increase. How-ever, it is difficult to diagnose for most of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, there are too few effective therapies. Advances in stem cell biology have raised the hope and possibility for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, stem cells have been widely attempted to treat neurodegen-erative diseases of animal model. Here we review the progress and prospects of various stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell and neural stem cells and so on, for the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Hunt-ington’s disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Lou Gehrig’s disease.

  18. Stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU LingLing; HONG Tao

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the neurodegenerative changes or apoptosis of neurons involved in networks, which are important to specific physiological functions. With the development of old-aging society, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is on the increase. However, it is difficult to diagnose for most of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, there are too few effective therapies. Advances in stem cell biology have raised the hope and possibility for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, stem cells have been widely attempted to treat neurodegenerative diseases of animal model. Here we review the progress and prospects of various stem cells,including embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell and neural stem cells and so on, for the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Lou Gehrig's disease.

  19. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self-renewal and......Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self...... of clinical applications, e.g., non-healing bone fractures and defects and also non-skeletal degenerative diseases like heart failure. Currently, the numbers of clinical trials that employ MSC are increasing. However, several biological and biotechnological challenges need to be overcome to benefit from...

  20. Advances in human placenta-derived stem cells for liver regeneration%胎盘源性干细胞在肝脏疾病中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 朱争艳; 杜智

    2013-01-01

    人类胎盘源性干细胞(hPDSCs)是干细胞的混合群.再生医学已将其用于某些功能衰竭和损伤器官的细胞再生、抗细胞凋亡、抗炎,抗肿瘤和细胞功能恢复研究.目前已有许多实验研究证明:胎盘间充质干细胞(PDMSCs)可以在体外分化为肝细胞样细胞,并于体内外促进干细胞增生和抗肝细胞凋亡,在动物肝损伤模型抑制肝纤维化.本文就胎盘干细胞的来源、分类、生物学特性以及胎盘干细胞在肝脏疾病中的治疗研究做一综述,以便为进一步探讨胎盘源性干细胞在肝脏疾病治疗中的应用提供新的思路.%Human placenta-derived stem cells (hPD-SCs) are a mixed group of stem cells.Stem cell medicine has applications for organ damage or failure through regenerative,anti-apoptotic,anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties in addition to cell function recovery.Presently,human placenta mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) have similar characteristics to the differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells by promoting hepatocyte regeneration,anti-hepatocyte apoptosis and anti-liver fibrosis,in vitro or in animal models.To further our investigation,a summary of the origin,sorting and biological properties of hPDSCs along with a narration of hPDSCs for liver disease therapy was written.This leads to a discussion for new ideas to further explore cell treatment for liver disease.

  1. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Arreguin Camacho, Lucrecia O

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The cancer stem cells (CSCs) have important therapeutic implications for multi-resistant cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the key pathways frequently activated in liver CSCs is NF-kB signaling. METHODS: We evaluated the CSCs-depleting potential of NF-kB i...

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Ergurhan Kiroglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are almost incurable, debilitating, and they might be fatal, because of limited neurogenesis in nervous system, presence of inhibitory substances and inhibition of recovery due to development of glial scar. Despite many treatment strategies of neurodegenerative diseases no full cure has been achieved. The successful results for mesenchymal stem cells applications on muscles, heart and liver diseases and the application of these cells to the damaged area in particular, hypoxia, inflammation and apoptosis promise hope of using them for neurodegenerative diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells applications constitute a vascular and neuronal phenotype in Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimers disease. Stem cells release bioactive agents that lead to suppression of local immune system, reduction of free radicals, increase in angiogenesis, inhibition of fibrosis, and apoptosis. In addition, tissue stem cells, increase neuronal healing, stimulate proliferation and differentiation. These findings show that stem cells might be a hope of a cure in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and intensive work on this issue should continue.

  3. Stem cell ageing and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulle, Stefania; Centurione, Lucia; Mancinelli, Rosa; Sancilio, Silvia; Manzoli, Francesco Antonio; Di Pietro, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Ageing has been defined as the process of deterioration of many body functions over the lifespan of an individual. In spite of the number of different theories about ageing, there is a general consensus in identifying ageing effects in a reduced capacity to regenerate injured tissues or organs and an increased propensity to infections and cancer. In recent years the stem cell theory of ageing has gained much attention. Adult stem cells residing in mammalian tissues are essential for tissue homeostasis and repair throughout adult life. With advancing age, the highly regulated molecular signalling necessary to ensure proper cellular, tissue, and organ homeostasis loses coordination and leads, as a consequence, to a compromised potential of regeneration and repair of damaged cells and tissues. Although a complete comprehension of the molecular mechanisms involved in stem cell ageing and apoptosis is far to be reached, recent studies are beginning to unravel the processes involved in stem cell ageing, particularly in adult skeletal muscle stem cells, namely satellite cells. Thus, the focus of this review is to analyse the relationship between stem cell ageing and apoptosis with a peculiar attention to human satellite cells as compared to haematopoietic stem cells. Undoubtedly, the knowledge of age-related changes of stem cells will help in understanding the ageing process itself and will provide novel therapeutic challenges for improved tissue regeneration.

  4. A Transcriptomic Signature of Mouse Liver Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Passman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver progenitor cells (LPCs can proliferate extensively, are able to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and contribute to liver regeneration. The presence of LPCs, however, often accompanies liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, indicating that they may be a cancer stem cell. Understanding LPC biology and establishing a sensitive, rapid, and reliable method to detect their presence in the liver will assist diagnosis and facilitate monitoring of treatment outcomes in patients with liver pathologies. A transcriptomic meta-analysis of over 400 microarrays was undertaken to compare LPC lines against datasets of muscle and embryonic stem cell lines, embryonic and developed liver (DL, and HCC. Three gene clusters distinguishing LPCs from other liver cell types were identified. Pathways overrepresented in these clusters denote the proliferative nature of LPCs and their association with HCC. Our analysis also revealed 26 novel markers, LPC markers, including Mcm2 and Ltbp3, and eight known LPC markers, including M2pk and Ncam. These markers specified the presence of LPCs in pathological liver tissue by qPCR and correlated with LPC abundance determined using immunohistochemistry. These results showcase the value of global transcript profiling to identify pathways and markers that may be used to detect LPCs in injured or diseased liver.

  5. Fetal stem cell transplantation: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Eto, Koji

    2014-09-26

    Since 1928, human fetal tissues and stem cells have been used worldwide to treat various conditions. Although the transplantation of the fetal midbrain substantia nigra and dopaminergic neurons in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease is particularly noteworthy, the history of other types of grafts, such as those of the fetal liver, thymus, and pancreas, should be addressed as there are many lessons to be learnt for future stem cell transplantation. This report describes previous practices and complications that led to current clinical trials of isolated fetal stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Moreover, strategies for transplantation are considered, with a particular focus on donor cells, cell processing, and the therapeutic cell niche, in addition to ethical issues associated with fetal origin. With the advent of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells and ES cells, clinical dependence on fetal transplantation is expected to gradually decline due to lasting ethical controversies, despite landmark achievements.

  6. Fetal stem cell transplantation: Past, present, and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya; Ishii; Koji; Eto

    2014-01-01

    Since 1928, human fetal tissues and stem cells have been used worldwide to treat various conditions. Although the transplantation of the fetal midbrain substantia nigra and dopaminergic neurons in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease is particularly noteworthy, the history of other types of grafts, such as those of the fetal liver, thymus, and pancreas, should be addressed as there are many lessons to be learnt for future stem cell transplantation. This report describes previous practices and complications that led to current clinical trials of isolated fetal stem cells and embryonic stem(ES) cells. Moreover, strategies for transplantation are considered, with a particular focus on donor cells, cell processing, and the therapeutic cell niche, in addition to ethical issues associated with fetal origin. With the advent of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells and ES cells, clinical dependence on fetal transplantation is expected to gradually decline due to lasting ethical controversies, despite landmark achievements.

  7. 肝素联合肝干细胞经脾移植治疗SD大鼠急性肝损伤%Treatment of acute liver injury by intrasplenic transplantation of hepatic stem cells combined with heparin in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄增辉; 曾珊; 欧阳淼; 董娟娟; Yuewen Gong; 申竑

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨肝素联合肝干细胞(WB-F344细胞)经脾移植对大鼠急性肝损伤的治疗作用.方法:构建携带绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)基因的慢病毒载体,体外培养、扩增WB-F344细胞,携带GFP基因的慢病毒转染WB-F344细胞.通过腹腔注射四氯化碳(CCl4)建立大鼠急性肝损伤模型,造模后24 h分别将1 mL含2×107个肝干细胞和8 μL肝素的悬液经脾注入大鼠体内.移植术后1 d获取肝脏和脾脏标本进行荧光检测,分别于术后3,7,14和28 d尾静脉抽血送肝功能检测,获取肝脏组织行病理学检测.结果:经慢病毒转染3 d后,WB-F344细胞表达GFP;GFP阳性细胞经脾移植1 d后到达肝脏;实验组大鼠的肝功能和肝脏损伤修复明显优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:经脾联合肝素和WB-F344细胞移植对CCl4所导致的大鼠急性肝损伤有明显的治疗作用.%Objective To determine the treatment effects of transplanted hepatic progenitor cells (WB-F344 cells) combined with heparin on the acute liver injury in SD rats.Methods A total of 2 × 107 hepatic stem cells (WB-F344) infected with GFP lentivirus and 8 μL heparin were transplanted through the spleen in SD rats with acute liver injury, which was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4.The liver and spleen tissues underwent fluorescence examination 1 day after the transplantation.The liver functions were tested, and the liver tissues were histopathologically examined on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 28th day of the cell transplantation.Results The transfected WB-F344 cells expressed GFP 3 days after the lentivirus infection and were found in the rat liver 1 day after the WB-F344 transplantation.The liver function and histopathological recovery of the liver tissues in the group of WB-F344 transplantation were better than those of the control group (P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Transplantation of hepatic stem cells combined with heparin can promote the liver recovery in rats with acute liver injury induced by CCl

  8. [Stem cells and cardiac regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Lorenti, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by virtue of their functional attributes: absence of tissue specific differentitated markers, capable of proliferation, able to self-maintain the population, able to produce a large number of differentiated, functional progeny, able to regenerate the tissue after injury. Cell therapy is an alternative for the treatment of several diseases, like cardiac diseases (cell cardiomyoplasty). A variety of stem cells could be used for cardiac repair: from cardiac and extracardiac sources. Each cell type has its own profile of advantages, limitations, and practicability issues in specific clinical settings. Differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to cardiomyocyte-like cells have been observed under different culture conditions. The presence of resident cardiac stem cell population capable of differentiation into cardiomyocyte or vascular lineage suggests that these cells could be used for cardiac tissue repair, and represent a great promise for clinical application. Stem cells mobilization by cytokines may also offer a strategy for cardiac regeneration. The use of stem cells (embryonic and adult) may hold the key to replacing cells lost in many devastating diseases. This potential benefit is a major focus for stem cell research.

  9. Involvement of plant stem cells or stem cell-like cells in dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to procambium cells (stem cell-like cells are dedifferentiated and survive more easily than other cell types. This finding indicates that stem cells or stem cell-like cells may influence the dedifferentiating niche. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of stem cell maintenance and dedifferentiation regulation. We also summarize current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance between differentiation and dedifferentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation of stem cells or stem cell-like cells with dedifferentiation.

  10. Bioprinting for stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in applying bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized biomolecules can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cells of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics.

  11. Stem cells for spine surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshua Schroeder; Janina Kueper; Kaplan Leon; Meir Liebergall

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, stem cells have become the focusof research by regenerative medicine professionals andtissue engineers. Embryonic stem cells, although capableof differentiating into cell lineages of all three germlayers, are limited in their utilization due to ethical issues.In contrast, the autologous harvest and subsequenttransplantation of adult stem cells from bone marrow,adipose tissue or blood have been experimentally utilizedin the treatment of a wide variety of diseases rangingfrom myocardial infarction to Alzheimer's disease. Thephysiologic consequences of stem cell transplantationand its impact on functional recovery have been studiedin countless animal models and select clinical trials.Unfortunately, the bench to bedside translation of thisresearch has been slow. Nonetheless, stem cell therapyhas received the attention of spinal surgeons due to itspotential benefits in the treatment of neural damage,muscle trauma, disk degeneration and its potentialcontribution to bone fusion.

  12. Expression kinetics of hepatic progenitor markers in cellular models of human liver development recapitulating hepatocyte and biliary cell fate commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pooja; Tian, Lipeng; Deshmukh, Abhijeet; Jang, Yoon-Young

    2016-09-01

    Due to the limitations of research using human embryos and the lack of a biological model of human liver development, the roles of the various markers associated with liver stem or progenitor cell potential in humans are largely speculative, and based on studies utilizing animal models and certain patient tissues. Human pluripotent stem cell-based in vitro multistage hepatic differentiation systems may serve as good surrogate models for mimicking normal human liver development, pathogenesis and injury/regeneration studies. Here, we describe the implications of various liver stem or progenitor cell markers and their bipotency (i.e. hepatocytic- and biliary-epithelial cell differentiation), based on the pluripotent stem cell-derived model of human liver development. Future studies using the human cellular model(s) of liver and biliary development will provide more human relevant biological and/or pathological roles of distinct markers expressed in heterogeneous liver stem/progenitor cell populations.

  13. Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are the building blocks for all other cells in an organism. The human body has about 200 different types of cells and any of those cells can be produced by a stem cell. This fact emphasizes the significance of stem cells in transplantational medicine, regenerative therapy and bioengineering. Whether embryonic or adult, these cells can be used for the successful treatment of a wide range of diseases that were not treatable before, such as osteogenesis imperfecta in children, different forms of leukemias, acute myocardial infarction, some neural damages and diseases, etc. Bioengineering, e.g. successful manipulation of these cells with multipotential capacity of differentiation toward appropriate patterns and precise quantity, are the prerequisites for successful outcome and treatment. By combining in vivo and in vitro techniques, it is now possible to manage the wide spectrum of tissue damages and organ diseases. Although the stem-cell therapy is not a response to all the questions, it provides more...

  14. Stem cell therapies: California dreamin'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Kris

    2010-01-08

    Ready or not, stem cells are a step closer to the clinic, thanks to approximately $230 million awarded by CIRM to 14 California-based research groups to develop stem cell-based therapies within 4 years. But, as Kris Novak reports, some of these projects are closer to therapeutic reality than others.

  15. Stem cell mitochondria during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min-Wen, Jason Chua; Jun-Hao, Elwin Tan; Shyh-Chang, Ng

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria are the central hubs of cellular metabolism, equipped with their own mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) blueprints to direct part of the programming of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and thus reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In stem cells, many stem cell factors governing the intricate balance between self-renewal and differentiation have been found to directly regulate mitochondrial processes to control stem cell behaviors during tissue regeneration and aging. Moreover, numerous nutrient-sensitive signaling pathways controlling organismal longevity in an evolutionarily conserved fashion also influence stem cell-mediated tissue homeostasis during aging via regulation of stem cell mitochondria. At the genomic level, it has been demonstrated that heritable mtDNA mutations and variants affect mammalian stem cell homeostasis and influence the risk for human degenerative diseases during aging. Because such a multitude of stem cell factors and signaling pathways ultimately converge on the mitochondria as the primary mechanism to modulate cellular and organismal longevity, it would be most efficacious to develop technologies to therapeutically target and direct mitochondrial repair in stem cells, as a unified strategy to combat aging-related degenerative diseases in the future.

  16. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  17. International Society for Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and regenerative medicine community in the world. More stem cell research Take a closer look Recent Blogs View ... story independent nonprofit organization & the voice of the stem cell research community The International Society for Stem Cell ...

  18. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... blood-forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

  19. Stem cells in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Rama Kumar M, Madhu Varma K, Kalyan Satish R, Manikya kumar Nanduri.R, Murali Krishnam Raju S, Mohan rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Serving as a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. However, progress in stem cell biology and tissue engineering may present new options for replacing heavily damaged or lost teeth, or even individual tooth structures. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells on regenerative endodontics.

  20. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  1. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells.

  2. Cell therapy for liver diseases: current medicine and future promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandra, Meza-Ríos; Juan, Armendáriz-Borunda; Ana, Sandoval-Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Liver diseases are a major health problem worldwide since they usually represent the main causes of death in most countries, causing excessive costs to public health systems. Nowadays, there are no efficient current therapies for most hepatic diseases and liver transplant is infrequent due to the availability of organs, cost and risk of transplant rejection. Therefore, alternative therapies for liver diseases have been developed, including cell-based therapies. Stem cells (SCs) are characterized by their self-renewing capacity, unlimited proliferation and differentiation under certain conditions into tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. Cell-based therapies for liver diseases have been successful in experimental models, showing anti-inflammatory, antifibrogenic and regenerative effects. Nowadays, clinical trials using SCs for liver pathologies are increasing in number, and those that have reached publication have achieved favorable effects, encouraging us to think that SCs will have a potential clinical use in a short time.

  3. Role of liver functions on liver cell mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takata,Tameyuki

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The control mechanism of mitosis in the regenerating rat liver was studied in relation to the cell functions. Partial hepatec· tomy induces a series of changes prior to the initiation of mitosis, i. e. decrease in serum glucose and albumin levels, loss of glycogen from liver cells, and increased lipid mobilization to liver cells. Massive supplies of glucose and fructose suppressed significantly hepatocellu. lar mitosis with suppression of lipid accumulation and preservation of glycogen in the liver cells and of blood sugar level. Homologous serum administration also suppressed the rate of liver cell mitosis after hepatectomy preventing the decrease in serum albumin level, but did not suppress the lipid accumulation in the liver. Starvation, which would relieve the liver cell from the work of detoxication of intesti. nal toxic products, did not show any suppressive effect on the mitotic rate of liver cells after partial hepatectomy in single animals. But starvation induced severe hypoglycemia, moderate hypoalbuminemia and loss of glycogen content in the liver. These changes in metabo. lism by starvation and partial hepatectomy were suppressed by con· jugating the animals with nonhepatectomized fed.partners by aortic anastomosis, and mitosis was suppressed in the residual liver of the fasting animals in this parabiosis. The results indicate that all the major functions of parenchymal live cells tested, sugar metabolism, serum albumin production, and detoxication, are closely related to the control of liver cell mitosis. Accumulation of lipids in the liver remnant after partial hepatectomy is thought to be for the compensa. tion of reduced glycogen storage and not concerned directly with the liver cell mitosis. Discussion was made briefly on the humoral factor and portal blood factor in relation to excess load of functions on resi. dual liver cells.

  4. Stem cell therapy - Hope and scope in pediatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Devendra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell in the body with undetermined function capable of forming various tissues under definite signals received from the body. Stem cell research in animals using embryonal stem cells has been an ongoing program in the west with fruitful results. However, only limited information is available with the use of stem cells in human beings. Of the various sources of stem cells, umbilical cord blood stem cell research has shown potential for future treatment in Alzheimer′s, Parkinson′s, heart attack, stroke and spinal cord injuries. Human trials have been done in diseases like spinal cord injury and chronic liver cirrhosis. Cord blood stem cells have already been effectively used in the treatment of sickle cell, leukemia, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma and some other cancers, life threatening anemias and auto-immune diseases. Current challenges with the use of stem cells in clinical practice include the provisions to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specialized cell populations, and also devise ways to guard their development or proliferation once placed in vivo. Only further research and its clinical application will solve the many unanswered queries.

  5. Bone Marrow Stem Cell as a Potential Treatment for Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood glucose levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. The chronic hyperglycemia damages the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Curative therapies mainly include diet, insulin, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, these therapies fail to maintain blood glucose levels in the normal range all the time. Although pancreas or islet-cell transplantation achieves better glucose control, a major obstacle is the shortage of donor organs. Recently, research has focused on stem cells which can be classified into embryonic stem cells (ESCs and tissue stem cells (TSCs to generate functional β cells. TSCs include the bone-marrow-, liver-, and pancreas-derived stem cells. In this review, we focus on treatment using bone marrow stem cells for type 1 and 2 DM.

  6. A study of structural differences between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Daping; Xu, Fangcheng; Yu, Qiang; Fang, Tingting; Xia, Junjun; Li, Seruo; Wang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Since liver cancer seriously threatens human health, it is very urgent to explore an effective method for diagnosing liver cancer early. In this study, we investigated the structure differences of IR spectra between neoplastic liver cells and normal liver cells. The major differences of absorption bands were observed between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, the values of A2955/A2921, A1744/A1082, A1640/A1535, H1121/H1020 might be potentially useful factors for distinguishing liver cancer cells from normal liver cells. Curve fitting also provided some important information on structural differences between malignant and normal liver cancer cells. Furthermore, IR spectra combined with hierarchical cluster analysis could make a distinction between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells. The present results provided enough cell basis for diagnosis of liver cancer by FTIR spectroscopy, suggesting FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for liver cancer diagnosis.

  7. Hepatitis B virus PreS1 facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma development by promoting appearance and self-renewal of liver cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixin; Dai, Xuechen; Wang, Tianci; Zhang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Wenjun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2017-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major etiologic agent of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanism by which HBV infection contributes to HCC development is not fully understood. Here, we initially showed that HBV stimulates the production of cancer stem cells (CSCs)-related markers (CD133, CD117 and CD90) and CSCs-related genes (Klf4, Sox2, Nanog, c-Myc and Oct4) and facilitates the self-renewal of CSCs in human hepatoma cells. Cellular and clinical studies revealed that HBV facilitates hepatoma cell growth and migration, enhances white blood cell (WBC) production in the sera of patients, stimulates CD133 and CD117 expression in HCC tissues, and promotes the CSCs generation of human hepatoma cells and clinical cancer tissues. Detailed studies revealed that PreS1 protein of HBV is required for HBV-mediated CSCs generation. PreS1 activates CD133, CD117 and CD90 expression in normal hepatocyte derived cell line (L02) and human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 and Huh-7); facilitates L02 cells migration, growth and sphere formation; and finally enhances the abilities of L02 cells and HepG2 cells to induce tumorigeneses in nude mice. Thus, PreS1 acts as a new oncoprotein to play a key role in the appearance and self-renewal of CSCs during HCC development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oct4 expression in adult human stem cells: evidence in support of the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Mei-Hui; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kiupel, Matti; Webster, Joshua D; Olson, L Karl; Trosko, James E

    2005-02-01

    The Oct3/4 gene, a POU family transcription factor, has been noted as being specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells and in tumor cells but not in cells of differentiated tissues. With the ability to isolate adult human stem cells it became possible to test for the expression of Oct3/4 gene in adult stem cells and to test the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis. Using antibodies and PCR primers we tested human breast, liver, pancreas, kidney, mesenchyme and gastric stem cells, the cancer cell lines HeLa and MCF-7 and human, dog and rat tumors for Oct4 expression. The results indicate that adult human stem cells, immortalized non-tumorigenic cells and tumor cells and cell lines, but not differentiated cells, express Oct4. Oct4 is expressed in a few cells found in the basal layer of human skin epidermis. The data demonstrate that adult stem cells maintain expression of Oct4, consistent with the stem cell hypothesis of carcinogenesis.

  9. Laryngeal cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Greco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies in the head and neck region with an increased incidence rate worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a group of cells with eternal life or infinite self-renewal ability, which have high migrating, infiltrative, and metastatic abilities. Though CSCs only account for a small proportion in tumors, the high resistance to traditional therapy exempts them from therapy killing and thus they can reconstruct tumors. Our current knowledge, about CSCs in the LSCC, largely depends on head and neck studies with a lack of systematic data about the evidences of CSCs in tumorigenesis of LSCC. Certainly, the combination of therapies aimed at debulking the tumour (e.g. surgery, conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy together with targeted therapies aimed at the elimination of the CSCs might have a positive impact on the long-term outcome of patients with laryngeal cancer (LC in the future and may cast a new light on the cancer treatment.

  10. Bone repair and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  11. Stem Cell Therapy in Treatment of Different Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sahraian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ability of proliferation, regeneration, conversion to differentiated cells and producing various tissues. Stem cells are divided into two categories of embryonic and adult. In another categorization stem cells are divided to Totipotent, Multipotent and Unipotent cells.So far usage of stem cells in treatment of various blood diseases has been studied (such as lymphoblastic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, thalassemia, multiple myeloma and cycle cell anemia. In this paper the goal is evaluation of cell therapy in treatment of Parkinsons disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury, Multiple Sclerosis, Radiation Induced Intestinal Injury, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Liver Disease, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Bone Disease, Renal Disease, Chronic Wounds, Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Sepsis and Respiratory diseases. It should be mentioned that some disease that are the target of cell therapy are discussed in this article.

  12. Stem cell therapy in treatment of different diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Ensieh Nasli; Amini, Peyvand; Nikbin, Behrouz; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Amiri, Somayeh; Malekzadeh, Reza; Yazdi, Nika Mojahed; Ghodsi, Maryam; Dowlati, Yahya; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ability of proliferation, regeneration, conversion to differentiated cells and producing various tissues. Stem cells are divided into two categories of embryonic and adult. In another categorization stem cells are divided to Totipotent, Multipotent and Unipotent cells.So far usage of stem cells in treatment of various blood diseases has been studied (such as lymphoblastic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, thalassemia, multiple myeloma and cycle cell anemia). In this paper the goal is evaluation of cell therapy in treatment of Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury, Multiple Sclerosis, Radiation Induced Intestinal Injury, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Liver Disease, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Bone Disease, Renal Disease, Chronic Wounds, Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Sepsis and Respiratory diseases. It should be mentioned that some disease that are the target of cell therapy are discussed in this article.

  13. Experimental study of bioartificial liver with cultured human liver cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AIM To establish an extracorporeal bioartificial liver support system (EBLSS) using cultured human liver cells and to study its support effect for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF).METHODS The liver support experiment of EBLSS consisting of aggregates cultured human liver cells, hollow fiber bioreactor, and circulation unit was carried out in dizhepatic dogs.RESULTS The viability of isolated hepatocytes and nonparenchymal liver cells reached 96%. These cells were successfully cultured as multicellular spheroids with synthetic technique. The typical morphological appearance was retained up to the end of the artificial liver experiment. Compared with the control dogs treated with EBLSS without liver cells, the survival time of artificial liver support dogs was significantly prolonged. The changes of blood pressure, heart rate and ECG were slow. Both serum ammonia and lactate levels were significantly lowered at the 3rd h and 5th h. In addition, a good viability of human liver cells was noted after 5 h experiment.CONCLUSION EBLSS playing a metabolic role of cultured human hepatocytes, is capable of compensating the function of the liver, and could provide effective artificial liver support and therapy for patients with FHF.

  14. Stem cells and combinatorial science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yue Qin; Wong, Wan Qing; Yap, Yan Wen; Orner, Brendan P

    2007-09-01

    Stem cell-based technologies have the potential to help cure a number of cell degenerative diseases. Combinatorial and high throughput screening techniques could provide tools to control and manipulate the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. This review chronicles historic and recent progress in the stem cell field involving both pluripotent and multipotent cells, and it highlights relevant cellular signal transduction pathways. This review further describes screens using libraries of soluble, small-molecule ligands, and arrays of molecules immobilized onto surfaces while proposing future trends in similar studies. It is hoped that by reviewing both the stem cell and the relevant high throughput screening literature, this paper can act as a resource to the combinatorial science community.

  15. LITERATURE REVIEW ON STEM CELL TREATMENT & ORAL SUBMUCOUS FIBROSIS (OSMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathipaty James

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is a part of regenerative medicine that involves the use of undifferentiated cells in order to cure the disease. Stem cell - based therapies are being investigated for the treatment of many conditions, including neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, diabetes, autoimmune diseases and for nerve regeneration. (1 In orofacial region these therapies are being used for tooth and periodontal regeneration, temporomandibular joint reconstruction, alve olar bone regeneration. Craniofacial stem cells including dental pulp derived stem cells have the potential to cure a number of diseases. Present day treatment modalities for oral mucosal lesions like ulcerative lesions, premalignancies and malignancies mainly consist of steroids and antioxidants (which provide only a short term and symptomatic relief and surgery with or without chemo/radiotherapy (which leave the patient with certain amount of morbidity. Advances in stem cell technology have opened new vistas for treatment of these lesions. Various studies have shown the successful role of stem cell therapies in the treatment of precancerous conditions, oral ulcers, wounds and mucositis. (2 The recent concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs has directed sci entific communities toward a new area of research and possible potential treatment modalities for oral cancer. (3 The present article will discuss the role of stem cell applications in oral mucosal lesions. KEYWORDS: R eview - stem cells - properties - types - appl ications - role in osmf - results

  16. Pitavastatin suppressed liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, He-Yi; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Xie, Xue-Meng; Zheng, Zhi-Hai; Zhu, Heng-Liang; Jiang, Fei-Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Pitavastatin classically functions as a blood cholesterol-lowering drug. Previously, it was discovered with antiglioma stem cell properties through drug screening. However, whether it can be used for liver cancer cell therapy has never been reported. In this study, the cell viability and colony formation assay were utilized to analyze the cytotoxicity of pitavastatin on liver cancer cells. The cell cycle alteration was checked after pitavastatin treatment. Apoptosis-related protein expression and the effect of caspase inhibitor were also checked. The in vivo inhibitory effect of pitavastatin on the growth of liver tumor was also tested. It was found that pitavastatin inhibited growth and colony formation of liver cancer Huh-7 cells and SMMC7721 cells. It induced arrest of liver cancer cells at the G1 phase. Increased proportion of sub-G1 cells was observed after pitavastatin treatment. Pitavastatin promoted caspase-9 cleavage and caspase-3 cleavage in liver cancer cells. Caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK reversed the cleavage of cytotoxic effect of pitavastatin. Moreover, pitavastatin decreased the tumor growth and improved the survival of tumor-bearing mice. This study suggested the antiliver cancer effect of the old drug pitavastatin. It may be developed as a drug for liver cancer therapy. PMID:27621652

  17. Nanotechniques Inactivate Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, Anatoliy N.; Babenko, Natalya N.; Gaevskaya, Yulia A.; Bondarovich, Nikolay A.; Dubrava, Tatiana G.; Ostankov, Maksim V.; Chelombitko, Olga V.; Malyukin, Yuriy V.; Klochkov, Vladimir K.; Kavok, Nataliya S.

    2017-06-01

    One of the tasks of current oncology is identification of cancer stem cells and search of therapeutic means capable of their specific inhibition. The paper presents the data on phenotype characteristics of Ehrlich carcinoma cells as convenient and easy-to-follow model of tumor growth. The evidence of cancer stem cells as a part of Ehrlich carcinoma and significance of CD44+ and CD44- subpopulations in maintaining the growth of this type of tumor were demonstrated. A high (tenfold) tumorigenic activity of the Ehrlich carcinoma CD44+ cells if compared to CD44- cells was proven. In this pair of comparison, the CD44+ cells had a higher potential of generating in peritoneal cavity of CD44high, CD44+CD24-, CD44+CD24+ cell subpopulations, highlighting the presence of cancer stem cells in a pool of CD44+ cells.

  18. p53 in stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valeriya; Solozobova; Christine; Blattner

    2011-01-01

    p53 is well known as a "guardian of the genome" for differentiated cells,in which it induces cell cycle arrest and cell death after DNA damage and thus contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability.In addition to this tumor suppressor function for differentiated cells,p53 also plays an important role in stem cells.In this cell type,p53 not only ensures genomic integrity after genotoxic insults but also controls their proliferation and differentiation.Additionally,p53 provides an effective barrier for the generation of pluripotent stem celllike cells from terminally differentiated cells.In this review,we summarize our current knowledge about p53 activities in embryonic,adult and induced pluripotent stem cells.

  19. Stem cells: Biology and clinical potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... divisions to self renew or undergo terminal differentiation, or they may ... cells, hematopoietic stem cells and cancer cells conti- ..... as vascular endothelial cells, neurocytes, lung cells and ..... Patient-specific embryonic stem.

  20. Gs signaling in osteoblasts and hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Henry M

    2010-03-01

    The heterotrimeric G protein Gs is a major mediator of the actions of several G protein-coupled receptors that target cells of the osteoblast lineage. For this reason, we generated chimeric mice with normal host cells and cells derived from embryonic stem cells missing the gene encoding the alpha subunit of Gs. While the mutant cells contributed to cortical osteoblasts and to hematopoietic cells in the liver, the marrow space contained few if any osteoblasts or hematopoietic cells missing Gs. Subsequent studies using the Cre-lox approach to delete Gsalpha from early cells of the osteoblast lineage and from hematopoietic stem cells were performed. These studies demonstrated the crucial roles of Gsalpha in osteoblastic cells in regulating the differentiation of osteoblasts and in supporting B-cell development as well as the essential role for Gsalpha in hematopoietic stem cells in allowing the homing of these cells to the marrow.

  1. Gene therapy progress and prospects: stem cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashofer, K; Bonnet, D

    2005-08-01

    With the identification of stem cell plasticity several years ago, multiple reports raised hopes that tissue repair by stem cell transplantation could be within reach in the near future. Krause et al reported that a single purified hematopoietic stem cell not only repopulated the bone marrow of a host animal, but also integrated into unrelated tissues. Lagasse et al demonstrated that in a genetic model of liver disease, purified hematopoietic stem cells can give rise to hepatocytes and rescue fatal liver damage. More recent work by Jiang et al demonstrated that cultured cells can retain their stem cell potential. There are a number of possible mechanisms that could explain these phenomena, and recent experiments have raised controversy about which mechanism is prevalent. One possibility is transdifferentiation of a committed cell directly into another cell type as a response to environmental cues. Transdifferentiation has been shown mainly in vitro, but some in vivo data also support this mechanism. Direct transdifferentiation would clinically be limited by the number of cells that can be introduced into an organ without removal of resident cells. If bone marrow cells could on the other hand give rise to stem cells of another tissue, then they could in theory repopulate whole organs from a few starting cells. This model of dedifferentiation is consistent with recent data from animal models. Genetic analysis of cells of donor origin in vivo and in vitro has brought to light another possible mechanism. The fusion of host and donor cells can give rise to mature tissue cells without trans- or dedifferentiation. The resulting heterokaryons are able to cure a lethal genetic defect and do not seem to be prone to give rise to cancer. All these models will clinically face the problem of accessibility of healthy primary cells for transplantation. This underlines the importance of the recent identification of a population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with stem cell

  2. [Progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libin; Zhu, He; Hao, Jie; Zhou, Qi

    2015-06-01

    Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all types of cells in the body and therefore have great application potential in regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modelling and drug screening. In recent years, stem cell technology has made great progress, and induced pluripotent stem cell technology revolutionizes the whole stem cell field. At the same time, stem cell research in our country has also achieved great progress and becomes an indispensable power in the worldwide stem cell research field. This review mainly focuses on the research progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine in our country since the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, including induced pluripotent stem cells, transdifferentiation, haploid stem cells, and new gene editing tools.

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Tooth Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Ling Ye; Xue-dong Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Tooth loss compromises human oral health. Although several prosthetic methods, such as artificial denture and dental implants, are clinical therapies to tooth loss problems, they are thought to have safety and usage time issues. Recently, tooth tissue engineering has attracted more and more attention. Stem cell based tissue engineering is thought to be a promising way to replace the missing tooth. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types. The potential MSCs for tooth regeneration mainly include stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from the apical part of the papilla (SCAPs), stem cells from the dental follicle (DFSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). This review outlines the recent progress in the mesenchymal stem cells used in tooth regeneration.

  4. Stemness in Cancer: Stem Cells, Cancer Stem Cells, and Their Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Aponte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stemness combines the ability of a cell to perpetuate its lineage, to give rise to differentiated cells, and to interact with its environment to maintain a balance between quiescence, proliferation, and regeneration. While adult Stem Cells display these properties when participating in tissue homeostasis, Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs behave as their malignant equivalents. CSCs display stemness in various circumstances, including the sustaining of cancer progression, and the interaction with their environment in search for key survival factors. As a result, CSCs can recurrently persist after therapy. In order to understand how the concept of stemness applies to cancer, this review will explore properties shared between normal and malignant Stem Cells. First, we provide an overview of properties of normal adult Stem Cells. We thereafter elaborate on how these features operate in CSCs. We then review the organization of microenvironment components, which enables CSCs hosting. We subsequently discuss Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs, which, although their stemness properties are limited, represent essential components of the Stem Cell niche and tumor microenvironment. We next provide insights of the therapeutic strategies targeting Stem Cell properties in tumors and the use of state-of-the-art techniques in future research. Increasing our knowledge of the CSCs microenvironment is key to identifying new therapeutic solutions.

  5. Progress and prospects in stem cell therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-ling XU; Fei YI; Hui-ze PAN; Shun-lei DUAN; Zhi-chao DING; Guo-hong YUAN; Jing QU

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years,progress being made in stem cell studies has incontestably led to the hope of developing cell replacement based therapy for diseases deficient in effective treatment by conventional ways.The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are of great interest of cell therapy research because of their unrestricted self-renewal and differentiation potentials.Proof of principle studies have successfully demonstrated that iPSCs technology would substantially benefit clinical studies in various areas,including neurological disorders,hematologic diseases,cardiac diseases,liver diseases and etc.On top of this,latest advances of gene editing technologies have vigorously endorsed the possibility of obtaining disease-free autologous cells from patient specific iPSCs.Here in this review,we summarize current progress of stem cell therapy research with special enthusiasm in iPSCs studies.In addition,we compare current gene editing technologies and discuss their potential implications in clinic application in the future.

  6. Sphere-forming cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties in human hepatoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs are regarded as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. Methods Human hepatoma cell lines were plated in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming. To evaluate the stemness characteristics of spheres, the self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells, and the expression levels of stem cell related proteins in the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells were assessed, comparing with the parental cells. The stem cell RT-PCR array was performed to further explore the biological properties of liver CSCs. Results The PLC/PRF/5, MHCC97H and HepG2 cells could form clonal nonadherent 3-D spheres and be serially passaged. The PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells possessed a key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, overexpression of liver CSCs related proteins (Oct3/4, OV6, EpCAM, CD133 and CD44. Even 500 sphere-forming cells were able to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice, and the tumor initiating capability was not decreased when spheres were passaged. Besides, downstream proteins DTX1 and Ep300 of the CSL (CBF1 in humans, Suppressor of hairless in Drosophila and LAG1 in C. elegans -independent Notch signaling pathway were highly expressed in the spheres, and a gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 could significantly inhibit the sphere formation ability. Conclusions Nonadherent tumor spheres from hepatoma cell lines cultured in stem cell conditioned medium possess liver CSC properties, and the CSL-independent Notch signaling pathway may play a role in liver CSCs.

  7. Concise Review: Advances in Generating Hepatocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Translational Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Hay, David C

    2016-06-01

    The liver is one of the major organs in the human body. Severe or prolonged exposure of the liver to different factors may cause life-threatening disease, which necessitates donor organ transplantation. While orthotopic liver transplantation can be used to effectively treat liver failure, it is an invasive procedure, which is severely limited by organ donation. Therefore, alternative sources of liver support have been proposed and studied. This includes the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes as a renewable source of cells for therapy. In addition to cell-based therapies, in vitro engineered liver tissue provides powerful models for human drug discovery and disease modeling. This review focuses on the generation of hepatocyte-like cells from pluripotent stem cells and their application in translational medicine. Stem Cells 2016;34:1421-1426.

  8. Bone marrow cells differentiation into organ cells using stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y-J; Li, X-L; Xue, Y; Zhang, C-X; Wang, Y; Hu, X; Dai, Q

    2016-07-01

    Bone marrow cells (BMC) are progenitors of bone, cartilage, skeletal tissue, the hematopoiesis-supporting stroma and adipocyte cells. BMCs have the potential to differentiate into neural cells, cardiac myocytes, liver hepatocytes, chondrocytes, renal, corneal, blood, and myogenic cells. The bone marrow cell cultures from stromal and mesenchymal cells are called multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs). MAPCs can differentiate into mesenchymal cells, visceral mesoderm, neuroectoderm and endoderm in vitro. It has been shown that the stem cells derived from bone marrow cells (BMCs) can regenerate cardiac myocytes after myocardial infarction (MI). Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to regenerate neural cells. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PC) are ideal for treating central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington disease. However, there are important ethical issues about the therapeutic use of stem cells. Neurons, cardiac myocytes, hepatocytes, renal cells, blood cells, chondrocytes and adipocytes regeneration from BMCs are very important in disease control. It is known that limbal epithelial stem cells in the cornea can repair the eye sight and remove symptoms of blindness. Stem cell therapy (SCT) is progressing well in animal models, but the use of SCT in human remains to be explored further.

  9. Human embryonic stem cells handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent it became imperative to write down the review for a book entirely devoted to human embryonic stem cells (hES, those cells that are a urgent need for researchers, those cells that rekindle the ethical debates and finally, last but not least, those cells whose study paved the way to obtain induced pluripotent stem cells by the OSKC’s Yamanaka method (the OSKC acronim refers, for those not familiar with the topic, to the four stemness genes used to transfect somatic fibroblasts: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc....

  10. Comparison of the Treatment Efficiency of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation via Tail and Portal Veins in CCl4-Induced Mouse Liver Fibrosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truong, Nhung Hai; Nguyen, Nam Hai; Le, Trinh Van; Vu, Ngoc Bich; Huynh, Nghia; Nguyen, Thanh Van; Le, Huy Minh; Phan, Ngoc Kim; Pham, Phuc Van

    2016-01-01

    ...) on mouse liver cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride. Portal and tail vein transplantations were examined to evaluate the effects of different injection routes on the liver cirrhosis model at 21 days after transplantation...

  11. Differentiation into Endoderm Lineage: Pancreatic differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The endoderm gives rise to digestive and respiratory tracts, thyroid, liver, and pancreas. Representative disease of endoderm lineages is type 1 diabetes resulting from destruction of the insulin-producing β cells. Generation of functional β cells from human embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro can be practical, renewable cell source for replacement cell therapy for type 1 diabetes. It has been achieved by progressive instructive differentiation through each of the developmental stages. In this...

  12. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  13. Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Adelaine; Ortiz-Neira, Clara L.; Abou Reslan, Walid; Kaura, Deepak [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Sharon, Raphael; Anderson, Ronald [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Department of Oncology, Calgary, AB (Canada); Pinto-Rojas, Alfredo [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-10-15

    Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) typically presents with hepatomegaly and other signs of liver dysfunction. We present an 11-month-old child having only minimally elevated liver enzymes as an indication of liver involvement. Using sonography as the initial diagnostic tool followed by MRI, LCH of the liver was revealed. A review of sonographic, CT, MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography findings in liver LCH is presented. We recommend that physicians consider sonography and MRI screening for liver involvement in patients with newly diagnosed LCH, as periportal involvement may be present with little or no liver function abnormality present, as in this patient. (orig.)

  14. Road for understanding cancer stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics...... in tumor biopsies such as brain and breast. Evidence supporting the cancer stem cell hypothesis has gained impact due to progress in stem cell biology and development of new models to validate the self-renewal potential of stem cells. Recent evidence on the possible identification of cancer stem cells may...... offer an opportunity to use these cells as future therapeutic targets. Therefore, model systems in this field have become very important and useful. This review will focus on the state of knowledge on cancer stem cell research, including cell line models for cancer stem cells. The latter will, as models...

  15. Stem cell regulation: Implications when differentiated cells regulate symmetric stem cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyem, Marte Rørvik; Måløy, Frode; Jakobsen, Per; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2015-09-07

    We use a mathematical model to show that if symmetric stem cell division is regulated by differentiated cells, then changes in the population dynamics of the differentiated cells can lead to changes in the population dynamics of the stem cells. More precisely, the relative fitness of the stem cells can be affected by modifying the death rate of the differentiated cells. This result is interesting because stem cells are less sensitive than differentiated cells to environmental factors, such as medical therapy. Our result implies that stem cells can be manipulated indirectly by medical treatments that target the differentiated cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Dental Stem Cell in Tooth Development and Advances of Adult Dental Stem Cell in Regenerative Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiali; Xu, Xin; Lin, Jiong; Fan, Li; Zheng, Yuting; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are considered as a promising treatment for many clinical usage such as tooth regeneration, bone repairation, spinal cord injury, and so on. However, the ideal stem cell for stem cell-based therapy still remains to be elucidated. In the past decades, several types of stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), which may be a good source for stem cell-based therapy in certain disease, especially when they origin from neural crest is considered. In this review, the specific characteristics and advantages of the adult dental stem cell population will be summarized and the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation of dental stem cell during tooth development will be also discussed.

  17. Development and application of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI Guo-zhen; SHAN Li-dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Stem cells are defined by two important characteristics: the ability to proliferate by a process of self-renewal and the potential to form at least one specialized cell type. Transient population of pluripotent or multipotent stem cells first appear during the development at the first days post coitum. The cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst, of which embryonic stem cells (ES) are the in vitro counterpart, can give rise to any differentiated cell type in the three primary germ layers of the embryo (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm).1-3 These cells gradually mature into committed, organ- and tissue-specific stem cells or adult stem cells, such as neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, etc. Over the past years, studies have focused on two aspects: molecular level and application, and some new methods and technology have been used.

  18. Therapeutic potential of stem cells in veterinary practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin E Gade

    Full Text Available Stem cell research acquired great attention during last decade inspite of incredible therapeutic potential of these cells the ethical controversies exists. Stem cells have enormous uses in animal cloning, drug discovery, gene targeting, transgenic production and regenerative therapy. Stem cells are the naïve cells of body which can self-renew and differentiate into other cell types to carry out multiple functions, these properties have been utilized in therapeutic application of stem cells in human and veterinary medicine. The application of stem cells in human medicine is well established and it is commonly used for chronic and accidental injuries. In Veterinary sciences previous studies mostly focused on establishing protocols for isolation and their characterization but with advancement in array of techniques for in vitro studies, stem cells rapidly became a viable tool for regenerative therapy of chronic, debilitating and various unresponsive clinical diseases and disorders. Multipotent adult stem cells have certain advantages over embryonic stem cells like easy isolation and expansion from numerous sources, less immunogenicity and no risk of teratoma formation hence their use is preferred in therapeutics. Adult stem cells have been utilized for treatment of spinal injuries, tendonitis, cartilage defects, osteoarthritis and ligament defects, liver diseases, wounds, cardiac and bone defects in animals. The multi-potential capability of these cells can be better utilized in near future to overcome the challenges faced by the clinicians. This review will emphasize on the therapeutic utilization and success of stem cell therapies in animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 499-507

  19. Pluripotent stem cells for Schwann cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2015-04-01

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by recapitulating the various stages of in vivo neural crest formation and SC differentiation. In this review, we survey the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these in vivo processes. We then focus on the current in vitro strategies for generating SCs from two sources of pluripotent stem cells, namely embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Different methods for SC engineering from ESCs and iPSCs are reviewed and suggestions are proposed for optimizing the existing protocols. Potential safety issues regarding the clinical application of iPSC-derived SCs are discussed as well. Lastly, we will address future aspects of SC engineering.

  20. [Therapeutic use of stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Georges

    2004-09-15

    Stem cells display important capacities of self renewing, proliferation and differentiation. Because those present in the embryo have the more remarkable properties, their potential use in the therapy of until now incurable degenerative diseases have been envisioned. Embryonic stem (ES) cells are located in the inner mass of the balstocyst at early stages of the development. Even in long-term cultures they still retain their undifferentiated features. Under specific culture conditions, ES cells can be committed into a variety of differentiation pathways, giving rise to large amounts of cells corresponding to different tissues (neurones, cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, etc.). However, producing these tissues from already established ES cell lines would lead to immune rejection when transplanted to patients. To prevent this pitfall and using the expertise accumulated by animal cloning by nucleus transfer, it has been proposed to adapt this technique to human ES cells. The therapeutic cloning consists in transferring the nucleus of somatic stem cells isolated from the patient into an enucleated oocyte, to allow blastocyst development from which ES cells will be derived. From these stem cells, compatible tissues will be then produced. The problem is that it is in theoretically possible to reimplant the cloned blastocyst into a surrogate mother for obtaining a baby genetically identical to the donor. This is called reproductive cloning. This worrying risk raises important ethic and legal questions.

  1. Flexibility of neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eumorphia eRemboutsika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic cortical neural stem cells are self-renewing progenitors that can differentiate into neurons and glia. We generated neurospheres from the developing cerebral cortex using a mouse genetic model that allows for lineage selection and found that the self-renewing neural stem cells are restricted to Sox2 expressing cells. Under normal conditions, embryonic cortical neurospheres are heterogeneous with regard to Sox2 expression and contain astrocytes, neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells sufficiently plastic to give rise to neural crest cells when transplanted into the hindbrain of E1.5 chick and E8 mouse embryos. However, when neurospheres are maintained under lineage selection, such that all cells express Sox2, neural stem cells maintain their Pax6+ cortical radial glia identity and exhibit a more restricted fate in vitro and after transplantation. These data demonstrate that Sox2 preserves the cortical identity and regulates the plasticity of self-renewing Pax6+ radial glia cells.

  2. Cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah K; Tellez-Gabriel, Marta; Heymann, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour in children and adolescents and advanced osteosarcoma patients with evidence of metastasis share a poor prognosis. Osteosarcoma frequently gains resistance to standard therapies highlighting the need for improved treatment regimens and identification of novel therapeutic targets. Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a sub-type of tumour cells attributed to critical steps in cancer including tumour propagation, therapy resistance, recurrence and in some cases metastasis. Recent published work demonstrates evidence of cancer stem cell phenotypes in osteosarcoma with links to drug resistance and tumorigenesis. In this review we will discuss the commonly used isolation techniques for cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma as well as the identified biochemical and molecular markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  4. Stem cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvestein, Marjolijn

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and mesenchymal stromal (MSC) cell therapy are currently under investigation as novel therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Hematopoietic stem cells are thought to repopulate the immune system and reset the immunological response to luminal

  5. Intraperitoneal transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of acute liver injury in rats%人脐带间充质干细胞腹腔移植治疗急性肝损伤大鼠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑学峰; 刘霞

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In vitro experiments have confirmed that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells can be induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, thus which can be considered to function as liver repair. OBJECTIVE:To observe the therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem celltransplantation on acute liver injuries in rats through in vivo animal experiments. METHODS:Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:normal control group without modeling, celltransplantation group, and PBS group. Rat models of acute liver injury were prepared by 10%CCl4-olive oil solution in the celltransplantation and PBS groups which were fol owed by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mL human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cellsuspension and 0.5 mL PBS, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that pathological changes related to acute liver injury appeared at 24 hours after intraperitoneal injection of CCl 4 . Then, the liver structure recovered at 7 days after celltransplantation, but it did not recover til the 14th day after PBS injection. Compared with the normal control group, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly increased in the other two groups (P  目的:进行动物体内实验,观察人脐带间充质干细胞移植治疗大鼠急性肝损伤的效果。  方法:将健康SD大鼠随机分为3组,正常对照组不造模,细胞移植组和PBS组腹腔注射体积分数10%CCl4橄榄油溶液制造急性肝损伤模型后24 h,分别经腹腔移植人脐带间充质干细胞悬液0.5 mL和等量PBS。  结果与结论:苏木精-伊红染色显示,CCl4腹腔注射24 h后大鼠肝脏出现急性肝损伤的病理变化,细胞移植后7 d时肝脏结构完全恢复正常,PBS组14 d才恢复正常肝脏组织结构。与正常对照组相比,其他2组大鼠血清丙氨酸转氨酶及天门冬氨

  6. Microgravity-Enhanced Stem Cell Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo; Valluri, Jagan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, promise to revolutionize the practice of medicine in the future. In order to realize this potential, a number of hurdles must be overcome. Most importantly, the signaling mechanisms necessary to control the differentiation of stem cells into tissues of interest remain to be elucidated, and much of the present research on stem cells is focused on this goal. Nevertheless, it will also be essential to achieve large-scale expansion and, in many cases, assemble cells in 3D as transplantable tissues. To this end, microgravity analog bioreactors can play a significant role. Microgravity bioreactors were originally conceived as a tool to study the cellular responses to microgravity. However, the technology can address some of the shortcomings of conventional cell culture systems; namely, the deficiency of mass transport in static culture and high mechanical shear forces in stirred systems. Unexpectedly, the conditions created in the vessel were ideal for 3D cell culture. Recently, investigators have demonstrated the capability of the microgravity bioreactors to expand hematopoietic stem cells compared to static culture, and facilitate the differentiation of umbilical cord stem cells into 3D liver aggregates. Stem cells are capable of differentiating into functional cells. However, there are no reliable methods to induce the stem cells to form specific cells or to gain enough cells for transplantation, which limits their application in clinical therapy. The aim of this study is to select the best experimental setup to reach high proliferation levels by culturing these cells in a microgravity-based bioreactor. In typical cell culture, the cells sediment to the bottom surface of their container and propagate as a one-cell-layer sheet. Prevention of such sedimentation affords the freedom for self-assembly and the propagation of 3D tissue arrays. Suspension of cells is easily achievable using stirred technologies. Unfortunately, in

  7. Stem cells' exodus: a journey to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Lewallen, Michelle; Xie, Ting

    2013-01-28

    Stem cell niches provide a regulatory microenvironment that retains stem cells and promotes self-renewal. Recently in Developmental Cell, Rinkevich et al. (2013) showed that cell islands (CIs) of Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial chordate, provide niches for maintaining cycling stem cells that migrate from degenerated CIs to newly formed buds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The spermatogonial stem cell niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. de Rooij

    2009-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs; A(s) spermatogonia) and their direct descendants (A(pr) and A(al) spermatogonia) are preferentially located in those areas of the seminiferous tubules that border on the interstitial tissue. Fewer of these cells are present in tubule areas directly bordering on anoth

  9. Common stemness regulators of embryonic and cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiana; Hadjimichael; Konstantina; Chanoumidou; Natalia; Papadopoulou; Panagiota; Arampatzi; Joseph; Papamatheakis; Androniki; Kretsovali

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells(ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells is regulated by a well characterized gene transcription circuitry. The circuitry is assembled by ESC specific transcription factors, signal trans-ducing molecules and epigenetic regulators. Growing understanding of stem-like cells, albeit of more complex phenotypes, present in tumors(cancer stem cells), provides a common conceptual and research frame-work for basic and applied stem cell biology. In this review, we highlight current results on biomarkers, gene signatures, signaling pathways and epigenetic regulators that are common in embryonic and cancer stem cells. We discuss their role in determining the cell phenotype and finally, their potential use to design next generation biological and pharmaceutical approaches for regenerative medicine and cancer therapies.

  10. Introduction to stem cells and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, George; Moodley, Yuben

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are a population of undifferentiated cells characterized by the ability to extensively proliferate (self-renewal), usually arise from a single cell (clonal), and differentiate into different types of cells and tissue (potent). There are several sources of stem cells with varying potencies. Pluripotent cells are embryonic stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of the embryo and induced pluripotent cells are formed following reprogramming of somatic cells. Pluripotent cells can differentiate into tissue from all 3 germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm). Multipotent stem cells may differentiate into tissue derived from a single germ layer such as mesenchymal stem cells which form adipose tissue, bone, and cartilage. Tissue-resident stem cells are oligopotent since they can form terminally differentiated cells of a specific tissue. Stem cells can be used in cellular therapy to replace damaged cells or to regenerate organs. In addition, stem cells have expanded our understanding of development as well as the pathogenesis of disease. Disease-specific cell lines can also be propagated and used in drug development. Despite the significant advances in stem cell biology, issues such as ethical controversies with embryonic stem cells, tumor formation, and rejection limit their utility. However, many of these limitations are being bypassed and this could lead to major advances in the management of disease. This review is an introduction to the world of stem cells and discusses their definition, origin, and classification, as well as applications of these cells in regenerative medicine.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells: characteristics and clinical applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Bobis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are bone marrow populating cells, different from hematopoietic stem cells, which possess an extensive proliferative potential and ability to differentiate into various cell types, including: osteocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, cardiomyocytes and neurons. MSCs play a key role in the maintenance of bone marrow homeostasis and regulate the maturation of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. The cells are characterized by the expression of numerous surface antigens, but none of them appears to be exclusively expressed on MSCs. Apart from bone marrow, MSCs are located in other tissues, like: adipose tissue, peripheral blood, cord blood, liver and fetal tissues. MSCs have been shown to be powerful tools in gene therapies, and can be effectively transduced with viral vectors containing a therapeutic gene, as well as with cDNA for specific proteins, expression of which is desired in a patient. Due to such characteristics, the number of clinical trials based on the use of MSCs increase. These cells have been successfully employed in graft versus host disease (GvHD treatment, heart regeneration after infarct, cartilage and bone repair, skin wounds healing, neuronal regeneration and many others. Of special importance is their use in the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, which appeared to be the only reasonable therapeutic strategy. MSCs seem to represent a future powerful tool in regenerative medicine, therefore they are particularly important in medical research.

  12. Ethical boundary-work in the embryonic stem cell laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Steven P; Williams, Clare; Michael, Mike; Farsides, Bobbie; Cribb, Alan

    2006-09-01

    Most accounts of the ethics of stem cell research are de- contextualised reviews of the ethical and legal literature. In this chapter we present a socially embedded account of some of the ethical implications of stem cell research, from the perspectives of scientists directly involved in this area. Based on an ethnography of two leading embryonic stem cell laboratories in the UK, our data form part of the findings from a larger project mapping the scientific, medical, social and ethical dimensions of innovative stem cell treatment, focusing on the areas of liver cell and pancreatic islet cell transplantation. We explore three key issues: what individual scientists themselves view as ethical sources of human embryos and stem cells; their perceptions of human embryos and stem cells; and how scientists perceive regulatory frameworks in stem cell research. We argue that these dimensions of laboratory practice are all examples of 'ethical boundary-work', which is becoming an integral part of the routine practice and performance of biomedical science. Our work adds to the relatively few sociological studies that explore ethics in clinical settings and to an even smaller body of work that explores scientists' views on the ethical issues relating to their research.

  13. HIF induces human embryonic stem cell markers in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Julie; Zhang, Zhan; Zhou, Wenyu; Wang, Amy J; Heddleston, John M; Pinna, Claudia M A; Hubaud, Alexis; Stadler, Bradford; Choi, Michael; Bar, Merav; Tewari, Muneesh; Liu, Alvin; Vessella, Robert; Rostomily, Robert; Born, Donald; Horwitz, Marshall; Ware, Carol; Blau, C Anthony; Cleary, Michele A; Rich, Jeremy N; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2011-07-01

    Low oxygen levels have been shown to promote self-renewal in many stem cells. In tumors, hypoxia is associated with aggressive disease course and poor clinical outcomes. Furthermore, many aggressive tumors have been shown to display gene expression signatures characteristic of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). We now tested whether hypoxia might be responsible for the hESC signature observed in aggressive tumors. We show that hypoxia, through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), can induce an hESC-like transcriptional program, including the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) inducers, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, and microRNA-302 in 11 cancer cell lines (from prostate, brain, kidney, cervix, lung, colon, liver, and breast tumors). Furthermore, nondegradable forms of HIFα, combined with the traditional iPSC inducers, are highly efficient in generating A549 iPSC-like colonies that have high tumorigenic capacity. To test potential correlation between iPSC inducers and HIF expression in primary tumors, we analyzed primary prostate tumors and found a significant correlation between NANOG-, OCT4-, and HIF1α-positive regions. Furthermore, NANOG and OCT4 expressions positively correlated with increased prostate tumor Gleason score. In primary glioma-derived CD133 negative cells, hypoxia was able to induce neurospheres and hESC markers. Together, these findings suggest that HIF targets may act as key inducers of a dynamic state of stemness in pathologic conditions.

  14. Stem Cell Transplantation for Neuroprotection in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar V. Borlongan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based therapies for stroke have expanded substantially over the last decade. The diversity of embryonic and adult tissue sources provides researchers with the ability to harvest an ample supply of stem cells. However, the optimal conditions of stem cell use are still being determined. Along this line of the need for optimization studies, we discuss studies that demonstrate effective dose, timing, and route of stem cells. We recognize that stem cell derivations also provide uniquely individual difficulties and limitations in their therapeutic applications. This review will outline the current knowledge, including benefits and challenges, of the many current sources of stem cells for stroke therapy.

  15. SnapShot : Growing Organoids from Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Toshiro; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Tissue stem cells require unique niche microenvironments. In the presence of specific combinations of niche factors, mouse and human epithelial tissues from stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas duct, and liver bile duct efficiently form stereotypic organoids. The platform of epitheloid organoid

  16. Chemical approaches to studying stem cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Li; Kai Jiang; Wanguo Wei; Yan Shi; Sheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells,including both pluripotent stem cells and multipotent somatic stem cells,hold great potential for interrogating the mechanisms of tissue development,homeostasis and pathology,and for treating numerous devastating diseases.Establishment of in vitro platforms to faithfully maintain and precisely manipulate stem cell fates is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology,and to translate stem cells into regenerative medicine.Chemical approaches have recently provided a number of small molecules that can be used to control cell selfrenewal,lineage differentiation,reprogramming and regeneration.These chemical modulators have been proven to be versatile tools for probing stem cell biology and manipulating cell fates toward desired outcomes.Ultimately,this strategy is promising to be a new frontier for drug development aimed at endogenous stem cell modulation.

  17. Autologous serum can induce mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi; Huo Jianhua; Qu Bo; Wu Shenli; Zhang Mingyu; Wang Zuoren

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the rabbit serum after radiofrequency ablation to liver tumor can induce mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiating into hepatocyte-like cells in order to find a new source and culture process for repairing liver injury. Methods: A tumor piece of 1 mm×1 mm×1 mm was transplanted into a tunnel at right liver of rabbits. The model of liver tumor was established after 2-3 weeks. The serum was collected from rabbits 72 h after being subjected to radiofrequency ablation of the liver tumor. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rabbit bone marrow and cultured in DMEM containing autologous rabbit serum. Three kinds of media (L-DMEM) were tested respectively: ① containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS);② containing 30% rabbit autologous serum after radiofrequency ablation of the liver tumor (ASRF); ③ containing 30% rabbit autologous serum (AS). MSCs were cultured on 12-well plates until passage 2 and examined under the light and electron microscopy at indicted intervals. The expression of albumin and CK18 was detected using immunofluorescence to identify the characteristics of differentiated cells. Results: MSCs performed differently in the presence of fetal calf serum, rabbit autologous serum and rabbit autologous serum after radiofrequency ablation of the liver tumor. Induced by the serum after radiofrequency ablation to liver tumor for 7 d, the spindle-shaped MSCs turned into round shaped and resembled hepatocyte-like cells. The reactions were not found in MSCs cultured in FCS and AS groups. After induction for 14 d, slender microvilli, cell-cell junction structure and cholangiole emerged, and the differentiated cells expressed albumin and CK18. All those could not been observed in 10% FCS and 30% autologous serum groups. Conclusion: Mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in the serum after radiofrequency ablation of liver tumor, providing us a potential cell source and culture process for clinical

  18. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca; Vadalà; Fabrizio; Russo; Luca; Ambrosio; Mattia; Loppini; Vincenzo; Denaro

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments.Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers(e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration.

  19. Stem cells for hepatic regeneration: the role of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Banas, Agnieszka; Hagiwara, Keitaro; Iwaguro, Hideki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2010-06-01

    Severe hepatic dysfunctions including hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma are life-threatening conditions for which effective medical treatments are needed. With the only effective treatment to date being orthotropic liver transplantation, alternative approaches are needed because of the limited number of donors and the possibility of immune-rejection. One alternative is regenerative medicine, which holds promise for the development of a cell-based therapy enabling hepatic regeneration through transplantation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) or hepatocyte-like cells generated from AT-MSCs. When compared with embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, the use of AT-MSCs as regenerative cells would be advantageous in regard to ethical and safety issues since AT-MSCs are somatic cells and have the potential to be used without in vitro culture. These autologous cells are immuno-compatible and exhibit controlled differentiation and multi-functional abilities and do not undergo post-transplantation rejection or unwanted differentiation such as formation of teratomas. AT-MSC-based therapies may provide a novel approach for hepatic regeneration and hepatocyte differentiation and thereby support hepatic function in diseased individuals.

  20. New Advanced Technologies in Stem Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Stem Cells and Development , vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1299–1308, 2012. [25] B. Zheng, B...Matsumoto, H. Eto et al., “Functional implications of CD34 expression in human adipose-derived stem/progenitor cells,” Stem Cells and Development , vol...and progenitor cells within adipose tissue,” Stem Cells and Development , vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1053–1063, 2008. [43] H. Li, L. Zimmerlin, K. G. Marra,

  1. Characterization and comparison of osteoblasts derived from mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Kannan, Vishnu; de Vries, Anneriek E; Czepiel, Marcin; Wesseling, Evelyn M; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Kuijer, Roelof; Vissink, Arjan; Copray, Sjef C V M; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    2016-01-01

    New developments in stem cell biology offer alternatives for the reconstruction of critical-sized bone defects. One of these developments is the use of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These stem cells are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, but can be generated from adult somatic cells and t

  2. Ex vivo-expanded bone marrow stem cells home to the liver and ameliorate functional recovery in a mouse model of acute hepatic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Zhu Jin; Ming-Zi Han; Bing-Rong Liu; Jun Xu; Fu-Lai Gao; Zong-Jing Hu; Xin-Hong Wang; Feng-Hua Pei; Yu Hong; Hong-Yan Hu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stem cell transplantation provides a theoretical approach for liver regeneration medicine; it may promote liver regeneration  and  self-repair.  However,  the  transplantation  of bone  marrow-mesenchymal  stem  cells  expanded  ex vivo  as  a therapy for liver disease has rarely been investigated. This study aimed  to  explore  whether  bone  marrow  stem  cells  expanded ex vivo home to the liver and foster hepatic recovery after CCl4 injury. METHODS: Bone  marrow  cells  from  BALB/c  mice  were expanded ex vivo by multiple-passage cultivation, characterized by cytoflow immunofluorescence, and pre-labeled with PKH26 before intravenous infusion into animals treated with CCl4. The integration of bone marrow cells into the liver was examined microscopically, and plasma hepatic enzymes were determined biochemically. RESULTS: Cultured  bone  marrow  cells  exhibited  antigenic profiles comparable to those of primary medullary stem cells. Double  immunofluorescence  showed  colocalization  of  these cells with proliferative activity and albumin expression in the liver of CCl4-treated mice. Densitometry showed increased in situ  cell  proliferation  (50±14  vs  20±3  cells/high-power  field, P CONCLUSIONS: Ex vivo-expanded  bone  marrow  cells  are capable  of  relocating  to  and  proliferating  in  the  chemically-injured  liver.  Transplantation  of  these  pluripotent  stem cells appears to improve serum indices of liver function and survival rate in mice after CCl4-induced hepatic damage.

  3. European stem cell research in legal shackles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.G.; de Vries, S.A.; Geijsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brustle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent wa

  4. Emerging molecular approaches in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Amritha; Vrana, Kent

    2009-04-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple adult cell types. Although substantial progress has been made over the last decade in understanding stem cell biology, recent technological advances in molecular and systems biology may hold the key to unraveling the mystery behind stem cell self-renewal and plasticity. The most notable of these advances is the ability to generate induced pluripotent cells from somatic cells. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of molecular similarities and differences among various stem cell types. Moreover, we survey the current state of systems biology and forecast future needs and direction in the stem cell field.

  5. Systems Biology and Stem Cell Pluripotency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Hall, Vanessa; Freude, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology have accelerated research in the area of regenerative medicine. Over the past years, it has become possible to derive patient-specific stem cells which can be used to generate different cell populations for potential cell therapy. Systems biological...... modeling of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation have largely been based on prior knowledge of signaling pathways, gene regulatory networks, and epigenetic factors. However, there is a great need to extend the complexity of the modeling and to integrate different types of data, which would further...... improve systems biology and its uses in the field. In this chapter, we first give a general background on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Stem cell potency is introduced together with the hierarchy of stem cells ranging from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem...

  6. 含人AGM区、胎肝及骨髓基质细胞培养体系程序化诱导小鼠胚胎干细胞向造血干细胞的分化%Effects of sequential inductive systems with feeder cells from human aorta-gonad-mesonephros region, fetal liver and bone marrow on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into hematopoietic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡耘; 张绪超; 陈惠芹; 黄绍良

    2011-01-01

    背景:前期已分别制备人主动脉-性腺-中肾区基质细胞系及胎肝基质细胞系,发现前者可促进小鼠胚胎干细胞定向分化为造血干细胞.目的:模拟胚胎发育过程中永久造血发育的时空顺序,探讨人主动脉-性腺-中肾(AGM)区、胎肝(FL)及骨髓(BM)基质细胞对小鼠胚胎干细胞体外诱导分化为造血干细胞的支持作用,以寻求更佳的诱导条件.方法:将小鼠E14 胚胎干细胞诱导为拟胚体(EB),并利用Transwell 非接触共培养体系依次在人主动脉-性腺-中肾区、胎肝及骨髓基质细胞饲养层上进一步诱导分化,按不同诱导阶段分为拟胚体对照、EB/AGM、EB/AGM+FL 和EB/AGM+FL+BM共4 组.共培养6 d 后分别收获各组拟胚体来源细胞,以流式细胞仪检测Sca-1+c-Kit+细胞含量,进行各系造血细胞集落形成单位分析并观察细胞形态.结果与结论:①EB/AGM+FL 组和EB/AGM+FL+BM 组收获细胞涂片均发现原始造血细胞.②拟胚体来源细胞经AGM 区基质细胞诱导后Sca-1+c-Kit+ 细胞明显升高(P < 0.05).③拟胚体对照组造血细胞集落形成单位低于其他各组(P < 0.05),而EB/AGM+FL、EB/AGM+FL+BM组造血细胞集落形成单位计数亦较EB/AGM组明显增高.提示AGM+FL 和AGM+FL+骨髓基质细胞微环境对原始造血干细胞的扩增效应均明显高于单纯主动脉-性腺-中肾饲养层.%BACKGROUND: Previous studies have prepared human aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region stromal cell line and fetal liver stromal cell line, and found that AGM can promote directional differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs).OBJECTIVE: To simulate the spatial and temporal hematopoietic microenvironment changes in embryonic development,investigate the supportive effects of sequential inductive systems with feeder cells from human AGM region and fetal liver and bone marrow on the differentiation of mouse ESCs into HSCs, and design more effective

  7. nduced pluripotent stem cells and cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst-stage embryo. They hold a huge promise for cell therapy with their self-renewing ability and pluripotency, which is known as the potential to differentiate into all cell types originating from three embryonic germ layers. However, their unique pluripotent feature could not be utilised for therapeutic purposes due to the ethical and legal problems during derivation. Recently, it was shown that the cells from adult tissues could be reverted into embryonic state, thereby restoring their pluripotent feature. This has strenghtened the possiblity of directed differentition of the reprogrammed somatic cells into the desired cell types in vitro and their use in regenerative medicine. Although these cells were termed as induced pluripotent cells, the mechanism of pluripotency has yet to be understood. Still, induced pluripotent stem cell technology is considered to be significant by proposing novel approaches in disease modelling, drug screening and cell therapy. Besides their self-renewing ability and their potential to differentiate into all cell types in a human body, they arouse a great interest in scientific world by being far from the ethical concerns regarding their embryonic counterparts and their unique feature of being patient-specific in prospective cell therapies. In this review, induced pluripotent stem cell technology and its role in cell-based therapies from past to present will be discussed. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 550-561

  8. Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164475.html Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure? Small improvement seen over ... Scientists report another step in the use of stem cells to help treat people with debilitating heart failure. ...

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  11. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... Considering becoming a bone marrow or a blood stem cell donor? View this video on YouTube. Follow a ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  13. Stem cells: A tale of two kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfey, P N

    1999-03-11

    Homologous genes have recently been shown to regulate stem cell maintenance in animals and plants. This discovery should facilitate elucidation of the poorly understood factors that control stem cell maintenance and differentiation.

  14. What's It Like to Donate Stem Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Types Stem Cell Transplant for Cancer What’s It Like to Donate Stem Cells? People usually volunteer ... their baby’s cord blood should make arrangements for it early in the pregnancy, at least before the ...

  15. Stem cell technology for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, J Simon; Sakowski, Stacey A; Hur, Junguk; Feldman, Eva L

    2011-09-01

    Over the past 20 years, stem cell technologies have become an increasingly attractive option to investigate and treat neurodegenerative diseases. In the current review, we discuss the process of extending basic stem cell research into translational therapies for patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. We begin with a discussion of the burden of these diseases on society, emphasizing the need for increased attention toward advancing stem cell therapies. We then explain the various types of stem cells utilized in neurodegenerative disease research, and outline important issues to consider in the transition of stem cell therapy from bench to bedside. Finally, we detail the current progress regarding the applications of stem cell therapies to specific neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal muscular atrophy. With a greater understanding of the capacity of stem cell technologies, there is growing public hope that stem cell therapies will continue to progress into realistic and efficacious treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  17. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07493662X

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  18. Ethics and Governance of Stem Cell Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Donald; Rathjen, Peter; Rathjen, Joy; Nicol, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines the ethical principles and governance frameworks for stem cell banks. Good governance of stem cell banks should balance facilitation of the clinical use of stem cells with the proper respect and protection of stem cell sample providers and stem cell recipients and ensure compliance with national regulatory requirements to foster public trust in the use of stem cell technology. Stem cell banks must develop with regard to the science, the needs of scientists, and the requirements of the public, which will benefit from this science. Given the international reach of this promising research and its clinical application, it is necessary for stem cell bank governance frameworks to be harmonized across jurisdictions.

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  20. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  1. Hepatogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raquel Taléns-Visconti; Ana Bonora; Ramiro Jover; Vicente Mirabet; Francisco Carbonell; José Vicente Castell; María José Gómez-Lechón

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and compare the hepatogenic transdifferentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) in vitro. Transdifferentiation of BMSC into hepatic cells in vivo has been described. Adipose tissue represents an accessible source of ADSC, with similar characteristics to BMSC.METHODS: BMSCs were obtained from patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and ADSC from human adipose tissue obtained from lipectomy. Cells were grown in medium containing 15% human serum. Cultures were serum deprived for 2 d before cultivating under similar pro-hepatogenic conditions to those of liver development using a 2-step protocol with sequential addition of growth factors, cytokines and hormones. Hepatic differentiation was RT-PCR-assessed and liver-marker genes were immunohistochemically analysed.RESULTS: BMSC and ADSC exhibited a fibroblastic morphology that changed to a polygonal shape when cells differentiated. Expression of stem cell marker Thy1 decreased in differentiated ADSC and BMSC. However, the expression of the hepatic markers, albumin and CYPs increased to a similar extent in differentiated BMSC and ADSC. Hepatic gene activation could be attributed to increased liver-enriched transcription factors (C/EBPβ and HNF4α), as demonstrated by adenoviral expression vectors.CONCLUSION: Mesenchymal stem cells can be induced to hepatogenic transdifferentiation in vitro. ADSCs have a similar hepatogenic differentiation potential to BMSC,but a longer culture period and higher proliferation capacity. Therefore, adipose tissue may be an ideal source of large amounts of autologous stem cells, and may become an alternative for hepatocyte regeneration, liver cell transplantation or preclinical drug testing.

  2. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, WA; Türktas, Z; Duckers, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Until recently bone marrow was perceived to be the only significant reservoir of stem cells in the body. However, it is now recognized that there are other and perhaps even more abundant sources, which include adipose tissue. Subcutaneous fat is readily available in most patients, and can easily be

  3. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  4. Culture of Mouse Neural Stem Cell Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Currle, D. Spencer; Hu, Jia Sheng; Kolski-Andreaco, Aaron; Monuki, Edwin S

    2007-01-01

    Primary neural stem cell cultures are useful for studying the mechanisms underlying central nervous system development. Stem cell research will increase our understanding of the nervous system and may allow us to develop treatments for currently incurable brain diseases and injuries. In addition, stem cells should be used for stem cell research aimed at the detailed study of mechanisms of neural differentiation and transdifferentiation and the genetic and environmental signals that direct the...

  5. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Hepatitis B Virus Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Treated with Plasma Exchange and Entecavir: a 24-Month Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Hua; Xu, Ying; Wu, Hua-Mei; Yang, Jing; Yang, Li-Hong; Yue-Meng, Wan

    2016-12-01

    Search for an effective therapy for patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) remains an important issue. This study investigated the efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transplantation in patients with HBV-ACLF. 45 consecutive entecavir-treated HBV-ACLF patients were prospectively studied. Among these patients, 11 received both plasma exchange (PE) and a single transplantation of UC-MSCs (group A), while 34 received only PE (group B). The primary endpoint was survival at 24 months. Compared with group B, levels of albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease score in group A improved significantly at 4 weeks after transplantation (p < 0.05). Levels of albumin, PT and INR in group A were also markedly improved at 24 months (p < 0.05). Group A had significantly higher cumulative survival rate at 24 months (54.5 % v.s. 26.5 %, p = 0.015 by log rank test). Between the two groups, levels of creatinine, White blood cell, hemoglobin and platelet were similar. HBeAg loss and hepatocellular carcinoma incidence were similar at 24 months. Group assignment (relative risk: 2.926, 95%confidence interval: 1.043-8.203, p = 0.041) was an independent predictor for survival at 24 months. Success rate of UC-MSC transplantation was 100 % in group A. No severe adverse event was observed in any patient. UC-MSC transplantation is safe and effective for HBV-ACLF patients treated with PE and entecavir. It further improves the hepatic function and survival.

  6. Nine Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Toggle Nav Nine Things To Know About Stem Cell Treatments Home > Stem Cells and Medicine > Nine Things ... Know About Stem Cell Treatments Many clinics offering stem cell treatments make claims that are not supported by ...

  7. Medaka fish stem cells and their applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells are present in developing embryos and adult tissues of multicellular organisms. Owing to their unique features, stem cells provide excellent opportunities for experimental analyses of basic developmental processes such as pluripotency control and cell fate decision and for regenerative medicine by stem cell-based therapy. Stem cell cultures have been best studied in 3 vertebrate organisms. These are the mouse, human and a small laboratory fish called medaka. Specifically, medaka has given rise to the first embryonic stem (ES) cells besides the mouse, the first adult testis-derived male stem cells spermatogonia capable of test-tube sperm production, and most recently, even haploid ES cells capable of producing Holly, a semi-cloned fertile female medaka from a mosaic oocyte created by microinjecting a haploid ES cell nucleus directly into a normal oocyte. These breakthroughs make medaka a favoring vertebrate model for stem cell research, the topic of this review.

  8. College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…

  9. College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…

  10. DNA Ploidy and Liver Cell Dysplasia in Liver Biopsies from Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed S El-Sayed

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy among pathologists when assessing the presence or absence of liver cell dysplasia in liver biopsies taken from cirrhotic patients. The objective of the present study was to determine the DNA ploidy pattern of hepatocytes of patients with liver cirrhosis and its relationship to liver cell dysplasia. A total of 48 male patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis based on clinical, laboratory and histopathological criteria were included in the study. A liver biopsy was taken from each patient; one part of the biopsy was subjected to histopathology, and the other to flow cytometry. The histopathological examination revealed liver cell dysplasia in 60% of patients with liver cirrhosis (62% of them had large cell dysplasia [LCD] and 38% had small cell dysplasia [SCD]. Abnormal DNA content (aneuploidy was found in 81.5% of positive liver cell dysplasia specimens and found only in 11.1% of negative liver cell dysplasia specimens, with a statistically significant difference (P0.05 in comparison with SCD. In conclusion, SCD (similar to LCD is also associated with aneuploidy and elevated DNA index, and may carry the same risk for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells that have been destroyed by high doses of ... EuroStemCell 312,828 views 15:53 Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis ... views 6:48 Stem cell donation from brother saves child from cancer - Duration: ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 53 PBSC (Peripheral blood stem cell) Harvest - Duration: 2:55. bmdpsg 4,554 views 2:55 Introduction To Stem Cells – Manipal Hospital - Duration: ... in Germany. #priceless - Duration: 1:04. Jacque Brohawn 2,548 views 1:04 Stem Cell Basics - How ...

  13. Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Grietz

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

  14. Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Grietz

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

  15. Cancer Stem Cells in Osteosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Heymann, D; Brown, H K; Tellez-Gabriel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour in children and adolescents and advanced osteosarcoma patients with evidence of metastasis share a poor prognosis. Osteosarcoma frequently gains resistance to standard therapies highlighting the need for improved treatment regimens and identification of novel therapeutic targets. Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a sub-type of tumour cells attributed to critical steps in cancer including tumour propagation, therapy resistance, recurrence and...

  16. Retinal stem cells and potential cell transplantation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tai-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chien, Ke-Hung; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The retina, histologically composed of ten delicate layers, is responsible for light perception and relaying electrochemical signals to the secondary neurons and visual cortex. Retinal disease is one of the leading clinical causes of severe vision loss, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt's disease, and retinitis pigmentosa. As a result of the discovery of various somatic stem cells, advances in exploring the identities of embryonic stem cells, and the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, cell transplantation treatment for retinal diseases is currently attracting much attention. The sources of stem cells for retinal regeneration include endogenous retinal stem cells (e.g., neuronal stem cells, Müller cells, and retinal stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone) and exogenous stem cells (e.g., bone mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells). The success of cell transplantation treatment depends mainly on the cell source, the timing of cell harvesting, the protocol of cell induction/transplantation, and the microenvironment of the recipient's retina. This review summarizes the different sources of stem cells for regeneration treatment in retinal diseases and surveys the more recent achievements in animal studies and clinical trials. Future directions and challenges in stem cell transplantation are also discussed.

  17. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Schwann Cell Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by recapitu

  18. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor); Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  19. Notch signaling in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialiang; Sullenger, Bruce A; Rich, Jeremy N

    2012-01-01

    Subpopulations of cancer cells with stem cell-like characteristics, termed cancer stem cells, have been identified in a wide range of human cancers. Cancer stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew as well as recapitulate the original heterogeneity of cancer cells in culture and in serial xenotransplants. Not only are cancer stem cells highly tumorigenic, but these cells are implicated in tumor resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, thus highlighting their significance as therapeutic targets. Considerable similarities have been found between cancer stem cells and normal stem cells on their dependence on certain signaling pathways. More specifically, the core stem cell signaling pathways, such as the Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog pathways, also critically regulate the self-renewal and survival of cancer stem cells. While the oncogenic functions of Notch pathway have been well documented, its role in cancer stem cells is just emerging. In this chapter, we will discuss recent advances in cancer stem cell research and highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting Notch in cancer stem cells.

  20. Nuclear Mechanics and Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinjian; Gavara, Nuria; Song, Guanbin

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Stem cell differentiation is a prerequisite for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and clinical therapy. In addition to chemical stimulation, mechanical cues play a significant role in regulating stem cell differentiation. The integrity of mechanical sensors is necessary for the ability of cells to respond to mechanical signals. The nucleus, the largest and stiffest cellular organelle, interacts with the cytoskeleton as a key mediator of cell mechanics. Nuclear mechanics are involved in the complicated interactions of lamins, chromatin and nucleoskeleton-related proteins. Thus, stem cell differentiation is intimately associated with nuclear mechanics due to its indispensable role in mechanotransduction and mechanical response. This paper reviews several main contributions of nuclear mechanics, highlights the hallmarks of the nuclear mechanics of stem cells, and provides insight into the relationship between nuclear mechanics and stem cell differentiation, which may guide clinical applications in the future.

  1. Nucleoside transporters and liver cell growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdés, Raquel; Mata, João F; Del Santo, Belén; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Felipe, Antonio; Casado, F Javier

    1998-01-01

    .... This review summarizes work performed in our laboratory on these transport systems, particularly nucleoside transporters, which are up-regulated in physiological situations associated with liver cell growth...

  2. Stem Cells in the Umbilical Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mark L.; Troyer, Deryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are the next frontier in medicine. Stem cells are thought to have great therapeutic and biotechnological potential. This will not only to replace damaged or dysfunctional cells, but also rescue them and/or deliver therapeutic proteins after they have been engineered to do so. Currently, ethical and scientific issues surround both embryonic and fetal stem cells and hinder their widespread implementation. In contrast, stem cells recovered postnatally from the umbilical cord, including the umbilical cord blood cells, amnion/placenta, umbilical cord vein, or umbilical cord matrix cells, are a readily available and inexpensive source of cells that are capable of forming many different cell types (i.e., they are “multipotent”). This review will focus on the umbilical cord-derived stem cells and compare those cells with adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:17237554

  3. Polymer microarray technology for stem cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Robert; Jia, Jia; Mei, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in tissue engineering and disease modeling. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in developing soluble factors (e.g., small molecules and growth factors) to direct stem cells into a desired phenotype. However, the current lack of suitable synthetic materials to regulate stem cell activity has limited the realization of the enormous potential of stem cells. This can be attributed to a large number of materials properties (e.g., chemical structures and physical properties of materials) that can affect stem cell fate. This makes it challenging to design biomaterials to direct stem cell behavior. To address this, polymer microarray technology has been developed to rapidly identify materials for a variety of stem cell applications. In this article, we summarize recent developments in polymer array technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in tissue engineering and disease modeling. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing chemically defined media to direct stem cells into a desired phenotype. However, the current lack of the suitable synthetic materials to regulate stem cell activities has been limiting the realization of the potential of stem cells. This can be attributed to the number of variables in material properties (e.g., chemical structures and physical properties) that can affect stem cells. Polymer microarray technology has shown to be a powerful tool to rapidly identify materials for a variety of stem cell applications. Here we summarize recent developments in polymer array technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...... chronic wound models across different animals were treated with ASCs. Different ASC sources and delivery methods were used in the described studies. Studies demonstrated improved wound healing with utilization of ASC, and this treatment modality has so far shown great potential. However, more preclinical...

  5. Combination Cell Therapy with Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Stem Cells for Brain Stroke in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stro...

  6. Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A; Nolta, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting advances have been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology during the past year. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification, culture, and in vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: The roles of Wnt and Notch proteins...... in regulating stem cell renewal in the microenvironment, and how these molecules can be exploited in ex vivo stem cell culture, are reviewed. The importance of identification of stem cells using functional as well as phenotypic markers is discussed. The novel field of nanotechnology is then discussed...... in the context of stem cell tracking in vivo. This review concludes with a section on the unexpected potential of bone marrow-derived stem cells to contribute to the repair of damaged tissues. The contribution of cell fusion to explain the latter phenomenon is discussed. SUMMARY: Because of exciting discoveries...

  7. Endometrial stem cells in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Javad; Tan, Aaron; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    First described in 2004, endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) are adult stem cells isolated from the endometrial tissue. EnSCs comprise of a population of epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and side population stem cells. When secreted in the menstrual blood, they are termed menstrual stem cells or endometrial regenerative cells. Mounting evidence suggests that EnSCs can be utilized in regenerative medicine. EnSCs can be used as immuno-modulatory agents to attenuate inflammation, are implicated in angiogenesis and vascularization during tissue regeneration, and can also be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, EnSCs can be used in tissue engineering applications and there are several clinical trials currently in place to ascertain the therapeutic potential of EnSCs. This review highlights the progress made in EnSC research, describing their mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal potentials both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. The intestinal stem cell.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; van de Wetering, M.L.; Clevers, H.

    2008-01-01

    The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death. The epithelium is shaped into spatially distinct compartments that are dedicated to

  9. Salivary Glands: Stem Cells, Self-duplication, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aure, M H; Arany, S; Ovitt, C E

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intrinsic potential for renewal and regeneration within a tissue is critical for the rational design of reparative strategies. Maintenance of the salivary glands is widely thought to depend on the differentiation of stem cells. However, there is also new evidence that homeostasis of the salivary glands, like that of the liver and pancreas, relies on self-renewal of differentiated cells rather than a stem cell pool. Here, we review the evidence for both modes of turnover and consider the implications for the process of regeneration. We propose that the view of salivary glands as postmitotic and dependent on stem cells for renewal be revised to reflect the proliferative activity of acinar cells and their role in salivary gland homeostasis.

  10. Challenges for heart disease stem cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoover-Plow J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jane Hoover-Plow, Yanqing GongDepartments of Cardiovascular Medicine and Molecular Cardiology, Joseph J Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. The use of stem cells to improve recovery of the injured heart after myocardial infarction (MI is an important emerging therapeutic strategy. However, recent reviews of clinical trials of stem cell therapy for MI and ischemic heart disease recovery report that less than half of the trials found only small improvements in cardiac function. In clinical trials, bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood cells were used as the source of stem cells delivered by intracoronary infusion. Some trials administered only a stem cell mobilizing agent that recruits endogenous sources of stem cells. Important challenges to improve the effectiveness of stem cell therapy for CVD include: (1 improved identification, recruitment, and expansion of autologous stem cells; (2 identification of mobilizing and homing agents that increase recruitment; and (3 development of strategies to improve stem cell survival and engraftment of both endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. This review is an overview of stem cell therapy for CVD and discusses the challenges these three areas present for maximum optimization of the efficacy of stem cell therapy for heart disease, and new strategies in progress.Keywords: mobilization, expansion, homing, survival, engraftment

  11. Stem-cell therapy for neurologic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of research on stem cell therapy for various diseases, an important need was felt in the field of neurological diseases. While congenital lesion may not be amenable to stem cell therapy completely, there is a scope of partial improvement in the lesions and halt in further progression. Neuro degenerative lesions like Parkinson′s disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have shown improvement with stem cell therapy. This article reviews the available literature and summarizes the current evidence in the various neurologic diseases amenable to stem cell therapy, the plausible mechanism of action, ethical concerns with insights into the future of stem cell therapy.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2015-04-01

    MSCs are an extensively used cell type in clinical trials today. The initial rationale for their clinical testing was based on their differentiation potential. However, the lack of correlation between functional improvement and cell engraftment or differentiation at the site of injury has led to the proposal that MSCs exert their effects not through their differentiation potential but through their secreted product, more specifically, exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicle. We propose here that MSC exosomes function as an extension of MSC's biological role as tissue stromal support cells. Like their cell source, MSC exosomes help maintain tissue homeostasis for optimal tissue function. They target housekeeping biological processes that operate ubiquitously in all tissues and are critical in maintaining tissue homeostasis, enabling cells to recover critical cellular functions and begin repair and regeneration. This hypothesis provides a rationale for the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs and their secreted exosomes in a wide spectrum of diseases. Here, we give a brief introduction of the biogenesis of MSC exosomes, review their physiological functions and highlight some of their biochemical potential to illustrate how MSC exosomes could restore tissue homeostasis leading to tissue recovery and repair.

  13. 一贯煎促进骨髓间充质干细胞逆转肝纤维化的实验研究%The promotion of Yiguanjian on the recovery of liver fibrosis through mesenchymal stem cells:an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文兰; 油红捷; 车念聪; 白辰; 唐佐青

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on liver fi-brosis reversal, understand the role of Yiguanjian on this process, and interpret the mechanism of Yiguan-jian on the recovery of liver fibrosis. Methods we established liver fibrosis rat model. 60 male SD rats were divided into 5 groups:Normal group, model group, western medicine group, mesenchymal stem cells group and Yiguanjian combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, There were 12 rats in each group. Except the normal group, hepatic fibrosis model was established. Isolation, culture and la-beled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. On the third day after CCl4 injection, each rat in mesenchy-mal stem cells group was given intravenous injection of 5 × 106 mmol/L 1 mol bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Except equal amounts of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, each rat in Yiguanjian com-bined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group was given Yiguanjian(2 ml/200 g d)by intragastric administration. Western medicine group was given colchicine (0. 25 mg/kg d) by intragastric administra-tion. The normal group and model group were fed with same volume of saline daily. Western medicine group, normal group and model group was given intravenous injection of same volume of saline daily. After 4 weeks,the serum ALT and AST were tested, the HE staining were used to evaluate the degree of liver in-flammation and fibrosis ( G) ( S) , Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in liver tissue were observed under fluorescence microscop. Results Compared with the model group and western medicine group,mesenchymal stem cells group and Yiguanjian combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group had better effect in the improvement of liver function, reduce inflammation, reversing hepatic fibrosis, P < 0. 05. Compared with the mesenchymal stem cells group , Yiguanjian combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group had better effect on improving the liver function

  14. Klotho, stem cells, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Ao; Neyra, Javier A; Zhan, Ming; Hu, Ming Chang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and progressive biological process involving dysfunction and eventually destruction of every tissue and organ. This process is driven by a tightly regulated and complex interplay between genetic and acquired factors. Klotho is an antiaging gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane protein, klotho, which serves as an aging suppressor through a wide variety of mechanisms, such as antioxidation, antisenescence, antiautophagy, and modulation of many signaling pathways, including insulin-like growth factor and Wnt. Klotho deficiency activates Wnt expression and activity contributing to senescence and depletion of stem cells, which consequently triggers tissue atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, the klotho protein was shown to suppress Wnt-signaling transduction, and inhibit cell senescence and preserve stem cells. A better understanding of the potential effects of klotho on stem cells could offer novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of klotho deficiency-related aging and disease. The klotho protein may be a promising therapeutic agent for aging and aging-related disorders.

  15. Combination cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells for brain stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats.

  16. Strategies for future histocompatible stem cell therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan; Barington, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell therapy based on the safe and unlimited self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells is envisioned for future use in tissue or organ replacement after injury or disease. A gradual decline of regenerative capacity has been documented among the adult stem cell population in some body organs...... during the aging process. Recent progress in human somatic cell nuclear transfer and inducible pluripotent stem cell technologies has shown that patient-derived nuclei or somatic cells can be reprogrammed in vitro to become pluripotent stem cells, from which the three germ layer lineages can be generated......, genetically identical to the recipient. Once differentiation protocols and culture conditions can be defined and optimized, patient-histocompatible pluripotent stem cells could be directed towards virtually every cell type in the human body. Harnessing this capability to enrich for given cells within...

  17. Stem cell facelift: between reality and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Saad, Dibo A

    2013-03-01

    Stem cells are "big business" throughout medical technology, and their potential application in cosmetic procedures is no exception. One of the latest nonsurgical facial treatments (and new catchphrases) in plastic surgery is the "stem cell facelift." It is evident from the currently available scientific literature that the use of stem cell therapy for facial rejuvenation is limited to the theoretical induction of skin tightening and can in no way be equated to a facelift. In fact, what is advertised and promoted as a new and original technique of stem cell facelifting is mostly stem cell-enriched lipofilling. Despite encouraging data suggesting that adult stem cells hold promise for future applications, the data from clinical evidence available today do not substantiate the marketing and promotional claims being made to patients. To claim that the "stem cell facelift" is a complete facial rejuvenation procedure surgery is unethical.

  18. [Stem cells and tissue engineering techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Gigliola

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic use of stem cells and tissue engineering techniques are emerging in urology. Here, stem cell types, their differentiating potential and fundamental characteristics are illustrated. The cancer stem cell hypothesis is reported with reference to the role played by stem cells in the origin, development and progression of neoplastic lesions. In addition, recent reports of results obtained with stem cells alone or seeded in scaffolds to overcome problems of damaged urinary tract tissue are summarized. Among others, the application of these biotechnologies in urinary bladder, and urethra are delineated. Nevertheless, apart from the ethical concerns raised from the use of embryonic stem cells, a lot of questions need to be solved concerning the biology of stem cells before their widespread use in clinical trials. Further investigation is also required in tissue engineering utilizing animal models.

  19. Stem cells news update: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sc

    2013-12-01

    This article is a follow-up to a previous Commentary published in 2011. It updates some of the events mentioned in that Commentary and continues with more interesting and exciting news on stem cell research and the emerging field of Regenerative Medicine. Some of the news includes: 1) the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka; 2) the cloning of human embryonic stem cells; 3) the continued search for truly pluripotent adult stem cells via in vitro and in vivo protocols; 4) the breakthrough in organ replacements; 5) the global stem cell race; 6) the global stem cell cryo-preservation business; 7) the worldwide stem cell donor registries, and 8) the issue of government regulation on stem cell therapy.

  20. Stem cells and repair of lung injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randell Scott H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fueled by the promise of regenerative medicine, currently there is unprecedented interest in stem cells. Furthermore, there have been revolutionary, but somewhat controversial, advances in our understanding of stem cell biology. Stem cells likely play key roles in the repair of diverse lung injuries. However, due to very low rates of cellular proliferation in vivo in the normal steady state, cellular and architectural complexity of the respiratory tract, and the lack of an intensive research effort, lung stem cells remain poorly understood compared to those in other major organ systems. In the present review, we concisely explore the conceptual framework of stem cell biology and recent advances pertinent to the lungs. We illustrate lung diseases in which manipulation of stem cells may be physiologically significant and highlight the challenges facing stem cell-related therapy in the lung.

  1. Melatonin as a promising agent of regulating stem cell biology and its application in disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Chen, Simon; Li, Yuan; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    Stem cells have emerged as an important approach to repair and regenerate damaged tissues or organs and show great therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. However, the low survival of engrafted stem cells still remains a major challenge for stem cell therapy. As a major hormone from the pineal gland, melatonin has been shown to play an important role in regulating the physiological and pathological functions of stem cells, such as promoting proliferation, migration and differentiation. Thus, melatonin combined with stem cell transplantation displayed promising application potential in neurodegenerative diseases, liver cirrhosis, wound healing, myocardial infarction, kidney ischemia injury, osteoporosis, etc. It exerts its physiological and pathological functions through its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis and anti-ageing properties. Here, we summarize recent advances on exploring the biological role of melatonin in stem cells, and discuss its potential applications in stem cell-based therapy.

  2. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A; Canbay, Ali

    2015-02-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs.

  3. Stem Cells, Science, and Public Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…

  4. Stem Cells, Science, and Public Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…

  5. Adult stem cell responses to nanostimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimbouri, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Adult or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found in different tissues in the body, residing in stem cell microenvironments called “stem cell niches”. They play different roles but their main activity is to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair throughout the lifetime of an organism. Their ability to differentiate into different cell types makes them an ideal tool to study tissue development and to use them in cell-based therapies. This differentiation process is subject to both interna...

  6. 经肝动脉脐血干细胞移植治疗肝硬化的临床应用%Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation via hepatic artery in treatment of liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小宣; 陈海鸥; 钱林; 刘莉; 陈峰; 张征; 刘洪娟

    2011-01-01

    探讨脐血干细胞移植术在肝硬化患者中的临床应用,对2008年12月至2009年8月湖南省人民医院住院的34例失代偿期肝硬化患者行脐血干细胞移植术,分析其症状及肝功能改善情况.术后1个月,32例(94%)食欲改善,29例(85%)体力好转,28例(82%)腹胀减轻.25例并发腹水患者术后1个月,15例(60%)腹水明显减少,9例(36%)腹水消失.术后6个月白蛋白逐渐升高,由(30.9±0.6)g/L升至(35.5±2.5)g/L(P>0.05);丙氨酸氨基转移酶由(57±7)U/L降至(46±10)U/L(P>0.05);总胆红素由(47±5)μmol/L下降至(25±4)μmol/L(P=0.017);凝血酶原时间由(17.9±0.7)s降至(16.4±1.3)s(P>0.05);术后1例合并嗜血综合征,未发现严重不良反应.脐血干细胞移植安全可行,可不同程度改善肝功能.%Thirty four patients with decompensated cirrhosis received umbilical blood stem cell transplantation via hepatic artery from December 2008 to August 2009. The symptoms and biochemical testing results were observed before and after stem cell transplantation. One month after the transplantation,appetite was improved in 32 patients ( 94% ), physical capacity improved in 29 patients ( 85% ) and the abdominal distention relieved in 28 patients (82%). Abdominal B-ultrasonography showed that ascites decreased in 15 cases(60% ), and disappeared in 9 cases(36% ). Six month later the mean serum albumin levels were increased from ( 30. 9 ± 0. 6) g/L to ( 35.5 ± 2. 5 ) g/L( P > 0. 05 );alanine aminotransferase levels decreased from (57 ±7) U/L to (46 ± 10) U/L(P >0. 05);total bilirubin decreased from (47 ±5 )μmol/L to (25 ±4) μmol/L(P =0. 017);prothrombin time decreased from ( 17.9 ±0. 7) s to ( 16. 4 ±1.3) s (P > 0. 05 ). Hemophagocytic syndrome developed in one case but no severe adverse reactions occurred. The results indicate that umbilical blood stem cell transplantation may improve liver function in various degrees with safety for patients with liver cirrhosis.

  7. Application of Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells have become an important source of seed cells for tissue engineering because they are relatively easy to expand in vitro and can be induced to differentiate into various cell types in vitro or in vivo. In the current stage, most stem cell researches focus on in vitro studies, including in vitro induction and phenotype characterization. Our center has made a great deal of effort in the in vivo study by using stem cells as seed cells for tissue construction. We have used bone marrow stem cells (BMS...

  8. RhoGTPases in stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    RhoGTPases are small molecules that control a wide variety of signal transduction pathways. Their profound function in regulating the actin cytoskeleton is well recognized. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and produce progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. RhoGT-Pases influence stem cell morphology and cell migration as well as stem cell self-renewal, proliferation, transplantation, homing and differentiation. In this review, the multiple roles of the RhoGTPases in stem cells are discussed.

  9. Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana L.; Johansson, Clas B.; Wilbertz, Johannes; Veress, Biborka; Nilsson, Erik; Karlström, Helena; Lendahl, Urban; Frisén, Jonas

    2000-06-01

    The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers. This demonstrates that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity and may potentially be used to generate a variety of cell types for transplantation in different diseases.

  10. Cancer stem cells and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Katia; Fodde, Riccardo

    2012-06-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of tumour cells endowed with self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity but also with an innate resistance to cytotoxic agents, a feature likely to pose major clinical challenges towards the complete eradication of minimal residual disease in cancer patients. Operationally, CSCs are defined by their tumour-propagating ability when serially transplanted into immune-compromised mice and by their capacity to fully recapitulate the original heterogeneity of cell types observed in the primary lesions they are derived from. CSCs were first identified in haematopoietic malignancies and later in a broad spectrum of solid tumours including those of the breast, colon and brain. Notably, several CSC characteristics are relevant to metastasis, such as motility, invasiveness and, as mentioned above, resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Here, we have reviewed the current literature on the relation between CSCs and metastasis formation. Preliminary studies on cancer cell lines and patient-derived material suggest a rate-limiting role for stem-like cells in the processes of tumour cell dissemination and metastasis formation. However, additional studies are needed to deliver formal proof of their identity as the cell of origin of recurrences at distant organ sites. Nevertheless, several studies have already provided pre-clinical evidence of the efficacy of novel therapies directed against disseminated CSCs.

  11. Embryonic stem cells: testing the germ-cell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2011-10-25

    The exact cellular origin of embryonic stem cells remains elusive. Now a new study provides compelling evidence that embryonic stem cells, established under conventional culture conditions, originate from a transient germ-cell state.

  12. Stem cells - biological update and cell therapy progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlovanu, Mihai; Susman, Sergiu; Soritau, Olga; Rus-Ciuca, Dan; Melincovici, Carmen; Constantin, Anne-Marie; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the advances in stem cell research have suggested that the human body may have a higher plasticity than it was originally expected. Until now, four categories of stem cells were isolated and cultured in vivo: embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Although multiple studies were published, several issues concerning the stem cells are still debated, such as: the molecular mechanisms of differentiation, the methods to prevent teratoma formation or the ethical and religious issues regarding especially the embryonic stem cell research. The direct differentiation of stem cells into specialized cells: cardiac myocytes, neural cells, pancreatic islets cells, may represent an option in treating incurable diseases such as: neurodegenerative diseases, type I diabetes, hematologic or cardiac diseases. Nevertheless, stem cell-based therapies, based on stem cell transplantation, remain mainly at the experimental stages and their major limitation is the development of teratoma and cancer after transplantation. The induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represent a prime candidate for future cell therapy research because of their significant self-renewal and differentiation potential and the lack of ethical issues. This article presents an overview of the biological advances in the study of stem cells and the current progress made in the field of regenerative medicine.

  13. Therapeutic potential of adult stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Keith, W. Nicol

    2006-01-01

    is the necessity to be able to identify, select, expand and manipulate cells outside the body. Recent advances in adult stem cell technologies and basic biology have accelerated therapeutic opportunities aimed at eventual clinical applications. Adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate down multiple...... lineages are an attractive alternative to human embryonic stem cells (hES) in regenerative medicine. In many countries, present legislation surrounding hES cells makes their use problematic, and indeed the origin of hES cells may represent a controversial issue for many communities. However, adult stem...... cells are not subject to these issues. This review will therefore focus on adult stem cells. Based on their extensive differentiation potential and, in some cases, the relative ease of their isolation, adult stem cells are appropriate for clinical development. Recently, several observations suggest...

  14. Haematopoietic stem cells: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ashley P; Alexander, Warren S

    2017-01-01

    The discovery and characterisation of haematopoietic stem cells has required decades of research. The identification of adult bone marrow as a source of haematopoietic cells capable of protecting an organism from otherwise lethal irradiation led to the intense search for their identity and characteristics. Using functional assays along with evolving techniques for isolation of haematopoietic cells, haematopoietic stem cell populations were able to be enriched and their characteristics analysed. The key haematopoietic stem cell characteristics of pluripotentiality and the ability for self-renewal have emerged as characteristics of several haematopoietic stem cell populations, including those that have recently challenged the conventional concepts of the haematopoietic hierarchy. Human allogeneic stem cell therapy relies on these functional characteristics of haematopoietic stem cells that can be isolated from peripheral blood, bone marrow or cord blood, with the additional requirement that immunological barriers need to be overcome to allow sustained engraftment while minimising risk of graft-versus-host disease developing in the recipient of transplanted stem cells. Current and future research will continue to focus on the identification of haematopoietic stem cell regulators and methods for in vitro and in vivo stem cell manipulation, including genome editing, to expand the scope, potential and safety of therapy using haematopoietic stem cells. PMID:28180000

  15. Repair of liver mediated by adult mouse liver neuro-glia antigen 2-positive progenitor cell transplantation in a mouse model of cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Siegel, Christopher T.; Shuai, Ling; Lai, Jiejuan; Zeng, Linli; Zhang, Yujun; Lai, Xiangdong; Bie, Ping; Bai, Lianhua

    2016-01-01

    NG2-expressing cells are a population of periportal vascular stem/progenitors (MLpvNG2+ cells) that were isolated from healthy adult mouse liver by using a “Percoll-Plate-Wait” procedure. We demonstrated that isolated cells are able to restore liver function after transplantation into a cirrhotic liver, and co-localized with the pericyte marker (immunohistochemistry: PDGFR-β) and CK19. Cells were positive for: stem cell (Sca-1, CD133, Dlk) and liver stem cell markers (EpCAM, CD14, CD24, CD49f); and negative for: hematopoietic (CD34, CD45) and endothelial markers (CD31, vWf, von Willebrand factor). Cells were transplanted (1 × 106 cells) in mice with diethylnitrosamine-induced cirrhosis at week 6. Cells showed increased hepatic associated gene expression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Albumin (Alb), Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (Sox9), hepatic nuclear factors (HNF1a, HNF1β, HNF3β, HNF4α, HNF6, Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), Leucine-rich repeated-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5) and Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). Cells showed decreased fibrogenesis, hepatic stellate cell infiltration, Kupffer cells and inflammatory cytokines. Liver function markers improved. In a cirrhotic liver environment, cells could differentiate into hepatic lineages. In addition, grafted MLpvNG2+ cells could mobilize endogenous stem/progenitors to participate in liver repair. These results suggest that MLpvNG2+ cells may be novel adult liver progenitors that participate in liver regeneration. PMID:26905303

  16. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanqun Qiao; Qingquan Li; Gang Peng; Jun Ma; Hongwei Fan; Yingbin Li

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are stil unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cel s and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain tumor stem cells. The numbers of cytolysosomes and autophagosomes in brain tumor stem cells and induced neural stem cel s were lower and the proliferative activity was obviously stronger than that in normal neural stem cells. Normal neural stem cells could differentiate into glial fibril ary acidic protein-positive and microtubule associated protein-2-positive cells, which were also negative for nestin. However, glial fibril ary acidic protein/nestin, microtubule associated protein-2/nestin, and glial fibril ary acidic protein/microtubule associated protein-2 double-positive cells were found in induced neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cel s. Results indicate that induced neural stem cells are similar to brain tumor stem cells, and are possibly the source of brain tumor stem cells.

  17. Advances of Notch signaling regulating fetal liver stem/progenitor cells: implications for the therapy of end-stage liver diseases%Notch信号通路调控胎肝干/祖细胞治疗终末期肝病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄启科; 尤楠; 党立力; 刘广欣; 陶开山

    2014-01-01

    Cell therapy has a very promising potential for end-stage liver diseases (ESLD).Fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPCs) have advantages of safety,high survival and proliferation rates,and a small volume,all which make them ideal for liver disease stem cell therapy.During the early phase of our study,we applied a three-step separation method to enrich FLSPCs and obtained a separation efficiency similar to that of the flow-cell sorting method.Additionally,using a fulminant hepatic failure model in rats,we have demonstrated that FLSPCs can contribute to morphological and functional recovery of the liver.This manuscript will discuss how FLSPCs can be induced to accurately differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes and how FLSPCs maintain self-renewal.The Notch signaling plays a critical role in regulating the differentiation and self-renewal of many types of stem cells.Our previous findings have shown that the Notch signaling plays an important role in FLSPCs differentiation into hepatocytes.Therefore,the Notch signaling might be involved in the differentiation and self-renewal of FLSPCs.We conducted a study on the regulatory effects and relative molecular mechanisms of the Notch signaling on FLSPCs and found the corresponding interfering target,which might become an index for the clinical application of FLSPCs.%细胞治疗是终末期肝病最有前景的疗法.胎肝干/祖细胞(FLSPCs)因高存活、高增殖、小体积和高安全的优势,成为干细胞治疗肝病的理想细胞之一.本课题组前期应用三步分离法富集FLSPCs,获得了与流式分选近似的分离效率,并在大鼠急性肝衰竭模型中证实FLSPCs能参与肝脏形态和功能的恢复.然而,要探索FLSPCs的治疗潜能,有两个问题急待解决:首先,如何保持FLSPCs自我增殖更新;其次,如何促进FLSPCs准确分化为肝细胞和胆管细胞.Notch信号在诸多干细胞更新和分化中起关键调节作用.我们以前的研究显示了Notch信号

  18. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Perry T; Han, Edward; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2016-01-07

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem