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Sample records for liver metastases triumph

  1. Liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CT scan of the abdomen Liver function tests Liver biopsy MRI of the abdomen PET scan Ultrasound of ... Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases Images Liver biopsy Hepatocellular cancer, CT scan Liver metastases, CT scan ...

  2. Synchronous colorectal liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.M. van der Pool (Anne)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and ranks second in cancer-related deaths in many parts of the Western world. Once in the lymph or blood vessels, colorectal cancer can quickly spread and the liver is known to be a favourable site for metastases. The

  3. Colorectal Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf J. Haddad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and management of CRLM is complex and requires a multidisciplinary team approach for optimal outcomes. Over the past several decades, the 5-year survival following resection of CRLM has increased and the criteria for resection have broadened substantially. Even patients with multiple, bilateral CRLM, previously thought unresectable, may now be candidates for resection. Two-stage hepatectomy, repeat curative-intent hepatectomy, and even selected resection of extrahepatic metastases have further increased the number of patients who may be treated with curative intent. Multiple liver-directed therapies exist to treat unresectable, incurable patients with adequate survival benefit and morbidity rates.

  4. Cryotherapy for liver metastases.

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    Bala, Malgorzata M; Riemsma, Robert P; Wolff, Robert; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-06-05

    Primary liver tumours and liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma are the two most common malignant tumours to affect the liver. The liver is second only to the lymph nodes as the most common site for metastatic disease. More than half of the patients with metastatic liver disease will die from metastatic complications. In cryoablation, liquid nitrogen or argon gas is delivered to the liver tumour, guided by ultrasound using a specially designed probe. Ice crystal formation during the rapid freezing process causes destruction of cellular structure and kills the tumour cells. To study the beneficial and harmful effects of cryotherapy compared with no intervention, other ablation methods, or systemic treatments in patients with liver metastases. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS, and CINAHL up to December 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials assessing the beneficial and harmful effects of cryotherapy and its comparators, irrespective of the location of the primary tumour. We extracted relevant information on participant characteristics, interventions, study outcomes, and data on the outcomes for our review, as well as information on the design and methodology of the trials. Bias risk assessment of and data extraction from the trials fulfilling the inclusion criteria were done by one author and checked by a second author. One randomised clinical trial fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the review. The trial was judged as a trial with high risk of bias due to the unclear report on the generation of the allocation sequence and allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data and the selective outcome reporting domain. The trial included 123 consecutive patients with solitary or multiple unilobar or bilobar liver metastases who were randomised into two groups, 63

  5. Treatment of colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the word. Liver metastasis is the most common site of colorectal metastases. The prognosis of resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM was improved in the recent years with the consideration of chemotherapy and surgical resection as part of the multidisciplinary management of the disease; the current 5-year survival rates after resection of liver metastases are 25% to 40%. Resectable synchronous or metachronous liver metastases should be treated with perioperative chemotherapy based on three months of FOLFOX4 (5-fluorouracil [5FU], folinic acid [LV], and oxaliplatin chemotherapy before surgery and three months after surgery. In the case of primary surgery, pseudo-adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months, based on 5FU/LV, FOLFOX4, XELOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin or FOLFIRI (5FU/LV and irinotecan, should be indicated. In potentially resectable disease, primary chemotherapy based on more intensive regimens such as FOLFIRINOX (5FU/LV, irinotecan and oxaliplatin should be considered to enhance the chance of cure. The palliative chemotherapy based on FOLFIRI, or FOLFOX4/XELOX with or without targeted therapies, is the mainstay treatment of unresectable disease. This review would provide additional insight into the problem of optimal integration of chemotherapy and surgery in the management of CRLM.

  6. Modern management of colorectal liver metastases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer is one of the commonest malignancies worldwide. e liver is the most frequent site of metastasis from colorectal cancer and overall close to 50% of patients will develop liver metastases during the course of the disease. In one- third of patients, the liver metastases are synchronous, i.e. present at the time of.

  7. Management of disappearing colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, K; van Hilst, J; Fisher, S; Poston, G

    2016-12-01

    The development of new potent systemic treatment modalities has led to a significant increase in survival of patients with colorectal liver metastases. In the neo-adjuvant setting, these modalities can be used for patient selection, down staging, and conversion from non-resectable to resectable liver metastases. In addition, complete radiological disappearance of metastases can occur, the phenomenon of disappearing liver metastases. Because only a small percentage of these patients (0-8%) have a complete radiological response of all liver metastases, most patients will undergo surgery. At laparotomy, local residual disease at the site of the disappeared metastasis is still found in 11-67%, which highlights the influence of the imaging modalities used at (re)staging. When the region of the disappeared liver metastasis was resected, microscopically residual disease was found in up to 80% of the specimens. Alternatively, conservative management of radiologically disappeared liver metastases resulted in 19-74% local recurrence, mostly within two years. Obviously, these studies are highly dependent on the quality of the imaging modalities utilised. Most studies employed CT as the modality of choice, while MRI and PET was only used in selective series. Overall, the phenomenon of disappearing liver metastases seems to be a radiological rather than an actual biological occurrence, because the rates of macroscopic and microscopic residual disease are high as well as the local recurrence rates. Therefore, the disappeared metastases still require an aggressive surgical approach and standard (re)staging imaging modalities should include at least CT and MRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interventional treatment of neuroendocrine liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U.; Hansen, C.P.; Stadil, F.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours are rare with an incidence of 2-4/100.000 per year. More than 75% of the patients develop hepatic metastases, which reduce the five year survival from 70-80% to 30-40%. In addition to chemo- and biotherapy, interventional therapy of liver metastases s....... The symptomatic response rate is 90% with a mean duration of two years. Liver transplantation should be restricted to very few and highly selected patients without extrahepatic disease. Recurrence is inevitable in nearly all patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8......Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours are rare with an incidence of 2-4/100.000 per year. More than 75% of the patients develop hepatic metastases, which reduce the five year survival from 70-80% to 30-40%. In addition to chemo- and biotherapy, interventional therapy of liver metastases...

  9. Liver transplantation for non-resectable colorectal liver metastases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-resectable colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) are generally considered an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. However, a 2013 Norwegian study transplanted livers in 21 patients with CLMs and reported excellent outcomes. The current article reports on the deliberations of the Wits Human Research ...

  10. Combined treatment of uveal melanoma liver metastases

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    Brasiuniene B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uveal melanoma (UM is the most prevalent intraocular malignant tumor in the Western world. The prognosis of survival in the presence of metastatic disease is 2-7 months, depending on the treatment applied. This article presents a case of metastatic UM with successful complex treatment of liver metastases. A 49-year old female, underwent removal of the right eyeball in 1996 due to a histologically confirmed uveal melanoma. After 11 years, CT revealed a mass in the left kidney and multiple metastases in the liver. After left nephrectomy, 6 chemotherapy courses with dacarbazine were performed. The increasing liver metastases were observed. Additional 4 intraarterial (i/a chemotherapy courses were administered using cisplatin, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, and interferon alfa. After few courses increase in CTC Grade 4 liver transaminases was seen. A partial response was observed, and in December 2008 the patient underwent surgery removing all liver metastases by 7 wedge or atypical resections. All margins were tumor-free. 21 months after liver resections and 14 years since diagnosis, the patient is alive without evidence of disease. Successful treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma was due to a timely application of a combination of several treatment methods and good prognostic factors of the patient.

  11. Liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinger, S.; Biagi, J.J.; Fletcher, G.G.; Nhan, C.; Ruo, L.; McLeod, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Questions Should surgery be considered for colorectal cancer (crc) patients who have liver metastases plus (a) pulmonary metastases, (b) portal nodal disease, or (c) other extrahepatic metastases (ehms)? What is the role of chemotherapy in the surgical management of crc with liver metastases in (a) patients with resectable disease in the liver, or (b) patients with initially unresectable disease in the liver that is downsized with chemotherapy (“conversion”)? What is the role of liver resection when one or more crc liver metastases have radiographic complete response (rcr) after chemotherapy? Perspectives Advances in chemotherapy have improved survival in crc patients with liver metastases. The 5-year survival with chemotherapy alone is typically less than 1%, although two recent studies with folfox or folfoxiri (or both) reported rates of 5%–10%. However, liver resection is the treatment that is most effective in achieving long-term survival and offering the possibility of a cure in stage iv crc patients with liver metastases. This guideline deals with the role of chemotherapy with surgery, and the role of surgery when there are liver metastases plus ehms. Because only a proportion of patients with crc metastatic disease are considered for liver resection, and because management of this patient population is complex, multidisciplinary management is required. Methodology Recommendations in the present guideline were formulated based on a prepublication version of a recent systematic review on this topic. The draft methodology experts, and external review by clinical practitioners. Feedback was incorporated into the final version of the guideline. Practice Guideline These recommendations apply to patients with liver metastases from crc who have had or will have a complete (R0) resection of the primary cancer and who are being considered for resection of the liver, or liver plus specific and limited ehms, with curative intent. 1(a). Patients with liver and lung

  12. Cause of death from liver metastases in colorectal cancer.

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    Helling, Thomas S; Martin, Magdeline

    2014-02-01

    Surgically directed therapy for liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) has received substantial attention in the literature as a major focus of treatment for metastatic CRC. It is presumed, but not proven, that liver metastases are a major threat to life. This study examined the course of a cohort of consecutive patients who died with CRC to determine the role played by the presence of liver metastases. This is single-institution retrospective observational study involved all patients who died of CRC. Records were examined and imaging studies reviewed to determine the extent of liver and extrahepatic metastases in these patients. Overall survival in patients with and without liver metastases and those in whom liver metastases were thought to contribute to death was determined. After patient exclusions, the study population totaled 121 patients. There were 75 patients (62%) with liver metastases at death. In 40 of 75 (53%) patients, the liver metastases contributed to the patients' death. In 46 of 121 patients (38%), metastatic disease did not include liver metastases. Overall survival in patients with and without liver metastases (median survival 12 vs. 8.5 months, p = 0.089) and in those whose liver metastases did or did not contribute to death (median survival 11.5 vs. 14 months, p = 0.361) was not significant. The presence of liver metastases seemed to contribute to death in approximately half of the study patients, although there did not appear to be a survival disadvantage in these patients.

  13. Good results after repeated resection for colorectal liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Hans Christian; Calatayud, Dan; Larsen, Peter Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Our study aim was to evaluate the perioperative events, postoperative events and survival after a second liver resection due to colorectal liver metastases (CLM), compared with a matched control group that had only undergone primary liver resection due to CLM....

  14. Liver transplantation for non-resectable colorectal liver metastases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-06

    Jun 6, 2017 ... articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups (accessed 3 March 2017). 4. Caicedo L, Buitrago D. Thomas L, et al. Liver transplantation for unresectable metastases from colon adenocarcinoma. Case Rep Gastroenterol 2017;10(3):808-. 813. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000454984. 5. World ...

  15. Good results after repeated resection for colorectal liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Hans Christian; Calatayud, Dan; Larsen, Peter Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Our study aim was to evaluate the perioperative events, postoperative events and survival after a second liver resection due to colorectal liver metastases (CLM), compared with a matched control group that had only undergone primary liver resection due to CLM.......Our study aim was to evaluate the perioperative events, postoperative events and survival after a second liver resection due to colorectal liver metastases (CLM), compared with a matched control group that had only undergone primary liver resection due to CLM....

  16. Multidisciplinary treatment of colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiergens, Tobias S; von Einem, Jobst; Thomas, Michael N; Albertsmeier, Markus; Giessen-Jung, Clemens; Dörsch, Maximilian; Heiliger, Christian; Drefs, Moritz; Andrassy, Joachim; Modest, Dominik P; Stintzing, Sebastian; Guba, Markus; Angele, Martin; Werner, Jens; Rentsch, Markus

    2017-12-01

    The therapy of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) has undergone significant changes. Extended survival has been observed to be associated with adoption of hepatic resection and improved chemotherapy. This review summarizes standards, developments and controversies on the management of these patients. Literature search was performed with focus on work published within the last ten years. Patients with CRLM should undergo surgery whenever possible with careful and experienced patient selection as hepatic resection offers the best long-term prognosis. The multidisciplinary approach has markedly evolved and has increased the number of patients in whom curative-intended surgery is possible. Patients with resectable metastases can undergo upfront surgery or may receive perioperative chemotherapy in selected cases, a decision which is under debate and remains individual. Patients with non-resectable metastases that may become resectable upon conversion treatment should receive polychemotherapy with or without local ablative therapy as pretreatment with the main goal of achieving resectability. In patients with synchronous CRLM, the optimal sequence of treatment remains unclear. Depending on the hepatic tumor burden and its dynamics as well as the type and stage of the primary tumor, simultaneous resection or either the sequential "bowel-first" or reversed "liver-first" approach represent suitable options to achieve complete tumor clearance. The improvements in the management of CRLM due to multidisciplinary treatment and novel developments are a great example of successfully pushing the boundaries of cure in metastatic cancer. Surgery aiming at complete tumor clearance represents the central instrument to achieve long-term survival.

  17. Liver resection and local ablation of breast cancer liver metastases--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenfeldt, M; Jensen, B V; Skjoldbye, B

    2011-01-01

    To analyze surgical treatment of breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) regarding selection criteria, outcome and prognostic parameters.......To analyze surgical treatment of breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) regarding selection criteria, outcome and prognostic parameters....

  18. Liver cell proliferation after partial hepatectomy in rats with liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, KP; Brouwers, MAM; Huls, GA; Bun, JCAM; Wubbena, AS; Nieuwenhuis, P; Slooff, MJH; Dam, A.

    OBJECTIVE: To validate proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and flow cytometry as proliferation markers in regenerating rat liver containing metastases. STUDY DESIGN: Rats containing colorectal liver metastases were killed at various days after 70% partial hepatectomy or a sham

  19. Adenocarcinoid of the appendix presenting with metastases to the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Jørgensen, L J

    1987-01-01

    A case of hepatomegalia due to multiple metastases of unknown origin to the liver is described. At autopsy the primary tumor, an adenocarcinoid tumor of the appendix, was identified along with multiple metastases to the lymph nodes and widespread peritoneal carcinoidosis. Hepatic metastases from...

  20. Colorectal liver metastases: local therapy and molecular aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies in the western world. Mortality is strongly associated with the formation of liver metastases, which eventually occurs in about 50% of patients. Once liver metastases have developed, the natural course of the disease is associated

  1. Colorectal liver metastases: factors affecting outcome after surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304811769

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death in Europe. The overall survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer is greatly affected by the presence of liver metastases, which occurs in about 50% of patients. Radical resection of colorectal liver metastases means a

  2. The "liver-first approach" for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, C.; Pool, A.E. van der; Nuyttens, J.J.; Planting, A.S.; Eggermont, A.M.M.; Wilt, J.H.W. de

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the outcome of "the liver-first" approach in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases. METHODS: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases were primarily treated for their liver

  3. Liver Transplantation for Unresectable Metastases from Colon Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Luis Armando; Buitrago, Diego; Thomas, Laura S; Villegas, Jorge I; Duque, Mauricio; Serrano, Oscar; Arrunategui, Ana M; Restrepo, Juan Guillermo; Echeverri, Gabriel Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation is an option that improves quality of life and prolongs life expectancy in patients with different types of liver disease. Liver transplantation is controversial for colorectal metastases and is not recommended in clinical practice guidelines. In this case report, we present, to our knowledge, the first liver transplantation for colorectal metastases conducted in Colombia, with a successful follow-up of more than 2 years. Patients with these characteristics who underwent liver transplantation experience reduced mortality and exponentially improved quality of life.

  4. Laparoscopy of rats with experimental liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Rud, Lene; Østergaard-Sørensen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    impression of the metastases was obtained. We suggest, as a new humane endpoint, that one animal should only have 1-2 separately growing metastases, each of a maximum size of 10 mm(2). In future, the method has to be developed further to measure the size of the metastases in a more quantitatively precise...

  5. Advances in neoadjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer with liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, Carmelo; Barone, Carlo; Kemeny, Nancy E

    2008-06-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is most frequently seen in the liver. Resection of metastases remains the treatment of choice; however, the majority of patients are ineligible for surgery due to unfavorable location, size, or number of metastases; insufficient liver reserve; or extrahepatic disease. The activity of irinotecan- and oxaliplatin-based regimens as first-line therapy has prompted the investigation of these agents as neoadjuvant therapy in patients with resectable and unresectable disease. Although studies suggest considerable promise for a neoadjuvant strategy in patients with unresectable liver metastases, the heterogeneity, small size, and retrospective nature of many of these studies precludes drawing firm clinical conclusions at this time, especially in patients with resectable disease. Therefore large, prospective trials that examine the impact of preoperative chemotherapy in patients with initially unresectable or resectable liver metastases are needed. These trials must include well-defined criteria for resectability and clear reporting of the extent of resection.

  6. OPTIMAL TIMING FOR SURGICAL TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL LIVER METASTASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Stojanović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metachronous CRCLM should be evaluated by multidisciplinary oncologic consilium. Diagnostic evaluation must be completed by dinamic CT or MR of the liver. In the case of a small number of metastases, operation could be performed immediately. In such cases, neoadjuvant therapy could be recomended because of decreasing recurrence rates, slight increase of the overall survival rate and to evaluate malignant potential. Neoadjuvant therapy is mandatory in cases with >4 metastases and potentialy resectable metastases, due to possibility to convert 25% of them to secondary resectable category. In the case of incidentaly discovered metastases (during the primary colorectal operation, the removal of primary tumor should not be abandoned. Biopsy of metastatic lesion is not recomended. Complications of CRC should be treated by palliative procedures /stoma, palliative resection, interventional endoscopy or radiology followed by consiliary multidisciplinary teratment and liver surgery in the second operative act. Asymptomatic T 1,2, N 0,1 primary tumors of the right colon could be treated by simultaneous major liver resection. Left colonic and rectal resection could be safe combined with minor liver resection (up to 2 liver segments. In the cases of T 3,4, N 1,2 CRC with synchronous liver metastases neoadjuvant therapy is mandatory, as in the cases of multiple (>4 metastases. Reverse strategy could be effective in these cases.

  7. [Conversion therapy for synchronous colorectal liver metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Hajime; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Harue; Sakamoto, Yoshiyuki; Koyama, Motoi; Murata, Akihiko; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2013-11-01

    Conversion therapy, a treatment strategy that facilitates the conversion of unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) to resectable CLRM after chemotherapy, has been reported to be effective. We assessed the applicability of treatment strategies for conversion therapy in 93 patients with synchronous CRLM encountered at our department. Of the 93 patients, 12 underwent conversion therapy and there was no significant difference in the clinicopathological factors of CRLM. The first-line regimen for 67% of the 12 patients who underwent conversion therapy was multidrug therapy with oxaliplatin and the number of courses administered ranged from 3 to 24. The 5-year survival rate of patients who underwent conversion therapy was 46%,and there was no significant difference when compared with the 5-year survival rate of patients who underwent hepatectomy for resectable CRLM. In order to improve the survival rate of patients with synchronous CRLM, it is important that more patients undergo conversion therapy with effective chemotherapy. Moreover, we believe that it is necessary to assess the appropriate balance in treatment between chemotherapy and hepatectomy in the future.

  8. Treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET is a rare type of pancreatic tumors. The incidence of pNET shows a gradually increasing trend in recent years. The most common organ of distant metastases is the liver. Surgical resection is still the optimal treatment for resectable, well-differentiated liver metastases with no evidence of extrahepatic spread. For unresectable patients, a combination of multiple modalities, such as transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, systemic chemotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy, can prolong the survival time of patients. Liver transplantation should be strictly evaluated on an individual basis.

  9. How Effective Are Percutaneous Liver-Directed Therapies in Patients with Non-Colorectal Liver Metastases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Thomas J; Emam, Ahmed; Naguib, Nagy N; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the clinical indications, technical developments, and outcome of liver-directed therapies in interventional oncology of non-colorectal liver metastases. Liver-directed therapies are classified into vascular transarterial techniques such as chemoperfusion (TACP), chemoembolization (TACE), radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT)), and chemosaturation, as well as thermal ablation techniques like microwave ablation (MWA), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), cryotherapy, and irreversible electroporation (IRE). The authors searched the database PubMed using the following terms: 'image-guided tumor ablation', 'thermal ablation therapies', 'liver metastases of uveal melanoma', 'neuroendocrine carcinoma', 'breast cancer', and 'non-colorectal liver metastases'. Various combinations of the above-mentioned therapy protocols are possible. In neuroendocrine carcinomas, oligonodular liver metastases are treated successfully via thermal ablation like RFA, LITT, or MWA, and diffuse involvement via TACE or SIRT. Although liver involvement in breast cancer is a systemic disease, non-responding nodular metastases can be controlled via RFA or LITT. In ocular or cutaneous melanoma, thermal ablation is rarely considered as an interventional treatment option, as opposed to TACE, SIRT, or chemosaturation. Rarely liver-directed therapies are used in pancreatic cancer, most likely due to problems such as biliary digestive communications after surgery and the risk of infections. Rare indications for thermal ablation are liver metastases of other primary cancers like non-small cell lung, gastric, and ovarian cancer. Interventional oncological techniques play a role in patients with liver-dominant metastases.

  10. Chemotherapy or Liver Transplantation for Nonresectable Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueland, Svein; Guren, Tormod K; Hagness, Morten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with nonresectable liver-only metastases treated by liver transplantation or chemotherapy. BACKGROUND:: CRC is the third most common cancer worldwide. About 50% of patients will develop....... The reason for the large difference in OS despite similar DFS/PFS is likely different metastatic patterns at relapse/progression. Relapse in the liver transplantation group was often detected as small, slowly growing lung metastases, whereas progression of nonresectable liver metastases was observed...

  11. Histopathological findings in colorectal liver metastases after electrochemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Gasljevic

    Full Text Available Electrochemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases has been proven to be feasible, safe and effective in a phase I/II study. In that study, a specific group of patients underwent two-stage operation, and the detailed histopathological evaluation of the resected tumors is presented here. Regressive changes in electrochemotherapy-treated liver metastases were evaluated after the second operation (in 8-10 weeks in 7 patients and 13 metastases when the treated metastases were resected. Macroscopic and microscopic changes were analyzed. Electrochemotherapy induced coagulation necrosis in the treated area encompassing both tumor and a narrow band of normal tissue. The area became necrotic, encapsulated in a fibrous envelope while preserving the functionality of most of the vessels larger than 5 mm in diameter and a large proportion of biliary structures, but the smaller blood vessels displayed various levels of damage. At the time of observation, 8-10 weeks after electrochemotherapy, regenerative changes were already seen in the peripheral parts of the treated area. This study demonstrates regressive changes in the whole electrochemotherapy-treated area of the liver. Further evidence of disruption of vessels less than 5 mm in diameter and preservation of the larger vessels by electrochemotherapy is provided. These findings are important because electrochemotherapy has been indicated for the therapy of metastases near major blood vessels in the liver to provide a safe approach with good antitumor efficacy.

  12. Modern management of colorectal liver metastases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ablation using microwave energy. Preoperative evaluation. Preoperative evaluation and investigation ... intrahepatic vascular and biliary structural relationships of the liver secondaries. • assessment of liver ... characteristics of the metastatic lesions and their relation to lobar architecture and major vascular structures.

  13. Liver-first strategy for synchronous colorectal liver metastases - an intention-to-treat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, Christian; Valdimarsson, Valentinus T; Blomstrand, Erik; Eriksson, Sam; Nilsson, Jan H; Syk, Ingvar; Lindell, Gert

    2017-01-01

    The liver-first strategy signifies resection of liver metastases before the primary colorectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to compare failure to complete intended treatment and survival in liver-first and classical strategies. All patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases planned for sequential radical surgery in a single institution between 2011 and 2015 were included. A total of 109 patients were presented to a multidisciplinary team conference (MDT) with un-resected colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases. Seventy-five patients were planned as liver-first, whereas 34 were recommended the classical strategy. Twenty-six patients (35%) failed to complete treatment in the liver-first group compared to 10 patients in the classical group (P = 0.664). Reason for failure was most commonly disease progression. A total of 91 patients had the primary tumor resected before the liver metastases of which 67 before referral and 24 after allocation at MDT. Median survival after diagnosis in this group was 60 (48-73) months compared to 46 (31-60) months in the group operated with liver-first strategy (n = 49), (P = 0.310). Up to 35% of patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases do not complete the intended treatment of liver and bowel resections, irrespective of treatment strategy. Copyright © 2016 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [How does we treat liver metastases from colorectal cancer by cure-intent surgery ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Nakano, Daisuke; Nakayama, Yujiro; Oohinata, Ryouki; Yajima, Kazuhito; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Surgery is the most optimal and curative intent strategy for liver recurrence from colorectal cancer. There are scoring systems and grade classification for liver resection. If we carry out preoperative imaging of liver metastases strictly following to liver resection, we can expect to get a cure state satisfactory. Early detection and repeated liver resection improve the outcome of residual liver recurrence after liver resection. The maximum number of liver metastases for cure intent liver resection is unclear. Further examination is necessary.

  15. Actual role of radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases

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    Pereira, Philippe L. [Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    The liver is, second only to lymph nodes, the most common site for metastatic disease irrespective of the primary tumour. More than 50% of all patients with malignant diseases will develop liver metastases with a significant morbidity and mortality. Although the surgical resection leads to an improved survival in patients with colorectal metastases, only approximately 20% of patients are eligible for surgery. Thermal ablation and especially radiofrequency ablation emerge as an important additional therapy modality for the treatment of liver metastases. RF ablation shows a benefit in life expectancy and may lead in a selected patient group to cure. Percutaneous RF ablation appears safer (versus cryotherapy), easier (versus laser), and more effective (versus ethanol instillation and transarterial chemoembolisation) compared with other minimally invasive procedures. RF ablation can be performed by a percutaneous, laparoscopical or laparotomic approach, and may be potentially combined with chemotherapy and surgery. At present ideal candidates have tumours with a maximum diameter less than 3.5 cm. An untreatable primary tumour or a systemic disease represents contraindications for performing local therapies. Permanent technical improvements of thermal ablation devices and a better integration of thermal ablation in the overall patient care may lead to prognosis improvement in patients with liver metastases. (orig.)

  16. Long-term Survivors After Liver Resection for Breast Cancer Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BacalbaȘa, Nicolae; Balescu, Irina; Dima, Simona; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-12-01

    Although breast cancer liver metastases are considered a sign of systemic recurrence and are considered a poor prognostic factor that transforms the patient into a candidate for palliative chemotherapy, surgery might be performed with good results. Success reported after liver resection for colorectal hepatic metastases encouraged the oncological surgeon to apply similar protocols in breast cancer liver metastases. Data of patients submitted to hepatectomies for breast cancer liver metastases in the "Dan Setlacec" Center of Gastrointestinal Disease and Liver Transplantation, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest were retrospectively reviewed. Among five cases survival after liver surgery surpassed 5 years and was considered long-term survival. One of the five cases was submitted to a second liver resection. Most often long-term survivors were reported among patients with single, metachronous and smaller than 5-cm lesions. In selected cases liver resection for breast cancer liver metastases can be associated with a significant increase in survival. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. [Prognostic analysis of patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer treated with different modes of therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hua; Wang, Xing-yuan; Feng, Feng-yi; Wang, Jin-wan

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the potential prognostic factors for patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer treated with different modes of therapy. The clinicopathological data of 300 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancers were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The median survival of patients with recurrence (MSR) treated with complete and palliative resection of liver metastases and unresectable patients was 48, 19 and 18 months, respectively (P = 0.000). In patients with unresectable liver metastases, systemic chemotherapy plus regional therapy demonstrated a median survival time of 23 months, significantly longer than the 6 months in untreated patients (P = 0.000). Patients who showed response to the first-line therapy demonstrated an improved survival versus the patients who had no response, with a median survival time of 24 vs. 16 months (P = 0.000). Univariate analysis revealed that resection modes of primary diseases and liver metastases, treatment modality for liver metastases, and response to first-line therapy were prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis showed that resection modes of liver metastases, multimodality treatment after liver metastases, and the response to first-line therapy were all independent prognostic factors for patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Resection of liver metastases, multimodality treatment after liver metastases, and response to first-line chemotherapy are all independent prognostic factors for patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer.

  18. Transarterial chemoembolization of liver metastases in patients with uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppert, P.E., E-mail: huppert@klinikum-darmstadt.d [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Fierlbeck, G., E-mail: gerhard.fierlbeck@med.uni-tuebingen.d [Department of Dermatology, University of Tuebingen, Liebermeisterstrasse 25, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Pereira, P., E-mail: philippe.pereira@slk-kliniken.d [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Schanz, S., E-mail: stefan.schanz@med.uni-tuebingen.d [Department of Dermatology, University of Tuebingen, Liebermeisterstrasse 25, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Duda, S.H., E-mail: stephan.duda@t-online.d [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Wietholtz, H., E-mail: hubertus.wietholtz@klinikum-darmstadt.d [Department of Internal Medicine II, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Rozeik, C., E-mail: rozeik.christoph@klinloe.d [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Claussen, C.D., E-mail: claus.claussen@med.uni-tuebingen.d [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Summary: Metastases from uveal melanoma are often confined to the liver. Palliative hepatic chemoembolization has been considered to be a reasonable treatment approach. We enrolled 14 patients with hepatic metastases from uveal melanoma into a pilot trial of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). All patients received additional systemic immuno-chemotherapy or best supportive care. In 31 procedures 100 mg/m{sup 2} of cisplatine was continuously infused by means of a power injector preceding embolization by manual injection of polyvinyl alcohol particles. In three procedures cisplatine was replaced by 200 mg/m{sup 2} carboplatine because of increased serum creatinine levels. Tumor response was evaluated using RECIST criteria. Fourteen patients received 34 TACE's (mean: 2.4 treatments). Eight patients (57%) achieved partial response (PR), four patients (29%) had stable disease and two patients (14%) tumor progression. Median time to progression was 8.5 months (5-35 months). Median survival after first TACE was 14.5 months in responders compared to 10 months in non-responders (p = 0.18, not significant) and 11.5 months (3-69 months) in all patients. In seven patients with metastases occupying less than 25% of liver volume median survival was 17 months compared to 11 months in seven patients with tumor involvement of more than 25% (p = 0.02) with partial response rate of 86% and 29%, respectively. TACE of liver metastases from uveal melanoma is well tolerated and may prolong survival in patients with limited tumor extension.

  19. Histopathological growth pattern, proteolysis and angiogenesis in chemonaive patients resected for multiple colorectal liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl; Van den Eynden, Gert G; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise growth patterns, proteolysis, and angiogenesis in colorectal liver metastases from chemonaive patients with multiple liver metastases. Twenty-four patients were included in the study, resected for a median of 2.6 metastases. The growth pattern distrib...

  20. [Chemoperfusion and embolization in the treatment of liver metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, T J; Mack, M G; Eichler, K; Zangos, S; Naguib, N N; Gruber-Rouh, T

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of techniques and procedures for regional chemotherapy in the treatment of unresectable liver metastases from different primary tumors as a modality of interdisciplinary therapy management. Such transarterial therapy methods include hepatic arterial infusion (HAI), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), chemoembolization with cytostatic-loaded microspheres (DEBs), transarterial embolization (TAE) and selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). Regional chemotherapy procedures in the treatment of liver metastases represent a minimally invasive treatment option that can be successfully combined with surgical resection and/or radiofrequency (RFA), laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), microwave ablation (MWA). These procedures allow optimization of the local control rate with strictly intrahepatic processes and lead to increased survival rates without any quality of life restriction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Semiautomatic segmentation of liver metastases on volumetric CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiayong; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zhao, Binsheng

    2015-11-01

    Accurate segmentation and quantification of liver metastases on CT images are critical to surgery/radiation treatment planning and therapy response assessment. To date, there are no reliable methods to perform such segmentation automatically. In this work, the authors present a method for semiautomatic delineation of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced volumetric CT images. The first step is to manually place a seed region-of-interest (ROI) in the lesion on an image. This ROI will (1) serve as an internal marker and (2) assist in automatically identifying an external marker. With these two markers, lesion contour on the image can be accurately delineated using traditional watershed transformation. Density information will then be extracted from the segmented 2D lesion and help determine the 3D connected object that is a candidate of the lesion volume. The authors have developed a robust strategy to automatically determine internal and external markers for marker-controlled watershed segmentation. By manually placing a seed region-of-interest in the lesion to be delineated on a reference image, the method can automatically determine dual threshold values to approximately separate the lesion from its surrounding structures and refine the thresholds from the segmented lesion for the accurate segmentation of the lesion volume. This method was applied to 69 liver metastases (1.1-10.3 cm in diameter) from a total of 15 patients. An independent radiologist manually delineated all lesions and the resultant lesion volumes served as the "gold standard" for validation of the method's accuracy. The algorithm received a median overlap, overestimation ratio, and underestimation ratio of 82.3%, 6.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, and a median average boundary distance of 1.2 mm. Preliminary results have shown that volumes of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced CT images can be accurately estimated by a semiautomatic segmentation method.

  2. Glucagonoma syndrome: survival 21 years with concurrent liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourakis, Spyros P; Alexopoulou, Alexandra; Georgousi, Kleoniki K; Delladetsima, Johanna K; Tolis, George; Archimandritis, Athanasios J

    2007-09-01

    A patient who survived for 21 years since initial discovery of glucagonoma with concurrent liver metastases is described. Psychiatric symptoms, weight loss, necrolytic migratory erythema, diarrhea, and diabetes mellitus developed gradually after diagnosis of the tumor. No specific treatment was administered. The longevity of this patient may be related to the slow tumor growth expressed histologically by ischemic necrosis of the malignant cells and in imaging by extensive tumor calcifications, a very rare finding in this type of the tumor.

  3. The microenvironment of liver metastases from Colorectal adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl

    is about 40% and up to 58% in selected groups of patients, while the median overall survival for patients who receive palliative treatment has been reported to be from a few months and up to about 24 months, depending on dissemination of the cancer and response to treatment. The initial neo...... histological growth patterns (GP) have been observed in liver metastases: desmoplastic GP where a collagenous rim separates the metastatic tumour cells from the surrounding liver parenchyma, pushing GP where tumour cells grow expansively, pushing and flattening the surrounding hepatocytes and replacement GP...

  4. Recurrence of liver metastases from colorectal cancer and repeat liver resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Navarro-Freire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the resectability and effectiveness of repeat hepatectomy for relapsing liver metastases of colorectal origin in terms of morbidity, mortality, overall survival, and disease-free survival. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on a prospective cohort of patients with colorectal liver metastases who underwent repeat surgery at Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, Granada (Spain, from March 2003 to June 2013. Primary outcome variables included survival and morbidity within 30 days post-surgery. Results: A total of 147 patients with colorectal liver metastases underwent surgical excision during the study period; 61 patients had liver recurrence, and 34 of these received repeat surgery. The overall survival rate at 5 and 10 years for resected patients (n = 27/34 was 48% and 48%. Mean hospital stay was 8.9 ± 3.5 days, morbidity was 9%, and mortality was 0%. Conclusion: Repeat liver resection for colorectal liver metastases is a safe, effective surgical procedure whose results are similar to those obtained after initial liver resection.

  5. Histopathological Growth Pattern, Proteolysis and Angiogenesis in Chemonaive Patients Resected for Multiple Colorectal Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Løvendahl Eefsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterise growth patterns, proteolysis, and angiogenesis in colorectal liver metastases from chemonaive patients with multiple liver metastases. Twenty-four patients were included in the study, resected for a median of 2.6 metastases. The growth pattern distribution was 25.8% desmoplastic, 33.9% pushing, and 21% replacement. In 20 patients, identical growth patterns were detected in all metastases, but in 8 of these patients, a second growth pattern was also present in one or two of the metastases. In the remaining 4 patients, no general growth pattern was observed, although none of the liver metastases included more than two growth patterns. Overall, a mixed growth pattern was demonstrated in 19.3% of the liver metastases. Compared to metastases with pushing, those with desmoplastic growth pattern had a significantly up-regulated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (P=0.0008. Angiogenesis was most pronounced in metastases with a pushing growth pattern in comparison to those with desmoplastic (P=0.0007 and replacement growth pattern (P=0.021. Although a minor fraction of the patients harboured metastases with different growth patterns, we observed a tendency toward growth pattern uniformity in the liver metastases arising in the same patient. The result suggests that the growth pattern of liver metastases is not a random phenomenon.

  6. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Suspected Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harmeet; Hindman, Nicole M; Al-Refaie, Waddah B; Arif-Tiwari, Hina; Cash, Brooks D; Chernyak, Victoria; Farrell, James; Grajo, Joseph R; Horowitz, Jeanne M; McNamara, Michelle M; Noto, Richard B; Qayyum, Aliya; Lalani, Tasneem; Kamel, Ihab R

    2017-05-01

    Liver metastases are the most common malignant liver tumors. The accurate and early detection and characterization of liver lesions is the key to successful treatment strategies. Increasingly, surgical resection in combination with chemotherapy is effective in significantly improving survival if all metastases are successfully resected. MRI and multiphase CT are the primary imaging modalities in the assessment of liver metastasis, with the relative preference toward multiphase CT or MRI depending upon the clinical setting (ie, surveillance or presurgical planning). The optimization of imaging parameters is a vital factor in the success of either modality. PET/CT, intraoperative ultrasound are used to supplement CT and MRI. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arterial Therapies of Non-Colorectal Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puippe, Gilbert; Pfammatter, Thomas; Schaefer, Niklaus

    2015-12-01

    indication since only few publications exist and provided us with five results and only one clinical trial. Despite many years of clinical use and documented efficacy on intra-arterial treatments of the liver, there are still only a few prospective multicenter trials with many different protocols. To guarantee the future use of these efficacious therapies, especially in the light of many systemic or surgical therapies in the treatment of non-colorectal liver metastases, further large randomized trials and transparent guidelines need to be established.

  8. Combined gadoxetic acid and gadofosveset enhanced liver MRI for detection and characterization of liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannas, Peter [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Hamburg (Germany); Bookwalter, Candice A.; Ziemlewicz, Tim; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Potretzke, Theodora A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Motosugi, Utaroh [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Yamanashi (Japan); Nagle, Scott K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Pediatrics, Madison, WI (United States); Reeder, Scott B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Emergency Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-01-15

    To compare gadoxetic acid alone and combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced liver MRI for detection of metastases and differentiation of metastases from haemangiomas. Ninety-one patients underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI before and after additional injection of gadofosveset. First, two readers retrospectively identified metastases on gadoxetic acid alone enhanced delayed hepatobiliary phase T1-weighted images together with all other MR images (dynamic images, T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images). Second, readers assessed additional T1-weighted images obtained after administration of gadofosveset trisodium. For both interpretations, readers rated lesion conspicuity and confidence in differentiating metastases from haemangiomas. Results were compared using alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (AFROC) and conventional ROC methods. Histology and follow-up served as reference standard. There were 145 metastases and 16 haemangiomas. Both readers detected more metastases using combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset (reader 1 = 130; reader 2 = 124) compared to gadoxetic acid alone (reader 1 = 104; reader 2 = 103). Sensitivity of combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset (reader 1 = 90 %; reader 2 = 86 %) was higher than that of gadoxetic acid alone (reader 1 = 72 %; reader 2 = 71 %, both P < 0.01). AFROC-AUC was higher for the combined technique (0.92 vs. 0.86, P < 0.001). Sensitivity for correct differentiation of metastases from haemangiomas was higher for the combined technique (reader 1 = 98 %; reader 2 = 99 % vs. reader 1 = 86 %; reader 2 = 91 %, both P < 0.01). ROC-AUC was significantly higher for the combined technique (reader 1 = 1.00; reader 2 = 1.00 vs. reader 1 = 0.87; reader 2 = 0.92, both P < 0.01). Combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset-enhanced MRI improves detection and characterization of liver metastases compared to gadoxetic acid alone. (orig.)

  9. Rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases: Do we have a clear direction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S; Nunes, Q M; Daniels, I R; Smart, N J; Poston, G J; Påhlman, L

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is a common entity and often presents with synchronous liver metastases. There are discrepancies in management guidelines throughout the world regarding the treatment of advanced rectal cancer, which are further compounded when it presents with synchronous liver metastases. The following article examines the evidence regarding treatment options for patients with synchronous rectal liver metastases and suggests potential treatment algorithms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnosis and significance of liver metastases in small cell carcinoma of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulshine, J.L.; Makuch, R.W.; Johnston-Early, A.; Matthews, M.J.; Carney, D.N.; Ihde, D.C.; Cohen, M.H.; Bates, H.R.; Dunnick, N.R.; Minna, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    One hundred fifty-seven consecutive patients with small cell lung cancer seen at the National Cancer Institute over a four-year period underwent a series of pretherapy liver staging procedures to determine optimal means of detection and prognostic implications of hepatic metastases. Liver evaluation included physical examination, liver function tests, and liver scan (radionuclide or computerized tomography (CT)), as well as percutaneous and/or peritoneoscopy-directed liver biopsy when possible (74%). Liver metastases were detected in 26% of patients. Peritoneoscopy was the most sensitive method of liver evaluation and increased the detection of liver metastases when done in a sequential fashion after percutaneous liver biopsy from 18 to a total of 27 patients. Of the noninvasive procedures, radionuclide and CT liver scan were the most accurate concurring with liver biopsy in 87% of patients but permitting correct discrimination of stage in excess of 96% of patients. The accuracy of this noninvasive procedure was enhanced by an algorithm combining the results of radionuclide liver scan with liver function tests to detect patients with high or low likelihood of liver involvement. The survival and response of patients with liver metastases was significantly worse than those without such metastases with no three-year disease-free survivors among patients with liver metastases.

  11. Perioperative chemotherapy and hepatic resection for resectable colorectal liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Baba, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The role of perioperative chemotherapy in the management of initially resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is still unclear. The EPOC trial [the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 40983] is an important study that declares perioperative chemotherapy as the standard of care for patients with resectable CRLM, and the strategy is widely accepted in western countries. Compared with surgery alone, perioperative FOLFOX therapy significantly increased progression-free survival (PFS) in eligible patients or those with resected CRLM. Overall survival (OS) data from the EPOC trial were recently published in The Lancet Oncology, 2013. Here, we discussed the findings and recommendations from the EORTC 40983 trial. PMID:25713806

  12. The impact of pulmonary metastasectomy in patients with previously resected colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Wiegering

    Full Text Available 40-50% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC will develop liver metastases (CRLM during the course of the disease. One third of these patients will additionally develop pulmonary metastases.137 consecutive patients with CRLM, were analyzed regarding survival data, clinical, histological data and treatment. Results were stratified according to the occurrence of pulmonary metastases and metastases resection.39% of all patients with liver resection due to CRLM developed additional lung metastases. 44% of these patients underwent subsequent pulmonary resection. Patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy showed a significantly better five-year survival compared to patients not qualified for curative resection (5-year survival 71.2% vs. 28.0%; p = 0.001. Interestingly, the 5-year survival of these patients was even superior to all patients with CRLM, who did not develop pulmonary metastases (77.5% vs. 63.5%; p = 0.015. Patients, whose pulmonary metastases were not resected, were more likely to redevelop liver metastases (50.0% vs 78.6%; p = 0.034. However, the rate of distant metastases did not differ between both groups (54.5 vs.53.6; p = 0.945.The occurrence of colorectal lung metastases after curative liver resection does not impact patient survival if pulmonary metastasectomy is feasible. Those patients clearly benefit from repeated resections of the liver and the lung metastases.

  13. Clinical efficacy of liver resection after downsizing systemic chemotherapy for initially unresectable liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Junichiro; Yazawa, Takefumi; Sumida, Kimiaki; Kida, Yuya; Ogawa, Ryotaro; Tani, Masaki; Kawasoe, Junya; Yamamoto, Michihiro; Harada, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Zaima, Masazumi

    2016-02-25

    This study sought to clarify the clinical benefits of liver resection after downsizing systemic chemotherapy for initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CLM). Survival and clinical characteristics of CLM patients who underwent resection between January 2001 and December 2013 were retrospectively assessed. The study cohort of 88 patients with limited liver disease who underwent curative liver resection comprised 34 with initially resectable synchronous disease (synchronous group), 38 with initially resectable metachronous disease (metachronous group), and 16 with initially unresectable converted disease (conversion group). The median duration of follow-up for the overall study population was 33 (1-98) months. Overall survival (OS) in the conversion group was not significantly different from that in the other groups. However, disease-free survival (DFS) in the conversion group was significantly shorter than that in the synchronous group. The median DFS was 19.1 months in the synchronous group, 16.6 months in the metachronous group, and 15.3 months in the conversion group. Most patients in the conversion group had recurrence shortly after liver resection in the remnant liver with or without metastases at other sites, but many could undergo repeat hepatectomy or resection of the metastases at other sites. Although the converted patients tended to have recurrence shortly after liver resection, survival could be prolonged by repeat hepatectomy or resection of metastases at other sites. Liver resection after downsizing chemotherapy appears to be efficacious for patients with initially unresectable CLM and may result in long-term outcomes equivalent to those of patients with initially resectable CLM.

  14. [Colorectal liver metastases: history, sciences and clinical practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Serge

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal liver metastasis is one of the best-known clinical models of multidisciplinary approach. Chemotherapy, targeted therapies, surgery and interventional radiology permitted to obtain up to 40 months of survival in palliative intent for liver metastases only and between 40 to 50% of overall survival in curative intent. Genetic, epigenetic, cellular and tissular processes are more and more well described but attempts to link biological knowledge to clinical practice are still faint. The cut-off between curative and palliative intents is progressively pushed away but consequently, its signification is less clear. Maybe an additional intermediary new concept should be added, the metastatic disease chronicisation? Evaluating the patient benefice is difficult and should stand on progression free survival as surrogate marker.

  15. Results after surgical treatment of liver metastases in patients with high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galleberg, R. B.; Knigge, U; Tiensuu Janson, E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NEC) are generally characterized by synchronous metastases, high aggressiveness and a dismal prognosis. Current international guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment of liver metastases, however the existing data are scarce......, particularly for the group with a Ki-67 in the relatively lower G3 range. Our findings indicate a possible role for surgical treatment of liver metastases in the management of this patient population....

  16. Prognostic value of Ki-67 expression in conversion therapy for colorectal liver-limited metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Beppu, Toru; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Naomi; Higashi, Takaaki; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Baba, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine the prognostic value of Ki-67 expression in conversion therapy for colorectal liver-confined metastases. Methods: We enrolled a total of 96 patients including 54 patients who received oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based chemotherapy and curative hepatectomy for initially unresectable metastases (conversion group) and 42 patients with initially resectable liver metastases (straight hepatectomy group). Ki-67 expression was examined in 96 res...

  17. Computer-based decision making in medicine : A model for surgery of colorectal liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhoff, B S; Krabbe, P F M; Ruers, T J M

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Seeking the best available treatment for patients with colorectal liver metastases may be complex due to the interpretation of many variables. In this study conjoint analysis is used to develop a decision model to help clinicians selecting patients eligible for surgery of liver metastases.

  18. Radioimmunotherapy improves survival of rats with microscopic liver metastases of colorectal origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.M. de; Hendriks, T.; Eek, A.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Heskamp, S.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Boerman, O.C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half of the patients with colorectal cancer develop liver metastases during the course of their disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) to treat experimental colorectal liver metastases.

  19. Extensive hepatic replacement due to liver metastases has no effect on 5-fluorouracil pharmacokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, JG; Piersma, H; van Dalen, A; Groen, HJM; Uges, DRA; DeVries, EGE

    Purpose: The influence of liver metastases on the pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its metabolite 5,6-dihydrofluorouracil (DHFU) was studied in patients with liver metastases from gastrointestinal cancer (n = 16) and compared with a control group of patients with nonmetastatic

  20. Modern imaging of liver metastases; Moderne Bildgebung der Lebermetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenseher, J.; Pones, M.; Wengert, G.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria)

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the second most common location of metastases following the lymph nodes. The accurate characterization of focal liver lesions in oncology patients is especially important because of the high prevalence of benign liver lesions and the possibility of co-existing benign and malignant lesions. The exact interpretation of these lesions is crucial for therapeutic decisions and thus for the prognosis of the patient. It is essential to detect all focal liver lesions and to distinguish benign from malignant lesions, especially in the management of oncology patients. Numerous imaging modalities are available for these challenges in the daily routine. An extensive understanding of the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities and knowledge of the morphology and the typical and atypical appearances of the different metastases is important. This review explains the radiological criteria for various metastases in different modalities. To evaluate the individual prognosis and risk assessment preoperatively, functional imaging is necessary. These personalized pretherapeutic diagnostics are discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Leber stellt nach den Lymphknoten die zweithaeufigste Lokalisation von Metastasen dar. Aufgrund der hohen Praevalenz gutartiger Leberlaesionen ist die genaue Charakterisierung fokaler Leberlaesionen bei Patienten mit bekanntem Malignom besonders wichtig, da maligne und benigne Tumoren koexistieren koennen. Die eindeutige Zuordnung dieser Laesionen ist entscheidend fuer die Therapie und somit die Prognose des Patienten. Insbesondere fuer das Management onkologischer Patienten ist es daher essenziell, alle fokalen Leberlaesionen zu detektieren und zwischen benignen und malignen zu differenzieren. Um dieser Anforderung im radiologischen Alltag nachzukommen, stehen derzeit zahlreiche Bildgebungsmodalitaeten zur Verfuegung. Daher sind sowohl ein tiefgreifendes Verstaendnis der Vorteile und Limitationen der verschiedenen diagnostischen

  1. Radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases; Radiofrequenzablation von Lebermetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, P.L.; Clasen, S.; Schmidt, D.; Wiskirchen, J.; Tepe, G.; Claussen, C.D. [Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Boss, A. [Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Gouttefangeas, C. [Abt. Immunologie des Inst. fuer Zellbiologie, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Burkart, C. [Zentrum fuer gastroenterologische Onkologie der Medizinischen Klinik, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    The liver is the second only to lymph nodes as the most common site of metastatic disease irrespective of the primary tumor. Up to 50% of all patients with malignant diseases will develop liver metastases with a significant morbidity and mortality. Although the surgical resection leads to an improvement of the survival time, only approximately 20% of the patients are eligible for surgical intervention. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation represents one of the most important alternatives as well as complementary methods for the therapy of liver metastases. RF ablation can lead in a selected patient group to a palliation or to an increased life expectancy. RF ablation appears either safer (vs. cryotherapy) or easier (vs. laser) or more effective (percutaneous ethanol instillation [PEI]), transarterial chemoembolisation [TACE] in comparison with other minimal invasive procedures. RF ablation can be performed percutaneously, laparoscopically or intraoperatively and may be combined with chemotherapy as well as with surgical resection. Permanent technical improvements of RF systems, a better understanding of the underlying electrophysiological principles and an interdisciplinary approach will lead to a prognosis improvement in patients with liver metastases. (orig.) [German] Die Leber ist unabhaengig vom Primaertumor nach den Lymphknoten die zweithaeufigste Lokalisation von Metastasen. Bis zu 50% aller Patienten mit malignen Erkrankungen werden im Verlauf ihrer Erkrankung Lebermetastasen entwickeln, die mit einer signifikanten Morbiditaet und Mortalitaet verbunden sind. Obwohl die chirurgische Resektion zu einer verlaengerten Ueberlebenszeit fuehrt, sind nur ca. 20% der Patienten fuer einen chirurgischen Eingriff geeignet. Die Radiofrequenz-(RF-)Ablation stellt derzeit eine der effektivsten Alternativen und komplementaeren Methoden bei der Therapie von Lebermetastasen dar. In einem selektierten Patientengut fuehrt die RF-Ablation ueber den palliativen Einsatz hinaus zu einer

  2. Identification of bone and liver metastases from breast cancer by measurement of plasma alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayne, P D; Thakrar, S; Rosalki, S B; Foo, A Y; Parbhoo, S

    1987-01-01

    Plasma alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activities were determined in patients with breast cancer to diagnose and monitor bone and liver metastases. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in 21 of 50 patients (42%) with radiologically confirmed bone metastases, while total alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in only 10 of 50 (20%); liver alkaline phosphatase activity was raised in 12 of 25 patients (48%) with liver metastases. All patients with liver metastases had bone metast...

  3. Lymphatic drainage of the liver and its implications in the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinacci, Renato Micelli; Paye, François; Coelho, Fabricio Ferreira; Kruger, Jaime Arthur Pirolla; Herman, Paulo

    2014-12-01

    The liver is the most common site of distant metastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Surgery represents the mainstream for curative treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) with long-term survival up to 58 and 36 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Despite advances on diagnosis, staging and surgical strategies, 60-70 % of patients will develop recurrence of the disease even after R0 resection of CRCLM. Tumor staging, prognosis, and therapeutic approaches for cancer are most often based on the extent of involvement of regional lymph nodes (LNs) and, to a lesser extent, on the invasion of regional lymphatic vessels draining the primary tumor. For CRCLM, the presence of intra hepatic lymphatic and blood vascular dissemination has been associated with an increased risk of intra hepatic recurrence, poorer disease-free and overall survival after liver resection. Also, several studies have reviewed the role of surgery in the patient with concomitant CRCLM and liver pedicle LN metastasis. Although pedicle LN involvement is related to worst survival rates, it does not differentiate patients that will relapse from those that will not. This review aims to briefly describe the anatomy of the liver's lymphatic drainage, the incidence of intrahepatic lymphatic invasion and hilar lymph node involvement, as well as their clinical impact in CRCLM. A better understanding of the role of liver lymphatic metastasis might, in the near future, impact the strategy of systemic therapies after liver resection as for primary colorectal tumors.

  4. The prognostic significance of computerised tomography findings in women with liver metastases from breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlanga, J C; Evans, A E; Doyle, S; James, J J; Cornford, E J; Balls, G; Chan, S Y; Ellis, I

    2011-10-01

    While computerised tomography (CT) is used for diagnosis and assessing response to treatment little work has been performed on the prognostic significance of the CT findings in women with liver metastases. The aim of this study was to assess if the CT findings in women diagnosed with liver metastases at the time of first presentation with metastatic breast cancer have any prognostic significance. The staging CT scans of 78 consecutive women diagnosed with liver metastases at the time of first presentation of metastatic breast cancer were reviewed independently by two radiologists who were blinded to survival and the histological features of the tumour. The number and enhancement characteristics of liver metastases, whether metastases were solitary, multiple or diffuse, the diameter of the largest and the sum of the diameter of the five largest lesions, an estimate of % involvement (50%), and the presence of metastases at other sites were assessed. HER-2 and ER status and histological grade of the patient's primary breast cancer were also recorded. Survival was ascertained from hospital records. The prognostic significance of these factors was assessed in a univariate and multivariate fashion. At univariate analysis, number of liver metastases, sum of the diameter of the five largest lesions, percentage estimated involvement, presence of ascites, chest metastases and HER-2 status were significantly associated with reduced survival. Liver metastasis pattern (i.e. whether discrete or multiple), enhancement characteristics, ER status and histological grade were not associated with a significant outcome. At multivariate analysis estimated percentage liver involvement and the presence of chest metastases retained prognostic significance. Estimated percentage involvement was reproducible with 90% concordance between the two observers. The CT appearances of patients with liver metastases at first presentation with metastatic breast cancer provide prognostic information

  5. Ultrasound imaging of flow patterns in liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Solvig, Jan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability of colour Doppler, power Doppler and echo-enhanced Doppler imaging to detect the blood flow in liver metastases from colorectal cancer was investigated. An evaluation was then made to determine whether the flow pattern could be used as an indication of disease elsewhere....... METHODS: Forty-two patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer were examined, 8 of whom had local recurrence of their colorectal cancer. Seventy-seven liver metastases were evaluated with colour Doppler and power Doppler, and the presence or absence of a Doppler signal in the halo or centre...... detection rate to 98% (P liver...

  6. [A case of liver failure associated with liver damage due to mFOLFOX 6 after resection for multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Tetsuo; Abe, Tomomi; Koyanagi, Yasuhisa; Katsumata, Kenji; Wada, Tatehiko; Tsuchida, Akihiko; Aoki, Tatsuya

    2007-06-01

    A case of colorectal cancer in a 60-year-old man became resectable after downstaging was achieved with mFOLFOX 6 for multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer. The patient received 8 cycles of mFOLFOX 6 on the basis of a diagnosis of multiple liver metastases in the right and left lobes and a single metastasis in the right lung. After chemotherapy, the liver metastases showed partial response, and the lung metastasis stable disease. Because the lung metastasis was controlled and radical cure of the liver metastases was thought possible by resection, we performed right lobectomy of the liver. Postoperative progress was good, and we then planned a staged partial resection of the lung. However,on postoperative day 28, the patient was hospitalized again with liver dysfunction, which evolved into liver failure, in spite of conservative treatment. The patient died on postoperative day 95. The needle biopsy specimens of the liver taken on readmission showed bile duct occlusion, portal hypertension, and perisinusoidal fibrosis, and histopathology of the surgical non-tumoral liver specimen showed the same findings. We think that liver failure was triggered by resection of the liver which had been damaged by mFOLFOX 6. Recently, liver damage due to oxaliplatin was reported, and evaluation of liver injury is considered important before liver resection for colorectal liver metastases with neoadjuvant FOLFOX.

  7. Small cell variant of renal oncocytoma with liver metastases: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Priti P; Kriplani, Divya; Gami, Amisha; Shah, Manoj J; Shah, Pankaj M

    2013-12-01

    Renal oncocytoma is a renal neoplasm considered to be benign. A small cell variant comprising predominantly of oncoblasts is rare. Metastases from a renal oncocytoma are extremely rare. A case of small cell variant of renal oncocytoma with liver metastases is described.

  8. Clinical outcome, proteome kinetics and angiogenic factors in serum after thermoablation of colorectal liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertenbroek, Marieke W. J. L. A. E.; Schepers, Marianne; Kamminga-Rasker, Hannetta J.; Bottema, Jan T.; Kobold, Anneke C. Muller; Roelofsen, Han; de Jong, Koert P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thermoablation is used to treat patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). We analyze clinical outcome, proteome kinetics and angiogenic markers in patients treated by cryosurgical ablation (CSA) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: 205 patients underwent CSA (n

  9. Survival of women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and liver metastases: is it improving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Eliyaz; Short, Dee; North, Bernard; Savage, Philip M; Seckl, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether survival outcomes of women with liver metastases from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) have improved from the previous finding of 27% at 5 years. The Charing Cross GTN database was searched for patients with liver metastases treated between 1975 and 2007. Prognostic variables were recorded and analyzed for effect on survival. Thirty-eight (1.8%) of 2,100 GTN patients had liver metastases. One patient with placental site trophoblastic tumor was excluded. In the remaining 37 cases the overall survival was 48% at 5 years. Seven patients with very advanced disease died survival was 68%. No prognostic variable was significant on univariate analysis. However, patients presenting >2.8 years and survival, respectively. The prognosis of patients with liver metastases from GTN has improved. Outcome may be best in those patients presenting within 2.8 years of the causative pregnancy and without very large volumes of disease.

  10. [Liver metastases from colon and rectal cancer in terms of differences in their clinical parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liška, V; Emingr, M; Skála, M; Pálek, R; Troup, O; Novák, P; Vyčítal, O; Skalický, T; Třeška, V

    2016-02-01

    From the clinical point of view, rectal cancer and colon cancer are clearly different nosological units in their progress and treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse and clarify the differences between the behaviour of liver metastases from colon and rectal cancer. The study of these factors is important for determining an accurate prognosis and indication of the most effective surgical therapy and oncologic treatment of colon and rectal cancer as a systemic disease. 223 patients with metastatic disease of colorectal carcinoma operated at the Department of Surgery, University Hospital in Pilsen between January 1, 2006 and January 31, 2012 were included in our study. The group of patients comprised 145 men (65%) and 117 women (35%). 275 operations were performed. Resection was done in 177 patients and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the total of 98 cases. Our sample was divided into 3 categories according to the location of the primary tumor to C (colon), comprising 58 patients, S (c. sigmoideum) in 61 patients, and R (rectum), comprising 101 patients. Significance analysis of the studied factors (age, gender, staging [TNM classification], grading, presence of mucinous carcinoma, type of operation) was performed using ANOVA test. Overall survival (OS), disease-free interval (DFI) or no evidence of disease (NED) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves, which were compared with the log-rank and Wilcoxon tests. As regards the comparison of primary origin of colorectal metastases in liver regardless of their treatment (resection and RFA), our study indicated that rectal liver metastases showed a significantly earlier recurrence than colon liver metastases (shorter NED/DFI). Among other factors, a locally advanced finding, further R2 resection of liver metastases and positivity of lymph node metastases were statistically significant for the prognosis of an early recurrence of the primary colon and sigmoid tumor. Furthermore, we proved that in patients with

  11. Referral patterns of patients with liver metastases due to colorectal cancer for resection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Sahaf, O

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colorectal carcinoma accounts for 10% of cancer deaths in the Western World, with the liver being the most common site of distant metastases. Resection of liver metastases is the treatment of choice, with a 5-year survival rate of 35%. However, only 5-10% of patients are suitable for resection at presentation. AIMS: To examine the referral pattern of patients with liver metastases to a specialist hepatic unit for resection. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective review of patient\\'s charts diagnosed with colorectal liver metastases over a 10-year period. RESULTS: One hundred nine (38 women, 71 men) patients with liver metastases were included, mean age 61 years; 79 and 30 patients had synchronous and metachronus metastases, respectively. Ten criteria for referral were identified; the referral rate was 8.25%, with a resection rate of 0.9%. Forty two percent of the patients had palliative chemotherapy; 42% had symptomatic treatment. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the advanced stage of colorectal cancer at presentation; in light of modern evidence-based, centre-oriented therapy of liver metastasis, we conclude that criteria of referral for resection should be based on the availability of treatment modalities.

  12. The Role of Re-resection for Breast Cancer Liver Metastases-a Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BacalbaȘa, Nicolae; Balescu, Irina; Dima, Simona; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of hepatic re-resection for breast cancer liver metastases. Between January 2004 and December 2014 seven patients were submitted to liver re-resection for breast cancer liver metastases at our Center. The main inclusion criteria were presence of isolated liver metastases and absence of systemic recurrent disease Results: The median age at the time of breast surgery was 51 years (range=39-69 years). The first liver resection was performed after a median period of 34.7 months and consisted of minor hepatectomies in six and major hepatectomy in one patient. The second liver resection was performed after a median interval of 22 months from the first liver resection and consisted of major resection in one case and minor resection in the other six cases. Postoperative complications occurred in a single case after the first liver surgery and in two cases after the second hepatic resection, all cases being successfully managed conservatively. Overall postoperative mortality was 0. The median overall survival after the second liver resection was 28 months. Re-resection for breast cancer liver metastases can be safely performed and may bring survival benefit. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. The morphological growth patterns of colorectal liver metastases are prognostic for overall survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kåre; Rolff, Hans C; Eefsen, Rikke L

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal metastases in the liver grow according to three histological patterns: a pushing pattern, a replacement pattern, and a desmoplastic pattern. The objective of the current study was to explore the prognostic significance of these three growth patterns for survival. The study included 217...... consecutive patients, liver resected between 2007 and 2011 due to hepatic metastases from colorectal adenocarcinoma. The growth patterns were assessed on archival hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. In 150 metastases, the density of the immune cell infiltrate at the tumor periphery was judged....... Eventually, the growth patterns may contribute to a histology-based prognostic biomarker for patients with colorectal liver metastases.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 23 May 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.4....

  14. The interval approach: an adaptation of the liver-first approach to treat synchronous liver metastases from rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Mathieu; Lucidi, Valerio; Vermeiren, Koen; Van Den Bossche, Bert; Donckier, Vincent; Sergeant, Gregory

    2017-03-02

    The waiting interval after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is an interesting therapeutic window to treat patients with synchronous liver metastases (SLM) from rectal cancer. A retrospective analysis was performed of 18 consecutive patients (M/F 10/8, age (range) 60 (51-75) years) from five institutions who underwent liver resection of SLM during the waiting interval after CRT for rectal adenocarcinoma. All patients underwent interval liver surgery for a median (range) of 4 (2-14) liver metastases. Metastases involved a median (range) of 4 (1-7) liver segments. Median (range) time between end of CRT and liver surgery was 22 (6-45) days. Laparoscopic liver surgery was performed in 12 (67%) patients. No severe complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3b) occurred after liver surgery. Median (range) length of hospital stay after liver surgery was 5 (1-10) days. All patients subsequently underwent rectal resection at a median (range) of 10 (8-13) weeks after end of CRT. Median (IQR) time-to-progression after liver surgery was 4.2 (2.8-9.2) months. The waiting interval after neoadjuvant CRT is a valuable option to treat SLM from rectal cancer. More data are necessary to confirm its oncological efficacy.

  15. Outcomes after resection and/or radiofrequency ablation for recurrence after treatment of colorectal liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, J.; Wertenbroek, M. W. J. L. A. E.; Peeters, P. M. J. G.; Widder, J.; Sieders, E.; de Jong, K. P.

    Background: Repeat liver resection for colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) is possible in a limited number of patients, with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) as an alternative for unresectable CRLMs. The aim of this study was to analyse survival rates with these interventions. Methods: This was a

  16. Isolated hepatic perfusion as a treatment for uveal melanoma liver metastases (the SCANDIUM trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Roger; Ny, Lars; Eilard, Malin Sternby

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Despite successful control of the primary tumor, metastatic disease will ultimately develop in approximately 50% of patients, with the liver being the most common site for metastases. The median survival...... of the longest surviving patients in Sweden during the same time period (26 versus 12 months). METHODS/DESIGN: This is the protocol for a multicenter phase III trial randomizing patients with isolated liver metastases of uveal melanoma to IHP or best alternative care (BAC). Inclusion criteria include liver...

  17. The interval approach: an adaptation of the liver-first approach to treat synchronous liver metastases from rectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    D'Hondt, Mathieu; Lucidi, Valerio; Vermeiren, Koen; Van Den Bossche, Bert; Donckier, Vincent; Sergeant, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Background The waiting interval after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is an interesting therapeutic window to treat patients with synchronous liver metastases (SLM) from rectal cancer. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of 18 consecutive patients (M/F 10/8, age (range) 60 (51?75) years) from five institutions who underwent liver resection of SLM during the waiting interval after CRT for rectal adenocarcinoma. Results All patients underwent interval liver surgery for a median (range) of 4 ...

  18. Possibility of sandwiched liver surgery with molecular targeting drugs, cetuximab and bevacizumab on colon cancer liver metastases: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyama Yoichi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 31-year-old man with sigmoid colon cancer with concomitant simultaneous multiple liver metastases had received FOLFIRI (leucovorin, fluorouracil and irinotecan and FOLFOX6 (leucovorin, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin after an ordinary sigmoidectomy. However, his serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level increased rapidly during the fifteen months after the operation while he was on FOLFOX6. Abdominal computed tomography revealed expanding multiple liver tumors. As the third line chemotherapy, a combination therapy of cetuximab with irinotecan was given, which markedly reduced his levels of serum CEA, and the size and number of liver tumors. He underwent lateral segmentectomy of the liver and microwave coagulation of the liver metastases in the remnant liver. Thereafter, a good quality of life with tumor dormancy was obtained for 6 months. However, his serum CEA started to rise again in the absence of liver tumors. Therefore, FOLFOX6 with bevacizumab was chosen as the fourth line chemotherapy, and the serum CEA was reduced with tumor dormancy. A good quality of life was obtained again at 3 years after the first surgery. This report indicates the effectiveness of sandwiched liver surgery with the molecular targeting drugs cetuximab and bevacizumab on multiple liver metastases of colon cancer, and suggests the possibility of a regimen consisting of bevacizumab following cetuximab.

  19. Liver metastases: interventional therapeutic techniques and results, state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mueller, P.K.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Frankfurt (Germany); Neuhaus, P. [Dept. of Surgery, Humboldt University of Berlin (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    The liver is the most common site of metastatic tumour deposits. Hepatic metastases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas and other malignant tumours. The rationale and results for interventional therapeutic techniques in the treatment of liver metastases are presented. For the treatment of patients with irresectable liver metastases, alternative local ablative therapeutic modalities have been developed. Technique and results of local interventional therapies are presented such as microwave-, radiofrequency (RF)- and ultrasound ablation, and laser-induced interstitial therapy (LITT), cryotherapy and local drug administration such as alcohol injection, endotumoral chemotherapy and regional chemoembolisation. In addition to cryotherapy, all ablative techniques can be performed percutaneously with low morbidity and mortality. Cryotherapy is an effective and precise technique for inducing tumour necrosis, but it is currently performed via laparotomy. Percutaneous local alcohol injection results in an inhomogeneous distribution in liver metastases with unreliable control rates. Local chemotherapeutic drug instillation and regional chemoembolisation produces relevant but non-reproducible lesions. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) performed under MRI guidance results in precise and reproducible areas of induced necrosis with a local control of 94 %, and with an improved survival rate. Interventional therapeutic techniques of liver metastases do result in a remarkable local tumour control rate with improved survival results. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 43 refs.

  20. Safety of Redo Hepatectomy for Colorectal Liver Metastases after Selective Interarterial Radiation Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection is the only potentially curative strategy in the treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM. Unfortunately, only about 10%–15% of patients are candidates for resection. Preoperative chemotherapy aims to increase the number of patients that may be eligible for liver resection by downsizing liver metastases. For patients with unresectable, chemotherapy refractory CLM the available treatment options are limited. Selective interarterial radiation therapy (SIRT is one of the most promising treatment options for this group of patients. Although only a small number of these patients have been reported as becoming candidates for potentially curative hepatic resection following sufficient reduction in the volume of liver metastases, the question arises regarding the safety of liver resection in these patients. We report a case of a patient who presented unresectable liver relapse of CLM after previous right hepatectomy. He underwent SIRT which resulted in downsizing of the liver metastases making the patient candidate for left lateral sectionectomy. He underwent the redo hepatectomy without any complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of redo hepatectomy after SIRT for CLM.

  1. Gene expression profiles of primary colorectal carcinomas, liver metastases, and carcinomatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myklebost Ola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that metastases are the leading cause of colorectal cancer deaths, little is known about the underlying molecular changes in these advanced disease stages. Few have studied the overall gene expression levels in metastases from colorectal carcinomas, and so far, none has investigated the peritoneal carcinomatoses by use of DNA microarrays. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the gene expression patterns of primary carcinomas (n = 18, liver metastases (n = 4, and carcinomatoses (n = 4, relative to normal samples from the large bowel. Results Transcriptome profiles of colorectal cancer metastases independent of tumor site, as well as separate profiles associated with primary carcinomas, liver metastases, or peritoneal carcinomatoses, were assessed by use of Bayesian statistics. Gains of chromosome arm 5p are common in peritoneal carcinomatoses and several candidate genes (including PTGER4, SKP2, and ZNF622 mapping to this region were overexpressed in the tumors. Expression signatures stratified on TP53 mutation status were identified across all tumors regardless of stage. Furthermore, the gene expression levels for the in vivo tumors were compared with an in vitro model consisting of cell lines representing all three tumor stages established from one patient. Conclusion By statistical analysis of gene expression data from primary colorectal carcinomas, liver metastases, and carcinomatoses, we are able to identify genetic patterns associated with the different stages of tumorigenesis.

  2. Liver resection after chemotherapy and tumour downsizing in patients with initially unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaud, Nicolas; Kanji, Zaheer S; Dhani, Neesha; Grant, Robert C; Shoushtari, Hassan; Serrano, Pablo E; Nanji, Sulaiman; Greig, Paul D; McGilvray, Ian; Moulton, Carol-Anne; Wei, Alice; Gallinger, Steven; Cleary, Sean P

    2014-05-01

    Among patients with initially unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases (CLM), a subset are rendered resectable following the administration of systemic chemotherapy. This study reports the results achieved in liver resections performed at a single hepatobiliary referral centre after downsizing chemotherapy in patients with initially unresectable CLM. All liver resections for CLM performed over a 10-year period at the Toronto General Hospital were considered. Data on initially non-resectable patients who received systemic therapy and later underwent surgery were included for analysis. Between January 2002 and July 2012, 754 liver resections for CLM were performed. A total of 24 patients were found to meet the study inclusion criteria. Bilobar CLM were present in 23 of these 24 patients. The median number of tumours was seven (range: 2-15) and median tumour size was 7.0 cm (range: 1.0-12.8 cm) before systemic therapy. All patients received oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Fourteen patients received combined treatment with bevacizumab. Negative margin (R0) resection was accomplished in 21 of 24 patients. There was no perioperative mortality. Ten patients suffered perioperative morbidity. Eighteen patients suffered recurrence of disease within 9 months. Rates of disease-free survival at 1, 2 and 3 years were 47.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.4-74.6%], 23.8% (95% CI 11.1-51.2%) and 19.0% (95% CI 7.9-46.0%), respectively. Overall survival at 1, 2 and 3 years was 91.5% (95% CI 80.8-100%), 65.3% (95% CI 48.5-88.0%) and 55.2% (95% CI 37.7-80.7%), respectively. Liver resection in initially unresectable CLM can be performed with low rates of morbidity and mortality in patients who respond to systemic chemotherapy, although these patients do experience a high frequency of disease recurrence. © 2013 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  3. Experimental Antibody Therapy of Liver Metastases Reveals Functional Redundancy between Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Marielle A.; van der Bij, Gerben J.; Verbeek, Sjef J.; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Beelen, Robert H. J.; de Winkel, Jan G. J. van; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2008-01-01

    Many patients with colorectal cancer will develop liver metastases, even after successful surgical removal of the primary tumor at a time at which no visible metastases are present. We previously demonstrated that surgery-although mandatory-paradoxically enhances the risk of developing liver

  4. MiRNA-21 Expression Decreases from Primary Tumors to Liver Metastases in Colorectal Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Feiersinger

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death in colorectal cancer patients. Expression of certain miRNAs in the primary tumors has been shown to be associated with progression of colorectal cancer and the initiation of metastasis. In this study, we compared miRNA expression in primary colorectal cancer and corresponding liver metastases in order to get an idea of the oncogenic importance of the miRNAs in established metastases.We analyzed the expression of miRNA-21, miRNA-31 and miRNA-373 in corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue samples of primary colorectal cancer, liver metastasis and healthy tissues of 29 patients by quantitative real-time PCR.All three miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in the primary tumor tissues as compared to healthy colon mucosa of the respective patients (p < 0.01. MiRNA-21 and miRNA-31 were also higher expressed in liver metastases as compared to healthy liver tissues (p < 0.01. No significant difference of expression of miRNA-31 and miRNA-373 was observed between primary tumors and metastases. Of note, miRNA-21 expression was significantly reduced in liver metastases as compared to the primary colorectal tumors (p < 0.01.In the context of previous studies demonstrating increased miRNA-21 expression in metastatic primary tumors, our findings raise the question whether miRNA-21 might be involved in the initiation but not in the perpetuation and growth of metastases.

  5. Large variation in the utilization of liver resections in stage IV colorectal cancer patients with metastases confined to the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam-Boer, J. 't; Ali, C. Al; Verhoeven, R.H.A.; Roumen, R.M.; Lemmens, V.E.; Rijken, A.M.; Wilt, J.H.W. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical resection of both the primary tumor and all metastases is considered the only chance of cure for patients with stage IV colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate change over time in the utilization of liver resections, as well as possible institutional

  6. Clinical features and prognostic factors in patients with bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the clinical features and prognostic factors of bone metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC following liver transplantation (LT. Methods All adult patients undergoing LT from 2001 to 2010 were reviewed. Patients with HCC bone metastases after LT received external beam radiotherapy(EBRT during this period. Demographic variables, laboratory values, and tumor characteristics were determined before LT and EBRT. Total radiation dose ranged from 8 to 60 Gy(median dose 40.0 Gy. Results The trunk was the most common site of bone metastases with finding of expansile soft-tissue masses in 23.3% of patients. Overall pain relief from EBRT occurred in 96.7% (29/30. No consistent dose-response relationship was found for palliation of with doses between 30 and 56 Gy (P = 0.670. The median survivals from the time of bone metastases was 8.6 months. On univariate and multivariate analyses, better survival was significantly associated with a better Karnofsky performance status (KPS and well-controlled intrahepatic tumor, but not with lower alpha-fetoprotein levels. The median time from LT to bone metastases was 7.1 months. Patients exceeding the Shanghai criteria presented with bone metastases earlier than those within the Fudan criteria. Patients with soft-tissue extension always had later bone metastases. The majority of deaths were caused by liver failure due to hepatic decompensation or tumor progression. Conclusion The prognostic factors of bone metastases of HCC following LT are KPS and well-controlled intrahepatic. Even though survival is shorter for these patients, EBRT provides effective palliation of pain.

  7. Staged or simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingso, J.G.; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to estimate the differences in length of hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and long-term survival between staged and simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer to determine the level of evidence for recommen......A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to estimate the differences in length of hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and long-term survival between staged and simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer to determine the level of evidence...... were retrospective and had a general bias, because the staged procedure was significantly more often undertaken in patients with left-sided primary tumours and larger, more numerous and bi-lobar metastases. Analyses of primary outcomes were performed using the random effects model. For the reason...

  8. Invasion front-specific expression and prognostic significance of microRNA in colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, Christoph; Klupp, Fee; Brand, Karsten; Lasitschka, Felix; Diederichs, Sven; Kirchberg, Johanna; Rahbari, Nuh; Dutta, Shamik; Bork, Ulrich; Fritzmann, Johannes; Reissfelder, Christoph; Koch, Moritz; Weitz, Juergen

    2011-10-01

    The tumor edge of colorectal cancer and its adjacent peritumoral tissue is characterized by an invasion front-specific expression of genes that contribute to angiogenesis or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Dysregulation of these genes has a strong impact on the invasion behavior of tumor cells. However, the invasion front-specific expression of microRNA (miRNA) still remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate miRNA expression patterns at the invasion front of colorectal liver metastases. Laser microdissection of colorectal liver metastases was performed to obtain separate tissue compartments from the tumor center, tumor invasion front, liver invasion front and pure liver parenchyma. Microarray expression analysis revealed 23 miRNA downregulated in samples from the tumor invasion front with respect to the same miRNA in the liver, the liver invasion front or the tumor center. By comparing samples from the liver invasion front with samples from pure liver parenchyma, the tumor invasion front and the tumor center, 13 miRNA were downregulated. By quantitative RT-PCR, we validated the liver invasion front-specific downregulation of miR-19b, miR-194, let-7b and miR-1275 and the tumor invasion front-specific downregulation of miR-143, miR- 145, let-7b and miR-638. Univariate analysis demonstrated that enhanced expression of miR-19b and miR-194 at the liver invasion front, and decreased expression of let-7 at the tumor invasion front, is an adverse prognostic marker of tumor recurrence and overall survival. In conclusion, the present study suggests that invasion front-specific downregulation of miRNA in colorectal liver metastases plays a pivotal role in tumor progression.

  9. Hepatic splenosis mimicking liver metastases in a patient with history of childhood immature teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jereb Sara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic splenosis is rare condition, preceded by splenectomy or spleen trauma, the term refers to nodular implantation of normal splenic tissue in the liver. In patients with history of malignancy in particular, it can be mistaken for metastases and can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures or inappropriate treatment.

  10. Multipolar radiofrequency ablation for colorectal liver metastases close to major hepatic vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, Nikol; Nijkamp, Maarten W.; Berendsen, Tim; Govaert, Klaas M.; van Kessel, Charlotte S.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is often hindered by their location close to the major hepatic vessels. So far, radiofrequency ablation for perivascular tumours was thought to be ineffective and unsafe due to either the heat sink effect or vascular thrombosis. The aim of

  11. Hepatic arterial infusion pump chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases: an old technology in a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y J; Karanicolas, P J

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive treatment of colorectal cancer (crc) liver metastases can yield long-term survival and cure. Unfortunately, most patients present with technically unresectable metastases; conventional therapy in such patients consists of systemic therapy. Despite advances in the effectiveness of systemic therapy in the first-line setting, the tumour response rate and median survival remain low in the second-line setting. The preferential blood supply from the hepatic artery to crc liver metastases allows for excellent regional delivery of chemotherapy. Here, we review efficacy and safety data for hepatic artery infusion (hai) pump chemotherapy in patients with metastatic crc from the 5-fluorouracil era and from the era of modern chemotherapy. In selected patients with liver-only or liver-dominant disease who have progressed on first-line chemotherapy, hai combined with systemic agents is a viable therapeutic option when performed at experienced centres. Furthermore, significantly improved survival has been demonstrated with adjuvant hai therapy after liver resection in the phase iii setting. The complication rates and local toxicities associated with hai pump therapy are infrequent at experienced centres and can be managed with careful follow-up and early intervention. The major obstacles to the wide adoption of hai therapy include technical expertise for pump insertion and maintenance, and for floxuridine dose modification. The creation of formal preceptor-focused education and training in hai therapy for interdisciplinary medical professionals might encourage the creation and expansion of this liver-directed approach.

  12. Liver Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Improves Detection of Liver Metastases in Patients with Pancreatic or Periampullary Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taimr, Pavel; Jongerius, Vivian L; Pek, Chulja J; Krak, Nanda C; Hansen, Bettina E; Janssen, Harry L A; Metselaar, Herold J; van Eijck, Casper H J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a diagnostic performance evaluation of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting liver metastases in patients with suspected of pancreatic or periampullary cancer. Computed tomography (CT) is often insufficient for detection of liver metastases, but their presence plays a crucial role in the choice of therapy. Eighty-nine patients with suspected pancreatic or periampullary cancer were included in this prospective study with retrospective analysis. Patients underwent an abdominal CT and CEUS. Fifteen patients had liver metastases. The CT sensitivity was 73.3% (11/15), the specificity 93.2% (69/74), the positive predictive value (PPV) 68.8% (11/16) and the negative predictive value (NPV) 94.6% (69/73). Based on CEUS, the sensitivity was 80% (12/15), specificity 98.6% (73/74), PPV 92.3% (12/13) and NPV 96.1% (73/76). CEUS improved characterization of liver lesions in patients with suspected pancreatic or periampullary cancer compared with CT. CEUS can better detect benign liver lesions and distinguish false-positive or indeterminate CT results. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preoperative Prognostic Factors After Liver Resection for Non-Colorectal, Non-Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases and Validation of the Adam Score in an Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Dayna P Y; Goh, Brian K P; Lee, Ser-Yee; Chan, Chung-Yip; Tan, Iain B H; Cheow, Peng-Chung; Jeyaraj, Premaraj; Chow, Pierce K H; Ooi, London L P J; Chung, Alexander Y F

    2017-09-05

    Historically, the benefit of liver resection for non-colorectal, non-neuroendocrine (NCNN) liver metastases has been controversial. This study aims to determine the preoperative prognostic factors of liver resection for NCNN liver metastases and validate the Adam score in an Asian population. Consecutive patients who underwent liver resection for NCNN liver metastases were identified retrospectively from a prospective liver resection database of the single institution between 2001 and 2014. Univariate Cox regression models were used to identify associations with outcome variables. Recurrence-free interval and overall survival were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank test. Seventy-eight consecutive patients were identified, which met the study criteria. Univariate analysis demonstrated that adenocarcinoma histology of primary cancer, disease-free interval and number of nodules were significant predictors of survival. Four of the six components of Adam score were significant predictors of survival. These were the presence of extrahepatic metastases, R2 resection, disease-free interval and type of a primary tumour. The total Adam score was also a significant predictor of survival. Liver resection for NCNN liver metastases is a safe and viable treatment option in carefully selected patients. Significant preoperative prognostic factors include adenocarcinoma primary tumours, disease-free interval and number of nodules. The total Adam score was a good predictor of overall survival and can be used to risk stratify patients undergoing hepatic resection for NCNN liver metastases.

  14. Surgical treatment of renal cell cancer liver metastases: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruys, Anthony T; Tanis, Pieter J; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Iris, Nagtegaal D; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Verhoef, Cornelis; Porte, Robert J; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with hepatic metastases from renal-cell carcinoma in the Netherlands, and to identify prognostic factors for survival after resection. Renal-cell carcinoma has an incidence of 2,000 new patients in the Netherlands each year (12.5/100,000 inhabitants). According to literature, half of these patients ultimately develop distant metastases with 20% involvement of the liver. Resection of renal-cell carcinoma liver metastases (RCCLM) is performed in only a minority of patients. Hence, little is known about outcome of resectable RCCLM. Patients were retrieved from local databases of the Netherlands Task Force for Liver Surgery (14 centers) and from the Dutch collective pathology database. Survival and prognostic factors were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and log rank test. Thirty-three patients were identified who underwent resection (n = 29) or local ablation (n = 4) of RCCLM in the Netherlands between 1990 and 2008. These patients comprise 0.5% to 1% of the total population of patients diagnosed with RCCLM in that period. There was no operative mortality. The overall survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 79, 47, and 43%, respectively. Metachronous metastases (n = 23, P = 0.03) and radical resection (n = 19, P < 0.001) were statistically significant prognosticators of overall survival. Size < 50 mm (n = 18, P = 0,54), solitary metastases (n = 19, P = 0.93), and presence of extrahepatic metastases (n = 11, P = 0.28) did not have a statistically significant impact on survival. The favorable 5-year survival rate of 43% without operative mortality as found in this nationwide study indicates that selected patients with RCCLM can benefit from surgical treatment.

  15. Liver metastases, a rare cause of portal hypertension and stoma bleeding. Brief review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilidou, E; Waraich, N; Raza, T; Agarwal, P K

    2012-01-01

    Portal hypertension is an unusual complication of liver metastases, which is frequently occurring in malignant disease. Portal hypertension may cause oesophageal varices and also stoma varices (colostomy and ileostomy). Oesophageal varices and bleeding from these varices have been frequently reported in literature. Stomal varices have also been reported in literature mostly associated with liver cirrhosis. These stomal varices lead to the massive bleeding causing morbidity and mortality. Portal hypertension is a pathological increase in portal pressure gradient (the difference between pressure in the portal and inferior vena cava veins). It is either due to an increase in portal blood flow or an increase in vascular resistance or combination of both. In liver cirrhosis, the primary factor leading to portal hypertension is increase in portal blood flow resistance and later on development of increased portal blood flow. It has been postulated that in liver metastasis the increase in portal flow resistance occurs at any site within portal venous system as a consequence of mechanical architectural disturbance. We report a case of a 64 year old gentleman who developed portal hypertension due to secondary metastases from colorectal cancer. He subsequently developed bleeding varices in his end colostomy. We believe that the combination of extensive metastases and chemotherapy induced portal hypertension in our patient. Our case and other literature review highlight that the recurrent bleeding stoma associated with colorectal cancer should be investigated for portal hypertension. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Caused by Diffuse Liver Metastases following Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rauf Zeina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the liver resulting in fulminant hepatic failure are a rare occurrence and have not been previously described in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. A 70 year-old man was referred to hospital with postprandial discomfort. On examination a 19.5 cm large epithelioid GIST of the stomach was diagnosed. The mass exhibited unfavorable prognostic features: mitotic index 18/50 high-power fields, large primary tumor size and male sex. Complete tumor resection with negative margins was achieved and metastases were not detected. The patient presented six months later with jaundice, asterixis and elevated liver enzymes. Computerized tomography showed multiple liver hypodense lesions representing metastases. Treatment with imatinib mesylate was of no avail and the patient died 3 days later as the result of hepatic failure. Massive liver metastases can, even though rarely, be responsible for fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical and radiological follow-up are crucial in patients with GIST even after surgical resection.

  17. Suitability of semi-automated tumor response assessment of liver metastases using a dedicated software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkmann, Janine; Ladd, S.C.; Greiff, A. de; Forsting, M.; Stattaus, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Univ. Hospital Essen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the suitability of semi-automated compared to manual tumor response assessment (TRA) of liver metastases. Materials and methods: in total, 32 patients with colorectal cancer and liver metastases were followed by an average of 2.8 contrast-enhanced CT scans. Two observers (O1, O2) measured the longest diameter (LD) of 269 liver metastases manually and semi-automatically using software installed as thin-client on a PACS workstation (LMS-Liver, MEDIAN Technologies). LD and TRA (''progressive'', ''stable'', ''partial remission'') were performed according to RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and analyzed for between-method, interobserver and intraobserver variability. The time needed for evaluation was compared for both methods. Results: all measurements correlated excellently (r {>=} 0.96). Intraobserver (semi-automated), interobserver (manual) and between-method differences (by O1) in LD of 1.4 {+-} 2.6 mm, 1.9 {+-} 1.9 mm and 2.1 {+-} 2.0 mm, respectively, were not significant. Interobserver (semi-automated) and between-method (by O2) differences in LD of 3.0 {+-} 3.0 mm and 2.6 {+-} 2.0 mm, respectively, reflected a significant variability (p < 0.01). The interobserver agreement in manual and semi-automated TRA was 91.4%. The intraobserver agreement in semi-automated TRA was 84.5%. Between both methods a TRA agreement of 86.2% was obtained. Semi-automated evaluation (2.7 min) took slightly more time than manual evaluation (2.3 min). Conclusion: semi-automated and manual evaluation of liver metastases yield comparable results in response assessments and require comparable effort. (orig.)

  18. Colorectal Cancer and Liver Metastases : determinants of outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.S. Lalmahomed (Zarina)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of cancer with annually, 1.36 million new patients and 694 000 deaths. The liver is the most common organ affected by metastatic disease. Disease staging is performed by the TNM classification system and therapeutic strategies are

  19. A case of alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer in a child presenting with rupture of multiple liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Eriko; Tanaka, Mio; Fujishiro, Jun; Kitagawa, Norihiko; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Tanaka, Yukichi

    2015-09-01

    We report a 14-year-old boy with alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer (AFPGC) who was found with ruptured metastatic tumor in the liver. AFPGC is exceedingly rare in pediatric age. It often shows metastases to the liver and should be included in differential diagnoses of liver tumors with increased serum AFP.

  20. Chemoperfusion and embolization in the treatment of liver metastases; Chemoperfusion und -embolisation von Lebermetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G.; Eichler, K.; Zangos, S.; Naguib, N.N.; Gruber-Rouh, T. [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-01-15

    Presentation of techniques and procedures for regional chemotherapy in the treatment of unresectable liver metastases from different primary tumors as a modality of interdisciplinary therapy management. Such transarterial therapy methods include hepatic arterial infusion (HAI), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), chemoembolization with cytostatic-loaded microspheres (DEBs), transarterial embolization (TAE) and selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). Regional chemotherapy procedures in the treatment of liver metastases represent a minimally invasive treatment option that can be successfully combined with surgical resection and/or radiofrequency (RFA), laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), microwave ablation (MWA). These procedures allow optimization of the local control rate with strictly intrahepatic processes and lead to increased survival rates without any quality of life restriction. (orig.)

  1. Whole-liver radiotherapy for end-stage colorectal cancer patients with massive liver metastases and advanced hepatic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun Young

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether whole-liver radiotherapy (RT is beneficial in end-stage colorectal cancer with massive liver metastases and severe hepatic dysfunction. Methods Between June 2004 and July 2008, 10 colorectal cancer patients, who exhibited a replacement of over three quarters of their normal liver by metastatic tumors and were of Child-Pugh class B or C in liver function with progressive disease after undergoing chemotherapy, underwent whole-liver RT. RT was administered using computed tomography-based three-dimensional planning and the median dose was 21 Gy (range, 21-30 in seven fractions. Improvement in liver function tests, defined as a decrease in the levels within 1 month after RT, symptom palliation, toxicity, and overall survival were analyzed retrospectively. Results Levels of alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase improved in 8, 6, 9, and all 10 patients, respectively, and the median reduction rates were 42%, 68%, 50%, and 57%, respectively. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen level decreased after RT in three of four assessable patients. For all patients, pain levels decreased and acute toxicity consisted of nausea/vomiting of grade ≤ 2. Further chemotherapy became possible in four of 10 patients. Mean survival after RT was 80 ± 80 days (range, 20-289; mean survival for four patients who received post-RT chemotherapy was 143 ± 100 days (range, 65-289, versus 38 ± 16 days (range, 20-64 for the six patients who did not receive post-RT chemotherapy (p = 0.127. Conclusions Although limited by small case number, this study demonstrated a possible role of whole-liver RT in improving hepatic dysfunction and delaying mortality from hepatic failure for end-stage colorectal cancer patients with massive liver metastases. Further studies should be followed to confirm these findings.

  2. Long-term survival following radiofrequency ablation of colorectal liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babawale, Simeon Niyi; Jensen, Thomas Mandøe; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum

    2015-01-01

    were evaluated, both before and after ablation therapies, with contrast enhanced computerised tomography and contrast enhanced ultrasonography. Histological evidence of malignant liver metastases was obtained in the few instances where contrast enhanced ultrasonography gave equivocal results. Accesses...... for modestly lower survival rates as compared with earlier studies in the literature. CONCLUSION: Our study underscores the fact that optimum patients' selection before embarking on RFA treatment is vitally important to achieving a superior outcome....

  3. A Case of Early-Stage Ovarian Carcinoid Tumor Metastasized to the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Kanayama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of ovarian carcinoid tumor that recurred with multiple liver metastases and was successfully treated with chemoembolization. A 76-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital presented with abdominal distension and abnormal uterine bleeding for about 6 months. She presented with hyperestrogenic and androgenic manifestations such as vaginal bleeding with endometrial hyperplasia and hirsutism. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging revealed a large solid and cystic ovarian tumor of 17 cm at maximum diameter. On the basis of the clinical diagnosis of sex cord stromal tumor containing a mature cystic teratoma, she underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The pathology report revealed that the mass in the left ovary was a carcinoid tumor, insular type, with mature cystic teratoma. Two years after surgical treatment, multiple liver metastases were revealed by abdominal CT. Hepatic arterial infusion of cisplatin was performed for 2 courses, and multiple metastatic nodules have remarkably reduced. No established chemotherapy or radiation therapy treatments are currently available for recurrent or advanced carcinoid tumors. Our paper suggests that chemoembolization with cisplatin may be effective in treatment of patients with multiple liver metastases of ovarian carcinoid tumor.

  4. Na,K-ATPase isozymes in colorectal cancer and liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eBaker Bechmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to define Na,K-ATPase α and β subunit isoform expression and isozyme composition in colorectal cancer cells and liver metastases. The α1, α3 and β1 isoforms were the most highly expressed in tumor cells and metastases; in the plasma membrane of non-neoplastic cells and mainly in a cytoplasmic location in tumor cells. α1β1 and α3β1 isozymes found in tumor and metastatic cells exhibit the highest and lowest Na+ affinity respectively and the highest K+ affinity. Mesenchymal cell isozymes possess an intermediate Na+ affinity and a low K+ affinity. In cancer, these ions are likely to favor optimal conditions for the function of nuclear enzymes involved in mitosis, especially a high intra-nuclear K+ concentration. A major and striking finding of this study was that in liver, metastasized CRC cells express the α3β1 isozyme. Thus, the α3β1 isozyme could potentially serve as a novel exploratory biomarker of CRC metastatic cells in liver.

  5. FLT-PET for early response evaluation of colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Marie Benzon; Loft, Annika; Aznar, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    of treatment response in colorectal cancer patients (CRC) with liver metastases. Patients with metastatic CRC having at least one measurable (>1 cm) liver metastasis receiving first-line chemotherapy were included. A FLT-PET/CT scan was performed at baseline and after the first treatment. The maximum and mean......BACKGROUND: Fluoro-L-thymidine (FLT) is a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) tracer which reflects proliferative activity in a cancer lesion. The main objective of this prospective explorative study was to evaluate whether FLT-PET can be used for the early evaluation...

  6. New Developments in Interventional Oncology: Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallini, Joseph R; Gabr, Ahmed; Abouchaleh, Nadine; Ali, Rehan; Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Although hepatic excision is the first-line treatment for colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM), few patients are candidates. Locoregional therapy (LRT) encompasses minimally invasive techniques practiced by interventional radiology. These include ablative treatments (radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, and cryosurgical ablation) and transcatheter intra-arterial therapy (hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, transarterial "bland" embolization, transarterial chemoembolization, and radioembolization with yttrium 90). The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends LRT for unresectable CRLM refractory to chemotherapy. The following is a review of LRT in CRLM, including salient features, advantages, limitations, current roles, and future considerations.

  7. BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS FOR MULTIMODAL TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL LIVER METASTASES. MODULE 3: CONTROVERSIES AND UNRESECTABLE METASTASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Orlando Jorge Martins; Marques, Márcio Carmona; Santos, Fabio Nasser; Farias, Igor Correia de; Coutinho, Anelisa Kruschewsky; Oliveira, Cássio Virgílio Cavalcante de; Kalil, Antonio Nocchi; Mello, Celso Abdon Lopes de; Kruger, Jaime Arthur Pirola; Fernandes, Gustavo Dos Santos; Quireze, Claudemiro; Murad, André M; Silva, Milton José de Barros E; Zurstrassen, Charles Edouard; Freitas, Helano Carioca; Cruz, Marcelo Rocha; Weschenfelder, Rui; Linhares, Marcelo Moura; Castro, Leonaldson Dos Santos; Vollmer, Charles; Dixon, Elijah; Ribeiro, Héber Salvador de Castro; Coimbra, Felipe José Fernandez

    2016-01-01

    In the last module of this consensus, controversial topics were discussed. Management of the disease after progression during first line chemotherapy was the first discussion. Next, the benefits of liver resection in the presence of extra-hepatic disease were debated, as soon as, the best sequence of treatment. Conversion chemotherapy in the presence of unresectable liver disease was also discussed in this module. Lastly, the approach to the unresectable disease was also discussed, focusing in the best chemotherapy regimens and hole of chemo-embolization. RESUMO Neste último módulo do consenso, abordou-se alguns temas controversos. O primeiro tópico discutido foi o manejo da doença após progressão na primeira linha de quimioterapia, com foco em se ainda haveria indicação cirúrgica neste cenário. A seguir, o painel debruçou-se sobre as situações de ressecção da doença hepática na presença de doença extra-hepática, assim como, qual a melhor sequência de tratamento. O tratamento de conversão para doença inicialmente irressecável também foi abordado neste módulo, incluindo as importantes definições de quando se pode esperar que a doença se torne ressecável e quais esquemas terapêuticos seriam mais efetivos à luz dos conhecimentos atuais sobre a biologia tumoral e taxas de resposta objetiva. Por último, o tratamento da doença não passível de ressecção foi discutida, focando-se nos melhores esquemas a serem empregados e seu sequenciamento, bem como o papel da quimioembolização no manejo destes pacientes.

  8. A Reappraisal of Chemotherapy-Induced Liver Injury in Colorectal Liver Metastases before the Era of Antiangiogenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Nguyen-Khac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases can induce hepatotoxicity in noncancerous liver. We describe these lesions and assess risk factors and impacts on postresection morbidity and mortality in naive patients to chemotherapy before the era of bevacizumab. Methods. Noncancerous liver tissue lesions were analysed according to tumour, chemotherapy, surgery, and patient characteristics. Results. Fifty patients aged 62 ± 9.3 years were included between 2003 and 2007. Thirty-three (66% received chemotherapy, with Folfox (58%, Folfiri (21%, LV5FU2 (12%, or Xelox (9% regimens. Hepatotoxicity consisted of 18 (36% cases of severe sinusoidal dilatation (SD, 13 (26% portal fibrosis, 7 (14% perisinusoidal fibrosis (PSF, 6 (12% nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH, 2 (4% steatosis >30%, zero steatohepatitis, and 16 (32% surgical hepatitis. PSF was more frequent after chemotherapy (21% versus 0%, , especially LV5FU2 (. SD was associated with oxaliplatin (54.5% versus 23.5%, and low body mass index (. NRH was associated with oxaliplatin ( and extensive resection (. No impact on mortality and morbidity was observed, apart postoperative elevation of bilirubin levels in case of PSF (, longer hospitalization in case of surgical hepatitis (, and greater blood loss in case of portal fibrosis (. Conclusions. Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases induces sinusoidal dilatation related to oxaliplatin and perisinusoidal fibrosis related to 5FU, without any impact on postoperative mortality.

  9. Detectability of liver metastases in malignant melanoma: prospective comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Nadir [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany)]. E-mail: gha@mrs1.ukl.uni-freiburg.de; Altehoefer, Carsten [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany); Hoegerle, Stefan [Departments of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Nitzsche, Egbert [Departments of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Lohrmann, Christian [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany); Schaefer, Oliver [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany); Kotter, Elmar [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany); Langer, Mathias [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) for detection of liver metastases in malignant melanoma. Material and methods: Thirty-five patients with 39 combined unenhanced MRI and fluorine-18 deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) PET scans were prospectively studied. In discordant imaging findings final diagnosis was proven by clinical follow-up >6 months and demonstration of progressive liver metastases by at least one imaging method. Sensitivities and specificities were compared and the influence of lesion size and melanin content on diagnostic accuracy was determined. Results: MRI and PET were concordantly negative for presence and number of liver metastases in 28 patients and positive in four patients. PET and MRI were false positive in one patient each. In one patient MRI showed a single metastases not seen by PET and in one patient MRI demonstrated more metastases at the first examination. In follow-up investigations MRI revealed more metastases than PET in both patients. The sensitivities for lesion detection were 47% (16/34) for PET and 100% for MRI. Lesion detectability by PET was related to lesion size (P < 0.0001) but not to melanin content. Conclusion: MRI is more sensitive in the detection of liver metastases in patients with malignant melanoma. Small lesions are easily missed by PET, while melanin content does not influence detectability by PET.

  10. Prospective phase II trial of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation for numerous chemorefratory liver metastases from colerectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-03-15

    A prospective phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation (WLI) for numerous chemorefractory liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Enrolled patients had numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Five sessions of hyperthermia and seven fractions of 3-gray WLI were planned. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was determined using the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire C-30 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary version 4.0. Objective and pain response was evaluated. A total of 12 patients consented to the study and the 10 who received WLI and hyperthermia were analyzed. WLI was completed as planned in nine patients and hyperthermia in eight. Pain response was partial in four patients and stable in four. Partial objective response was achieved in three patients (30.0%) and stable disease was seen in four patients at the 1-month follow-up. One patient died 1 month after treatment because of respiratory failure related to pleural metastasis progression. Other grade III or higher toxicities were detected in three patients; however, all severe toxicities were related to disease progression rather than treatment. No significant difference in HRQoL was noted at the time of assessment for patients who were available for questionnaires. Combined WLI and hyperthermia were well tolerated without severe treatment-related toxicity with a promising response from numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.

  11. Clinical results of mean GTV dose optimized robotic guided SBRT for liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andratschke, Nicolaus; Parys, Alan; Stadtfeld, Susanne; Wurster, Stefan; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Imhoff, Detlef; Yildirim, Müjdat; Rades, Dirk; Rödel, Claus Michael; Dunst, Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Guido; Blanck, Oliver

    2016-05-28

    We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of gross tumor volume (GTV) mean-dose-optimized and real-time motion-compensated robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of liver metastases. Between March 2011 and July 2015, 52 patients were treated with SBRT for a total of 91 liver metastases (one to four metastases per patient) with a median GTV volume of 12 cc (min 1 cc, max 372 cc). The optimization of mean GTV dose was prioritized during treatment planning at the potential cost of planning target volume (PTV) coverage reduction while adhering to safe normal tissue constraints. The delivered median GTV biological effective dose (BED10) was 142.1 Gy10 (range, 60.2 Gy10 -165.3 Gy10) and the prescribed PTV BED10 ranged from 40.6 Gy10 to 112.5 Gy10 (median, 86.1 Gy10). We analyzed local control (LC), progression-free interval (PFI), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Median follow-up was 17 months (range, 2-49 months). The 2-year actuarial LC, PFI, and OS rates were 82.1, 17.7, and 45.0 %, and the median PFI and OS were 9 and 23 months, respectively. In univariate analysis histology (p Robotic real-time motion-compensated SBRT is a safe and effective treatment for one to four liver metastases. Reducing the PTV prescription dose and keeping a high mean GTV dose allowed the reduction of toxicity while maintaining a high local control probability for the treated lesions.

  12. MR-guided percutaneous cryotherapy of liver metastases; MR-gesteuerte perkutane Kryotherapie von Lebermetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haage, P.; Tacke, J. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2001-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with liver metastases depends on the therapeutic options regarding the treatment of the primary tumor, co-existing extrahepatic metastases and the extent and treatment possibilities of the hepatic metastases themselves. Numerous curative or palliative oncological therapeutic concepts have been introduced in case of non-resectable liver metastases to prolong survival while maintaining a highest possible quality of life. Cryotherapy, which can be performed percutaneously and under magnetic resonance guidance, is one of these manifold therapeutic modalities, combining the inherent advantages of MRI with minimal invasiveness. Excellent visualization of the frozen liver tissue, precise tumor ablation, as well as an almost painless intervention due to the analgetic effect of the ice are implicating percutaneous cryotherapy as an attractive alternative to other ablation techniques. First clinical results are promising. However, meticulous and extensive long-term evaluation on a broad clinical scale is required. (orig.) [German] Die Prognose eines Patienten mit hepatischen Filiae haengt von den Behandlungsmoeglichkeiten des Primaertumors, vom Vorhandensein weiterer Metastasen und von der Ausdehnung und den Behandlungsmoeglichkeiten der Lebermetastasen selbst ab. Bei chirurigsch nicht resektablen Lebermetastasen kommen zahlreiche kurative oder palliative onkologische Therapiekonzepte in Frage, saemtlich mit dem Ziel einer moeglichst hohen Ueberlebensrate und Lebensqualitaet. Eine dieser Therapiestrategien ist die Kryotherapie, die perkutan unter kernspintomographischer Kontrolle durchgefuehrt werden kann und somit die inhaerenten Vorteile der MRT mit einem wenig invasiven Verfahren verbindet. Eine exzellente Darstellbarkeit gefrorenen Lebergewebes, eine praezise Tumorablation sowie ein nahezu schmerzfreier Eingriff aufgrund des analgetischen Effektes tiefer Temperaturen machen die perkutane Kryotherapie zu einer attraktiven Alternative zu anderen

  13. LiMAx Test Improves Diagnosis of Chemotherapy-Associated Liver Injury Before Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Johan F; Westphal, Tilman; Rubin, Tom; Malinowski, Maciej; Schulz, Antje; Jara, Maximilian; Bednarsch, Jan; Stockmann, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) prior to liver resection implies the risk of chemotherapy-associated liver injury, leading to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the LiMAx (liver maximum capacity) test for diagnosis of chemotherapy-associated liver injury. This was a retrospective analysis of patients with CLMs, prior to liver resection. We performed preoperative assessment of liver function using biochemical parameters and the LiMAx test. The individual history of chemotherapy within 12 months, including regimen, number of cycles, and therapy-free interval were collected, and histopathological evaluation of tumor-free liver tissue was performed in resected patients. A total of 204 patients were included, of whom 127 (62%) had received previous chemotherapy. The LiMAx test was worse after chemotherapy (340 ± 95 vs. 391 ± 82 µg/kg/h; p < 0.001). Impaired LiMAx results (<315 µg/kg/h) were determined in 49% of patients after chemotherapy, and no effects of chemotherapy, liver steatosis or fibrosis on biochemical parameters were observed. LiMAx impairment was dependent on the number of oxaliplatin cycles, the therapy-free interval, and obesity in multivariate analysis. In addition, the LiMAx test was worse in patients with relevant steatosis, fibrosis and steatohepatitis. Patients with an impaired LiMAx showed sufficient regeneration during chemotherapy cessation when surgery was postponed (272 ± 57 - 348 ± 72 µg/kg/h; p = 0.003). The LiMAx test enables non-invasive preoperative diagnosis of chemotherapy-associated liver injury. Preoperative performance of the LiMAx test can augment surgical strategy and timing of surgery after previous chemotherapy, thus avoiding increased postoperative morbidity.

  14. [Rentgenoendovascular interventions into treatment of patients with unresectable metastases of gastric cancer into the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanov, I Sh; Polikarpov, A A; Tarazov, P G; Granov, D A; Generalov, M I

    2008-01-01

    In the period from 1992 through 2006 transcatheter therapy was carried out in 46 patients with unresectable metastases of gastric cancer (MGC) into the liver. Repeated cycles of chemoinfusions in the hepatic artery (CIHA) with 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicine, mitomicine C and carboplatin were made to 35 patients. Chemioembolization of hepatic arteries (CEHA) using the same cytostatics and oil contrast agent was made toll patients. After CIHA a partial response to treatment and stabilization of the tumor growth was noted in 14 (40%) patients, progressing metastases in 21 (60%) patients. Mean survival period of 32 dead was 14.6 +/- 1.5 month and the indices of 1-, 2- and 3 years survival were 46, 15 and 5 % respectably. After CEHA a partial response and stabilization of the tumor growth were noted in 7 (63%) patients and in the rest 4 patients (37%) there was progressing. The mean survival period of 9 dead patients was 15.5 +/- 3.3 months; the indices of 1-, 2- and 3 years survival were 55, 18 and 10 % respectively (p(CINA-CEHA) > 0.01). The methods of interventional radiology are thought to be perspective for treatment of unresectable metastases into the liver.

  15. Prognostic value of Ki-67 expression in conversion therapy for colorectal liver-limited metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Beppu, Toru; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Naomi; Higashi, Takaaki; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Baba, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prognostic value of Ki-67 expression in conversion therapy for colorectal liver-confined metastases. We enrolled a total of 96 patients including 54 patients who received oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based chemotherapy and curative hepatectomy for initially unresectable metastases (conversion group) and 42 patients with initially resectable liver metastases (straight hepatectomy group). Ki-67 expression was examined in 96 resected specimens but excluded the 2 specimens that revealed no residual cancer cells in conversion group. Conversion therapy leads to greater survival that is equivalent to that straight hepatectomy group. In conversion group, high Ki-67 expression (> 30%) levels were detectable in 33 patients (64%) after chemotherapy prior to conversion therapy. High Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival and worse overall survival (P conversion therapy. Interestingly, even in the patients with RECIST PR (n = 32), high Ki-67 expression was significantly shorter disease-free survival compared to low Ki-67 expression (P conversion group, there was no significant difference in disease free survival and overall survival between low (n = 14, 33%) and high (n = 28, 67%) Ki-67 expressions in patients with straight hepatectomy (P = 0.14 and 0.74, respectively). Residual Ki-67 expression is a useful biomarker for worse prognostic outcomes after conversion therapy. High Ki-67 expression may be a biomarker of micrometastases containing aggressive cancer cells.

  16. Butyrate inhibits seeding and growth of colorectal metastases to the liver in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, O C; Jabbar, A; DeMatteo, R P; Rombeau, J L

    1996-08-01

    The short-chain fatty acid butyrate inhibits growth of colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro. Mevalonate, a short-chain fatty acid structurally and metabolically related to butyrate, is important in signal transduction and is essential for cell growth. We investigated butyrate's effects on seeding and growth of colorectal tumor cells metastatic to the liver in vivo and hypothesized that butyrate's antiproliferative effects are associated with inhibition of mevalonate-mediated cell growth. Hepatic metastases were induced by injecting 1 x 10(5) MC-26 (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced murine colorectal carcinoma) cells into the spleen of BALB/c mice. Mice were treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of butyrate (2 gm/kg/day) for 7 days starting 24 hours before tumor cells were injected. Study variables included liver weight and number of hepatic surface metastases. Proliferation studies on MC-26 cells were performed in vitro to examine the effects of butyrate alone or combined with mevalonate or mevastatin (an inhibitor of mevalonate synthesis). Butyrate reduced seeding and growth of colorectal tumor cells in vivo. Mevalonate diminished butyrate's antiproliferative action in vitro, whereas mevastatin potentiated this effect. These studies (1) show that butyrate inhibits seeding and growth of hepatic colorectal metastases in vivo, (2) associate butyrate's antiproliferative effects with inhibition of mevalonate-mediated cell growth, and (3) indicate that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors may have synergistic antiproliferative effects when combined with butyrate.

  17. Survival after associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) for advanced colorectal liver metastases: A case-matched comparison with palliative systemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, Pim B; Huiskens, Joost; Wicherts, Dennis A; Huespe, Pablo E; Ardiles, Victoria; Robles-Campos, Ricardo; Adam, René; Linecker, Michael; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Koopman, Miriam; Verhoef, Cornelis; Punt, Cornelis J A; van Gulik, Thomas M; de Santibanes, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) allows the resection of colorectal liver metastases with curative intent which would otherwise be unresectable and only eligible for palliative systemic therapy. This study aimed to compare outcomes of ALPPS in patients with otherwise unresectable colorectal liver metastases with matched historic controls treated with palliative systemic treatment. All patients with colorectal liver metastases from the international ALPPS registry were identified and analyzed. Survival data were compared according to the extent of disease. Otherwise unresectable ALPPS patients were defined by at least 2 of the following criteria: ≥6 metastasis, ≥2 future remnant liver metastasis, ≥6 involved segments excluding segment 1. These patients were matched with patients included in 2, phase 3, metastatic, colorectal cancer trials (CAIRO and CAIRO2) using propensity scoring in order to compare survival. Of 295 patients with colorectal liver metastases in the ALPPS registry, 70 patients had otherwise unresectable disease defined by the proposed criteria. Two-year overall survival was 49% and 72% for patients with ≥2 and palliative treatment (24.0 vs 17.6 months, P = .088). Early oncologic outcomes of patients with advanced liver metastases undergoing ALPPS were not superior to results of matched patients receiving systemic treatment with palliative intent. Careful patient selection is essential in order to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Oncosurgery Approach to Managing Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: A Multidisciplinary International Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gramont, Aimery; Figueras, Joan; Guthrie, Ashley; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kunstlinger, Francis; Loyer, Evelyne; Poston, Graeme; Rougier, Philippe; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Sobrero, Alberto; Tabernero, Josep; Teh, Catherine; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2012-01-01

    An international panel of multidisciplinary experts convened to develop recommendations for the management of patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim was to address the main issues facing the CRC hepatobiliary multidisciplinary team (MDT) when managing such patients and to standardize the treatment patients receive in different centers. Based on current evidence, the group agreed on a number of issues including the following: (a) the primary aim of treatment is achieving a long disease-free survival (DFS) interval following resection; (b) assessment of resectability should be performed with high-quality cross-sectional imaging, staging the liver with magnetic resonance imaging and/or abdominal computed tomography (CT), depending on local expertise, staging extrahepatic disease with thoracic and pelvic CT, and, in selected cases, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with ultrasound (preferably contrast-enhanced ultrasound) for intraoperative staging; (c) optimal first-line chemotherapy—doublet or triplet chemotherapy regimens combined with targeted therapy—is advisable in potentially resectable patients; (d) in this situation, at least four courses of first-line chemotherapy should be given, with assessment of tumor response every 2 months; (e) response assessed by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (conventional chemotherapy) or nonsize-based morphological changes (antiangiogenic agents) is clearly correlated with outcome; no imaging technique is currently able to accurately diagnose complete pathological response but high-quality imaging is crucial for patient management; (f) the duration of chemotherapy should be as short as possible and resection achieved as soon as technically possible in the absence of tumor progression; (g) the number of metastases or patient age should not be an absolute contraindication to surgery combined with chemotherapy; (h) for synchronous metastases, it is not advisable to

  19. In vivo imaging of pancreatic tumours and liver metastases using 7 Tesla MRI in a murine orthotopic pancreatic cancer model and a liver metastases model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadlich Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of tumour death in the western world. However, appropriate tumour models are scarce. Here we present a syngeneic murine pancreatic cancer model using 7 Tesla MRI and evaluate its clinical relevance and applicability. Methods 6606PDA murine pancreatic cancer cells were orthotopically injected into the pancreatic head. Liver metastases were induced through splenic injection. Animals were analyzed by MRI three and five weeks following injection. Tumours were detected using T2-weighted high resolution sequences. Tumour volumes were determined by callipers and MRI. Liver metastases were analyzed using gadolinium-EOB-DTPA and T1-weighted 3D-Flash sequences. Tumour blood flow was measured using low molecular gadobutrol and high molecular gadolinium-DTPA. Results MRI handling and applicability was similar to human systems, resolution as low as 0.1 mm. After 5 weeks tumour volumes differed significantly (p 3+/-243 mm3 with MRI (mean 918 mm3+/-193 mm3 with MRI being more precise. Histology (n = 5 confirmed MRI tumour measurements (mean size MRI 38.5 mm2+/-22.8 mm2 versus 32.6 mm2+/-22.6 mm2 (histology, p 3+/-56.7 mm3 after 5 weeks. Lymphnodes were also easily identified. Tumour accumulation of gadobutrol was significantly (p Conclusions This model permits monitoring of tumour growth and metastasis formation in longitudinal non-invasive high-resolution MR studies including using contrast agents comparable to human pancreatic cancer. This multidisciplinary environment enables radiologists, surgeons and physicians to further improve translational research and therapies of pancreatic cancer.

  20. [Surgical treatment of tumor metastases in the lungs, brain or liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berkmortel, F W P J; Ruers, Th J M; Bootsma, G P; Verhagen, A F T; de Mulder, P H M

    2003-05-10

    Metastases are generally an expression of widespread disease and therefore warrant systemic treatment. However, clinical observations have revealed that local surgical treatment might be beneficial in the case of organ-confined metastatic disease. Randomised studies have revealed that in the case of brain metastases, metastasectomy followed by radiotherapy, has a favourable outcome with respect to both the quality of life and overall survival. Retrospective non-randomised studies in selected patient groups show prolonged post-treatment survival in the case of both lung and liver metastasectomy. The most important prognostic factors for metastasectomy are: disease control elsewhere in the body, tumour species, the patient's general condition, and the possibility of a total resection of the metastasis. These factors form the basis of the separate decision-making process for each individual patient.

  1. P53 mutation analysis of colorectal liver metastases : Relation to actual survival, angiogenic status, and p53 overexpression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, KP; Gouw, ASH; Peeters, PMJG; Bulthuis, M; Menkema, L; Porte, RJ; Slooff, MJH; van Goor, H; van den Berg, Anke

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate TP53 mutations with angiogenic status of the tumor and prognosis after liver surgery in patients with colorectal liver metastases and to correlate immunohistochemical staining of p53 protein with TP53 gene mutations. Experimental Design: Tumors of 44 patients with surgically

  2. Seeding after ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of liver metastases in patients with colorectal or breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Inna; Lorentzen, Torben; Linnemann, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    -guided percutaneous biopsy of CRC and BC liver metastases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Unselected liver biopsies performed in the period of 2005-2012 at our institution were extracted from the National Pathology Registry. Medical records including imaging from patients with biopsy-verified BC and CRC liver metastases were......; and in nine patients (3%) seeding occurred due to either biopsy or other interventions; and five patients had seeding, which were assessed as a consequence of other invasive procedures than biopsies. The median overall survival of the 17 patients with seeding was 70 months compared to 39 months of patients...

  3. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound of Colorectal Liver Metastases as an Imaging Modality for Early Response Prediction to Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Marie Benzon; Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Henriksen, Birthe Merete

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) can detect early changes in perfusion of colorectal liver metastases after initiation of chemotherapy. Newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer with liver metastases were enrolled in this explorative prospective...... study. Patients were treated with capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. DCE-US was performed before therapy (baseline) and again 10 days after initiation of treatment. Change in contrast-enhancement in one liver metastasis (indicator lesion) was measured...

  4. Comparison of Total Tumor Volume, Size and Number of Colorectal Liver Metastases in Prediction of Survival in Patients after Liver Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołówko, Wacław; Grąt, Michał; Wronka, Karolina Maria; Stypułkowski, Jan; Roszkowski, Rafał; Studnicki, Paweł; Krawczyk, Marek

    2015-02-01

    Liver is the most common location of the colorectal cancer metastases occurrence. Liver resection is the only curative method of treatment. Unfortunately it is feasible only in 25% of patients with colorectal liver metastases, often because of the extensiveness of the disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of total tumor volume, size and number of colorectal liver metastases in patients treated with right hemihepatectomy. A retrospective analysis was performed in a group of 135 patients with colorectal liver metastases, who were treated with right hemihepatectomy. Total tumor volume was estimated based on the formula (4/3)πr³. Moreover, the study included an analysis of data on the number and size of tumors, radicality of the resection, time between primary tumor resection and liver resection, pre-operative blood serum concentration of carcinoembryonal antigen (CEA) and carcinoma antigen Ca 19-9. The predictive value of the factors was evaluated by applying a Cox proportional hazards model and the area under the ROC curve. The univariate analysis has shown the predictive value of size of the largest tumor (p=0.033; HR=1.065 per each cm) on the overall survival, however no predictive value of number of tumors (p=0.997; HR=1.000) and total tumor volume (p=0.212; HR=1.002) was observed. The multivariate analysis did not confirm the predictive value of the size of the largest tumor (p=0.141; HR=1.056). In the analysis of ROC curves, AUROC for the total tumor volume, the size of the largest tumor and the number of tumors were 0.629, 0.608, 0.520, respectively. Total tumor volume, size and number of liver metastases are not independent risk factors for the worse overall survival of patients with colorectal liver metastases treated with liver resection, therefore increased values of these factors should not be a contraindication for surgical treatment.

  5. Regional and inter-hospital differences in the utilisation of liver surgery for patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam-Boer, J. 't; Stok, E.P. van der; Huiskens, J.; Verhoeven, R.H.A.; Punt, C.J.A.; Elferink, M.A.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Verhoef, C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to map referral patterns in patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases (SCLM) and to investigate if type, volume and location of the hospital of diagnosis are associated with whether or not patients underwent liver resection. METHODS: This

  6. Survival after associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) for advanced colorectal liver metastases: A case-matched comparison with palliative systemic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Pim B.; Huiskens, Joost; Wicherts, Dennis A.; Huespe, Pablo E.; Ardiles, Victoria; Robles-Campos, Ricardo; Adam, Rene; Linecker, Michael; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Koopman, Miriam; Verhoef, Cornelis; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; de Santibanes, Eduardo

    Background Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) allows the resection of colorectal liver metastases with curative intent which would otherwise be unresectable and only eligible for palliative systemic therapy. This study aimed to compare outcomes of

  7. HER-2 and HER-3 expression in liver metastases of patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styczen, Hanna; Nagelmeier, Iris; Beissbarth, Tim; Nietert, Manuel; Homayounfar, Kia; Sprenger, Thilo; Boczek, Ute; Stanek, Kathrin; Kitz, Julia; Wolff, Hendrik A; Ghadimi, B Michael; Middel, Peter; Liersch, Torsten; Rüschoff, Josef; Conradi, Lena-Christin

    2015-06-20

    In this study, we evaluate the frequency of HER-2 and HER-3 expression in liver metastases from patients with colorectal cancer (CRLM). We analyzed the potential of HER-2 and HER-3 as therapeutic targets and evaluated their prognostic value. Overall 208 patients with CRLM were enrolled. HER-2 and HER-3 expression were determined in metastatic tissue of diagnostic punch biopsies (n = 29) or resection specimens (n = 179). The results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) scoring and In-situ-hybridization (ISH)-amplification were correlated with clinical parameters and for the 179 resected patients with cancer-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS). The mean follow-up time was 56.7 months. Positivity of HER-2 status (IHC score 2+/ISH+ and IHC 3+) was found in 8.2% of CRLM. High expression of HER-3 (IHC score 2+ and IHC 3+) was detected in 75.0% of liver metastases. CSS after liver surgery was determined and was independent from the HER-2 status (p = 0.963); however HER-3 was prognostic with a favorable course for patients showing an overexpression of HER-3 (p = 0.037). HER-2 overexpression occurs in only 8% of patients with CRLM but with 75% of cases HER-3 is frequently overexpressed in CRLM. Therefore, HER-2 and particularly HER-3 could serve as novel targets to be addressed within multimodal treatment approaches.

  8. Transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) with gemcitabine: Phase II study in patients with liver metastases of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, Katrin, E-mail: k.eichler@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Jakobi, Silke; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Hammerstingl, Renate; Vogl, Thomas J.; Zangos, Stephan

    2013-12-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of transarterial chemoembolization with gemcitabine in patients with inoperable liver metastases of breast cancer. Materials and methods: Open-label, prospective non-randomized single-center study design; patients had previous chemotherapy including anthracyclines and/or taxanes in the metastatic setting, adequate bone marrow reserve, sufficient liver/renal function, no centralnervous system metastases, Karnovsky-performance-status >70%, and life expectancy >12 weeks. Forty-three patients were enrolled (median 58 years, range 48–71). A suspension of gemcitabine 1.200 mg/m{sup 2}, 2–10 ml/m{sup 2} of Lipiodol, and 5 ml of a degradable starch microsphere (Embocept) suspension, were administered intra-arterially up to 3 times with a 4-weaks-interval. Dose-limiting toxicit is defined as grade 4 thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, or nonhematologic toxicity > grade 3. Tumor response was evaluated by magnetic resonance (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Results: All patients tolerated the treatment well; with no dose limiting toxicities. Imaging follow-up according to the RECIST-criteria (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) revealed a partial response in 3 patients, stable disease in 16 patients and progression in 22 patients. The progression free survival was 3.3 months. A significant correlation exists only with the factor vascularization: strongly vascularized tumors show a significantly lowered response. Patients with complete or partial response and the main fraction of the stable disease group showed in the MRI and angiography only a moderate vascularization. The resulting estimate of the total survival rate amounts to a median of 10.2 months. Conclusion: Transarterial chemoembolization with gemcitabine is well tolerated and provides an alternative treatment method for patients with liver metastases of breast cancer.

  9. Repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases from gastric cancer: Local control and survival results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Eichler, Katrin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Trojan, Jörg [Department of Internal Medicine I, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Zangos, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the local tumor control and survival data after transarterial chemoembolization with different drug combinations in the palliative treatment of patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer. Materials and methods: The study was retrospectively performed. 56 patients (mean age, 52.4) with unresectable liver metastases of gastric cancer who did not respond to systemic chemotherapy were repeatedly treated with TACE in 4-week intervals. In total, 310 chemoembolization procedures were performed (mean, 5.5 sessions per patient). The local chemotherapy protocol consisted of mitomycin alone (30.4%), mitomycin and gemcitabine (33.9%), or mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin (35.7%). Embolization was performed with lipiodol and starch microspheres. Local tumor response was evaluated by MRI according to RECIST. Survival data from first chemoembolization were calculated according to the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: The local tumor control was: complete response in 1.8% (n = 1), partial response in 1.8% (n = 1), stable disease in 51.8% (n = 29) and progressive disease in 44.6% (n = 25) of patients. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate from the start of chemoembolization were 58%, 38%, and 23% respectively. The median and mean survival times were 13 and 27.1 months. A Statistically significant difference between patients treated with different chemotherapy protocols was noted (ρ = 0.045) with the best survival time in the mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin group. Conclusion: Transarterial chemoembolization is a minimally invasive therapy option for palliative treatment of liver metastases in patients with gastric cancer.

  10. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or robotic radiosurgery (RRS) for salvage treatment of colorectal liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stintzing, Sebastian; Hendrich, Saskia; Heinemann, Volker [Dept. of Medical Oncology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Klinikum Grosshadern, LMU, Munich (Germany)], E-mail: sebastian.stintzing@med.uni-muenchen.de; Grothe, Alexander; Trumm, Christoph G. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, LMU Munich, Munich (Germany); Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten [Dept. and Policlinics of Diagnostic Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden (Germany); Rentsch, Markus [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, LMU Munich, Munich (Germany); Fuerweger, Christoph; Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Background. Stereotactic radiation therapy is an evolving modality to treat otherwise unresectable liver metastases. In this analysis, two local therapies: 1) single session robotic radiosurgery (RRS) and 2) percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) were compared in a total of 60 heavily pretreated colorectal cancer patients. Methods. Thirty patients with a total of 35 colorectal liver metastases not qualifying for surgery that were treated in curative intent with RRS were prospectively followed. To compare efficacy of both treatment modalities, patients treated with RFA during the same period of time were matched according to number and size of the treated lesions. Local tumor control, local disease free survival (DFS), and freedom from distant recurrence (FFDR) were analyzed for effi cacy. Treatment-related side effects were recorded for comparison. Results. The median diameter of the treated lesions was 33 mm (7-53 mm). Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. One- and two-year local control rates showed no signifi cant difference but favored RRS (85% vs. 65% and 80% vs. 61%, respectively). A signifi cantly longer local DFS of patients treated with RRS compared to RFA (34.4 months vs. 6.0 months; p 0.001) was found. Both, median FFDR (11.4 months for RRS vs. 7.1 months for RFA p=0.25) and the recurrence rate (67% for RRS and 63% for RFA, p>0.99) were comparable. Conclusion. Single session RRS is a safe and effective method to treat colorectal liver metastases. In this analysis, a trend towards longer DFS was seen in patients treated with RRS when compared to RFA.

  11. Radioembolisation for liver metastases: results from a prospective 151 patient multi-institutional phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Al B; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Mulcahy, Mary F; Rilling, William; Siskin, Gary; Wiseman, Greg; Cunningham, James; Houghton, Bonny; Ross, Mason; Memon, Khairuddin; Andrews, James; Fleming, Chad J; Herman, Joseph; Nimeiri, Halla; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the safety, response rate, progression-free and overall survival of patients with liver metastases treated with (90)Y (glass) radioembolisation in a prospective, multicenter phase II study. 151 patients with liver metastases (colorectal n=61, neuroendocrine n=43 and other tumour types n=47) refractory to standard of care therapies were enrolled in this prospective, multicenter, phase II study under an investigational device exemption. Clinical/laboratory/imaging follow-up were obtained at 30 days followed by 3-month intervals for 1 year and every 6 months thereafter. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end-points included safety, hepatic progression-free survival (HPFS), response rate and overall survival. Median age was 66 (range 25-88). Grade 3/4 adverse events included pain (12.8%), elevated alkaline phospatase (8.1%), hyperbilirubinemia (5.3%), lymphopaenia (4.1%), ascites (3.4%) and vomiting (3.4%). Treatment parameters including dose delivery were reproducible among centers. Disease control rates were 59%, 93% and 63% for colorectal, neuroendocrine and other primaries, respectively. Median PFS was 2.9 and 2.8 months for colorectal and other primaries, respectively. PFS was not achieved in the neuroendocrine group. Median survival from (90)Y treatment was 8.8 months for colorectal and 10.4 months for other primaries. Median survival for neuroendocrine patients has not been reached. Patients with liver metastases can be safely treated with (90)Y microspheres. This study is the first to demonstrate technical and dose reproducibility of (90)Y glass microspheres between centers in a prospective setting. Based on these promising data, three international, multicenter, randomised phase III studies in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma have been initiated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion (PHP) with Melphalan as a Treatment for Unresectable Metastases Confined to the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leede, Eleonora M; Burgmans, Mark C; Martini, Christian H; Tijl, Fred G J; van Erkel, Arian R; Vuyk, Jaap; Kapiteijn, Ellen; Verhoef, Cornelis; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L

    2016-07-31

    Unresectable liver metastases of colorectal cancer can be treated with systemic chemotherapy, aiming to limit the disease, extend survival or turn unresectable metastases into resectable ones. Some patients however, suffer from side effects or progression under systemic treatment. For patients with metastasized uveal melanoma there are no standard systemic therapy options. For patients without extrahepatic disease, isolated liver perfusion (IHP) may enable local disease control with limited systemic side effects. Previously, this was performed during open surgery with satisfying results, but morbidity and mortality related to the open procedure, prohibited a widespread application. Therefore, percutaneous hepatic perfusion (PHP) with simultaneous chemofiltration was developed. Besides decreasing morbidity and mortality, this procedure can be repeated, hopefully leading to a higher response rate and improved survival (by local control of disease). During PHP, catheters are placed in the proper hepatic artery, to infuse the chemotherapeutic agent, and in the inferior caval vein to aspirate the chemosaturated blood returning through the hepatic veins. The caval vein catheter is a double balloon catheter that prohibits leakage into the systemic circulation. The blood returning from the hepatic veins is aspirated through the catheter fenestrations and then perfused through an extra-corporeal filtration system. After filtration, the blood is returned to the patient by a third catheter in the right internal jugular vein. During PHP a high dose of melphalan is infused into the liver, which is toxic and would lead to life threatening complications when administered systemically. Because of the significant hemodynamic instability resulting from the combination of caval vein occlusion and chemofiltration, hemodynamic monitoring and hemodynamic support is of paramount importance during this complex procedure.

  13. Impact of chemotherapy with S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) in combination with molecular-targeting agents on colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawahara, Hidejiro; Enomoto, Hiroya; Toyama, Yoichi; Akiba, Tadashi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy with molecular-targeting agents on liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Six patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases who underwent hepatectomy after chemotherapy with S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) between January 2010 and December 2011 at the Department of Surgery, Kashiwa Hospital, the Jikei University School of Medicine were enrolled. Two patients received only SOX as chemotherapy, while the others received SOX in combination with one of the three molecular-targeting agents, bevacizumab, cetuximab, and panitumumab. In the two patients who received SOX alone, liver metastases completely disappeared at more than six months after starting chemotherapy as shown by computed tomographic (CT) scan. However, malignant cells were diffusely detected by pathological examination at the site of liver metastases, as detected by CT scan before chemotherapy. In the other four patients who received SOX in combination with molecular targets, the size of liver metastases appeared unchanged at three months after limited chemotherapy by CT scan. Pathologically, few malignant cells were detected, only at the borderline of the tumor, while most tumor cells inside the tumor were necrotized and been replaced by fibroconnective tissue. Molecular-targeting agents may induce tumor necrosis rapidly from inside the tumor, which might not be detected by CT scan before surgery.

  14. Staged or simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingso, J.G.; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to estimate the differences in length of hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and long-term survival between staged and simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer to determine the level of evidence......: For the reason of the heterogeneity of the observational studies, no odds ratios were calculated. In 11 studies, there was a tendency towards a shorter hospital stay in the synchronous resection group. Fourteen studies compared total perioperative morbidity and lower morbidity was observed in favour...

  15. Staged or simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingsø, J G; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to estimate the differences in length of hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and long-term survival between staged and simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer to determine the level of evidence......: For the reason of the heterogeneity of the observational studies, no odds ratios were calculated. In 11 studies, there was a tendency towards a shorter hospital stay in the synchronous resection group. Fourteen studies compared total perioperative morbidity and lower morbidity was observed in favour...

  16. Clinical lessons from the first applications of BNCT on unresectable liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, A.; Prati, U.; Roveda, L.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, S.; Clerici, Am; Zonta, C.; Pinelli, T.; Fossati, F.; Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.; Nano, R.; Barni, S.; Chiari, P.; Mazzini, G.

    2006-05-01

    After a long series of studies on the effects of neutron irradiation of 10B loaded neoplastic cells both in culture and in animal experiments, we started the clinical application of BNCT on humans affected by liver metastases of a radically resected colon adenocarcinoma. The procedure we adopted includes a first surgical phase, with hepatectomy; a radiotherapeutic phase, in which the isolated liver, washed and chilled, is extracorporeally irradiated with thermal neutrons; and then a second surgical phase for the reconnection of the liver to the patient. Until now two patients have been subjected to the BNCT treatment. The first one survived 44 months with a good quality of life, and died because of diffuse recurrences of his intestinal tumour. The second patient had the same early perioperative course, but after 33 days a worsening of a dilatative cardiomyopaty, from which he was suffering, determined a cardiac failure and eventually death. This clinical experience, although limited, has shown that extracorporeal neutron irradiation of the liver is a feasible procedure, able to ensure the complete destruction of liver metastases and a possible long lasting survival. In our patients neutron irradiation caused massive cellular necrosis highly specific to tumour cells, whereas normal cells were mostly spared. Nevertheless, the impact of such a traumatic operation on the patient's organism must be taken into account. Finally, we have to be aware that the fight against tumour rarely leads to a complete victory. We now have an innovative weapon which is both powerful and partly unsettled: it must be refined and above all used.

  17. A Reappraisal of Chemotherapy-Induced Liver Injury in Colorectal Liver Metastases before the Era of Antiangiogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Khac, Eric; Lobry, Céline; Chatelain, Denis; Fuks, David; Joly, Jean Paul; Brevet, Marie; Tramier, Blaise; Mouly, Charlotte; Chauffert, Bruno; Regimbeau, Jean Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims. Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases can induce hepatotoxicity in noncancerous liver. We describe these lesions and assess risk factors and impacts on postresection morbidity and mortality in naive patients to chemotherapy before the era of bevacizumab. Methods. Noncancerous liver tissue lesions were analysed according to tumour, chemotherapy, surgery, and patient characteristics. Results. Fifty patients aged 62 ± 9.3 years were included between 2003 and 2007. Thirty-three (66%) received chemotherapy, with Folfox (58%), Folfiri (21%), LV5FU2 (12%), or Xelox (9%) regimens. Hepatotoxicity consisted of 18 (36%) cases of severe sinusoidal dilatation (SD), 13 (26%) portal fibrosis, 7 (14%) perisinusoidal fibrosis (PSF), 6 (12%) nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH), 2 (4%) steatosis >30%, zero steatohepatitis, and 16 (32%) surgical hepatitis. PSF was more frequent after chemotherapy (21% versus 0%, P = 0.04), especially LV5FU2 (P = 0.02). SD was associated with oxaliplatin (54.5% versus 23.5%, P = 0.05) and low body mass index (P = 0.003). NRH was associated with oxaliplatin (P = 0.03) and extensive resection (P = 0.04). No impact on mortality and morbidity was observed, apart postoperative elevation of bilirubin levels in case of PSF (P = 0.03), longer hospitalization in case of surgical hepatitis (P = 0.03), and greater blood loss in case of portal fibrosis (P = 0.03). Conclusions. Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases induces sinusoidal dilatation related to oxaliplatin and perisinusoidal fibrosis related to 5FU, without any impact on postoperative mortality. PMID:23533786

  18. [Breast Cancer with Multiple Liver Metastases Successfully Treated with Capecitabine Monotherapy after Failure of Combination Therapy Comprising Bevacizumab and Paclitaxel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Asako; Suganuma, Yasushi

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of breast cancer with multiple liver metastases successfully treated with capecitabine monotherapy after failure of combination therapy comprising bevacizumab (Bev) and paclitaxel (PTX). In March 2012, a 67-year-old woman was diagnosed with Stage IV breast cancer with massive pleural effusion. Histological examination showed invasive ductal carcinoma (scirrhous carcinoma) that was positive for hormonal receptor but negative for HER2 expression, and the nuclear grade was 1. She first received chemotherapy to decrease the tumor volume followed by hormonal therapy. After progression, imaging studies showed increased multiple lung and liver metastases and pleural effusion. Subsequently, treatment with combination of Bev and PTX was started from July 2014. After 4 courses of the combination therapy, multiple liver metastases were unchanged, but her liver function was impaired. Hence, she received capecitabine monotherapy (1,800 mg bis in die [BID]; 2-week administration followed by a week of rest). Her liver function improved early, and a partial response (PR) in the multiple liver metastases was achieved 3 months after initiation of therapy. Furthermore, the metastatic lesions were well controlled 4 months later. These findings suggest that the sensitivity to an anticancer agent greatly varies among patients.

  19. Which patients will benefit from percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of colorectal liver metastases? Critically appraised topic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrane, Siobhan

    2012-02-03

    In clinical radiology, there are numerous examples of new techniques that were initially enthusiastically promoted and then subsequently abandoned when early promise was not realized in routine patient care. Appropriateness of new or established interventional radiology techniques to specific clinical conditions must be determined from clinical experience, from communication with experts in the field and\\/or careful review of available medical literature, and on an individual patient basis by means of review of clinical notes and diagnostic imaging studies. For patients with liver neoplasms, regional techniques such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been developed and are now the subject of ongoing research. This article describes the utilization of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) techniques as a means of deciding the appropriateness of percutaneous RFA in treating colorectal liver metastases (CLM).

  20. Pathological response after neoadjuvant bevacizumab- or cetuximab-based chemotherapy in resected colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantonio, Filippo; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Miceli, Rosalba; Cotsoglou, Christian; Melotti, Flavia; Fanetti, Giuseppe; Perrone, Federica; Biondani, Pamela; Muscarà, Cecilia; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Coppa, Jorgelina; Maggi, Claudia; Milione, Massimo; Tamborini, Elena; de Braud, Filippo

    2015-07-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) prior to liver resection is advantageous for patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CLM). Bevacizumab- or cetuximab-based NACT may affect patient outcome and curative resection rate, but comparative studies on differential tumour regression grade (TRG) associated with distinct antibodies-associated regimens are lacking. Ninety-three consecutive patients received NACT plus bevacizumab (n = 46) or cetuximab (n = 47) followed by CLM resection. Pathological response was determined in each resected metastasis as TRG rated from 1 (complete) to 5 (no response). Except for KRAS mutations prevailing in bevacizumab versus cetuximab (57 vs. 21 %, p = 0.001), patients characteristics were well balanced. Median follow-up was 31 months (IQR 17-48). Bevacizumab induced significantly better pathological response rates (TRG1-3: 78 vs. 34 %, p < 0.001) as well as complete responses (TRG1: 13 vs. 0 %, p = 0.012) with respect to cetuximab. Three-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were not significantly different in the two cohorts. At multivariable analysis, significant association with pathological response was found for number of resected metastases (p = 0.015) and bevacizumab allocation (p < 0.001), while KRAS mutation showed only a trend. Significant association with poorer PFS and OS was found for low grades of pathological response (p = 0.009 and p < 0.001, respectively), R2 resection or presence of extrahepatic disease (both p < 0.001) and presence of KRAS mutation (p = 0.007 and p < 0.001, respectively). Bevacizumab-based regimens, although influenced by the number of metastases and KRAS status, improve significantly pathological response if compared to cetuximab-based NACT. Possible differential impact among regimens on patient outcome has still to be elucidated.

  1. Hepatic splenosis mimicking liver metastases in a patient with history of childhood immature teratoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotovsek, Blaz; Skrbinc, Breda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatic splenosis is rare condition, preceded by splenectomy or spleen trauma, the term refers to nodular implantation of normal splenic tissue in the liver. In patients with history of malignancy in particular, it can be mistaken for metastases and can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures or inappropriate treatment. Case report Twenty-two-year old male was treated for immature teratoma linked to undescended right testicle after birth. On regular follow-up examinations no signs of disease relapse or long-term consequences were observed. He was presented with incidental finding of mature cystic teratoma after elective surgery for what appeared to be left-sided inguinal hernia. The tumour was most likely a metastasis of childhood teratoma. Origin within remaining left testicle was not found. Upon further imaging diagnostics, several intrahepatic lesions were revealed. Based on radiologic appearance they were suspicious to be metastases. The patient underwent two ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Cytologic diagnosis was inconclusive. Histology of laparoscopically obtained tissue disclosed presence of normal splenic tissue and led to diagnosis of hepatic splenosis. Conclusions Though hepatic splenosis is rare, it needs to be included in differential diagnosis of nodular hepatic lesions. Accurate interpretation of those lesions is crucial for appropriate management of the patient. If diagnosis eludes after cytologic diagnostics alone, laparoscopic excision of nodular lesion is warranted before considering more extensive liver resection. PMID:27247554

  2. Liver metastases: imaging considerations for protocol development with Multislice CT (MSCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    Conventional, single-slice helical computed tomography (SSCT) allowed for scanning the majority of the liver during the critical portal venous phase. This was often referred to as the ‘optimal temporal window’. The introduction of current day multislice CT (MSCT) now allows us to acquire images in a much shorter time and more precisely than ever before. This yields increased conspicuity between low attenuation lesions and the enhanced normal liver parenchyma and optimal imaging for the vast majority of hepatic hypovascular metastases. Most importantly, these scanners, when compared to conventional non-helical scanners, avoid impinging upon the ‘equilibrium’ phase when tumors can become isodense/invisible. MSCT also allows for true multiphase scanning during the arterial and late arterial phases for detection of hypervascular metastases. The MSCT imaging speed has increased significantly over the past years with the introduction of 32- and 64-detector systems and will continue to increase in the future volumetric CT. This provides a number of important gains that are discussed in detail. PMID:17098650

  3. Update and review of the multidisciplinary management of stage IV colorectal cancer with liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Carl R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of stage IV colorectal cancer with liver metastases has historically involved a multidisciplinary approach. In the last several decades, there have been great strides made in the therapeutic options available to treat these patients with advancements in medical, surgical, locoregional and adjunctive therapies available to patients with colorectal liver metastases(CLM. As a result, there have been improvements in patient care and survival. Naturally, the management of CLM has become increasingly complex in coordinating the various aspects of care in order to optimize patient outcomes. Review A review of historical and up to date literature was undertaken utilizing Medline/PubMed to examine relevant topics of interest in patients with CLM including criterion for resectability, technical/surgical considerations, chemotherapy, adjunctive and locoregional therapies. This review explores the various disciplines and modalities to provide current perspectives on the various options of care for patients with CLM. Conclusion Improvements in modern day chemotherapy as allowed clinicians to pursue a more aggressive surgical approach in the management of stage IV colorectal cancer with CLM. Additionally, locoregional and adjunctive therapies has expanded the armamentarium of treatment options available. As a result, the management of patients with CLM requires a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach utilizing various modalities and a more aggressive approach may now be pursued in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer with CLM to achieve optimal outcomes.

  4. Colorectal cancer with liver metastases: neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgical resection first or palliation alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khurum; Wale, Anita; Brown, Gina; Chau, Ian

    2014-09-21

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the commonest cancers with 1.2 million new cases diagnosed each year in the world. It remains the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the world and accounts for > 600000 cancer-related deaths each year. There have been significant advances in treatment of metastatic CRC in last decade or so, due to availability of new active targeted agents and more aggressive approach towards the management of CRC, particularly with liver-only-metastases; however, these drugs work best when combined with conventional chemotherapy agents. Despite these advances, there is a lack of biomarkers to inform us about the accurate management of the patients with metastatic CRC. It is therefore imperative to carefully select the patients with comprehensive multi-disciplinary team input in order to optimise the management of these patients. In this review we will discuss various treatment options available in management of colorectal liver metastases with potential guidance on how and when to choose these options along with consideration on future directions in management of this disease.

  5. Complete radiological response of colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: what can we expect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaujoux, Sébastien; Goéré, Diane; Dumont, Frédéric; Souadka, Amine; Dromain, Clarisse; Ducreux, Michel; Elias, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Missing metastases, also called vanishing or disappearing liver metastases, concern about 5% of patients with colorectal liver metastasis undergoing chemotherapy, and this phenomenon is likely to become more frequent in the near future, with the widespread use of highly efficient chemotherapy. As their definition is highly dependent on the quality of initial imaging, a DLM on preoperative computed tomography scan should be systematically confirmed by a second imaging modality, ideally magnetic resonance imaging. It is important to note that a complete clinical response does not mean a complete pathologic response. Currently, there are no absolute criteria of a complete pathologic response. However, treatment with neoadjuvant and adjuvant hepatic arterial infusion in patients chemotherapy and who have no detectable lesion on both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is probably more likely to yield a complete pathologic response. Whatever their treatment, patients with DLM run a high risk of recurrence that could be decreased with the use of HAI. Despite a high recurrence rate, the overall 5-year survival rate of patients with DLM ranges from 40 to 80%. Having a DLM should no longer be a contraindication to hepatic surgery since long-term survival is expected in these highly chemosensitive patients. The use of adjuvant HAI in addition to efficient systemic chemotherapy could reduce the risk of hepatic relapse. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. PET-CT after radiofrequency ablation of colorectal liver metastases: Suggestions for timing and image interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Karin, E-mail: k.nielsen@vumc.nl [Department of Surgery, VU University Medical Centre, Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tilborg, Aukje A.J.M. van, E-mail: a.vantilborg@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Centre, Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Scheffer, Hester J., E-mail: hj.scheffer@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Centre, Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meijerink, Martijn R., E-mail: mr.meijerink@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Centre, Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lange-de Klerk, Elly S.M. de, E-mail: esm.delange@vumc.nl [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Centre, Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meijer, Sybren, E-mail: s.meijer@vumc.nl [Department of Surgery, VU University Medical Centre, Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Comans, Emile F.I., E-mail: efi.comans@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Centre, Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tol, M.Petrousjka van den, E-mail: mp.vandentol@vumc.nl [Department of Surgery, VU University Medical Centre, Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Introduction. The main area of concern regarding radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of colorectal liver metastases is the risk of developing a local site recurrence (LSR). Reported accuracy of PET-CT in detecting LSR is high compared to morphological imaging alone, but no internationally accepted criteria for image interpretation have been defined. Our aim was to assess criteria for FDG PET-CT image interpretation following RFA, and to define a timetable for follow-up detection of LSR. Methods. Patients who underwent RFA for colorectal liver metastases between 2005 and 2011, with FDG-PET follow-up within one year after treatment were included. Results of repeat FDG-PET scans were evaluated until a LSR was diagnosed. Results. One hundred-seventy scans were obtained for 79 patients (179 lesions), 57 scans (72%) were obtained within 6 months of treatment. Thirty patients developed local recurrence; 29 (97%) within 1 year. Only 2% of lesions of <1 cm and 4% of <2 cm showed a LSR. Conclusion. The majority of local site recurrences are diagnosed within one year after RFA. Regular follow-up using FDG PET-CT within this period is advised, so repeated treatment can be initiated. Rim-shaped uptake may be present until 4–6 months, complicating evaluation. The benefit in the follow-up of lesions <2 cm may be limited.

  7. The benefits of liver resection for non-colorectal, non-neuroendocrine liver metastases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Brinkley, Jason; Banks, Shannon; Vohra, Nasreen; Englert, Zachary P; Zervos, Emmanuel E

    2014-12-01

    Defining the benefits of resection of isolated non-colorectal, non-neuroendocrine (NCRNNE) liver metastases is difficult. To better understand the survival benefit in this group of patients, we conducted a systematic review of the previous literature. Medline, Web of Knowledge, and manual searches were performed using search terms, such as "liver resection" and "primary tumor." Inclusion criteria were year>1990, >five patients, and median survival reported or derived. An expected median survival was calculated from weighted averages of median survivals, and differences were assessed using a permutation test. A total of 7,857 references were identified. Overall 4,735 abstracts were reviewed; 120 manuscripts evaluated and of these, 73 met the study inclusion criteria. The final population consisted of 3,596 patients with renal (n=234), ovarian (n=119), testicular (n=153), adrenal (n=90), small bowel (n=28), gallbladder (n=21), duodenum (n=38), gastric (n=481), pancreatic (n=55), esophageal (n=23), head and neck (n=15), and lung (n=36) cancers, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) (n=106), cholangiocarcinoma (n=13), sarcoma (n=189), and melanoma (n=643). The greatest expected median was 63 months for genitourinary (GU) primaries (n=549; range 5.4-142 months) followed by 44.4 months for breast cancer (n=1,013; range 8-74 months), 22.3 months for gastrointestinal cancer (n=549; range 5-58 months), and 23.7 months for other tumor types (n=1,082; range 10-72 months). Using a permutation test, we observed that survival was best for patients with GU primaries followed by that for breast cancer patients. Additionally, we also observed that survival was similar for those with cancer of the GI tract and other primary sites. There appears to be a benefit to resection for patients with NCRNNE liver metastases. The degree of survival advantage is predicated by primary site.

  8. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in colorectal cancer liver metastases is associated with vascular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illemann, Martin; Eefsen, Rikke Helene Løvendahl; Bird, Nigel Charles

    2016-01-01

    , with significant higher levels in patients with metastatic disease. We therefore wanted to determine the expression pattern of TIMP-1 in primary colorectal cancers and their matching liver metastases. TIMP-1 mRNA was primarily seen in α-smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive cells. In all primary tumors and liver...... metastases with desmoplastic growth pattern, TIMP-1 mRNA was primarily found in α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts located at the invasive front. Some α-SMA-positive cells with TIMP-1 mRNA were located adjacent to CD34-positive endothelial cells, identifying them as pericytes. This indicates that TIMP-1...

  9. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound vs multidetector-computed tomography for detecting liver metastases in colorectal cancer: a prospective, blinded, patient-by-patient analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, S R; Jakobsen, A

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer.......This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer....

  10. Pattern of tumour growth of the primary colon cancer predicts long-term outcome after resection of liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelt, Lidewij; Sasor, Agata; Ansari, Daniel; Andersson, Roland

    2016-10-01

    To identify significant predictive factors for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after liver resection for colon cancer metastases, with special focus on features of the primary colon cancer, such as lymph node ratio (LNR), vascular invasion, and perineural invasion. Patients operated for colonic cancer liver metastases between 2006 and 2014 were included. Details on patient characteristics, the primary colon cancer operation and metastatic disease were collected. Multivariate analysis was performed to select predictive variables for OS and DFS. Median OS and DFS were 67 and 20 months, respectively. 1-, 3- and 5-year OS were 97, 76, and 52%. 1-, 3- and 5-year DFS were 65, 42, and 37%. Multivariate analysis showed LNR to be an independent predictive factor for DFS but not for OS. Other identified predictive factors were vascular and perineural invasion of the primary colon cancer, size of the largest metastasis and severe complications after liver surgery for OS, and perineural invasion, number of liver metastases and preoperative CEA-level for DFS. Traditional N-stage was also considered to be an independent predictive factor for DFS in a separate multivariate analysis. LNR and perineural invasion of the primary colon cancer can be used as a prognostic variable for DFS after a concomitant liver resection for colon cancer metastases. Vascular and perineural invasion of the primary colon cancer are predictive for OS.

  11. Improved image quality and detectability of hypovascular liver metastases on DECT with different adjusted window settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenbernd, Jens; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Wetter, Axel [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2017-03-15

    To investigate dual-energy CT of hypovascular liver metastases (LMs) with special focus on window settings (WSs). The aim of the study is to investigate the extent to which adapted WSs and the low-energy images of DECT improve the visibility especially of smaller LMs. 30 patients with LMs of colorectal cancer were investigated with DECT of the liver. In each patient contrast-enhanced DECT imaging with portal-venous delay was performed. The total number, mean number and conspicuity (1= excellent - 5 = poor) of LMs were documented on 80-kVp images and virtual 120-kVp images with different WSs (25/200 HU, 50/200, 75/200 HU, 25/350 HU, 50/350 HU, 75/350 HU, 25/500 HU, 50/500 HU, 75/500 HU). The attenuation (HU) of LMs and several anatomic regions and the background noise on 80 kVp images and virtual 120 kVp images were documented. Signal (liver)/noise and liver/LM ratio (SNR/LLMR) were calculated. The total number of LMs depending on size (<1cm, 1-2cm, >2cm) on 80 kVp images and virtual 120 kVp images with previously investigated best and regular WSs were documented. The highest total number, mean number per patient and total number of LMs <1cm were detected with the WS 25/350 HU on 80kVp images (7.0; p = 0.02/218; p = 0.01/64;p<0.001) compared to the WS 75/200 HU on virtual 120 kVp images and the regular WS 50/350 HU on 80 kVp images and virtual 120 kVp images. The best conspicuity of LMs on 80 kVp images was documented with the WS 25/350 HU compared to the best WS on virtual 120 kVp images with 75/200 HU (1.2 vs. 2.5; p = 0.01). HU of normal liver, aorta, SNR and LLMR differed significantly between 80 kVp images and virtual 120 kVp images (128.1 vs. 93.6; < 0.05/192.8 vs. 131.4; < 0.05/10.3 vs. 8.1; p < 0.05/2.8 vs. 2.1; p < 0.05). Low kVp images of DECT datasets are more precise in detecting hypovascular liver metastases than virtual 120 kVp images. Dedicated window settings have a relevant influence on conspicuity.

  12. Whole-liver radiotherapy concurrent with chemotherapy as a palliative treatment for colorectal patients with massive and multiple liver metastases: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang; Lu, Kai; Qiao, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Yang; Sun, Di; You, Qing-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether whole-liver radiotherapy plus a tumor-boost dose with concurrent chemotherapy is beneficial for colorectal cancer patients with massive and multiple liver metastases. From January 2007 to December 2012, 19 patients who exhibited massive (with a longest diameter > 5 cm) and invasive liver metastases and multiple metastases were treated with radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. The total radiation dose was 53.4 Gy (range 38.8 Gy-66.3 Gy). All of the patients received a continuous intravenous dose of 5 fluorouracil (5-FU) 225 mg/m2 concurrently with radiation. The median survival time was 19 months. The 1- and 2- year overall survival rates were 78.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Of all of the patients who presented with abdominal pain, 100% experienced a decrease in pain. Decreases in the rates of ascites and jaundice were confirmed by ultrasound and bilirubin levels. No cases of Grade 4 or 5 acute or late toxicity were recorded. There were only two cases of Grade 3 toxicity (elevated bilirubin). These data provide evidence that whole-liver radiotherapy plus a tumor-boost dose with concurrent chemotherapy is beneficial for colorectal cancer patients with massive and multiple liver metastases.

  13. Radiosensitivity Differences Between Liver Metastases Based on Primary Histology Suggest Implications for Clinical Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Caudell, Jimmy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); El-Haddad, Ghassan [Department of Interventional Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Berglund, Anders E.; Welsh, Eric A. [Department of Bioinformatics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Yue, Binglin [Department of Biostastistics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Hoffe, Sarah E.; Naghavi, Arash O.; Abuodeh, Yazan A.; Frakes, Jessica M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Eschrich, Steven A. [Department of Bioinformatics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Torres-Roca, Javier F., E-mail: Javier.torresroca@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Evidence from the management of oligometastases with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) reveals differences in outcomes based on primary histology. We have previously identified a multigene expression index for tumor radiosensitivity (RSI) with validation in multiple independent cohorts. In this study, we assessed RSI in liver metastases and assessed our clinical outcomes after SBRT based on primary histology. Methods and Materials: Patients were identified from our prospective, observational protocol. The previously tested RSI 10 gene assay was run on samples and calculated using the published algorithm. An independent cohort of 33 patients with 38 liver metastases treated with SBRT was used for clinical correlation. Results: A total of 372 unique metastatic liver lesions were identified for inclusion from our prospective, institutional metadata pool. The most common primary histologies for liver metastases were colorectal adenocarcinoma (n=314, 84.4%), breast adenocarcinoma (n=12, 3.2%), and pancreas neuroendocrine (n=11, 3%). There were significant differences in RSI of liver metastases based on histology. The median RSIs for liver metastases in descending order of radioresistance were gastrointestinal stromal tumor (0.57), melanoma (0.53), colorectal neuroendocrine (0.46), pancreas neuroendocrine (0.44), colorectal adenocarcinoma (0.43), breast adenocarcinoma (0.35), lung adenocarcinoma (0.31), pancreas adenocarcinoma (0.27), anal squamous cell cancer (0.22), and small intestine neuroendocrine (0.21) (P<.0001). The 12-month and 24-month Kaplan-Meier rates of local control (LC) for colorectal lesions from the independent clinical cohort were 79% and 59%, compared with 100% for noncolorectal lesions (P=.019), respectively. Conclusions: In this analysis, we found significant differences based on primary histology. This study suggests that primary histology may be an important factor to consider in SBRT radiation dose selection.

  14. Local Treatment of Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Coevorden, Frits; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.; Borel-Rinkes, Inne; Ledermann, Jonathan A.; Poston, Graeme; Bechstein, Wolf; Lentz, Marie-Ange; Mauer, Murielle; Folprecht, Gunnar; Van Cutsem, Eric; Ducreux, Michel; Nordlinger, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tumor ablation is often employed for unresectable colorectal liver metastases. However, no survival benefit has ever been demonstrated in prospective randomized studies. Here, we investigate the long-term benefits of such an aggressive approach. Methods: In this randomized phase II trial, 119 patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (n  38%) was met. We now report on long-term OS results. All statistical tests were two-sided. The analyses were according to intention to treat. Results: At a median follow up of 9.7 years, 92 of 119 (77.3%) patients had died: 39 of 60 (65.0%) in the combined modality arm and 53 of 59 (89.8%) in the systemic treatment arm. Almost all patients died of progressive disease (35 patients in the combined modality arm, 49 patients in the systemic treatment arm). There was a statistically significant difference in OS in favor of the combined modality arm (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38 to 0.88, P = .01). Three-, five-, and eight-year OS were 56.9% (95% CI = 43.3% to 68.5%), 43.1% (95% CI = 30.3% to 55.3%), 35.9% (95% CI = 23.8% to 48.2%), respectively, in the combined modality arm and 55.2% (95% CI = 41.6% to 66.9%), 30.3% (95% CI = 19.0% to 42.4%), 8.9% (95% CI = 3.3% to 18.1%), respectively, in the systemic treatment arm. Median OS was 45.6 months (95% CI = 30.3 to 67.8 months) in the combined modality arm vs 40.5 months (95% CI = 27.5 to 47.7 months) in the systemic treatment arm. Conclusions: This phase II trial is the first randomized study demonstrating that aggressive local treatment can prolong OS in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases. PMID:28376151

  15. The Impact of a Hepatobiliary Multidisciplinary Team Assessment in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Jennie; Kartalis, Nikolaos; Strömberg, Cecilia; Broberg, Mats; Stillström, Anna; Lekberg, Tobias; Jonas, Eduard; Freedman, Jacob; Nilsson, Henrik

    2017-09-01

    Assessing patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) by a liver multidisciplinary team (MDT) results in higher resection rates and improved survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentially improved resection rate in a defined cohort if all patients with CRCLM were evaluated by a liver MDT. A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer during 2008 in the greater Stockholm region was conducted. All patients with liver metastases (LM), detected during 5-year follow-up, were re-evaluated at a fictive liver MDT in which previous imaging studies, tumor characteristics, medical history, and patients' own treatment preferences were presented. Treatment decisions for each patient were compared to the original management. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for factors associated with referral to the liver MDT. Of 272 patients diagnosed with LM, 102 patients were discussed at an original liver MDT and 69 patients were eventually resected. At the fictive liver MDT, a further 22 patients were considered as resectable/potentially resectable, none previously assessed by a hepatobiliary surgeon. Factors influencing referral to liver MDT were age (OR 3.12, 1.72-5.65), American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score (OR 0.34, 0.18-0.63; ASA 2 vs. ASA 3), and number of LM (OR 0.10, 0.04-0.22; 1-5 LM vs. >10 LM), while gender (p = .194) and treatment at a teaching hospital (p = .838) were not. A meaningful number of patients with liver metastases are not managed according to best available evidence and the potential for higher resection rates is substantial. Patients with liver metastatic colorectal cancer who are assessed at a hepatobiliary multidisciplinary meeting achieve higher resection rates and improved survival. Unfortunately, patients who may benefit from resection are not always properly referred. In this study, the potential improved resection rate was assessed by re-evaluating all

  16. Inflammation and uPAR-Expression in Colorectal Liver Metastases in Relation to Growth Pattern and Neo-adjuvant Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, R L; Engelholm, L; Alpizar-Alpizar, W

    2015-01-01

    Proteolytic activity and inflammation in the tumour microenvironment affects cancer progression. In colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases it has been observed that three different immune profiles are present, as well as proteolytic activity, determined by the expression of urokinase-type plasm......Proteolytic activity and inflammation in the tumour microenvironment affects cancer progression. In colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases it has been observed that three different immune profiles are present, as well as proteolytic activity, determined by the expression of urokinase......-type plasminogen activator (uPAR).The main objectives of this study were to investigate uPAR expression and the density of macrophages (CD68) and T cells (CD3) as markers of inflammation in resected CRC liver metastases, where patients were neo-adjuvantly treated with chemotherapy with or without the angiogenesis...... inhibitor bevacizumab. Chemonaive patients served as a control group. The markers were correlated to growth patterns (GP) of liver metastases, i.e. desmoplastic, pushing and replacement GP. It was hypothesised that differences in proteolysis and inflammation could reflect tumour specific growth and therapy...

  17. Measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation times of colon cancer metastases in rat liver at 7 T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambarota, G.; Veltien, A.; van Laarhoven, H.; Philippens, M.; Jonker, A.; Mook, O. R.; Frederiks, W. M.; Heerschap, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of colon cancer metastases in rat liver at 7 T. A dedicated RF microstrip coil of novel design was built in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and, in combination with respiratory triggering,

  18. Global Proteome Changes in Liver Tissue 6 Weeks after FOLFOX Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Urdzik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis is associated with sinusoidal injury of liver parenchyma. The effects of oxaliplatin-induced liver injury on the protein level remain unknown. (2 Protein expression in liver tissue was analyzed—from eight patients treated with FOLFOX (combination of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin and seven controls—by label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Recursive feature elimination–support vector machine and Welch t-test were used to identify classifying and relevantly changed proteins, respectively. Resulting proteins were analyzed for associations with gene ontology categories and pathways. (3 A total of 5891 proteins were detected. A set of 184 (3.1% proteins classified the groups with a 20% error rate, but relevant change was observed only in 55 (0.9% proteins. The classifying proteins were associated with changes in DNA replication (p < 0.05 through upregulation of the minichromosome maintenance complex and with the innate immune response (p < 0.05. The importance of DNA replication changes was supported by the results of Welch t-test (p < 0.05. (4 Six weeks after FOLFOX treatment, less than 1% of identified proteins showed changes in expression associated with DNA replication, cell cycle entry, and innate immune response. We hypothesize that the changes remain after recovery from FOLFOX treatment injury.

  19. Initial Experiences of Simultaneous Laparoscopic Resection of Colorectal Cancer and Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Hoekstra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Simultaneous resection of primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC and synchronous liver metastases (SLMs is subject of debate with respect to morbidity in comparison to staged resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate our initial experience with this approach. Methods. Five patients with primary CRC and a clinical diagnosis of SLM underwent combined laparoscopic colorectal and liver surgery. Patient and tumor characteristics, operative variables, and postoperative outcomes were evaluated retrospectively. Results. The primary tumor was located in the colon in two patients and in the rectum in three patients. The SLM was solitary in four patients and multiple in the remaining patient. Surgical approach was total laparoscopic (2 patients or hand-assisted laparoscopic (3 patients. The midline umbilical or transverse suprapubic incision created for the hand port and/or extraction of the specimen varied between 5 and 10 cm. Median operation time was 303 (range 151–384 minutes with a total blood loss of 700 (range 200–850 mL. Postoperative hospital stay was 5, 5, 9, 14, and 30 days. An R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Conclusions. From this initial single-center experience, simultaneous laparoscopic colorectal and liver resection appears to be feasible in selected patients with CRC and SLM, with satisfying short-term results.

  20. Treatment of Liver Metastases in Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors of Gastroesophageal and Pancreatic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-to-moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of gastroesophageal and pancreatic origin (GEP-NETs with liver metastasis are a heterogeneous group of malignancies for which a range of therapeutic options have been employed. Surgical resection of hepatic metastases or hepatic artery embolization may be beneficial in patients with hepatic-predominant metastatic disease. Patients with “carcinoid” syndrome and syndromes associated with functional pancreatic NET (PNET can be effectively treated with somatostatin analogs. On the other hand, the efficacy of systemic chemotherapy for these patients is limited. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective, and randomized study showed that octreotide LAR improves progression-free survival in patients with advanced midgut functional “carcinoids.” In patients with advanced pancreatic NET, randomized, placebo-controlled studies have recently demonstrated that treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib or with mTOR inhibitor everolimus is associated with improved progression-free survival. Based on these studies, octreotide LAR, sunitinib, or everolimus are now considered as first-line therapeutic options in patients with advanced NET. Future studies will likely further define the role of these agents in patients with carcinoid liver metastasis and pancreatic NET liver metastasis.

  1. Colorectal liver metastases: regional chemotherapy via transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and hepatic chemoperfusion: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Zangos, Stephan; Eichler, Katrin; Nabil, Mohamed [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Clinic, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Yakoub, Danny [Imperial College London, Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    Liver metastasis is one of the main problems encountered in colorectal cancer management as the liver is the most common metastatic site. Several treatment options are available, among which transarterial chemotherapy has proved effective in achieving some local tumour control, improving the quality of life through symptomatic control as well as survival time. The present paper is intended to provide an overview of the techniques, indications and results of regional chemotherapy, which comprises transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and chemoperfusion. This treatment approach has symptomatic, palliative, adjuvant and potentially curative objectives. We reviewed the studies involving TACE and chemoperfusion of colorectal liver metastases during the last few years to update the previous reviews published on this subject. The results achieved were so variable, due to the variations in patient selection criteria and regimens used between the different studies. The median survival ranged from 9 to 62 months and the morphological response ranged from 14 to 76%. Technical aspects, results, and complications of this modality will be demonstrated with a detailed analysis and comments. (orig.)

  2. Colorectal liver metastases: regional chemotherapy via transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and hepatic chemoperfusion: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Thomas J; Zangos, Stephan; Eichler, Katrin; Yakoub, Danny; Nabil, Mohamed

    2007-04-01

    Liver metastasis is one of the main problems encountered in colorectal cancer management as the liver is the most common metastatic site. Several treatment options are available, among which transarterial chemotherapy has proved effective in achieving some local tumour control, improving the quality of life through symptomatic control as well as survival time. The present paper is intended to provide an overview of the techniques, indications and results of regional chemotherapy, which comprises transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and chemoperfusion. This treatment approach has symptomatic, palliative, adjuvant and potentially curative objectives. We reviewed the studies involving TACE and chemoperfusion of colorectal liver metastases during the last few years to update the previous reviews published on this subject. The results achieved were so variable, due to the variations in patient selection criteria and regimens used between the different studies. The median survival ranged from 9 to 62 months and the morphological response ranged from 14 to 76%. Technical aspects, results, and complications of this modality will be demonstrated with a detailed analysis and comments.

  3. Interstitial brachytherapy for liver metastases and assessment of response by positron emission tomography: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goura Kishor Rath

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available For liver metastases (LM, image guided percutaneous ablative procedures such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA, laser induced thermal therapy (LITT and trans-arterial chemo-embolisation (TACE are increasingly being used because they are relatively safer, less invasive and equally effective. CT scan guided interstitial brachytherapy (IBT with a single large dose of radiation by high dose rate (HDR brachytherapy is a novel technique of treating LM and has shown good results. Positron emission tomography (PET scan may provide better information for assessing the response toIBT procedures. We hereby report a case of LM that was treated by HDR IBT and PET scan was done in addition to CT scan for assessing the response.

  4. [Nonoperative ablation for liver metastases. Possibilities and limitations as a curative treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, C-T; Buhr, H J; Isbert, C

    2005-06-01

    Under the term "nonoperative ablation" are grouped a number of heterogeneous approaches for the treatment of liver metastases, including laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), radio-frequency therapy (RF), and cryotherapy. In general these procedures had been intended only for palliative purposes. The establishment of clinically relevant lesion size and a lack of long-term survival data were regarded as main limitations to using them with curative intention. During the last years however, new application systems have demonstrated remarkable results in RF and LITT, and some clinical studies have shown long-term survival in selected patients comparable to that for hepatic resection. We review possibilities and limitations of nonoperative ablation procedures with curative intent, highlighting the histopathological bases of thermal ablation techniques and clinical aspects such as R0 ablation and long-term survival.

  5. Detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic fatty infiltration of the liver: the added value of contrast-enhanced sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Taibbi, Adele; Picone, Dario; Anastasi, Andrea; Midiri, Massimo; Lagalla, Roberto [Dept. of Radiology-Di.Bi.Med., University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic liver fatty deposition on greyscale ultrasonography (US). Thirty-seven consecutive cancer patients (24 women and 13 men; age, 33 to 80 years; mean, 58.1 years) with geographic liver fatty deposition, but without any detectable focal liver lesion on greyscale US, underwent sulphur hexafluoride-enhanced US. Two readers reported by consensus the presence, size, and location of any detected lesion. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a confirmatory study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and accuracy were calculated. Seven focal liver lesions (size, 4 to 10 mm; mean, 6.1 mm) were detected in 4/37 patients (10.8%): four metastases (size, 5 to 10 mm; mean, 6.7 mm) were detected both by CEUS and MRI, with one hemangioma and two cysts (size range, 4 to 6 mm; mean, 5.3 mm) detected by MRI only. In 1/37 patients (2.7%), CEUS misdiagnosed geographic fatty change as three metastases. In 32/37 patients (86.5%), no lesions were detected. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of CEUS were 100% (95% confidence Interval [CI], 1.000 to 1.000), 97.1% (95% CI, 0.914 to 1.027), 75%, 100%, and 97.3%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between CEUS and MRI in the detection of focal liver lesions (P=0.480), whereas both of them performed better than baseline US (P<0.001). CEUS improves the detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic liver fatty deposition on greyscale US.

  6. Determinants of long-term outcome in patients undergoing simultaneous resection of synchronous colorectal liver metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It remains unclear which patients can benefit from simultaneous resection of synchronous colorectal liver metastases (SCRLMs. This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of patient- and tumor-related factors in predicting long-term outcomes of patients undergoing simultaneous resection of SCRLMs and to help patients select a suitable therapeutic regimen and proper surveillance. METHODS: Clinicopathological and outcome data of 154 consecutive SCRLM patients who underwent simultaneous resection between July 2003 and July 2013 were collected from our prospectively established SCRLM data and analyzed with univariate and multivariate methods, and the prognostic index (PI was formulated based on the regression coefficients (β of the Cox model. The patients were classified into high- and low-risk groups according to the PI value; the cut-off point was the third quartile. RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival rate was 46%, and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 35%. Five factors were found to be independent predictors of poor overall survival (OS by multivariate analysis: positive lymph node status, vascular invasion, BRAF mutation, the distribution of bilobar liver metastases (LMs and non-R0 resection of LMs. Compared to low PI (≤5.978, high PI (>5.978 was highly predictive of shorter OS. Three factors were found to be independent predictors of poor disease-free survival (DFS by multivariate analysis: tumor deposits, BRAF mutation and bilobar LM distribution. We also determined the PI for DFS. Compared to low PI (≤2.945, high PI (>2.945 was highly predictive of shorter DFS. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous resection of SCRLM may lead to various long-term outcomes. Patients with low PI have longer OS and DFS, while those with high PI have shorter OS and DFS. Thus, patients with high PI may receive more aggressive treatment and intensive surveillance, This model needs further validation.

  7. Yttrium-90 radioembolization stops progression of targeted breast cancer liver metastases after failed chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrew C.; Gradishar, William J.; Kaklamani, Virginia G.; Thuluvath, Avesh J.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Gates, Vanessa L.; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this open-label, retrospective report was to determine the safety and effectiveness of locoregional therapy with yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization for patients with progressing breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) despite polychemotherapy. MATERIALS & METHODS Seventy-five patients with progressing BCLM and stable extrahepatic disease were treated with radioembolization at our institution. Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed to evaluate clinical and biochemical toxicities, tumor response, overall survival (OS), and time to progression (TTP). Radiologic response assessments included Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors in primary index lesions and metabolic activity on positron emission tomography. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS 30-day mortality was 4% (n=3). Grade 3+ clinical toxicity and hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 7.6% (n=5) and 5.9% (n=4), respectively. The rate of partial response was 35.3% (n=24), 63.2% (n=43) had stable disease, and progressive disease occurred in 1.5% (n=1). PET imaging was available in 25 patients and 21 (84%) had a complete or partial response or stable disease. The median OS was 6.6mo (95% CI, 5.0 to 9.2mo). The hazard ratio (HR) for OS was .39 (95% CI, .23 to .66) for tumor burden <25% compared to greater tumor burden in multivariate analysis. Elevated bilirubin reduced OS. The HR for hepatic progression was .22 (95% CI, .05 to .98) for solitary compared to multifocal disease. CONCLUSIONS Locoregional therapy with 90Y radioembolization is safe and stops or delays the progression of targeted chemorefractory breast cancer liver metastases. Adverse prognosticators are identified. PMID:25156827

  8. Radioembolization for neuroendocrine liver metastases: safety, imaging, and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J; Mulcahy, Mary F; Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Gupta, Ramona; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Gates, Vanessa L; Atassi, Bassel; Newman, Steven; Omary, Reed A; Benson, Al B; Salem, Riad

    2012-07-01

    To present long-term outcomes on the safety and efficacy of Yttrium-90 radioembolization in the treatment of unresectable hepatic neuroendocrine metastases refractory to standard-of-care therapy. This study was approved by our institutional review board and was compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Forty patients with hepatic neuroendocrine metastases were treated with (90)Y radioembolization at a single center. Toxicity was assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria v3.0. Response to therapy was assessed by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for size and European Association for the Study of the Liver disease (EASL) guidelines for necrosis. Time to response and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The median dose was 113 Gy (29-299 Gy). Clinical toxicities included fatigue (63%), nausea/vomiting (40%), abdominal pain (18%), fever (8%), diarrhea and weight loss (5%); Grade 3 and 4 bilirubin toxicities were experienced by 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Different responses were noted by WHO (complete response, 1.2%; partial response, 62.7%) and EASL (complete response, 20.5%; partial response, 43.4%). Median time to response was 4 and 4.9 months by lesion and patient, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 72.5%, 62.5%, and 45%, respectively. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score 0 (p < 0.0001), tumor burden ≤25% (p = 0.0019), albumin ≥3.5 g/dL (p = 0.017), and bilirubin ≤1.2 mg/dL (p = 0.002) prognosticated survival on univariate analysis; only ECOG performance score 0 and bilirubin ≤1.2 mg/dL prognosticated better survival outcome on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02). Yttrium-90 therapy for hepatic neuroendocrine metastases leads to satisfactory tumor response and patient survival with low toxicity, in line with published national guidelines

  9. Radioembolization for Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Safety, Imaging, and Long-Term Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Gupta, Ramona; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H.; Yaghmai, Vahid; Gates, Vanessa L.; Atassi, Bassel [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Newman, Steven [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Omary, Reed A. [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Benson, Al B. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Salem, Riad, E-mail: r-salem@northwestern.edu [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes on the safety and efficacy of Yttrium-90 radioembolization in the treatment of unresectable hepatic neuroendocrine metastases refractory to standard-of-care therapy. Methods and Materials: This study was approved by our institutional review board and was compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Forty patients with hepatic neuroendocrine metastases were treated with {sup 90}Y radioembolization at a single center. Toxicity was assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria v3.0. Response to therapy was assessed by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for size and European Association for the Study of the Liver disease (EASL) guidelines for necrosis. Time to response and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The median dose was 113 Gy (29-299 Gy). Clinical toxicities included fatigue (63%), nausea/vomiting (40%), abdominal pain (18%), fever (8%), diarrhea and weight loss (5%); Grade 3 and 4 bilirubin toxicities were experienced by 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Different responses were noted by WHO (complete response, 1.2%; partial response, 62.7%) and EASL (complete response, 20.5%; partial response, 43.4%). Median time to response was 4 and 4.9 months by lesion and patient, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 72.5%, 62.5%, and 45%, respectively. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score 0 (p < 0.0001), tumor burden {<=}25% (p = 0.0019), albumin {>=}3.5 g/dL (p = 0.017), and bilirubin {<=}1.2 mg/dL (p = 0.002) prognosticated survival on univariate analysis; only ECOG performance score 0 and bilirubin {<=}1.2 mg/dL prognosticated better survival outcome on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02). Conclusion: Yttrium-90 therapy for hepatic neuroendocrine metastases leads to satisfactory tumor response and patient survival

  10. Artificial neural networks--a method for prediction of survival following liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelt, L; Nilsson, J; Andersson, R; Andersson, B

    2013-06-01

    To construct an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict survival after liver resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases. CRC liver metastases are fatal if untreated and resection can possibly be curative. Predictive models stratify patients into risk categories to predict prognosis and select those who can benefit from aggressive multidisciplinary treatment and intensive follow-up. Standard linear models assume proportional hazards, whereas more flexible non-linear survival models based on ANNs may better predict individual long-term survival. Clinicopathological and perioperative data on patients who underwent liver resection for CRC metastases between 1994 and 2009 were studied retrospectively. A five-fold cross-validated ANN model was constructed. Risk variables were ranked and minimised through calibrated ANNs. Time dependent hazard ratio (HR) was calculated using the ANN. Performance of the ANN model and Cox regression were analysed using Harrell's C-index. 241 patients with a median age of 66 years were included. There were no perioperative deaths and median survival was 56 months. Of 28 potential risk variables, the ANN selected six: age, preoperative chemotherapy, size of largest metastasis, haemorrhagic complications, preoperative CEA-level and number of metastases. The C-index was 0.72 for the ANN model and 0.66 for Cox regression. For the first time ANNs were used to successfully predict individual long-term survival for patients following liver resection for CRC metastases. In the future, more complex prognostic factors can be incorporated into the ANN model to increase its predictive ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: Diagnostic Performance and Prognostic Value of PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Jeong Min; Hur, Bo Yun; Joo, Ijin; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kang, Keon Wook; Han, Joon Koo

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonace (MR) imaging (hereafter, PET/MR imaging) in the detection of liver metastases and to assess its prognostic value in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLMs). Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study, with waiver of informed consent. A total of 55 patients with 98 CRLMs who underwent PET/MR imaging and multidetector computed tomography (CT) between January 2013 and June 2014 comprised the study population. Of these patients, 34 underwent hepatic resection, 18 of whom also underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Two board-certificated radiologists independently assessed the four image sets (ie, multidetector CT, whole-body PET, MR imaging with a liver-specific contrast agent [hereafter, EOB MR imaging], and PET/MR imaging). To compare the diagnostic performance of each imaging modality, jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic and generalized estimating equations were used. To assess prognostic value, recurrence-free survival of the 18 patients who underwent NAC followed by hepatic resection was analyzed by using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results The reader-averaged figure of merit of PET/MR imaging was significantly higher than that of either multidetector CT (P = .003) or PET (P = .020) in the detection of CRLMs. However, no significant difference was observed between figure of merit for PET/MR imaging and that for EOB MR imaging (P = .231). After NAC, six of the 18 patients had isometabolic CRLMs on PET images, and 12 patients had hypermetabolic CRLMs. The 1-year recurrence-free survival rate was 80% in patients with isometabolic CRLMs and 14% in patients with hypermetabolic CRLMs, showing a significant difference (P = .026). Conclusion PET/MR imaging can yield significantly higher diagnostic performance in the detection of CRLMs

  12. Disappearing or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging: Is local treatment required?

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    Kim, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Young Kon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Suk; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Seung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical course of disappearing colorectal liver metastases (DLM) or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases (RTCLM) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who had colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and received chemotherapy. Among 137 patients who received chemotherapy for CLM and underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI between 2010 and 2012, 43 patients with 168 DLMs and 48 RTCLMs were included. The cumulative in situ recurrence rate of DLM and progression rate of RTCLM and their predictive factors were evaluated. A total of 150 DLMs and 26 RTCLMs were followed up without additional treatment. At 1 and 2 years, respectively, the cumulative in situ recurrence rates for DLM were 10.9 % and 15.7 % and the cumulative progression rates for RTCLM were 27.2 % and 33.2 %. The in situ recurrence rate at 2 years was 4.9 % for the DLM group that did not show reticular hypointensity of liver parenchyma on hepatobiliary phase. DLM on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and DWI indicates a high possibility of clinical complete response, especially in patients without chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Thirty-three percent of RTCLMs showed progression at 2 years. (orig.)

  13. Influence of the primary tumour location in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Aurélien; Malik, Hassan Z; Jones, Robert P; Diaz-Nieto, Rafael; Fenwick, Stephen W; Poston, Graeme J

    2017-11-21

    The prognosis of patients undergoing liver resection for colorectal liver metastases (CLM) seems to be altered when the primary tumour is right-sided. However, data are lacking and conflicting. We aimed to evaluate the influence of the primary tumour location on oncologic outcomes following such surgery. We retrospectively analysed prospectively collected data from 376 consecutive patients who underwent liver surgery for CLM between June 2010 and August 2015. We compared the outcomes of patients with right colon tumours and those with left colorectal tumours. The splenic flexure was used as the cut-off point to determine the anatomic primary site. Among the 364 patients eligible, 74 (20.3%) had a right-sided primary tumour. These patients were older, had a poorer American Society of Anaesthesiologists status and had fewer node-positive primary tumours. The CLM characteristics were similar between both groups. Median PFS was not significantly different between the two groups at 9.9 months, as well as the pattern of recurrence. Median OS was shorter for patients with right-sided primary tumour (34.6 versus 45.3 months, p = 0.035). Similar results were observed when patients with rectal tumour were excluded from analysis (34.6 vs. 47.5 months, p = 0.007). Primary tumour site was an independent prognosis factor in multivariate analysis. Right-sided location of the primary tumour is associated with worse OS after surgery for CLM, but seems to have no influence on PFS, and on the pattern of recurrence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT vs CT-scan in patients with pulmonary metastases previously operated on for colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, Victor; Robles, Ricardo; Brusadin, Roberto; López Conesa, Asuncion; Torres, Juan; Perez Flores, Domingo; Navarro, Jose Luis; Gil, Pedro Jose; Parrilla, Pascual

    2018-01-01

    There is currently no conclusive scientific evidence available regarding the role of the 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (PMCRC) in patients operated on for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). In the follow up of patients who underwent surgery for CRLM, we compare CT-scan and 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with PMCRC. We designed the study prospectively performing an 18F-FDG PET/CT on all patients operated on for CRLM where the CT-scan detected PMCRC during the follow up. We included patients who were operated on for PMCRC because the histological findings were taken as a control rather than biopsies. Of the 101 pulmonary nodules removed from 57 patients, the CT-scan identified a greater number (89 nodules) than the 18F-FDG PET/CT (75 nodules) (p CT-scan (90 vs 76%, respectively) with a lower specificity (50 vs 75%, respectively) than with the 18F-FDG PET/CT. There were no differences between positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value. The 18F-FDG PET/CT detected more pulmonary nodules in four patients (one PMCRC in each of these patients) and more extrapulmonary disease in six patients (four mediastinal lymph nodes, one retroperitoneal lymph node and one liver metastases) that the CT-scan had not detected. Although CT-scans have a greater capacity to detect PMCRC, the 18F-FDG PET/CT could be useful in the detection of more pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease not identified by the CT-scan. Advances in knowledge: We tried to clarify the utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the management of this subpopulation of patients.

  15. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases during laparotomy. First clinical experiences with a new multipolar ablation concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Joerg-Peter; Lehmann, Kai S; Reissfelder, Christoph; Albrecht, Thomas; Frericks, Bernd; Zurbuchen, Urte; Buhr, Heinz J

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising method for local treatment of liver malignancies. Currently available systems for radiofrequency ablation use monopolar current, which carries the risk of uncontrolled electrical current paths, collateral damages and limited effectiveness. To overcome this problem, we used a newly developed internally cooled bipolar application system in patients with irresectable liver metastases undergoing laparotomy. The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of this new system with a novel multipolar application concept. Patients with a maximum of five liver metastases having a maximum diameter of 5 cm underwent laparotomy and abdominal exploration to control resectability. In cases of irresectability, RFA with the newly developed bipolar application system was performed. Treatment was carried out under ultrasound guidance. Depending on tumour size, shape and location, up to three applicators were simultaneously inserted in or closely around the tumour, never exceeding a maximum probe distance of 3 cm. In the multipolar ablation concept, the current runs alternating between all possible pairs of consecutively activated electrodes with up to 15 possible electrode combinations. Post-operative follow-up was evaluated by CT or MRI controls 24-48 h after RFA and every 3 months. In a total of six patients (four male, two female; 61-68 years), ten metastases (1.0-5.5 cm) were treated with a total of 14 RF applications. In four metastases three probes were used, and in another four and two metastases, two and one probes were used, respectively. During a mean ablation time of 18.8 min (10-31), a mean energy of 48.8 kJ (12-116) for each metastases was applied. No procedure-related complications occurred. The patients were released from the hospital between 7 and 12 days post-intervention (median 9 days). The post-interventional control showed complete tumour ablation in all cases. Bipolar

  16. Survival after pulmonary metastasectomy in colorectal cancer patients: does a history of resected liver metastases worsen the prognosis? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, Jon; Aguinagalde, Borja; Lopez, Iker; Fernandez-Monge, Arantza; Izquierdo, Jose M; Emparanza, Jose I

    2017-08-01

    : To assess the impact of past liver metastases on the survival duration of patients who are undergoing surgery for lung metastases. : We conducted a review of literature published from 2007 to 2014. The studies were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase and were supplemented by a manual search of the references listed by the retrieved studies. The following search terms were used: lung metastasectomy, pulmonary metastasectomy, lung metastases, and lung metastasis. We selected retrospective and prospective studies published from 2007 to 2014 on patients with lung metastases from colorectal cancer and were undergoing surgery with curative intent. We excluded reviews, studies that focused on surgical techniques, patients who were treated non-surgically, analyses of specific subgroups of patients, and those that did not report follow-up of the patients undergoing surgery. : We identified 28 papers that assessed survival after lung metastases, 21 of which were mostly retrospective studies that identified previous liver metastases to explore their impact on patient survival. In more than half of the papers analyzed (63.2%), patients with a history of resected liver metastases had a lower survival rate than those who did not have such a history, and the difference was statistically significant in eight of these studies. However, data were presented differently, and authors reported mean survival time, survival rates, or hazard ratios. : A history of liver metastases seems to be a negative prognostic factor, but the individual data need to undergo a meta-analysis.

  17. Successful daptomycin lock therapy for implantable intra-arterial catheter infection in a patient with liver metastases of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Buret, Jennifer; Camou, Fabrice; Morlat, Philippe; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    There are no data on how to manage implantable intra-arterial catheter (IAC) infections. We report the case of a patient with liver metastases of colon cancer treated by regional intra-arterial chemotherapy who presented a suspected IAC-related infection, in whom daptomycin systemic treatment and lock therapy allowed to cure the IAC infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognostic factors for survival in patients with colorectal liver metastases: experience of a single brazilian cancer center

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    Héber Salvador de Castro Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Liver metastases are a common event in the clinical outcome of patients with colorectal cancer and account for 2/3 of deaths from this disease. There is considerable controversy among the data in the literature regarding the results of surgical treatment and prognostic factors of survival, and no analysis have been done in a large cohort of patients in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the results of surgical treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases, and to establish prognostic factors of survival in a Brazilian population. METHOD: This was a retrospective study of patients undergoing liver resection for colorectal metastases in a tertiary cancer hospital from 1998 to 2009. We analyzed epidemiologic variables and the clinical characteristics of primary tumors, metastatic disease and its treatment, surgical procedures and follow-up, and survival results. Survival analyzes were done by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test was applied to determine the influence of variables on overall and disease-free survival. All variables associated with survival with P<0.20 in univariate analysis, were included in multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: During the period analyzed, 209 procedures were performed on 170 patients. Postope-rative mortality in 90 days was 2.9% and 5-year overall survival was 64.9%. Its independent prognostic factors were the presence of extrahepatic disease at diagnosis of liver metastases, bilateral nodules and the occurrence of major complications after liver surgery. The estimated 5-year disease-free survival was 39.1% and its prognostic factors included R1 resection, extrahepatic disease, bilateral nodules, lymph node involvement in the primary tumor and primary tumors located in the rectum. CONCLUSION: Liver resection for colorectal metastases is safe and effective and the analysis of prognostic factors of survival in a large cohort of Brazilian patients

  19. Imatinib mesylate induces responses in patients with liver metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumor failing intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy

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    Fiorentini Giammaria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imatinib mesylate represents a real major paradigm shift in cancer therapy, targeting the specific molecular abnormalities, crucial in the etiology of tumor. Intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy (IAHC followed by embolization, has been considered an interesting palliative option for patients with liver metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, due to the typically hypervascular pattern of the tumor. Aims: We report our experience with IAHC followed by Imatinib mesylate, in order to show the superiority of the specific molecular approach in liver metastases from GIST. Materials and Methods: Three patients (pts with pretreated massive liver metastases from GIST, received IAHC with Epirubicin 50 mg/mq, every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. At the evidence of progression, they received Imatinib mesylate. Results: We observed progressive diseases in all cases. In 1998, one patient underwent Thalidomide at 150 mg orally, every day for 4 months, with evidence of stable disease and clinical improvement. In 2001, two patients received Imatinib mesylate at 400 mg orally, every day, with evidence of partial response lasting 18+ months and 16 months. One of them had grade 3 neutropenia, with suspension of therapy for 3 weeks. Conclusion: No patient treated with IAHC, reported objective responses, but two of them obtained partial response after the assumption of Imatinib mesylate and one showed temporary stabilization with thalidomide. Imatinib mesylate represents a new opportunity in GIST therapy, targeting the specific molecular alteration. It seems to be superior to conventional intra arterial hepatic chemotherapy.

  20. Dosimetric Implications of Residual Tracking Errors During Robotic SBRT of Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Mark [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Grehn, Melanie [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck (Germany); Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); Cremers, Florian [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck (Germany); Siebert, Frank-Andre [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Wurster, Stefan [Saphir Radiosurgery Center Northern Germany, Güstrow (Germany); Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Huttenlocher, Stefan [Saphir Radiosurgery Center Northern Germany, Güstrow (Germany); Dunst, Jürgen [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Department for Radiation Oncology, University Clinic Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hildebrandt, Guido [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medicine Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Schweikard, Achim [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); Rades, Dirk [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck (Germany); Ernst, Floris [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); and others

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: Although the metric precision of robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy in the presence of breathing motion is widely known, we investigated the dosimetric implications of breathing phase–related residual tracking errors. Methods and Materials: In 24 patients (28 liver metastases) treated with the CyberKnife, we recorded the residual correlation, prediction, and rotational tracking errors from 90 fractions and binned them into 10 breathing phases. The average breathing phase errors were used to shift and rotate the clinical tumor volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) for each phase to calculate a pseudo 4-dimensional error dose distribution for comparison with the original planned dose distribution. Results: The median systematic directional correlation, prediction, and absolute aggregate rotation errors were 0.3 mm (range, 0.1-1.3 mm), 0.01 mm (range, 0.00-0.05 mm), and 1.5° (range, 0.4°-2.7°), respectively. Dosimetrically, 44%, 81%, and 92% of all voxels differed by less than 1%, 3%, and 5% of the planned local dose, respectively. The median coverage reduction for the PTV was 1.1% (range in coverage difference, −7.8% to +0.8%), significantly depending on correlation (P=.026) and rotational (P=.005) error. With a 3-mm PTV margin, the median coverage change for the CTV was 0.0% (range, −1.0% to +5.4%), not significantly depending on any investigated parameter. In 42% of patients, the 3-mm margin did not fully compensate for the residual tracking errors, resulting in a CTV coverage reduction of 0.1% to 1.0%. Conclusions: For liver tumors treated with robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy, a safety margin of 3 mm is not always sufficient to cover all residual tracking errors. Dosimetrically, this translates into only small CTV coverage reductions.

  1. Unresectable chemorefractory liver metastases: radioembolization with 90Y microspheres--safety, efficacy, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kent T; Lewandowski, Robert J; Mulcahy, Mary F; Atassi, Bassel; Ryu, Robert K; Gates, Vanessa L; Nemcek, Albert A; Barakat, Omar; Benson, Al; Mandal, Robert; Talamonti, Mark; Wong, Ching-Yee O; Miller, Frank H; Newman, Steven B; Shaw, John M; Thurston, Kenneth G; Omary, Reed A; Salem, Riad

    2008-05-01

    To prospectively evaluate the safety, efficacy, and survival of patients with chemorefractory liver metastases who have been treated with yttrium 90 ((90)Y) glass microspheres. Institutional review boards from two institutions approved the HIPAA-compliant study; all patients provided informed consent. One hundred thirty-seven patients underwent 225 administrations of (90)Y microspheres by using intraarterial infusion. Primary sites (origins) included colon, breast, neuroendocrine, pancreas, lung, cholangiocarcinoma, melanoma, renal, esophageal, ovary, adenocarcinoma of unknown primary, lymphoma, gastric, duodenal, bladder, angiosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, thyroid, adrenal, and parotid. Patients underwent evaluation of baseline and follow-up liver function and tumor markers and computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were observed for survival from first treatment. Median survival (in days) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank statistic was used for statistical significance testing of survival distributions between various subgroups of patients. There were 66 men and 71 women. All patients were treated on an outpatient basis. Median age was 61 years. The mean number of treatments was 1.6. The median activity and dose infused were 1.83 GBq and 112.8 Gy, respectively. Clinical toxicities included fatigue (56%), vague abdominal pain (26%), and nausea (23%). At follow-up imaging, according to World Health Organization criteria, there was a 42.8% response rate (2.1% complete response, 40.7% partial response). There was a biologic tumor response (any decrease in tumor size) of 87%. Overall median survival was 300 days. One-year survival was 47.8%, and 2-year survival was 30.9%. Median survival was 457 days for patients with colorectal tumors, 776 days for those with neuroendocrine tumors, and 207 days for those with noncolorectal, nonneuroendocrine tumors. (90)Y hepatic

  2. Exploring gene expression signatures for predicting disease free survival after resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

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    Nikol Snoeren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify and validate gene signatures that can predict disease free survival (DFS in patients undergoing a radical resection for their colorectal liver metastases (CRLM. METHODS: Tumor gene expression profiles were collected from 119 patients undergoing surgery for their CRLM in the Paul Brousse Hospital (France and the University Medical Center Utrecht (The Netherlands. Patients were divided into high and low risk groups. A randomly selected training set was used to find predictive gene signatures. The ability of these gene signatures to predict DFS was tested in an independent validation set comprising the remaining patients. Furthermore, 5 known clinical risk scores were tested in our complete patient cohort. RESULT: No gene signature was found that significantly predicted DFS in the validation set. In contrast, three out of five clinical risk scores were able to predict DFS in our patient cohort. CONCLUSIONS: No gene signature was found that could predict DFS in patients undergoing CRLM resection. Three out of five clinical risk scores were able to predict DFS in our patient cohort. These results emphasize the need for validating risk scores in independent patient groups and suggest improved designs for future studies.

  3. Chemo-Immunotherapy Using Lentinan for the Treatment of Gastric Cancer with Liver Metastases

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    Kenji Ina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy is the main treatment option for advanced gastric cancer when the tumor is inoperable. Despite recent advances in chemotherapeutic agents, the prognosis of unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer remains extremely poor. In Japan, combination therapy including S-1 and cisplatin is the standard first-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer; however, the five-year survival rate remains very low. Lentinan, the backbone of beta-(1,3-glucan with beta-(1,6 branches, an active ingredient purified from Shiitake mushrooms, has been approved as a biological response modifier for the treatment of gastric cancer. This agent has been used in combination with oral fluoropyrimidines to improve the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. A retrospective chart review on 138 metastatic gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy was performed in Nagoya Memorial Hospital from 1 September 2010 to 31 August 2015. 12 patients with liver metastases were treated by lentinan in combination with S-1-based chemotherapy. The rate of objective response was 42% (5/12 and the disease control rate was 83% (10/12 in response to chemo-immunotherapy using lentinan, with a median overall survival of 407 days (95% CI: 207–700 days.

  4. Perfusion CT Changes in Liver Metastases from Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors During Everolimus Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mirko; Cingarlini, Sara; Ortolani, Silvia; Crosara, Stefano; DE Robertis, Riccardo; Vallerio, Paola; Grego, Elisabetta; Ciaravino, Valentina; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Landoni, Luca; Scarpa, Aldo; Bassi, Claudio; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate modifications of perfusional parameters assessed by perfusion computed tomography (P-CT) of liver metastases (LM) from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) during everolimus treatment. All patients with LMs from G1-2 PanNETs undergoing everolimus treatment between January 2013 and January 2015 were prospectively evaluated with P-CT at baseline, and after 2 and 4 months of therapy. Size, perfusion, blood volume (BV), peak enhancement intensity (PEI) and time to peak for each lesion were calculated. A total of 33 LMs in nine patients with G1-2 PanNETs were prospectively evaluated: 23/33 (69.7%) were responders, 10/33 (30.3%) were non-responders. Among perfusional parameters, only numerical peak enhancement intensity values significantly differed between the two groups at baseline (p=0.043). BV increase was the most significant perfusional modification identifying responding lesions, even at an early stage of treatment, with a high positive predictive value (89.47%). P-CT seems to be useful for prediction of response to everolimus of LMs from PanNETs. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Alterations in IQGAP1 expression and localization in colorectal carcinoma and liver metastases following oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotoli, Deborah; Morales, Manuel; Maeso, María Del Carmen; García, María Del Pino; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Valladares, Francisco; Ávila, Julio; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Mobasheri, Ali; Martín-Vasallo, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    IQGAP1 is a scaffolding protein that serves a key role in cell dynamics by integrating internal and external stimuli to distinct signal outputs. Previous studies have identified several genes that are significantly up- or downregulated in the peripheral white cells (PWCs) of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC), who underwent oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (CT). In addition, screening studies have reported that IQ-motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) transcriptional expression levels varied from ‘off’ to ‘on’ following oxaliplatin CT. In order to determine if variations previously described in PWCs are able to be observed at the protein level in tumors and in metastases following CT, the present study performed an immunohistochemical analysis of IQGAP1 in CRC and primary metastases. IQGAP1 expression was observed in the nuclear envelope and in lateral cell membranes and cytoplasm in normal colon tissue. However, in tumor tissue, cells exhibited a diffuse pattern, with variable expression levels of staining in the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm, with the highest expression intensity observed at the invasive front. In healthy and metastasized liver tissue and in the metastases themselves, expression levels varied from cell to cell from no expression to a high level. In the majority of cells, IQGAP1 co-localized with microtubules at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope. Strong positive expression was observed in areas of the lesion where cells were detaching from the lesion into the lumen. Despite the homogeneous IQGAP1 staining pattern observed in healthy colon tissue sections, CRC demonstrated heterogeneity in staining, which was more marked in metastasized liver tissue resected following CT. However, the most notable findings were the observed effects on the cellular and subcellular distribution and its implications for cancer biology. These results suggest that IQGAP1 may be a putative biomarker, a candidate for clinical

  6. A meta-analysis of diffusion-weighted and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging for the detection of liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilgrain, Valerie; Ronot, Maxime [University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); INSERM U1149, Centre de Recherche Biomedicale Bichat-Beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); Esvan, Maxime; Caumont-Prim, Aurore [Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, Unite d' Epidemiologie et de Recherche Clinique, Paris (France); INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique 1418, module Epidemiologie Clinique, Paris (France); Aube, Christophe [CHU d' Angers, Department of Radiology, Angers (France); Universite d' Angers, Laboratoire HIFIH, LUNAM, Angers (France); Chatellier, Gilles [Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, Unite d' Epidemiologie et de Recherche Clinique, Paris (France); INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique 1418, module Epidemiologie Clinique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France)

    2016-12-15

    To obtain the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted (DW) and gadoxetic-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of liver metastases. A comprehensive search (EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane) was performed to identify relevant articles up to June 2015. Inclusion criteria were: liver metastases, DW-MR imaging and/or gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging, and per-lesion statistics. The reference standard was histopathology, intraoperative observation and/or follow-up. Sources of bias were assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. A linear mixed-effect regression model was used to obtain sensitivity estimates. Thirty-nine articles were included (1,989 patients, 3,854 metastases). Sensitivity estimates for DW-MR imaging, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and the combined sequence for detecting liver metastases on a per-lesion basis was 87.1 %, 90.6 % and 95.5 %, respectively. Sensitivity estimates by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and the combined sequence were significantly better than DW-MR imaging (p = 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively), and the combined MR sequence was significantly more sensitive than gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging (p < 0.0001). Similar results were observed in articles that compared the three techniques simultaneously, with only colorectal liver metastases and in liver metastases smaller than 1 cm. In patients with liver metastases, combined DW-MR and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging has the highest sensitivity for detecting liver metastases on a per-lesion basis. (orig.)

  7. The impact of fluor-18-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in the management of colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiering, Bastiaan; Krabbe, Paul F M; Jager, Gerrit J; Oyen, Wim J G; Ruers, Theo J M

    2005-12-15

    Fluor-18-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has emerged as a promising diagnostic modality in recurrent colorectal carcinoma. Whole-body FDG-PET may be an accurate diagnostic modality to determine whether patients with recurrent hepatic disease are suitable candidates for curative resection. Reports on the use of FDG-PET in patients with recurrent colorectal carcinoma are scarce, especially those on colorectal liver metastases. To assess the usefulness of this emerging modality for the selection of patients to undergo resection for colorectal liver metastases, a systematic (meta)-analysis of the current literature was conducted. In the absence of randomized controlled clinical trials, a traditional meta-analysis could not be performed. An alternative strategy was designed to evaluate the current literature. After a literature search, an index score was devised to evaluate the articles with regard to the impact of FDG-PET in patients with colorectal liver metastases. The index scored articles on several items and, as such, could be considered an objective approach for the assessment of diagnostic, nonrandomized clinical trials. The proposed index proved to be an independent instrument for judging several research questions and was used systematically to address the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical impact of FDG-PET in patients with colorectal liver metastases. For FDG-PET, the pooled sensitivity and specificity results were 88.0% and 96.1%, respectively, for hepatic disease and 91.5% and 95.4%, respectively, for extrahepatic disease. For the 6 articles that reported the highest scores on the index, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for hepatic metastatic disease were 79.9% and 92.3%, respectively, and 91.2% and 98.4%, respectively, for extrahepatic disease, respectively. For computed tomography, the pooled sensitivity and specificity results were 82.7% and 84.1%, respectively, for hepatic lesions and 60.9% and 91.1%, respectively, for

  8. Comparison of CT during arterial portography and MR during arterial portography in the detection of liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosch, W P; Schmidt, S M; Plaza, S; Dechow, C; Schmidt, J; Ley, S; Kauffmann, G W; Hansmann, J

    2006-06-01

    This study compared MR during arterial portography (MRAP) with CT during arterial portography (CTAP) with regard to the detection and differentiation of liver metastases before surgery. Fifteen patients with liver metastases were enrolled before surgery according to the guidelines of our institutional review board and good clinical practice. After mesentericography, unenhanced scans (Volume Zoom) were performed initially. For CTAP, the contrast medium was injected through the superior mesenteric artery. Images were acquired in portal and delayed enhancement. The MR protocol (1.5 T; Magnetom Symphony) started with T1-weighted fast low-angle shot (FLASH) T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE). MRAP followed with gadolinium-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted 3D FLASH. Delayed-phase T1-weighted 2D FLASH axial images were performed 2 min after IV injection of the contrast medium. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of CTAP and MRAP was performed by three blinded radiologists regarding the number of lesions and their size, localization, and differential diagnosis. The overall sensitivity in detecting liver metastases was 97% with MRAP and 93% with CTAP (p > 0.05, not significant [n.s.]). The specificity was calculated to be 97% for MRAP and 82% for CTAP (p 0.05, n.s.), for which the respective specificities were 95% and 80% (p < 0.0014, s.s.). Improvements in sensitivity and specificity were associated with a higher lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (59.4 +/- 51.0 for MRAP vs 10.4 +/- 7.3 for CTAP) and resulted in higher diagnostic confidence in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions (p < 0.001, s.s.) and better interobserver agreement (median kappa value, 0.88 vs 0.63). MRAP proved to be a reliable method in the preoperative detection of small liver metastases in particular, with a higher sensitivity and specificity than CTAP. If organizational difficulties of MRAP can be overcome, MRAP could be considered instead of CTAP in the preoperative invasive evaluation of

  9. Microvessel density and endothelial cell proliferation levels in colorectal liver metastases from patients given neo-adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy and bevacizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl; Engelholm, Lars Henning; Willemoe, Gro L.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastasis has improved significantly and first line therapy is often combined chemotherapy and bevacizumab, although it is unknown who responds to this regimen. Colorectal liver metastases grow in different histological growth patterns showing...... differences in angiogenesis. To identify possible response markers, histological markers of angiogenesis were assessed. Patients who underwent resection of colorectal liver metastasis at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark from 2007 to 2011 were included (n = 254) including untreated and patients treated...... with chemotherapy or chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. The resected liver metastases were characterised with respect to growth pattern, endothelial and tumour cell proliferation as well as microvessel density and tumour regression. Tumour regression grade of liver metastases differed significantly between untreated...

  10. Two distinct expression patterns of urokinase, urokinase receptor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in colon cancer liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illemann, Martin; Bird, Nigel; Majeed, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic growth and invasion by colon cancer cells in the liver requires the ability of the cancer cells to interact with the new tissue environment. Plasmin(ogen) is activated on cell surfaces by urokinase-type PA (uPA), and is regulated by uPAR and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1......). To compare the expression patterns of uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 in colon cancer with that in their liver metastases, we analysed matched samples from 14 patients. In all 14 primary colon cancers, we found upregulation of uPAR, uPA mRNA and PAI-1 in primarily stromal cells at the invasive front. In 5 of the 14......, whereas 8 of the remaining 9 showed direct contact between the cancer cells and the liver parenchyma. We conclude that there are 2 distinct patterns of expression of uPAR, uPA and PAI-1 in colon cancer liver metastases and that these correlate closely with 2 morphological growth patterns. These findings...

  11. HLA-G and classical HLA class I expression in primary colorectal cancer and associated liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swets, Marloes; König, Marion H; Zaalberg, Anniek; Dekker-Ensink, Neeltje G; Gelderblom, Hans; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; van den Elsen, Peter J; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2016-09-01

    De novo expression of HLA-G has been demonstrated in colorectal cancer. HLA-G, amongst others, inhibits natural killer cell function, contributing to host immune defense evasion. Another mechanism to escape anti-tumor immunity is loss of HLA class I. Therefore, we determined HLA-G and HLA class I expression on primary colorectal tumors and associated liver metastases, in order to get insight in the metastasizing process regarding escaping anti-tumor immunity. HLA-G expression was evaluated using three mAbs; 4H84, MEM-G/1 and MEM-G/2. In total 81 colorectal cancer patients were evaluated. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of primary tumors and associated liver metastases, were immunohistochemically stained. A concordance between expression or loss/downregulation in the primary tumor and associated liver metastasis regarding HLA class I expression was observed in 80% of the cases. In contrast with the hypothesis of escaping NK cell-killing, we demonstrated for each HLA-G detecting mAbs used in this study, that the majority of the primary tumors that positively stained for HLA-G did not express HLA-G in the associated liver metastasis. Furthermore, we revealed the existence of non-specific binding and in addition we found that the different epitopes of HLA-G detected by 4H84, MEM-G/1 and MEM-G/2 mAbs were expressed differentially in colorectal tumor tissues. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy an Attractive Option for Unresectable Liver Metastases? A Preliminary Report From a Phase 2 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorsetti, Marta; Arcangeli, Stefano; Tozzi, Angelo; Comito, Tiziana [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Alongi, Filippo, E-mail: filippo.alongi@humanitas.it [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Navarria, Pierina; Mancosu, Pietro; Reggiori, Giacomo [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Fogliata, Antonella [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Torzilli, Guido [Surgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Tomatis, Stefano [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Cozzi, Luca [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of high-dose stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of unresectable liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Patients with 1 to 3 liver metastases, with maximum individual tumor diameters less than 6 cm and a Karnofsky Performance Status of at least 70, were enrolled and treated by SBRT on a phase 2 clinical trial. Dose prescription was 75 Gy on 3 consecutive days. SBRT was delivered using the volumetric modulated arc therapy by RapidArc (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) technique. The primary end-point was in-field local control. Secondary end-points were toxicity and survival. Results: Between February 2010 and September 2011, a total of 61 patients with 76 lesions were treated. Among the patients, 21 (34.3%) had stable extrahepatic disease at study entry. The most frequent primary sites were colorectal (45.9%) and breast (18%). Of the patients, 78.7% had 1 lesion, 18.0% had 2 lesions, and 3.3% had 3 lesions. After a median of 12 months (range, 2-26 months), the in-field local response rate was 94%. The median overall survival rate was 19 months, and actuarial survival at 12 months was 83.5%. None of the patients experienced grade 3 or higher acute toxicity. No radiation-induced liver disease was detected. One patient experienced G3 late toxicity at 6 months, resulting from chest wall pain. Conclusions: SBRT for unresectable liver metastases can be considered an effective, safe, and noninvasive therapeutic option, with excellent rates of local control and a low treatment-related toxicity.

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of liver metastases: biodistribution studies of boron compounds in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J; Heber, Elisa M; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Cardoso, Jorge E; Colombo, Lucas L; Nievas, Susana; Nigg, David W; Aromando, Romina F; Itoiz, Maria E; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2011-03-01

    We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of (10)B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na(2)(10)B(10)H(10)), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  14. Augmented Reality Guidance for the Resection of Missing Colorectal Liver Metastases: An Initial Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntourakis, Dimitrios; Memeo, Ricardo; Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Modern chemotherapy achieves the shrinking of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM) to such extent that they may disappear from radiological imaging. Disappearing CRLM rarely represents a complete pathological remission and have an important risk of recurrence. Augmented reality (AR) consists in the fusion of real-time patient images with a computer-generated 3D virtual patient model created from pre-operative medical imaging. The aim of this prospective pilot study is to investigate the potential of AR navigation as a tool to help locate and surgically resect missing CRLM. A 3D virtual anatomical model was created from thoracoabdominal CT-scans using customary software (VR RENDER(®), IRCAD). The virtual model was superimposed to the operative field using an Exoscope (VITOM(®), Karl Storz, Tüttlingen, Germany). Virtual and real images were manually registered in real-time using a video mixer, based on external anatomical landmarks with an estimated accuracy of 5 mm. This modality was tested in three patients, with four missing CRLM that had sizes from 12 to 24 mm, undergoing laparotomy after receiving pre-operative oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. AR display and fine registration was performed within 6 min. AR helped detect all four missing CRLM, and guided their resection. In all cases the planned security margin of 1 cm was clear and resections were confirmed to be R0 by pathology. There was no postoperative major morbidity or mortality. No local recurrence occurred in the follow-up period of 6-22 months. This initial experience suggests that AR may be a helpful navigation tool for the resection of missing CRLM.

  15. Inhibition of mammary tumor growth and metastases to bone and liver by dietary grape polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Martínez, Joel E; Wall, Kristin M; Cubano, Luis A; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie

    2009-01-01

    The cancer preventive properties of grape products such as red wine have been attributed to polyphenols enriched in red wine. However, much of the studies on cancer preventive mechanisms of grape polyphenols have been conducted with individual compounds at concentrations too high to be achieved via dietary consumption. We recently reported that combined grape polyphenols at physiologically relevant concentrations are more effective than individual compounds at inhibition of ERalpha(-), ERbeta(+) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and primary mammary tumor growth (Schlachterman et al., Transl Oncol 1:19-27, 2008). Herein, we show that combined grape polyphenols induce apoptosis and are more effective than individual resveratrol, quercetin, or catechin at inhibition of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell migration in the highly metastatic ER (-) MDA-MB-435 cell line. The combined effect of dietary grape polyphenols (5 mg/kg each resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin) was tested on progression of mammary tumors in nude mice created from green fluorescent protein-tagged MDA-MB-435 bone metastatic variant. Fluorescence image analysis of primary tumor growth demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in tumor area by dietary grape polyphenols. Molecular analysis of excised tumors demonstrated that reduced mammary tumor growth may be due to upregulation of FOXO1 (forkhead box O1) and NFKBIA (IkappaBalpha), thus activating apoptosis and potentially inhibiting NfkappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) activity. Image analysis of distant organs for metastases demonstrated that grape polyphenols reduced metastasis especially to liver and bone. Overall, these results indicate that combined dietary grape polyphenols are effective at inhibition of mammary tumor growth and site-specific metastasis.

  16. Embryonic origin of primary colon cancer predicts survival in patients undergoing ablation for colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Odisio, B C; Huang, S Y; Kopetz, S E; Ahrar, K; Chun, Y S; Conrad, C; Aloia, T A; Gupta, S; Harmoush, S; Hicks, M E; Vauthey, J-N

    2017-06-01

    In patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC) or unresectable metastatic CRC, midgut embryonic origin is associated with worse prognosis. The impact of embryonic origin on survival after ablation of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) is unclear. We identified 74 patients with CLM who underwent percutaneous ablation during 2004-2015. Survival and recurrence after ablation of CLM from midgut origin (n = 18) and hindgut origin (n = 56) were analyzed. Prognostic value of embryonic origin was evaluated. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after percutaneous ablation were worse in patients from midgut origin (3-year RFS: 5.6% vs. 24%, P = 0.004; 3-year OS: 25% vs. 70%, P 0.001). In multivariable analysis, factors associated with worse OS were midgut origin (hazard ratio [HR] 4.87, 95% CI 2.14-10.9, P 0.001), multiple CLM (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.02-5.39, P = 0.044), and RAS mutation (HR 2.78, 95% CI 1.25-6.36, P = 0.013). At a median follow-up of 25 months, 56 patients (76%) had developed recurrence, 16 (89%) with midgut origin and 40 (71%) with hindgut origin (P = 0.133). Recurrent disease was treated with local therapy in 20 patients (36%), 2 (13%) with midgut origin and 18 (45%) with hindgut origin (P = 0.022). Compared to CLM from hindgut origin tumors, CLM from midgut origin tumors were associated with worse survival after ablation, which was partly attributable to the fact that patients with hindgut origin were more frequently candidates for local therapy at recurrence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for colorectal cancer liver metastases: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhe Weng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No randomized controlled trial (RCT has yet been performed to provide the evidence to clarify the therapeutic debate on liver resection (LR and radiofrequency ablation (RFA in treating colorectal liver metastases (CLM. The meta-analysis was performed to summarize the evidence mostly from retrospective clinical trials and to investigate the effect of LR and RFA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Systematic literature search of clinical studies was carried out to compare RFA and LR for CLM in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library Central databases. The meta-analysis was performed using risk ratio (RR and random effect model, in which 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for RR were calculated. Primary outcomes were the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS at 3 and 5 years plus mortality and morbidity. 1 prospective study and 12 retrospective studies were finally eligible for meta-analysis. LR was significantly superior to RFA in 3 -year OS (RR 1.377, 95% CI: 1.246-1.522; 5-year OS (RR: 1.474, 95%CI: 1.284-1.692; 3-year DFS (RR 1.735, 95% CI: 1.483-2.029 and 5-year DFS (RR 2.227, 95% CI: 1.823-2.720. The postoperative morbidity was higher in LR (RR: 2.495, 95% CI: 1.881-3.308, but no significant difference was found in mortality between LR and RFA. The data from the 3 subgroups (tumor<3 cm; solitary tumor; open surgery or laparoscopic approach showed significantly better OS and DFS in patients who received surgical resection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: Although multiple confounders exist in the clinical trials especially the bias in patient selection, LR was significantly superior to RFA in the treatment of CLM, even when conditions limited to tumor<3 cm, solitary tumor and open surgery or laparoscopic (lap approach. Therefore, caution should be taken when treating CLM with RFA before more supportive evidences for RFA from RCTs are obtained.

  18. Conversion Therapy Using mFOLFOX6 With Panitumumab for Unresectable Liver Metastases From Multiple Colorectal Cancers With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Kitajima, Takahito; Okigami, Masato; Kawamura, Mikio; Kawamoto, Aya; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Jyunichiro; Tanaka, Koji; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old man received a diagnosis of unresectable multiple liver metastases from multiple colorectal cancers with familial adenomatous polyposis. After construction of an ileostomy, modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) with panitumumab was administrated because rectal cancer and sigmoid colon cancer are KRAS wild type. The 13 courses of chemotherapy resulted in a marked reduction in the size of liver metastases and sigmoid colon cancer. Consequently, curative resection with total colectomy, ileal pouch anal anastomosis, and liver metastasis resection with radiofrequency ablation was performed. Progression of KRAS wild-type rectal cancer after chemotherapy suggested that each clone from rectal and sigmoid colon cancer might have a different sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed loss of PTEN expression in rectal cancer compared with liver metastases from sigmoid colon cancer, showing that the difference of mFOLFOX6 with panitumumab might be related to activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway.

  19. Gadopentetate dimeglumine and FDG uptake in liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma as determined with MR imaging and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Wiering, Bastiaan; Lok, Jasper; Rijpkema, Mark; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Krabbe, Paul F M; Ruers, Theo; Punt, Cornelis J A; van der Kogel, Albert J; Oyen, Wim J G; Heerschap, Arend

    2005-10-01

    To examine the in vivo relationship between fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, as measured with positron emission tomography (PET), and functional tumor vasculature, as measured with dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, in patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer. All patients provided written informed consent, and the study was approved by the institutional review board. A total of 26 patients (12 men and 14 women; mean age, 59 years) who were suspected of having liver metastases of histologically proved colorectal cancer and underwent work-up for liver metastasectomy were included. Patients underwent whole-body FDG PET, and tumor-to-nontumor ratio of FDG uptake in metastases was calculated. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed, and the rate constant k(ep) (s(-1)) of gadopentetate dimeglumine uptake in metastases was determined. Pimonidazole was used to determine tumor hypoxia and vascular density of metastases. To assess the relationship between FDG uptake, rate constant k(ep) of gadopentetate dimeglumine uptake, hypoxic fraction, and vascular density, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. Negative correlation between tumor-to-nontumor ratio of FDG uptake and rate constant k(ep) was observed (r = -0.421, P = .082). No correlation between tumor hypoxia and tumor-to-nontumor ratio of FDG uptake or rate constant k(ep) was found. A positive correlation was observed between vascular density and rate constant k(ep) (r = 0.458, P = .034) but not between tumor-to-nontumor ratio of FDG uptake. Negative correlation between tumor-to-nontumor ratio of FDG uptake and rate constant k(ep) suggests that lower values of gadopentetate dimeglumine uptake imply an acutely reduced supply of oxygen, which necessitates a higher uptake of glucose to maintain tumor energy levels. The positive correlation of vascular density with rate constant k(ep), but not with tumor-to-nontumor ratio of FDG uptake

  20. Specific genomic aberrations in primary colorectal cancer are associated with liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, S.C.; Klijn, C.N.; Liefers, G.J.; Braaf, L.M.; Joosse, S.A.; Van Beers, E.H.; Verwaal, V.J.; Morreau, H.; Wessels, L.F.; Van Velthuysen, M.L.F.; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Van 't Veer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Accurate staging of colorectal cancer (CRC) with clinicopathological parameters is important for predicting prognosis and guiding treatment but provides no information about organ site of metastases. Patterns of genomic aberrations in primary colorectal tumors may reveal a chromosomal

  1. Clinical effect of systemic chemotherapy combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in treatment of breast cancer with liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Liye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effect of systemic chemotherapy combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE in the treatment of breast cancer with liver metastases. MethodsA total of 86 female breast cancer patients with liver metastases who were treated in the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences from December 2012 to December 2014 were selected and equally divided into experimental group and control group. The patients in the control group received systemic chemotherapy, and those in the experimental group received systemic chemotherapy combined with TACE. The clinical effect, changes in lesions, and patients′ quality of life (QOL scores after treatment were compared between two groups. The t-test was applied for comparison of continuous data between the two groups, and the chi-square test was applied for comparison of categorical data between the two groups. ResultsThe experimental group had a significantly higher overall response rate than the control group (90.70% vs 58.14%, χ2=13.07, P=0.001. Compared with the control group, the experimental group had significantly smaller diameters of tumors and lymph nodes after treatment (t=4.26 and 4.63, both P<0.001, as well as significantly higher QOL scores at 3 and 6 months after treatment (t=6.30 and 3.89, both P<0001. ConclusionSystemic chemotherapy combined with TACE has a significant therapeutic effect in breast cancer patients with liver metastases, and can improve patients′ symptoms, reduce adverse drug reactions, and improve QOL. As a safe and reliable therapeutic method, it is worthy of clinical application.

  2. Comparison of Macroscopic Pathology Measurements With Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Assessment of Microscopic Pathology Extension for Colorectal Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Romero, Alejandra, E-mail: a.mendezromero@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Verheij, Joanne [Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dwarkasing, Roy S. [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Seppenwoolde, Yvette [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Redekop, William K. [Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zondervan, Pieter E. [Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Nowak, Peter J.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ijzermans, Jan N.M. [Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Verhoef, Cornelis [Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare pathology macroscopic tumor dimensions with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements and to establish the microscopic tumor extension of colorectal liver metastases. Methods and Materials: In a prospective pilot study we included patients with colorectal liver metastases planned for surgery and eligible for MRI. A liver MRI was performed within 48 hours before surgery. Directly after surgery, an MRI of the specimen was acquired to measure the degree of tumor shrinkage. The specimen was fixed in formalin for 48 hours, and another MRI was performed to assess the specimen/tumor shrinkage. All MRI sequences were imported into our radiotherapy treatment planning system, where the tumor and the specimen were delineated. For the macroscopic pathology analyses, photographs of the sliced specimens were used to delineate and reconstruct the tumor and the specimen volumes. Microscopic pathology analyses were conducted to assess the infiltration depth of tumor cell nests. Results: Between February 2009 and January 2010 we included 13 patients for analysis with 21 colorectal liver metastases. Specimen and tumor shrinkage after resection and fixation was negligible. The best tumor volume correlations between MRI and pathology were found for T1-weighted (w) echo gradient sequence (r{sub s} = 0.99, slope = 1.06), and the T2-w fast spin echo (FSE) single-shot sequence (r{sub s} = 0.99, slope = 1.08), followed by the T2-w FSE fat saturation sequence (r{sub s} = 0.99, slope = 1.23), and the T1-w gadolinium-enhanced sequence (r{sub s} = 0.98, slope = 1.24). We observed 39 tumor cell nests beyond the tumor border in 12 metastases. Microscopic extension was found between 0.2 and 10 mm from the main tumor, with 90% of the cases within 6 mm. Conclusions: MRI tumor dimensions showed a good agreement with the macroscopic pathology suggesting that MRI can be used for accurate tumor delineation. However, microscopic extensions found beyond the tumor border indicate

  3. Phase II trial of selective internal radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy for liver-predominant metastases from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Peter; Do, Cuong; Lipton, Lara; Cade, David N; Tapner, Michael J; Price, David; Bower, Geoff D; Dowling, Richard; Lichtenstein, Meir; van Hazel, Guy A

    2015-10-26

    This prospective, open-label phase II study assessed the impact of liver-directed therapy with selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) and systemic chemotherapy on progression-free survival (PFS) in liver-dominant metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients received yttrium-90-labelled ((90)Y) resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex Medical Limited, Sydney, Australia) as a single procedure on day 2 of the first weekly cycle of 5-fluorouracil (5FU; 600 mg/m(2)) with the option to switch to gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2)) after 8 weeks of 5FU. Statistical analysis was conducted using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, USA). The primary endpoint of the study was PFS in the liver, with a median of ≥ 16 weeks defined as the threshold for clinical significance. PFS and overall survival (OS) were summarised by the Kaplan-Meier method using non-parametric estimates of the survivor function. Fourteen eligible patients were enrolled; ten had primary tumour in situ and eight had liver-only metastases. Patients received a median (90)Y activity of 1.1 GBq and 8 weekly doses of 5FU; seven patients received a median of two doses of gemcitabine. Disease control in the liver was 93% (two confirmed partial responses [PR], one unconfirmed PR, ten stable disease). Median reduction in cancer antigen 19-9 was 72%. Median PFS was 5.2 months in the liver, which met the primary endpoint of the study, and 4.4 months at any site. PFS was prolonged in those with a resected primary compared with patients with primary in situ (median 7.8 vs. 3.4 months; p = 0.017). Median OS was 5.5 months overall and 13.6 months in patients with a resected primary. Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in eight (57%) patients during days 0-60. There was one sudden death and another patient who died from possible treatment-related liver failure 7.0 months after SIRT. SIRT and chemotherapy appears to be an effective treatment for liver metastases from pancreatic cancer, likely to be of

  4. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Metastases from Neuroendocrine Tumours: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Garnon, Julien; Ramamurthy, Nitin; Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Imperiale, Alessio; Namer, Izzie Jacques; Bachellier, Philippe; Caudrelier, Jean; Rao, Pramod; Koch, Guillaume; Gangi, Afshin

    2016-09-01

    To review our preliminary experience with 6-L-18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET/CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Three patients (mean age 51.3 years; range 43-56) with gastro-entero pancreatic NET (GEP-NET) liver metastases underwent 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided RFA. Patients were referred with oligometastatic hepatic-confined disease (1-6 metastases; visualisation on US, CT, and MR; and ongoing symptoms. Procedures were performed in an interventional PET/CT scanner under general anaesthesia using a split-dose protocol. Lesion characteristics, procedural duration and technical success (accurate probe placement and post-procedural ablation-zone photopaenia), complications, patient and operator dose, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Thirteen liver metastases (mean size 11.4 mm, range 8-16) were treated in three patients (two presented with "carcinoid syndrome"). Technical success was 100 % with a mean procedural duration of 173.3 min (range 90-210) and no immediate complications. Mean patient dose was 2844 mGy·cm (range 2104-3686). Operator and radiographer doses were acceptable other than the operator's right hand in the first case (149 µSv); this normalised in the second case. There was no local tumour or extra-hepatic disease progression at mid-term follow-up (mean 12.6 months; range 6-20); however, two cases progressed with new liver metastases at different sites. There was 100 % clinical success (n = 2) in resolving carcinoid syndrome symptoms. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided RFA appears technically feasible, safe, and effective in patients with GEP-NETs and low-burden hepatic metastases. Further prospective studies are required to elucidate its precise role in tailored multimodality management of GEP-NET liver metastases.

  5. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver metastases from colorectal cancer: analysis of safety, feasibility, and early outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Adele Sorel Kress

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the 3rd leading cause of cancer-related death in the U.S. Many patients with CRC develop hepatic metastases as the sole site of metastases. Historical treatment options were limited to resection or conventional radiation therapy. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT has emerged as a rational treatment approach. This study reviews our experience with SBRT for patients with liver metastases from CRC.Material and Methods: Fourteen histologically confirmed hepatic CRC metastases in 11 consecutive patients were identified between November, 2004 and June, 2009 at Georgetown University. All patients underwent CT-based treatment planning; a few also had MRI or PET/CT. All patients had fiducial markers placed under CT guidance and were treated using the CyberKnife system. Treatment response and toxicities were examined; survival and local control were evaluated.Results: Most patients were treated to a single hepatic lesion (n=8, with a few treated to 2 lesions (n=3. Median treatment volume was 99.7 cm3, and lesions were treated to a median BED10 of 49.7 Gy (range: 28 – 100.8 Gy. Median follow-up was 21 months; median survival was 16.1 months, with 2-year actuarial survival of 25.7%. One-year local control was 72%. Among patients with post-treatment imaging, 8 had stable disease (80% and 2 had progressive disease (20% at first follow-up. The most common grade 1-2 acute toxicities included nausea and alterations in liver function tests; there was one grade 3 toxicity (elevated bilirubin, and no grade 4-5 toxicities.Discussion: SBRT is safe and feasible for the treatment of limited hepatic metastases from CRC. Our results compare favorably with outcomes from previous studies of SBRT. Further studies are needed to better define patient eligibility, study the role of combined modality treatment, optimize treatment parameters, and characterize quality of life after treatment.

  6. Introduction of the resection severity index as independent risk factor limiting survival after resection of colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiasda, Jill; Schrem, Harald; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Mahlmann, Jan; Mix, Heiko; Lehner, Frank; Kayser, Nicolas; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Kulik, Ulf

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the recently introduced resection severity index (RSI) in patients with liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma on survival after resection of colorectal liver metastases. The RSI quantifies pre-operatively the liver cellular damage, liver synthetic function and loss of organ parenchyma. All consecutive patients who underwent liver resection for metastases of colorectal cancer (CLM) between 2000 and 2015 were included in this study. Risk factors limiting survival were analyzed using univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses. The median survival after liver resection for CLM was 3.0 years. Significant independent risk factors for mortality were the RSI (p = 0.029; hazard ratio (HR): 1.088, 95%-confidence interval (95%-CI): 1.009-1.174), age at resection in years (p = 0.001; HR: 1.017, 95%-CI: 1.007-1.027), pre-operative hemoglobin level (p = 0.041; HR: 0.932, 95%-CI: 0.891-0.997), the cecum as location of primary CRC (p < 0.001; HR: 2.023, 95%-CI: 1.403-2.833), adjuvant chemotherapy (p < 0.001; HR: 1.506, 95%-CI: 1.212-1.878), local relapse of the primary tumor (p = 0.027; HR: 1.591, 95%-CI: 1.057-2.297), the units of intra-operatively transfused packed red blood cells (p < 0.001; HR: 1.068, 95%-CI: 1.033-1.104), the size of the largest metastasis (p = 0.002; HR: 1.005, 95%-CI: 1.002-1.008) and the metastasis' distance to the resection margin (p = 0.014; HR: 0.984, 95%-CI: 0.972-0.997). The RSI is an independent prognostic factor for survival after liver resection for CLM. Besides the extent of liver resection certain primary tumor characteristics have to be taken into account to ensure long-term survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for a recurrent metastasis after resection of liver metastases from an ileal clear-cell sarcoma: Long-term local tumor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Wook Seo, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clear-cell sarcomas (CCSs in the gastrointestinal tract are extremely rare and aggressive tumors. We present the first case of a CCS arising in the ileum and metastasizing to the liver; our patient was a 60-year-old man. After the resection of the CCS and the liver metastases, a new liver metastasis developed, which was treated via percutaneous radiofrequency ablation only. At the 5-year follow-up, the ablated region was stable without local tumor progression. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation is a viable local treatment option for recurrent metastases from an ileal CCS if they are detected when small and at an early stage in follow-up studies.

  8. Transcriptional Profiling of Breast Cancer Metastases Identifies Liver Metastasis-Selective Genes Associated with Adverse Outcome in Luminal A Primary Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbung, Siker; Johansson, Ida; Danielsson, Anna; Veerla, Srinivas; Egyhazi Brage, Suzanne; Frostvik Stolt, Marianne; Skoog, Lambert; Carlsson, Lena; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Lidbrink, Elisabet; Linderholm, Barbro; Loman, Niklas; Malmström, Per-Olof; Söderberg, Martin; Walz, Thomas M; Fernö, Mårten; Hatschek, Thomas; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The complete molecular basis of the organ-specificity of metastasis is elusive. This study aimed to provide an independent characterization of the transcriptional landscape of breast cancer metastases with the specific objective to identify liver metastasis-selective genes of prognostic importance following primary tumor diagnosis. A cohort of 304 women with advanced breast cancer was studied. Associations between the site of recurrence and clinicopathologic features were investigated. Fine-needle aspirates of metastases (n = 91) were subjected to whole-genome transcriptional profiling. Liver metastasis-selective genes were identified by significance analysis of microarray (SAM) analyses and independently validated in external datasets. Finally, the prognostic relevance of the liver metastasis-selective genes in primary breast cancer was tested. Liver relapse was associated with estrogen receptor (ER) expression (P = 0.002), luminal B subtype (P = 0.01), and was prognostic for an inferior postrelapse survival (P = 0.01). The major variation in the transcriptional landscape of metastases was also associated with ER expression and molecular subtype. However, liver metastases displayed unique transcriptional fingerprints, characterized by downregulation of extracellular matrix (i.e., stromal) genes. Importantly, we identified a 17-gene liver metastasis-selective signature, which was significantly and independently prognostic for shorter relapse-free (P breast cancer by site of relapse and may be used to further refine prognostication in ER positive primary breast cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Can contrast-enhanced ultrasonography replace multidetector-computed tomography in the detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars P.S.; Rosenkilde, Mona; Christensen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    consecutive patients referred to the Department of Colorectal Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital with primary or local recurrence of CRC. The patients underwent liver ultrasonography (US), CEUS, MDCT and intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS). Fine-needle biopsy was performed on all suspicious lesions......PURPOSE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and 4-slice multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Candidates for this prospective study were 461....... The examinations were interpreted blindly and the combination of US, CEUS, biphasic MDCT, IOUS, follow up and biopsy was the gold standard. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty-five patients were included. All patients had undergone preoperative US, CEUS and MDCT and 65.5% had received IOUS. The gold standard found...

  10. [A Case Report on a Successful Resection after FOLFIRI plus Cetuximab Therapy for Unresectable Colorectal Cancer with Multiple Liver Metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Min; Kurumiya, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Keisuke; Sekoguchi, Ei; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukami, Yasuyuki; Kiriyama, Muneyasu; Aoyama, Hiroki; Oiwa, Takashi; Miyamura, Kei; Jinno, Takanori; Nakashima, Yu; Mori, Makiko

    2017-05-01

    The patient was a 66-year-old woman with a history of right breast cancer 20 years prior. Her chief complaint was hematochezia, and she was diagnosed as having rectal cancer. She underwent laparoscopic high anterior resection. We made a diagnosis of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, type 2, 25×20 mm, pMP, pN0, Stage I, KRAS being wild-type. Multiple liver metastases were detected 6 months after the surgery. Tumor contacted with grison. The tumor was not completely resected as evidenced by the small liver remnant volume. Conversion therapy was administered, and the patient received 6 courses of FOLFIRI plus cetuximab therapy. Alopecia and grade 1 eruption were observed as adverse effects of the chemotherapy. The tumor size was reduced, and we resected the tumor by performing right lobectomy and partial hepatectomy. At 1 year 3 months after surgery, no recurrence was observed.

  11. TNF Receptor-2 Facilitates an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment in the Liver to Promote the Colonization and Growth of Hepatic Metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ham, Boram; Wang, Ni; D'Costa, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    Successful colonization by a cancer cell of a distant metastatic site requires immune escape in the new microenvironment. TNF signaling has been implicated broadly in the suppression of immune surveillance that prevents colonization at the metastatic site and therefore must be blocked. In this st......Successful colonization by a cancer cell of a distant metastatic site requires immune escape in the new microenvironment. TNF signaling has been implicated broadly in the suppression of immune surveillance that prevents colonization at the metastatic site and therefore must be blocked....... In this study, we explored how TNF signaling influences the efficiency of liver metastasis by colon and lung carcinoma in mice that are genetically deficient for the TNF receptor TNFR2. We found a marked reduction in liver metastases that correlated with a greatly reduced accumulation at metastatic sites of CD...

  12. Thermal ablation of liver metastases. Current status and perspectives; Thermische Ablation von Lebermetastasen. Aktueller Stand und Perspektiven

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    Vogl, T.; Mack, M.; Straub, R.; Zangos, S.; Woitaschek, D.; Eichler, K.; Engelmann, K. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany)

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. To present thermal ablation of liver metastases via laser induced thermotherapy. Material and methods. Different technical procedures of thermal ablation and online monitoring are used, as there are the MR-guided laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) and the radiofrequency ablation thermotherapy (RF). Results. In a prospective non randomized study 606 patients with liver metastases were treated via MR-guided laserinduced thermotherapy. Inclusion criteria were the exclusion of extrahepatic tumor spread and a number of metastases lower than 5 and a size lower than 50 mm in diameter. The local tumor control rate in the 3 month and 6 month control study was 98,3%, the complication rate 3,5% (clinically relevant: 1,2%). The mean survival rate was 40,9 months for all patients with liver metastases without statistically relevant differences for various primaries, like colorectal carcinoma, breast cancer and various other tumors. Results for radiofrequency are so far limited with incidence of a higher local tumor recurrence rate versus LITT. Conclusion. MR-guided LITT results in a high local tumor control rate with improved survival. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung. Vorstellung der thermischen Ablation von Lebermetastasen mittels laserinduzierter Thermotherapie (LITT). Material und Methodik. Verschiedene technische Verfahren der Ablation sowie 'Online-monitoring-Verfahren' werden vorgestellt. Derzeit gaengige Verfahren der Thermoablation stellen die MR-gesteuerte laserinduzierte Thermotherapie (LITT) sowie die Radiofrequenzablation (RF) dar. Ergebnisse. Im Rahmen einer prospektiven, nichtrandomisierten Studie wurden bislang 606 Patienten mit Lebermetastasen unterschiedlicher Primaertumoren mittels LITT perkutan therapiert. Die erzielte lokale Tumorkontrolle in der 3- bzw. 6-Monatskontrolle betrug dabei 98,3%, die Rate klinisch nicht relevanter Komplikationen 3,5%, die Rate klinisch relevanter Komplikationen 1,2%. Die mittlere Ueberlebensrate fuer das

  13. An oral Salmonella-based vaccine inhibits liver metastases by promoting tumor-specific T cell-mediated immunity in celiac & portal lymph nodes. A preclinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina eVendrell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumor excision is one of the therapies of cancer most widely used. However, the risk of metastases development still exists following tumor resection. The liver is a common site of metastatic disease for numerous cancers. Breast cancer is one of the most frequent source of metastases to the liver. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the orally-administered Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain CVD 915 on the development of liver metastases in a mouse model of breast cancer. To this end, one group of BALB/c mice was immunized with CVD 915 via o.g. while another received PBS as a control. After 24 h, mice were injected with LM3 mammary adenocarcinoma cells into the spleen and subjected to splenectomy. This oral Salmonella-based vaccine produced an antitumor effect, leading to a decrease in the number and volume of liver metastases. Immunization with Salmonella induced an early cellular immune response in mice. This innate stimulation rendered a large production of IFN-γ by intrahepatic immune cells (IHIC detected within 24 h. An antitumor adaptive immunity was found in the liver and celiac & portal lymph nodes (LDLN 21 days after oral bacterial inoculation. The antitumor immune response inside the liver was associated with increased CD4+ and DC cell populations as well as with an inflammatory infiltrate located around liver metastatic nodules. Enlarged levels of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF were also detected in IHIC. Furthermore, a tumor-specific production of IFN-γ and TNF as well as tumor-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells (CD8+IFN-γ+ were found in the celiac & portal lymph nodes of Salmonella-treated mice. This study provides first evidence for the involvement of LDLN in the development of an efficient cellular immune response against hepatic tumors, which resulted in the elimination of liver metastases after oral Salmonella-based vaccination.

  14. Validation and Modification of the Japanese Classification System for Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: A Multi-institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Eiji; Takahashi, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Kotake, Kenjiro; Itabashi, Michio; Yasuno, Masamichi; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Nishimura, Genichi; Akagi, Yoshito; Sato, Toshihiko; Kato, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Hase, Kazuo; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2015-11-01

    A Japanese multicenter study disclosed four prognostic indicators of colorectal cancer liver metastases: ≥5 hepatic tumors (HT), HT size > 5 cm, nodal status (N2) of primary cancer, and the presence of extrahepatic metastases (EM). The Japanese classification was then defined as Stage A, HT1 (≤4 lesions and ≤5 cm) and N0/1; Stage B, HT2 (≥5 lesions or >5 cm) and N0/1, or HT1 and N2; and Stage C, HT2 and N2, HT3 (≥5 lesions and >5 cm) with any N, or EM1 (presence of EM) with any HT/N. This study aimed to validate the prognostic reliability in a recent population and to develop a modified staging system that divided Stage C patients. A total of 1185 patients diagnosed with liver metastases between 2007 and 2008 were enrolled in the study. According to the classification, 358, 257, and 570 patients were categorized as Stages A, B, and C, respectively. Stage C was further divided into two groups: Stage C-I, HT3 and N0/1, HT2 and N2, or HT1 and EM1; and Stage C-II, HT3 and N2, or HT2/3 and EM1. Cumulative overall survival curves for Stages A, B, and C were significantly different between each two stages (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). The modified system discriminated patients with a relatively better outcome (Stage C-I) from desperate patients (Stage C-II) (p < 0.0001). The Japanese classification system was adequately validated in a recent population, and the modified system is useful in risk stratification of Stage C cases.

  15. Preoperative evaluation of colorectal liver metastases: comparison of gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadoxetic-acid-enhanced 1.5-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Rao, Sheng-Xiang; Meng, Tao; Chen, Caizhong; Li, Renchen; Zeng, Meng-Su

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadoxetic-acid-enhanced MRI in patients with colorectal liver metastases. Thirty patients were included and divided into three sets, as follows: gadopentetate dimeglumine set-hepatic arterial phase, portal venous phase, and delay phase; gadoxetic acid set-hepatic arterial phase, portal venous phase, and delay phase; combined set-gadoxetic acid set and hepatobiliary phase. The accuracy was assessed by the area under the alternative-free response receiver operating characteristic curve; the sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated. There were 81 colorectal liver metastases in all. Both readers noted higher diagnostic accuracies of the combined set than the other two sets. In the group of small lesions, both readers detected significantly higher sensitivities and positive predictive value on the combined set than the other two sets. The combined set showed higher accuracy and sensitivity, especially significantly higher accuracy and sensitivity on small lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. What is a safe future liver remnant size in patients undergoing major hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases and treated by intensive preoperative chemotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Masato; Oussoultzoglou, Elie; Fuchshuber, Pascal; Pessaux, Patrick; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Rosso, Edoardo; Nobili, Cinzia; Jaeck, Daniel; Bachellier, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    A multidisciplinary approach involving preoperative chemotherapy has become common practice in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM). The definition of a safe future liver remnant (FLR) volume based on preoperative clinical data in these patients is lacking. Our aim was to identify predictors of postoperative morbidities in patients undergoing major hepatectomy after intensive preoperative chemotherapy for CLM. Between January 2000 and August 2010, a total of 101 consecutive patients with CLM underwent major hepatectomy after preoperative chemotherapy (≥6 cycles of oxaliplatin or irinotecan regimen with or without targeted therapies). The FLR ratio was calculated by two formulas: actual FLR (aFLR) ratio, and standardized FLR (sFLR) ratio. Predictors of postoperative overall morbidity, sepsis, and liver failure were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Fifty-eight patients (57.4%) had 95 postoperative complications. Sepsis and postoperative liver failure occurred in 23 (22.8%) and 16 patients (15.8%), respectively. On univariate analysis, small aFLR ratio was significantly associated with all complications, and sFLR ratio was associated with sepsis and liver failure. In receiver-operating characteristic analysis, the cutoff of aFLR ratio in predicting overall morbidity, sepsis, and liver failure was 44.8, 43.1, and 37.7%, respectively, and that of sFLR ratio in predicting sepsis and liver failure was 43.6 and 48.5%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, these aFLR and sFLR ratio cutoffs were independent predictors of all complications and of sepsis and liver failure, respectively. This study provides a cutoff FLR ratio for safe postoperative outcome after major hepatectomy in CLM patients receiving six or more cycles of preoperative chemotherapy.

  17. Percutaneous microwave ablation liver partition and portal vein embolization for planned hepatectomy due to large gastrointestinal stromal tumor metastases: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Chengwu; Hong, Defei; Shang, Minjie; Yao, Weifeng; Chen, Yuan

    2017-10-01

    The liver is the most frequent site of relapse of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Surgery is always considered to be unsuitable because of the multiple metastases. In this report, we describe a case of large, multiple GIST liver metastases that were treated with percutaneous microwave ablation liver partition and portal vein embolization for planned hepatectomy (PALPP). A 44-year-old woman had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy 4 years previously because of the diagnosis of a large duodenal GIST. Large, multiple liver metastases were observed 2 years later. GIST liver metastasis was diagnosed using percutaneous ultrasound-guided biopsy. After 6 months of treatment with imatinib, the liver metastasis was stable. PALPP was performed because of insufficient future liver remnant (FLR) and right trisegmentectomy was successfully completed 10 days later. The patient has had no signs of local or systemic disease during 17 months of postsurgical follow-up. PALPP provides a new methodology for treatment of GIST liver metastasis in patients with insufficient FLR, and may have benefit in prolonging a durable remission.

  18. A systematic review of clinical response and survival outcomes of downsizing systemic chemotherapy and rescue liver surgery in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Vincent W T; Spiro, Calista; Laurence, Jerome M; Johnston, Emma; Hollands, Michael J; Pleass, Henry C C; Richardson, Arthur J

    2012-04-01

    Selected patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CLM) may be rendered resectable after systemic chemotherapy. We reviewed the evidence of downsizing systemic chemotherapy followed by rescue liver surgery in patients with initially unresectable CLM. Literature search of databases (Medline and PubMed) to identify published studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by liver resection in patients with initially unresectable CLM was undertaken and focused on response rate of chemotherapy and survival outcomes. Ten observational studies were reviewed. A total of 1,886 patients with initially unresectable CLM underwent systemic chemotherapy. An objective response was observed in 64% (range, 43-79%) of patients after systemic chemotherapy. Of these, 22.5% underwent macroscopically curative liver resection. Median overall survival was 45 (range, 36-60) months with 19% of patients alive and recurrence-free. Current evidence suggests that downsizing systematic chemotherapy followed by rescue liver resection is safe and effective for selected patients with initially unresectable CLM. Further studies are required to examine response rates and secondary resectability using new targeted molecular therapy-based regimens.

  19. In vivo migration of labeled autologous natural killer cells to liver metastases in patients with colon carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satolli Maria A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides being the effectors of native anti-tumor cytotoxicity, NK cells participate in T-lymphocyte responses by promoting the maturation of dendritic cells (DC. Adherent NK (A-NK cells constitute a subset of IL-2-stimulated NK cells which show increased expression of integrins and the ability to adhere to solid surface and to migrate, infiltrate, and destroy cancer. A critical issue in therapy of metastatic disease is the optimization of NK cell migration to tumor tissues and their persistence therein. This study compares localization to liver metastases of autologous A-NK cells administered via the systemic (intravenous, i.v. versus locoregional (intraarterial, i.a. routes. Patients and methods A-NK cells expanded ex-vivo with IL-2 and labeled with 111In-oxine were injected i.a. in the liver of three colon carcinoma patients. After 30 days, each patient had a new preparation of 111In-A-NK cells injected i.v. Migration of these cells to various organs was evaluated by SPET and their differential localization to normal and neoplastic liver was demonstrated after i.v. injection of 99mTc-phytate. Results A-NK cells expressed a donor-dependent CD56+CD16+CD3- (NK or CD56+CD16+CD3+ (NKT phenotype. When injected i.v., these cells localized to the lung before being visible in the spleen and liver. By contrast, localization of i.a. injected A-NK cells was virtually confined to the spleen and liver. Binding of A-NK cells to liver neoplastic tissues was observed only after i.a. injections. Conclusion This unique study design demonstrates that A-NK cells adoptively transferred to the liver via the intraarterial route have preferential access and substantial accumulation to the tumor site.

  20. Phase II study of neoadjuvant 5-FU + leucovorin + CPT-11 in patients with resectable liver metastases from colorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigam David

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer, 5-year survivals are reportedly 30 – 39%. It can be assumed that this clinical situation represents systemic disease. Therefore, it is postulated that systemic chemotherapy would improve outcomes, particularly in those whose disease is sensitive to the agents administered. One potential advantage of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is that it provides in vivo chemosensitivity data. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy could therefore guide adjuvant chemotherapy following resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods and design This is a prospective Phase II evaluation of outcomes in patients with potentially resectable liver metastases. Patients will receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and will undergo resection. Postoperative chemotherapy will be directed by the degree of response to preoperative chemotherapy. All patients with Stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma isolated to the liver that have disease that is amenable to complete ablation by resection, radiofrequency ablation, and/or cryoablation will be candidates for the trial. Patients will receive CPT-11 180 mg/m2 IV (over 90 minutes on day 1 with 5-FU 400 mg/m2 bolus and 600 mg/m2 by 22 hour infusion and calcium folinate 200 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2, every 2 weeks. Altogether, six cycles of chemotherapy will be administered. Patients will then undergo resection and/or radiofrequency ablation. Patients who had stable disease or a clinical response with preoperative chemotherapy will receive an additional 12 cycles of CPT-11 180 mg/m2 IV (over 90 minutes on day 1 with 5-FU 400 mg/m2 bolus and 600 mg/m2 by 22 hour infusion and calcium folinate 200 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2 (given every 2 weeks. Patients with resectable disease who had progressive disease during neoadjuvant chemotherapy will receive best supportive care or an alternative agent, at the discretion of the treating physician. Those patients who are

  1. Optimized detection and characterization of liver metastases. The role of current MRI contrast agents; Optimierte Detektion und Charakterisierung von Lebermetastasen. Leistungsvermoegen aktueller MRT-Kontrastmittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrich, J.M.; Well, L.; Bannas, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Zentrum fuer Radiologie und Endoskopie, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Metastases are the most common malignant lesions of the liver. The presence of liver metastases is an important prognostic factor and is decisive for the further management, especially in patients with colorectal cancer. Detection and characterization of liver metastases as well as differentiation from benign lesions are of high importance and a daily challenge in clinical radiology. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the highest sensitivity in detecting liver metastases. The sensitivity of MRI has been further increased due to the development of liver-specific contrast agents. This article describes the role of extracellular and hepatobiliary contrast agents for the detection and characterization of liver metastases. Moreover, the current knowledge on safety, sequence optimization, transient severe dyspnea and the combination of hepatobiliary with intravascular contrast agents for liver imaging is discussed. (orig.) [German] Metastasen sind die haeufigsten malignen Leberlaesionen. Das Vorhandensein von Lebermetastasen ist entscheidend fuer die Prognose und weitere Therapieplanung von Tumorpatienten, insbesondere von Patienten mit kolorektalen Karzinomen. Die Detektion von Lebermetastasen sowie deren Unterscheidung von anderen Leberlaesionen sind daher von hoechster Bedeutung und stellen eine alltaegliche Herausforderung fuer den Radiologen dar. Die Bildgebung mit der hoechsten Sensitivitaet fuer die Detektion von Lebermetastasen stellt die dynamische kontrastmittelgestuetzte Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) dar. Die bereits hohe Sensitivitaet der MRT wird durch den Einsatz leberspezifischer Kontrastmittel noch weiter gesteigert. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet die Rolle der aktuellen unspezifischen und leberspezifischen MRT-Kontrastmittel fuer die Detektion und Charakterisierung von Lebermetastasen. Weiterhin werden Erkenntnisse zur Sicherheit, Sequenzoptimierung, zu transienten Atemartefakten und zur Kombination von MRT-Kontrastmitteln fuer die

  2. Surgical treatment of renal cell cancer liver metastases: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, A.T.; Tanis, P.J.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Duijvendijk, P. van; Verhoef, C.; Porte, R.J.; Gulik, T.M. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with hepatic metastases from renal-cell carcinoma in the Netherlands, and to identify prognostic factors for survival after resection. Renal-cell carcinoma has an incidence of 2,000 new patients in the Netherlands each year

  3. Surgical Treatment of Renal Cell Cancer Liver Metastases : A Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, Anthony T.; Tanis, Pieter J.; Iris, Nagtegaal D.; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Verhoef, Cornelis; Porte, Robert J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    Background. To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with hepatic metastases from renal-cell carcinoma in the Netherlands, and to identify prognostic factors for survival after resection. Renal-cell carcinoma has an incidence of 2,000 new patients in the Netherlands each year

  4. Surgical Treatment of Renal Cell Cancer Liver Metastases: A Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. Ruys (Anthony); P.J. Tanis (Pieter); N.D. Iris (Nagtegaal); P. van Duijvendijk (Peter); C. Verhoef (Kees); R.J. Porte (Robert); T.M. Gulik (Thomas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with hepatic metastases from renal-cell carcinoma in the Netherlands, and to identify prognostic factors for survival after resection. Renal-cell carcinoma has an incidence of 2,000 new patients in the Netherlands each

  5. Surgical treatment of renal cell cancer liver metastases: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, A.T.; Tanis, P.J.; Iris, N.D.; van Duijvendijk, P.; Verhoef, C.; Porte, R.J.; van Gulik, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with hepatic metastases from renal-cell carcinoma in the Netherlands, and to identify prognostic factors for survival after resection. Renal-cell carcinoma has an incidence of 2,000 new patients in the Netherlands each year (12.5/100,000

  6. Locally ablative treatment of breast cancer liver metastases: identification of factors influencing survival (the Mammary Cancer Microtherapy and Interventional Approaches (MAMMA MIA) study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, Max; Garlipp, Benjamin; Scholz, Sophia; Mohnike, Konrad; Popp, Felix; Steffen, Ingo; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Stübs, Patrick; Pech, Maciej; PowerskI, Maciej; Hass, Peter; Costa, Serban-Dan; Amthauer, Holger; Bruns, Christiane; Ricke, Jens

    2015-07-14

    Liver metastases from breast cancer (LMBC) are typically considered to indicate systemic disease spread and patients are most often offered systemic palliative treatment only. However, retrospective studies suggest that some patients may have improved survival with local treatment of their liver metastases compared to systemic therapy alone. In the absence of randomized trials, it is important to identify patient characteristics indicating that benefit from local treatment can be expected. 59 patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA), interstitial brachytherapy (BT), or radioembolization (RE) of LMBC as a salvage treatment were studied. Potential factors influencing survival were analyzed in a multivariate Cox model. For factors identified to have an independent survival impact, Kaplan-Meier analysis and comparison of overall survival (OS) using the log-rank test was performed. Median OS following local interventional treatment was 21.9 months. Considering only factors evaluable at treatment initiation, maximum diameter of liver metastases (≥3.9 cm; HR: 3.1), liver volume (≥ 1376 mL; HR: 2.3), and history of prior chemotherapy (≥ 3 lines of treatment; HR: 2.5-2.6) showed an independent survival impact. When follow-up data were included in the analysis, significant factors were maximum diameter of liver metastases (≥ 3.9 cm; HR: 3.1), control of LMBC during follow-up (HR: 0.29), and objective response as best overall response (HR: 0.21). Neither the presence of any extrahepatic metastases nor presence of bone metastases only had a significant survival impact. Median OS was 38.7 vs. 16.1 months in patients with metastases history of systemic LMBC treatment are most likely to benefit from local approaches. Limited extrahepatic disease should not lead to exclusion from a randomized study and should not be a contraindication for local LMBC treatment as long as no randomized data are available.

  7. [A Case of HER2-Positive Advanced Gastric Cancer with Multiple Liver Metastases Effectively Treated with Trastuzumab, Capecitabine, and Cisplatin Combination Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuga, Yoshio; Kitamura, Shosuke; Okanobu, Hideharu; Sakimoto, Hideto; Nishida, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    We reported a case of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-positive advanced gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases that responded well to a combination of trastuzumab, capecitabine, and cisplatin(T-XP therapy)as first-line chemotherapy. A 73-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in December 2012 for liver dysfunction. Based on computed tomography(CT)and gastroendoscopy findings, he was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases. Because HER2 protein overexpression was observed in the primary tumor, he was treated with T-XP therapy. After 5 courses of treatment, the sizes of the primary tumor and multiple liver metastases were reduced on CT scans. In March 2013, a Billroth I distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection was performed. Liver metastasis was not detected. No residual cancer cells were found in the stomach or lymph nodes. The patient subsequently received oral administration of S-1 alone for 2 weeks followed by a 2-week rest period as 1 course. This was repeated for 19 courses. The postoperative course was uneventful, and there was no detectable liver metastasis 36 months after the original diagnosis. Therefore, T-XP therapy is an option for the management of HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer with liver metastasis.

  8. Oxidative stress with altered element content and decreased ATP level of erythrocytes in hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váli, László; Hahn, Oszkár; Kupcsulik, Péter; Drahos, Agnes; Sárváry, Eniko; Szentmihályi, Klára; Pallai, Zsolt; Kurucz, Timea; Sípos, Péter; Blázovics, Anna

    2008-05-01

    Our aim was to study the possible alterations of redox status (enzymatic and nonenzymatic parameters and metal elements) in erythrocytes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) and benign liver neoplasms. The function of redox homeostasis is closely connected to the energy level of erythrocytes, therefore, the ATP level was also determined. Antioxidant parameters, enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were estimated in the erythrocytes of 11 patients with benign tumour, 23 patients with primary malignant and 37 metastatic liver tumour patients and 30 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls. Element content with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and ATP level by the chemiluminometric method were also determined from the samples. Free radical intensity was significantly increased, whereas erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly decreased in the HCC and CRLM groups versus benign groups and controls. Se, Mn and Zn levels were lowered in HCC and CRLM groups versus benign and control groups. The content of Cu, Mg, Se and Zn changed significantly between HCC and CRLM groups. Similarly, ATP concentration decreased in HCC and CRLM versus controls and benign groups. The lowest levels of ATP and antioxidant enzyme activities were found in the case of CRLM patients. These results reveal an alteration in the ATP level of erythrocytes with concomitant changes in the antioxidant defence system in hepatic cancer patients. Altered redox homeostasis (oxidative damage) may lead to decreased ATP level and consequently may play an important role in primary carcinogenesis and generation of metastases, as well.

  9. A phase II experience with neoadjuvant irinotecan (CPT-11, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and leucovorin (LV for colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigam David

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy may improve survival in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may help identify patients with occult extrahepatic disease (averting unnecessary metastasectomy, and it provides in vivo chemosensitivity data. Methods A phase II trial was initiated in which patients with resectable CLM received CPT-11, 5-FU and LV for 12 weeks. Metastasectomy was performed unless extrahepatic disease appeared. Postoperatively, patients with stable or responsive disease received the same regimen for 12 weeks. Patients with progressive disease received either second-line chemotherapy or best supportive care. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS; secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS and safety. Results 35 patients were accrued. During preoperative chemotherapy, 16 patients (46% had grade 3/4 toxicities. Resection was not possible in 5 patients. One patient died of arrhythmia following surgery, and 1 patient had transient liver failure. During the postoperative treatment phase, 12 patients (55% had grade 3/4 toxicities. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT occurred in 11 patients (34% at various times during treatment. Of those who underwent resection, median DFS was 23.0 mo. and median OS has not been reached. The overall survival from time of diagnosis of liver metastases was 51.6 mo for the entire cohort. Conclusion A short course of chemotherapy prior to hepatic metastasectomy may serve to select candidates best suited for resection and it may also direct postoperative systemic treatment. Given the significant incidence of DVT, alternative systemic neoadjuvant regimens should be investigated, particularly those that avoid the use of a central venous line. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00168155.

  10. Chemoembolization of Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases Using Streptozocin and Tris-acryl Microspheres: Embozar (EMBOsphere + ZAnosaR) Study

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    Pelage, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: pelage-jp@chu-caen.fr; Fohlen, Audrey [Caen University and Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology (France); Mitry, Emmanuel [Hopital Ambroise Pare, Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Oncology (France); Lagrange, Christine [Hopital Ambroise Pare, Department of Radiology (France); Beauchet, Alain [Hopital Ambroise Pare, Department of Biostatistics and Public Health (France); Rougier, Philippe [Hopital Ambroise Pare, Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Oncology (France)

    2017-03-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for neuroendocrine liver metastases using a combination of streptozocin, Lipiodol, and tris-acryl microspheres.Patients and MethodsA total of 16 men and 9 women aged 59.6 ± 11.3 years, all with predominant liver disease, underwent 54 courses of TACE using an emulsion of 1.5 g of streptozocin and 10 ml of Lipiodol. Additional embolization was performed using 300–500 µm tris-acryl microspheres. Morphological response was evaluated using the RECIST criteria on multi-detector computed tomography or MRI. Clinical efficacy was evaluated particularly in patients with carcinoid syndrome.ResultsThe primary tumor was located in the small bowel or pancreas in 21 (84%) patients. Eleven (44%) patients presented with a carcinoid syndrome. Nineteen (76%) patients presented with more than 10 liver nodules. One delayed case of ischemic cholecystitis was treated conservatively. After a median follow-up of 36.1 months, 1 (4%) patient had a complete response, 12 (48%) patients had a partial response, and 7 (28%) patients had a stable disease corresponding to a disease control rate of 80%. All patients with carcinoid syndrome had significant improvement. Median time to progression was 18.8 months and overall survival was 100, 100, and 92% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Seven patients presented with extrahepatic progression with abdominal lymphadenopathies or metastases to the brain, ovary, adrenal gland, or lung.ConclusionOptimized TACE using a combination of streptozocin, Lipiodol, and tris-acryl microspheres is effective and well tolerated.

  11. The prognosis of liver resection for patients with four or more colorectal liver metastases has not improved in the era of modern chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokuto, Daisuke; Nomi, Takeo; Yamato, Ichiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Obara, Shinsaku; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Chihiro; Yamada, Takatsugu; Kanehiro, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-12-01

    The impact of perioperative chemotherapy on patients with multiple colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) remains unclear. We attempted to examine whether the introduction of modern chemotherapies has improved the prognosis of patients that undergo liver resection for ≥4 CRLM. Between January 1990 and December 2013, 194 patients underwent liver resection for CRLM at our institution. The outcomes of the patients with ≥4 and 1-3 CRLM were compared before and after 2005, when modern chemotherapies were introduced to Japan. There were 50 and 144 patients with ≥4 (Group 1) and 1-3 (Group 2) CRLM, respectively. The overall survival (OS) rate of Group 1 was significantly worse than that of Group 2 (P = 0.0007). The OS rate of Group 2 was significantly better after 2005 than before 2004 (P = 0.039), while no such differences were observed in Group 1. Multivariate analysis identified three prognostic factors in Group 1: a serum carcinoembryonic antigen level of ≥20 ng/ml (P = 0.018), a serum cancer antigen 19-9 level of ≥100 U/ml (P = 0.018), and a primary colorectal cancer N factor of ≥N2 (P = 0.023). The prognosis of patients with ≥4 CRLM that undergo liver resection has not improved despite the development of modern chemotherapies. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:959-965. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Local recurrence rates after radiofrequency ablation or resection of colorectal liver metastases. Analysis of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer #40004 and #40983

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, E.; Nordlinger, B.; Mauer, M.; Sorbye, H.; van Coevorden, F.; Gruenberger, T.M.; Schlag, P.M.; Punt, C.J.A.; Ledermann, J.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to describe local tumour control after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and surgical resection (RES) of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) in two independent European Organisations for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) studies. Background Only 10–20% of patients with

  13. Multi-modality curative treatment of salivary gland cancer liver metastases with drug-eluting bead chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, and surgical resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzorakoleftherakis Evaggelos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Liver metastases are rare in salivary gland tumors and have been reported only once to be the first manifestation of the disease. They are usually treated with surgical resection of the primary tumor and systemic chemotherapy. Drug-eluting bead chemoembolization has an evolving role in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as in the treatment of metastatic disease of the liver. Nevertheless, it has never been used in a patient with salivary gland liver metastases. Case presentation We report a case of a 51-year-old Caucasian Greek woman who presented to our hospital with liver metastases as the first manifestation of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left submandibular gland. The liver lesions were deemed inoperable because of their size and multi-focality and proved resistant to systemic chemotherapy. She was curatively treated with a combination of doxorubicin eluting bead (DC Beads chemoembolization, intra-operative and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, and radiofrequency-assisted surgical resection. The patient remained disease-free one year after the surgical resection. Conclusion In conclusion, this complex case is an example of inoperable liver metastatic disease from the salivary glands that was refractory to systemic chemotherapy but was curatively treated with a combination of locoregional therapies and surgery. A multi-disciplinary approach and the adoption of modern radiological techniques produced good results after conventional therapies failed and there were no other available treatment modalities.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Compared With Radiofrequency Ablation for Inoperable Colorectal Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hayeon, E-mail: kimh2@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Gill, Beant; Beriwal, Sushil; Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Roberts, Mark S. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Smith, Kenneth J. [Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine whether stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a cost-effective therapy compared with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for patients with unresectable colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a Markov model and 1-month cycle over a lifetime horizon. Transition probabilities, quality of life utilities, and costs associated with SBRT and RFA were captured in the model on the basis of a comprehensive literature review and Medicare reimbursements in 2014. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, with effectiveness measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To account for model uncertainty, 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Strategies were evaluated with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results: In base case analysis, treatment costs for 3 fractions of SBRT and 1 RFA procedure were $13,000 and $4397, respectively. Median survival was assumed the same for both strategies (25 months). The SBRT costs $8202 more than RFA while gaining 0.05 QALYs, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $164,660 per QALY gained. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation of median survival from both treatments. Stereotactic body radiation therapy was economically reasonable if better survival was presumed (>1 month gain) or if used for large tumors (>4 cm). Conclusions: If equal survival is assumed, SBRT is not cost-effective compared with RFA for inoperable colorectal liver metastases. However, if better local control leads to small survival gains with SBRT, this strategy becomes cost-effective. Ideally, these results should be confirmed with prospective comparative data.

  15. Trans-arterial chemoperfusion for the treatment of liver metastases of breast cancer and colorectal cancer: Clinical results in palliative care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Langenbach, Marcel; Naguib, Nagy N N; Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin M; Vogl, Thomas J; Zangos, Stephan; Beeres, Martin

    2017-08-10

    To evaluate the clinical value and efficiency of trans-arterial chemoperfusion (TACP) in patients with liver metastases from breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We treated 36 patients with liver metastases of BC (n = 19, 19 females) and CRC (n = 17; 8 females, 9 males) with repeated TACP. The treatment interval was 4 wk. TACP was performed with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2)) and mitomycin (10 mg/m(2)), administered within 1 h after positioning the catheter tip in the hepatic artery. Before treatment, the size, location, tumour volume, vascularization and number of liver tumours were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tumour response was evaluated according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors guidelines. TACP using gemcitabine and mitomycin for metastases from CRC and BC was performed without any serious side effects. The follow-up MRI showed a therapeutic response in 84.2% of the BC patients - stable disease 47.4% and partial response 36.8%. A progression was seen in 15.8%. CRC patients showed a therapeutic response in 52.9% of cases. A progression of the disease was documented in 47.1% of the patients with CRC. These data show that TACP in patients with liver metastases of BC leads to a significantly better therapeutic response compared with CRC patients (P = 0.042). The median survival time was 13.2 mo for the BC patients, which is significantly longer than for CRC patients at 9.3 mo (P = 0.001). TACP for liver metastases of BC appears to be a safe and effective palliative treatment with improved outcomes in comparison to patients with CRC.

  16. Assessment of Local Control after Laser-Induced Thermotherapy of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: Contribution of FDG-PET in Patients with Clinical Suspicion of Progressive Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, T.; Steffen, I.; Hildebrandt, B.; Ruehl, R.; Streitparth, F.; Lehmk uhl, L.; Langrehr, J.; Ricke, J.; Amthauer, H.; Lopez Haenninen, E. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Bereiche Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Haematologie Onkologie, and Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral-, und T ransplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizi n Berlin, (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Background: Management of patients after locally ablative treatment of liver metastases requires exact information about local control and systemic disease status. To fulfill these requirements, whole-body imaging using positron emission tomography with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a promising alternative to morphologic imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To evaluate FDG-PET for the assessment of local control and systemic disease in patients with clinical suspicion of tumor progression after laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of colorectal liver metastases. Material and Methods: In 21 patients with suspicion of progressive disease after LITT, whole-body FDG-PET was performed. The presence of viable tumor within treated lesions, new liver metastases, and extrahepatic disease was evaluated visually and semi quantitatively (maximal standard uptake value [SUVmax], tumor-to-normal ratio [T/N]). The standard of reference was histopathology (n = 25 lesions) and/or clinical follow-up (>12 months) including contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver. Results: Among 54 metastases treated with LITT, 29 had residual tumor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of SUVmax (area under the curve (AUC) 0.990) and T/N (AUC 0.968) showed a significant discrimination level of negative or positive lesion status with an equal accuracy of 94% (51/54). The overall accuracy of visual FDG-PET was 96% (52/54), with one false-negative lesion among six examined within 3 days after LITT, and one false-positive lesion examined 54 days after LITT. In the detection of new intra- and extrahepatic lesions, FDG-PET resulted in correct alteration of treatment strategy in 43% of patients (P = 0.007). Conclusion: FDG-PET is a promising tool for the assessment of local control and whole-body restaging in patients with clinical suspicion of tumor progression after locally ablative treatment of colorectal liver metastases with

  17. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav, E-mail: ludvikj@fnplzen.cz; Duras, Petr [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Třeška, Vladislav [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Matoušková, Táňa [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Lysák, Daniel [Charles University, Department of Haemato-Oncology, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  18. Intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy for unresectable colorectal liver metastases: a review of medical devices complications in 3172 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bacchetti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Bacchetti, Enricomaria Pasqual, Elena Crozzolo, Alessandra Pellarin, Pier Paolo CagolDepartment of Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Udine, ItalyBackground: Hepatic artery infusion (HAI is indicated to treat unresectable colorectal hepatic metastases, with recent applications as a neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. Traditionally performed with the infusion of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, it has been now tested with oxaliplatin or irinotecan and associated with systemic chemotherapy.Methods: To evaluate the impact of medical devices complications we carried out a search of the published studies on HAI in unresectable colorectal liver metastases. Complications were pooled according to the applied medical system: 1 surgical catheter, 2 radiological catheter, and 3 fully implantable pump. The surgical catheter is inserted into the hepatic artery from the gastro-duodenal artery. The radiological catheter is inserted into the hepatic artery through a percutaneous transfemoral or transaxillar access. The fully implantable pump is a totally internal medical device connected to the arterial hepatic catheter during laparotomy.Results: The selection criteria were met in 47/319 studies. The complications of surgical and radiological medical devices connected to a port were found in 16 and 14 studies respectively. Meanwhile, complications with a fully implantable pump were reported in 17 studies. The total number of complications reported in studies evaluating patients with surgical or radiological catheter were 322 (322/948, 34% and 261 (261/722, 36.1% respectively. In studies evaluating patients with a fully implantable pump, the total number of complications was 237 (237/1502, 15.8%. In 18/319 studies the number of cycles was reported. The median number of cycles with surgically and radiologically implanted catheters was 8 and 6 respectively. The fully implantable pump allows a median number of 12 cycles

  19. Neoadjuvant TACE before laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) in the treatment of non-colorectal non-breast cancer liver metastases: Feasibility and survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Kreutzträger, Martin; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Eichler, Katrin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Zangos, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate safety, feasibility and overall survival rates for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone or combined with MR-guided laser-induced-thermotherapy (LITT) in liver metastases of non-colorectal and non-breast cancer origin. Methods and materials: Included were patients with unresectable non-colorectal non-breast cancer liver metastases with progression under systemic chemotherapy. Excluded were patients with Karnofsky score ≤70, respiratory, renal and cardiovascular failure, and general TACE contraindications. TACE using Mitomycin alone, Mitomycin–Gemcitabine or Mitomycin–Gemcitabine–Cisplatin was performed to all patients. After TACE 146 metastases were ablated with MR-guided LITT. To be eligible for LITT metastases should be <5 cm in size and ≤5 in number. Tumor response was evaluated using MRI according to RECIST. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results: A total of 110 patients (mean age 59.2 years) with 371 metastases received TACE (mean 5.4 sessions/patient, n = 110) with 76 (69%) receiving LITT (mean 1.6 session/patient) afterwards. TACE resulted in a mean decrease of mean maximum diameter of 52% ± 26.6 and volume change of −68.5% ± 22.9 in the 25 patients (23%) with partial response. Stable disease (n = 59, 54%). Progressive disease (n = 26, 23%). The RECIST outcome after LITT showed complete response (n = 13, 17%), partial response (n = 1, 1%), stable situation (n = 41, 54%) and progressive disease (n = 21, 28%). The mean time to progression (TTP) was 8.6 months. Median survival of all patients was 21.1 months. Conclusion: TACE with different protocols alone and in combination with LITT is a feasible palliative treatment option resulting in a median survival of 21.1 months for unresectable liver metastases of non-colorectal and non-breast cancer origin.

  20. [Long-Term Multidisciplinary Therapy for Multiple Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer with Biliary Drainage for Occlusive Jaundice--A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Shu; Mikami, Koji; Murata, Kohei; Nushijima, Yoichirou; Okada, Kazuyuki; Yanagisawa, Tetsu; Fukuchi, Nariaki; Ebisui, Chikara; Yokouchi, Hideoki; Kinuta, Masakatsu

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report the case of a 43-year-old man who was diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer with synchronous multiple liver metastases following resection of a primary lesion. Subsequent mFOLFOX+BV therapy elicited a marked response in the liver metastases, which led to the patient undergoing hepatic (S7) radiofrequency ablation (RFA), hepatic resection (lateral segmentectomy and partial [S5] resection), and cholecystectomy. Six months later, transluminal RFA was repeated because liver (S7) metastasis recurred, and 8 courses of XELOX plus BV therapy were administered. As obstructive jaundice due to recurrence of the liver metastases developed after a 6 months hiatus in chemotherapy, we endoscopically inserted a biliary stent. Despite reducing IRIS plus BV therapy, obstructive jaundice developed again, and 3 intrahepatic biliary stents were inserted with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. To date, the patient has been alive for 4 years since the initial resection of the primary lesion after undergoing consecutive systemic chemotherapy with different regimens. Some studies have shown that in cases of obstructive jaundice caused by advanced gastrointestinal cancer, longer survival could be expected by reducing the severity of jaundice, suggesting that resuming chemotherapy as well as improving the severity of jaundice could contribute to better outcomes. The patient in the present case was successfully treated twice with biliary drainage for occlusive jaundice and chemotherapy, suggesting that a combination of multidisciplinary therapy and adequate local therapy such as biliary drainage could be important for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer.

  1. Detection of liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma: Is there a place for routine computed tomography arteriography?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Ooijen (B.); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); P.I.M. Schmitz (Paul); T. Wiggers (Theo)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractBackground. A prospective evaluation of the liver by preoperative ultrasonography, conventional computed tomography (CT), and continuous CT angiography (CCTA) was performed in 60 patients with primary or secondary colorectal carcinoma. Methods. The standards of reference were palpation

  2. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Metastases from Neuroendocrine Tumours: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Imperiale, Alessio, E-mail: alessio.imperiale@chru-strasbourg.fr; Namer, Izzie Jacques, E-mail: izzie.jacques.namer@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpital de Hautepierre (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine (France); Bachellier, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.bachellier@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpital de Hautepierre (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation (France); Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Rao, Pramod, E-mail: pramodrao@me.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2016-09-15

    AimTo review our preliminary experience with 6-l-18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET/CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).Materials and MethodsThree patients (mean age 51.3 years; range 43–56) with gastro-entero pancreatic NET (GEP-NET) liver metastases underwent 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided RFA. Patients were referred with oligometastatic hepatic-confined disease (1–6 metastases; <3 cm) on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT; poor lesion visualisation on US, CT, and MR; and ongoing symptoms. Procedures were performed in an interventional PET/CT scanner under general anaesthesia using a split-dose protocol. Lesion characteristics, procedural duration and technical success (accurate probe placement and post-procedural ablation-zone photopaenia), complications, patient and operator dose, and clinical outcomes were evaluated.ResultsThirteen liver metastases (mean size 11.4 mm, range 8–16) were treated in three patients (two presented with “carcinoid syndrome”). Technical success was 100 % with a mean procedural duration of 173.3 min (range 90–210) and no immediate complications. Mean patient dose was 2844 mGy·cm (range 2104–3686). Operator and radiographer doses were acceptable other than the operator’s right hand in the first case (149 µSv); this normalised in the second case. There was no local tumour or extra-hepatic disease progression at mid-term follow-up (mean 12.6 months; range 6–20); however, two cases progressed with new liver metastases at different sites. There was 100 % clinical success (n = 2) in resolving carcinoid syndrome symptoms.Conclusion18F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided RFA appears technically feasible, safe, and effective in patients with GEP-NETs and low-burden hepatic metastases. Further prospective studies are required to elucidate its precise role in tailored multimodality management of GEP-NET liver metastases.

  3. Prognostic ability of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the assessment of colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Kwok, Marco; Lee, Sze Ting; Lau, Lawrence; Scott, Andrew M; Christophi, Christopher

    2012-09-01

    Modern multidisciplinary therapy for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is associated with significant morbidity and must be adapted to the patient's relative risk. The tools currently available to risk-stratify patients are limited. This study assessed the prognostic utility of metabolic measurements derived from(18)F-FDG PET compared with previously proposed prognostic scoring systems. Preoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT studies from a series of 30 patients who underwent liver resection for CRLM after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were evaluated. Quantitative (18)F-FDG PET analysis calculated the maximum and mean standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and tumor glycolytic volume (TGV) as measures of the metabolic activity of tumors. The predictive value of these parameters was compared with that of 4 prognostic scores developed by Fong, Iwatsuki, Nordlinger, and Rees. High MTV and TGV in patients before metastasectomy were significantly associated with poorer overall survival (MTV: P = 0.001; TGV: P = 0.004) and recurrence-free survival (MTV: P = 0.001, TGV; P = 0.002). Maximum and mean standardized uptake value did not show any significant predictive ability. Of the prognostic scores, prediction of outcome was most accurate using the Basingstoke index (area under the curve, 0.898). Assessment of metabolic tumor burden with volumetric (18)F-FDG PET parameters appears to be a valuable adjunct in determining the biology of CRLM before surgical resection and may enable better risk stratification of patients.

  4. Liver metastases from prostate cancer at 11C-Choline PET/CT: a multicenter, retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedini, Pietro; Bossert, I; Zanoni, L; Ceci, F; Graziani, T; Castellucci, P; Ambrosini, V; Massari, F; Nobili, E; Melotti, B; Musto, A; Zoboli, S; Antunovic, L; Kirienko, M; Chiti, A; Mosconi, C; Ardizzoni, A; Golfieri, R; Fanti, S; Nanni, C

    2017-11-30

    During our daily clinical practice using 11C-Choline PET/CT for restaging patients affected by relapsing prostate cancer (rPCa) we noticed an unusual but significant occurrence of hypodense hepatic lesions with a different tracer uptake. Thus, we decided to evaluate the possible correlation between rPCa and these lesions as possible hepatic metastases. We retrospectively enrolled 542 patients diagnosed with rPCa in biochemical relapse after a radical treatment (surgery and/or radiotherapy). Among these, patients with a second tumor or other benign hepatic diseases were excluded. All patients underwent 11C-Choline PET/CT during the standard restaging workup of their disease. We analyzed CT images to evaluate the presence of hypodense lesions and PET images to identify the relative tracer uptake. In accordance to the subsequent oncological history, five clinical scenarios were recognized [Table 1]: normal low dose CT (ldCT) and normal tracer distribution (Group A); evidence of previously unknown hepatic round hypodense areas at ldCT with normal rim uptake (Group B); evidence of previously known hepatic round hypodense areas at ldCT stable over time and with normal rim uptake (Group C); evidence of previously known hepatic round hypodense areas at ldCT, in a previous PET/CT scan, with or without rim uptake and significantly changing over time in terms of size and/or uptake (Group D); evidence of hepatic round hypodense areas at ldCT with or without rim uptake confirmed as prostate liver metastases by histopathology, triple phase ceCT, ce-ultra sound (CEUS) and clinical/biochemical evaluation (Group E). We evaluated the correlation with PSA level at time of scan, rim SUVmax and association with local relapse or non-hepatic metastases (lymph nodes, bone, other parenchyma). Five hundred and forty-two consecutive patients were retrospectively enrolled. In 140 of the 542 patients more than one 11C-choline PET/CT had been performed. A total of 742 11C-Choline PET/CT scans

  5. Tumor lysis syndrome following endoscopic radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation of colorectal liver metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, B D

    2012-02-03

    Radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation (RITA) provides a palliative option for patients suffering from metastatic liver disease. This procedure can be performed using a laparoscopic approach with laparoscopic ultrasound used to position the RITA probe. We describe a case of laparoscopic RITA performed for colorectal liver metastasis that was complicated by tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) following treatment. We consider RITA to be a safe procedure, as supported by the literature, but where intracorporal tumor lysis is the treatment goal we believe that the systemic release of tumor products can overwhelm the excretory capacity; therefore, TLS is an inevitable consequence in some patients.

  6. Importance of diffusion imaging in liver metastases; Bedeutung der Diffusionsbildgebung bei Lebermetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffel, P.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Krammer, J. [Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. Due to its excellent soft tissue contrast, the availability of liver-specific contrast agents and the possibility of functional imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the method of choice for the evaluation of focal liver lesions. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) enables generation of functional information about the microstructure of a tissue besides morphological information. In the detection of focal liver lesions DWI shows a better detection rate compared to T2w sequences and a slightly poorer detection rate compared to dynamic T1w sequences. In principle, using DWI it is possible to distinguish malignant from benign liver lesions and also to detect a therapy response at an early stage. For both detection and characterization of focal liver lesions, DWI represents a promising alternative to the morphological sequences; however, a more detailed characterization with the use of further sequences should be carried out particularly for the characterization of solid benign lesions. For the assessment and prognosis of therapy response, DWI offers advantages compared to morphological sequences. For the detection of focal liver lesions DWI is in principle sufficient. After visual detection of a solid liver lesion a more detailed characterization should be carried out using further sequences (in particular dynamic T1w sequences). The DWI procedure should be used for the assessment and prognosis of a therapy response. (orig.) [German] Detektion und Charakterisierung fokaler Leberlaesionen. Die MRT ist aufgrund des exzellenten Weichteilkontrasts, der Verfuegbarkeit leberspezifischer Kontrastmittel und der Moeglichkeit funktioneller Bildgebung die Methode der Wahl zur Abklaerung fokaler Leberlaesionen. Die diffusionsgewichtete Bildgebung (''diffusion-weighted imaging'', DWI) ermoeglicht es, neben den rein morphologischen auch funktionelle Informationen ueber die Mikrostruktur eines Gewebes zu

  7. Dosimetric feasibility study for an extracorporeal BNCT application on liver metastases at the TRIGA Mainz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaickner, M; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B; Hampel, G

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the dosimetric feasibility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of explanted livers in the thermal column of the research reactor in Mainz. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to calculate the biologically weighted dose for different ratios of the (10)B-concentration in tumour to normal liver tissue. The simulation results show that dosimetric goals are only partially met. To guarantee effective BNCT treatment the organ has to be better shielded from all gamma radiation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases induces a rapid rise in intermediate blood monocytes which predicts treatment response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Dominic; Starlinger, Patrick; Alidzanovic, Lejla; Zajc, Philipp; Maier, Thomas; Feldman, Alexandra; Padickakudy, Robin; Buchberger, Elisabeth; Elleder, Vanessa; Spittler, Andreas; Stift, Judith; Pop, Lorand; Gruenberger, Birgit; Gruenberger, Thomas; Brostjan, Christine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have previously reported that intermediate monocytes (CD14++/CD16+) were increased in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, while the subset of pro-angiogenic TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) was not significantly elevated. This study was designed to evaluate changes in frequency and function of intermediate monocytes and TEMs during chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic cancer treatment and their relation to treatment response. Monocyte populations were determined by flow cytometry in 60 metastasized CRC (mCRC) patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. Blood samples were taken before treatment, after two therapy cycles, at the end of neoadjuvant therapy and immediately before surgical resection of liver metastases. Neoadjuvant treatment resulted in a significant increase in circulating intermediate monocytes which was most pronounced after two cycles and positively predicted tumor response (AUC = 0.875, p = 0.005). With a cut-off value set to 1% intermediate monocytes of leukocytes, this parameter showed a predictive sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 88%. Anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab had no impact on monocyte populations including TEMs. In 15 patients and six healthy controls, the gene expression profile and the migratory behavior of monocyte subsets was evaluated. The profile of intermediate monocytes suggested functions in antigen presentation, inflammatory cytokine production, chemotaxis and was remarkably stable during chemotherapy. Intermediate monocytes showed a preferential migratory response to tumor-derived signals in vitro and correlated with the level of CD14+/CD16+ monocytic infiltrates in the resected tumor tissue. In conclusion, the rapid rise of intermediate monocytes during chemotherapy may offer a simple marker for response prediction and a timely change in regimen. PMID:27471631

  9. Clinical impact of different detection methods for disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of patients undergoing surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, F Jeroen; Mesker, Wilma E; Rijken, Arjen M; van Pelt, Gaby W; van Leeuwen, Antonia M; Tanke, Hans J; Tollenaar, Rob A; Liefers, Gerrit J

    2010-04-20

    Large number of patients with colorectal liver metastasis show recurrent disease after curative surgical resection. Identification of these high-risk patients may guide therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow from patients undergoing surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases can predict clinical outcome. Sixty patients with colorectal liver metastases were planned for a curative resection between 2001 and 2007. All patients underwent bone marrow aspiration before surgery. Detection of tumor cells was performed using immunocytochemical staining for cytokeratin (CK-ICC) combined with automated microscopy or indirectly using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Disseminated tumor cells were found in 15 of the 46 patients (33%) using CK-ICC and in 9 of 44 of the patients (20%) using RT-PCR. Patients with negative results for RT-PCR had a significant better disease-free survival after resection of their liver metastases (p = 0.02). This group also showed significant better overall survival (p = 0.002). CK-ICC did not predict a worse clinical outcome. The presence of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow detected using RT-PCR did predict a worse clinical outcome. The presence of cells detected with CK-ICC did not correlate with poor prognosis.

  10. Clinical impact of different detection methods for disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of patients undergoing surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases: a prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanke Hans J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large number of patients with colorectal liver metastasis show recurrent disease after curative surgical resection. Identification of these high-risk patients may guide therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow from patients undergoing surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases can predict clinical outcome. Methods Sixty patients with colorectal liver metastases were planned for a curative resection between 2001 and 2007. All patients underwent bone marrow aspiration before surgery. Detection of tumor cells was performed using immunocytochemical staining for cytokeratin (CK-ICC combined with automated microscopy or indirectly using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Disseminated tumor cells were found in 15 of the 46 patients (33% using CK-ICC and in 9 of 44 of the patients (20% using RT-PCR. Patients with negative results for RT-PCR had a significant better disease-free survival after resection of their liver metastases (p = 0.02. This group also showed significant better overall survival (p = 0.002. CK-ICC did not predict a worse clinical outcome. Conclusions The presence of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow detected using RT-PCR did predict a worse clinical outcome. The presence of cells detected with CK-ICC did not correlate with poor prognosis.

  11. Time trends in incidence and prognosis of primary liver cancer and liver metastases of unknown origin in a Danish region, 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Jepsen, Peter; Jacobsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Changes, over the last 20 years, in the diagnostic procedures and treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC) and liver metastases of unknown origin (LMUO) may have affected the clinical course of both cancers. Few longitudinal studies examined this issue. In a population-based setting, we...... studied changes in the incidence and prognosis of PLC and LMUO over time. METHODS: Between 1985 and 2004, we identified 2675 patients with PLC and LMUO in three Danish counties, with a population of 1.4 million. We computed the standardized incidence rate (SIR), ratio of PLC to LMUO diagnoses, median...... survival, and estimated mortality rate ratio adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity. RESULTS: The SIR of PLC increased from 3.2 in 1985 to 5.0 in 2003, and the SIR of LMUO increased from 3.7 to 6.4. No increase was noted in the PLC-to-LMUO ratio over time (P=0.1 for trend). From 1985 to 2004, the median...

  12. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: A Single Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Nace

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We sought to evaluate our experience using yttrium-90 (90Y resin microsphere hepatic radioembolization as salvage therapy for liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. Methods. A retrospective review of consecutive patients with unresectable mCRC who were treated with 90Y after failing first and second line systemic chemotherapy. Demographics, treatment dose, biochemical and radiographic response, toxicities, and survival were examined. Results. Fifty-one patients underwent 90Y treatments of which 69% were male. All patients had previously undergone extensive chemotherapy, 31% had undergone previous liver-directed therapy and 24% had a prior liver resection. Using RECIST criteria, either stable disease or a partial response was seen in 77% of patients. Overall median survival from the time of first 90Y treatment was 10.2 months (95% CI = 7.5–13.0. The absence of extrahepatic disease at the time of treatment with 90Y was associated with an improved survival, median survival of 17.0 months (95% CI = 6.4–27.6, compared to those with extrahepatic disease at the time of treatment with 90Y, 6.7 months (95% CI = 2.7–10.6 Conclusion: 90Y therapy is a safe locoregional therapy that provides an important therapeutic option to patients who have failed first and second line chemotherapy and have adequate liver function and performance status.

  13. Successful Control of Liver Metastases From Pancreatic Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasm (SPN) Using Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violari, Elena G., E-mail: eviolari@live.com; Brody, Lynn A.; Covey, Anne M.; Erinjeri, Joseph P.; Getrajdman, George I.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Service (United States); Reidy, Diane L. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Gastrointestinal Oncology Service (United States); Jarnagin, William R. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Hepatopancreatobiliary Service (United States); Brown, Karen T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Service (United States)

    2015-04-15

    No systemic agents that are known to be effective for the treatment of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) are available. We report the prolonged and sustained control of metastatic pancreatic SPN to the liver using hepatic arterial embolization (HAE), where a total of 13 HAE sessions were performed over a 6-year period.

  14. Pattern of distant extrahepatic metastases in primary liver cancer: a SEER based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenrui; He, Xingkang; Andayani, Dewi; Yang, Liya; Ye, Jianzhong; Li, Yating; Chen, Yanfei; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Primary liver cancer remains still the common cause of cancer-related deaths globally and the prognosis for patients with extrahepatic metastasis is poor. The aim of our study was to assess extrahepatic metastatic pattern of different histological subtypes and evaluate prognostic effects of extrahepatic metastasis in patients with advanced disease. Methods: Based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, eligible patients diagnosed with primary liver cancer was identified between 2010 to 2012. We adopted Chi-square test to compared metastasis distribution among different histological types. We compared survival difference of patients with different extrahepatic metastasises by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to identify other prognostic factors of overall survival. Results: We finally identified 8677 patients who were diagnosed with primary liver cancer from 2010 to 2012 and 1775 patients were in distant metastasis stages. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was more invasive and had a higher percentage of metastasis compared with hepatocellular carcinoma. Lung was the most common metastasis and brain was the least common site for both hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Extrahepatic metastasis could consider as an independent prognostic factor for patients with liver cancer. Patients with brain metastasis had the worst prognosis, compared with other metastasis in overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) analysis. Conclusions: Different histological subtypes of liver cancer had different metastasis patterns. There were profound differences in risk of mortality among distant extrahepatic metastatic sites. Results from our studies would provide some information for follow-up strategies and future studies.

  15. Embolotherapy for Neuroendocrine Tumor Liver Metastases: Prognostic Factors for Hepatic Progression-Free Survival and Overall Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, James X. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Rose, Steven [University of San Diego Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); White, Sarah B. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); El-Haddad, Ghassan [Moffitt Cancer Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Fidelman, Nicholas [University of San Francisco Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Yarmohammadi, Hooman [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Hwang, Winifred; Sze, Daniel Y.; Kothary, Nishita [Stanford University Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Stashek, Kristen [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pathology (United States); Wileyto, E. Paul [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (United States); Salem, Riad [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Metz, David C. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine (United States); Soulen, Michael C., E-mail: michael.soulen@uphs.upenn.edu [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-01-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate prognostic factors for survival outcomes following embolotherapy for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) liver metastases.Materials and MethodsThis was a multicenter retrospective study of 155 patients (60 years mean age, 57 % male) with NET liver metastases from pancreas (n = 71), gut (n = 68), lung (n = 8), or other/unknown (n = 8) primary sites treated with conventional transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, n = 50), transarterial radioembolization (TARE, n = 64), or transarterial embolization (TAE, n = 41) between 2004 and 2015. Patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors were evaluated for prognostic effect on hepatic progression-free survival (HPFS) and overall survival (OS) using unadjusted and propensity score-weighted univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsMedian HPFS and OS were 18.5 and 125.1 months for G1 (n = 75), 12.2 and 33.9 months for G2 (n = 60), and 4.9 and 9.3 months for G3 tumors (n = 20), respectively (p < 0.05). Tumor burden >50 % hepatic volume demonstrated 5.5- and 26.8-month shorter median HPFS and OS, respectively, versus burden ≤50 % (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in HPFS or OS between gut or pancreas primaries. In multivariate HPFS analysis, there were no significant differences among embolotherapy modalities. In multivariate OS analysis, TARE had a higher hazard ratio than TACE (unadjusted Cox model: HR 2.1, p = 0.02; propensity score adjusted model: HR 1.8, p = 0.11), while TAE did not differ significantly from TACE.ConclusionHigher tumor grade and tumor burden prognosticated shorter HPFS and OS. TARE had a higher hazard ratio for OS than TACE. There were no significant differences in HPFS among embolotherapy modalities.

  16. Irradiation facility at the TRIGA Mainz for treatment of liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, G; Wortmann, B; Blaickner, M; Knorr, J; Kratz, J V; Lizón Aguilar, A; Minouchehr, S; Nagels, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L

    2009-07-01

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz provides ideal conditions for duplicating BNCT treatment as performed in Pavia, Italy, in 2001 and 2003 [Pinelli, T., Zonta, A., Altieri, S., Barni, S., Braghieri, A., Pedroni, P., Bruschi, P., Chiari, P., Ferrari, C., Fossati, F., Nano, R., Ngnitejeu Tata, S., Prati, U., Ricevuti, G., Roveda, L., Zonta, C., 2002. TAOrMINA: from the first idea to the application to the human liver. In: Sauerwein et al. (Eds.), Research and Development in Neutron Capture Therapy. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy, Monduzzi editore, Bologna, pp. 1065-1072]. In order to determine the optimal parameters for the planned therapy and therefore for the design of the thermal column, calculations were conducted using the MCNP-code and the transport code ATTILA. The results of the parameter study as well as a possible configuration for the irradiation of the liver are presented.

  17. Irradiation facility at the TRIGA Mainz for treatment of liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, G. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)], E-mail: gabriele.hample@uni-mainz.de; Wortmann, B. [Evonik Energy Services GmbH Essen, Ruettenscheider Str. 1-3, D-45128 Essen (Germany); Blaickner, M. [Austrian Research Centers, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Knorr, J. [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Energietechnik, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kratz, J.V. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lizon Aguilar, A. [Evonik Energy Services GmbH Essen, Ruettenscheider Str. 1-3, D-45128 Essen (Germany); Minouchehr, S. [Transplantationschirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Nagels, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Strahlenforschung (ISF), Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Otto, G. [Transplantationschirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schmidberger, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schuetz, C.; Vogtlaender, L. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor at University of Mainz provides ideal conditions for duplicating BNCT treatment as performed in Pavia, Italy, in 2001 and 2003 [Pinelli, T., Zonta, A., Altieri, S., Barni, S., Braghieri, A., Pedroni, P., Bruschi, P., Chiari, P., Ferrari, C., Fossati, F., Nano, R., Ngnitejeu Tata, S., Prati, U., Ricevuti, G., Roveda, L., Zonta, C., 2002. TAOrMINA: from the first idea to the application to the human liver. In: Sauerwein et al. (Eds.), Research and Development in Neutron Capture Therapy. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy, Monduzzi editore, Bologna, pp. 1065-1072]. In order to determine the optimal parameters for the planned therapy and therefore for the design of the thermal column, calculations were conducted using the MCNP-code and the transport code ATTILA. The results of the parameter study as well as a possible configuration for the irradiation of the liver are presented.

  18. Dosimetric feasibility study for an extracorporeal BNCT application on liver metastases at the TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaickner, M., E-mail: matthias.blaickner@ait.ac.at [Health and Environment Department-Molecular Medicine, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Kratz, J.V. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Minouchehr, S.; Otto, G. [Transplantationschirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schmidberger, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schuetz, C.; Vogtlaender, L. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Wortmann, B. [Evonik Energy Services GmbH Essen, Ruettenscheider Str. 1-3, D-45128 Essen (Germany); Hampel, G. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    This study investigates the dosimetric feasibility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of explanted livers in the thermal column of the research reactor in Mainz. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to calculate the biologically weighted dose for different ratios of the {sup 10}B-concentration in tumour to normal liver tissue. The simulation results show that dosimetric goals are only partially met. To guarantee effective BNCT treatment the organ has to be better shielded from all gamma radiation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the potential for BNCT treatment at TRIGA Mainz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulation shows the necessity of gamma shielding for the organ from all sides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary photons induced within the graphite contribute considerably to gamma dose.

  19. Colorectal cancer liver metastases: long-term survival and progression-free survival after thermal ablation using magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy in 594 patients: analysis of prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Thomas J; Dommermuth, Alena; Heinle, Britta; Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A; Lehnert, Thomas; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stephan; Bechstein, Wolf O; Naguib, Nagy N N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the evaluation of prognostic factors for long-term survival and progression-free survival (PFS) after treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases with magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced interstital thermotherapy (LITT). We included 594 patients (mean age, 61.2 years) with CRC liver metastases who were treated with LITT. The statistical analysis of the long-term survival and PFS were based on the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model tested different parameters that could be of prognostic value. The tested prognostic factors were the following: sex, age, the location of primary tumor, the number of metastases, the maximal diameter and total volume of metastases and necroses, the quotient of total volumes of metastases and necroses, the time of appearance of liver metastases and location in the liver, the TNM classification of CRC, extrahepatic metastases, and neoadjuvant treatments. The median survival was 25 months starting from the date of the first LITT. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates were 78%, 50.1%, 28%, 16.4%, and 7.8%, respectively. The median PFS was 13 months. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year PFS rates were 51.3%, 35.4%, 30.7%, 25.4%, and 22.3%, respectively. The number of metastases and their maximal diameter were the most important prognostic factors for both long-term survival and PFS. Long-term survival was also highly influenced by the initial involvement of the lymph nodes. For patients treated with LITT for CRC liver metastases, the number and size of metastases, together with the initial lymph node status, are significant prognostic factors for long-term survival.

  20. β-catenin-independent WNT signaling and Ki67 in contrast to the estrogen receptor status are prognostic and associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckmann, Annalen; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Menck, Kerstin; Schmick, Nadine Annette; Schubert, Antonia; Rietkötter, Eva; Arackal, Jetcy; Middel, Peter; Schambony, Alexandra; Liersch, Torsten; Homayounfar, Kia; Beißbarth, Tim; Klemm, Florian; Binder, Claudia; Pukrop, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Liver metastasis development in breast cancer patients is common and confers a poor prognosis. So far, the prognostic significance of surgical resection and clinical relevance of biomarker analysis in metastatic tissue have barely been investigated. We previously demonstrated an impact of WNT signaling in breast cancer brain metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the value of established prognostic markers and WNT signaling components in liver metastases. Overall N = 34 breast cancer liver metastases (with matched primaries in 19/34 cases) were included in this retrospective study. Primaries and metastatic samples were analyzed for their expression of the estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor, HER-2, Ki67, and various WNT signaling-components by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, β-catenin-dependent and -independent WNT scores were generated and analyzed for their prognostic value. Additionally, the influence of the alternative WNT receptor ROR on signaling and invasiveness was analyzed in vitro. ER positivity (HR 0.09, 95 % CI 0.01-0.56) and high Ki67 (HR 3.68, 95 % CI 1.12-12.06) in the primaries had prognostic impact. However, only Ki67 remained prognostic in the metastatic tissue (HR 2.46, 95 % CI 1.11-5.44). Additionally, the β-catenin-independent WNT score correlated with reduced overall survival only in the metastasized situation (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.02-4.69, p = 0.0391). This is in line with the in vitro results of the alternative WNT receptors ROR1 and ROR2, which foster invasion. In breast cancer, the value of prognostic markers established in primary tumors cannot directly be translated to metastases. Our results revealed β-catenin-independent WNT signaling to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer liver metastasis.

  1. Optimal beam margins in linac-based VMAT stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy: a Pareto front analysis for liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Savino; Ianiro, Anna; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesù, Cinzia; Valentini, Vincenzo; Morganti, Alessio G

    2017-11-27

    We explored the Pareto fronts mathematical strategy to determine the optimal block margin and prescription isodose for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments of liver metastases using the volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique. Three targets (planning target volumes [PTVs] = 20, 55, and 101 cc) were selected. A single fraction dose of 26 Gy was prescribed (prescription dose [PD]). VMAT plans were generated for 3 different beam energies. Pareto fronts based on (1) different multileaf collimator (MLC) block margin around PTV and (2) different prescription isodose lines (IDL) were produced. For each block margin, the greatest IDL fulfilling the criteria (95% of PTV reached 100%) was considered as providing the optimal clinical plan for PTV coverage. Liver D mean , V7Gy, and V12Gy were used against the PTV coverage to generate the fronts. Gradient indexes (GI and mGI), homogeneity index (HI), and healthy liver irradiation in terms of D mean , V7Gy, and V12Gy were calculated to compare different plans. In addition, each target was also optimized with a full-inverse planning engine to obtain a direct comparison with anatomy-based treatment planning system (TPS) results. About 900 plans were calculated to generate the fronts. GI and mGI show a U-shaped behavior as a function of beam margin with minimal values obtained with a +1 mm MLC margin. For these plans, the IDL ranges from 74% to 86%. GI and mGI show also a V-shaped behavior with respect to HI index, with minimum values at 1 mm for all metrics, independent of tumor dimensions and beam energy. Full-inversed optimized plans reported worse results with respect to Pareto plans. In conclusion, Pareto fronts provide a rigorous strategy to choose clinical optimal plans in SBRT treatments. We show that a 1-mm MLC block margin provides the best results with regard to healthy liver tissue irradiation and steepness of dose fallout. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

  2. Changes in hepatic perfusion assessed by dynamic contrast enhanced MRI, associated with morphologic evaluation, in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampellini, Marco; Gned, Dario; Baratelli, Chiara; Brizzi, Maria Pia; Ottone, Azzurra; Alabiso, Irene; Bertaggia, Chiara; Di Maio, Massimo; Scagliotti, Giorgio Vittorio; Veltri, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Blood perfusion of liver metastases can be non-invasively assessed by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The aim of this study was to explore whether the ratio of hepatic arterial to total liver blood flow (Hepatic Perfusion Index-HPI) and the area under the enhancement curve (AUC) of selected liver areas in patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy could predict response and/or be a prognostic variable. Sequential liver DCE-MRI studies with morphological imaging reconstruction were performed in 43 consecutive patients at baseline and every 3 months during oxaliplatin-based first-line chemotherapy. Data about HPI of the whole liver, and AUC of metastatic and healthy areas were calculated at each time-point and compared both at baseline and sequentially during the treatment. Baseline HPI and AUC values did not discriminate patients responsive to chemotherapy, nor those with better survival outcomes. HPI and AUC values at 3 months decreased significantly more in responders than non-responders. AUCs calculated from areas of the liver with or without neoplastic lesions varied consistently, being increased in progressing patients and decreased in responding patients. Our results did not support the hypothesis of a predictive or prognostic role of HPI and AUCs calculated by DCE-MRI in liver metastatic CRC patients, thus the primary endpoint of the study was not reached. However, reduced arterial blood flow in metastatic liver can be obtained by chemotherapy alone, without any anti-angiogenic agent; interestingly, HPI and AUC data suggest a possible relationship between tumor metabolism and entire liver perfusion.

  3. [A case of stage IV gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases surviving for more than 4 years by treatment with chemotherapies without surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Toshinori; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Kanno, Shinichi; Miyashita, Eishi; Tanaka, Naoki; Ikezawa, Fumie; Shibata, Chikashi; Sasaki, Iwao; Yoshioka, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    A 75-year-old male who with type 3 gastric cardia cancer with multiple liver metastases was initially treated with S-1 in July of 2005. After 4 courses of the treatment, the liver metastases became undetectable on abdominal CT scan, with reduction in size of the primary tumor of the stomach. After 7 months of S-1 treatment, however, the progression of the primary lesion was endoscopically detected, and irinotecan was administered, demonstrating primary tumor regression. When re-growth of the primary tumor was observed, 3 courses of paclitaxel treatment showed little effect and was replaced by docetaxel treatment for 5 months, which had a grade 3 adverse effect. The next 10 courses of 5-FU combined with methotrexate were applied for one year until the primary tumor showed enlargement. Then 12 courses of CDDP with S-1 were administered until now, and the size of the primary carcinoma is under control. The patient is being followed on an outpatient basis without any surgical treatment, while the liver metastases have not relapsed on abdominal imaging.

  4. FLT-PET for early response evaluation of colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Marie Benzon; Loft, Annika; Aznar, Marianne; Axelsen, Thomas; Vainer, Ben; Osterlind, Kell; Kjaer, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Fluoro-L-thymidine (FLT) is a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) tracer which reflects proliferative activity in a cancer lesion. The main objective of this prospective explorative study was to evaluate whether FLT-PET can be used for the early evaluation of treatment response in colorectal cancer patients (CRC) with liver metastases. Patients with metastatic CRC having at least one measurable (>1 cm) liver metastasis receiving first-line chemotherapy were included. A FLT-PET/CT scan was performed at baseline and after the first treatment. The maximum and mean standardised uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean) were measured. After three cycles of chemotherapy, treatment response was assessed by CT scan based on RECIST 1.1. Thirty-nine consecutive patients were included of which 27 were evaluable. Dropout was mainly due to disease complications. Nineteen patients (70%) had a partial response, seven (26%) had stable disease and one (4%) had progressive disease. A total of 23 patients (85%) had a decrease in FLT uptake following the first treatment. The patient with progressive disease had the highest increase in FLT uptake in SUVmax. There was no correlation between the response according to RECIST and the early changes in FLT uptake measured as SUVmax (p = 0.24). No correlation was found between early changes in FLT uptake after the first cycle of treatment and the response evaluated from subsequent CT scans. It seems unlikely that FLT-PET can be used on its own for the early response evaluation of metastatic CRC.

  5. Lobulated Enhancement Evaluation in the Follow-Up of Liver Metastases Treated by Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarraya, Hajer, E-mail: h-jarraya@o-lambret.fr [Department of Radiology, Oscar Lambret Oncologic Center, Lille (France); Borde, Paul [Department of Radiology, Oscar Lambret Oncologic Center, Lille (France); Mirabel, Xavier [Department of Radiotherapy, Oscar Lambret Oncologic Center, Lille (France); Ernst, Olivier [Department of Body Imaging, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (France); Boulanger, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Oscar Lambret Oncologic Center, Lille (France); Lartigau, Eric [Department of Radiotherapy, Oscar Lambret Oncologic Center, Lille (France); Ceugnart, Luc [Department of Radiology, Oscar Lambret Oncologic Center, Lille (France); Kramar, Andrew [Statistical Unit, Oscar Lambret Oncologic Center, Lille (France); Taieb, Sophie [Department of Radiology, Oscar Lambret Oncologic Center, Lille (France)

    2015-06-01

    Objective: The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) can have limitations when used to evaluate local treatments for cancer, especially for liver malignancies treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The aim of this study was to validate the relationship between the occurrence of lobulated enhancement (LE) and local relapse and to evaluate the utility of this relationship for predicting local progression. Patients and Methods: Imaging data of 59 lesions in 46 patients, including 281 computed tomographic (CT) scans, were retrospectively and blindly reviewed by 3 radiologists. One radiologist measured the lesion size, for each CT and overall, to classify responses using RECIST threshold criteria. The second studied LE occurrence. A third radiologist was later included and studied LE occurrence to evaluate the interobserver consistency for LE evaluation. Results: The mean duration of follow-up was 13.6 months. LE was observed in 16 of 18 progressive lesions, occurring before size-based progression in 50% of cases, and the median delay of LE detection was 3.2 months. The sensitivity of LE to predict progression was 89%, and its specificity was 100%. The positive predictive value was 100%, the negative predictive value was 95.3%, and the overall accuracy was 97%. The probability of local progression-free survival at 12 months was significantly higher for lesions without LE compared with all lesions: 0.80 (CI 95%: 0.65-0.89) versus 0.69 (CI 95%: 0.54-0.80), respectively. The overall concordance rate between the 2 readers of LE was 97.9%. Conclusion: Response assessment of liver metastases treated by SBRT can be improved by including LE. This study demonstrates the diagnostic and predictive utility of LE for assessing local progression at a size still eligible for local salvage treatment.

  6. CT-guided brachytherapy (CTGB) versus interstitial laser ablation (ILT) of colorectal liver metastases. An intraindividual matched-pair analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pech, M.; Wieners, G.; Kryza, R.; Dudeck, O.; Seidensticker, M.; Mohnike, K.; Redlich, U.; Ruehl, R.; Ricke, J. [Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Magdeburg (Germany); Wust, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Charite, Campus Virchow Clinic, Univ. of Berlin (Germany); Gademann, G. [Clinic for Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Purpose: to compare local tumor control after percutaneous tumor ablation by interstitial laser therapy (ILT) or CT-guided brachytherapy (CTGB). Patients and methods: in a matched pair analysis including 18 patients with 36 liver metastases of colorectal primary, both ILT and CTGB were performed in different lesions. The following matching factors were considered: (i) tumor size {<=} 5 cm, and (ii) execution of chemotherapy after tumor ablation. Primary endpoint was local tumor control. Results: treated lesions were identical in terms of tumor size and all matching criteria were fulfilled in all patients except for the performance of adjuvant chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 14 months (3-24 months) for both groups. Only five of 18 patients (28%) demonstrated local tumor progression after CTGB, whereas in ten of 18 patients (56%) tumor progression was found after ILT. Differences encountered were significant for all patients (p = 0.04), whereas in those who fulfilled all matching criteria (n = 14) the level of statistical significance was not reached (p = 0.23). Conclusion: CTGB demonstrated superior local tumor control compared to ILT in long-term follow-up. (orig.)

  7. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging for the detection of colorectal liver metastases after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Konkuk University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung-Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Bo Yun [Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-You [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung-Yong; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the detection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Our study population comprised 77 patients with 140 CRLMs who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI within 1 month prior to surgery: group A (without NAC, n = 38) and group B (with NAC, n = 39). Two radiologists independently assessed all MR images and graded their diagnostic confidence for CRLM on a 5-point scale. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated and compared between the two groups. Diagnostic accuracy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in group B was slightly lower than in group A, but a statistically significant difference was not observed (observer 1: A{sub z}, 0.926 in group A, 0.905 in group B; observer 2: A{sub z}, 0.944 in group A, 0.885 in group B; p > 0.05). Sensitivity and PPV of group B were comparable to those of group A (observer 1: sensitivity = 93.5 % vs. 93.6 %, PPV = 95.1 % vs. 86.9 %; observer 2: sensitivity = 96.8 % vs. 91.0 %; PPV = 90.0 % vs. 89.7 %; all p > 0.05). Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI including DWI provided good diagnostic performance with high sensitivity (>90 %) for the detection of CRLMs, regardless of the influence of NAC. (orig.)

  8. Embryonic Origin of Primary Colon Cancer Predicts Pathologic Response and Survival in Patients Undergoing Resection for Colon Cancer Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Suguru; Brudvik, Kristoffer Watten; Kopetz, Scott E; Maru, Dipen; Clarke, Callisia N; Passot, Guillaume; Conrad, Claudius; Chun, Yun Shin; Aloia, Thomas A; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-12-19

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of embryonic origin in patients undergoing resection after chemotherapy for colon cancer liver metastases (CCLM). We identified 725 patients with primary colon cancer and known RAS mutation status who underwent hepatic resection after preoperative chemotherapy for CCLM (1990 to 2015). Survival after resection of CCLM from midgut origin (n = 238) and hindgut origin (n = 487) was analyzed. Predictors of pathologic response and survival were determined. Prognostic value of embryonic origin was validated with a separate cohort of 252 patients with primary colon cancer who underwent resection of CCLM without preoperative chemotherapy. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after hepatic resection were worse in patients with midgut origin tumors (RFS rate at 3 years: 15% vs 27%, P origin [odds ratio (OR) 1.55, P = 0.010], absence of bevacizumab (OR 1.42, P = 0.034), and mutant RAS (OR 1.41, P = 0.043). Independent factors associated with worse OS were midgut embryonic origin [hazard ratio (HR) 2.04, P origin had a worse 3-year OS rate (55% vs 78%, P = 0.003). Compared with CCLM from hindgut origin, CCLM from midgut origin are associated with worse pathologic response to chemotherapy and worse survival after resection. This effect appears to be independent of RAS mutation status.

  9. Case Report of Cirrhosis following Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Loree

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management options for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs metastatic to the liver include surgical, ablative, cytotoxic, and radioisotope approaches. One potential local treatment option includes selective internal radiotherapy utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres. 90Y has also been used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and tumors metastatic to the liver. It appears to be well tolerated; however, there is no randomized controlled trial reporting long-term toxicities. Previous retrospective reports have described biliary damage as a potential complication of therapy with 90Y and chemoembolization; however, the long-term sequelae of 90Y treatment are poorly understood. Case Presentation: We present the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman who suffered biliary damage following 90Y administration for metastatic pNETs and subsequently developed cirrhosis. Given the timeline of her various treatments and the lack of any other identifiable etiology for her cirrhosis, we believe this to be a potential long-term complication of 90Y therapy. Conclusion: This case provides pathologic confirmation of cirrhosis as a potential long-term sequela of 90Y treatment. This long-term risk needs to be considered when sequencing therapy for patients with neuroendocrine tumors who have a good prognosis. There are now several other systemic and ablative treatment options available to these patients, and long-term complications must be considered during treatment.

  10. Impact of novel histopathological factors on the outcomes of liver surgery for colorectal cancer metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrablo, A; Paliogiannis, P; Pulighe, F; Moro, S Saudi-Moro; Borrego-Estella, V; Attene, F; Scognamillo, F; Hörndler, C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the impacts of a series of novel histopathological factors on clinical-surgical outcomes and survival of patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer liver metastasis, with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A prospective database including 150 consecutive patients who underwent 183 hepatic resections for metastatic colorectal cancer was evaluated. Among them, 74 (49.3%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery. The histopathological factors studied were: a) microsatellitosis, b) type and pattern of tumour growth, c) nuclear grade and the number of mitoses/mm(2), d) perilesional pseudocapsule, e) intratumoural fibrosis, f) lesion cellularity, g) hypoxic-angiogenic perilesional growth pattern, and h) the tumour normal interface. Three or more metastatic lesions, R1 resection margins, and 10% were predictive of a worse neoadjuvant therapy response, but these findings were not confirmed in the multivariate analysis. Finally, tumour necrosis 10%, and TNI >0.5 mm were prognostic factors for a worse DFS and AS in the univariate but not in the multivariate analysis. Several factors seem to influence the outcomes of surgery for colorectal cancer liver metastasis, especially the number of the lesions, the margins of resection, the percentage of necrosis and fibrosis, as well as the cellularity and the TNI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX-6 or FOLFOXIRI in patients with initially unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer: the OLIVIA multinational randomised phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenberger, T; Bridgewater, J; Chau, I; García Alfonso, P; Rivoire, M; Mudan, S; Lasserre, S; Hermann, F; Waterkamp, D; Adam, R

    2015-04-01

    For patients with initially unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer, chemotherapy can downsize metastases and facilitate secondary resection. We assessed the efficacy of bevacizumab plus modified FOLFOX-6 (5-fluorouracil/folinic acid, oxaliplatin) or FOLFOXIRI (5-fluorouracil/folinic acid, oxaliplatin, irinotecan) in this setting. OLIVIA was a multinational open-label phase II study conducted at 16 centres in Austria, France, Spain, and the UK. Patients with unresectable liver metastases were randomised to bevacizumab (5 mg/kg) plus mFOLFOX-6 [oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2), folinic acid 400 mg/m(2), 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m(2) (bolus) then 2400 mg/m(2) (46-h infusion)] or FOLFOXIRI [oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2), irinotecan 165 mg/m(2), folinic acid 200 mg/m(2), 5-fluorouracil 3200 mg/m(2) (46-h infusion)] every 2 weeks. Unresectability was defined as ≥1 of the following criteria: no possibility of upfront R0/R1 resection of all lesions; liver volume after resection; metastases in contact with major vessels of the remnant liver. Resectability was evaluated by multidisciplinary review. The primary end point was overall resection rate (R0/R1/R2). Efficacy end points were analysed by intention-to-treat analysis. In patients assigned to bevacizumab-FOLFOXIRI (n = 41) or bevacizumab-mFOLFOX-6 (n = 39), the overall resection rate was 61% [95% confidence interval (CI) 45% to 76%] and 49% (95% CI 32% to 65%), respectively (difference 12%; 95% CI -11% to 36%). R0 resection rates were 49% and 23%, respectively. Overall tumour response rates were 81% (95% CI 65% to 91%) with bevacizumab-FOLFOXIRI and 62% (95% CI 45% to 77%) with bevacizumab-mFOLFOX-6. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 18·6 (95% CI 12.9-22.3) months and 11·5 (95% CI 9.6-13.6) months, respectively. The most common grade 3-5 adverse events were neutropenia (bevacizumab-FOLFOXIRI, 50%; bevacizumab-mFOLFOX-6, 35%) and diarrhoea (30% and 14%, respectively). Bevacizumab-FOLFOXIRI was associated with

  12. CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection with disposable curved needle for treatment of malignant liver neoplasms and their metastases in retroperitoneal lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chang-Jing; Wang, Pei-Jun; Shao, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Min-Jie; Tian, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Yi; Ren, Fang-Yuan; Hao, Xi-Yan; Yuan, Min

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) using a disposable curved needle for treatment of malignant liver neoplasms and their metastases in retroperitoneal lymph nodes. METHODS: CT-guided PEI was conducted using a disposable curved needle in 26 malignant liver tumors smaller than 5 cm in diameter and 5 lymph node metastases of liver cancer in the retroperitoneal space. The disposable curved needle was composed of a straight trocar (21G) and stylet, a disposable curved tip (25 G) and a fine stylet. For the tumors found in deep sites and difficult to reach, or for hepatic masses inaccessible to the injection using a straight needle because of portal vein and bile ducts, the straight trocar was used at first to reach the side of the tumor. Then, the disposable curved needle was used via the trocar. When the needle reached the tumor center, appropriate amount of ethanol was injected. For relatively large malignant liver tumors, multi-point injection was carried out for a better distribution of the ethanol injected throughout the masses. The curved needle was also used for treatment of the metastasis in retroperitoneal lymph nodes blocked by blood vessels and inaccessible by the straight needle. RESULTS: All of the 26 liver tumors received 2 or more times of successful PEI, through which ethanol was distributed throughout the whole tumor mass. Effect of the treatment was monitored by contrast-enhanced multi-phase CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations three months later. Of the 18 lesions whose diameters were smaller than 3 cm, the necrotic change across the whole mass and that in most areas were observed in 15 and 3 tumors, respectively. Among the 8 tumors sizing up to 5 cm, 5 were completely necrotic and 3 largely necrotic. Levels of tumor seromarkers were significantly reduced in some of the cases. In 5 patients with metastases of liver cancer in retroperitoneal lymph nodes who received 1

  13. Development and Preclinical Application of an Immunocompetent Transplant Model of Basal Breast Cancer with Lung, Liver and Brain Metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aprelikova

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is associated with a poor prognosis and for which no targeted therapies currently exist. In order to improve preclinical testing for TNBC that relies primarily on using human xenografts in immunodeficient mice, we have developed a novel immunocompetent syngeneic murine tumor transplant model for basal-like triple-negative breast cancer. The C3(1/SV40-T/t-antigen (C3(1/Tag mouse mammary tumor model in the FVB/N background shares important similarities with human basal-like TNBC. However, these tumors or derived cell lines are rejected when transplanted into wt FVB/N mice, likely due to the expression of SV40 T-antigen. We have developed a sub-line of mice (designated REAR mice that carry only one copy of the C3(1/Tag-antigen transgene resulting from a spontaneous transgene rearrangement in the original founder line. Unlike the original C3(1/Tag mice, REAR mice do not develop mammary tumors or other phenotypes observed in the original C3(1/Tag transgenic mice. REAR mice are more immunologically tolerant to SV40 T-antigen driven tumors and cell lines in an FVB/N background (including prostate tumors from TRAMP mice, but are otherwise immunologically intact. This transplant model system offers the ability to synchronously implant the C3(1/Tag tumor-derived M6 cell line or individual C3(1/Tag tumors from various stages of tumor development into the mammary fat pads or tail veins of REAR mice. C3(1/Tag tumors or M6 cells implanted into the mammary fat pads spontaneously metastasize at a high frequency to the lung and liver. M6 cells injected by tail vein can form brain metastases. We demonstrate that irradiated M6 tumor cells or the same cells expressing GM-CSF can act as a vaccine to retard tumor growth of implanted tumor cells in the REAR model. Preclinical studies performed in animals with an intact immune system should more authentically replicate treatment

  14. Clusterin expression in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours is highly correlated with location and is helpful in determining the origin of liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourra, Najat; Scriva, Aurelie; Mansiaux, Yohann; Gozlan, Sarah; Bennis, Malika; Balaton, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Clusterin (CLU) is a sulphated glycoprotein implicated in many physiological and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis. We have previously demonstrated that CLU is highly expressed in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). The aims of this study were: to investigate CLU expression in gastrointestinal NETs; the potential correlation between this expression and different clinicopathological parameters; and its usefulness in the differential diagnosis of liver metastases. Immunohistochemistry using an anti-CLU antibody was performed on paraffin sections from 108 primary NETs [G3 (13 cases), G2 (18 cases), and G1 (77 cases), according to the 2010 WHO classification] and 60 metastases. Cytoplasmic positivity was scored qualitatively and quantitatively. The pattern of staining was also assessed. Two-step statistical analyses (univariate and multivariate logistic regression) were performed. More than 90% of small-intestine NETs were completely negative. The probability of obtaining a positive CLU score was higher for the appendix, the stomach, the duodenum and the rectum than for the small intestine and colon. All G3 NETs and most G2 NETs were negative as compared with G1. CLU expression in the metastatic foci was identical to that of the primary tumour. Clusterin expression in gastrointestinal NETs is highly correlated with location and probably also with grading, in both the primary tumour and metastases. Underexpression of CLU in small-intestine NETs is helpful for identifying the origin of liver metastases: a strong CLU score in a liver biopsy makes the small intestine highly unlikely as a primary site. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. MRI-guided laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of liver metastases: clinical evaluation; MR-gesteuerte laserinduzierte Thermotherapie (LITT) von Lebermetastasen: Klinische Evaluierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Weinhold, N. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Mueller, P. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Mack, M. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Scholz, W. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Philipp, C. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Roggan, A. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    The goal was to perform an evaluation of MRI-guided laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of liver metastases as a clinical method. In a prospective study, 50 patients with liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma (35 patients), or other primary tumors (15 patients) were treated with LITT. For preparation and intermittent controls of therapy, standardized MRI examinations were made. Online monitoring during the the LITT was done with temperature-sensitive T1-weighted sequences (FLASH-2D, TurboFLASH). All in all, 83 metastases of a volume between 1 and 282 cubic centimeters (median = {+-} 10 cm{sup 3}) were treated.During performance of the LITT, a decrease of signal intensity in the thermosensitive sequences was measured for the application area, and was correlated with fluorine-optical temperature measurements. The MRI-guided LITT is a novel, potential modality for treatment of liver metastases, and poses only minimal clinical risks. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Ziel: Evaluierung der MR-gesteuerten laserinduzierten Thermotherapie (LITT) von Lebermetastasen im klinischen Einsatz. Material und Methodik: Im Rahmen einer prospektiven Studie wurden 50 Patienten mit Lebermetastasen kolorektaler Karzinome (35 Patienten) und anderer Primaertumoren (15 Patienten) mittels LITT behandelt. Zur Vorbereitung und Verlaufskontrolle der Therapie wurden standardisierte MRT-Untersuchungen vorgenommmen. Das On-Line Monitoring waehrend der LITT wurde mit temperatursensitiven T1-gewichteten Sequenzen (FLASH-2D, TurboFLASH) durchgefuehrt. Es wurden 83 Metastasen mit einem Volumen von 1 bis 282 cm{sup 3} (Median = {+-} 10 cm{sup 3}) therapiert. Waehrend der LITT wurde im Applikationsbereich eine Signalintensitaetsabnahme in den thermosensitiven Sequenzen dokumentiert und mit fluoroptischer Temperaturmessung korreliert. Schlussfolgerung: Die MR-gesteuerte LITT stellt eine neue potente Therapieform fuer Lebermetastasen dar und kann mit klinisch minimalem Risiko eingesetzt werden. (orig./VHE)

  16. Radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses of repeated single-fraction hdr-irradiation of intersecting small liver volumes for recurrent hepatic metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wust Peter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses as well as other toxic effects derived from repeated applications of single-fraction high dose rate irradiation of small liver volumes in clinical practice. Methods Twenty patients with liver metastases were treated repeatedly (2 - 4 times at identical or intersecting locations by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy with varying time intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging using the hepatocyte selective contrast media Gd-BOPTA was performed before and after treatment to determine the volume of hepatocyte function loss (called pseudolesion, and the last acquired MRI data set was merged with the dose distributions of all administered brachytherapies. We calculated the BED (biologically equivalent dose for a single dose d = 2 Gy for different α/β values (2, 3, 10, 20, 100 based on the linear-quadratic model and estimated the tolerance dose for liver parenchyma D90 as the BED exposing 90% of the pseudolesion in MRI. Results The tolerance doses D90 after repeated brachytherapy sessions were found between 22 - 24 Gy and proved only slightly dependent on α/β in the clinically relevant range of α/β = 2 - 10 Gy. Variance analysis showed a significant dependency of D90 with respect to the intervals between the first irradiation and the MRI control (p 90 and the pseudolesion's volume. No symptoms of liver dysfunction or other toxic effects such as abscess formation occurred during the follow-up time, neither acute nor on the long-term. Conclusions Inactivation of liver parenchyma occurs at a BED of approx. 22 - 24 Gy corresponding to a single dose of ~10 Gy (α/β ~ 5 Gy. This tolerance dose is consistent with the large potential to treat oligotopic and/or recurrent liver metastases by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy without radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Repeated small volume irradiation may be applied safely within the limits of this study.

  17. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ablative therapies in the management of liver metastases: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveman, Emma; Jones, Jeremy; Clegg, Andrew J; Picot, Joanna; Colquitt, Jillian L; Mendes, Diana; Breen, David J; Moore, Emily; George, Steve; Poston, Graeme; Cunningham, David; Ruers, Theo; Primrose, John

    2014-01-01

    Many deaths from cancer are caused by metastatic burden. Prognosis and survival rates vary, but survival beyond 5 years of patients with untreated metastatic disease in the liver is rare. Treatment for liver metastases has largely been surgical resection, but this is feasible in only approximately 20-30% of people. Non-surgical alternatives to treat some liver metastases can include various forms of ablative therapies and other targeted treatments. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the different ablative and minimally invasive therapies for treating liver metastases. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library were searched from 1990 to September 2011. Experts were consulted and bibliographies checked. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken to appraise the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ablative therapies and minimally invasive therapies used for people with liver metastases. Studies were any prospective study with sample size greater than 100 participants. A probabilistic model was developed for the economic evaluation of the technologies where data permitted. The evidence assessing the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ablative and other minimally invasive therapies was limited. Nine studies of ablative therapies were included in the review; each had methodological shortcomings and few had a comparator group. One randomised controlled trial (RCT) of microwave ablation versus surgical resection was identified and showed no improvement in outcomes compared with resection. In two prospective case series studies that investigated the use of laser ablation, mean survival ranged from 41 to 58 months. One cohort study compared radiofrequency ablation with surgical resection and five case series studies also investigated the use of radiofrequency ablation. Across these studies the median survival ranged from 44 to 52 months. Seven studies of minimally invasive

  18. VARIETY OF GRAY-SCALE SONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF UNTREATED LIVER METASTASES ALI HADIDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI HADIDI

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Encountered wit h b izarre patterns o f l i v e r metas t a s es dec l i ned our accuracy rate s o the humi liation o f mist ake s motivated me to re-assess t he value o f hepatic sonography in patients s u spe c t ed o f having metastatic l i ver neoplasms . 43 pat ients , who had no t recieved any prior the r a phy , had been studied by gray-scale ult r a s ound . The echographic evidence i n accordance with o ur e x p e r ~ e n ce can be categorized as fo l l ows : I l a rge echo g enic or ~c ho poor area , II d iscrete masse s wi t.h high-level e c hoes spreaded t hroughout a lobe o f the l i ve r , III e cho f ree mass with i r regular mar q i.n , r .J d i f f use a lterat ion of the homogeneous e cho pattern of t he liver , V Bull ' s - eye ,VI abscess like,VII sol id echogenic mass vei th a centra l hyperechoic hor izontal l i ne , VIII echogenic mass ".;i t;l two l a t eral hypo e choic marg i n s, rX isodense e chog eni c a r ea bounded by an hypoechoic c i r c l e . The f e at u r e s seen i n l iver ultra sonography of t he entire pat t e r ns , a nd those s e en as new c r i teria are presented ~

  19. The triumph of politics over wilderness science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig W. Allin

    2000-01-01

    The National Wilderness Preservation System reflects the triumph of politics over science. The history of wilderness allocation has reflected political rather than scientific sensibilities. The preeminence of politics over science extends to wilderness management as well and is illustrated here by representative examples from the modern history of Yellowstone National...

  20. Chemotherapy plus targeted drugs in conversion therapy for potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Sun, Yinan; Zhao, Ben; Zhang, Huixian; Yu, Qianqian; Yuan, Xianglin

    2016-08-23

    To evaluate the safety and efficiency of the conversion therapy: chemotherapy plus anti-epidermal growth factor Receptor (EGFR) or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) with different rat sarcoma (RAS) status in patients with potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and the association between RAS mutation and clinical outcome in CRLM patients treated with anti-EGFR or anti-VEGFR MoAbs was investigated. Searches were performed for data recorded between January 2005 and August 2015 in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE. Objective response rates (ORR), conversion resection rates (CRR), R0 resection rates (R0R) and rate ratios (RR) were used to assess the strength of the association between different RAS status, MoAbs and conversion efficiency. In the conversion therapy, ORR and RR were associated with patients with wild type RAS and different MoAbs. Patients treated with MoAbs: anti-VEGFR or anti-EGFR drugs, resulted in higher ORR, (RR=1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-1.84, P therapy, (RR=0.91, 95%CI: 0.76-1.08, Ptherapy, (RR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.16-2.01, P conversion efficiency for patients with potentially resectable CRLM patients, and anti-EGFR therapies maybe more effective than anti-VEGFR therapies. RAS status is a potential predictive marker of the clinical benefit resulting from treatment with anti-EGFR MoAbs therapy in CRLM patients and anti-EGFR MoAbs therapy could displayed greater efficiency only in patients with wild type RAS.

  1. Early detection of therapeutic response to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy of liver metastases from colorectal cancer using diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugami, Nagaaki; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kitano, Satoru; Hirohashi, Shinji; Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Aki; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masaki; Otsuji, Toshio; Takahama, Junko; Higashiura, Wataru; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful for early detection of the response of hepatic colorectal metastases to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The subjects were 12 patients with hepatic colorectal metastases. The indwelling catheter for HAIC was placed in the hepatic artery, and 1000 mg/m(2) 5-FU was given repeatedly once a week. DWI was performed before and 9 days after HAIC. The minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (minADC and meanADC) were measured. The relative change in ADC values (%ADC) and the relative change in tumor size on follow-up CT after 3 months (reduction ratio) were determined. Liver metastases were divided into two groups, responder and nonresponder. The correlation between %ADC and reduction ratio was determined, and %ADC was compared between the two groups. Eleven patients successfully completed HAIC over the 3-month period; 48 metastatic lesions were evaluated. Positive correlations were observed for relative change between %minADC and reduction ratio (r = 0.709) and between %meanADC and reduction ratio (r = 0.536). Both %minADC and %meanADC were significantly greater in the responder group than in the nonresponder group. With the threshold determined as < 3.5%, the receiver-operating curve analysis showed higher sensitivity and specificity values for %minADC (100% and 92.6%, respectively) than for %meanADC (66.7% and 74.1%, respectively). In conclusion, the relative change in minimum ADC values on DWI may be useful for early detection of the response of liver metastases to HAIC with 5-FU.

  2. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for the treatment of colorectal liver metastases during an open procedure: study on the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Hubert; Hubert, Parmentier; Melodelima, David; David, Melodelima; N'Djin, Apoutou; Apoutou, N'Djin; Chesnais, Sabrina; Sabrina, Chesnais; Chapelon, Jean Yves; Yves, Chapelon Jean; Rivoire, Michel; Michel, Rivoire

    2009-01-01

    To demonstrate in a porcine model that high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with toroid-shaped emitters may have a role in treating unresectable colorectal liver metastases. Surgical resection is the only curative option for colorectal hepatic metastases. Only 20% of patients are suitable for surgery. Many ablative techniques have been assessed but several limitations have been documented: traumatic puncture of the parenchyma, limited size of lesions, and inability to monitor the treatment in real time. A HIFU device with 256 toroid-shaped emitters and integrated ultrasound imaging probe was used. Single lesions, induced in 40 seconds, and juxtaposition of 6 single lesions were created under ultrasound guidance on 13 pigs. The lesions were studied on sonograms, macroscopically and microscopically up to 30 days after the treatment. Ninety percent of the HIFU lesions were immediately hypoechoic on ultrasound imaging. The average coagulated volume obtained from a 40 seconds total exposure in the liver was 7.0 +/- 2.5 cm (1.5-20.0), average diameter: 19.5 +/- 3.8 mm (10.0-29.0). Using the real-time visualization of the treated region, single lesions were easily juxtaposed to produce larger lesions up to 6 cm in diameter without any major complication. This toroid HIFU device allows short treatment times, noninvasiveness regarding the liver and real time ultrasound guidance. It seems to be simpler and more reliable to use than current ablative methods. Additionally, lesions through large vessels (up to 5 mm) being feasible, treatment of some juxta-vascular metastases should be possible.

  3. Diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted MR imaging for colorectal liver metastases detection in a rat model at 7 T: a comparative study using histological examination as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Mathilde; Ronot, Maxime; Vilgrain, Valerie; Beers, Bernard E. van [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM UMR 773, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Assistance Publique- Hopitaux de Paris, Laboratory of Physiological and Molecular Imaging of the Abdomen (IPMA) and Department of Radiology, Clichy Cedex (France); Maggiori, Leon; Panis, Yves [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM UMR 773, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Colorectal Surgery, Clichy (France); Paradis, Valerie [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM UMR 773, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Pathology, Clichy (France)

    2013-08-15

    To compare diffusion-weighted (DW) and T2-weighted MR imaging in detecting colorectal liver metastases in a rat model, using histological examination as a reference method. Eighteen rats had four liver injections of colon cancer cells. MR examinations at 7 T included FSE-T2-weighted imaging and SE-DW MR imaging (b = 0, 20 and 150 s/mm{sup 2}) and were analysed by two independent readers. Histological examination was performed on 0.4-mm slices. McNemar's test was used to compare the sensitivities and the Wilcoxon matched pairs test to compare the average number of false-positives per rat. One hundred and sixty-six liver metastases were identified on histological examination. The sensitivity in detecting liver metastases was significantly higher on DW MR than on T2-weighted images (99/166 (60 %) (reader 1) and 92/166 (55 %) (reader 2) versus 77/166 (46 %), P {<=} 0.001), without an increase in false-positives per rat (P = 0.773/P = 0.850). After stratification according to metastasis diameter, DW MR imaging had a significantly higher sensitivity than T2-weighted imaging only for metastases with a diameter (0.6-1.2 mm) similar to that of the spatial resolution of MR imaging in the current study. This MR study with histological correlations shows the higher sensitivity of DW relative to T2-weighted imaging at 7 T for detecting liver metastases, especially small ones. (orig.)

  4. [A 65-year-old man with liver metastases after lung cancer resection that responded to concomitant use of gemcitabine and carboplatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Masakazu; Sasaki, Masato; Hirai, Seiya; Ikeda, Takeshi; Sasaki, Hisashi; Yoshida, Makoto; Amaya, Hirokazu; Aotake, Toshiharu; Uchinami, Masaru; Ihaya, Akio; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi

    2006-01-01

    A 65-year-old male with liver metastases after lung cancer resection was treated with five courses of chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine (GEM) 1,000 mg/m2 (day 1, 8, every 4 weeks) plus carboplatin (CBDCA) AUC 6 (day 1, every 4 weeks). A partial response (PR) was achieved, his symptoms abated and his quality of life(QOL) improved. Although bone marrow suppression was observed as a side effect, it was within the tolerable range and did not interfere with therapy. This approach may be worth considering as a first-line anti-cancer chemotherapy for recurrence lung cancer.

  5. Determination of boron concentration in blood and tissue samples from patients with liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma using Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, T., E-mail: schmito@uni-mainz.d [Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Appelman, K., E-mail: k.appelman@hetnet.n [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (Netherlands); Kudejova, P., E-mail: petra.kudejova@frm2.tum.d [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Schuetz, C., E-mail: schuetc@uni-mainz.d [Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kratz, J.V., E-mail: jvkratz@uni-mainz.d [Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Moss, R., E-mail: raymond.moss@ec.europa.e [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (Netherlands); Otto, G., E-mail: gerd.otto@unimedizin-mainz.d [Department of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Transplantation Surgery, University of Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Hampel, G., E-mail: gabriele.hampel@uni-mainz.d [Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    As part of the studies on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the University of Mainz, Germany, a clinical trial has been started in which, four patients suffering from liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma have been enrolled. Specimens of blood and healthy tissue samples taken from the patients were measured at the PGAA facilities at the HFR in Petten, The Netherlands, and at the FRM II in Munich, Germany. From the measured boron concentrations, pharmacokinetic curves and blood-to-tissue concentration ratios were produced.

  6. Decrease of survivin, p53 and Bcl-2 expression in chemorefractory colorectal liver metastases may be predictive of radiosensivity radiosensivity after radioembolization with yttrium-90 resin microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Elisa; Cosimelli, Maurizio; Carpanese, Livio; Pizzi, Giuseppe; Izzo, Francesco; Fiore, Francesco; Golfieri, Rita; Giampalma, Emanuela; Sperduti, Isabella; Ercolani, Cristiana; Sciuto, Rosa; Mancini, Raffaello; Garufi, Carlo; Diodoro, Maria Grazia; Mottolese, Marcella

    2013-03-06

    In a prospective multicenter phase II trial of radioembolization with yttrium-90 ((90)Y-RE) in chemorefractory liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), we showed that median survival was 12.6 months (95% CI 7.0-18.3) with 48% of 50 patients achieving disease control. In this extension retrospective study, we analyzed whether a panel of biomarkers, known to be associated to an adverse clinical outcome, underwent variations in CRC liver metastases pre and post (90)Y-RE.Of the 50 patients included in the study, 29 pre-(90)Y-RE therapy and 15 post-(90)Y-RE had liver biopsy specimens available. In these series we investigated survivin, p53, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 expression pre- and post-(90)Y-RE by immuhistochemistry (IHC). Our findings evidenced a decrease of survivin (77% vs 33%), p53 (93% vs 73%), Bcl-2 (37% vs 26%) expression as well as of Ki-67 proliferation index (62.5% vs 40%) on liver biopsies collected post-(90)Y-RE as compared to pre-(90)Y-RE. In the subset of 13 matched liver metastases we further confirmed the reduction of survivin (92.3% vs 53.8%; p = 0.06), p53 (100% vs 69.2%; p = 0.05) and Bcl-2 (69.2% vs 53.8%; p = 0.05) expression post-(90)Y-RE. This biomarker modulation was accompanied by morphological changes as steatohepatitis, hepatocyte necrosis, collagen deposition, proliferating and/or bile duct ectasia, focal sinusoidal dilatation and fibrosis.Although our analysis was conducted in a very limited number cases, these changes appear strictly related to the response to (90)Y-RE therapy and may deserve further investigation on a larger series of patients.

  7. Panitumumab in combination with infusional oxaliplatin and oral capecitabine for conversion therapy in patients with colon cancer and advanced liver metastases. The MetaPan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Francesco; Artale, Salvatore; Marino, Donatella; Cagnazzo, Celeste; Cascinu, Stefano; Pinto, Carmine; Fornarini, Giuseppe; Tampellini, Marco; Di Fabio, Francesca; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; De Carlis, Luciano; Pugliese, Raffaele; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Gioeni, Luisa; Siena, Salvatore; Aglietta, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    Preoperative chemotherapy improves the outcome in patients with colorectal cancer with liver metastases. In the current study, the authors evaluated the activity of a conversion treatment with the combination of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) used in association with panitumumab in patients with unresectable, liver-only, metastatic colon cancer. Chemotherapy-naive patients with unresectable liver metastases from colon cancer with no other metastatic disease sites were enrolled. All patients received upfront therapy with XELOX plus panitumumab (P-XELOX) and were reevaluated for resectability every 4 cycles. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, the percentage of patients whose disease became radically resectable, and the safety of the P-XELOX combination. A total of 49 patients were recruited, 35 of whom had wild-type KRAS (wtKRAS) and 14 of whom (who were enrolled before study amendment) had unknown (9 patients) or mutated (5 patients) KRAS mutational status. Forty-six patients were evaluable for response. After conversion P-XELOX therapy, the ORR in the general population was 54%, with 2 complete responses, 23 partial responses, and 14 cases of stable disease. In patients with wtKRAS, the ORR of the patients reached 65% (2 CRs and 19 PRs), which allowed 15 patients with initial unresectable liver metastasis to be reclassified as having resectable disease. Survival analysis demonstrated a median progression-free survival of 8.5 months and a median OS of 21.9 months. Patients who underwent surgery were found to have a significantly better OS when compared with those who did not undergo surgery (P Conversion P-XELOX therapy yields high response and resectability rates for patients with metastatic colon cancer with extensive liver involvement. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  8. Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for liver metastases. A retrospective analysis of 74 patients treated in the Klinikum rechts der Isar Munich; Die hypofraktionierte, stereotaktische Strahlentherapie von Lebermetastasen. Eine retrospektive Analyse von 74 Patienten des Klinikums rechts der Isar Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppt, Franz Johannes

    2013-06-12

    Purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of liver metastases and prognostic factors for local control and overall survival. From 2000 to 2009 74 patients with 91 metastases were treated at the Department for Radiation Therapy and Oncology (TU Muenchen). With an observed local control rate of 75% after 1 year, SBRT proved as an effective local treatment option. Unfortunately, systemic tumor progression still dominates long term survival in many patients.

  9. {sup 18}F-FDG PET as novel imaging biomarker for disease progression after ablation therapy in colorectal liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim, M. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Prevoo, W.; Wit-van der Veen, B.J. de; Stokkel, M.P.M. [Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuhlmann, K.F.; Ruers, T. [Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department Surgical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hillegersberg, R. van [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bosch, M.A.A.J. van den; Verkooijen, H.M.; Lam, M.G.E.H. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-07-15

    Recurrent disease following thermal ablation therapy is a frequently reported problem. Preoperative identification of patients with high risk of recurrent disease might enable individualized treatment based on patients' risk profile. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role of metabolic parameters derived from the pre-ablation {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT as imaging biomarkers for recurrent disease in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM). Included in this retrospective study were all consecutive patients with CLM treated with percutaneous or open thermal ablation therapy who had a pre-treatment baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT available. Multivariable cox regression for survival analysis was performed using different models for the metabolic parameters (SUL{sub peak}, SUL{sub mean}, SUL{sub max}, partial volume corrected SUL{sub mean} (cSUL{sub mean}), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG)) corrected for tumour and procedure characteristics. The study endpoints were defined as local tumour progression free survival (LTP-FS), new intrahepatic recurrence free survival (NHR-FS) and extrahepatic recurrence free survival (EHR-FS). Clinical and imaging follow-up data was used as the reference standard. Fifty-four patients with 90 lesions were selected. Univariable cox regression analysis resulted in eight models. Multivariable analysis revealed that after adjusting for lesion size and the approach of the procedure, none of the metabolic parameters were associated with LTP-FS or EHR-FS. Percutaneous approach was significantly associated with a shorter LTP-FS. It was demonstrated that lower values of SUL{sub peak}, SUL{sub max}, SUL{sub mean}, and cSUL{sub mean} are associated with a significant better NHR-FS, independent of the lesion size and number and prior chemotherapy. We found no association between the metabolic parameters on pre-ablation {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and the LTP-FS. However, low values of the metabolic parameters were significantly

  10. Laparoscopic versus open liver resection for colorectal liver metastases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies with propensity score-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Liang; Liu, Rui-Feng; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    This meta-analysis collected studies with propensity score matching analysis (PSM) and focused on comparing the short-term and oncological outcomes of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) who underwent laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) versus open liver resection (OLR), to provide relatively high-level evidence of the additional value of LLR in treating patients with CRLM in comparison with OLR. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Bibliographic citation management software (EndNote X7) was used for literature management. Quality assessment was performed based on a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The data were analyzed using Review Manager (Version 5.1), and sensitivity analysis was performed by omitting one study in each step. Dichotomous data were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and continuous data were calculated by weighed mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, 10 studies enrolling 2259 patients with CRLM were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled analysis suggested that LLR was associated with significantly less overall morbidity (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.40 to 0.80; I2 = 57%; P < 0.001), reduced blood loss (WMD, -124.68; 95% CI, -177.35 to -72.01; I2 = 83%; P < 0.00001), less transfusion requirement (OR, 0.46; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.62; I2 = 0%; P < 0.00001), shorter length of hospital stay (WMD, -2.13; 95% CI, -2.68 to -1.58; I2 = 0%; P < 0.00001), but longer operative time (WMD, 39.48; 95% CI, 23.68 to 55.27; I2 = 66%; P = 0.04). However, no significant differences were observed in mortality (OR, 0.50; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.2; I2 = 0%; P = 0.12). For oncological outcomes, no significant differences were observed in negative surgical margins (R0 resection), tumor recurrence, 3-year disease-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, 5-year overall survival between the approaches. Nevertheless, LLR tended to provide

  11. Predicting high grade lesions of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome related to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases: correlation with post-hepatectomy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubrane, Olivier; Brouquet, Antoine; Zalinski, Stéphane; Terris, Benoît; Brézault, Catherine; Mallet, Vincent; Goldwasser, François; Scatton, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy induces sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) lesions in the nontumorous liver parenchyma, which may increase the risk of liver resection for colorectal liver metastases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 scoring systems to predict chemotherapy-associated liver injury and to correlate the severity of sinusoidal injury with postoperative outcome. Between 1998 and 2007, 78 patients were operated for colorectal liver metastases after preoperative oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Grading of steatosis and SOS in the nontumorous liver parenchyma was obtained in these patients. Univariate analysis of 18 preoperative factors to predict SOS occurrence was performed as well as multivariate analysis. Relevance of preoperative platelet count level, transaminase levels, and fibrosis scoring systems were evaluated to predict high grade lesions of SOS using a receiving operative curve analysis. Ninety-day mortality and morbidity were studied according to SOS severity in 51 patients who underwent major liver resection. Overall, pathologic examination showed high-grade lesions of SOS (SOS 2/3) in 46 (59%) patients. Univariate analysis showed that a low preoperative platelet count, elevated preoperative aspartate aminotransferase, short interval between chemotherapy and surgery were significant factors associated with high-grade lesions of SOS. Multivariate analysis showed that only the APRI score was an independent predictive factor for severe SOS. Receiving operative curve analysis revealed that the cut-off value predicting high-grade lesions of SOS with the best accuracy was an APRI score of 0.36 (area under the curve, 0.85; sensitivity, 87%; specificity, 69%). After major liver resection (n = 51), SOS 2/3 (n = 38) was associated with postoperative hepatic dysfunction (26/38 in SOS 2/3 vs. 3/13 in SOS 0/1; P = 0.004) and ascites (P = 0.03). A low

  12. Urachal carcinoma with liver, lung, and brain metastases: benefit of a new combination chemotherapy (bevacizumab, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekoninck J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available J Dekoninck1, P Demetter2, Filip Geurs1, R De Loecker31Department of Medical Oncology, Regional Hospital Sint Maria, Halle, Belgium; 2Department of Pathology, Hopital Erasme – Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB, Anderlecht, Belgium; 3Department of Laboratory, Regional Hospital Sint Maria, Halle, BelgiumAbstract: After failure of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for metastatic urachal carcinoma, a 16-year-old patient presents with diffuse liver-, lung-, and brain metastases. The K-ras mutation is present in the liver as well as in the primary resected specimen. The regimen was therefore changed to bevacizumab, 5-fluorouracil, and irinotecan. This led to a partial response which lasted 7 months.Keywords: K-ras mutation, urachal cancer, adenocarcinoma

  13. Radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases-software-assisted evaluation of the ablation zone in MDCT: tumor-free follow-up versus local recurrent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Sebastian; Bruners, Philipp; Schiffl, Katharina; Sedlmair, Martin; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Günther, Rolf W; Das, Marco; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in change of size and CT value between local recurrences and tumor-free areas after CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic metastases during follow-up by means of dedicated software for automatic evaluation of hepatic lesions. Thirty-two patients with 54 liver metastases from breast or colorectal cancer underwent triphasic contrast-enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) to evaluate hepatic metastatic spread and localization before CT-guided RFA and for follow-up after intervention. Sixteen of these patients (65.1 + or - 10.3 years) with 30 metastases stayed tumor-free (group 1), while the other group (n = 16 with 24 metastases; 62.0 + or - 13.8 years) suffered from local recurrent disease (group 2). Applying an automated software tool (SyngoCT Oncology; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany), size parameters (volume, RECIST, WHO) and attenuation were measured within the lesions before, 1 day after, and 28 days after RFA treatment. The natural logarithm (ln) of the quotient of the volume 1 day versus 28 days after RFA treament was computed: lnQ1//28/0(volume). Analogously, ln ratios of RECIST, WHO, and attenuation were computed and statistically evaluated by repeated-measures ANOVA. One lesion in group 2 was excluded from further evaluation due to automated missegmentation. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to initial volume, RECIST, and WHO (p free and local-recurrent ablation zones with respect to the corresponding size parameters. A new parameter (lnQ1//28/0(volume/RECIST/WHO/attenuation)) was introduced, which appears to be of prognostic value at early follow-up CT.

  14. Reducing liver metastases of colon cancer in the context of extensive and minor surgeries through β-adrenoceptors blockade and COX2 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorski, Liat; Melamed, Rivka; Matzner, Pini; Lavon, Hagar; Shaashua, Lee; Rosenne, Ella; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2016-11-01

    Liver metastases are a major cause of colorectal cancer death, and the perioperative period is believed to critically affect the metastatic process. Here we tested whether blocking excess release of catecholamines and prostaglandins during surgical procedures of different extent can reduce experimental liver metastasis of the syngeneic CT26 colon cancer in female and male BALB/c mice. Animals were either treated with the beta-blocker, propranolol, the COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, both drugs, or vehicle. The role of NK cells in controlling CT26 hepatic metastasis and in mediating the effect of the drugs was assessed by in vivo depletion or stimulation of NK cells, using anti-asialo GM1 or CpG-C, respectively. Surgical extent was manipulated by adding laparotomy to small incision, extending surgical duration, and enabling hypothermia. The results indicated that combined administration of propranolol and etodolac, but neither drug alone, significantly improved host resistance to metastasis. These beneficial effects occurred in both minor and extensive surgeries, in both sexes, and in two tumor inoculation approaches. NK cell-mediated anti-CT26 activity is involved in mediating the beneficial effects of the drugs. Specifically, CpG-C treatment, known to profoundly activate mice marginating-hepatic NK cytotoxicity, reduced CT26 hepatic metastases; and NK-depletion increased metastases and prevented the beneficial effects of the drugs. Overall, given prevalent perioperative psychological and physiological stress responses in patients, and ample prostaglandin release by colorectal tumors and injured tissue, propranolol and etodolac could be tested clinically in laparoscopic and open colorectal surgeries, attempting to reduce patients' metastatic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 5-FU or mitomycin C hepatic arterial infusion after failure of arterial oxaliplatin in patients with colorectal cancer unresectable liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, Simon; Velut, Guillaume; Kourie, Rapahel Hampig; Amouyal, Gregory; Sapoval, Marc; Pointet, Anne Laure; Landi, Bruno; Zaimi, Yosra; Lepère, Céline; Pellerin, Olivier; Taieb, Julien

    2017-12-07

    Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy with oxaliplatin is an accepted option in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC) with dominant liver metastases (LM). However, despite prolonged control, some patients experience disease progression. On the other hand, oxaliplatin leads to dose-limiting toxicity. In these cases, the use of a second-line HAI with an alternative drug has never been reported to date. We evaluated treatment outcomes in patients receiving second-line HAI with 5-FU or mitomycin C, after first-line HAI of oxaliplatin in heavily pretreated patients. Between March 2010 and June 2016, this observational study included 24 patients with unresectable CRC LM and treated with HAI of 5-FU (17 patients) or mitomycin C (7 patients), after HAI of oxaliplatin. Mean age was 61.7 years. Forty-two percent of patients (10/24) had extra-hepatic metastases and 75% (18/24) at least 8 liver metastases. Including HAI of oxaliplatin, all patients had previously received at least 2 lines of chemotherapy±targeted agents (100%) and 96% (23/24) received concomitant systemic therapies together with HAI of 5-FU or mitomycin C. The overall objective response rate and disease control rate were, respectively, 42% (10/24) and 71% (17/24). Median progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) were, respectively, 5.6 and 25.8 months; hepatic progression-free survival was 8.5months. Thirteen percent (3/24) of the patients received further curative intent treatment after HAI 5-FU and mitomycin C. No toxic death occurred and the toxicity profile was acceptable. HAI of 5-FU or mitomycin C is an alternative option in patients with predominant CRC LM, when they experience disease progression or do not tolerate HAI of oxaliplatin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the residual tumour of colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: diffusion-weighted MR magnetic resonance imaging in the peripheral and entire tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Mathilde; Doblas, Sabrina; Giraudeau, Celine [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Clichy (France); Ronot, Maxime; Van Beers, Bernard; Vilgrain, Valerie [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Clichy (France); Radiology Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Belghiti, Jacques [Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Paradis, Valerie [Pathology Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting residual tumours (RTs) in colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) following chemotherapy, with a focus on tumour periphery. From January 2009-January 2012, 57 patients who underwent liver resection for CLMs with preoperative MRI (<3 months) including DWI were retrospectively included. CLMs were classified into three response groups on pathology: (1) major histological (MHR, RTs ≤ 10 %), (2) partial histological (PHR, RT = 10-49 %), and (3) no histological (NHR, RT ≥ 50 %). On DWI, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the entire tumour and tumour periphery. Apparent diffusion (ADC) and pure diffusion (D) coefficients were calculated using a monoexponential fit, and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test on a lesion-per-lesion analysis. 111 CLMs were included. Fourteen (12.5 %), 42 (38 %) and 55 (49.5 %) CLMs presented a MHR, PHR and NHR, respectively. ADC and D of the peripheral ROIs were significantly higher in the MHR group (P = 0.013/P = 0.013). ADC and D from the entire tumour were not significantly different among the groups (P = 0.220/P = 0.103). In CLM treated with chemotherapy, ADC and D values from the entire tumour are not related to the degree of RT, while peripheral zone diffusion parameters could help identify metastases with MHR. (orig.)

  17. Malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumour (MERT) with liver metastases as a rare cause of an esophageal tumor in a 57 years old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaechele, V; Vogelpohl, J; Boeck, W; Riecke, A; Eisele, R; Barth, T

    2015-07-01

    Tumors with a rhabdoid phenotype are aggressive neoplasms with a dismal prognosis. Malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (MERT) of the esophagus is an extremely rare disease with so far only 6 cases reported. We report on a 57-year-old male patient with rhabdoid tumor situated in the esophagus with metastases to the liver and local lymph nodes. Assuming an undifferentiated esophageal adenocarcinoma a palliative chemotherapy with 5-FU/folinic acid, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel (FLOT) was initiated which was changed towards a combination of doxorubicin and ifosphamide as immunohistochemistry of the primary and the liver metastases revealed a rhabdoid tumor. This treatment with doxorubicin and ifosphamide resulted in a short clinical and radiological response which lasted only for 2 months. Due to the bad general condition at the time of progression no further chemotherapy was initiated. The patient died due to tumor progression 6 months after initial diagnosis which is consistent with other reports on malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumors (median survival of metastatic disease less than 6 months). Thus, metastatic MERT represents a disease with a poor prognosis and no established standard therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. CD95 is a key mediator of invasion and accelerated outgrowth of mouse colorectal liver metastases following radiofrequency ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Maarten W.; Hoogwater, Frederik J. H.; Steller, Ernst J. A.; Westendorp, B. Florien; van der Meulen, Taco A.; Leenders, Martijn W. H.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Kranenburg, Onno

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that micro-metastases, in the hypoxic transition zone surrounding lesions generated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA), display strongly accelerated outgrowth. CD95 is best known for its ability to induce apoptosis but can also promote tumorigenesis in apoptosis-resistant tumor

  19. High-depth sequencing of over 750 genes supports linear progression of primary tumors and metastases in most patients with liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Iain Beehuat; Malik, Simeen; Ramnarayanan, Kalpana; McPherson, John R; Ho, Dan Liang; Suzuki, Yuka; Ng, Sarah Boonhsui; Yan, Su; Lim, Kiat Hon; Koh, Dennis; Hoe, Chew Min; Chan, Chung Yip; Ten, Rachel; Goh, Brian Kp; Chung, Alexander Yf; Tan, Joanna; Chan, Cheryl Xueli; Tay, Su Ting; Alexander, Lezhava; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Hillmer, Axel M; Tang, Choon Leong; Chua, Clarinda; Teh, Bin Tean; Rozen, Steve; Tan, Patrick

    2015-02-12

    Colorectal cancer with metastases limited to the liver (liver-limited mCRC) is a distinct clinical subset characterized by possible cure with surgery. We performed high-depth sequencing of over 750 cancer-associated genes and copy number profiling in matched primary, metastasis and normal tissues to characterize genomic progression in 18 patients with liver-limited mCRC. High depth Illumina sequencing and use of three different variant callers enable comprehensive and accurate identification of somatic variants down to 2.5% variant allele frequency. We identify a median of 11 somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) per tumor. Across patients, a median of 79.3% of somatic SNVs present in the primary are present in the metastasis and 81.7% of all alterations present in the metastasis are present in the primary. Private alterations are found at lower allele frequencies; a different mutational signature characterized shared and private variants, suggesting distinct mutational processes. Using B-allele frequencies of heterozygous germline SNPs and copy number profiling, we find that broad regions of allelic imbalance and focal copy number changes, respectively, are generally shared between the primary tumor and metastasis. Our analyses point to high genomic concordance of primary tumor and metastasis, with a thick common trunk and smaller genomic branches in general support of the linear progression model in most patients with liver-limited mCRC. More extensive studies are warranted to further characterize genomic progression in this important clinical population.

  20. First clinical experience of intra-operative high intensity focused ultrasound in patients with colorectal liver metastases: a phase I-IIa study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Dupré

    Full Text Available Surgery is the only curative treatment in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM, but only 10-20% of patients are eligible. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU technology is of proven value in several indications, notably prostate cancer. Its intra-operative use in patients with CLM has not previously been studied. Preclinical work suggested the safety and feasibility of a new HIFU device capable of ablating volumes of up to 2cm x 2cm in a few seconds.We conducted a prospective, single-centre phase I-IIa trial. HIFU was delivered immediately before scheduled hepatectomy. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of rapidly ablating liver parenchyma, ablations were performed on healthy tissue within the areas scheduled for resection.In total, 30 ablations were carried out in 15 patients. These ablations were all generated within 40 seconds and on average measured 27.5mm x 21.0mm. The phase I study (n = 6 showed that use of the HIFU device was feasible and safe and did not damage neighbouring tissue. The phase IIa study (n = 9 showed both that the area of ablation could be precisely targeted on a previously implanted metallic mark (used to represent a major anatomical structure and that ablations could be undertaken deliberately to avoid such a mark. Ablations were achieved with a precision of 1-2 mm.HIFU was feasible, safe and effective in ablating areas of liver scheduled for resection. The next stage is a phase IIb study which will attempt ablation of small metastases with a 5 mm margin, again prior to planned resection.ClinicalTrials.govNCT01489787.

  1. Gifts and exchanges problems, frustrations, and triumphs

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S; Denning, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This important book explores the many questions challenging librarians who work with gifts and exchanges (G&E) as part of their daily responsibilities. Too often, because of shrinking library budgets, library gifts are considered burdensome and unprofitable drains on both financial and personnel resources. However, Gifts and Exchanges: Problems, Frustrations, . . . and Triumphs gives you solutions that will allow you to embrace your library's gifts as rewards. In this book, you will discover the latest ways of disposing unwanted materials, planning and holding book sales and auctions, and oper

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance, computed tomography and contrast enhanced ultrasound in radiological multimodality assessment of peribiliary liver metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Granata

    Full Text Available We compared diagnostic performance of Magnetic Resonance (MR, Computed Tomography (CT and Ultrasound (US with (CEUS and without contrast medium to identify peribiliary metastasis.We identified 35 subjects with histological proven peribiliary metastases who underwent CEUS, CT and MR study. Four radiologists evaluated the presence of peribiliary lesions, using a 4-point confidence scale. Echogenicity, density and T1-Weigthed (T1-W, T2-W and Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI signal intensity as well as the enhancement pattern during contrast studies on CEUS, CT and MR so as hepatobiliary-phase on MRI was assessed.All lesions were detected by MR. CT detected 8 lesions, while US/CEUS detected one lesion. According to the site of the lesion, respect to the bile duct and hepatic parenchyma: 19 (54.3% were periductal, 15 (42.8% were intra-periductal and 1 (2.8% was periductal-intrahepatic. According to the confidence scale MRI had the best diagnostic performance to assess the lesion. CT obtained lower diagnostic performance. There was no significant difference in MR signal intensity and contrast enhancement among all metastases (p>0.05. There was no significant difference in CT density and contrast enhancement among all metastases (p>0.05.MRI is the method of choice for biliary tract tumors but it does not allow a correct differential diagnosis among different histological types of metastasis. The presence of biliary tree dilatation without hepatic lesions on CT and US/CEUS study may be an indirect sign of peribiliary metastases and for this reason the patient should be evaluated by MRI.

  3. Hepatic intra-arterial injection of irinotecan drug eluting beads (DEBIRI) for patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Olaguoke; Dendy, Meaghan; Ludwig, Johannes M; Kim, Hyun S

    2017-09-01

    To systematically review the safety and efficacy of transarterial drug-eluting beads, irinotecan (DEBIRI) for the treatment of pretreated patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). A systematic search of the current literature was conducted to extract publications reporting on the use of DEBIRI for CRLM. Data on the safety and efficacy was extracted and tabulated. Weighted average values (WAV) were calculated for each variable to provide a single value representing the pooled safety and efficacy data. 13 studies (15 treatment arms) were evaluated, comprising a total of 850 patients. There were 6 prospective phase I/II trials, 5 retrospective trials and 2 randomized control trials. All papers involved patients previously treated with systemic chemotherapy. The weighted average all-grade toxicity rate was 35.2% (range; 6-100%). The high-grade WAV toxicity rate was 10.1% (range; 0-32%). Weighted average response rates were 56.2% and 51.1% according to RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and modified RECIST/EASL (European Association for the Study of the Liver) response criteria respectively. The weighted average progression-free survival and overall survival were 8.1 months and 16.8 months, respectively. Transarterial DEBIRI is safe and effective in the treatment of unresectable CRLM to the liver. Further studies are warranted to better define its role in the treatment algorithm of this patient subset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [A Case of Pathological Complete Response after Primary Tumor Resection Followed by Hepatectomy-A Sigmoid Colon Cancer with Synchronous Liver Metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shota; Yamauchi, Junichiro; Yasuta, Sho; Satoh, Ataru; Ikeda, Tomoya; Matsuda, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Shin; Ajiki, Takashi; Tsuchihara, Katsuo; Kondo, Noriko; Ishiyama, Shuichi

    2015-11-01

    The case is of a 62-year-old man with no medical history and no family history.A type 2 tumor was found in the entire circumference of the sigmoid colon by colonoscopy after a positive result on a fecal occult blood test, and 5 liver metastases were recognized in both lobes of the liver by using contrast-enhanced CT.He was first treated by primary tumor resection. Subsequently, 5-fluorouracil/l-leucovorin/oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus bevacizumab (BV) was started 1 month after the surgery and a total of 8 cycles of mFOLFOX6 plus BV were administered without any adverse events.On CT assessment after the chemotherapy, the patient was diagnosed with stable disease according to RECIST guidelines since the size of the tumor only showed a slight reduction.However, it was considered to be an optimal response based on the morphologic criteria. Thereafter, a medial segmentectomy and partial resection of the liver was performed.A mucus reservoir was found in the tumor site, and no viable tumor cells were detected pathologically, which confirmed the pathological complete response with mFOLFOX6 plus BV.

  5. Relationship between the presence of liver metastases with histological grading, depth of invasion and nodal involvement in sporadic adenocarcinoma of the large intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Large intestine adenocarcinoma (LIA is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, and corresponds to the fifth most common malignancy in Brazil. The main prognostic factors related to LIA are depth of tumor invasion and perivisceral lymph nodes status.Objective:To estimate the relationship between pathological findings and the presence of liver metastases (LM in LIA cases.Method:We evaluated 51 cases of LIA, previously submitted to surgical resection, in order to determine the following variables: topography, tumor size, macroscopic appearance, degree of differentiation, depth of invasion, nodal status, and presence of LM.Results:The average age was 64.8 years, with predominance of men (n = 26/51.0% and lesions in the sigmoid colon (n = 18/35.3%. The main general characteristics of the sample were ulcerative-vegetative lesions (n = 20/39.2%, no annular tumors (n = 3/64.7%, moderately differentiated tumor (n = 44/86.3%, absence of mucinous areas (n = 40/78.4%, and mesocolon invasion (n = 29/56.9%. LM were found in 14 cases (27.5%, and is associated with presence of nodal metastases (p = 0.005. Tumor size (p = 0.72, macroscopic appearance (p = 0.362, histological grade (p = 0.147, and depth of invasion (p = 0.195 showed no association with LM presence.Conclusion:LIA has a wide anatomical and pathological heterogeneity. In this study, the presence of LM associated with LIA was related to perivisceral lymph nodes status, with no relation to tumor size, degree of differentiation, and depth of invasion, which suggests that identifying neoplastic angiolymphatic invasion is a possible predictor of liver involvement.

  6. A prospective study to validate the Polish language version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Colorectal Liver Metastases (QLQ-LMC21) module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska, Dominika; Bereza, Krzysztof; Sanna, Beatrice; Kucharska, Ewa; Tomaszewska, Iwona M; Dudkiewicz, Zbigniew; Skotnicki, Piotr; Bottomley, Andrew; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2017-08-01

    This validation study was designed to assess the psychometric validity and quality of the Polish translation of the EORTC QLQ-LMC21 questionnaire in Polish colorectal patients suffering with liver metastases. Patients with either histopathological or imaging confirmation of colorectal cancer with liver metastases, with a minimum of three months survival, were eligible for this study. These patients completed the Polish version of the EORTC core QLQ-C30, the QLQ-LMC21 module, and a demographic data questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed twice, once before undergoing either hepatectomy (n = 63) or palliative treatment (n = 97) and three months after the primary treatment. Standardized analyses of validity and reliability were performed. One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled in this study with the mean age of the hepatectomy group 64.3 ± 14.1 and 66.1 ± 12.7 for the palliative treatment group. The QLQ-LMC21 exhibited positive internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.72 to 0.90. The multi-trait scaling analysis demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Test-retest reliability was undertaken with 40 patients (25%) with the ICCs for each item ranging from 0.64 to 0.88. The hepatectomy group had a significantly greater Karnofsky Performance Score than the palliative treatment group (p.Polish version of the QLQ-LMC21 proved to be a valid and reliable questionnaire to use in conjunction with the QLQ-C30 core questionnaire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlate with the conversion rate and survival in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases?: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, M; Hatano, E; Nishino, H; Seo, S; Taura, K; Uemoto, S

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlates with the conversion rate, R0 resection rate, and survival in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). We reviewed the literature of prospective, controlled trials of systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable liver-only CRLM, including resectable extrahepatic metastases. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 26 patient groups from 18 studies were reviewed. The response rate was significantly correlated with the conversion rate (r = 0.66) and R0 resection rate (r = 0.43) in overall patients. In subgroup analysis, only the conversion rate in patients with chemotherapy only (r = 0.75) and anti-EGFR therapy (r = 0.78) were significantly strongly correlated with the response rate. A non-significant strong trend toward correlation between response and conversion rates was observed in patients with bevacizumab (r = 0.73, p = 0.10). The regression line in the scatter plot of patients using bevacizumab showed a less steep slope. This indicated that conversion rates were relatively less affected by response rates under anti-VEGF therapy compared with the other patient groups. The response rate in chemotherapy-only patients was significantly correlated with median progression-free survival (r = 0.61) and overall survival (r = 0.66). Chemotherapy without molecular target agents and with anti-EGFR agents shows similar results of correlation between response and conversion/R0 resection rates. Under anti-VEGF therapy, conversion would be expected, even with a relatively lower response rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Term Survival According to Histology and Radiologic Response to Preoperative Chemotherapy in 126 Patients Undergoing Resection of Non-GIST Sarcoma Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumard, Claire; Marcal, Leonardo P; Wang, Wei-Lien; Somaiah, Neeta; Okuno, Masayuki; Roland, Christina L; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Chun, Yun Shin; Feig, Barry W; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Conrad, Claudius

    2018-01-01

    Non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas (NGSs) have heterogeneous histology, and this heterogeneity may lead to uncertainty regarding the prognosis of patients with liver metastases from NGS (NGSLM) and decision regarding their surgical management. Furthermore, the role of preoperative chemotherapy in treatment of NGSLM remains poorly defined. We investigated long-term survival and its correlation to response to preoperative chemotherapy in patients with NGSLM. Patients who underwent liver resection for NGSLM during 1998-2015 were identified. Clinical, histopathologic, and survival data were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model. 126 patients [62 (49%) with leiomyosarcoma] were included. Five-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 49.3 and 14.9%, respectively. Survival did not differ by histologic subtype, primary tumor location, or use of preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy. NGSLM ≥ 10 cm and extrahepatic metastases at NGSLM diagnosis were the only independent risk factors for OS. In the 83 (66%) patients with metachronous NSGLM, disease-free interval > 6 months was associated with improved OS and RFS. Among the 65 patients (52%) who received preoperative chemotherapy, radiologic response according to Choi criteria specifically was associated with improved OS (p = 0.04), but radiologic response according to RECIST 1.1 criteria was not. Resection of NGSLM led to a 5-year OS rate of 49%, independent of histologic subtype and primary tumor location. Choi criteria (which take into account tumor density) are superior to RECIST 1.1 in assessing radiologic response and should be used to assess response to preoperative chemotherapy.

  9. Extra-corporeal liver BNCT for the treatment of diffuse metastases: What was learned and what is still to be learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: aris.zonta@pv.infn.it; Pinelli, T. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Prati, U.; Roveda, L. [Oncologic Surgery, Cancer Center of Excellence Fond. ' T. Campanella' , Catanzaro (Italy); Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A.M.; Zonta, C. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Mazzini, G. [Department of Animal Biol., IGM-CNR Histochemistry and Cytometry Section, Pavia (Italy); Dionigi, P. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Fossati, F. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Almost eight years ago, in December 2001, we performed for the first time in the world thermal neutron irradiation on an isolated liver of a patient. The organ was affected by diffuse metastases of a colon carcinoma and had been previously loaded with a {sup 10}B compound. In July 2003, the same procedure was applied again on a patient for the treatment of unresectable and incurable hepatic metastases of a carcinoma of the rectum. Both patients are dead at present. Now we can analyze in depth the clinical history of these patients and evaluate the effectiveness of this therapy. From this exciting experience we learned much, and we also found out about complications till then unknown, which need to be studied and addressed experimentally. Unfortunately we can base our conclusions just on the experience we had with these two patients. We could have been much more detailed and firm in our statements if the number of clinical cases was larger. The BNCT Pavia project has been suspended, but it is more than likely to resume in a short time. Good findings were many. The procedure is feasible; the original concept of complete immersion of the diseased liver in a homogeneous neutron field proved effective and winning. The tumor masses resulted completely necrotic and unknown metastases too appeared radically treated; healthy hepatic tissue was preserved from both morphological and functional points of view; no symptoms of cirrhosis appeared even four years after treatment. For the long term surviving patient, quality of life was excellent. Other findings require to be tackled in depth. The 'post-irradiation syndrome' we observed in both patients, with identical symptoms and biochemical derangements, creates a dramatic-even though totally reversible-clinical condition, that is the probable cause of death for our second patient, suffering from cardiomyopathy, 33 days after treatment. For the first patient, recurrences were a late yet fatal complication, for which

  10. Preoperative Aspartate Aminotransferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Perioperative Liver-Related Complications Following Liver Resection for Colorectal Cancer Metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amptoulach, S.; Gross, G.; Sturesson, C.

    2017-01-01

    -related). In multivariate regression analysis, the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index was independently associated with liver-related complications (odds ratio: 1.149, p = 0.003) and perioperative liver failure (odds ratio: 1.155, p = 0.012). The latter was also true in the subcohort of patients...... with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (odds ratio: 1.157, p = 0.004) but not in those without such therapy (p = 0.062). The aspartate-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio was not related to liver-related complications (p = 0.929). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the aspartate aminotransferase.......175) or steatosis (p = 0.173) in the nontumorous liver in surgical specimens. Conclusion: The preoperative aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, but not the aspartate-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio, predicts perioperative liver-related complications following hepatectomy due to colorectal cancer...

  11. Gadopentetate dimeglumine and FDG uptake in liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma as determined with MR imaging and PET.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Wiering, B.; Lok, J.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Ruers, T.J.M.; Punt, C.J.A.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Oyen, W.J.G.; Heerschap, A.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the in vivo relationship between fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, as measured with positron emission tomography (PET), and functional tumor vasculature, as measured with dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, in patients with liver

  12. Gadopentetate dimeglumine and FDG uptake in liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma as determined with MR imaging and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Wiering, Bastiaan; Lok, Jasper; Rijpkema, Mark; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Krabbe, Paul F M; Ruers, Theo; Punt, Cornelis J A; van der Kogel, Albert J; Oyen, Wim J G; Heerschap, Arend

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the in vivo relationship between fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, as measured with positron emission tomography (PET), and functional tumor vasculature, as measured with dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, in patients with liver

  13. Changes in the zonation of lactate dehydrogenase activity in lobules of rat liver after experimentally induced colon carcinoma metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffini, P.; Freitas, I.; Vigorelli, E.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Visualization of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity with Neotetrazolium as final electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions and an incubation medium containing polyvinyl alcohol showed that under normal physiological conditions a zonal distribution of LDH activity is present in the liver lobule

  14. Incremental value of arterial and equilibrium phase compared to hepatic venous phase CT in the preoperative staging of colorectal liver metastases: an evaluation with different reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Dennis A; de Haas, Robbert J; van Kessel, Charlotte S; Bisschops, Robertus H C; Takahara, Taro; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Bipat, Shandra; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the incremental value of arterial and equilibrium phase compared to hepatic venous phase multidetector row CT (MDCT) in the preoperative staging of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and to determine the influence of the reference standard. Fifty-three consecutive CLM patients underwent 16 detector row CT in hepatic arterial, venous, and equilibrium phase before surgery between March 2003 and January 2007. Detected lesions were characterized by three independent radiologists. The reference standard consisted of intraoperative palpation and ultrasound of the liver, and histopathological examination of the resected specimen. Additionally, data of follow-up CT was added. Statistical analysis was performed on a per-lesion basis. According to the reference standard 251 lesions were present, of which 203 (81%) were malignant (mean size: 29.4 ± 22.5 mm), and 41 (16%) were benign (mean size: 8.3 ± 7.7 mm). Sensitivity rates for CLM were comparable between triphasic and hepatic venous phase CT (P>0.05). Sensitivity for the detection of CLM lowered from 60-77% to 52-68% when follow-up CT was added to the reference standard. Arterial and equilibrium phase CT have no incremental value compared to hepatic venous phase MDCT in the detection of CLM. Sensitivity rates are, however, influenced by the type of reference standard used. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early survival prediction after intra-arterial therapies: a 3D quantitative MRI assessment of tumour response after TACE or radioembolization of colorectal cancer metastases to the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapiro, Julius; Savic, Lynn Jeanette [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Duran, Rafael; Schernthaner, Ruediger; Wang, Zhijun; Geschwind, Jean-Francois [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lin, MingDe [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); U/S Imaging and Interventions (UII), Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States); Lesage, David [Philips Research, Medisys, Suresnes (France)

    2015-07-15

    This study evaluated the predictive role of 1D, 2D and 3D quantitative, enhancement-based MRI regarding overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) following intra-arterial therapies (IAT). This retrospective analysis included 29 patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or radioembolization and received MRI within 6 weeks after therapy. Tumour response was assessed using 1D and 2D criteria (such as European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines [EASL] and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [mRECIST]). In addition, a segmentation-based 3D quantification of overall (volumetric [v] RECIST) and enhancing lesion volume (quantitative [q] EASL) was performed on portal venous phase MRI. Accordingly, patients were classified as responders (R) and non-responders (NR). Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR). Only enhancement-based criteria identified patients as responders. EASL and mRECIST did not predict patient survival (P = 0.27 and P = 0.44, respectively). Using uni- and multivariate analysis, qEASL was identified as the sole predictor of patient survival (9.9 months for R, 6.9 months for NR; P = 0.038; HR 0.4). The ability of qEASL to predict survival early after IAT provides evidence for potential advantages of 3D quantitative tumour analysis. (orig.)

  16. [Pathological Complete Response in a Case of Multiple Liver Metastases from Rectal Cancer Treated with XELOX plus Bevacizumab(Bev)Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noura, Shingo; Shuto, Takashi; Muratsu, Arisa; Yoshida, Yuta; Yasuyama, Akinobu; Matsumura, Tae; Koga, Chikato; Kameda, Chizu; Murakami, Masahiro; Kawabata, Ryohei; Hirota, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masato; Shimizu, Junzo; Hasegawa, Junichi; Miwa, Hideaki

    2016-11-01

    The patient was a 56-year-old woman who had synchronous multiple liver metastases and underwent laparoscopic-assisted high anterior resection for rectal cancer. According to the Japanese classification of colorectal carcinoma(8th edition), the tumor was considered to be pStage IV (pT4bN2M1a[H3]). Following resection of the primary tumor, she received XELOX plus bevacizumab(Bev)therapy. After 5 courses, the tumors were markedly reduced in size. According to the RECIST criteria, the tumor response was determined to be a partial response(-44%). Therefore, on the basis of the morphologic response criteria, the patient had Group 1 disease. Because the chemotherapy seemed to be effective, we performed partial hepatectomies. Histologically, no cancer cells were detected in any of the resected tumors. After the partial hepatectomies, she received no additional chemotherapy. Her CEA levels decreased to a normal range and no tumor recurrence was detected over 2 and a half years. XELOX plus Bev therapy may be effective for unresectable multiple liver metastasis from rectal cancer.

  17. Small colorectal liver metastases: detection with SPIO-enhanced MRI in comparison with gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI and CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekimoglu, Koray; Ustundag, Yucel; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Kalaycioglu, Bora; Besir, Halit; Engin, Huseyin; Erdem, Oktay

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to compare the diagnostic role of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) versus gadobenate dimeglumine (GbD)-enhanced MRI and computed tomography (CT) investigations for detection of small (less than 1cm) colorectal liver metastases (LMs) of colorectal cancer. Seventy-eight LMs in 16 patients were evaluated with dynamic CT imaging, GbD-enhanced dynamic MR imaging and SPIO-enhanced MR imaging. Two radiologists were reviewed the LMs separately. Agreement between the readers and three algorithms was analyzed. Differences between the lesion detection ratios of the methods were analyzed by two proportion z test. Sensitivity values of each modality were also calculated. Interobserver agreement values with kappa analysis were found to be the best for three modalities and kappa values were 0.866, 0.843, and 1.0 respectively. For all 78 LMs, SPIO-enhanced MRI detected all lesions (100% sensitivity). This sensitivity value was higher than GbD-enhanced MRI, and there was a significant difference (p LMs. This modality had the lowest sensitivity (R1: 0.82, R2: 0.83 respectively). Only SPIO-enhanced MRI was able to detect all LMs less than 1cm. LMs were the best detected with SPIO-enhanced MRI. We recommend SPIO-enhanced MRI to be the primary alternative modality especially for diagnosis of small colorectal LMs. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Conversion to resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer with hepatic artery infusion of combined chemotherapy and systemic cetuximab in multicenter trial OPTILIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévi, F A; Boige, V; Hebbar, M; Smith, D; Lepère, C; Focan, C; Karaboué, A; Guimbaud, R; Carvalho, C; Tumolo, S; Innominato, P; Ajavon, Y; Truant, S; Castaing, D; De Baere, T; Kunstlinger, F; Bouchahda, M; Afshar, M; Rougier, P; Adam, R; Ducreux, M

    2016-02-01

    Systemic chemotherapy typically converts previously unresectable liver metastases (LM) from colorectal cancer to curative intent resection in ∼15% of patients. This European multicenter phase II trial tested whether hepatic artery infusion (HAI) with triplet chemotherapy and systemic cetuximab could increase this rate to 30% in previously treated patients. Participants had unresectable LM from wt KRAS colorectal cancer. Main non-inclusion criteria were advanced extra hepatic disease, prior HAI and grade 3 neuropathy. Irinotecan (180 mg/m(2)), oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) and 5-fluorouracil (2800 mg/m(2)) were delivered via an implanted HAI access port and combined with i.v. cetuximab (500 mg/m(2)) every 14 days. Multidisciplinary decisions to resect LM were taken after every three courses. The rate of macroscopic complete resections (R0 + R1) of LM, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were computed according to intent to treat. The patient population consisted of 42 men and 22 women, aged 33-76 years, with a median of 10 LM involving a median of six segments. Up to 3 extrahepatic lesions of liver-specific intensive chemotherapy and surgery had a high curative intent potential that deserves upfront randomized testing. EUDRACT 2007-004632-24, NCT00852228. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Reproducibility of functional volume and activity concentration in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT of liver metastases in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijmen, Linda [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology 452, PO Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de; Visser, Eric P.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wilt, Johannes H.W. de [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Visvikis, Dimitris; Hatt, Mathieu [LaTIM, INSERM U1101, Brest (France); Bussink, Johan [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Punt, Cornelis J.A. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laarhoven, Hanneke W.M. van [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology 452, PO Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Several studies showed potential for monitoring response to systemic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Before {sup 18}F-FDG PET can be implemented for response evaluation the repeatability should be known. This study was performed to assess the magnitude of the changes in standardized uptake value (SUV), volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in colorectal liver metastases and validate the biological basis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in colorectal liver metastases. Twenty patients scheduled for liver metastasectomy underwent two {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans within 1 week. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess repeatability of SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, volume and TLG. Tumours were delineated using an adaptive threshold method (PET{sub SBR}) and a semiautomatic fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) delineation method. Coefficient of repeatability of SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} were {proportional_to}39 and {proportional_to}31 %, respectively, independent of the delineation method used and image reconstruction parameters. However, repeatability was worse in recently treated patients. The FLAB delineation method improved the repeatability of the volume and TLG measurements compared to PET{sub SBR}, from coefficients of repeatability of over 85 % to 45 % and 57 % for volume and TLG, respectively. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression correlated to the SUV{sub mean}. Vascularity (CD34 expression) and tumour hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase IX expression) did not correlate with {sup 18}F-FDG PET parameters. In conclusion, repeatability of SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} was mainly affected by preceding systemic therapy. The repeatability of tumour volume and TLG could be improved using more advanced and robust delineation approaches such as FLAB, which is recommended when {sup 18}F-FDG PET is utilized for volume or TLG measurements. Improvement of repeatability of PET measurements

  20. The value of intravoxel incoherent motion model-based diffusion-weighted imaging for outcome prediction in resin-based radioembolization of breast cancer liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieper CC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Claus Christian Pieper,1 Carsten Meyer,1 Alois Martin Sprinkart,1 Wolfgang Block,1 Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar,2 Hans Heinz Schild,1 Petra Mürtz,1 Guido Matthias Kukuk1 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany Purpose: To evaluate prognostic values of clinical and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-derived intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM parameters in patients undergoing primary radioembolization for metastatic breast cancer liver metastases.Subjects and methods: A total of 21 females (mean age 54 years, range 43–72 years with liver-dominant metastatic breast cancer underwent standard liver magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T, diffusion-weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 50, and 800 s/mm2 before and 4–6 weeks after radioembolization. The IVIM model-derived estimated diffusion coefficient D’ and the perfusion fraction f’ were evaluated by averaging the values of the two largest treated metastases in each patient. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analyses for overall survival (OS were performed. Investigated parameters were changes in f’- and D’-values after therapy, age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG status, grading of primary tumor, hepatic tumor burden, presence of extrahepatic disease, baseline bilirubin, previous bevacizumab therapy, early stasis during radioembolization, chemotherapy after radioembolization, repeated radioembolization and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST response at 6-week follow-up.Results: Median OS after radioembolization was 6 (range 1.5–54.9 months. In patients with therapy-induced decreasing or stable f’-values, median OS was significantly longer than in those with increased f’-values (7.6 [range 2.6–54.9] vs 2.6 [range 1.5–17.4] months, P<0.0001. Longer median OS was also seen in patients with increased D’-values (6 [range 1.6–54.9] vs 2.8 [range 1.5–17.4] months, P=0.008. Patients with

  1. Trials, tribulations, and triumphs of insider researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, S.; Tilley, E. N.; Becker, J.; Orchiston, C.; Johnston, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Is there merit in "insider" research? An insider researcher, in the social science context, is someone who conducts their research and provides their observations and perspectives on a project, sector or disaster setting which they are intimately familiar with. One strength of insider research is the unique insights and awareness that are gained as a consequence of the experience of working within the research setting. This could also be considered the most significant criticism of insider research, one that is fraught with bias and subjectivity. So, given their potential biases, can an insider develop worthwhile research? The trials and tribulations of an insider are many. Given the insider position, traditional observer empirical research is not ideal, so this research necessitates exploring different research theoretical perspectives, including the use of critical theory and constructivism. Constructivism-based research permits the researcher to use their unique perspectives and knowledge to `construct' knowledge through their research. However, using constructivist theoretical perspectives and methods may be a complex and challenging endeavor for those better acquainted with empirical methods. Further, ethical restrictions can create further complexities to insider research. Compounding the complexities of methodologies and theoretical perspective, an insiders' perspective can be difficult to manage, given their embedded viewpoint, and may include professional and emotional risks for the researcher. Given its many challenges, insider research is not a frequent pathway of academic examination, particularly in emergency management and natural hazards research. Triumphs of insider research endeavors become clear once ways to address methodological and ethical issues are resolved. I will explore these solutions in my presentation. Further, insider researchers laid the foundation for the contemporary emergency management discipline but this research has been largely

  2. Practitioners conducting educational design research: Tales of tension and triumph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2014-01-01

    McKenney, S. (2013). Practitioners conducting educational design research: Tales of tension and triumph. Keynote address at the annual meeting of the European Association for Practitioner Research on Improving Learning. November 27-29, Biel/Bienne, Switzerland.

  3. Evaluation of patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer for locally ablative treatment with laser induced thermotherapy. Impact of PET with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose on therapeutic decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amthauer, H.; Denecke, T.; Ruehl, R.; Miersch, A.; Ruf, J.; Plotkin, M.; Haenninen, E.L.; Stroszczynski, C.; Gutberlet, M.; Ricke, J. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde und PET-Zentrum, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Hildebrandt, B.; Nicolaou, A.; Riess, H. [Medizinische Klinik fuer Haematologie Onkologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Langrehr, J. [Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: before locally ablative treatment of colorectal liver metastases, patients have to be carefully evaluated to decide whether this is the adequate therapy. In this study we determined the value of FDG-PET in comparison to conventional staging procedures. Patients, methods: in 68 consecutive patients referred for laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) of liver metastases from colorectal cancer, pre-therapeutic staging with conventional imaging (thoracic and abdominal CT, liver MRI, chest X-ray) and FDG-PET was performed. The examinations were analysed separately and blinded. Based on the staging information, therapeutic decisions were made by an interdisciplinary review board according to a standardized algorithm. The results were compared between conventional imaging and FDG-PET, and were validated by clinical follow up data and histopathology, respectively. Results: on FDG-PET 210 lesions were interpreted as tumour manifestations. 48 of these were not seen on conventional imaging (true positive, n = 46). In contrast, 24 lesions were visualized by conventional imaging only (true positive, n = 12). Compared to conventional imaging, discrepant findings on FDG-PET led to treatment modifications in 25 patients (37%); these were correct in 20/25 patients. According to the actual treatment course, the inadequate treatment modifications in the remaining 5 patients were avoided by further diagnostic procedures (i.e. biopsies). Conclusions: In the evaluation of patients with known liver metastases from colorectal cancer before LITT, FDG-PET depicts relevant findings subsidiary to conventional imaging and thus is of high value for therapeutic decision making. (orig.)

  4. In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spliethoff, Jarich; de Boer, L.L.; Meier, M.A.J.; Prevoo, W.; de Jong, J.; Kuhlmann, K.; Bydlon, T.M.; Sterenborg, H.J.C.M.; Hendriks, B.H.W.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong need to develop clinical instruments that can perform rapid tissue assessment at the tip of smart clinical instruments for a variety of oncological applications. This study presents the first in vivo real-time tissue characterization during 24 liver biopsy procedures using diffuse

  5. A Phase I/II Trial of DCVac/IR Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy Combined with Irradiation in Cases of Refractory Colorectal Cancer with Multiple Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young-Min; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Han, Sang-Young; Choi, Jong-Cheol [Donga Univ. School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ju-Seop; Kim, Chang-Won; Kim, Dong-Won; Kang, Chi-Duk [Busan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To assess the toxicity and tumor response induced by DCVac/IR dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy combined with irradiation for refractory colorectal cancer patients with multiple liver metastases. Between May 2004 and November 2006, applicants from a pool of refractory colorectal cancer patients with multiple liver metastases were enrolled. The patients were registered after having signed the informed consent form, which had been approved by the Institutional Review Board from the Dong-A University and Busan National University Hospital. DCs were obtained from peripheral blood of each patient, and then cultured in vitro. A total of 6x10{sup 6} DCs were packed into a vial (DCVac/IR, 0.5 ml) at the convenience of each patient's schedule. On the day before and on the day of each vaccination, each patient received a 4 Gy radiation dose to the target tumor. On the day of vaccination, the indicated dose of autologous DCs was injected into the irradiated tumor using ultrasound-guided needle injection procedures. A total of four vaccinations were scheduled at three 2-week intervals and one 4 week interval at the Dong-A University and Busan National University Hospital. If the tumor status was deemed to be stable or responding to therapy, an additional vaccination dose or two was approved at 4 week intervals beyond the fourth immunization. A tolerance test for DCs was conducted by injecting a range of doses (3x10{sup 6} to 12x10{sup 6} DCs) after the 3rd injection. Moreover, the maximal tolerable dose was applied to additional patients. Treatment safety was evaluated in all patients who had at least one injection. Treatment feasibility was evaluated by the 10th week by assessing the response of patients having at least 4 injections. For systemic toxicities, the evaluation was performed using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, whereas adverse effects were recorded using common WHO toxicity criteria. Of the 24 registered patients, 22 received the DCs

  6. Respiratory gated [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT for target volume delineation in stereotactic radiation treatment of liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundschuh, R.A. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Andratschke, N.; Duma, M.N.; Astner, S.T.; Molls, M. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Dinges, J.; Ziegler, S.I.; Schwaiger, M.; Essler, M. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Bruegel, M. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The use of 4D-[{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in combination with respiratory gated magnet resonance imaging (MRI) in target volume definition for stereotactic radiation of liver metastases was investigated. Methods and materials: A total of 18 patients received respiration gated FDG-PET/CT and MRI. Data were fused using a rigid co-registration algorithm. The quality of the co-registration was rated on a scale from 1 (excellent) to 5 (poor) for co-registration of MRI with gated PET and ungated PET. Gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated in CT (GTV{sub C}T), MRI (GTV{sub MRI}), and PET (GTV{sub PET}). MRI- and PET-based GTVs were defined by three observers each. Interobserver variability was calculated for all patients as well as for subgroups with and without previous treatment of liver metastases. All GTVs were compared for all patients and separately for patients with previous local therapy. In addition, a semiautomatic segmentation algorithm was applied on the PET images. Results: Co-registration between MR and PET images was rated with 3.3 in average when non-gated PET was used and improved significantly (p < 0.01) to 2.1 using gated PET. The average GTV{sub CT} was 51.5 ml, GTV{sub MRI} 51.8 ml, and the average GTV{sub PET} 48.1 ml. Volumes delineated in MRI were 9.9% larger compared to those delineated in CT. Volumes delineated in PET were 13.8% larger than in MRI. The differences between the GTVs were more pronounced in patients with previous treatment. The GTVs defined in MRI showed an interobserver variability of 47.9% (84.1% with previous treatment and 26.2% without previous treatment). The PET-defined GTVs showed an interobserver variability of 21% regardless of previous treatment. Semiautomatic segmentation did not provide satisfying results. Conclusion: FDG-PET can distinguish vital tumor tissue and scar tissue, and therefore alters the GTV especially in patients with previous local treatment. In addition, it reduces the

  7. Imaging of dihydrofolate reductase fusion gene expression in xenografts of human liver metastases of colorectal cancer in living rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Bertino, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Debabrata [Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/UMDNJ, 195 Little Albany Street, NJ 08903, New Brunswick (United States); Doubrovin, Mikhail; Blasberg, Ronald; Tjuvajev, Juri Gelovani [Department of Neurooncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gusani, Niraj J.; Fong, Yuman [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gade, Terence; Koutcher, Jason A. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Balatoni, Julius; Finn, Ronald [Radiochemistry/Cyclotron Core Facility, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Akhurst, Tim; Larson, Steven [Nuclear Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Radionuclide imaging has been demonstrated to be feasible to monitor transgene expression in vivo. We hypothesized that a potential application of this technique is to non-invasively detect in deep tissue, such as cancer cells metastatic to the liver, a specific molecular response following systemic drug treatment. Utilizing human colon adenocarcinoma cells derived from a patient's liver lesion we first developed a nude rat xenograft model for colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver. Expression of a dihydrofolate reductase-herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase fusion (DHFR-HSV1 TK) transgene in the hepatic tumors was monitored in individual animals using the tracer [{sup 124}I]2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodouracil-{beta}-d-arabinofuranoside (FIAU) and a small animal micro positron emission tomograph (microPET), while groups of rats were imaged using the tracer [{sup 131}I]FIAU and a clinical gamma camera. Growth of the human metastatic colorectal cancer cells in the rat liver was detected using magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by surgical inspection. Single as well as multiple lesions of different sizes and sites were observed in the liver of the animals. Next, using a subset of rats bearing hepatic tumors, which were retrovirally bulk transduced to express the DHFR-HSV1 TK transgene, we imaged the fusion protein expression in the hepatic tumor of living rats using the tracer [{sup 124}I]FIAU and a microPET. The observed deep tissue signals were highly specific for the tumors expressing the DHFR-HSV1 TK fusion protein compared with parental untransduced tumors and other tissues as determined by gamma counting of tissue samples. A subsequent study used the tracer [{sup 131}I]FIAU and a gamma camera to monitor two groups of transduced hepatic tumor-bearing rats. Prior to imaging, one group was treated with trimetrexate to exploit DHFR-mediated upregulation of the fusion gene product. Imaging in the living animal as well as subsequent gamma

  8. Oncological strategies for locally advanced rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases, interval strategy versus rectum first strategy: a comparison of short-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Rosés, H; López-Ben, S; Casellas-Robert, M; Planellas, P; Gómez-Romeu, N; Farrés, R; Ramos, E; Codina-Cazador, A; Figueras, J

    2017-12-22

    The goal of treatment for patients with synchronous liver metastases (SLM) from rectal cancer is to achieve a complete resection of both tumor locations. For patients with symptomatic locally advanced rectal cancer with resectable SLM at diagnosis, our usual strategy has been the rectum first approach (RF). However, since 2014, we advocate for the interval approach (IS) that involves the administration of chemo-radiotherapy followed by the resection of the SLM in the interval of time between rectal cancer radiation and rectal surgery. From 2010 to 2016, 16 patients were treated according to this new strategy and 19 were treated according RF strategy. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed with an intention-to-treat perspective. Complete resection rate, duration of the treatment and morbi-mortality were the main outcomes. The complete resection rate in the IS was higher (100%, n = 16) compared to the RF (74%, n = 14, p = 0.049) and the duration of the strategy was shorter (6 vs. 9 months, respectively, p = 0.006). The incidence of severe complications after liver surgery was 14% (n = 2) in the RF and 0% in the IS (p = 1.000), and after rectal surgery was 24% (n = 4) and 12% (n = 2), respectively (p = 1.000). The IS is a feasible and safe strategy that procures higher level of complete resection rate in a shorter period of time compared to RF strategy.

  9. Curcumin inhibits cancer stem cell phenotypes in ex vivo models of colorectal liver metastases, and is clinically safe and tolerable in combination with FOLFOX chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark I; Iwuji, Chinenye; Irving, Glen; Karmokar, Ankur; Higgins, Jennifer A; Griffin-Teal, Nicola; Thomas, Anne; Greaves, Peter; Cai, Hong; Patel, Samita R; Morgan, Bruno; Dennison, Ashley; Metcalfe, Matthew; Garcea, Giuseppe; Lloyd, David M; Berry, David P; Steward, William P; Howells, Lynne M; Brown, Karen

    2015-08-10

    In vitro and pre-clinical studies have suggested that addition of the diet-derived agent curcumin may provide a suitable adjunct to enhance efficacy of chemotherapy in models of colorectal cancer. However, the majority of evidence for this currently derives from established cell lines. Here, we utilised patient-derived colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) to assess whether curcumin may provide added benefit over 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) in cancer stem cell (CSC) models. Combination of curcumin with FOLFOX chemotherapy was then assessed clinically in a phase I dose escalation study. Curcumin alone and in combination significantly reduced spheroid number in CRLM CSC models, and decreased the number of cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(high)/CD133(-)). Addition of curcumin to oxaliplatin/5-FU enhanced anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in a proportion of patient-derived explants, whilst reducing expression of stem cell-associated markers ALDH and CD133. The phase I dose escalation study revealed curcumin to be a safe and tolerable adjunct to FOLFOX chemotherapy in patients with CRLM (n = 12) at doses up to 2 grams daily. Curcumin may provide added benefit in subsets of patients when administered with FOLFOX, and is a well-tolerated chemotherapy adjunct. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemotherapy and targeted therapy for patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases, focusing on conversion hepatectomy and long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Toru; Miyamoto, Yuji; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Imai, Katsunori; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Chikamoto, Akira; Watanabe, Masayuki; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Baba, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    Eight years have passed since the introduction of chemotherapy (chemo) and targeted therapy regimens for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). This study aimed to clarify the effectiveness of chemo and targeted therapy in facilitating conversion hepatectomy and improving long-term survival in Japanese patients with CRLM. A total of 199 patients with CRLM were treated between May 2005 and August 2012. Initial therapies for these patients included straightforward hepatic resection (n = 48; 24 %), induction chemotherapy (n = 148; 74 %), and radiofrequency ablation (n = 3; 2 %). In 56 of 137 patients (40.1 %) with initially unresectable CRLM, 7.5 courses of chemo and targeted therapy downsized and converted tumors to resectable tumors. The 5-year cumulative overall survival (OS) rate and the median survival time were significantly higher for the resectable CRLM than for the unresectable CRLM (54.6 vs. 5.3 % and 77.3 vs. 21.3 months, respectively; P conversion hepatectomy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.19; P therapy (HR 0.46; P therapy (OR 6.1; P conversion hepatectomy. A chemo and targeted therapy can facilitate conversion hepatectomy and allow for an excellent prognosis in patients with initially unresectable CRLM.

  11. Cost-effective, personalized, 3D-printed liver model for preoperative planning before laparoscopic liver hemihepatectomy for colorectal cancer metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witowski, Jan Sylwester; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Major, Piotr; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing for preoperative planning has been intensively developed in the recent years. However, the implementation of these solutions in hospitals is still difficult due to high costs, extremely expensive industrial-grade printers, and software that is difficult to obtain and learn along with a lack of a defined process. This paper presents a cost-effective technique of preparing 3D-printed liver models that preserves the shape and all of the structures, including the vessels and the tumor, which in the present case is colorectal liver metastasis. The patient's computed tomography scans were used for the separation and visualization of virtual 3D anatomical structures. Those elements were transformed into stereolithographic files and subsequently printed on a desktop 3D printer. The multipart structure was assembled and filled with silicone. The patient underwent subsequent laparoscopic right hemihepatectomy. The entire process is described step-by-step, and only free-to-use and mostly open-source software was used. As a result, a transparent, full-sized liver model with visible vessels and colorectal metastasis was created for under $150, which-taking into account 3D printer prices-is much cheaper than models presented in previous research papers. The increased accessibility of 3D models for physicians before complex laparoscopic surgical procedures such as hepatic resections could lead to beneficial breakthroughs in these sophisticated surgeries, as many reports show that these models reduce operative time and improve short term outcomes.

  12. Minor-but-Complex Liver Resection: An Alternative to Major Resections for Colorectal Liver Metastases Involving the Hepato-Caval Confluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Lucio; Masi, Gianluca; Puccini, Marco; Colombatto, Piero; Vivaldi, Caterina; Balestri, Riccardo; Marioni, Antonio; Prosperi, Valerio; Forfori, Francesco; Licitra, Gabriella; Leoni, Chiara; Paolicchi, Adriana; Boraschi, Piero; Lunardi, Alessandro; Tascini, Carlo; Castagna, Maura; Buccianti, Piero

    2015-07-01

    Major hepatectomy (MH) is often considered the only possible approach for colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) at the hepato-caval confluence (CC), but it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. With the aim to reduce MH, we developed the "minor-but-complex" (MbC) technique, which consists in the resection of less than 3 adjacent liver segments with exposure of the CC and preservation of hepatic outflow until spontaneous maturation of peripheral intrahepatic shunts between main hepatic veins. We have evaluated applicability and outcome of MbC resections for the treatment of CRLM involving the CC. In this retrospective cohort study, all consecutive liver resections (LR) performed for CRLM located in segments 1, 7, 8, or 4a were classified as MINOR - removal of <3 adjacent segments; MbC - removal of <3 adjacent segments with CC exposure; and MH - removal of ≥ 3 adjacent segments. The rate of avoided MH was obtained by the difference between the rate of potentially MH (PMH) plus potentially inoperable cases and the rate of the MH performed. Taking into account that postoperative mortality is mainly related to the amount of resected liver, MbC was compared with minor resections for safety, complexity, and outcome. Of the 59 LR analyzed, 29 (49.1%) were deemed PMH and 4 (6.8%) potentially inoperable. Eventually, MH was performed only in 8 (13.5%) with a decrease rate of 42.4%. Minor LR was performed in 23 (39.0%) and MbC LR in 28 (47.5%) patients. Among MbC cases, 32.1% had previous liver treatments, 39.3% required vascular reconstruction (no reconstructed vessel thrombosis occurred before maturation of peripheral intrahepatic shunts between main hepatic veins), and 7.1% had grade IIIb-IV complications, their median hospital stay was 9 days and 90-day mortality was 0%. After a median follow-up of 22.2 months, oncological results were comparable with those of minor resections. MbC hepatectomy lowers the need for MH and allows for the resection of potentially

  13. Significance of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for the identification of adrenal gland and liver metastases in connection with bronchial carcinoma in comparison with conventional diagnostics; Wertigkeit der {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT zur Erkennung von Nebennieren- und Leber-Metastasen beim Bronchialkarzinom im Vergleich zur konventionellen Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kley, Adelheid

    2012-02-09

    In the frame of the thesis in the significance of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for the identification of adrenal gland and liver metastases in connection with bronchial carcinoma in comparison with conventional diagnostics the data of 229 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Compared to PET the diagnostics the use of PET/CT shows higher specificity and sensitivity with respect to the detection of adrenal gland metastases for patients with primary bronchial carcinoma. In case of liver metastases PET/CT is not better than PET, CT or ultrasonography.

  14. Opposite effects of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1 over-expression and knockdown on colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandapalli Obul R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs and the corresponding metalloproteinases are integral parts of the protease network and have been shown to be involved in cancer development and metastasis. Paradoxically, for TIMP-1, tumor promoting as well as tumor inhibitory effects have been observed. Methods To address this paradox, we utilized the BALB/c/CT26 mouse model that reliably leads to liver metastasis after splenic tumor cell injection and variegated the type of target cells for therapeutic intervention and the modalities of gene transfer. Since we have observed before that over-expression of TIMP-1 in liver host cells leads to efficient tumor growth inhibition in this model, we now examined whether targeting the tumor cells themselves will have a similar effect. Results In concordance with the earlier results, TIMP-1 over-expression in tumor cells led to a dramatic reduction of tumor growth as well. To evaluate any influence of treatment modality, we further examined whether TIMP-1 knockdown in the same animal model would have the opposite effect on tumor growth than TIMP-1 over-expression. Indeed, TIMP-1 knockdown led to a marked increase in tumor burden. Conclusion These data indicate that in the BALB/c/CT26 model, the modification of TIMP-1 has concordant effects irrespective of the type of target cell or the technique of modulation of TIMP-1 activity, and that TIMP-1 is unequivocally tumor inhibitory in this model.

  15. A multicenter phase II trial of mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab to treat liver-only metastases of colorectal cancer that are unsuitable for upfront resection (TRICC0808).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Hiroyuki; Yasuno, Masamichi; Ishiguro, Megumi; Kameoka, Shingo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Keiichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Muro, Kei; Baba, Hideo; Yamamoto, Junji; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Tamagawa, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Izumi; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Takashi; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2015-03-01

    A phase II clinical trial was conducted on colorectal cancer patients with only liver metastases (focal diameter exceeds 5 cm or the number of liver metastases is ≥5; H2·H3) to evaluate the liver resection rate and safety after 6 cycles of mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab (BV) therapy. mFOLFOX6+BV therapy was applied for 6 cycles to the patients with H2·H3 liver only metastasis. Hepatectomy was considered after the sixth cycle as a rule, and was performed if possible. The primary endpoint was the curative hepatectomy rate (R0 resection rate). Forty-six patients were registered and 45 patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Of the 19 patients rated as unresectable before therapy, 18 completed 6 cycles of mFOLFOX6+BV therapy and subsequently underwent hepatectomy (16 were R0-resected). Of the 26 initially unresectable patients, 6 underwent hepatectomy (4 were RO-resected). The overall R0 resection rate was 44.4% (20/45). Chemotherapy-associated grade 3 or higher adverse events included neutrophil decreased (17.4%) and leukocyte decreased (8.7%), fatigue (6.5%) etc. Only hypertension (6.5%) and venous thromboembolism (2.2%) were BV-associated grade 3 or higher adverse events. Among the 25 patients who underwent hepatectomy, intraoperative/postoperative complications included grade 3 wound infections (2 cases), biloma, delayed wound healing and intraperitoneal abscess (each 1 case). In colorectal cancer patients with liver-only metastases, mFOLFOX6+ BV therapy yielded a high hepatectomy rate and a high percentage of initially unresectable and subsequently resectable cases. The chemotherapy associated adverse events and hepatectomy complications were both within acceptable ranges.

  16. Percutaneous irreversible electroporation for the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases with a proposal for a new response evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Peter J; Echenique, Ana; Loaiza-Bonilla, Arturo; Froud, Tatiana; Barbery, Katuzka; Rocha Lima, Caio M; Yrizarry, Jose M; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2014-08-01

    To describe an initial experience with irreversible electroporation (IRE) in patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CLM). A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing IRE for the management of CLM was performed. Procedures were done percutaneously under general anesthesia. Patients were then followed for adverse events, tumor response, and survival. Between March 2010 and February 2013, 29 patients underwent percutaneous ablation of 58 tumors in 36 IRE sessions. Most patients (89%) had an absolute or relative contraindication to thermal ablation. The median age was 62 years, and the median time from diagnosis to IRE was 28 months. The median number of lesions treated per patient was two, and the median tumor size was 2.7 cm. Patients had received previous chemotherapy regimens (range, 1-5 per patient). A new Metabolic Imaging And Marker Integration response evaluation criteria was used for response assessment, and was a predictor of progression-free and overall survival. The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 18% (95% confidence interval, 0%-35%), and the 2-year overall survival rate was 62% (95% confidence interval, 37%-87%). Complications included arrhythmias (n = 1) and postprocedure pain (n = 1). Both patients recovered without sequelae. Percutaneous IRE of CLM is feasible and safe. A new response evaluation system for colorectal cancer appears to be prognostic. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Outgrowth of human liver metastases after resection of the primary colorectal tumor: a shift in the balance between apoptosis and proliferation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, C.F.J.M.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Wobbes, Th.; Westphal, J.R.; Ruers, T.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid outgrowth of metastases after removal of the primary tumor has been described in several mouse models. Loss of primary tumor-induced inhibition of angiogenesis in the metastases has been suggested as the underlying cause. Accordingly, we recently demonstrated that vascular density in human

  18. Randomized Phase III Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Adjuvant CAPOX with or without Bevacizumab in Patients after Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastases: HEPATICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikol Snoeren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Recurrence after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs, presumably caused by VEGF-mediated outgrowth of micrometastases, might decrease when VEGF is inhibited. This study examines the efficacy and safety of adding bevacizumab to an adjuvant regimen of CAPOX in patients undergoing radical resection for their CRLMs. Patients with resected CRLMs were randomized after surgery to receive CAPOX and bevacizumab (arm A or CAPOX alone (arm B as adjuvant treatment. CAPOX was given in both arms for a total of eight cycles. Bevacizumab was administered for 16 cycles. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS. Secondary outcomes were overall survival (OS, toxicity, and quality of life (QoL. In total, 79 patients were randomized. At the time of analysis, 23 events were encountered in arm A and 20 in arm B. One-year DFS rate was 79% [95% confidence interval (CI: 68%-93%] and 68% (95% CI: 55%-85% for arm A and B, respectively (P = .89. Toxicity was evaluated for 75 patients. No significant differences in toxicity between the two arms were found. QoL scores were higher in arm A, of which emotional functioning and global QoL scores were significant. Adding bevacizumab to a CAPOX regimen in patients undergoing a resection for their CLM is safe and showed higher QoL scores compared with CAPOX alone. Because of premature closure of the study, conclusions about the effect on DFS of additional VEGF inhibition in this setting could not yet be made.

  19. Clinical evaluation of spatial accuracy of a fusion imaging technique combining previously acquired computed tomography and real-time ultrasound for imaging of liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakime, Antoine; Deschamps, Frederic; De Carvalho, Enio Garcia Marques; Teriitehau, Christophe; Auperin, Anne; De Baere, Thierry

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the spatial accuracy of matching volumetric computed tomography (CT) data of hepatic metastases with real-time ultrasound (US) using a fusion imaging system (VNav) according to different clinical settings. Twenty-four patients with one hepatic tumor identified on enhanced CT and US were prospectively enrolled. A set of three landmarks markers was chosen on CT and US for image registration. US and CT images were then superimposed using the fusion imaging display mode. The difference in spatial location between the tumor visible on the CT and the US on the overlay images (reviewer #1, comment #2) was measured in the lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical axis. The maximum difference (Dmax) was evaluated for different predictive factors. CT performed 1-30 days before registration versus immediately before. Use of general anesthesia for CT and US versus no anesthesia. Anatomic landmarks versus landmarks that include at least one nonanatomic structure, such as a cyst or a calcification Overall, Dmax was 11.53 ± 8.38 mm. Dmax was 6.55 ± 7.31 mm with CT performed immediately before VNav versus 17.4 ± 5.18 with CT performed 1-30 days before (p < 0.0001). Dmax was 7.05 ± 6.95 under general anesthesia and 16.81 ± 6.77 without anesthesia (p < 0.0015). Landmarks including at least one nonanatomic structure increase Dmax of 5.2 mm (p < 0.0001). The lowest Dmax (1.9 ± 1.4 mm) was obtained when CT and VNav were performed under general anesthesia, one immediately after the other. VNav is accurate when adequate clinical setup is carefully selected. Only under these conditions (reviewer #2), liver tumors not identified on US can be accurately targeted for biopsy or radiofrequency ablation using fusion imaging.

  20. Repeated adjuvant anti-CEA radioimmunotherapy after resection of colorectal liver metastases: Safety, feasibility, and long-term efficacy results of a prospective phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlmann, Carsten-O; Homayounfar, Kia; Niessner, Martin; Dyczkowski, Jerzy; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Braulke, Friederike; Meller, Birgit; Beißbarth, Tim; Ghadimi, B Michael; Meller, Johannes; Goldenberg, David M; Liersch, Torsten

    2017-02-15

    In previous work, a single administration of anticarcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA) 131 I-labetuzumab radioimmunotherapy (RIT) after complete resection of colorectal liver metastases was well tolerated and significantly improved survival compared with controls. In the current phase 2 trial, the authors studied repeated RIT in the same setting, examining safety, feasibility, and efficacy. Sixty-three patients (median age, 64.5 years) received RIT at 40 to 50 millicuries/m2 per dose. Before the receipt of RIT, restaging was performed with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission to confirm that patients were "truly adjuvant." Patients who had elevated serum CEA levels or radiographically inconclusive new lesions were classified as "possibly nonadjuvant," but they also received RIT. Time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and cause-specific survival (CSS) were calculated. The median follow-up was 54 months. After the first course of RIT, 14 of 63 patients experienced National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grade 4 hematotoxicity; 19 patients did not receive the second course of RIT because of impaired performance status (N = 5) or relapse (N = 14). After the second course of RIT, 9 of 44 patients experienced National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grade 4 hematotoxicity. Five patients developed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) from 22 to 55 months after their last RIT. The median TTP, OS, and CSS for all patients were 16, 55, and 60 months, respectively. The "truly adjuvant" patients (N = 39) had an improved median TTP (not reached vs 6.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.12; P Cancer 2017;123:638-649. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. Unresectable colorectal liver metastases: the safety and efficacy of conversion therapy using hepatic arterial infusion immunochemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and polyethylene glycol-interferon α-2a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Takuya; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Yamasaki, Mitsuo

    2013-08-01

    Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) or systemic chemotherapy has been used to treat unresectable colorectal liver metastases. The prognosis of the disease in recent years has been improved because chemotherapy is performed before hepatectomy to reduce tumor size (conversion therapy). The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of conversion therapy following HAI immunochemotherapy. Hepatic arterial infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)-IFNα-2a was performed in 21 patients. The primary endpoint was the safety of HAI and hepatectomy. The secondary endpoints were response rate, rate of conversion to hepatectomy, survival rate, and prognostic factors. With regard to side effects, drugs were discontinued temporarily in one patient because of a decrease in white blood cell count; however, other patients continued chemotherapy. The response rate with HAI was 61.9 %, and the conversion rate was 38.1 %. Hepatectomy was completed successfully without mortality. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.5 months (with and without conversion, 16.7 and 4.8 months, respectively; p = 0.021). Median overall survival was 34.6 months (with and without conversion, 48.4 and 26.6 months, respectively; p = 0.003). Prognosis was poor when the number of metastatic tumors was ≥10 [PFS: hazard ratio (HR) 32.21, p = 0.003; overall survival (OS): HR 9.13, p = 0.07], but prognosis improved after hepatectomy (OS: HR 0.08, p = 0.09). Hepatic arterial infusion immunochemotherapy with 5-FU/PEG-IFNα-2a was performed safely without major side effects. Prognosis is expected to improve after successful conversion to hepatectomy.

  2. Adjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Pelvic Radiotherapy After Simultaneous Surgical Resection of Rectal Cancer With Liver Metastases: Analysis of Prognosis and Patterns of Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ho Jung [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Chang Sik [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sung-Cheol [Department of Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Woog; Hong, Yong Sang; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Ryu, Min-Hee; Chang, Heung Moon [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Jong Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yoon-Koo [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Cheon [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Won, E-mail: twkimmd@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) after simultaneous surgical resection in rectal cancer patients with liver metastases (LM). Materials and Methods: One hundred and eight patients receiving total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer and surgical resection for LM were reviewed. Forty-eight patients received adjuvant CRT, and 60 were administered CT alone. Recurrence patterns and prognosis were analyzed. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were compared between the CRT and CT groups. The inverse probability of the treatment-weighted (IPTW) method based on the propensity score was used to adjust for selection bias between the two groups. Results: At a median follow-up period of 47.7 months, 77 (71.3%) patients had developed recurrences. The majority of recurrences (68.8%) occurred in distant organs. By contrast, the local recurrence rate was only 4.7%. Median DFS and OS were not significantly different between the CRT and CT groups. After applying the IPTW method, we observed no significant differences in terms of DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.347; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.759-2.392; p = 0.309) and OS (HR, 1.413; CI, 0.752-2.653; p = 0.282). Multivariate analyses showed that unilobar distribution of LM and normal preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level (<6 mg/mL) were significantly associated with longer DFS and OS. Conclusions: The local recurrence rate after simultaneous resection of rectal cancer with LM was relatively low. DFS and OS rates were not different between the adjuvant CRT and CT groups. Adjuvant CRT may have a limited role in this setting. Further prospective randomized studies are required to evaluate optimal adjuvant treatment in these patients.

  3. Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 resin microspheres plus standard systemic chemotherapy regimen of FOLFOX versus FOLFOX alone as first-line treatment of non-resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer: the SIRFLOX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Peter; Gebski, Val; Van Buskirk, Mark; Thurston, Kenneth; Cade, David N; Van Hazel, Guy A

    2014-12-01

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are linked to poor prognosis. Systemic chemotherapy with regimens such as FOLFOX (combination of infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) is the standard first-line treatment. The SIRFLOX trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of combining FOLFOX-based chemotherapy with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT or radioembolisation) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres (SIR-SpheresR; Sirtex Medical Limited, North Sydney, Australia). SIRFLOX is a randomised, multicentre trial of mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy+/-SIRT as first-line treatment of patients with liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic CRC (mCRC). The trial aims to recruit adult chemotherapy-naive patients with proven liver metastases with or without limited extra-hepatic disease, a life expectancy of >=3 months and a WHO performance status of 0-1. Patients will be randomised to receive either mFOLFOX6 or SIRT+mFOLFOX6 (with a reduced dose of oxaliplatin in cycles 1-3 following SIRT). Patients in both arms can receive bevacizumab at investigator discretion. Protocol chemotherapy will continue until there is unacceptable toxicity, evidence of tumour progression, complete surgical resection or ablation of cancerous lesions, or the patient requests an end to treatment. The primary endpoint of the SIRFLOX trial is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include: PFS in the liver; tumour response rate (liver and any site); site of tumour progression; health-related quality of life; toxicity and safety; liver resection rate; and overall survival. Assuming an increase in the median PFS from 9.4 months to 12.5 months with the addition of SIRT to mFOLFOX6, recruiting >=450 patients will be sufficient for 80% power and 95% confidence. The SIRFLOX trial will establish the potential role of SIRT+standard systemic chemotherapy in the first-line management of mCRC with non-resectable liver metastases. SIRFLOX Clinical

  4. The Attenuation Distribution Across the Long Axis of Breast Cancer Liver Metastases at CT: A Quantitative Biomarker for Predicting Overall Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Richard G; Lakomkin, Nikita; Hainline, Allison; Kang, Hakmook; Hutson, M Shane; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of our study was to compare attenuation distribution across the long-axis (ADLA) measurements, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, and Choi criteria for predicting overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with bevacizumab. We obtained HIPAA-compliant data from a prospective, multisite, phase 3 trial of bevacizumab for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. For patients with one or more liver metastases measuring 15 mm or larger at baseline, we evaluated up to two target liver lesions using RECIST, Choi criteria, and ADLA measurements, with the latter defined as the SD of the CT attenuation values of each pixel along the tumor long-axis diameter. The optimal percentage change threshold for defining an ADLA response was computed by cross-validation analysis in a Cox model. The log-rank test was applied to evaluate RECIST, Choi criteria, and ADLA for discriminating patients with superior OS. The predictive accuracies of all three techniques were compared using Brier scores and areas under the ROC curve (AUC). All analyses were performed separately using best overall response (BOR) and response at the first follow-up time point (FU1). One hundred sixty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. A 25% decrease in the ADLA measurement from baseline was the optimal ADLA response threshold for BOR and FU1. RECIST, Choi criteria, and ADLA successfully identified patients with superior OS when using BOR (RECIST, p = 0.02; Choi and ADLA, p < 0.001), but only Choi criteria and ADLA measurements were successful when using FU1 (RECIST, p = 0.43; Choi and ADLA, p < 0.001). In a direct comparison, ADLA measurements outperformed both RECIST and Choi criteria using BOR (95% CI for Brier score differences, ADLA-RECIST [-0.58 to -0.08] and ADLA-Choi [-0.55 to -0.06]; 95% CI for AUC differences, ADLA-RECIST [0.16-0.33] and ADLA-Choi [0.17-0.36]) as well as using FU1 (95% CI for Brier score differences, ADLA

  5. Complete pathological response of unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer after trans-arterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads loaded with irinotecan (DEBIRI) and concomitant systemic FOLFOX: A case report from the FFCD 1201 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, Simon; Artru, Pascal; Mithieux, François; Marsot, Julien; Watkin, Emmanuel; Pellerin, Olivier; Lledo, Gerard; Chalabreysse, Philippe; Desramé, Jérome; Taieb, Julien

    2015-12-01

    Most liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are unresectable at diagnosis. Systemic chemotherapy allows secondary surgical resection in 10 to 20% of patients. Hepatic intra-arterial treatments could enhance response and resection rate. We therefore designed a prospective phase II trial testing the transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using drug-eluting beads loaded with irinotecan (DEBIRI) with concomitant systemic FOLFOX regimen, the FFCD 1201 trial, in patients with liver limited metastatic CRC. A 48-year old patient was operated from an occlusive sigmoid adenocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging showed 6 bilobar liver metastasis. The patient was considered as non-eligible for surgery initially. Patient was included in the FFCD 1201 trial and received 5 cycles of FOLFOX and 2 sessions of DEBIRI, with a quite good tolerability. Post-treatment evaluation showed a partial response and sufficient tumor shrinkage to make liver metastasis resectable. Right hepatectomy associated with wedge resection in the left liver was performed and pathological findings showed a complete pathological response (CPR). Combination of DEBIRI with FOLFOX could increase tumor shrinkage leading to secondary resection of liver metastases from CRC. This combination may also, as shown here for the first time in a patient with unresectable LM, induce CPR of all LM, known to be associated with better outcome. Our case also emphasizes the difficulty to morphologically assess pathological response and the need for new tool to better select patients who should be resected. Further results of the FFCD 1201 trial will bring more information on this new combination therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Snobbery and the triumph of bourgeois values: a speculative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snobbery and the triumph of bourgeois values: a speculative analysis of implications for hospitality. ... Research in Hospitality Management ... Abstract. This is a 'small' paper that offers a broad-brush view of the nature of bourgeois values and implications of the same for our understanding of certain aspects of hospitality.

  7. Hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy (HIAC) of high dose mitomycin and epirubicin combined with caval chemofiltration versus prolonged low doses in liver metastases from colorectal cancer: a prospective randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, G; Poddie, D B; Cantore, M; Rossi, S; Tumolo, S; Dentico, P; Bernardeschi, P; Guadagni, S; Rossi, G; Valori, V M; De Simone, M

    2004-11-01

    A multicenter randomized study comparing high dose of mitomycin and epirubicin given as hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy (HIAC) combined with caval chemofiltration (CF) versus low doses of the same drugs in unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer showed a significant improvement in the survival rate of the 20 patients treated with high dose compared to the 22 patients treated with low doses with a 1 year survival of 69% vs 39%. The median survival was 17 vs 11 months and the responses were 65% vs 33%. Toxicity was colangitis in 50% of patients considered. The extrahepatic progression was similar in the two groups (7/20 vs 8/22).

  8. Laser-induced thermotherapy for liver metastases in an open 0.2 T MR system; Laserinduzierte Thermotherapie (LITT) von Lebermetastasen in einem offenen 0,2 T MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, K.; Wacker, F.; Wolf, K.J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Ritz, J.P.; Isbert, C.; Germer, C.T. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik 1 fuer Visceral-, Gefaess- und Thoraxchirurgie; Roggan, A. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Lasermedizin; Wendt, M. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-02-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and safety of the laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) for liver metastases in open MR imaging system operating at 0.2 Tesla. Method: Laser therapy using the Nd:YAG laser was performed on 25 patients with a total of 41 liver metastases. An open low-field MRI scanner was used for puncture, positioning of the laser applicator, and monitoring the therapy. A true FISP sequence was used to track the puncture in close to real-time. Localization diagnostics and temperature monitoring were aided by T{sub 1}-weighted gradient echo sequences in the breath-holding technique. In the first follow up after 24-48 hours, a contrast-enhanced T{sub 1}-weighted gradient-echo sequence was performed in an MRI scanner at 1.5 T. The pre-, intra- and post-interventional volumes of the liver metastases as well as the thermolesions and the thermonecroses were determined. Results: LITT in an open MRI system was technically feasible in all patients with no clinically relevant complications. The mean volumes of the thermolesions measured during intervention in low-field MRI were lower than the volumes of the thermonecroses measured after intervention in high-field MRI. Conclusion: The technique presented here of laser-induced thermotherapy for liver metastases in an open MRI system is technically feasible and safe. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung der Praktikabilitaet und Sicherheit der laserinduzierten Thermotherapie (LITT) von Lebermetastasen in einem offenen 0,2 T MRT. Methode: Es wurde eine Lasertherapie mit einem Nd:YAG-Laser bei 25 Patienten mit insgesamt 41 Lebermetastasen durchgefuehrt. Punktion, Plazierung des Laserapplikators und Therapiekontrolle erfolgten in einem offenen Niederfeld-MRT. Zur echtzeitnahen Punktionskontrolle wurde eine True-FISP-Sequenz verwendet. Die Lokalisationsdiagnostik und das Thermomonitoring erfolgte mit Hilfe T{sub 1}-gewichteter Gradienten-Echo-Sequenzen in Atemanhaltetechnik. Zur ersten Verlaufskontrolle wurde nach 24

  9. Lung Shunt Fraction prior to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Predicts Survival in Patients with Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Single-Center Prospective Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Johannes M. [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Ambinder, Emily McIntosh [John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States); Ghodadra, Anish [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Xing, Minzhi [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Prajapati, Hasmukh J. [The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@yale.edu [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    2016-07-15

    ObjectiveTo investigate survival outcomes following radioembolization with Yttrium-90 (Y90) for neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NETLMs). This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Y90 radioembolization and to evaluate lung shunt fraction (LSF) as a predictor for survival.MethodsA single-center, prospective study of 44 consecutive patients (median age: 58.5 years, 29.5 % male) diagnosed with pancreatic (52.3 %) or carcinoid (47.7 %) NETLMs from 2006 to 2012 who underwent Y90 radioembolization was performed. Patients’ baseline characteristics, including LSF and median overall survival (OS) from first Y90 radioembolization, were recorded and compared between patients with high (≥10 %) and low (<10 %) LSF. Baseline comparisons were performed using Fisher’s exact tests for categorical and Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate (Wilcoxon rank-sum test) and multivariate analyses (Cox Proportional Hazard Model) for risk factor analysis were performed.ResultsThere was no statistically significant difference in age, gender, race, tumor properties, or previous treatments between patients with high (n = 15) and low (n = 29) LSF. The median OS was 27.4 months (95 %CI 12.73–55.23), with 4.77 months (95 %CI 2.87–26.73) for high and 42.77 months (95 %CI 18.47–59.73) for low LSF (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis identified high LSF (p = 0.001), total serum bilirubin >1.2 mg (p = 0.016), and lack of pretreatment with octreotide (p = 0.01) as independent prognostic factors for poorer survival. Tumor type and total radiation dose did not predict survival.ConclusionsLSF ≥10 %, elevated bilirubin levels, and lack of pretreatment with octreotide were found to be independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in patients with NETLMs.

  10. A phase I study on stereotactic body radiotherapy of liver metastases based on functional treatment planning using positron emission tomography with 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-galactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mette Marie; Bak-Fredslund, Kirstine; Petersen, Jørgen Baltzer

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The galactose analog 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-galactose (FDGal) is used for quantification of regional hepatic metabolic capacity by functional positron emission tomography computerized tomography (PET/CT). In the present study, FDGal PET/CT was used for functional treatment...... planning (FTP) of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of liver metastases with the aim of minimizing radiation dose to the best functioning liver tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen patients referred for SBRT had FDGal PET/CT performed before and one month after the treatment. The planning CT...... and the FDGal PET/CT images were deformable co-registered. RESULTS: A reduction in the mean dose of approximately 2 Gy to the best functioning sub-volumes was obtained. One patient developed grade 2 acute morbidity and no patients experienced grade 3 or higher acute morbidities. The regional hepatic metabolic...

  11. Fusion of CT and PET data: method and clinical relevance for planning laser-induced thermotherapy of liver metastases; Fusion von CT- und PET-Daten: Methode und klinische Bedeutung am Beispiel der Planung der laserinduzierten Thermotherapie von Lebermetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosten, N.; Kreissig, R.; Puls, R.; Amthauer, H.; Beier, J.; Rohlfing, T.; Stroszczynski, C.; Herbel, A.; Lemke, A.J.; Felix, R. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik

    2000-07-01

    Aim: Cathether-placement in liver metastases is difficult when the lesions are not visible on plain images. We evaluated the use of image fusion using CT and PET data, providing information on anatomy and liver lesions, respectively. Methods: Plain CT of the liver and whole body FDG-PET were performed in 28 patients with colorectal carcinoma in preparation for laser-induced thermotherapy. Fusions of image data and 2D-visualisation were performed and evaluated with regard to quality of the registration, number of detected lesions and influence of the procedure on laser-induced thermotherapy. Image fusion was performed using an algorithm which was developed by our group. Results: 84 focal liver lesions were visible on CT, 107 on PET images. This means that CT guided catheter placement would have to be performed 'blindly' in 23 lesions. In 6 patients previously unknown extra-hepatic tumor deposits were seen on PET images (local recurrence, 2 extrahepatic metastases, 2 second primaries). Conclusion: Hot spots from metastases, which are difficult to locate on PET images alone, may be identified on images generated by fusion of CT and PET data. These images facilitate an interventional approach to liver lesions which are not visible on plain CT. As PET allows for whole body screening, it helps identifying patients who would not profit from laser-induced thermotherapy. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bei der CT-gesteuerten Punktion von Leberherden ist der fehlende Laesionsnachweis in der nativen CT oft hinderlich. Es wurde untersucht, ob die Bildfusion PET + CT weiterhilft. Methoden: Native Leber-CT und Ganzkoerper-FDG-PET wurden bei 28 Patienten mit kolorektalen Karzinomen durchgefuehrt, die zur LITT bei Lebermetastasen zugewiesen wurden. Die Datensaetze wurden fusioniert und hinsichtlich Qualitaet der Registrierung, Anzahl nachgewiesener Laesionen und Einfluss der fusionierten Bilder auf die Therapie ausgewertet. Ein selbstentwickelter Algorithmus wurde fuer die Fusion

  12. Improved detection of hepatic metastases with contrast-enhanced low mechanical-index pulse inversion ultrasonography during the liver-specific phase of sonazoid: observer performance study with JAFROC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Shiraishi, Junji; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Saito, Kazuhiro; Doi, Kunio

    2009-07-01

    To compare B-mode ultrasonography (US) alone with the combination of B-mode and contrast-enhanced (Sonazoid) late-phase pulse-inversion US for the detection of hepatic metastases by use of jackknife free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis. Twenty-seven patients with 57 hepatic metastases and 6 patients without hepatic metastases underwent B-mode and contrast-enhanced US. We used the diagnoses established by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced US as the standard of reference. All ultrasonographic scanning was performed by an experienced radiologist with a routine clinical procedure. All scanning data were archived with digital cine clips. A review system, which can display pairs of cine clips for B-mode and contrast-enhanced US side by side, was developed for off-site observer study. Seven radiologists interpreted each case individually first by B-mode US only, and then by the combination with contrast-enhanced US by identifying locations of possible candidates for hepatic metastasis with their confidence ratings. The figure-of-merit (FOM) values, sensitivity, and false-positives per case were estimated for B-mode US alone, and for the combination of B-mode and contrast-enhanced US. The sensitivities of the combined ultrasonographic imaging (mean, 72.2%) were clearly improved from that of B-mode US alone (mean, 41.6%) while reducing the average number of false positives from 1.1 to 0.5 per case. In the jackknife analysis, there was a statistically significant difference between mean FOM values for the combined imaging (0.76) and for B-mode US alone (0.44, P cine clips of contrast-enhanced liver US together with B-mode US could improve physicians' accuracy for detection of hepatic metastases.

  13. Diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases with CT, MR imaging, FDG PET, and/or FDG PET/CT: a meta-analysis of prospective studies including patients who have not previously undergone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niekel, Maarten Christian; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    To obtain diagnostic performance values of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and FDG PET/CT in the detection of colorectal liver metastases in patients who have not previously undergone therapy. A comprehensive search was performed for articles published from January 1990 to January 2010 that fulfilled the following criteria: a prospective study design was used; the study population included at least 10 patients; patients had histopathologically proved colorectal cancer; CT, MR imaging, FDG PET, or FDG PET/CT was performed for the detection of liver metastases; intraoperative findings or those from histopathologic examination or follow-up were used as the reference standard; and data for calculating sensitivity and specificity were included. Study design characteristics, patient characteristics, imaging features, reference tests, and 2 × 2 tables were recorded. Thirty-nine articles (3391 patients) were included. Variation existed in study design characteristics, patient descriptions, imaging features, and reference tests. The sensitivity estimates of CT, MR imaging, and FDG PET on a per-lesion basis were 74.4%, 80.3%, and 81.4%, respectively. On a per-patient basis, the sensitivities of CT, MR imaging, and FDG PET were 83.6%, 88.2%, and 94.1%, respectively. The per-patient sensitivity of CT was lower than that of FDG PET (P = .025). Specificity estimates were comparable. For lesions smaller than 10 mm, the sensitivity estimates for MR imaging were higher than those for CT. No differences were seen for lesions measuring at least 10 mm. The sensitivity of MR imaging increased significantly after January 2004. The use of liver-specific contrast material and multisection CT scanners did not provide improved results. Data about FDG PET/CT were too limited for comparisons with other modalities. MR imaging is the preferred first-line modality for evaluating colorectal liver

  14. High Expression of DARPP-32 in Colorectal Cancer Is Associated With Liver Metastases and Predicts Survival for Dukes A and B Patients: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopljar, Mario; Patrlj, Leonardo; Korolija-Marinic, Dragan; Horzic, Matija; Cupurdija, Kristijan; Bakota, Bore

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prognostic significance of Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated neuronal Phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32) expression in primary colorectal cancer. The study material consisted of clinical and histopathological data of 100 patients operated for colorectal cancer between 1994 and 1997. For immunohistochemical analysis, specific rabbit antibodies for DARPP-32 were used and the percentage of stained tumor cells was calculated under gross magnification (400 times) on a sample of 500 tumor cells. DARPP-32 expression in the primary tumor was significantly greater in patients with distant metastases compared to patients with no distant metastases (p=0.002). In multivariate regression analysis, DARPP-32 expression in the primary tumor was a significant predictor of distant metastases. With a cut-off point of 76.5%, DARPP-32 expression in the primary tumor significantly influenced both overall and disease free survival, especially for Dukes A and B patients (p=0.037). The results of this study indicate that DARPP-32 may be a potential marker of worse prognosis and a valuable tool for managing further adjuvant treatment in patients with stages Dukes A and B colorectal cancer.

  15. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of colorectal liver metastases using degradable starch microspheres (Spherex {sup registered}). Own investigations and review to the literature; Transarterielle Chemoembolisation von Lebermetastasen kolorektaler Karzinome mit abbaubaren Staerkepartikeln (Spherex {sup registered}). Eigene Beobachtungen und Literaturuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasser, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Giebel, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik fuer Anaesthesiologie und Operative Intensivmedizin; Fischbach, R. [Universitaetsklinkum Muenster (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Tesch, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Medizinische Klinik I; Onkologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Frankfurt (Germany); Landwehr, P. [Henriettenstiftung Hannover (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Since two decades transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no standardized therapeutic procedure exists so far. The present study retrospectively investigated survival, response and side effects after TACE of liver metastases in 21 patients with colorectal cancer and results are compared with previous literature. A total of 68 TACE procedures were performed. A suspension of degradable starch microspheres (DSM, Spherex {sup registered}) and Mitomycin C was applied selectively into hepatic arteries via a transfemoral approach. DSM effect a temporary arterial occlusion. Follow-up studies were performed by contrast enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT). The median survival was 13.8 months. Therapeutic response (according to WHO) was observed only in three patients. The progression free interval was 5.8 months. Patients developed a postembolization-syndrome (abdominal pain, fever, nausea) and increased transaminases in 27-43% of all interventions. A gastric ulcer occurred after four, cholecystitis after two TACE. As already shown in most previous studies, regardless of the used agents, also this investigation underlines the moderate therapeutic effect of TACE on colorectal liver metastases. So far, no significant survival benefit has been shown in the literature and the response rates are rather limited. In general, complications of TACE seem to be rare, but should not to be underestimated. Compared to TACE with long or permanent arterial occlusion, postembolization syndrome seems to be less pronounced using DSM. As TACE is rather a palliative therapeutic approach, DSM therefore might be more suited. Further studies on TACE of liver metastases should focus on to the patients' quality of life. (orig.) [German] Seit Beginn der 80er Jahre ist die transarterielle Chemoembolisation (TACE) von Lebermetastasen Gegenstand zahlreicher Studien, ohne dass sich bisher ein einheitliches Therapiekonzept

  16. Fatores prognósticos na ressecção de metástases hepáticas de câncer colorretal Prognostic factors following liver resection for hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljamir Duarte Chedid

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o impacto de fatores prognósticos na sobrevida de pacientes com metástases hepáticas ressecadas e originadas de câncer colorretal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os prontuários de 28 pacientes submetidos a ressecção hepática de metástases de câncer colorretal de abril de 1992 a setembro de 2001. Foram realizadas 38 ressecções (8 pacientes com mais de uma ressecção no mesmo tempo cirúrgico e 2 pacientes submetidos a re-ressecções. Todos haviam sido submetidos previamente a ressecção do tumor primário. Utilizou-se protocolo de rastreamento de metástases hepáticas que incluiu revisões clínicas trimestrais, ecografia abdominal e dosagem de CEA até se completarem 5 anos de seguimento e após, semestralmente. Os fatores prognósticos estudados foram: estágio do tumor primário, tamanho das metástases > 5cm, intervalo entre ressecção do tumor primário e surgimento da metástase 100 ng/mL, margens cirúrgicas AIM: To determine the impact of prognostic factors on survival of patients with metastases from colorectal cancer that underwent liver resection. METHODS: The records of 28 patients that underwent liver resection for metastases from colorectal cancer between April 1992 and September 2001 were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight resections were performed (more than one resection in eight patients and two patients underwent re-resections. The primary tumor was resected in all the patients. A screening protocol for liver metastases including clinical examinations every three months, ultrassonography and CEA level until 5 years of follow-up and after every 6 months, was applied. The prognostic factors analyzed regarding the impact on survival were: Dukes C stage of primary tumor, size of metastasis >5 cm, a disease-free interval from primary tumor to metastasis 100 ng/mL, resection margins < 1 cm and extrahepatic disease. The Kaplan-Meier curves, log rank and Cox regression were used for

  17. Early clinical experience with pre-operative MR-guided laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of liver metastases; Erste klinische Erfahrungen zur MR-gesteuerten laserinduzierten Thermotherapie (LITT) von Lebermetastasen im praeoperativen Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Mueller, P. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Phillip, C. [Laser- und Medizin-Technologie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Roggan, A. [Laser- und Medizin-Technologie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Mack, M.G. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Balzer, J.O. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Eichstaedt, H. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Blumhardt, G. [Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, HU Berlin (Germany); Lobeck, H. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Virchow-Klinikum, HU Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany); Weinhold, N. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    Five patients with solitary colorectal liver metastases were treated by means of MR-guided LITT before liver resection. Application time and energy of the Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and 10-20 minutes and 4.5-8.8 W. MRT monitoring during the LITT was carried out with temperature-sensitive T{sub 1} weighted sequences (FLASH-2-D, turbo FLASH). The extent of the induced necrosis as seen on MR was compared with the unfixed specimen and with the histopathological findings. The extent of necrosis visible by MRT correlated with the histopathological findings with an accuracy of 95.3{+-}4.2%. Following single treatments (three cases) the metastases suffered a reduction of 24%-55% of their original volume. In two patients a second application produced laser-induced necrosis of 78% and 98% of volume. In these two patients a temperature sound was used for measuring regional heating and showed an exact correlation with MR thermometry. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] 5 Patienten mit solitaeren kolorektalen Lebermetastasen wurden vor Leberteilresektion mittels MR-gesteuerter LITT behandelt. Die Applikationsdauer und Laserleistung des Nd:YAG-Lasers (1064 nm) betrugen 10-20 min und 4,5-8,8 W. Das MRT-Monitoring waehrend der LITT wurde mit temperatursensitiven T{sub 1}-gewichteten Sequenzen (FLASH-2-D, Turbo-FLASH) durchgefuehrt. Das Ausmass der induzierten Nekrose wurde korreliert mit der MR-Untersuchung des unfixierten Resektats und dem histopathologischen Befund. Die Groesse der in der MRT sichtbaren Nekrose korrelierte mit der histopathologischen Nekrosebestimmung mit einer Genauigkeit von 95,3%{+-}4,2%. Bei Einfachapplikation (n=3) wiesen die behandelten Metastasen ein LITT-induziertes Nekrosevolumen von 24 bis 55% des Gesamtmetastasenvolumens auf. Bei zwei Patienten wurde durch Einsatz zweier Applikationssysteme ein laserinduziertes Nekrosevolumen von 78 bzw. 98% erreicht. Bei diesen beiden Patienten erlaubte eine im jeweils freien Huellkatheter positionierte Temperatursonde die Messung der

  18. Multimodality treatment of unresectable hepatic metastases from pancreatic glucagonoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bernardo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucagonomas are pancreatic islet cell tumors arising from the alpha cells which belong to neuroendocrine tumors. They frequently metastasize to the liver. We report the case of a 52- year old man with a pancreatic glucagonoma with synchronous multiple liver metastases treated by surgery, transarterial chemoembolization, percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation and long-acting octreotide. Our report confirms that a multimodal approach is very effective in patients with unresectable liver metastases from pancreatic endocrine tumors providing long-lasting palliation and probably prolonging survival.

  19. Predicting Treatment Response of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases to Conventional Lipiodol-Based Transarterial Chemoembolization Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging: Value of Pretreatment Apparent Diffusion Coefficients (ADC) and ADC Changes Under Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahrsow, Maximilian, E-mail: mlahrsow@gmail.com; Albrecht, Moritz H. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Bickford, Matthew W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo use absolute pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to predict response to repetitive cTACE for unresectable liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma (CRLM) at 1 and 3 months after start of treatment.Materials and MethodsFifty-five metastases in 34 patients were examined with DWI prior to treatment and 1 month after initial cTACE. Treatment was performed in 4-week intervals. Response was evaluated at 1 and 3 months after start of therapy. Metastases showing a decrease of ≥30% in axial diameter were classified as responding lesions.ResultsOne month after initial cTACE, seven lesions showed early response. There was no significant difference in absolute pretreatment ADC values between responding and non-responding lesions (p = 0.94). Three months after initial cTACE, 17 metastases showed response. There was a significant difference (p = 0.021) between absolute pretreatment ADC values of lesions showing response (median 1.08 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) and no response (median 1.30 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s). Pretreatment ADC showed fair diagnostic value to predict response (AUC 0.7). Lesions showing response at 3 months also revealed a significant increase in ADC between measurements before treatment and at one month after initial cTACE (p < 0.001). Applying an increase in ADC of 12.17%, response at 3 months after initial cTACE could be predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively (AUC 0.817). Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.651, p < 0.001) between percentage change in size after third cTACE and percentage change in ADC.ConclusionIn patients with CRLM, ADC measurements are potential biomarkers for assessing response to cTACE.

  20. First-line selective internal radiotherapy plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer (FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global): a combined analysis of three multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasan, Harpreet S; Gibbs, Peter; Sharma, Navesh K; Taieb, Julien; Heinemann, Volker; Ricke, Jens; Peeters, Marc; Findlay, Michael; Weaver, Andrew; Mills, Jamie; Wilson, Charles; Adams, Richard; Francis, Anne; Moschandreas, Joanna; Virdee, Pradeep S; Dutton, Peter; Love, Sharon; Gebski, Val; Gray, Alastair; van Hazel, Guy; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-09-01

    Data suggest selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) in third-line or subsequent therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer has clinical benefit in patients with colorectal liver metastases with liver-dominant disease after chemotherapy. The FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global randomised studies evaluated the efficacy of combining first-line chemotherapy with SIRT using yttrium-90 resin microspheres in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with liver metastases. The studies were designed for combined analysis of overall survival. FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global were randomised, phase 3 trials done in hospitals and specialist liver centres in 14 countries worldwide (Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Portugal, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (WHO performance status 0 or 1) with liver metastases not suitable for curative resection or ablation were randomly assigned (1:1) to either oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (FOLFOX: leucovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) or FOLFOX plus single treatment SIRT concurrent with cycle 1 or 2 of chemotherapy. In FOXFIRE, FOLFOX chemotherapy was OxMdG (oxaliplatin modified de Gramont chemotherapy; 85 mg/m 2 oxaliplatin infusion over 2 h, L-leucovorin 175 mg or D,L-leucovorin 350 mg infusion over 2 h, and 400 mg/m 2 bolus fluorouracil followed by a 2400 mg/m 2 continuous fluorouracil infusion over 46 h). In SIRFLOX and FOXFIRE-Global, FOLFOX chemotherapy was modified FOLFOX6 (85 mg/m 2 oxaliplatin infusion over 2 h, 200 mg leucovorin, and 400 mg/m 2 bolus fluorouracil followed by a 2400 mg/m 2 continuous fluorouracil infusion over 46 h). Randomisation was done by central minimisation with four factors: presence of extrahepatic metastases, tumour involvement of the liver, planned use of a biological agent, and investigational centre. Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment. The primary

  1. Liver transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mies

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation has always fascinated humanity, this fact issupported by historical reports of ancient civilizations. The firstliver transplant was performed in 1955, in experimental animals.Human liver transplant was first attempted by Thomas Starzl in1963, but was unsuccessful. Latter, in 1967, the same groupdescribed the first successful human ortotopic liver transplant inhistory. Many facts contributed for the triumph of this procedureand among them we can point out the improvements of surgicaltechniques, the development of preservation solutions, discoveryof better antibiotics, appearance of the concept of intensive careunit and the most important mark in transplant survival –cyclosporine as a new immunossuppression agent. In Brazil, thefirst human liver transplant with prolonged survival was in 1985and was fulfilled by the Liver Unit. This same team was latterresponsible for the world’s first description of living donor livertransplantation. Brazilian’s legislation has improved in order touse wisely the resources related to transplant programs and thisincludes the grafts that are so scarce for the demand of patientson our waiting lists. Another great necessity is to create aeducational effort aimed to general population and medical socialgroup to instruct and show the importance of organ donation, butall these efforts will be usefulness if public health policies fail toput in practice actions that will improve the organization andrationalization of equipment and human resources in emergencymedical centers.

  2. Diffusion weighted imaging of liver lesions suspect for metastases: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and lesion contrast are independent from Gd-EOB-DTPA administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.benndorf@uni-jena.de [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Schelhorn, Juliane, E-mail: j.schelhorn@klinikum-weimar.de [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Sophien- und Hufeland-Klinikum Weimar, Henry-van-de-Velde-Strasse 2, 99425 Weimar (Germany); Dietzel, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.dietzel@med.uni-jena.de [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Kaiser, Werner A., E-mail: werner.kaiser@med.uni-jena.de [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Baltzer, Pascal A.T., E-mail: pascal.baltzer@med.uni-jena.de [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced liver MRI is widely used for detection and differentiation of focal liver lesions. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements is increasingly utilised as a fast and, with limitations, quantitative method for liver lesion detection and characterisation. Herein we investigate whether the administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA affects DWI. Materials and methods: 31 consecutive patients referred to standardised liver MRI (1.5 T, Gd-EOB-DTPA, 0.025 mmol/kg) were retrospectively reviewed. All underwent a breathhold DWI sequence before and after contrast agent administration (EPI-DWI, TR/TE (effective): 2100/62 ms, b-values: 0 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}). Patients with previously treated liver lesions were excluded. Signal intensity of lesion, parenchyma and noise on DWI images as well as the ADC value were measured after identification by two observers in consensus using manually placed regions of interest. The reference standard was imaging follow-up determined separately by two radiologists. Data analysis included signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculations, comparisons were drawn by employing multiple Bonferroni corrected Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results: 50 malignant and 39 benign lesions were identified. Neither SNR, CNR nor ADC values showed significant differences between pre- and postcontrast DWI. Both pre- and postcontrast ADC values differed significantly between benign and malignant lesions (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We did not identify a significant influence of Gd-EOB-DTPA on DWI of liver lesions. This allows for individual tailoring of imaging protocols according to clinical needs.

  3. Toward prompt gamma spectrometry for monitoring boron distributions during extra corporal treatment of liver metastases by boron neutron capture therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, R. [LPTHIRM, Department of Physics, Saad Dahlab University, Route de Soumaa (Algeria); Department of Radiation, Radionuclide and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: khelifi@mail.univ-blida.dz; Nievaart, V.A. [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Westerduinweg 5, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bode, P. [Department of Radiation, Radionuclide and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Moss, R.L. [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Westerduinweg 5, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Krijger, G.C. [Department of Radiation, Radionuclide and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    A Monte Carlo calculation was carried out for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of extra corporal liver phantom. The present paper describes the basis for a subsequent clinical application of the prompt gamma spectroscopy set-up aimed at in vivo monitoring of boron distribution. MCNP code was used first to validate the homogeneity in thermal neutron field in the liver phantom and simulate the gamma ray detection system (collimator and detector) in the treatment room. The gamma ray of 478 keV emitted by boron in small specific region can be detected and a mathematical formalism was used for the tomography image reconstruction.

  4. Toward prompt gamma spectrometry for monitoring boron distributions during extra corporal treatment of liver metastases by boron neutron capture therapy: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelifi, R; Nievaart, V A; Bode, P; Moss, R L; Krijger, G C

    2009-07-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation was carried out for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of extra corporal liver phantom. The present paper describes the basis for a subsequent clinical application of the prompt gamma spectroscopy set-up aimed at in vivo monitoring of boron distribution. MCNP code was used first to validate the homogeneity in thermal neutron field in the liver phantom and simulate the gamma ray detection system (collimator and detector) in the treatment room. The gamma ray of 478 keV emitted by boron in small specific region can be detected and a mathematical formalism was used for the tomography image reconstruction.

  5. Pseudo-angiomatous liver metastasis of thyroid medullary carcinoma: multimodality diagnostic approach; Metastase hepatique pseudoangiomateuse d'un carcinome medullaire de la thyroide: approche diagnostique multimodalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperiale, A.; Keomany, J.; Rust, E.; Constantinesco, A. [CHU de Strasbourg, Service de biophysique et medecine nucleaire, 67 (France); Greget, M. [CHU de Strasbourg, Service de radiologie 1, 67 (France); Chabrier, G.; Goichot, B. [CHU de Strasbourg, Service de medecine interne, endocrinologie et nutrition, 67 (France); Detour, J. [CHU de Strasbourg, Service de radiopharmacie, 67 (France); Pessaux, P. [CHU de Strasbourg, Service de chirurgie generale, hepatique et endocrinienne, 67 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Illustrate the result of the diagnosis by multimodality imaging (MRI, scintigraphy {sup 123}I-Mibg, PET/CT{sup 18}F-F.D.G. and {sup 18}F-F DOPA) with liver metastasis looking like a single angioma in a patient with atypical medullary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusions: Angiomas must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of liver metastasis of endocrine tumors, particularly in the case of small injuries where it may be difficult to differentiate a peripheral nodular contrast enhancement of a globular enhancement characteristics of angiomas. (N.C.)

  6. Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy for liver metastases: first results of a clinical phase I-study; Interstitielle Photodynamische Lasertherapie zur Behandlung von Lebermetastasen: Erste Ergebnisse einer in vivo Phase I-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, K.; Mack, M.G.; Eichler, K.; Straub, R.; Zangos, S.; Vogl, T.J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Univ. (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: Development and evaluation of a new photodynamic treatment technique for the laser therapy of liver malignancies Material and Methods: The combination with new catheter systems enables the use of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) to treat also tumors in parenchymal organs. So far it is mainly used to treat superficial or endoluminal tumors. The presented study is part of a multicenter phase I-study. We treated 5 patients with colorectal liver metastases with the new photosensitizer SQN 400 and following interstitial photodynamic laser treatment. Evaluation of tumors were performed by contrastenhanced CT scans. Results: In the contrast enhanced CT scans the development of a complete necrosis within a radius of 1 cm around every single fibre could be shown. Additional the ablation of tumors with the combined use of several fibres is possible. Severe complications or toxicities were not observed. Conclusion: The photodynamic laser therapy of liver malignancies is a minimal invasive procedure with little side effects which produces sharply defined yet small volumes of necrosis. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Entwicklung und Evaluation einer neuen photodynamischen Technik zur Lasertherapie von Lebertumoren im Rahmen einer Phase I-Studie. Methode: Durch Anwendung neuer Kathetersysteme wird die photodynamische Lasertherapie auch zur Therapie von Tumoren parenchmyatoeser Organe einsetzbar. Im Rahmen einer multizentrischen Phase I-Studie haben wir 5 Patienten mit Lebermetastasen kolorektaler Tumoren mittels interstitieller photodynamischer Technik mit dem neu entwickelten Photosensibilisator SQN 400 und nach 5 Tagen folgender Lasertherapie behandelt. Die Tumorbeurteilung erfolgte durch kontrastverstaerkte Computertomographie (CT) im Verlauf. Ergebnisse: Die kontrastverstaerkten CT-Aufnahmen konnten zeigen, dass sich im Radius von ca. 1 cm um die Lichtfasern eine komplette Nekrose erzielen liess und sich bei Verwendung mehrerer Fasern Lebertumoren abtragen lassen

  7. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  8. Safety and efficacy of doxorubicin-eluting superabsorbent polymer microspheres for the treatment of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonne Lawrence

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the symptom control, tumour response, and complication rate in patients with liver-predominant metastatic neuroendocrine tumours treated with transarterial chemoembolization using doxorubicin-eluting superabsorbent polymer (SAP microspheres.

  9. Review of The Triumph of Numbers by I. B. Cohen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available I. Bernard Cohen, The Triumph of Numbers: How Counting Shaped Modern Life. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2005. 209 pp. $24.95 (USA. ISBN 0-393-05769-0.The premier historian of science ends his career telling how the world has become awash in numbers—“how numbers entered the conduct of life and of government, the understanding of nature, and the analysis of societies.” The stories begin with Kepler and end with Florence Nightingale. In between, major players include Galileo, Harvey, Leeuwenhoek, and Halley; Graunt and Petty; Jefferson and Franklin; Lavoisier, Sinclair, Pinel and Louis; Guerry and Quetelet. The book tells of the spread of what Cohen refers to as the “quantifying spirit” from physical science to “political arithmetic” (Sir William Petty, economics, and the beginning of psychiatry, sociology, medical statistics, and public health.

  10. Evaluation of a gadolinium-based nanoparticle (AGuIX) for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver in a rat model of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases at 9.4 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, P.; Morr, D.; Mueller, A.; Massmann, A.; Seidel, R.; Schneider, G.; Buecker, A. [Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany). Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Lux, F.; Tillement, O. [Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon (France). Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents; Schaefer, T. [Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany). Dept. of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery; Menger, M.D. [Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany). Inst. for Clinical and Experimental Surgery

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare a Gd-based nanoparticle (AGuIX) with a standard extracellular Gd-based contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) for MRI at 9.4 T in rats with hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. 12 rats with hepatic metastases were subjected to MRI using a 9.4 T animal scanner. T1w self-gated FLASH sequences (TR/TE=45/2.5 ms, alpha = 45 , TA=1: 23 min, FOV=5.12 x 5.12 cm{sup 2}, matrix = 256 x 256) were acquired before and at 10 time points after contrast injection. Each animal received 0.1 mmol/kg BW Gd-DOTA i.v. 2 days later AGuIX was applied at 0.01 mmol/kg BW (representing equal Gd doses). The SNR of normal liver (SNRliver), hyper- and hypoenhancing parts of tumors (SNRtumor, hyperenh/SNRtumor, hypoenhanc), erector spinae muscle (SNRmuscle), CNR and lesion enhancement (LE) were calculated based on ROI measurements. Mean SNRliver (Gd-DOTA: 14.6 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 28.2 ± 2.6, p < 0.001), SNRtumor, hyperenhanc (Gd-DOTA: 18.6 ± 1.2; AGuIX: 29.6 ± 2.8, p < 0.001), SNRtumor, hypoenhanc (Gd-DOTA: 12.0 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 15.4 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), SNRmuscle (Gd-DOTA: 12.3 ± 0.3; AGuIX: 14.0 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), mean CNR (Gd-DOTA: -2.5 ± 0.2; AGuIX: -7.5 ± 1.0, p < 0.001) and LE (Gd-DOTA: 3.8 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 14.9 ± 2.8, p=0.001) were significantly higher using AGuIX. Regardless of the larger molecular size, AGuIX demonstrates an early peak enhancement followed by a continuous washout. AGuIX provides better enhancement at 9.4 T compared to Gd-DOTA for equal doses of applied Gd. This is based on the molecule structure and the subsequent increased interaction with protons leading to a higher relaxivity. AGuIX potentially ameliorates the conspicuity of focal liver lesions and may improve the sensitivity in diagnostic imaging of malignant hepatic tumors.

  11. Verification of MR thermometry via in-vivo intralesional fluoroptic temperature measurement for laser-induced thermotherapy of liver metastases; Verifizierung der MR-Thermometrie mittels in vivo intralaesionaler, fluoroptischer Temperaturmessung fuer die laserinduzierte Thermotherapie von Lebermetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Weinhold, N.; Mack, M.G.; Mueller, P.K.; Scholz, W.R.; Straub, R.; Felix, R. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Roggan, A. [Laser- und Medizin-Technologie gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the correlation of MR-measured changes of signal intensity and invasive fluoroptic temperature measurements during MR-guided LITT of liver metastases. Results: In both sequences a gradually increasing signal loss could be documented during laser application which proved to be reversible after cessation of energy deposition. The percentage of decrease in signal intensity correlated directly with the measured increase of temperature. Invasive fluoroptical evaluation of temperature distribution after 10 min exposure time showed at 5 mm distance from the applicator an increase of temperature of 35 C, in 1O mm distance a mean increase of 9 C{+-}1.7, in 15 mm a mean increase of 7 C{+-}1.6 and in 20 mm a mean increase of 3 C{+-}0.5. This is evidence of thermal tissue damage up to 3 cm in diameter with laser monoapplication. The qualitative evaluation revealed a reproducible correlation of the extent of signal loss around the applicator and the finally induced degree of necrosis. Conclusion: Invasive fluoroptical temperature measurements prove the diagnostic reliability of MR thermometry for the online monitoring of LITT of liver metastases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Verifizierung der MR-Thermometrie mittels invasiver fluoroptischer, intralaesionaler Temperaturmessung fuer die laserinduzierte Thermotherapie von Lebermetastasen. Ergebnisse: Beide MR-Thermometrie-Sequenzen konnten einen zunehmenden Signalverlust um den Applikator waehrend der Laserapplikation dokumentieren, reversibel nach Ende der Energiezufuhr. Die invasive fluoroptische Temperaturmessung nach einer Expositionsdauer von 10 min zeigte in 5 mm Entfernung vom Applikator den hoechsten mittleren Temperaturanstieg ({Delta}T) von 35 C, in 10 mm Distanz war {Delta}T= 9 C{+-}1,7, in 15 mm Distanz 7 C{+-}1,6 und in 20 mm Distanz 3 C{+-}0,5. Die prozentuale Signalintensitaetsabnahme korrelierte mit dem gemessenen Temperaturanstieg. Diese Resultate bestaetigten die Ausdehnung der thermischen Gewebeschaedigung von

  12. Análise de fatores clínicos e histopatológicos em metástases hepáticas de adenocarcinoma colorretal Analysis of clinical and histopathological factors in adenocarcinoma colorectal cancer liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Cláudio Murad

    2007-12-01

    . O tamanho médio da lesão foi de 4,45 + 2,8. A margem cirúrgica maior que 10 mm foi observada em 32 casos. O valor do CEA antes da operação de 68,13 + 105,65 ng/ml e mediana de 22,2 ng/ml. Obito ocorreu em 22 casos (44,89%. O tipo histológico predominante foi o adenocarcinoma tubular moderadamente diferenciado em 65,96%, 17,02% pouco e 17,02% bem diferenciado. Fatores como o tipo histológico indiferenciado, menor infiltrado inflamatório peritumoral, maior reação desmoplásica e inexistência de cápsula circunscrevendo o tumor parecem compor fatores de pior prognóstico, embora não tenham sido capazes de isoladamente serem significantes Observou-se associação significante entre o nível sérico abaixo de 7 ng/ml de CEA e o sincronismo da metástase hepática. CONCLUSÕES: A ressecção cirúrgica radical das metástases hepáticas com margem de segurança superior a 10 mm promoveram maior sobrevida; os níveis séricos elevados de CEA associaram-se à recidiva tumoral das metástases e pior evolução clínica; 3. tipo histológico indiferenciado, menor infiltrado inflamatório peritumoral, maior reação desmoplásica, inexistência de cápsula circunscrevendo o tumor sugerem pior prognóstico.BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer belongs to the most frequent malignant neoplasia in the world and responsible for the cause of death among other types of cancer; ranked second behind lung cancer. Metastasis frequently occurs and disease worsening leads to patient death. AIM: To analyze if radical surgical resection for colorectal cancer liver metastases with resection margin greater than 10 mm promotes better survival rates and the factors that might predict prognosis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 49 patients presenting colorectal adenocarcinoma liver metastases without evidence of concomitant disease and submitted to surgical treatment. Epidemiologic parameters were: age, gender, size of liver metastasis and or the largest lesion, number of regional lymph

  13. Surgery with radioguided location of a liver metastasis of melanoma choroid: case report; Cirurgia com localizacao radioguiada de uma metastase hepatica de melanoma de coroide: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Marcelo; Miranda, Mario Henrique Furlanetto, E-mail: mmoreno@unochapeco.edu.br, E-mail: mirandamario@unochapeco.edu.br [Universidade Comunitaria da Regiao de Chapeco (UNOCHAPECO), SC (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Introduction: The use of radioguided occult lesion localization prior to surgical excision is increasing, mainly due to the development of new probes and the use of PET-CT. Case report: A 70-year-old male who presented with a metastatic lesion in his liver from a choroidal melanoma. This was located using PET-CT and subsequently located with a low-energy intraoperative gamma probe during the laparotomy. Conclusion: The present case shows that it is possible to excise a hepatic metastasis utilizing the principles of radioguided surgery, even in centers without access to high energy probes. (author)

  14. Genome-Wide Screening of Genes Showing Altered Expression in Liver Metastases of Human Colorectal Cancers by cDNA Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rempei Yanagawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of intensive and increasingly successful attempts to determine the multiple steps involved in colorectal carcinogenesis, the mechanisms responsible for metastasis of colorectal tumors to the liver remain to be clarified. To identify genes that are candidates for involvement in the metastatic process, we analyzed genome-wide expression profiles of 10 primary colorectal cancers and their corresponding metastatic lesions by means of a cDNA microarray consisting of 9121 human genes. This analysis identified 40 genes whose expression was commonly upregulated in metastatic lesions, and 7 that were commonly downregulated. The upregulated genes encoded proteins involved in cell adhesion, or remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Investigation of the functions of more of the altered genes should improve our understanding of metastasis and may identify diagnostic markers and/or novel molecular targets for prevention or therapy of metastatic lesions.

  15. Estratégias para aumentar a ressecabilidade em pacientes com metástases hepáticas de tumores colorretais Strategies to increase resected liver metastases in patients with colorectal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Perini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Atualmente, as ressecções hepáticas podem ser realizadas com taxas aceitáveis de morbimortalidade. Em centros especializados, mortalidade ao redor de 1% pode ser alcançada, mesmo em fígados previamente submetidos à quimioterapia por longo prazo. Com o objetivo de reduzir essas taxas, novas estratégias têm sido empregadas, como a embolização portal, ablação por radiofrequência, re-hepatectomias ressecções vasculares com reconstrução e hepatectomias em dois tempos. MÉTODO: Foi realizada revisão de literatura nos sites de pesquisa PubMed, Bireme e Scielo, com os descritores "hepatectomias parciais, metástases, neoplasia colorretal, radiofrequência e embolização". Selecionaram-se, principalmente, os estudos de aplicação de técnicas e procedimentos cirúrgicos no tratamento das metástases hepáticas. CONCLUSÃO: Sobrevida ao redor de 50% em cinco anos podem ser conseguidas em casos selecionados quando equipe multidisciplinar está envolvida no tratamento. Com a melhora na técnica operatória, poupando-se parênquima hepático, e com o advento de novos agentes quimioterápicos, lesões metastáticas hepáticas irressecáveis podem se tornar ressecáveis e a sobrevida a longo prazo pode ser alcançada.INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, liver resections can be performed with acceptable morbi-mortality rates. In specialized centers, mortality as low as 1% can be achieved, even with the advent of new hepatotoxic chemotherapy regimens. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality, newer strategies can be undertaken, such as portal vein embolization, radiofrequency ablation techniques, re-hepatectomies, major vascular resections and two stages hepatectomies. METHOD: Literature review was conducted on sites search PubMed, BIREME, SciELO, with the headings "partial hepatectomy, hepatic metastases, colorectal cancer, radiofrequency and embolization". Were selected mainly studies with the application of techniques and surgical

  16. Tragedy and triumph in orbit the eighties and early nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2012-01-01

    April 12, 2011, was the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's pioneering journey into space. To commemorate this momentous achievement, Springer-Praxis is producing a mini series of books that reveals how humanity's knowledge of flying, working, and living in space has grown in the last half century. Tragedy and Triumph in Orbit, the fourth book in the series, explores the tumultuous events of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, a time when a reinvigorated Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union bred further distrust and intense competition between the two old foes. As the Shuttle sought to fulfill its mandate of regular, routine access to space, a fatal Achilles heel in the system remained undetected until, one freezing January day in 1986, it made itself known with horrifying suddenness on millions of television screens across the world. Systemic flaws, and the urgent need to resolve them, led to several years of introspection, while the Soviet program seemed to prosper and cosmonauts sp...

  17. SU-F-J-224: Impact of 4D PET/CT On PERCIST Classification of Lung and Liver Metastases in NSLC and Colorectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J; Lopez, B; Mawlawi, O [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of 4D PET/CT on PERCIST metrics in lung and liver tumors in NSCLC and colorectal cancer patients. Methods: 32 patients presenting lung or liver tumors of 1–3 cm size affected by respiratory motion were scanned on a GE Discovery 690 PET/CT. The bed position with lesion(s) affected by motion was acquired in a 12 minute PET LIST mode and unlisted into 8 bins with respiratory gating. Three different CT maps were used for attenuation correction: a clinical helical CT (CT-clin), an average CT (CT-ave), and an 8-phase 4D CINE CT (CT-cine). All reconstructions were 3D OSEM, 2 iterations, 24 subsets, 6.4 Gaussian filtration, 192×192 matrix, non-TOF, and non-PSF. Reconstructions using CT-clin and CT-ave used only 3 out of the 12 minutes of the data (clinical protocol); all 12 minutes were used for the CT-cine reconstruction. The percent change of SUVbw-peak and SUVbw-max was calculated between PET-CTclin and PET-CTave. The same percent change was also calculated between PET-CTclin and PET-CTcine in each of the 8 bins and in the average of all bins. A 30% difference from PET-CTclin classified lesions as progressive metabolic disease (PMD) using maximum bin value and the average of eight bin values. Results: 30 lesions in 25 patients were evaluated. Using the bin with maximum SUVbw-peak and SUVbw-max difference, 4 and 13 lesions were classified as PMD, respectively. Using the average bin values for SUVbw-peak and SUVbw-max, 3 and 6 lesions were classified as PMD, respectively. Using PET-CTave values for SUVbw-peak and SUVbw-max, 4 and 3 lesions were classified as PMD, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that response evaluation in 4D PET/CT is dependent on SUV measurement (SUVpeak vs. SUVmax), number of bins (single or average), and the CT map used for attenuation correction.

  18. Antitumor magnetic hyperthermia induced by RGD-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles, in an experimental model of colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oihane K. Arriortua

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reports important advances in the study of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs related to their application in different research fields such as magnetic hyperthermia. Nanotherapy based on targeted nanoparticles could become an attractive alternative to conventional oncologic treatments as it allows a local heating in tumoral surroundings without damage to healthy tissue. RGD-peptide-conjugated MNPs have been designed to specifically target αVβ3 receptor-expressing cancer cells, being bound the RGD peptides by “click chemistry” due to its selectivity and applicability. The thermal decomposition of iron metallo-organic precursors yield homogeneous Fe3O4 nanoparticles that have been properly functionalized with RGD peptides, and the preparation of magnetic fluids has been achieved. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, electron magnetic resonance (EMR spectroscopy and magnetic hyperthermia. The nanoparticles present superparamagnetic behavior with very high magnetization values, which yield hyperthermia values above 500 W/g for magnetic fluids. These fluids have been administrated to rats, but instead of injecting MNP fluid directly into liver tumors, intravascular administration of MNPs in animals with induced colorectal tumors has been performed. Afterwards the animals were exposed to an alternating magnetic field in order to achieve hyperthermia. The evolution of an in vivo model has been described, resulting in a significant reduction in tumor viability.

  19. Modified mismatch polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism detected mutations in codon 12 and 13 of exon 2 of K-ras gene in colorectal cancer patients and its association with liver metastases: Data from a South Asian country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleel, Fathima Dhilhani Mohamed; Zoysa, M I M De; Lokuhetti, M D S; Gunawardena, Y I N S; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath Naduviladath; Dassanayake, Ranil Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in K-ras codon 12 and 13 of exon 2 are known to affect prognosis and impart resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor monoclonal antibody therapy in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Our aim was to investigate the utility value of modified mismatch polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay to detect mutation in K-ras codons of CRC patients and to relate the mutational status to liver metastasis. Mismatch PCR-RFLP was developed to detect K-ras mutations in DNA isolated from paraffinized tumor tissue of thirty CRC patients. All patients had 5 year follow-up data to detect liver metastasis. Cross-tabulations were generated between K-ras mutations and the metastatic status. The Chi-square test was used to indicate statistical significance of the association. Of the 30 CRC patients investigated, K-ras mutations of codons 12 and/or 13 of exon 2 were detected in 14 (46.6%). Meanwhile, 13 patients (43.3%) were observed to have developed liver metastases. There was a significant association between the presence of the K-ras mutation in codon 12 and the occurrence of liver metastasis (χ2 = 4.693, P = 0.030) on the contrary to the mutation in codon 13 to which such occurrence of liver metastases was not seen (χ2 = 1.884, P = 0.169). Codon 12 of exon 2 of K--ras gene detected by modified mismatch PCR-RFLP assay is significantly associated with liver metastasis in CRC patients during the first 5 years after surgery. Thus, modified mismatch PCR-RFLP protocol is a suitable method in this setting to detect K-ras gene mutations predicting liver metastasis in CRC patients.

  20. Melanoma with gastric metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Wong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations.

  1. LIGHT Elevation Enhances Immune Eradication of Colon Cancer Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Guilin; Qin, Jianzhong; Kunda, Nicholas; Calata, Jed F; Mahmud, Dolores L; Gann, Peter; Fu, Yang-Xin; Rosenberg, Steven A; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2017-04-15

    The majority of patients with colon cancer will develop advanced disease, with the liver being the most common site of metastatic disease. Patients with increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary colon tumors and liver metastases have improved outcomes. However, the molecular factors that could empower antitumor immune responses in this setting remain to be elucidated. We reported that the immunostimulatory cytokine LIGHT (TNFSF14) in the microenvironment of colon cancer metastases associates with improved patient survival, and here we demonstrate in an immunocompetent murine model that colon tumors expressing LIGHT stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and tumor cell-specific antitumor immune responses. In this model, increasing LIGHT expression in the microenvironment of either primary tumors or liver metastases triggered regression of established tumors and slowed the growth of liver metastases, driven by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated antitumor immunity. These responses corresponded with significant increases in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and increased expression of lymphocyte-homing signals in the metastatic tumors. Furthermore, we demonstrated evidence of durable tumor-specific antitumor immunity. In conclusion, increasing LIGHT expression increased T-cell proliferation, activation, and infiltration, resulting in enhanced tumor-specific immune-mediated tumor regressions in primary tumors and colorectal liver metastases. Mechanisms to increase LIGHT in the colon cancer microenvironment warrant further investigation and hold promise as an immunotherapeutic strategy. Cancer Res; 77(8); 1880-91. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Phase II study on stereotactic body radiotherapy of colorectal metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyer, Morten; Roed, Henrik; Traberg Hansen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Surgical resection provides long term survival in approximately 30% of patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) liver metastases. However, only a limited number of patients with CRC-metastases are amendable for surgery. We have tested the effect of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT......) in the treatment of inoperable patients with CRC-metastases. Sixty-four patients with a total number of 141 CRC-metastases in the liver (n = 44), lung (n = 12), lymph nodes (n = 3), suprarenal gland (n = 1) or two organs (n = 4) were treated with SBRT with a central dose of 15 Gy x 3 within 5-8 days. Median follow......-up was 4.3 years. After 2 years, actuarial local control was 86% and 63% in tumor and patient based analysis, respectively. Nineteen percent were without local or distant progression after 2 years and overall survival was 67, 38, 22, 13, and 13% after 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years, respectively. One patient died...

  3. ADRENALECTOMY FOR ISOLATED METASTASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Shumarova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolated adrenal gland metastases are not frequently finding. The aim of the present retrospective study was to estimate clinical and pathological parameters that could be used to predict survival after adrenalectomy. Material and methods: A total of 34 patients with adrenal gland masses suspected to be metastases was included in this study. The group of patients with isolated metastases was19 (56% and a group of patients with adrenal adenomas -15 (44%. Results: The sample of patients consisted of 18 (53% men and 16 (47% women from 40 to 81 years old with a mean (±SD age of 61.6±10.3 years, presented with adrenal mass suspected to be metastases. Nineteen (56% of them had demonstrated metastases and 16 (84% metachronous with median overall survival (OS 54.6 (range 43-66 months. Median OS in the group with metastases was 22.6 months. Lung carcinoma was the most common primary tumour metastasizing in the adrenal gland – 58% of all metastases with a disease-free interval (DFI of 13 months. It was presented by shorter median survival than the rest primary tumour types (37.8 vs. 96.7months; log-rank test, p=0.028. In the multivariate Cox’s hazard analysis of the surgical technique was found to be an independent prognostic factor (p=0.047, together with lung carcinoma vs. renal cell carcinoma (p=0.045. Conclusion: Adrenalectomy due to isolated metastases in the adrenal glands showed the median overall survival of 22.6 months. Shorter survival periods were associated with lung carcinoma, DFI<12months, conversion to open surgery, synchronous metastases, but not with age, tumour size or resection status.

  4. Corona Enhancement and Mosaic Architecture for Prognosis and Selection Between of Liver Resection Versus Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization in Single Hepatocellular Carcinomas >5 cm Without Extrahepatic Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; Fu, Sirui; Liu, Zaiyi; Li, Yong; Hu, Baoshan; Chen, Shuting; Liang, Changhong; Lu, Ligong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Corona enhancement and mosaic architecture are 2 radiologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, neither their prognostic values nor their impacts on the selection of liver resection (LR) versus transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) as treatment modalities have been established. We retrospectively analyzed 275 patients with a single HCC lesion >5 cm without extrahepatic metastasis treated with LR or TACE. In LR patients, the overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) were compared between corona enhancement negative (corona−) versus positive (corona+) and mosaic architecture negative (mosaic−) versus positive (mosaic+) patients. Furthermore, by the combination of corona and mosaic, LR patients were divided into negative for both corona and mosaic patterns (LR−/−), positive for only 1 feature (LR+/−), and positive for both (LR+/+); their OS and TTP were compared to those of the TACE group. Cox regression was performed to identify independent factors for OS. In the survival plots for LR, corona− had better OS and TTP than corona+, and mosaic− had better OS than mosaic+. There was no significant difference in TTP between the subgroups. On Cox regression analysis, corona enhancement, but not mosaic architecture, was a significant factor for OS, whereas neither were a significant factor for TTP. In TACE patients, neither corona nor mosaic patterns had significant correlations with OS or TTP. In the whole population, LR−/ and LR+/− subgroups had similar OS, which was better than the LR+/+ and TACE groups. Moreover, LR−/− and LR+/− patients had better TTP than TACE patients, but there were no differences between the LR−/− versus LR+/−, LR−/ versus LR+/+, LR+/− versus LR+/+, and LR+/+ versus TACE groups. On Cox regression analysis, the presence of corona/mosaic patterns was an independent prognostic factor for OS. Our results showed that, for patients with a single HCC >5 cm without

  5. Journey through the Trials and Triumphs of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    One Woman’s journey through the Trials and Triumphs of Disability, Disabled Peoples International 8th World Assembly 2011 Durban, South Africa, October 10–13, 2011. When embarking on my career as a teacher at a special school in South Africa, I never thought that a motor vehicle accident would place me in the position where my learners with disabilities suddenly saw me as an ally. Little did I realise the chasm that exists between able-bodied people and people with disabilities, or the remarkable role I would find myself in whilst actively addressing disability and Inclusive Education issues. My experiences with disability in South Africa drew encouraging attention from delegates at the Disabled People’s International 8th World Assembly when I shared my story. The resounding positive response affirmed that my experiences are not unique to nationality, gender, race or age, and are typical of the time and country in which I live, where people with disabilities are considered to have little potential, and woman with disabilities are further marginalised. In the infancy of our democracy, we are still in the early days of attending to equity amongst all South Africans. This story comprises both a narrative and a graphic presentation which run parallel, although not always telling an identical story; they complement one another and should be experienced simultaneously. Ultimately, it relates the success that can be achieved by pro-active people with disabilities as members of the South African society within their own spheres of knowledge and skill to change attitudes and practices of people without disabilities in education and local communities. PMID:28729976

  6. Journey through the Trials and Triumphs of Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Laas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One Woman’s journey through the Trials and Triumphs of Disability, Disabled Peoples International 8th World Assembly 2011 Durban, South Africa, October 10–13, 2011. When embarking on my career as a teacher at a special school in South Africa, I never thought that a motor vehicle accident would place me in the position where my learners with disabilities suddenly saw me as an ally. Little did I realise the chasm that exists between able-bodied people and people with disabilities, or the remarkable role I would find myself in whilst actively addressing disability and Inclusive Education issues. My experiences with disability in South Africa drew encouraging attention from delegates at the Disabled People’s International 8th World Assembly when I shared my story. The resounding positive response affirmed that my experiences are not unique to nationality, gender, race or age, and are typical of the time and country in which I live, where people with disabilities are considered to have little potential, and woman with disabilities are further marginalised. In the infancy of our democracy, we are still in the early days of attending to equity amongst all South Africans. This story comprises both a narrative and a graphic presentation which run parallel, although not always telling an identical story; they complement one another and should be experienced simultaneously. Ultimately, it relates the success that can be achieved by pro-active people with disabilities as members of the South African society within their own spheres of knowledge and skill to change attitudes and practices of people without disabilities in education and local communities.

  7. Intrahepatic and systemic therapy with oxaliplatin combined with capecitabine in patients with hepatic metastases from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D L; Nørgaard, H; Weber Vestermark, Lene

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate activity and toxicity of hepatic arterial infusion of oxaliplatin in combination with capecitabine in patients with metastatic breast cancer with liver metastases and limited extrahepatic disease.......The aim was to evaluate activity and toxicity of hepatic arterial infusion of oxaliplatin in combination with capecitabine in patients with metastatic breast cancer with liver metastases and limited extrahepatic disease....

  8. Impacto da ultra-sonografia intra-operatória nas cirurgias para ressecção de metástases hepáticas The impact of intra operative ultrasound in metastases liver surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pecora Cohen

    2005-12-01

    ções de metástases hepáticas, especialmente em pacientes com nódulos pequenos.BACKGROUND: Twenty-five to 50% of the patients with hepatic metastases are potential candidates for curative surgery. Intraoperative ultrasound has been employed to guide the surgery. AIM: To evaluate this method in liver surgeries and compare it to other imaging methods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients (20 females, with median age of 56 years with hepatic metastases were prospectively studied between February 2001 and July 2003. Patients had as primary tumors: colorectal cancer (24, neuroendocrine tumors (3, renal cell carcinoma (2, melanoma (2, others (4. Each patient was submitted to at least: computed tomography (30, ultrasonography (14 and magnetic resonance imaging (8. Intraoperative ultrasound was performed in all patients in order to detect liver nodules. The number and location of liver lesions were compared to preoperative results. RESULTS: Intraoperative ultrasound was useful in 23 (65.6% of the 35 surgeries and changed the planned surgical strategy in 9 (25.7%. There was a statistical significant correlation between the mean number of nodules identified by ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative ultrasound. We found no statistical difference between magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative ultrasound in identifying hepatic nodules. Fifty-five nodules were submitted to histological evaluation, the gold standard method and 52/55 (94.5% were identified by intraoperative ultrasound. Intraoperative ultrasound identified 91,6% of the smaller than 1.5 cm lesions, ultrasonography identified 15,0% of them, computed tomography 33.3% and magnetic resonance imaging 66,6%. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative ultrasound is crucial in the evaluation and decision making in hepatic surgery. Intraoperative ultrasound presents the highest sensibility in the detection of hepatic nodules compared to other imaging methods, especially for small lesions.

  9. Liver actinomycosis mimicking liver tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćulafić Đorđe M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The liver actinomycosis is a rare disease associated with complex differentiation from the liver metastases or hepatocellular carcinoma. Case report. A 50-year old immunocompetent female patient was admitted to the Surgical Department in an exhausted condition, with dyspnea, significant weight loss and intermittent fever in the recent two months. Diagnostic procedures that followed, including abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography led us to the diagnosis of metastatic liver disease of unknown etiology with pleural and pericardial effusion. Intraoperatively, the presence of liver pseudotumor without malignancy in the liver was confirmed. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of liver actinomycosis. Prolonged treatment with high dose penicillin was performed and all signs and symptoms resolved completely without further problems. The control abdominal ultrasound finding was normal. Conclusion. Liver actinomycosis has a nonspecific presentation, often mimicking liver tumor. A timely diagnosis as well as a combined surgical and antibiotic therapy is necessary in the treatment of patients with primary disease and prevention of complications.

  10. Skin metastases from lung cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajaziti, Laura; Hapçiu, Syzana Rexhepi; Dobruna, Shkendije; Hoxha, Naim; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Pajaziti, Artina

    2015-04-11

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies, with high mortality rates. It can metastasize in almost all organs, but more often invades hilar nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bones and brain. There are various data on the incidence of lung cancer metastases in the skin. In 1-12% of patients with lung cancer are developed skin metastases. Metastases in the skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Forty-five years old Albanian male, smoker, was admitted to our department with multiple nodules localized in the skin of the head, neck, back and chest. The nodules measuring 5-15 millimeters in greatest dimension were round and skin-colored, with telangiectasias, firm and tender. They appeared in an eruptive form about two weeks before being admitted at our hospital. In addition, the patient exhibited signs of weight loss, anorexia and fatigue. Excisional biopsy was performed to one of the lesions. Histopathology confirmed metastatic nature of the lesion namely, malignant tumor of neuroendocrine phenotype consistent with small-cell carcinoma. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed an expansive process in the 7(th) segment of the left lung, left hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a suspicious initial secondary deposit in the left adrenal gland. The patient was referred to the department of oncology for further treatment. After the third cycle of chemotherapy, the magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain metastases. The patient passed away four months after the diagnosis of lung cancer first presented with skin metastases. Metastases in skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Although rare appearing, we should raise suspicion in cases of atypical lesions in the skin not only of the smokers, but also of the non-smokers. Skin metastases from small-cell lung carcinoma are a poor prognostic indicator. The appearance of multiple skin metastases with other internal metastases shorten the survival time.

  11. Modeling tissue contamination to improve molecular identification of the primary tumor site of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Martin; Perell, Katharina; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2014-01-01

    with any predictor model. The usability of the model is illustrated on primary tumor site identification of liver biopsies, specifically, on a human dataset consisting of microRNA expression measurements of primary tumor samples, benign liver samples and liver metastases. For a predictor trained on primary...

  12. Huge hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple intrahepatic metastases: An aggressive multimodal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yasuda

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Multimodal treatment involving hepatectomy and TACE might be a good treatment strategy for patients with huge HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases if the tumors are localized in the liver without distant or peritoneal metastasis.

  13. Inguinal metastases from testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Karas, Vladimir; Sommer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease.......To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease....

  14. Multiple metastases from ovarian cancer | Singh | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cancer will already have spread beyond the ovaries in approximately 75% of cases. We report a case of epithelial ovarian cancer presenting with liver and thoracic vertebral metastases 4 months after completion of treatment, as part of distant spread. The patient was then treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.

  15. Notch suppresses angiogenesis and progression of hepatic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debarshi; Hernandez, Sonia L; Garcia, Alejandro; Kangsamaksin, Thaned; Sbiroli, Emily; Andrews, John; Forrester, Lynn Ann; Wei, Na; Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela; Shawber, Carrie J; Kitajewski, Jan K; Kandel, Jessica J; Yamashiro, Darrell J

    2015-04-15

    The Notch pathway plays multiple key roles in tumorigenesis, and its signaling components have therefore aroused great interest as targets for emerging therapies. Here, we show that inhibition of Notch, using a soluble receptor Notch1 decoy, unexpectedly caused a remarkable increase in liver metastases from neuroblastoma and breast cancer cells. Increased liver metastases were also seen after treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor PF-03084014. Transgenic mice with heterozygous loss of Notch1 demonstrated a marked increase in hepatic metastases, indicating that Notch1 signaling acts as metastatic suppressor in the liver microenvironment. Inhibition of DLL1/4 with ligand-specific Notch1 decoys increased sprouting of sinusoidal endothelial cells into micrometastases, thereby supporting early metastatic angiogenic growth. Inhibition of tumor-derived JAG1 signaling activated hepatic stellate cells, increasing their recruitment to vasculature of micrometastases, thereby supporting progression to macrometastases. These results demonstrate that inhibition of Notch causes pathologic activation of liver stromal cells, promoting angiogenesis and growth of hepatic metastases. Our findings have potentially serious implications for Notch inhibition therapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. MR-guided laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of liver metastases. Prospective results of an optimized method; Laserinduzierte Thermotherapie (LITT) von Lebermetastasen unter MRT-Kontrolle. Prospektive Ergebnisse eines optimierten Therapieverfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Mueller, P. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Hirsch, H. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Philipp, C. [Laser Medizin Zentrum, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Hammerstingl, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Boettcher, H. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Riess, H. [Innere Klinik, Schwerpunkt Haematologie/Onkologie, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Beuthan, J. [Laser Medizin Zentrum, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    In a prospective study MR-guided laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of liver metastases was optimized and the clinical parameters evaluated. Seventeen patients (4 women, 13 men) with a total of 29 lesions underwent LITT in 25 sessions through 1 March 1994. Twelve of them suffered from colorectal carcinomas, 5 from other primary tumors. Under local anesthesia a maximum of 5 lesions per patient were treated. For MR-guided LITT a neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet laser (Nd-YAG 1064 nm) with energy varying from 3 to 7.5 W was used. Energy and application time were defined through a computer program; they varied, dependent on the lesion size, location and consistency. To monitor the progress of LITT two special thermosensitive MR sequences (Thermo-Turbo-FLASH and FLASH-2D sequences) were individually optimized, whereby the increase in temperature correlates with an increase in signal loss. All procedures were well tolerated without significant early or late side effects. In only one patient was minimal air documentated in the pleural cavity with spontaneous resorption. Patients were dismissed without complaints after 24-h hospitalization. The control parameters of the contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI documented at optimal response a hypointense signal around the tip of the laser applicator, in accordance with laser-induced necrosis. In lesions 20 mm or smaller, nearly 100% tumor necrosis was achieved and in lesions larger than 20 mm, only 50%. Follow-up evaluation 6 months after treaqtment shows a significantly better response in lesions with a diameter fo 20 mm or smaller, with a local tumor control rate of 66%. In lesions larger than 20 mm only a local tumor control rate of 35% could be achieved. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen einer prospektiven Studie wurde die laserinduzierte Thermotherapie (LITT) von Lebermetastasen unter magnetresonanztomographischer Kontrolle verfahrenstechnisch optimiert und die klinische Wertigkeit analysiert. Zwischen dem 1.4.1993 und dem 1

  17. [Radiotherapy for intrathoracic metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, P; Lacornerie, T; Mornex, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy, for intrathoracic metastases are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracranial dural metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Lakshmi; Abrey, Lauren E; Iwamoto, Fabio M

    2009-05-01

    : Intracranial dural metastases (IDM) are found at autopsy in 9% of patients with advanced systemic cancer. However, to the authors' knowledge, IDM have not been studied systematically in the modern neuroimaging era. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the demographics, clinical presentation, imaging, treatment, and prognosis of patients with IDM. : The current study was a retrospective review of 122 patients with IDM diagnosed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1999 and 2006. Patients with concurrent brain or leptomeningeal metastases were excluded. : Sixty-one percent of the patients were women; the median age at diagnosis was 59 years, the median Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) at diagnosis was 80, and the median time to IDM diagnosis from initial cancer diagnosis was 37 months. Breast (34%) and prostate (17%) cancers were the most frequent primary tumors associated with IDM. Fifty-six percent of patients had a single dural metastasis. On imaging, 70% had metastases of the overlying skull, 44% had dural tail metastases, 53% had vasogenic edema, and 34% had brain invasion. Direct extension from skull metastases was the most common mode of spread. Eighty-three percent of patients had active systemic disease at the time of IDM diagnosis. A lower KPS and lung cancer were associated with worse overall survival. Surgical resection and chemotherapy improved progression-free survival, but only resection was found to be associated with improved overall survival. : IDM affect a significant proportion of cancer patients. KPS and status of systemic cancer should guide treatment decisions. Cancer 2009. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  19. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  20. Liver surgery: Imaging and image guided therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. van Vledder (Mark)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe liver is the most common site of malignant tumors in patients worldwide, including both primary (hepatocellular carcinoma) and metastatic liver cancer (eg colorectal liver metastases). Complete resection or thermal ablation of all tumor deposits currently offers the only potentially

  1. Radiotherapy of choroidal metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Gasteren, J.J.M. van; Brink, H.M.A.; Verbeek, A.M.; Beex, L.V.A.M.

    1989-05-01

    With binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, fluorescin angiography and ultrasonography 68 choroidal metastases in 52 eyes of 39 patients were diagnosed. The primary tumors were mainly breast cancer (81%) and lung cancer (10%). After radiation treatment the visual acuity improved in 17 eyes (38%), stabilized in 15 eyes (33%), whereas in 13 eyes (29%) deterioration could not be prevented (seven eyes unknown). Regression of the lesions or its accompanying secondary retinal detachment was seen in 78% of the eyes treated. Acute transient side effects of radiation therapy were keratoconjunctivitis (nine patients) and acute glaucoma in one patient. No cataractous changes of the lens were observed in the post radiation period (one to 42 months). Irradiation of choroidal metastases can contribute to improvement of the quality of life with a treatment scheme of 30 Gy in ten daily fractions.

  2. [Radiotherapy of bone metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thureau, S; Vieillard, M-H; Supiot, S; Lagrange, J-L

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy plays a major role in palliative treatment of bone metastases. Recent developments of stereotactic radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy give the possibility to treat oligometastatic diseases. The objective of this paper is to report indications and treatment modalities of radiotherapy in these situations. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease: Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ...

  4. Pulmonary resection for metastases of colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Marc; Foucault, Christophe; Cazes, Aurélie; Mitry, Emmanuel; Dujon, Antoine; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Médioni, Jacques; Rougier, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    Surgery is a safe and effective treatment for patients with lung metastases from colorectal carcinoma. Combining chemotherapy and surgery seems to prolong survival time after metastasectomy. Our purpose was to review the effectiveness of surgery with time and evolving managements. The records of 127 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The characteristics of primary cancer, lung metastases, resections, and associated therapy were studied according to their incidence on survival. There were 74 male and 53 female patients (mean age, 65 years); 223 operations were performed and 314 metastases were resected. Completeness of surgery (n = 117) was the main factor for prolonged survival (5- and 10-year survival, 41% and 27%, versus 0%). There was no factor of significantly better prognosis, but a tendency to higher survival rates was observed in cases of single metastasis, in patients undergoing several lung operations, and in patients in whom liver metastases were previously removed. Three of 7 patients with mediastinal lymph node involvement survived more than 5 years; 58 patients were operated on before January 2000, and 59 between January 2000 and December 2007. Five-year survival rates were 35.1% versus 63.5%, respectively (p = 0.0096), probably related to better selection with modern workup, more frequent use of chemotherapy, and repeated pulmonary resections. Different treatment protocols were reported in the literature and in our series with time, resulting in better survival rates and a more aggressive surgical tendency. The beneficial role of such combined therapy justifies further research, including prospective trials. 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased liver regeneration rate and decreased liver function after synchronous liver and colon resection in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Okada Masaki; Funch-Jensen Peter; Knudsen Anders; Mortensen Frank; Sasanuma Hideki; Nagai Hideo; Yasuda Yoshikazu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The surgical strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of colonic resection on liver function and regeneration in a rat model. Methods Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were block-randomized into six groups: Group I had a laparotomy performed. Group II had 1 cm colon resected and anastomosed. Group III and V had 40% or 70% of the liver resected, respective...

  6. Agreement assessment in size measurement of hepatic metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yangchen; Karademir, Ibrahim; Wise, Leon; Oto, Aytekin; Peng, Yahui

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate patient-wise agreement among multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences and radiologists, respectively, in the size assessment of hepatic metastases. A total of 30 liver metastases were identified from 20 patients and three radiologists independently measured the long and short axes for all metastases in T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with b of 0 and 800 s/mm2, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. We calculated the patient-wise intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCs) to estimate the interobserver and intersequence agreement in measured lesion size. Interobserver ICCs were 0.92-0.98 for different MR sequences and intersequence ICCs were 0.93-0.98. In conclusion, multiparametric MR imaging is a reliable tool for hepatic metastatic lesion measurement.

  7. Extraneural metastases in medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V M F Muoio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common childhood malignant tumor of central nervous system, but it may also occur in adults. It presents high invasive growth with spreading of tumor cells into the leptomeningeal space along the neuroaxis early in the course of the disease. Extraneural metastases are rare but frequently lethal, occurring only in 1 to 5% of patients, and are related, in the most of cases, to the presence of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Here we characterize the clinical profile of five cases of medulloblastoma with systemic spreading of tumor cells, also comparing them to cases already described in the literature.

  8. Triumph & Commemoration: Collective Imagination and the ‘Ground Zero Mosque’ Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reassesses the meaning of the ‘Ground Zero Mosque’ controversy of 2010 through the lens of urban sociology and collective imagination. It utilizes the imaginative fruits of civic forums, such as “Imagine NY” and “Listening to the City,” to determine New Yorkers’ collective vision for the rehabilitation of Ground Zero and Lower Manhattan in the aftermath of 9/11. Articulated as a clarion call for the manifestation of commemoration and triumph over terrorism in the New York cityscape...

  9. Trials and Triumph: Lesbian and Gay Young Adults Raised in a Rural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie L. Dahl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rural context at times is characterized by heteronormativity and conservatism. For individuals who identify as a sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and/or queer, the rural context may pose particular challenges to the development of a healthy, coherent sense of self. Seven young adults (18–24 who identified as gay or lesbian participated in in-depth interviews regarding their experiences coming out in a rural Appalachian context. Findings suggest sexual minority individuals experience both trials and triumphs coming out in the rural context. Two overarching themes and six subthemes are discussed with implications for supporting sexual minority youth in the rural context.

  10. The effect of distant metastases sites on survival in de novo stage-IV breast cancer: A SEER database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, San-Gang; Li, Hui; Tang, Li-Ying; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Feng-Yan; Chen, Yong-Xiong; He, Zhen-Yu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effect of distant metastases sites on survival in patients with de novo stage-IV breast cancer. From 2010 to 2013, patients with a diagnosis of de novo stage-IV breast cancer were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to analyze the effect of distant metastases sites on breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. A total of 7575 patients were identified. The most common metastatic sites were bone, followed by lung, liver, and brain. Patients with hormone receptor+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- and hormone receptor+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ status were more prone to bone metastases. Lung and brain metastases were common in hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ and hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- subtypes, and patients with hormone receptor+/ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ and hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ subtypes were more prone to liver metastases. Patients with liver and brain metastases had unfavorable prognosis for breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival, whereas bone and lung metastases had no effect on patient survival in multivariate analyses. The hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- subtype conferred a significantly poorer outcome in terms of breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. hormone receptor+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ disease was associated with the best prognosis in terms of breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. Patients with liver and brain metastases were more likely to experience poor prognosis for breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival by various breast cancer subtypes. Distant metastases sites have differential impact on clinical outcomes in stage-IV breast cancer. Follow-up screening for brain and

  11. Radioembolization of colorectal hepatic metastases using yttrium-90 microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Mary F; Lewandowski, Robert J; Ibrahim, Saad M; Sato, Kent T; Ryu, Robert K; Atassi, Bassel; Newman, Steven; Talamonti, Mark; Omary, Reed A; Benson, Al; Salem, Riad

    2009-05-01

    : The objective of the current study was to determine the safety and efficacy of Yttrium-90 (Y90) microsphere treatment in patients with liver-dominant colorectal metastases. : Seventy-two patients with unresectable hepatic colorectal metastases were treated at a targeted absorbed dose of 120 Gray (Gy). Safety and toxicity were assessed using version 3 of the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria. Response was assessed by anatomic imaging and positron emission tomography (PET). Survival from the diagnosis of hepatic metastases and first treatment were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Substratification analyses were performed. : The median dose delivered was 118 Gy. Treatment-related toxicities included fatigue (61%), nausea (21%), and abdominal pain (25%). Grade 3 and 4 bilirubin toxicities were observed in 9 of 72 patients (12.6%). The tumor response rate was 40.3%. The median time to hepatic progression was 15.4 months, and the median response duration was 15 months. The PET response rate was 77%. Overall survival from the first Y90 treatment was 14.5 months. Tumor replacement (25%) was associated with significantly greater median survival (18.7 months vs 5.2 months). The presence of extrahepatic disease was associated negatively with overall survival (7.9 months vs 21 months). Overall survival from the date of initial hepatic metastases was 34.6 months. A subset analysis of patients who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 demonstrated a median survival of 42.8 months and 23.5 months from the time of hepatic metastases and Y90 treatment, respectively. : Y90 liver therapy appears to provide sustained disease stabilization with acceptable toxicity. Asymptomatic patients with preserved liver function at the time of Y90 appeared to benefit most from treatment. Cancer 2009. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  12. Liver-directed therapies in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Janivette; Choti, Michael A

    2011-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Historically, the majority of patients that presented with metastatic disease to the liver were treated with systemic chemotherapy only but advances in imaging, surgical techniques, and non-resectional approaches have expanded the indications for liver-directed interventions. Current approaches used in patients with liver-only or liver-dominant metastatic disease include surgical resection, direct tumor ablation strategies, the use of intra-arterial infusions, and radiation therapies. The use of these liver-directed therapies in selected patients with colorectal liver metastases has led to significant improvements in overall survival. We review the clinical data and progress using liver-directed therapies in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Computerized tomographic evaluation of intracranial metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Yong; Lee, Mi Sook; Choi, Jin Ok; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    In a study of intracranial metastases, 46 cases having satisfactory clinical, operative and histological proofs were analyzed by computerized tomography at Presbyterian Medical Center from May, 1982 to February, 1986. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio of intracranial metastases were 67:33. The 5th decade group (34.8%) was the most prevalent age group, followed by the 6th decade (21.7%) and 7th decade (21.7%). 2. The number of lesions was found be: single -25 cases (54.3%); multiple -21 cases (45.7%). 3. The source of intracranial metastases found to be: lung 15 cases (32.6%); unknown 12 cases (26.0%); chorioca 3 cases (6.5%); liver 3 cases (6.5%); stomach 2 cases (4.3%); parotid, breast, kidney, prostate, melanoma, rectal ca, rhabdomyosarcoma, nasal ca, lymphoma, testicular ca, cervix, each 1 case (2.2%). 4. The locations of the intracranial metastases were as follows: Cerebral hemisphere 37.7% in parietal region Cerebral hemisphere 15.9% in in frontal region Cerebral hemisphere 13.4% in occipital region Cerebral hemisphere 10.5% in temporal region Cerebellar hemisphere 3.2% Cerebellopontine angle 3.2% Intraventricular 4.8% Meninges 4.8% Skull vault 6.5% 5. Peritumor edema was found to be: Grade II-17 cases (37.0%): Grade III-14 cases (30.4%); Grade I-8 cases (17.4%); Grade 0-7 cases (15.2%) in that order. 6. The chief complaints of intracranial metastases on admission, were as follows: Headache 30 cases (65.2%); Vomiting 11 cases (23.9%); deteriorated mental state 10 cases (21.7%); Hemiplegia 7 cases (15.2%); visual disturbance 6 cases (13.0%); hemiparesis 4 cases (8.7%); seizure 4 cases (8.7%); other symptoms were less frequent. 7. On pre-contrast scan, hyperdense lesions were present in 18 cases (39.1%); hypodense lesions in 15 cases (32.6%); mixed density in 8 cases (17.4%); isodensity was present in 5 cases (10.9%). On post-contrast scan, ring enhancement was seen in 19 cases (41.3%); nodular enhancement in 17 cases (37%), mixed ring

  14. Metachronous Rectum Metastases from Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tural

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hepatic metastases of gastric adenocarcinomas are frequently observed due to the drainage into portal vein. Intestinal metastases disseminate from gastrocolic and mesenteric ligaments but they are seen very rarely and in most cases detected in postmortem studies. Case Report. A 74-year-old female patient with no known history of disease. Her complaints on application were epigastric pain, burning, and constipation. Gastroscopy showed a submucosal mass in the greater curvature of fundus and in colonoscopy, a mass with polypoid appearance that narrows the lumen at the rectum was detected. No far metastases or pathology were detected. Pathology report from gastric biopsy material demonstrated well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Cytokeratin 7 (CK7 was found to be extensively strongly positive, Cytokeratin 20 (CK20 was negative in the immunohistochemical staining of the biopsy obtained from rectosigmoid area. Conclusion. Gastric cancer is among the frequent cancers today, most of which are adenocarcinomas. Although most of the metastases are observed in the liver, lungs, lymph nodes, and peritoneum, it should be remembered that intestinal metastases may be seen without the presence of any other metastatic focus. Our case is the first in literature reporting a rectum metastasis without any other organ metastasis.

  15. Extensive necrosis of visceral melanoma metastases after immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poston Graeme J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis for metastatic melanoma remains poor even with traditional decarbazine or interferon therapy. 5-year survival is markedly higher amongst patients undergoing metastatectomy. Unfortunately not all are suitable for metastatectomy. Alternative agents for systemic therapy have, to date, offered no greater rates of survival beyond traditional therapy. A toll-like receptor 9 agonist, PF-3512676 (formerly known as CPG 7909 is currently being evaluated for its potential. Case presentation We present the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian male with completely resected metastatic cutaneous melanoma after immunotherapy. The patient initially progressed during adjuvant high-dose interferon, with metastases to the liver, spleen, and pelvic lymph nodes. During an 18-month treatment period with PF-3512676 (formerly known as CPG 7909, a synthetic cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine rich oligodeoxynucleotide, slow radiologic disease progression was demonstrated at the original disease sites. Subsequent excision of splenic and pelvic nodal metastases was performed, followed by resection of the liver metastases. Histologic examination of both hepatic and splenic melanoma metastases showed extensive necrosis. Subsequent disease-free status was demonstrated by serial positron emission tomography (PET. Conclusion Existing evidence from phase I/II trials suggests systemic treatment with PF-3512676 is capable of provoking a strong tumor-specific immune response and may account for the prolonged tumor control in this instance.

  16. Imaging of metastases from breast cancer to uncommon sites: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toguchi, Masafumi; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Numoto, Isao; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Imaoka, Izumi; Ishii, Kazunari; Yamashita, Rikiya; Inada, Yuki; Monzawa, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Hisato; Murakami, Takamichi

    2016-06-01

    There are three types of breast cancer recurrence which can occur after initial treatment: local, regional, and distant. Distant metastases are more frequent than local and regional recurrences. It usually occurs several years after the primary breast cancer, although it is sometimes diagnosed at the same time as the primary breast cancer. Although the common distant metastases are bone, lung and liver, breast cancer has the potential to metastasize to almost any region of the body. Early detection and treatment of distant metastases improves the prognosis, therefore radiologists and clinicians should recognize the possibility of metastasis from breast cancer and grasp the imaging characteristics. In this report, we demonstrate the imaging characteristics of metastases from breast cancer to uncommon sites.

  17. Presentation of Two Cases with Early Extracranial Metastases from Glioblastoma and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dinche Johansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracranial metastases from glioblastoma are rare. We report two patients with extracranial metastases from glioblastoma. Case 1 concerns a 59-year-old woman with multiple metastases that spread early in the course of disease. What makes this case unusual is that the tumor had grown into the falx close to the straight sinus and this might be an explanation to the early and extensive metastases. Case 2 presents a 60-year-old man with liver metastasis found at autopsy, and, in this case, it is more difficult to find an explanation. This patient had two spontaneous intracerebral bleeding incidents and extensive bleeding during acute surgery with tumor removal, which might have induced extracranial seeding. The cases presented might have hematogenous spreading in common as an explanation to extracranial metastases from GBM.

  18. Retroperitoneal Cystic Metastases from Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi Rajul

    2008-01-01

    Many malignant tumors produce retroperitoneal nodal metastases. However, cystic nodal retroperitoneal metastases are uncommon. Renal cell carcinoma is one of the very few carcinomas that can infrequently produce cystic nodal retroperitoneal metastases. Hence, This is a case of retroperitoneal cystic nodal metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma, which has been rarely reported in the medical literature

  19. Brain metastasization of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio-Santos, Tânia; Videira, Mafalda; Brito, Maria Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain. The phenotypic change in malignant cells, and the importance of the microenvironment in the formation of brain metastases are also inspected. Finally, the importance of genetic and epigenetic changes, and the recently disclosed effects of microRNAs in brain metastasization of breast cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  1. Preoperative CT versus diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in patients with rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael P; Løgager, Vibeke B; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world and liver metastases are seen in up to 19% of patients with colorectal cancers. Detection of liver metastases is not only vital for sufficient treatment and survival, but also for a better estimation of prognosis. Th...

  2. Hepatic Arterial Infusion in Combination with Modern Systemic Chemotherapy is Associated with Improved Survival Compared with Modern Systemic Chemotherapy Alone in Patients with Isolated Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Mashaal; Jones, Heather L; Shuai, Yongli; Clifford, Amber K; Perkins, Samantha; Steve, Jennifer; Hogg, Melissa E; Choudry, M Haroon A; Pingpank, James F; Holtzman, Matthew P; Zeh, Herbert J; Bahary, Nathan; Bartlett, David L; Zureikat, Amer H

    2017-01-01

    In the era of effective modern systemic chemotherapy (CT), the role of hepatic arterial infusion of fluoxuridine (HAI-FUDR) in the treatment of isolated unresectable colorectal liver metastasis (IU-CRCLM) remains controversial. This study aimed to compare the overall survival (OS) of HAI-FUDR in combination with modern systemic CT versus modern systemic CT alone in patients with IU-CRCLM. This was a case-control study of IU-CRCLM patients who underwent HAI + modern systemic CT or modern systemic CT alone. Modern systemic CT was defined as the use of multidrug regimens containing oxaliplatin and/or irinotecan ± biologics. Overall, 86 patients met the inclusion criteria (n = 40 for the HAI + CT group, and n = 46 for the CT-alone group). Both groups were similar in demographics, primary and stage IV tumor characteristics, and treatment-related variables (carcinoembryonic antigen, use of biologic agents, total number of lines of systemic CT administered) (all p > 0.05). Additionally, both groups were comparable with respect to liver tumor burden [median number of lesions (13.5 vs. 15), percentage of liver tumor replacement (37.5 vs. 40 %), and size of largest lesion] (all p > 0.05). Median OS in the HAI + CT group was 32.8 months compared with 15.3 months in the CT-alone group (p modern systemic CT alone.

  3. Risk factors for disease progression in HER2-positive breast cancer patients based on the location of metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Huszno

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Trastuzumab therapy significantly improves progression-free and overall survival in HER2-positive [HER2(+] breast cancer (BC patients. However, in most patients with HER2(+ metastatic BC, the disease progress occurred. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological risk factors for progression in HER2-positive breast cancer patients during trastuzumab therapy. Material and methods : The analysis included medical records of HER2(+ metastatic BC patients treated with trastuzumab between 2006 and 2013. Results : The most common site of progression during trastuzumab therapy were lungs 25 (39%, central nervous system (CNS 8 (13%, skin 9 (14%, locoregional lymph nodes 19 (30%, liver 18 (28% and bone 17 (27%. Patients with lung metastases significantly more often had a history of cancer in the family than women with other metastasis sites (24% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.048. Metastases to lungs occurred also more often during therapy containing trastuzumab with chemotherapy than trastuzumab alone 17/8 (58% vs. 41%, p = 0.043. Central nervous system metastases were observed insignificantly more frequently in postmenopausal women than premenopausal patients 8/0 (22% vs. 0%, p = 0.093. There was reported a tendency to liver metastases in ER-negative tumors 13/20 (72% vs. 44%, p = 0.053. Bone metastases were associated with the positive steroid receptor status (p = 0.019 and second neoplasm in history (p = 0.06. Conclusions : Risk factors for disease progression were the menopausal status (CNS metastases, steroid receptor status (liver, lymph nodes and bone metastases, history of cancer in the family (lung metastases and history of cigarette smoking (liver metastases.

  4. Mechanisms involved in breast cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Feng, Yili; Lin, Shuang; Chen, Jiang; Lin, Hui; Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Heming; Cai, Xiujun

    2015-02-15

    Liver metastasis is a frequent occurrence in patients with breast cancer; however, the available treatments are limited and ineffective. While liver-specific homing of breast cancer cells is an important feature of metastasis, the formation of liver metastases is not random. Indeed, breast cancer cell factors contribute to the liver microenvironment. Major breakthroughs have been achieved recently in understanding breast cancer liver metastasis (BCLM). The process of liver metastasis consists of multiple steps and involves various factors from breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment. A further understanding of the roles of breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment is crucial to guide future work in clinical treatments. In this review we discuss the contribution of breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment to liver metastasis, with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy for patients with BCLM.

  5. Remission of Unresectable Lung Metastases from Rectal Cancer After Herbal Medicine Treatment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsuk; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Lung metastasis is frequent in rectal cancer patients and has a poor prognosis, with an expected three-year survival rate of about 10%. Though western medicine has made great strides in the curative resection of liver metastases, resection of lung metastases has lagged far behind. Many preclinical studies have suggested that herbal treatments block metastasis, but few clinical studies have addressed this topic. We present the case of a 57-year-old Asian male with lung metastases from rectal cancer. He first underwent resection of the primary lesion (stage IIA, T3N0M0) and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, lung metastases were confirmed about one year later. Palliative chemotherapy was begun, but his disease continued to progress after three cycles and chemotherapy was halted. The patient was exclusively treated with herbal medicine-standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua stokes extract combined with Dokhwaljihwang-tang (Sasang constitutional medicine in Korea). After seven weeks of herbal medicine treatment, the lung metastases were markedly improved. Regression of lung metastases has continued; also, the patient's rectal cancer has not returned. He has been receiving herbal medicine for over two years and very few side effects have been observed. We suggest that the herbal regimen used in our patient is a promising candidate for the treatment of lung metastases secondary to rectal cancer, and we hope that this case stimulates further investigation into the efficacy of herbal treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Liver Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Transplant Living > Organ facts and surgeries > Liver Liver The liver is one of the largest and ... lobes. Detail of the liver How does your liver work? The liver has many functions that are ...

  7. Urothelial Cancer With Occult Bone Marrow Metastases and Isolated Thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajjai Alva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer rarely presents clinically with a myelophthisic picture from diffuse bone marrow infiltration especially in the absence of detectable skeletal metastases. A 75-year old man presented with newly diagnosed urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder. Pathology from transurethral resection of bladder tumor demonstrated muscle-invasive disease. Pre-therapy imaging including CT abdomen/pelvis, CXR and bone scan demonstrated liver lesions concerning for metastatic disease but no skeletal metastases. Labs were notable for isolated thrombocytopenia, hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury prompting hospitalization. Hematologic work-up including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by urothelial cancer. The case illustrates the importance of fully investigating otherwise unexplained clinical findings in patients with clinically localized urothelial cancer prior to curative intent surgery.

  8. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G.G.; Fogh, J.; Graem, N.; Hansen, O.P.; Hippe, E.

    1984-04-15

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy, which showed only a few minor focal changes in the spine and ribs, angioscintigraphy with in vitro labeled /sup 99m/Tc-erythrocytes revealed extensive pathologic accumulations throughout the spine, femurs, and the liver, indicating the presence of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes seems to be useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas.

  9. Urothelial Cancer With Occult Bone Marrow Metastases and Isolated Thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Ajjai; Davis, Elizabeth; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Dhanasekaran, Saravana; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Bladder cancer rarely presents clinically with a myelophthisic picture from diffuse bone marrow infiltration especially in the absence of detectable skeletal metastases. A 75-year old man presented with newly diagnosed urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder. Pathology from transurethral resection of bladder tumor demonstrated muscle-invasive disease. Pre-therapy imaging including CT abdomen/pelvis, CXR and bone scan demonstrated liver lesions concerning for metastatic disease but no skeletal metastases. Labs were notable for isolated thrombocytopenia, hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury prompting hospitalization. Hematologic work-up including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by urothelial cancer. The case illustrates the importance of fully investigating otherwise unexplained clinical findings in patients with clinically localized urothelial cancer prior to curative intent surgery.

  10. Metastases from a pituitary adenoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucaud, L. de; Dousset, V.; Viaud, B.; Caille, J.M. [Service de Neuroradiologie, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Caillaud, P.; Guerin, J. [Service de Neurochirurgie, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    1999-10-01

    Few cases of pituitary adenoma with metastases have been reported. We report a case with histologically benign intracranial and cauda equina metastases. We compare it to the others in the literature. (orig.)

  11. Metastase i larynx fra colonadenokarcinom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dadkhah, Naser; Hahn, Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Secondary neoplasms of the larynx are rare and account for 0.09-0,4% of all laryngeal tumours. Cutaneous melanomas are the preponderant primaries metastasizing to the larynx, followed by renal cell carcinomas, breast and lung carcinomas. Colonic adenocarcinoma metastases to the larynx are extremely...... rare. Tumours spreading to the larynx may be asymptomatic or may result in hoarseness, stridor or airway obstruction. Patients with metastasis of colonic adenocarcinoma to the larynx usually present with disseminated disease. We present a case of an isolated laryngeal metastasis from a colonic...

  12. 90Y Radioembolization of Colorectal Hepatic Metastases Using Glass Microspheres: Safety and Survival Outcomes from a 531-Patient Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Ryan; Lewandowski, Robert J; Prudhomme, Totianna; Ehrenwald, Eduardo; Baigorri, Brian; Critchfield, Jeffrey; Kallini, Joseph; Gabr, Ahmed; Gorodetski, Boris; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Abbott, Andrea; Shridhar, Ravi; White, Sarah B; Rilling, William S; Boyer, Brendan; Kauffman, Shannon; Kwan, Sharon; Padia, Siddarth A; Gates, Vanessa L; Mulcahy, Mary; Kircher, Sheetal; Nimeiri, Halla; Benson, Al B; Salem, Riad

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma are a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Most colorectal liver metastases become refractory to chemotherapy and biologic agents, at which point the median overall survival declines to 4-5 mo. Radioembolization with (90)Y has been used in the salvage setting with favorable outcomes. This study reports the survival and safety outcomes of 531 patients treated with glass-based (90)Y microspheres at 8 institutions, making it the largest (90)Y study for patients with colorectal liver metastases. Data were retrospectively compiled from 8 institutions for all (90)Y glass microsphere treatments for colorectal liver metastases. Exposure to chemotherapeutic or biologic agents, prior liver therapies, biochemical parameters before and after treatment, radiation dosimetry, and complications were recorded. Uni- and multivariate analyses for predictors of survival were performed. Survival outcomes and clinical or biochemical adverse events were recorded. In total, 531 patients received (90)Y radioembolization for colorectal liver metastases. The most common clinical adverse events were fatigue (55%), abdominal pain (34%), and nausea (19%). Grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 13% of patients at any time. The median overall survival from the first (90)Y treatment was 10.6 mo (95% confidence interval, 8.8-12.4). Performance status, no more than 25% tumor burden, no extrahepatic metastases, albumin greater than 3 g/dL, and receipt of no more than 2 chemotherapeutic agents independently predicted better survival outcomes. This multiinstitutional review of a large cohort of patients with colorectal liver metastases treated with (90)Y radioembolization using glass microspheres has demonstrated promising survival outcomes with low toxicity and low side effects. The outcomes were reproducible and consistent with prior reports of radioembolization. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  13. Pituitary Metastases. Metastases de la Glande Pituitaire (English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Metastatic disease of the pituitary is an uncommon clinical problem, although autopsy findings on patients who die of disseminated carcinoma suggest that it occurs more frequently than is clinically evident. Pituitary metastases are often difficult to distinguish from pituitary adenomas both clinically and ...

  14. Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus of Liver Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Ogawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of liver metastasis of lung carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT. Although the primary lesion of lung tumor remained unchanged, the patient rapidly developed wide-spread metastases and formed PVTT of liver metastasis. The primary lesion showed features of mixed Clara and bronchial surface epithelial cell component type adenocarcinoma with small foci of micropapillary pattern. Micropapillary pattern was observed in the metastatic lesions in the liver and PVTT. Micropapillary pattern lung adenocarcinoma may develop rapid metastases and cause PVTT associated with liver metastasis. We should perform a detailed examination to establish correct diagnosis.

  15. Atypical hepatic hemangiomas with multiple calcifications mimicking hepatic metastases: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Park, Seong Il; Kim, Hong Soo; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Mee Hye; Yang, Seung Ha [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Although hepatic hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver, it is rarely associated with calcifications. We report on the case of an asymptomatic 58-year-old man in whom multiple hepatic masses containing calcifications were discovered incidentally at ultrasonography. The radiologic features mimicked those of multiple hepatic metastases.

  16. 77 FR 11123 - Scientific Information Request on Local Therapies f