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Sample records for liver fluke infections

  1. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  2. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  3. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS THAT LEAD TO CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA, DURING CHRONIC INFECTION OF LIVER FLUKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Bogdanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor, characterized by poor prognosis and a low five-year survival rate. There is a clear correlation between the incidence of opisthorchiasis and high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in South-East Asia. Liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are I class carcinogens. There are some endemic regions of opisthorchiasis In the Russian Federation. The most important factor that leads to carcinogenesis during liver fluke infection is chronic inflammation. This review article focuses on the communication of chronic inflammation caused by invasion of liver flukes and cholangiocarcinoma. This paper summarizes the current knowledge about the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma, as well as knowledge about the molecular aspects of the induction of carcinogenesis by liver flukes.

  4. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of infections with liver flukes in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Frankena, K.; Olsen, A.

    Liver fluke infection, also known as fasciolosis, is a world-wide prevalent zoonotic parasitic disease infecting a wide range of host species and is caused by Fasciola hepatica. Despite of the substantial economic and animal welfare effects of the disease, knowledge on its prevalence and the fact......Liver fluke infection, also known as fasciolosis, is a world-wide prevalent zoonotic parasitic disease infecting a wide range of host species and is caused by Fasciola hepatica. Despite of the substantial economic and animal welfare effects of the disease, knowledge on its prevalence...

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya J Kaewpitoon; Prasit Pengsaa; Chutigan Pilasri

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the knowledge,attitude and practice (KAP) in prevention and control of liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand.METHODS:A descriptive KAP survey pertaining to liver fluke infection was carried out in June 2005 to October 2006 using structured questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaires consisting of general parameters,knowledge,attitude,practice,and a history of participation in the prevention and control of liver fluke infection.RESULTS:A total of 1077 persons who were interviewed and completed the questionnaires were enrolled in the study. The majority were females (69.5%) and many of them were 15-20 years of age (37.26%). The questionnaires revealed that information resources on Uver fluke infection included local public health volunteers (31.37%),public health officers (18.72%),televisions (14.38%),local heads of sub-districts (12.31%),doctors and nurses (9.18%),newspaper (5.72),internets (5.37%),and others (12.95%). Fifty-five point eleven percent of the population had a good level of liver fluke knowledge concerning the mode of disease transmission and 79.72% of the population had a good level of prevention and control knowledge with regards to defecation and consumption. The attitude and practice in liver fluke prevention and control were also at a good level with a positive awareness,participation,and satisfaction of 72.1% and 60.83% of the persons studied. However,good health behavior was found in 39.26% and 41.42% of the persons studied who had unhygienic defecation and ate raw cyprinoid's fish. Theresult also showed that 41.25% of the persons studied previously joined prevention and control campaigns.CONCLUSION:The persons studied have a high level of liver fluke knowledge and positive attitude. However,improvement is required regarding personal hygiene specifically with hygienic defecation and consumption of undercooked fish.

  6. Simulating the Risk of Liver Fluke Infection using a Mechanistic Hydro-epidemiological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Ludovica; Dunne, Toby; Rose, Hannah; Walker, Josephine; Morgan, Eric; Vickerman, Peter; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a common parasite found in livestock and responsible for considerable economic losses throughout the world. Risk of infection is strongly influenced by climatic and hydrological conditions, which characterise the host environment for parasite development and transmission. Despite on-going control efforts, increases in fluke outbreaks have been reported in recent years in the UK, and have been often attributed to climate change. Currently used fluke risk models are based on empirical relationships derived between historical climate and incidence data. However, hydro-climate conditions are becoming increasingly non-stationary due to climate change and direct anthropogenic impacts such as land use change, making empirical models unsuitable for simulating future risk. In this study we introduce a mechanistic hydro-epidemiological model for Liver Fluke, which explicitly simulates habitat suitability for disease development in space and time, representing the parasite life cycle in connection with key environmental conditions. The model is used to assess patterns of Liver Fluke risk for two catchments in the UK under current and potential future climate conditions. Comparisons are made with a widely used empirical model employing different datasets, including data from regional veterinary laboratories. Results suggest that mechanistic models can achieve adequate predictive ability and support adaptive fluke control strategies under climate change scenarios.

  7. Parasite-Associated Cancers (Blood Flukes/Liver Flukes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Meng; Cheng, Xunjia

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic infection remains as a persistent public health problem and can be carcinogenic. Three helminth parasites, namely, Clonorchis sinensis (liver fluke) and Opisthorchis viverrini as well as Schistosoma haematobium (blood fluke), are classified as Group 1 carcinogens by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Infection with liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis), World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2011). Infection by these parasites is frequently asymptomatic and is thus rarely diagnosed at early exposure. Persistent infection can cause severe cancer complications. Until now, the cellular and molecular mechanisms linking fluke infections to cancer formation have yet to be defined, although many studies have focused on these mechanisms in recent years, and numerous findings were made in various aspects of parasite-associated cancers. Herein, we only introduce the fluke-induced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and bladder carcinoma and mainly focus on key findings in the last 5 years.

  8. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote...... awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish cattle herds. Methods: A retrospective population based study was performed using meat inspection data...... of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  9. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infection in cattle in Northern Ireland: a large-scale epidemiological investigation utilising surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Andrew W; McBride, Stewart; Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Guelbenzu, Maria; McNair, Jim; Skuce, Robin A; McDowell, Stanley W J

    2016-04-14

    Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a widespread parasite of ruminants which can have significant economic impact on cattle production. Fluke infection status at the animal-level is captured during meat inspection of all animals processed for human consumption within Northern Ireland. These national datasets have not been analysed to assess their utility in uncovering patterns in fluke infection at animal- and herd-levels in Northern Ireland. We utilised a dataset of 1.2 million animal records from ~18,000 herds across 3 years (2011-2013) to assess animal- and herd-level apparent prevalence and risk-factors associated with fluke infection. Animal-level apparent prevalence was measured as the proportion of animals exhibiting evidence of fluke infection at slaughter; between herd-level infection prevalence was measured by binary categorisation of herds (infected or not). "Within herd" infection prevalence was measured using the proportion of animals within a herd that showed evidence of fluke infection per year (ranging from 0-100%). "Within herd" infection prevalence at the herd level was investigated using multivariable modelling. At the animal level, the proportion of animals slaughtered that exhibited evidence of infection was 21-25% amongst years. Across herds, the proportion of herds with at least one infected animal, varied between 61 and 65%. However, there was a significant sampling effect at the herd-level; all herds where at least 105 animals slaughtered over the study period exhibited evidence of fluke infection (100%). There was significant variation in terms of within-herd infection prevalence. Risk factors included herd type, long-term weather variation, geographic location (region) and the abattoir. Liver fluke apparent prevalence was high at the herd-level across years. However, there was lower prevalence at the animal level, which may indicate significant variation in the exposure to fluke infection within herds. The proportion infected within

  10. High Prevalence of Human Liver Infection by Amphimerus spp. Flukes, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Kumazawa, Hideo; Eisenberg, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Amphimerus spp. flukes are known to infect mammals, but human infections have not been confirmed. Microscopy of fecal samples from 397 persons from Ecuador revealed Opisthorchiidae eggs in 71 (24%) persons. Light microscopy of adult worms and scanning electron microscopy of eggs were compatible with descriptions of Amphimerus spp. This pathogen was only observed in communities that consumed undercooked fish.

  11. Prevalence of liver flukes infections and hydatidosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Nishapour, Khorasan Razavi, Iran

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    Majid Aminzare

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food-borne trematode infections and hydatidosis are endemic diseases caused by helminths in Iran that are responsible for great economic loss and getting public health at risk. Aim: Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis, dicrocoeliasis, and hydatidosis infections in slaughtered sheep and goats in Nishapour, Khorasan Razavi province of Iran. Materials and Methods: A survey was implemented on 130,107 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Nishapour (Neyshbur city, north central Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran, to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis, dicrocoeliosis and presence of hydatidosis. Results: During a 1-year period of study, among 130,107 of sheep and goats slaughtered at Nishapour abattoir, 1064 and 7124 livers were condemned totally and partially, respectively. A total of 255 (0.19%, 181 (0.12 %, and 7751 (5.95% of livers were condemned due to cysts of Echinococcus granulosus, flukes of Fasciola spp., and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, respectively. Totally, 1932 (1.48% lungs were condemned due to hydatidosis. The significant seasonal pattern was seen for fasciolosis, dicrocoeliosis, and hydatidosis, statistically (p<0.01. Conclusion: According to this study, it seems that Neyshabour is considered as an endemic region for Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum infections and D. dendriticum is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats.

  12. Potential role of hares in the spread of liver fluke in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.M.; Johnston, C.; Hoey, E.M.; Fairweather, I.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Prodohl, P.A.; Trudgett, A.

    2011-01-01

    Hares (Lepus europeanus) sharing pasture with cattle from six locations in the Netherlands were examined for the presence of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and shown to have prevalences of infection ranging from 0 to 41%. The mitochondrial haplotypes of liver flukes present in the hare populations

  13. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene

    2015-01-01

    fitted the observed spatial pattern. Results: During the investigated period (2011-2013), an increase in annual herd prevalence was noted (2011-25.6%; 2012-28.4%; 2013-29.3%). The spatial analysis suggested significant clustering of positive and negative herds. Presence of streams, wetlands and pastures...... on farms showed a significant association with the presence of infection in cattle herds. Buying animals from positive herds was a risk factor on conventional farms. Additionally, risk of being infected with Fasciola hepatica was higher in non-dairy herds of medium size (>= 30 and ... to dairy and large (>= 100) cattle herds. The observed spatial pattern could be reproduced by predictions of the risk factor model. Conclusions: This study showed an increase in annual herd level prevalence (2011 to 2013) indicating that an increasing proportion of herds are infected with Fasciola hepatica...

  14. Liver Fluke Infection and Fish Consumption in Khon Kaen, Thailand: A Case Study on Negotiating the Middle Ground between Western Science and Eastern Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiphak, Sara

    This research investigates why typical strategies for promoting health, prolonging life, and preventing disease do not work in many communities. I use the liver fluke infection endemic in Khon Kaen, Thailand to explore the middle ground between Western science and Eastern culture. Prior work on the O.viverrini infection in Khon Kaen, Thailand has focused almost exclusively on developing effective medical treatment for the liver fluke infection. This dissertation employs a case study designed to explore the conditions that created and perpetuate the problem in the first place. In concrete terms, I analyze how the worldviews of local villagers shape their attitudes toward life (and death), which in turn determine if they engage in the high-risk behavior -- eating undercooked fish -- that makes them vulnerable to the infection. My research focuses on these people in-situ over a three-month period, and includes data from participant-observation, interviews, and video-recordings. This work seeks to illuminate how people's thinking and reasoning skills, and personal/cultural identities affect their abilities to learn and act on new health concepts. This potentially provides a window into future educational strategies in a complex world.

  15. Activity of luxabendazole against liver flukes, gastrointestinal roundworms, and lungworms in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassai, T; Takáts, C; Fok, E; Redl, P

    1988-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of luxabendazole was investigated in sheep harboring mixed naturally acquired helminth infections. Results were assessed by comparing worm counts of the treated groups (seven animals each) on days 7-8 posttreatment with those of the nontreated control group, except for protostrongylid lungworms, for which the changes in pre- and posttreatment group mean larval counts/g feces were assessed for intensity effect. A single oral treatment at doses of 10.0 or 12.5 mg/kg body wt removed 97.6% of the adult Fasciola hepatica and 63.2%-83.8% of the Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Luxabendazole at 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 mg/kg proved 100% effective in removing adult worms of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus as well as tissue-associated larval stages of gastrointestinal nematodes of the abomasal mucosa. The drug showed an intensity effect of 79.7%-87.6% against Strongyloides papillosus. Luxabendazole removed all Dictyocaulus filaria and reduced the fecal excretion of larvae of protostrongylid species (Protostrongylus rufescens, Neostrongylus linearis, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris) by 97.8%-99.6%. The efficacy of luxabendazole compared favorably with that of Diplin Kombi (oxyclozanide and levamisole), which was used as a reference drug.

  16. Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini

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    Gasser Robin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. Results Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O. viverrini were characterized and accounted for 1,932 contigs, representing ~14% of the entire transcriptome, and, presently, the largest sequence dataset for any species of liver fluke. Twenty percent of contigs were assigned GO classifications. Abundantly represented protein families included those involved in physiological functions that are essential to parasitism, such as anaerobic respiration, reproduction, detoxification, surface maintenance and feeding. GO assignments were well conserved in relation to other parasitic flukes, however, some categories were over-represented in O. viverrini, such as structural and motor proteins. An assessment of evolutionary relationships showed that O. viverrini was more similar to other parasitic (Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma japonicum than to free-living (Schmidtea mediterranea flatworms, and 105 sequences had close homologues in both parasitic species but not in S. mediterranea. A total of 164 O. viverrini contigs contained ORFs with signal sequences, many of which were platyhelminth-specific. Examples of convergent evolution between host and parasite secreted/membrane proteins were identified as were homologues of vaccine antigens from other helminths. Finally, ORFs representing secreted proteins with known roles in tumorigenesis were identified, and these might play roles in the pathogenesis of O. viverrini-induced CCA. Conclusion This gene discovery effort for O. viverrini should expedite molecular studies of cholangiocarcinogenesis and accelerate research focused on developing new interventions

  17. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

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    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing liver fluke transmission in northeastern Thailand | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... ... leaders, local health officials, school teachers—were agents of change. ... visited 186 households and organized liver fluke campaigns in local schools, ... The Lawa Model has since gained national and international ...

  19. Prevalence of fascioliasis (liver flukes) infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshraway, Nagwa T.; Mahmoud, Wafaa G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis infections in cattle and buffaloes, slaughtered in El-Kharga city slaughterhouse at New Valley Governorate. Materials and Methods: The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for liver fascioliasis allover 2016. Macroscopic fascioliasis was detected from a total of 2251 basing on animals specie, sex, season, and Fasciola spp. in addition to microscopic examination of blood, fecal samples which collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each). Results: The total prevalence rate of Fasciola sp. infection occurs in the study area were about 695/2251 (30.88%) from the total cattle and bovine slaughtered carcasses. The incidence of fascioliasis was 4/12 (33.33%) and 678/2200 (30.82%) for females and males cattle carcasses, respectively, while the infection rate in buffalo carcasses was 1/4 (25.00%) and 12/35 (34.29%) for females and males buffalo carcasses, respectively. Conclusion: The moderate fasciolosis infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt. The highest fascioliasis infection was recorded during winter and autumn. It constitutes a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir and threat public health. PMID:28919682

  20. The draft genome of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that is widespread in Asian countries. Increasing infection rates of this neglected tropical disease are leading to negative economic and public health consequences in affected regions. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma and the infection rate of C. sinensis. To aid research into this organism, we have sequenced its genome. Results We combined de novo sequencing with computational techniques to provide new information about the biology of this liver fluke. The assembled genome has a total size of 516 Mb with a scaffold N50 length of 42 kb. Approximately 16,000 reliable protein-coding gene models were predicted. Genes for the complete pathways for glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and fatty acid metabolism were found, but key genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis are missing from the genome, reflecting the parasitic lifestyle of a liver fluke that receives lipids from the bile of its host. We also identified pathogenic molecules that may contribute to liver fluke-induced hepatobiliary diseases. Large proteins such as multifunctional secreted proteases and tegumental proteins were identified as potential targets for the development of drugs and vaccines. Conclusions This study provides valuable genomic information about the human liver fluke C. sinensis and adds to our knowledge on the biology of the parasite. The draft genome will serve as a platform to develop new strategies for parasite control. PMID:22023798

  1. Developmental Transcriptomic Features of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Pyo Yun; Kim, Tae Im; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Park, Hong-Seog; Kim, Tong-Soo; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development, bile chemotaxis, and

  2. Developmental transcriptomic features of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.

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    Won Gi Yoo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development

  3. The effect on infection of irradiated fasciola gigantic (liver flukes) on goats (Capra hircus linn) blood values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuasikal, BJ.; M-Arifin; Yusneti; Dinardi; Suhardono

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of infection Fasciola gigantic irradiated by using 60 Co to goat’s blood values. Twenty local male goats, ten to twelve old months, 115-20 kg of body weight were used for this study. The animals were divided into 5 groups consisting of four replications. Three groups received irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantic a using 45, 55 and 65 Gy respectively. One group in the positive control and another one is the negative control. Each goat received 350 metacercariae. The study in was undertaken for 25 weeks. Body weight, Eosinofil, PCV and Hb were measured. These indicated that infectivity reduced on irradiated Fasciola gigantic. In all parameters, among negative control group and three irradiation-groups showed non significant (p>0,05). (author)

  4. Molecular identification of Clonorchis sinensis and discrimination with other opisthorchid liver fluke species using Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Xu, J.; Liang, P.; Mao, Q.; Huang, Y.; Lu, X.; Deng, C.; Liang, C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Yu, X.

    2011-01-01

    Background Infections with the opisthorchid liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus cause severe health problems globally, particularly in Southeast Asia. Early identification of the infection is essential to provide timely and appropriate chemotherapy to patients.

  5. RNAi dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver flukes reveals the persistence of gene silencing in vitro.

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    Paul McVeigh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (dsRNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain, validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL and B (FheCatB cysteine proteases, and a σ-class glutathione transferase (FheσGST.Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200-320 nt dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (siRNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent and in all cases silencing persisted for ≥25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; FheσGST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively.In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control

  6. Granulin Secreted by the Food-Borne Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini Promotes Angiogenesis in Human Endothelial Cells

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    Brandon Haugen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne, zoonotic pathogen endemic to Thailand and adjacent countries in Southeast Asia. The adult developmental stage of the O. viverrini parasite excretes and secretes numerous proteins within the biliary tract including the gall bladder. Lesions caused by the feeding activities of the liver fluke represent wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing and re-injury during chronic infection, which can last for decades. Components of the excretory/secretory (ES complement released by the worms capably drive proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells and are implicated in establishing the oncogenic milieu that leads to bile duct cancer, cholangiocarcinoma. An ES protein, the secreted granulin-like growth factor termed Ov-GRN-1, accelerates wound resolution in mice and in vitro. To investigate angiogenesis (blood vessel development that may contribute to wound healing promoted by liver fluke granulin and, by implication, to carcinogenesis during chronic opisthorchiasis, we employed an in vitro tubule formation assay (TFA where human umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown on gelled basement matrix. Ten and 40 nM Ov-GRN-1 significantly stimulated angiogenesis as monitored by cellular proliferation and by TFA in real time. This demonstration of potent angiogenic property of Ov-GRN-1 bolsters earlier reports on the therapeutic potential for chronic non-healing wounds of diabetics, tobacco users, and the elderly and, in addition, showcases another of the hallmark of cancer characteristic of this carcinogenic liver fluke.

  7. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus.

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    Mariya Y Pakharukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target.

  8. Clonorchis sinensis, an oriental liver fluke, as a human biological agent of cholangiocarcinoma: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Pak, Jhang Ho; Kim, Jong-Bo; Bahk, Young Yil

    2016-11-01

    Parasitic diseases remain an unarguable public health problem worldwide. Liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis is a high risk pathogenic parasitic helminth which is endemic predominantly in Asian countries, including Korea, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the far eastern parts of Russia, and is still actively transmitted. According to the earlier 8th National Survey on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in 2012, C. sinensis was revealed as the parasite with highest prevalence of 1.86% in general population among all parasite species surveyed in Korea. This fluke is now classified under one of the definite Group 1 human biological agents (carcinogens) by International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC) along with two other parasites, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma haematobium. C. sinensis infestation is mainly linked to liver and biliary disorders, especially cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). For the purposes of this mini-review, we will only focus on C. sinensis and review pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of clonorchiasis, disease condition by C. sinensis infestation, and association between C. sinensis infestation and CCA. In this presentation, we briefly consider the current scientific status for progression of CCA by heavy C. sinensis infestation from the food-borne trematode and development of CCA. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(11): 590-597].

  9. Cathepsin F cysteine protease of the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini.

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    Porntip Pinlaor

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct, the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities.Here, we describe the cDNA, gene organization, phylogenetic relationships, immunolocalization, and functional characterization of the cathepsin F cysteine protease gene, here termed Ov-cf-1, from O. viverrini. The full length mRNA of 1020 nucleotides (nt encoded a 326 amino acid zymogen consisting of a predicted signal peptide (18 amino acids, aa, prosegment (95 aa, and mature protease (213 aa. BLAST analysis using the Ov-CF-1 protein as the query revealed that the protease shared identity with cathepsin F-like cysteine proteases of other trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis (81%, Paragonimus westermani (58%, Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum (52%, and with vertebrate cathepsin F (51%. Transcripts encoding the protease were detected in all developmental stages that parasitize the mammalian host. The Ov-cf-1 gene, of approximately 3 kb in length, included seven exons interrupted by six introns; the exons ranged from 69 to 267 bp in length, the introns from 43 to 1,060 bp. The six intron/exon boundaries of Ov-cf-1 were conserved with intron/exon boundaries in the human cathepsin F gene, although the gene structure of human cathepsin F is more complex. Unlike Ov-CF-1, human cathepsin F zymogen includes a cystatin domain in the prosegment region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fluke, human, and other cathepsin Fs branched together in a clade discrete from the cathepsin L cysteine proteases. A recombinant Ov-CF-1 zymogen that displayed low-level activity was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Although the recombinant protease did not autocatalytically process and

  10. Schistosome and liver fluke derived catechol-estrogens and helminth associated cancers

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    José M Correia da Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g. oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc. metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of Opisthorchis viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e. urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture.

  11. Molecular identification of Clonorchis sinensis and discrimination with other opisthorchid liver fluke species using multiple Ligation-depended Probe Amplification (MLPA

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    Liang Chi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with the opisthorchid liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus cause severe health problems globally, particularly in Southeast Asia. Early identification of the infection is essential to provide timely and appropriate chemotherapy to patients. Results In this study we evaluate a PCR-based molecular identification method, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA, which allows rapid and specific detection of single nucleotide acid differences between Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and O. felineus. Three probe pairs were derived from the Internally Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 of three opisthorchid liver flukes using a systematic phylogenetic analysis. Specific loci were detected in all three species, yielding three amplicons with 198,172 and 152 bp, respectively, while no cross reactions were observed. A panel of 66 C. sinensis isolates was screened using MLPA. All species were positively identified, and no inhibition was observed. The detection limit was 103 copies of the ITS gene for the three liver flukes, or about 60 pg genomic DNA for Clonorchis sinensis. Amplification products can be detected by electrophoresis on agarose gel or in a capillary sequencer. In addition, genomic DNA of Clonorchis sinensis in fecal samples of infected rats was positively amplified by MLPA. Conclusion The flexibility and specificity make MLPA a potential tool for specific identification of infections by opisthorchid liver flukes in endemic areas.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): application to examine liver tissues during invasion of the Liver fluke in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wranicz, M.; Podbielski, T.; Grabiec, S.

    1989-01-01

    The T 1 and T 2 relaxation times of protons of hydrogen in the liver parenchyma and biliary ducts in normal and parazitized by the Liver fluke cows were determined. A method of the NMR in which a lenght or relaxation time is an index was applied. The value of this index is characteristic for determined physiological and pathological states of cells and it reveals changes which developed in body cells. It was found that tissues of cows parazitized by the Liver fluke (parenchyma and biliary ducts) and healthy ones differ significantly by the lenght of relaxation times. Parazitized tissues show a longer relaxation time than tissues of normal cows. (author)

  13. Molecular evidence shows that the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is the predominant Fasciola species in ruminants from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, U; van Paridon, B; Shabbir, M Z; Shafee, M; Ashraf, K; Yaqub, T; Gilleard, J

    2016-03-01

    Fascioliasis is an important disease affecting livestock, with great costs to producers worldwide. It has also become a serious issue for human populations in some endemic areas as an emerging zoonotic infection. There are two Fasciola species of liver fluke responsible for this disease, which occur worldwide, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Identifying these two species on the basis of adult or egg morphology requires specialist knowledge due to the similarity of characters, and may misidentify putative intermediate or hybrid forms. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA of liver flukes collected from multiple species of hosts from seven localities in the Punjab and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan, to determine the distribution of these two species. All 46 flukes processed in this study, collected from seven sites, showed the rDNA ITS-2 genotype corresponding to F. gigantica, contradicting previous reports, based on adult and egg morphology, that both species are present in Pakistan, with F. hepatica being the more common.

  14. Some studies on liver and rumen flukes of bovines in Sri Lanka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nkpc001

    Keywords: liver and rumen flukes, bovines, influence of climate, Sri Lanka. INTRODUCTION .... they were given two changes of absolute alcohol, each longing ..... inland and where fresh water ditches, streams and large water ... India. Res. ull. Panjab Univ., New series, 18: 369-337. sen J, Perry B. 1994. The epidemiology,.

  15. Survey of gastrointestinal parasites, liver flukes and lungworm in feces from dairy cattle in the high tropics of Antioquia, Colombia

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    Jenny J. Chaparro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic infections in dairy cattle in the high tropics of Colombia. A total of 1003 rectal samples were collected from dairy cows at 29 farms between May and June 2014 to represent the number of farms, age groups, and size of the 65,000-cow population in the municipality of San Pedro de los Milagros. Coprological techniques were used to detect gastrointestinal nematodes, liver flukes, coccidian oocysts, and first larval stage counts of Dictyocaulus viviparus. In order of decreasing prevalence, the following parasites were detected: coccidial oocyst (36.7%; 95% CIs, 31.6–42.7, strongyle nematodes (31.6%, 27.8–35.4, liver flukes (30.9%, 21.5–37.5, cestodes (8.4%, 7.1–9.7, and D. viviparus (5.4%, 3.4–7.5. Co-infections by all possible combinations of the three most predominant groups occurred in 11 to 15% of the animals. There were significant differences in infection rates between age groups, with higher risk of liver fluke infection in animals older than 1 year of age (odds ratio (OR = 3.2, but lower presence for coccidia and strongyles (OR = 0.19 and 0.51, respectively. For Fasciola hepatica, within-herd prevalences of >25% in 16 farms and 94 of 281 (33.5% animals with >5 eggs per gram (epg indicate that significant production losses are likely occurring. The variation in the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and liver flukes, together with the level of infection among age groups, could be used in integrated management programs to establish selective anthelmintic treatments and select for heritable traits of host resistance. These results serve as a baseline for future studies to determine the success of control measures and should increase awareness that subclinical parasitism is widespread in the livestock sector.

  16. Assessing the Role of Climate Variability on Liver Fluke Risk in the UK Through Mechanistic Hydro-Epidemiological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, L.; Dunne, T.; Rose, H.; Walker, J.; Morgan, E.; Vickerman, P.; Wagener, T.

    2016-12-01

    Liver fluke is a flatworm parasite infecting grazing animals worldwide. In the UK, it causes considerable production losses to cattle and sheep industries and costs farmers millions of pounds each year due to reduced growth rates and lower milk yields. Large part of the parasite life-cycle takes place outside of the host, with its survival and development strongly controlled by climatic and hydrologic conditions. Evidence of climate-driven changes in the distribution and seasonality of fluke disease already exists, as the infection is increasingly expanding to new areas and becoming a year-round problem. Therefore, it is crucial to assess current and potential future impacts of climate variability on the disease to guide interventions at the farm scale and mitigate risk. Climate-based fluke risk models have been available since the 1950s, however, they are based on empirical relationships derived between historical climate and incidence data, and thus are unlikely to be robust for simulating risk under changing conditions. Moreover, they are not dynamic, but estimate risk over large regions in the UK based on monthly average climate conditions, so they do not allow investigating the effects of climate variability for supporting farmers' decisions. In this study, we introduce a mechanistic model for fluke, which represents habitat suitability for disease development at 25m resolution with a daily time step, explicitly linking the parasite life-cycle to key hydro-climate conditions. The model is used on a case study in the UK and sensitivity analysis is performed to better understand the role of climate variability on the space-time dynamics of the disease, while explicitly accounting for uncertainties. Comparisons are presented with experts' knowledge and a widely used empirical model.

  17. Molecular identification of Clonorchis sinensis and discrimination with other opisthorchid liver fluke species using Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA).

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, J.; Xu, J.; Liang, P.; Mao, Q.; Huang, Y.; Lu, X.; Deng, C.; Liang, C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Yu, X.

    2011-01-01

    Background Infections with the opisthorchid liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus cause severe health problems globally, particularly in Southeast Asia. Early identification of the infection is essential to provide timely and appropriate chemotherapy to patients. Results In this study we evaluate a PCR-based molecular identification method, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), which allows rapid and specific detection of single nucleotid...

  18. Recombinant adenylate kinase 3 from liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis for histochemical analysis and serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Bin; Kim, Paul; Woo, Hae Sun; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Ju Yeong; Lee, Hye Min; Jang, Yun Soo; Kim, Eun-Min; Yong, Tai-Soon; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-03-27

    Due to the lack of an effective prophylactic intervention and diagnosis, human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis continues to afflict a large human population, causing a chronic inflammatory bile duct disease. With an aim to identify target antigens for sensitive serodiagnosis, adenylate kinase 3 of C. sinensis (CsAK3) was successfully expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli by fusion to an RNA-interacting domain derived from human Lys-tRNA synthetase and purified by Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Anti-CsAK3 serum was raised by immunization of mice, and Western blotting confirmed that CsAK3 was expressed in adult-stage C. sinensis. Histochemical analysis showed that CsAK3 was localized to the subtegumental tissue of C. sinensis and was excreted into the bile duct of the host. When tested against sera from various parasite-infected patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the recombinant CsAK3 elicited a specific response to C. sinensis-infected sera. The results suggest that CsAK3, either alone or in combination with other antigens, could be used for improving the clinical diagnosis of clonorchiasis.

  19. Determination Of Irradiation Doses For Fasciola gigantica (Liver Flukes) For Protection In Goat (Capra hircus Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuasikal, B.J.; Arifin, M.; Tarmizi

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the cange of pathogenicity of 6 O C o-irradiated F. gigantica that give immunological responses in goat. The aim of the study was to see immunity respond of goats against F. gigantica, which at the end to develop a new strategic technique for fluke control in small ruminant. Irradiated and non-irradiated -using y-cell of 6 0 C o -metacercariae (mc.) of F.gigantica were used as the infection material that administered into 18 locally bred goats averagely 10 months of age. These animal are divided into 6 groups of treatment as the following : (I) infection with 0 Gy irradiated mc as positive control; (2) without any infection, as negative contral; (3) infection with 25 Gy inaiiated mc; (4) immunisation with 25 Gy irradiated mc and then challenge by pure infective mc; (5) infection with 35 Gy irradiated mc; and (6) immunisation with 35 Gy irradiated mc an then challenge by pure infective mc. A period of 8 weeks was given to challenge immunisation. Body weight change, blood value (eosinophyl, haemoglobin, PCV, and reticulocyte) and liver anatomical pathology (AP) are observed and recorded. Result of this experiment showed a reduction in body weight change, 130 grams/week, in group I as compare to animal in group 4, which gain body weight of 80 grams/week. The proportion of eosinophyl in group 4 found to re higher as compare to group 6,90.6% and 66.8%, respectively, which indicates that 25Gy mc immunization enables elimination of the mc challenge given. This condition was confirmed by the ''normal'' seen on the anatomical pathology of the liver as compare to animal in- group 1, which found to be more cirrhosis with eosinophyl proportion of 98,6%. Furthermore, results from the observation of PCV and Hb indicate that anaemia was found in animal from group 1 compare to the respective groups: 22.33% and 8.94% vs 25.90% and 10.10% and 27.10% and 10.10%, respectively for PCV and HB in-group animal 1,4 and 6. It can be concluded that mc

  20. [Genomics and transcriptomics of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (Opisthorchiidae, Trematoda)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelomina, G N

    2017-01-01

    The review summarizes the results of first genomic and transcriptomic investigations of the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (Opisthorchiidae, Trematoda). The studies mark the dawn of the genomic era for opisthorchiids, which cause severe hepatobiliary diseases in humans and animals. Their results aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of adaptation to parasitism, parasite survival in mammalian biliary tracts, and genome dynamics in the individual development and the development of parasite-host relationships. Special attention is paid to the achievements in studying the codon usage bias and the roles of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Interspecific comparisons at the genomic and transcriptomic levels revealed molecular differences, which may contribute to understanding the specialized niches and physiological needs of the respective species. The studies in C. sinensis provide a basis for further basic and applied research in liver flukes and, in particular, the development of efficient means to prevent, diagnose, and treat clonorchiasis.

  1. Prevalence of cattle flukes infection at Andassa Livestock Research Center in north-west of Ethiopia

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    Asressa Yeneneh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from October 2010 to March 2011 at Andassa Livestock Research Center, North-West Ethiopia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of cattle flukes infection. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 384 cattle, cross breed (n= 39 and Fogera breed (n=345 of all age groups and sex. Sedimentation technique was employed for the recovery of fluke eggs from freshly collected fecal sample. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of bovine flukes infection was 60.42%. In this study, the highest prevalence was recorded from Paramphistomosis (45.83% followed by Fasciolosis (23.96%, and Schistosomosis (9.89%. The prevalence of flukes infection was higher in age group 1- 2 years old. There was significant difference in case of Paramphistomosis among age groups. No significant association was found between crossed breeds and sex groups for fluke’s infection. The prevalence of Paramphistomosis was high in cross breed (58.97% than Fogera breed (44.35%. However, in both cases, there was no significant difference. The result of the present study revealed that the prevalence of major bovine fluke infection in the study area was relatively low and is the definite proof of active infection.

  2. Molecular changes in Opisthorchis viverrini (Southeast Asian liver fluke during the transition from the juvenile to the adult stage.

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    Aaron R Jex

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Southeast Asian liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini chronically infects and affects tens of millions of people in regions of Asia, leading to chronic illness and, importantly, inducing malignant cancer (= cholangiocarcinoma. In spite of this, little is known, at the molecular level, about the parasite itself, its interplay with its hosts or the mechanisms of disease and/or carcinogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we generated extensive RNA-Seq data (Illumina representing adult and juvenile stages of O. viverrini, and combined these sequences with previously published transcriptomic data (454 technology for this species, yielding a combined assembly of significantly increased quality and allowing quantitative assessment of transcription in the juvenile and adult stage. CONCLUSIONS: This enhanced assembly reveals that, despite the substantial biological similarities between the human liver flukes, O. viverinni and Clonorchis sinensis, there are previously unrecognized differences in major aspects of their molecular biology. Most notable are differences among the C13 and cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidases, which play key roles in tissue migration, immune evasion and feeding, and, thus, represent potential drug and/or vaccine targets. Furthermore, these data indicate that major lineages of cysteine peptidases of socioeconomically important trematodes have evolved through a process of gene loss rather than independent radiation, contrasting previous proposals.

  3. Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

  4. Detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of liver fluke exposure risk in Ireland using spatial cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; de Waal, Theo

    2015-04-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) can cause significant economic and production losses in dairy cow farms. The aim of the current study was to identify important weather and environmental predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke by detecting clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland. During autumn 2012, bulk-tank milk samples from 4365 dairy farms were collected throughout Ireland. Using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA, the analysis of BTM samples showed that 83% (n=3602) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. The Getis-Ord Gi* statistic identified 74 high-risk and 130 low-risk significant (Pclimatic variables (monthly and seasonal mean rainfall and temperatures, total wet days and rain days) and environmental datasets (soil types, enhanced vegetation index and normalised difference vegetation index) were used to investigate dissimilarities in the exposure to liver fluke between clusters. Rainfall, total wet days and rain days, and soil type were the significant classes of climatic and environmental variables explaining the differences between significant clusters. A discriminant function analysis was used to predict the exposure risk to liver fluke using 80% of data for modelling and the remaining subset of 20% for post hoc model validation. The most significant predictors of the model risk function were total rainfall in August and September and total wet days. The risk model presented 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity and an accuracy of 95% correctly classified cases. A risk map of exposure to liver fluke was constructed with higher probability of exposure in western and north-western regions. The results of this study identified differences between clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland regarding climatic and environmental variables and detected significant predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roeck, Els; Van Coillie, Frieke; De Wulf, Robert; Soenen, Karen; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Hantson, Wouter; Ducheyne, Els; Hendrickx, Guy

    2014-12-01

    The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke, as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of transmitted by freshwater snails. The vector thrives in small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds, ditches and other humid areas consisting of open water, aquatic vegetation and/or inundated grass. These water bodies can be as small as a few m2 and are most often not present on existing land cover maps because of their small size. We present a classification procedure based on object-based image analysis (OBIA) that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations.

  6. High prevalence of the liver fluke Amphimerus sp. in domestic cats and dogs in an area for human amphimeriasis in Ecuador.

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    Manuel Calvopiña

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite.In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042.The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus.

  7. Evidence for high genetic diversity of NAD1 and COX1 mitochondrial haplotypes among triclabendazole resistant and susceptible populations and field isolates of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T; Muller, A; Brockwell, Y; Murphy, N; Grillo, V; Toet, H M; Anderson, G; Sangster, N; Spithill, T W

    2014-02-24

    In recent years, the global incidence of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) infections exhibiting resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) has increased, resulting in increased economic losses for livestock producers and threatening future control. The development of TCBZ resistance and the worldwide discovery of F. hepatica population diversity has emphasized the need to further understand the genetic structure of drug susceptible and resistant Fasciola populations within Australia. In this study, the genetic diversity of liver flukes was estimated by sequencing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding the NAD1 (530 bp) and COX1 (420 bp) genes of 208 liver flukes (F. hepatica) collected from three populations: field isolates obtained from abattoirs from New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (Vic); three TCBZ-resistant fluke populations from NSW and Victoria; and the well-established TCBZ-susceptible Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Overall nucleotide diversity for all flukes analysed of 0.00516 and 0.00336 was estimated for the NAD1 and COX1 genes respectively. Eighteen distinct haplotypes were established for the NAD1 gene and six haplotypes for the COX1 gene, resulting in haplotype diversity levels of 0.832 and 0.482, respectively. One field isolate showed a similar low level of haplotype diversity as seen in the Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Analysis of TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from 3 individual cattle grazing one property revealed considerable sequence parasite diversity between cattle. Analysis of parasite TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from sheep and cattle revealed haplotypes unique to each host, but no significant difference between parasite populations. Fst analysis of fluke populations revealed little differentiation between the resistant and field populations. This study has revealed a high level of diversity in field and drug resistant flukes in South-Eastern Australia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of host nutrition in the pathogensis of liver fluke anaemia

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    Berry, C.I.; Dargie, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that the course of many helminth diseases of sheep is determined by two main variables, namely the level of infection and the host's nutritional status, the importance of the latter in the pathogenesis of ovine fascioliasis remains to be determined. The results of the experiment described here demonstrate that dietary quality has no significant effect upon fluke establishment but profoundly influences the severity of the disease as evidenced by the more rapid development of anaemia and by earlier mortalities among sheep restricted to a maintenance ration (containing about 6% crude protein) compared with similarly infected animals receiving a diet commensurate with growth (13% crude protein). Concurrent measurements of blood volume and of red cell turnover using radioisotopic methods revealed that in all animals the anaemia was caused by a combination of haemodilution, intra-hepatic and biliary haemorrhage, but that the earlier and more severe disturbances in protein-restricted sheep reflected the earlier development of these changes in association with a faster rate of fluke migration, and was ultimately complicated by impaired erythropoiesis arising from iron deficiency. (author)

  9. Insights into SCP/TAPS proteins of liver flukes based on large-scale bioinformatic analyses of sequence datasets.

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    Cinzia Cantacessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SCP/TAPS proteins of parasitic helminths have been proposed to play key roles in fundamental biological processes linked to the invasion of and establishment in their mammalian host animals, such as the transition from free-living to parasitic stages and the modulation of host immune responses. Despite the evidence that SCP/TAPS proteins of parasitic nematodes are involved in host-parasite interactions, there is a paucity of information on this protein family for parasitic trematodes of socio-economic importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted the first large-scale study of SCP/TAPS proteins of a range of parasitic trematodes of both human and veterinary importance (including the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica as well as the blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum and S. haematobium. We mined all current transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence datasets from public databases, predicted secondary structures of full-length protein sequences, undertook systematic phylogenetic analyses and investigated the differential transcription of SCP/TAPS genes in O. viverrini and F. hepatica, with an emphasis on those that are up-regulated in the developmental stages infecting the mammalian host. CONCLUSIONS: This work, which sheds new light on SCP/TAPS proteins, guides future structural and functional explorations of key SCP/TAPS molecules associated with diseases caused by flatworms. Future fundamental investigations of these molecules in parasites and the integration of structural and functional data could lead to new approaches for the control of parasitic diseases.

  10. Genetic diversity of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis from Russia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelomina, Galina N; Tatonova, Yulia V; Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ngo, Ha Duy

    2014-10-01

    Clonorchiasis is a parasitic disease of high public health importance in many countries in southeastern Asia and is caused by the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. However, the genetic structure and demographic history of its populations has not been sufficiently studied throughout the geographic range of the species and available data are based mainly on partial gene sequencing. In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of the complete 1560 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequence for geographically isolated C. sinensis populations in Russia and Vietnam, to our knowledge for the first time. The results demonstrated low nucleotide and high haplotype differentiation within and between the two compared regions and a clear geographical vector for the distribution of genetic diversity patterns among the studied populations. These results suggest a deep local adaptation of the parasite to its environment including intermediate hosts and the existence of gene flow across the species' range. Additionally, we have predicted an amino acid substitution in the functional site of the COX1 protein among the Vietnamese populations, which were reported to be difficult to treat with praziquantel. The haplotype networks consisted of several region-specific phylogenetic lineages, the formation of which could have occurred during the most extensive penultimate glaciations in the Pleistocene Epoch. The patterns of genetic diversity and demographics are consistent with population growth of the liver fluke in the late Pleistocene following the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating the lack of a population bottleneck during the recent past in the species' history. The data obtained have important implications for understanding the phylogeography of C. sinensis, its host-parasite interactions, the ability of this parasite to evolve drug resistance, and the epidemiology of clonorchiasis under global climate change. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for

  11. Genome-wide characterization of microsatelittes and marker development in the carcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T.B.; Arimatsu, Yuji; Hong, Sung-Jong; Brindley, Paul J.; Blair, David; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is an important carcinogenic human liver fluke endemic in East and Southeast Asia. There are several conventional molecular markers have been used for identification and genetic diversity, however, no information about microsatellites of this liver fluke published so far. We here report microsatellite characterization and marker development for genetic diversity study in C. sinensis using genome-wide bioinformatics approach. Based on our search criteria, a total of 256,990 microsatellites (≥ 12 base pairs) were identified from genome database of C. sinensis with hexa-nucleotide motif being the most abundant (51%) followed by penta-nucleotide (18.3%) and tri-nucleotide (12.7%). The tetra-nucleotide, di-nucleotide and mononucleotide motifs accounted for 9.75 %, 7.63% and 0.14%, respectively. The total length of all microsatellites accounts for 0. 72 % of 547 Mb of the whole genome size and the frequency of microsatellites were found to be one microsatellite in every 2.13 kb of DNA. For the di-, tri, and tetra-nucleotide, the repeat numbers redundant are six (28%), four (45%) and three (76%), respectively. The ATC repeat is the most abundant microsatellites followed by AT, AAT and AC, respectively. Within 40 microsatellite loci developed, 24 microsatellite markers showed potential to differentiate between C. sinensis and O. viverrini. Seven out of 24 loci showed heterozygous with observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.467 to 1. Four-primer sets could amplify both C. sinensis and O. viverrini DNA with different sizes. This study provides basic information of C. sinensis microsatellites and the genome-wide markers developed may be a useful tool for genetic study of C. sinensis. PMID:25782682

  12. Genome-wide characterization of microsatellites and marker development in the carcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T B; Arimatsu, Yuji; Hong, Sung-Jong; Brindley, Paul J; Blair, David; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-06-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is an important carcinogenic human liver fluke endemic in East and Southeast Asia. There are several conventional molecular markers that have been used for identification and genetic diversity; however, no information about microsatellites of this liver fluke is published so far. We here report microsatellite characterization and marker development for a genetic diversity study in C. sinensis, using a genome-wide bioinformatics approach. Based on our search criteria, a total of 256,990 microsatellites (≥12 base pairs) were identified from a genome database of C. sinensis, with hexanucleotide motif being the most abundant (51%) followed by pentanucleotide (18.3%) and trinucleotide (12.7%). The tetranucleotide, dinucleotide, and mononucleotide motifs accounted for 9.75, 7.63, and 0.14%, respectively. The total length of all microsatellites accounts for 0. 72% of 547 Mb of the whole genome size, and the frequency of microsatellites was found to be one microsatellite in every 2.13 kb of DNA. For the di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide, the repeat numbers redundant are six (28%), four (45%), and three (76%), respectively. The ATC repeat is the most abundant microsatellites followed by AT, AAT, and AC, respectively. Within 40 microsatellite loci developed, 24 microsatellite markers showed potential to differentiate between C. sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini. Seven out of 24 loci showed to be heterozygous with observed heterozygosity that ranged from 0.467 to 1. Four primer sets could amplify both C. sinensis and O. viverrini DNA with different sizes. This study provides basic information of C. sinensis microsatellites, and the genome-wide markers developed may be a useful tool for the genetic study of C. sinensis.

  13. Prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    A 2-year abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, abundance and seasonal incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) nematodes and trematodes (flukes) of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of eastern Ethiopia. During May 2003 to April 2005, viscera including liver, lungs and GI tracts were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at 4 abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga in eastern Ethiopia. All animals were raised in the farming areas located within the community boundaries for each town. Collected materials were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University for immediate processing. Thirteen species belonging to 9 genera of GI nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, Nematodirus filicollis, N. spathiger Oesopha-gostomum columbianum, O. venulosum, Strongyloides papillosus, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Trichuris ovis, Cooperia curticei and Chabertia ovina), and 4 species belonging to 3 genera of trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, Paramphistomum {Calicohoron} microbothrium and Dicrocoelium dendriticum) were recorded in both sheep and goats. All animals in this investigation were infected with multiple species to varying degrees. The mean burdens of adult nematodes were generally moderate in both sheep and goats and showed patterns of seasonal abundance that corresponded with the bi-modal annual rainfall pattern, with highest burdens around the middle of the rainy season. In both sheep and goats there were significant differences in the mean worm burdens and abundance of the different nematode species between the four geographic locations, with worm burdens in the Haramaya and Harar areas greater than those observed in the Dire Dawa and Jijiga locations. Similar seasonal variations were also observed in the prevalence of flukes. But there were no significant differences in the prevalence of each fluke species between the

  14. GIS-based spatial statistical analysis of risk areas for liver flukes in Surin Province of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirakul, Ratana; Ueng-arporn, Naporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Loyd, Ryan J; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, for proper allocation of prevention and control measures. This study aimed to investigate the human behavior, and environmental factors influencing the distribution in Surin Province of Thailand, and to build a model using stepwise multiple regression analysis with a geographic information system (GIS) on environment and climate data. The relationship between the human behavior, attitudes (R Square=0.878, and, Adjust R Square=0.849. By GIS analysis, we found Si Narong, Sangkha, Phanom Dong Rak, Mueang Surin, Non Narai, Samrong Thap, Chumphon Buri, and Rattanaburi to have the highest distributions in Surin province. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis can help simulate the spatial distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, and thus may be an important tool for future planning of prevention and control measures.

  15. Cyclophilin A enhances cell proliferation and tumor growth of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma

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    Sawanyawisuth Kanlayanee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclophilin A (CypA expression is associated with malignant phenotypes in many cancers. However, the role and mechanisms of CypA in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA are not presently known. In this study, we investigated the expression of CypA in CCA tumor tissues and CCA cell lines as well as regulation mechanisms of CypA in tumor growth using CCA cell lines. Methods CypA expression was determined by real time RT-PCR, Western blot or immunohistochemistry. CypA silence or overexpression in CCA cells was achieved using gene delivery techniques. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTS assay or Ki-67 staining. The effect of silencing CypA on CCA tumor growth was determined in nude mice. The effect of CypA knockdown on ERK1/2 activation was assessed by Western blot. Results CypA was upregulated in 68% of CCA tumor tissues. Silencing CypA significantly suppressed cell proliferation in several CCA cell lines. Likewise, inhibition of CypA peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase activity using cyclosporin A (CsA decreased cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of CypA resulted in 30% to 35% increases in proliferation of CCA cell lines. Interestingly, neither silence nor overexpression of CypA affected cell proliferation of a non-tumor human cholangiocyte cell line, MMNK1. Suppression of CypA expression attenuated ERK1/2 activity in CCA M139 cells by using both transient and stable knockdown methods. In the in vivo study, there was a 43% reduction in weight of tumors derived from CypA-silenced CCA cell lines compared with control vector CCA tumors in mice; these tumors with stable CypA silencing showed a reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions CypA is upregulated in majority of CCA patients' tissues and confers a significant growth advantage in CCA cells. Suppression of CypA expression decreases proliferation of CCA cell lines in vitro and reduces tumor growth in the nude mouse model. Inhibition of Cyp

  16. Distribution and habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, snail intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, in South Africa

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    Editorial Office

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and the habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, as reflected by the collection sites of its 4 552 samples currently on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection (NFSC of South Africa. Although this species was represented in a variety of waterbodies, the majority of samples(±70%came from rivers, brooks and dams and in 70.8% of the cases the water was described as permanent and in 71.8% as slow flowing or standing. The results of life-table studies conducted by various authors indicated that temperature should be a relatively unimportant factor in determining its geographical distribution, but that the availability of permanent water should be decisive for its presence in a given habitat. These results are in agreement with the finding that only 7.5% of the samples of this species in the NFSC were collected in habitats which were described as seasonal. Furthermore, it gives a logical explanation for the sporadic occurrence, or total absence of this species in the more arid regions of South Africa. Water impoundments and irrigation networks contribute to a large extent towards creating perennial habitats which would be suitable for L. natalensis. As intermediate host for one of the liver fluke species which already is an economic factor in South Africa, this certainly is an aspect which ought to be reckoned within the planning and construction of new irrigation schemes.

  17. Heterophysiasis, an intestinal fluke infection of man and vertebrates transmitted by euryhaline gastropods and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraschewski, H.

    1984-03-01

    Heterophyes heterophyes, agent of human heterophyiasis in the Near East, is transmitted in marine lagoons and saline inland waters, where the euryhaline intermediate hosts are abundant. In Egypt, mullets, the predominant second intermediate hosts, are customarily consumed raw; thus man becomes infected easily. Symptoms of human infections are usually considered mild. Mullets do not seem to be affected by the metacercariae encysted in the muscles, whereas the growth of the snail host Pirenella conica was found to be enhanced due to the infestation by the trematodes. In laboratory experiments, the flukes were found to be well developed in dogs, foxes and cats, but failed to reach sexual maturity in several other potentially piscivorous mammals and birds. In nature, dogs probably serve as the major reservoir hosts. Heterophyiasis is most prevalent in the Nile Delta, a huge brackish water area which is densely populated by humans and, consequently, also by dogs and cats. In the Far East, besides Heterophyes nocens, several other heterophysids with marine or fresh-water life-cycles are known to infect humans.

  18. The geographical distribution and habitats of three liver fluke intermediate hosts in South - Africa and the health implications involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2008-09-01

    described as permanent, standing, fresh and clear. Although the highest percentage of samples of all three species was reported from loci that fell within the interval ranging from 16-20°C, a significant number of samples of L. truncatula came from loci falling with in the 11-15°C interval. In view of the fact that Lymnaea species are well known as intermediate hosts for liver fluke in South Africa and elsewhere in the world, the widespread occurrence of these snails could have considerable health and economic consequences. Lymnaea natalenis is the most important and probably the only intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica, the most common liver fluke in Africa but F. gigantica has been reliably reported only from Lesotho where its traditional intermediate host, L. truncatula is widespread. However, the epidemiology of fasciolosis in South Africa has been complicated by the invasion of many water-bodies by L. columella because this species has proved to be a successful host for F. hepatica where it had been introduced elsewhere in the world. To our knowledge its role in South Africa in this respect has not yet been evaluated. Due to the fact that no statistics are available in print, the results of positive serological tests on cattle herds all over South Africa were used to compile a map depicting the possible occurrence of Fasciola species in livestock in this country. Although human infections with Fasciola in Africa was considered as very rare in 1975 the situation has changed. It is considered an underrated and underreported disease in humans in Ethiopia and in Egypt an increase in cases of fasciolosis and prevalence’s as high as 12.8% in humans have also recently been reported. To our knowledge the only cases of human fasciolosis reported in literature for South Africa were from northern KwaZulu-Natal where F. hepatica infections were found in 22 out of 7 569 school children examined in 1981. Efforts to obtain recent statisticson human infections from various

  19. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (Pmanagement practices between Irish farms with dairy herds exposed or not exposed to liver fluke and stressed the need of fine-scale mapping of the disease patterns even at farm level to increase the accuracy of risk models. Also, comprehensive advice and professional support services to farmers on appropriate farm management practices are very important for an effective anthelmintic control strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Three new species of blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) from off Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, R Q-Y; Cutmore, S C; Bray, R A; Miller, T L; Semarariana, I W Y; Palm, H W; Cribb, T H

    2016-10-01

    We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥7× the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution and habitats of the snail Lymnaea truncatula, intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. de Kock

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and habitats of Lymnaea truncatula, the intermediate, snail host of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, as reflected by the 723 samples in the database of the National Freshwater Snail Collection, Potchefstroom, South Africa. The 221 different loci (1/16-degree squares on record reflect an extensive but discontinuous distribution, except in Lesotho and in parts of the Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. Although recorded from 12 different types of waterbody, it was mostly (42.0 % recovered from swamps. Most samples (45.8 % were collected in habitats with slow-flowing water. A muddy substratum was recorded for 62.5 % of the samples. Most samples (86.3 % were collected in habitats with a mean annual air temperature of 10-20 o C, and more than 69 % came from localities with a mean annual rainfall of 600-900mm. An integrated decision tree constructed from the data indicated that temperature and types of waterbody play a decisive role in determining the presence of L. truncatula in a given area. A temperature index calculated for all mollusc species ranked L. truncatula second in a total of 53 species according to its association with low temperatures. It remains to be established whether its distribution is indeed discontinuous, and whether its preference for a particular habitat, amphibious habits and ability to aestivate could have resulted in some populations having been overlooked during surveys.

  2. Egg-specific expression of protein with DNA methyltransferase activity in the biocarcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hee; Cho, Hye-Jeong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kong, Yoon; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Bae, Young-An

    2015-08-01

    Despite recent reports regarding the biology of cytosine methylation in Schistosoma mansoni, the impact of the regulatory machinery remains unclear in diverse platyhelminthes. This ambiguity is reinforced by discoveries of DNA methyltransferase 2 (DNMT2)-only organisms and the substrate specificity of DNMT2 preferential to RNA molecules. Here, we characterized a novel DNA methyltransferase, named CsDNMT2, in a liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. The protein exhibited structural properties conserved in other members of the DNMT2 family. The native and recombinant CsDNMT2 exhibited considerable enzymatic activity on DNA. The spatiotemporal expression of CsDNMT2 mirrored that of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC), both of which were elevated in the C. sinensis eggs. However, CsDNMT2 and 5 mC were marginally detected in other histological regions of C. sinensis adults including ovaries and seminal receptacle. The methylation site seemed not related to genomic loci occupied by progenies of an active long-terminal-repeat retrotransposon. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that C. sinensis has preserved the functional DNA methylation machinery and that DNMT2 acts as a genuine alternative to DNMT1/DNMT3 to methylate DNA in the DNMT2-only organism. The epigenetic regulation would target functional genes primarily involved in the formation and/or maturation of eggs, rather than retrotransposons.

  3. Molecular and structural characteristics of multidrug resistance-associated protein 7 in Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fuhong; Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Ji-Yun; Lu, Yanyan; Pak, Jhang Ho; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10) is a C subfamily member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. MRP7 is a lipophilic anion transporter that pumps endogenous and xenobiotic substrates from the cytoplasm to the extracellular milieu. Here, we cloned and characterized CsMRP7 as a novel ABC transporter from the Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. Full-length cDNA of CsMRP7 was 5174 nt, encoded 1636 amino acids (aa), and harbored a 147-bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and 116-bp 3'-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that CsMRP7 was closer to the ABCC subfamily than the ABCB subfamily. Tertiary structures of the N-terminal region (1-322 aa) and core region (323-1621 aa) of CsMRP7 were generated by homology modeling using glucagon receptor (PDB ID: 5ee7_A) and P-glycoprotein (PDB ID: 4f4c_A) as templates, respectively. CsMRP7 nucleotide-binding domain 2 (NBD2) was conserved more than NBD1, which was the sites of ATP binding and hydrolysis. Like typical long MRPs, CsMRP7 has an additional membrane-spanning domain 0 (MSD0) and cytoplasmic loop, along with a common structural fold consisting of MSD1-NBD1-MSD2-NBD2 as a single polypeptide assembly. MSD0, MSD1, and MSD2 consisted of TM1-7, TM8-13, and TM14-19, respectively. The CsMRP7 transcript was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adult worms. Truncated NBD1 (39 kDa) and NBD2 (44 kDa) were produced in bacteria and mouse immune sera were raised. CsMRP7 was localized in the apical side of the intestinal epithelium, sperm in the testes and seminal receptacle, receptacle membrane, and mesenchymal tissue around intestine in the adult worm. These results provide molecular information and insights into structural and functional characteristics of CsMRP7 and homologs of flukes.

  4. Pharmacological and morphological characteristics of the muscular system of the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna - Bassi 1875).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, Saša M; Marinković, Darko; Trailović, Jelena Nedeljković; Milovanović, Mirjana; Marjanović, Djordje S; Aničić, Milan R

    2015-12-01

    Motility is required for feeding, reproduction and maintenance of the fluke in the host's liver. According to that, the neuromuscular system can be an attractive drugable target for chemotherapy. Musculature of the Fascioloides magna is organized into three layers, an outer circular layer, beneath this layer the longitudinal layer, and third, the oblique, or diagonal layer underlies the longitudinal layer. In our study, the administration of atropine or caffeine did not cause classic muscle contractions of F. magna muscle strips. However, the Electrical Field Stimulation (EFS) induced stable and repeatable contractions, which enabled us to examine their sensitivity to the various substances. Acetylcholine (ACh) (300 μM and 1 mM), caused only a slight relaxation, without affecting the amplitude of spontaneous contractions or the amplitude of contractions induced by EFS. Contrary to that, atropine (100 μM) caused a significant increase in the basal tone and an increase of EFS-induced contractions. If acetylcholine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in trematodes, the described effects of atropine are achieved by the blockade of inhibitory neurotransmission. On the other hand, with respect to the process of excitation-contraction coupling, the plant alkaloid ryanodine (30 μM) significantly reduced the basal tone, as well as EFS-induced contractions of F. magna muscle strips. Ryanodine inhibited the potentiating effect of atropine on the basal tone and contractions caused by EFS, which indicates that the contractile effect of atropine is dependent on Ca(++) release from intracellular stores. Caffeine (500 μM) caused relaxation of fluke muscle strips and at the same time significantly enhanced the EFS-induced contractions. Both effects of caffeine can be explained by entry of extracellular Ca(++) into muscle cells. The muscle contractility of F. magna depends both on the entry of extracellular calcium, and calcium release from intracellular stores, which are

  5. Characterization of the secreted cathepsin B cysteine proteases family of the carcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Lv, Xiaoli; Tian, Yanli; Xu, Yanquan; Mao, Qiang; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-09-01

    Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESP) have gained high attentions because of their potential to be vaccine candidates and drug targets in C. sinensis prevention. In this study, we extensively profiled the characteristics of four C. sinensis cathepsin B cysteine proteases (CsCB1, CsCB2, CsCB3, and CsCB4). Bioinformatics analysis showed all CsCBs contained signal peptides at the N-terminal. Functional domains and residues were found in CsCB sequences. We expressed four CsCBs and profiled immune responses followed by vaccine trials. Recombinant CsCBs could induce high IgG titers, indicating high immunogenicity of CsCB family. Additionally, ELISA results showed that both IgG1 and IgG2a levels apparently increased post-immunization with all four CsCBs, showing that combined Th1/Th2 immune responses were triggered by CsCB family. Both Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting confirmed that four CsCBs have distinct expression patterns in C. sinensis life stages. More importantly, we validated our hypothesis that CsCBs were C. sinensis excretory/secretory products. CsCBs could be recognized by C. sinensis-infected sera throughout the infection period, indicating that secreted CsCBs are immune triggers during C. sinensis infection. The protective effect was assessed by comparing the worm burden and egg per gram (EPG) between CsCB group and control group, showing that worm burden (P sinensis excretory/secretory products that may regulate host immune responses.

  6. Antifibrotic effect of xanthohumol in combination with praziquantel is associated with altered redox status and reduced iron accumulation during liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassana Jamnongkan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA caused by infection of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, (Ov is the major public health problem in northeast Thailand. Following Ov infection the subsequent molecular changes can be associated by reactive oxygen species (ROS induced chronic inflammation, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. Notably, resistance to an activation of cell death in prolonged oxidative stress conditions can occur but some damaged/mutated cells could survive and enable clonal expansion. Our study used a natural product, xanthohumol (XN, which is an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, to examine whether it could prevent Ov-associated CCA carcinogenesis. We measured the effect of XN with or without praziquantel (PZ, an anti-helminthic treatment, on DNA damage, redox status change including iron accumulation and periductal fibrosis during CCA genesis induced by administration of Ov and N-dinitrosomethylamine (NDMA in hamsters. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I, Ov infection and NDMA administration (ON; group II, Ov infection and NDMA administration and PZ treatment (ONP; the latter 2 groups were similar to group I and II, but group III received additional XN (XON and group IV received XN plus PZ (XONP. The results showed that high 8-oxodG (a marker of DNA damage was observed throughout cholangiocarcinogenesis. Moreover, increased expression of CD44v8-10 (a cell surface in regulation of the ROS defense system, whereas decreased expression of phospho-p38MAPK (a major ROS target, was found during the progression of the bile duct cell transformation. In addition, high accumulation of iron and expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1 in both malignant bile ducts and inflammatory cells were detected. Furthermore, fibrosis also increased with the highest level being on day 180. On the other hand, the groups of XN with or without PZ supplementations showed an effective reduction in all the

  7. Application of Pineapple Juice in the Fish Digestion Process for Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Metacercaria Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripan, Panupan; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pranee, Sriraj; Songsri, Jiraporn; Boueroy, Parichart; Khueangchaingkhwang, Sukhonthip; Pumhirunroj, Benjamabhorn; Artchayasawat, Atchara

    2017-01-01

    Pepsin is common digestive enzyme used for fish digestion in the laboratory to collect trematode metacercariae. In a field study, to survey the infected fish is needed a huge yield of pepsin and it is very expensive. Therefore, our purpose of this study was to investigate the candidate enzyme from pineapple juice which has a digestive enzyme called bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes, to digest fish in order to harvest metacercariae. Fish were divided into 2 groups: one group in which metacercariae were harvested using acid pepsin as a control and other groups in which the fish was digested using fresh pineapple juices. The results showed that pineapple juice is able to digest fish similarly to pepsin. The Pattavia pineapple juice had the highest number of metacercariae similar to the control. For Trat Si Thong pineapple juice, we found the number of metacercariae was less than control. This result suggests that the Pattavia pineapple juice was optimal juice for fish digestion to metacercaria collection and can be used instread of pepsin acid. PMID:28441786

  8. Pathological Lesions and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expressions in the Liver of Mice Experimentally Infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Li; Shen, Ji-Qing; Xue, Yan; Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Yi-Chao; Chen, Ying-Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-12-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) formation and intrinsic nitrosation may be involved in the possible mechanisms of liver fluke-associated carcinogenesis. We still do not know much about the responses of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induced by Clonorchis sinensis infection. This study was conducted to explore the pathological lesions and iNOS expressions in the liver of mice with different infection intensity levels of C. sinensis. Extensive periductal inflammatory cell infiltration, bile duct hyperplasia, and fibrosis were commonly observed during the infection. The different pathological responses in liver tissues strongly correlated with the infection intensity of C. sinensis. Massive acute spotty necrosis occurred in the liver parenchyma after a severe infection. The iNOS activity in liver tissues increased, and iNOS-expressing cells with morphological differences were observed after a moderate or severe infection. The iNOS-expressing cells in liver tissues had multiple origins.

  9. Role of the lymnaeid snail Pseudosuccinea columella in the transmission of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Y; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-11-01

    Experimental infections of three Egyptian Pseudosuccinea columella populations with sympatric miracidia of Fasciola sp., coming from cattle- or sheep-collected eggs, were carried out to determine the capacity of this lymnaeid to support larval development of the parasite. Using microsatellite markers, the isolates of Egyptian miracidia were identified as Fasciola hepatica. Apart from being independent of snail origin, prevalences ranging from 60.4 to 75.5% in snails infected with five miracidia of F. hepatica were significantly higher than values of 30.4 to 42.2% in snails with bi-miracidial infections. The number of metacercariae ranged from 243 to 472 per cercarial-shedding snail and was independent of snail origin, parasite origin and miracidial dose used for infection. If P. columella was subjected to two successive bi-miracidial infections with F. hepatica, prevalence of infection was 63.3%, with a mean of 311 metacercariae per snail. These values were clearly greater than those already reported for Radix natalensis infected with the same parasite and the same protocol. Successful experimental infection of P. columella with F. hepatica suggests that this lymnaeid snail is an important intermediate host for the transmission of fascioliasis in Egypt.

  10. Biodiversity of flukes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyfuss G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As many others parasites, speciation of flukes depends on the genetic characteristics and on ploidia. Ploidia of flukes can be different in a same species. In Asia, diploid, triploid and hybrid (2n/3n populations are encountered. The comparison of morphological parameters between diploid and triploid flukes showed that they were morphologically different. Nevertheless, a genetic relationship between parthenogenetic organisms would exist regardless of their ploidia. In the Fasciola genus, the main consequence of the high level of diversity is the frequent probability of development of resistance to anthelmintics and fast adaptation to climatic changes. In the Paragonimus genus, diversity can enhance different forms of pathogenicity, can also be related to the species of intermediate hosts, and to the definitive host. The strain of flukes plays a part in the visceral localization of P. westermani adults.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-03-27

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries.

  12. The Fluke Security Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    be an extension of Utah’s nascent Quarks system, oriented to closely coupled cluster environments. However, the grant did not actually begin until... Intel x86, implemented ten virtual machine monitors and servers, including a virtual memory manager, a checkpointer, a process manager, a file server...Fluke, we developed a novel hierarchical processor scheduling frame- work called CPU inheritance scheduling [5]. This is a framework for scheduling

  13. Unusual thiol-based redox metabolism of parasitic flukes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Timir; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-08-01

    Parasitic flukes are exposed to free radicals and, to a greater extent, reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their life cycle. Despite being relentlessly exposed to ROS released by activated immune cells, these parasites can survive for many years in the host. Cellular thiol-based redox metabolism plays a crucial role in parasite survival within their hosts. Evidence shows that oxidative stress and redox homeostasis maintenance are important clinical and pathobiochemical as well as effective therapeutic principles in various diseases. The characterization of redox and antioxidant enzymes is likely to yield good target candidates for novel drugs and vaccines. The absence of active catalase in fluke parasites offers great potential for the development of chemotherapeutic agents that act by perturbing the redox equilibrium of the cell. One of the redox-sensitive enzymes, thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), has been accepted as a drug target against blood fluke infections, and related clinical trials are in progress. TGR is the sole enzyme responsible for Trx and GSH reduction in parasitic flukes. The availability of helminth genomes has accelerated the research on redox metabolism of flukes; however, significant achievements have yet to be attained. The present review summarizes current knowledge on the redox and antioxidant system of the parasitic flukes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of tracer techniques to the study of trematode infections: Pathological and epidemiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nansen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Liver fluke and blood fluke infections cause heavy losses in animal production. The infections are characterized by a concomitant anaemia and dysproteinaemia. A review is made of radioisotopic tracer studies which have contributed to an understanding of the dynamic processes underlying the blood changes. Such studies have provided important information about the activity of the parasites, for example, how they cause disease and how they influence animal production. Radioisotopic techniques have also been utilized in the study of free-living fluke larvae. A brief outline of principles and fields if investigations within this area is given. (author)

  15. Liver abscess caused by periodontal bacterial infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Masato; Kato, Shingo; Mawatari, Hironori; Kirikoshi, Hiroyuki; Imajo, Kento; Fujita, Koji; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Inamori, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Kubota, Kensuke; Saito, Satoru; Tohnai, Iwai; Watanuki, Kei; Wada, Koichiro; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Liver abscess is recognized as a life-threatening disease. However, even in recent years, approximately 50% of liver abscess cases are considered to be cryptogenic. Here, we report a case of liver abscess associated with periodontal bacterial infection by Fusobacterium necrophorum, which is commonly found in the oropharyngeal flora. A 36-year-old man presented with fever and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography revealed multiple liver abscesses. F.necrophorum was isolated from oral smears, liver aspirates and blood samples. Liver abscesses caused by periodontal bacterial infection are rare, however, the incidence is expected to increase in the future, as periodontitis is extremely common and is on the rise as one of the most common chronic infections in the world. A systemic survey including periodontitis may be required for the exact diagnosis of the source of infection. © 2011 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  16. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Juan; Pineda, Juan A; Real, Luis M

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most frequent chronic hepatic conditions worldwide. The spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease goes from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are metabolic, mainly obesity and the accompanying consequences. Treatment and prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease should target those metabolic abnormalities. The frequency of and the factors associated with hepatic steatosis in HIV infection seem to be similar to those reported in the general population, though direct comparisons are lacking. Hepatic steatosis in HIV infection may also be secondary to antiretroviral drugs or HCV-related factors in HCV-coinfected subjects. However, more recent data suggest that hepatic steatosis in HIV infection represents true non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As such, management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV infection should follow the same principles as in the general population.

  17. The presence of Fasciola hepatica (Liver-fluke in humans and cattle from a 4,500 Year old archaeological site in the Saale-Unstrut Valley, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmar K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During an excavation of a site of the corded ware culture in the Saale-Unstrut-Valley (ca. 3000 BC in Germany, a soil sample from the pelvis of a human skeleton was studied under palaeoparasitological aspects. Eggs of the trematode Fasciola hepatica and of the nematode genus Capillaria were found. This is the first case of a direct association of a F. hepatica-infestation to both a prehistoric human skeleton and domesticated animal remains. Sheep and cattle bones were present at the same site and F. hepatica eggs were found in bovine samples. This strongly points toward an existing infection cycle, involving humans as a final host.

  18. In vitro studies: The role of immunological cells in Indonesian thin tail sheep in the killing of the liver fluke, Fasciola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E Estuningsih

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that Indonesian Thin Tail (ET sheep exhibit high resistance to challenge with Fasciola gigantica when compared with Merino sheep, and this resistance is expressed in early infection. In order to study the role of the immune system in this resistance to ET sheep, in vitro studies were undertaken in the laboratory. In vitro study to confirm the ability of immune cells from ET sheep in the killing of F. gigantica larvae has been done by incubating immune cells and F. gigantica larvae together with immune sera or normal sera. The viability of the larvae was observed over a period 3 days incubation by observing their motility. The results showed that the cells isolated from F. gigantica- challenged ET sheep in the presence of immune sera from ET were able to kill 70% of the larvae. In contrast, cells from infected Merino were unable to kill a significant number of F. gigantica using the same sera source. It seems that the cytotoxicity was dependent on the presence of immune sera and ET peritoneal cells, suggesting the potential role of an antibody-dependent cell cytotoxic (ADCC mechanism in the resistant ET sheep.

  19. Pinworm infection masquerading as colorectal liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K J; Hubscher, S; Mangat, K; Sutcliffe, R; Marudanayagam, R

    2012-09-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is responsible for a variety of diseases but rarely affects the liver. Accurate characterisation of suspected liver metastases is essential to avoid unnecessary surgery. In the presented case, following a diagnosis of rectal cancer, a solitary liver nodule was diagnosed as a liver metastasis due to typical radiological features and subsequently resected. At pathological assessment, however, a necrotic nodule containing E. vermicularis was identified. Solitary necrotic nodules of the liver are usually benign but misdiagnosed frequently as malignant due to radiological features. It is standard practice to diagnose colorectal liver metastases solely on radiological evidence. Without obtaining tissue prior to liver resection, misdiagnosis of solitary necrotic nodules of the liver will continue to occur.

  20. Insights into the biological features of the antigenic determinants recognized by four monoclonal antibodies in redia and adult stages of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Annia; Sánchez, Jorge; Hernández, Hilda; Mosqueda, Maryani; Rodríguez, Suanel Y; Capó, Virginia; Otero, Oscar; Alfonso, Carlos; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a digenean trematode which infects a wide variety of domestic animals and also humans. Previous studies have demonstrated that four monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the total extract of F. hepatica redia (named as 1E4, 6G11, 4E5 and 4G11) also recognized the excretion - secretion antigens (ES Ag) of adult parasites, which is a biologically-relevant mixture of molecules with functional roles during infection and immune evasion on definitive hosts. In the present report we describe the partial characterization of the epitopes recognized by these Mabs by heat treatment, mercaptoethanol reduction, pronase proteolysis and sodium peryodate oxidation, which suggested their predominant protein and conformational nature. Also, a comparative study using immunodetection assays on crude extracts and on histological sections of both rediae and adults of F. hepatica were performed to explore the expression pattern of the antigenic determinants in these developmental stages. From these experiments it was found that the Mabs reacted most likely with the same proteins of approximately 64 and 105 kDa present on both rediae and adult's extracts. However, the 1E4, 6G11 and 4E5 Mabs also recognized other molecules of the total extract of F. hepatica adults, a fact that constitutes an evidence of the antigenic variation between both stages and points at a certain biological relevance of the recognized antigenic determinants. Immunolocalization studies on histological sections revealed that all Mabs reacted with the tegument of F. hepatica in both rediae and adults stages, while the epitopes recognized by 1E4, 6G11 and 4E5 antibodies were also preferentially localized in the intestinal caeca and in different organs of the reproductive system of adult specimens. The immunogenicity of these antigenic determinants, their conserved status among different stages of the life cycle of F. hepatica and their presence in both tegument and ES Ag of adult parasites

  1. Liver macrophages: friend or foe during hepatitis B infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure-Dupuy, Suzanne; Durantel, David; Lucifora, Julie

    2018-05-17

    The Hepatitis B virus chronically infects the liver of 250 million people worldwide. Over the past decades, major advances have been made in the understanding of Hepatitis B virus life cycle in hepatocytes. Beside these parenchymal cells, the liver also contains resident and infiltrating myeloid cells involved in immune responses to pathogens and much less is known about their interplay with Hepatitis B virus. In this review, we summarized and discussed the current knowledge of the role of liver macrophages (including Kupffer cells and liver monocyte-derived macrophages), in HBV infection. While it is still unclear if liver macrophages play a role in the establishment and persistence of HBV infection, several studies disclosed data suggesting that HBV would favour liver macrophage anti-inflammatory phenotypes and thereby increase liver tolerance. In addition, alternatively activated liver macrophages might also play in the long term a key role in hepatitis B associated pathogenesis, especially through the activation of hepatic stellate cells. Therapies aiming at a transient activation of pro-inflammatory liver macrophages should therefore be considered for the treatment of chronic HBV infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular analysis of aspermic Fasciola flukes from Korea on the basis of the nuclear ITS1 region and mitochondrial DNA markers and comparison with Japanese aspermic Fasciola flukes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2012-07-01

    It has been speculated that populations of aspermic Fasciola flukes in Korea and Japan have a close phylogenetic relationship. To evaluate this, we analyzed 33 Korean aspermic Fasciola flukes on the basis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) sequences. Fh, Fg, and Fh/Fg types were detected in the ITS1 region and displayed the fragment patterns of F. hepatica, F. gigantica, and both species, respectively by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Additionally, three concatenated haplotypes of nad1 and cox1(nad1/cox1) were detected, and 2 of these, Kor1/Kor1 (Fsp1/Fsp1) haplotype and Kor2a/Kor2 (Fsp2/Fsp2) haplotype, were shared by Korean and Japanese aspermic flukes. The Fst value (0.019), calculated using the concatenated sequences, indicated that Korean and Japanese aspermic Fasciola populations were genetically undifferentiated. Interestingly, a combination of the Fh/Fg type and Kor1/Kor1 haplotype was found at the highest frequency in Korean aspermic flukes, whereas the Fg type and Fsp2/Fsp2 haplotype combination was found at a conspicuously high frequency in Japanese aspermic flukes. This indicates that a founder effect caused by the introduction of infected hosts may have played a key role in the introduction of aspermic Fasciola flukes from Korea into Japan.

  3. reducing liver fluke transmission in northeastern Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A new model tested in northeastern Thailand shows that a multi-pronged ... MULTI-FUNDER INITIATIVE. T r o p ic a l D is e a s e r e s e a r c h l a b o r a. To r y, K h o ... research and capacity building collaboration in Southeast Asia. Eco EID is ...

  4. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; van den Berg, Arie P.; Porte, Robert J.; Benne, Cornelis A.; Vennema, Harry; Reimerink, Johan H. J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is known to run a self-limiting course. Sporadic cases of acute hepatitis due to infection with HEV genotype 3, present in pig populations, are increasingly recognized. Zoonotic transmission seems infrequent. The entity of unexplained chronic hepatitis after liver

  5. Trichoderma viride infection in a liver transplant recipient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, F.; Byl, B.; Bourgeois, N.; Coremans-Pelseneer, J.; Florquin, S.; Depré, G.; van de Stadt, J.; Adler, M.; Gelin, M.; Thys, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    A liver transplant recipient developed infection of a perihepatic haematoma due to Trichoderma viride. Before the infection was diagnosed, the patient received intense immuno-suppressive and prolonged antibacterial and anti-fungal therapies. Although the death of the patient was not directly related

  6. [Epidemiology of infections after liver transplantation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, J

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important problems after solid organ transplantation including liver, remains infections. Multiple risk factors play a role among which the most important are: general patients health before transplantation, prolong operative time, graft function and type of immunosuppression. The most important problems with bacterial, fungal and viral infections was described as well as treatment and profilaxis.

  7. 13 Research Article ABSTRACT Liver diseases in HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-10

    Nov 10, 2016 ... Liver diseases in HIV infected persons can occur due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus ... immunochromatographic test in Yaoundé central hospital, from ..... Hepatitis. B and C virus co-infection in The TREAT Asia.

  8. Morphological aspects of liver CT in patients with HIV infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schedel, H.; Wicht, L.; Roegler, G.; Langer, R.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    CT examinations of the liver in HIV-infected patients show more frequent pathological findings. The extended spectrum of differential diagnosis and atypical manifestations of disorders in immunodeficient patients needs to be considered in the interpretation of CT scans. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in HIV-infected patients are demonstrated in the following. Besides the relatively common findings in HIV-infection such as hepato- or hepatosplenomegalia, lymphoma, and inflammatory changes of the bowel an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis, and local steatosis of the liver are discussed as the rare causes for suspect computertomographic findings in the live of HIV-infected patients. The examinations were obtained consecutively in 76 HIV-infected patients during abdominal CT staging. (orig.) [de

  9. Enterobius vermicularis infection of the liver in a patient with colorectal carcinoma with suspected liver metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnée, Edgar J B; Spoto, Clothaire; de Graaf, Melanie J; Smakman, Niels

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man diagnosed with cT3N2 adenocarcinoma of the rectum presented with a synchronous solitary liver metastasis on CT scan. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was started to downstage the primary tumour. Resection of the rectal tumour followed 3 months after the last radiotherapy session and primary resection of the isolated liver lesion was performed in the intervening period. Histopathological assessment of the liver lesion, however, showed no malignancy, but did reveal a necrotic infection due to Enterobius vermicularis. This parasite is frequently found in the intestines, but only rarely infects the liver. The patient was subsequently treated with the anthelmintic drug mebendazole 100 mg once a week for 2 weeks. Histopathological assessment of the rectal specimen showed complete regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy without evidence of remaining E. vermicularis, suggesting pinworm eradication. The patient recovered promptly after both surgical procedures. PMID:26546623

  10. Management of Candida infections in liver transplant recipients: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingegowda PB

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pushpalatha B Lingegowda,1–3 Tan Ban Hock1,2,4,5 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital, 2DUKE-NUS Graduate Medical School, 3Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 4SingHealth Internal Medicine Residency Program, 5Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: Liver transplantation has emerged as a widely accepted lifesaving therapeutic option for many patients with a variety of liver diseases. Improved surgical and medical management has led to significant improvements in post-transplant survival rates with a 1 year and 5 year patient survival of 87% and 73%, respectively. A high mortality rate due to infections during the first post-transplant year persists. Invasive candidiasis is recognized as a significant problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recent surveillance data has helped to understand the changes in the epidemiology and the evolving trends in the use of antifungal agents for prophylaxis and treatment combined with the challenges of managing these invasive fungal infections, which has led the transplant community to explore the best management strategies. The emergence of resistant fungi and excess costs in managing these invasive fungal infections has added to the complexities of management. In this context, current perspectives in the management of Candida infections in liver transplant recipients will be reviewed. Keywords: Candida infections, management, liver transplant

  11. Host specificity of Pisidium coreanum (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae) to larval infection with a human intestinal fluke Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y K; Soh, C T; Park, G M; Hwang, M K; Chung, P R

    2006-10-01

    The fingernail clam, Pisidium coreanum, has been traditionally consumed raw as a so-called drug therapy by patients with bone fractures in Korea. The present study was designed to determine the possible occurrence and, if present, the prevalence of Echinostoma cinetorchis in P. coreanum collected at a local site, and to determine the susceptibility of the clams in the laboratory to infection with miracidia and cercariae of E. cinetorchis. No cercariae or metacercariae of E. cinetorchis were observed in field-collected P. coreanum clams. In susceptibility experiments with laboratory-reared clams, individuals exposed to miracidia of E. cinetorchis did not release cercariae by 20 days after exposure; necropsy of exposed clams failed to show development of any sporocysts or rediae. To confirm the possibility of these clams serving as an experimental second intermediate host of E. cinetorchis, 20 of them were exposed to E. cinetorchis cercariae from experimentally infected Segmentina hemisphaerula that had been previously exposed to miracidia of E. cinetorchis; all exposed clams became infected. Metacercariae from clams at 14 days postinfection were fed to rats, and adult worms were recovered from the ileocecal regions. This is the first report of P. coreanum serving as second intermediate host of E. cinetorchis.

  12. Presence and species identity of rumen flukes in cattle and sheep in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeger, H W; Ankum, L; Moll, L; van Doorn, D C K; Mitchell, G; Skuce, P J; Zadoks, R N; Holzhauer, M

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of the study was to gain knowledge about the prevalence and identity of rumen flukes (RF) in cattle and sheep in the Netherlands. Routine faecal examinations of diagnostic submissions between May 2009 and September 2014 showed a mean annual herd or flock RF prevalence of 15.8% for cattle and 8.0% for sheep. Prevalence in cattle was higher after 2012 than before, which may reflect a change in detection method as well as an increase in true prevalence. During November and December 2014, an abattoir survey was conducted to allow for scoring of rumen fluke burden and to obtain specimens for molecular species characterization. Over 8 visits to 5 abattoirs in areas deemed to pose a high risk for trematode infection, 116 cows and 41 sheep from 27 herds and 10 flocks were examined. Prevalence of RF was higher in beef cattle than in dairy cattle and higher in cattle than in sheep. Median fluke burden was >100 specimens per animal for most positive animals. Using a semi-quantitative RF density score as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of a modified quantitative Dorsman egg counting method were estimated at 82.6% and 83.3%, respectively. Of 14 collected adult rumen flukes, twelve (8 bovine and 4 ovine specimens) were identified as Calicophoron daubneyi. The other two, of bovine origin, were identified as Paramphistomum leydeni, which was unexpected as in other European countries all recently collected rumen flukes in both cattle and sheep were identified as C. daubneyi. The findings implicate that multiple rumen fluke species, intermediate host species and transmission cycles may play a role in rumen fluke infections in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characterization of HBV integration patterns and timing in liver cancer and HBV-infected livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Mayuko; Tanaka, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Unida, Takuro; Imamura, Michio; Fujimoto, Akihiro; Fujita, Masahi; Sasaki-Oku, Aya; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Kaoru; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Arihiro, Koji; Aikata, Hiroshi; Ueno, Masaki; Hayami, Shinya; Ariizumi, Shun-Ichi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Gotoh, Kunihito; Ohdan, Hideki; Yamaue, Hiroki; Miyano, Satoru; Chayama, Kazuaki; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2018-05-18

    Integration of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) into the human genome can cause genetic instability, leading to selective advantages for HBV-induced liver cancer. Despite the large number of studies for HBV integration into liver cancer, little is known about the mechanism of initial HBV integration events owing to the limitations of materials and detection methods. We conducted an HBV sequence capture, followed by ultra-deep sequencing, to screen for HBV integrations in 111 liver samples from human-hepatocyte chimeric mice with HBV infection and human clinical samples containing 42 paired samples from non-tumorous and tumorous liver tissues. The HBV infection model using chimeric mice verified the efficiency of our HBV-capture analysis and demonstrated that HBV integration could occur 23 to 49 days after HBV infection via microhomology-mediated end joining and predominantly in mitochondrial DNA. Overall HBV integration sites in clinical samples were significantly enriched in regions annotated as exhibiting open chromatin, a high level of gene expression, and early replication timing in liver cells. These data indicate that HBV integration in liver tissue was biased according to chromatin accessibility, with additional selection pressures in the gene promoters of tumor samples. Moreover, an integrative analysis using paired non-tumorous and tumorous samples and HBV-related transcriptional change revealed the involvement of TERT and MLL4 in clonal selection. We also found frequent and non-tumorous liver-specific HBV integrations in FN1 and HBV-FN1 fusion transcript. Extensive survey of HBV integrations facilitates and improves the understanding of the timing and biology of HBV integration during infection and HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. Alteration in Haematological and Liver Function Indices during Human Infection with Fasciola spp. Post Treatment with Triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Edalatzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease, caused by the liver fluke, Fasciola spp.. Human is occasional host when ingesting the metacercaria by eating contaminated aquatic vegetable. In the two past decades, human fasciolasis was emerging as a problem of public health in the Guilan province; in Anzali city. Triclabendazole is a novel anti-helmenthic that during recent years has been used for fascioliasis treatment in this region. The aim of the present work is to study alteration in haematological and liver function indices during human infection with Fasciola spp. pre and post treatment with triclabendazoleMaterials & Methods: The present work is a longitudinal clinical trail. In this regard, fifty confirmed fasciolasis patients, were chosen for parasitological, hematological and biochemical examinations pre-therapy as well as 1 and 6 months post-therapy. Formalin-ether and modified Telemann methods were used for stool examination. For Fasciola antibody detection ELISA technique was employed. Hematological and biochemical tests were performed by standard methods. Results: Results indicated that, triclabendazole efficacy was 74% after usage as one dose of 20mg/kg and reached to 88% after repeating in the next month. Before triclabebdazole therapy the Hb and HCT of the patients were slightly found lower than normal ranges, meanwhile the ESR and eosinophil percentages were higher. However following receiving the drug, in the cured individuals, the indices returned to the normal ranges but in the non-cured individuals were not shifted to the normal. On the other hand liver function indices of the patients mostly were at normal ranges before and following drug therapy.Conclusion: In conclusion haematological indices could be valuable indicator for successful therapy of patients treated with triclabendazole.

  15. Current concepts on cytomegalovirus infection after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Oh; Razonable, Raymund R

    2010-09-27

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral pathogen that negatively impacts on the outcome of liver transplantation. CMV cause febrile illness often accompanied by bone marrow suppression, and in some cases, invades tissues including the transplanted allograft. In addition, CMV has been significantly associated with an increased predisposition to allograft rejection, accelerated hepatitis C recurrence, and other opportunistic infections, as well as reduced overall patient and allograft survival. To negate the adverse effects of CMV on outcome, its prevention, whether through antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy, is regarded as an essential component to the medical management of liver transplant patients. Two recent guidelines have suggested that antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy are similarly effective in preventing CMV disease in modest-risk CMV-seropositive liver transplant recipients, while antiviral prophylaxis is the preferred strategy over preemptive therapy for the prevention of CMV disease in high-risk recipients [CMV-seronegative recipients of liver allografts from CMV-seropositive donors (D+/R-)]. However, antiviral prophylaxis has only delayed the onset of CMV disease in many CMV D+/R- liver transplant recipients, and at least in one study, such occurrence of late-onset primary CMV disease was significantly associated with increased mortality after liver transplantation. Therefore, optimized strategies for prevention are needed, and aggressive treatment of CMV infection and disease should be pursued. The standard treatment of CMV disease consists of intravenous ganciclovir or oral valganciclovir, and if feasible, one should also reduce the degree of immunosuppression. In one recent controlled clinical trial, valganciclovir was found to be as effective and safe as intravenous ganciclovir for the treatment of mild to moderate CMV disease in solid organ (including liver) transplant recipients. In this article, the authors review the

  16. Zygomycosis Associated with HIV Infection and Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Nichols

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zygomycosis is an increasing threat to patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Zygomycosis (formerly called mucormycosis is the fungal infection with Mucor, Rhizopus, or other species that share a common morphology of large empty pauciseptate hyphae with rare random-angle branching and a collapsed “twisted ribbon” appearance. Morphology allows a specific diagnosis on frozen section or smear prior to growth and identification of the fungi in culture which makes it improtant because treatment is different than that for more common mycoses such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. We present an informative and illustrative case of zygomycosis in a patient with HIV infection and liver transplantation.

  17. A comparison of the efficacy of doramectin, closantel and levamisole in the treatment of the 'oriental eye fluke', Philophthalmus gralli, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercially reared ostriches at Msengi farm situated in the Chinhoyi area of Mashonaland West province in Zimbabwe were found to be infected with the 'oriental eye fluke', Philopthalmus gralli, in 2001. This was the 1st record of the fluke in Zimbabwe. Trials were conducted to identify a suitable drug for the treatment of this fluke. A total of 12 ostriches confirmed to be infected with the fluke through clinical examination of the eyes and identification of the fluke were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, with each group receiving a different treatment protocol. The 3 drugs used were doramectin, levamisole and closantel. Each of the drugs was used in combination with chloramphenicol as an eye ointment. Levamisole was administered topically into the eye whereas doramectin and closantel were administered parenterally as an intramuscular injection. The results indicated a positive response in levamisole-treated birds but there were no noticeable responses to doramectin and closantel treatments.

  18. Challenging hepatitis C-infected liver transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Madeleine Oliver,1 Christopher Chiodo Ortiz,2 Jorge Ortiz31University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH, 2Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, 3Department of Transplant Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USA Abstract: Caring for liver transplant patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a challenging task for transplant surgeons and primary physicians alike. HCV is the leading cause of liver transplantation in the USA and comes with a myriad of complications that increase morbidity and mortality. This review focuses on patient follow-up, spanning from before the liver transplant occurs to the patient's long-term health. Pretransplant, both donor and recipient variables, must be carefully chosen to ensure optimal surgical success. Risk factors must be identified and HCV viral load must be reduced to a minimum. In addition to standard transplant complications, HCV patients suffer from additional problems, such as fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis and widespread viremia. Physicians must focus on the balance of immunosuppressive and antiviral medications, while considering possible side effects from these potent drugs. Over the years following surgery, physicians must identify any signs of failing liver health, as HCV-positive patients have an increased risk for cirrhosis and certain life-threatening malignancies. Keywords: liver transplant, hepatitis C virus, postoperative, cirrhosis, donor and recipient variables, viremia

  19. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  20. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    Human worm infections have, to a large extent, been eradicated in countries with high sanitary standards by preventing the fecal-oral transmission of infective eggs. It is possible to study parasite infections among past populations by retrieving and analyzing parasite eggs using paleoparasitolog......-age. Further, eggs of the Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica), whose primary hosts are cows and sheep, are identified indicating that grazing animals were kept in close proximity of the settlement....

  1. Cytomegalovirus infection after liver transplantation: Current concepts and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raymund Rabe Razonable

    2008-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus(CMV)is a common viral pathogen that influences the outcome of liver transplantation.In addition to the direct effects of CMV syndrome and tissue-invasive diseases,CMV is associated with an increased predisposition to acute and chronic allograft rejection,accelerated hepatitis C recurrence,and other opportunistic infections,as well as reduced overall patient and allograft survival.Risk factors for CMV disease are often interrelated,and include CMV D+/R-serostatus,acute rejection,female gender,age,use of high-dose mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone,and the overall state of immunity.In addition to the role of CHV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes,there are data to suggest that functionality of the innate immune system contributes to CMV disease pathogenesis.In one study,liver transplant recipients with a specific polymorphism in innate immune molecules known as Toll-like receptors were more likely to develop higher Ievels of CMV replication and clinical disease.Because of the direct and indirect adverse effects of CMV disease,its prevention,whether through antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy,is an essential component in improving the outcome of liver transplantation.In the majority of transplant centers,antiviral prophylaxis is the preferred strategy over preemptive therapy for the prevention of CMV disease in CMV-seronegative recipients of liver allografts from CMV-seropositive donors(D+/R-).However,the major drawback of antiviral prophylaxis is the occurrence of delayed-onset primary CMV disease.In several prospective and retrospective studies,the incidence of delayed-onset primary CMV disease ranged from 16% to 47% of CMV D+/R-liver transplant recipients.Current data suggests that delayed-onset CMV disease is associated with increased mortality after liver transplantation.Therefore,optimized strategies for prevention and novel drugs with unique modes of action are needed.Currently,a randomized controlled clinical trial is being

  2. Yersinia enterocolitica Infection Simulating Lymphoproliferative Disease, after Liver Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jakobovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 14-year-old girl, who was 13 y after liver transplantation for biliary atresia with an unremarkable postoperative course. She presented with fever of up to 40°C, extreme fatigue, malaise, anorexia, and occasional vomiting. On physical examination the only finding was splenomegaly. Lab results showed hyperglobulinemia and an elevated sedimentation rate. Liver function tests were normal except for mild elevation of γGTP. Abdominal U/S and CT demonstrated an enlarged spleen with retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes enlargement. An exhaustive evaluation for infectious causes, autoimmune conditions, and malignancy was negative. A full recovery after 5 months prompted testing for self-limited infectious etiologies. Yersinia enterocolitica infection was diagnosed.

  3. Pathology and clinicopathology of buffalo against trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven male buffalo calves were divided into infected group of 7 animals and non-infected control group of 4 animals. The infected group was then inoculated with trickle doses of 15 Inetacercariae of Fasciola gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and killed 36 weeks after first infection. There were no clinical symptoms observed . Infected and non-infected buffaloes, had similar values of packed cell volume, haemoglobin and red blood cell counts . In infected buffaloes, plasma glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme activity increased in proportion to the dregree of hepatocyte destruction level and evidence of necrosis caused by the migrating of immature flukes through the parenchyma prior to their entry into the bile ducts. While the values of plasma glutamyl transpeptidase showed only a minimal rise with a small peak in week 20 as evidenced by histological observation that infected caused limited damage to epithelial surface of the bile duct . These results indicates that, the resistance mechaninisms of buffalo against fasciolosis infection occurred in the liver or before flukes entering into the bile ducts. These results seem to indicate that, in buffalo, resistance mechanisms to fasciolosis infection occured in the liver or before flukes entry into the bile ducts.

  4. In vitro antihelmintic effect of fifteen tropical plant extracts on excysted flukes of Fasciola hepatica

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Mercado, Jos? Manuel; Ibarra-Velarde, Froyl?n; Alonso-D?az, Miguel ?ngel; Vera-Montenegro, Yolanda; Avila-Acevedo, Jos? Guillermo; Garc?a-Bores, Ana Mar?a

    2015-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis due to Fasciola hepatica is the most important hepatic disease in veterinary medicine. Its relevance is important because of the major economical losses to the cattle industry such as: reduction in milk, meat and wool production; miscarriages, anemia, liver condemnation and occasionally deaths, are estimated in billons of dollars. The emergence of fluke resistance due to over or under dosing of fasciolides as well as environmental damage produced by the chemicals elimin...

  5. Host differences in response to trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo, Ongole and Bali calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedosari, E; Hayakawa, H; Copeman, B

    2006-01-01

    Progressive weight gain, faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, percent eosinophils in blood, serum antibody and serum levels of glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were recorded in seven swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis), 7 Ongole (Bos indicus) and four Bali calves (Bos sundiacus) which were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks. Similar observations were made on four buffalo, 4 Ongole calves and 3 Bali calves maintained fluke-free as controls. Flukes were counted at slaughter 36 weeks after initial infection. Mean daily weight gains of infected Bali (228 +/- 100 (SD) g/day) and infected Ongole calves (328 +/- 57 (SD) g/day) were lower (p = 0.026 and 0.067, respectively) than those of control calves (405 +/- 107 (SD) g/day), but infected buffalo calves (379 +/- 78 (SD) g/day) had similar weight gains to those of the controls (p = 0.57). Throughout the trial, faecal Fasciola egg counts in buffaloes were about one-fifth of counts of Ongole calves, and counts in Bali calves were intermediate. Ongole calves had three times the number of flukes at slaughter in their liver compared to buffalo and Bali calves, which had similar numbers. However, there was evidence that Bali calves had acquired a degree of resistance about 24 weeks after infection commenced and may have lost adult flukes as a consequence.

  6. Dicrocoelium Dendriticum Infection in a Patient with Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzjosef Schweiger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum in humans is rarely reported in the medical literature. This liver fluke, which commonly infects ruminants, has a complex life cycle with two intermediate hosts – the land snail and the ant. True human infection occurs by ingestion of the second intermediate host, but spurious infections have occurred after consumption of undercooked animal liver. The present report describes a patient with active Crohn’s disease whose stool contained D dendriticum eggs. A brief discussion of the medical literature is presented.

  7. [Strategies for avoiding hepatitis B infection recurrence following liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Martín; García-Eliz, María

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis B is currently an excellent indication for liver transplantation due to the highly effective strategies of prophylaxis and treatment for recurrent hepatitis B infection. The combined administration of low-dose hepatitis B hyperimmune gamma globulin and a nucleoside/nucleotide analogue with a high genetic barrier to resistance, such as entecavir (except for patients with lamivudine resistance) or tenofovir, represents the standard for the prophylaxis of recurrent hepatitis B infection and is used in most centers. The drawbacks of long-term administration of hyperimmune gamma globulin have led to research on regimens in which this agent is withdrawn after a certain amount of time in combination treatment, a strategy that appears to be safe in patients with undetectable viremia at the time of liver transplantation if the patients adhere to the treatment. In recent years, there has also been research into regimens of gamma-globulin-free prophylaxis, based only on the administration of oral antiviral drugs, which appear to be safe if antivirals with a high genetic barrier to resistance are used. Hepatitis B prophylaxis should be maintained indefinitely; therefore, the total withdrawal of prophylaxis is not an accepted strategy at present in daily clinical practice if not in the context of a clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) in SIV-infected macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, Muhammad H.; Gill, Amy F.; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the liver drains antigens from the intestinal tract, and since the intestinal tract is a major site of viral replication, we examined the dynamics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) throughout SIV infection. Absolute numbers of Kupffer cells increased in the livers in acute infection, and in animals with AIDS. Significantly higher percentages of proliferating (BrdU+) Kupffer cells were detected in acute infection and in AIDS with similar trends in blood monocytes. Significantly higher percentages of apoptotic (AC3+) Kupffer cells were also found in acute and AIDS stages. However, productively infected cells were not detected in liver of 41/42 animals examined, despite abundant infected cells in gut and lymph nodes of all animals. Increased rates of Kupffer cell proliferation resulting in an increase in Kupffer cells without productive infection indicate SIV infection affects Kupffer cells, but the liver does not appear to be a major site of productive viral replication. - Highlights: • Kupffer cells increase in the liver of SIV-infected macaques. • Increased proliferation and apoptosis of Kupffer cells occurs in SIV infection. • Productively infected cells are rarely detected in the liver. • The liver is not a major site for SIV replication

  9. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cauquil

    Full Text Available An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle and batch level (81%. Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level. Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70 and 47.1% (33/70, respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface.

  10. Association between hepatitis B co-infection and elevated liver stiffness among HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinikoor, Michael J; Mulenga, Lloyd; Siyunda, Alice; Musukuma, Kalo; Chilengi, Roma; Moore, Carolyn Bolton; Chi, Benjamin H; Davies, Mary-Ann; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-11-01

    To describe liver disease epidemiology among HIV-infected individuals in Zambia. We recruited HIV-infected adults (≥18 years) at antiretroviral therapy initiation at two facilities in Lusaka. Using vibration controlled transient elastography, we assessed liver stiffness, a surrogate for fibrosis/cirrhosis, and analysed liver stiffness measurements (LSM) according to established thresholds (>7.0 kPa for significant fibrosis and >11.0 kPa for cirrhosis). All participants underwent standardised screening for potential causes of liver disease including chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus co-infection, herbal medicine, and alcohol use. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with elevated liver stiffness. Among 798 HIV-infected patients, 651 had a valid LSM (median age, 34 years; 53% female). HBV co-infection (12%) and alcohol use disorders (41%) were common and hepatitis C virus co-infection (7.0 kPa (all P 11.0 kPa. Among HIV-HBV patients, those with elevated ALT and HBV viral load were more likely to have significant liver fibrosis than patients with normal markers of HBV activity. HBV co-infection was the most important risk factor for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and should be diagnosed early in HIV care to optimise treatment outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hepatitis B and C virus infections and liver function in AIDS patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Impaired liver function tests and co-infection with hepatitis viruses in AIDS patients are common in western countries. Objective: To assess liver function and prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in AIDS patients at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital. Design: A prospective study.

  12. Donor-derived infections among Chinese donation after cardiac death liver recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qi-Fa; Zhou, Wei; Wan, Qi-Quan

    2017-08-21

    To investigate blood cultures of deceased donors and report the confirmed transmission of bacterial infection from donors to liver recipients. We retrospectively studied the results of blood cultures among our donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors and calculated the donor-derived bacterial infection rates among liver recipients. Study participants underwent liver transplantation between January 1, 2010 and February 1, 2017. The study involved a total of 67 recipients of liver grafts from 67 DCD donors. We extracted the data of donors' and patients' characteristics, culture results and clinical outcomes, especially the post-transplant complications in liver recipients, from electronic medical records. We analyzed the characteristics of the donors and the corresponding liver recipients with emphasis put on donor-derived infections. Head trauma was the most common origin of death among our 67 DCD donors (46.3%). Blood taken prior to the procurement operation was cultured for 53 of the donors, with 17 episodes of bloodstream infections developing from 13 donors. The predominant organism isolated from the blood of donors was Gram-positive bacteria (70.6%). Only three (4.5%) of 67 liver recipients developed confirmed donor-derived bacterial infections, with two isolates of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and one isolate of multidrug-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes. The liver recipients with donor-derived infections showed relation to higher crude mortality and graft loss rates (33.3% each) within 3 mo post transplantation, as compared to those without donor-derived infections (9.4% and 4.7%, respectively). All three liver recipients received appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Liver recipients have high occurrence of donor-derived infections. The liver recipients with donor-derived multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections can have good outcome if appropriate antimicrobial therapy is given.

  13. Chronic hepatitis C infection and liver disease in HIV co-infected patients in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durier, Nicolas; Yunihastuti, Evy; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Boettiger, David; Widhani, Alvina; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Huy, Bui Vu; Omar, Sharifah Faridah binti Syed; Sanityoso, Andri; Chittmittrapap, Salyavit; Dung, Nguyen Thi Hoai; Pillai, Veena; Suwan-Ampai, Tuangporn; Law, Matthew; Sohn, Annette H.; Matthews, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV co-infected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV-RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT, and liver fibrosis (FibroScan®) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centers in South East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi, and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7–42.5) years, 365 (76.0%) reported HCV exposure through injecting drug use, and 453 (94.4%) were on combination antiretroviral therapy. The median (IQR) CD4 count was 446 (325–614) cells/mm3 and 208 (94.1%) of 221 patients tested had HIV-1 RNA F4). One patient (0.3%) had FibroScan® failure. A high proportion of HIV-HCV co-infected patients had chronic HCV infection. HCV GT1 was predominant, and 62% of patients had liver disease warranting prompt treatment (>=F2). PMID:27917597

  14. No evidence of in vitro and in vivo porcine endogenous retrovirus infection after plasmapheresis through the AMC-bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nicuolo, Giuseppe; van de Kerkhove, Maarten-Paul; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Amoroso, Pietro; Battisti, Sonia; Starace, Maria; di Florio, Ernesto; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Scala, Simona; Bracco, Adele; Mancini, Antonio; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; Calise, Fulvio

    2005-01-01

    Background: Currently a number of bioartificial livers (BAL) based on porcine liver cells have been developed as a treatment to bridge acute liver failure patients to orthotopic liver transplantation or liver regeneration. These xenotransplantation related treatments hold the risk of infection of

  15. Increased Expression of TGF-β1 in Correlation with Liver Fibrosis during Echinococcus granulosus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yumei; Abudounnasier, Gulizhaer; Zhang, Taochun; Liu, Xuelei; Wang, Qian; Yan, Yi; Ding, Jianbing; Wen, Hao; Yimiti, Delixiati; Ma, Xiumin

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the potential role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in liver fibrosis during Echinococcus granulosus infection, 96 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 2 groups, experimental group infected by intraperitoneal injection with a metacestode suspension and control group given sterile physiological saline. The liver and blood samples were collected at days 2, 8, 30, 90, 180, and 270 post infection (PI), and the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA and protein was determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. We also evaluated the pathological changes in the liver during the infection using hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) and Masson staining of the liver sections. Pathological analysis of H-E stained infected liver sections revealed liver cell edema, bile duct proliferation, and structural damages of the liver as evidenced by not clearly visible lobular architecture of the infected liver, degeneration of liver cell vacuoles, and infiltration of lymphocytes at late stages of infection. The liver tissue sections from control mice remained normal. Masson staining showed worsening of liver fibrosis at the end stages of the infection. The levels of TGF-β1 did not show significant changes at the early stages of infection, but there were significant increases in the levels of TGF-β1 at the middle and late stages of infection (Pgranulosus infection may play a significant role in liver fibrosis associated with E. granulosus infection.

  16. Insulin resistance and liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C infection genotype 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Masarone, Mario; Peta, Valentina; Milic, Natasa; Kobyliak, Nazarii; Rouabhia, Samir; Persico, Marcello

    2014-11-07

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common chronic liver disease worldwide. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance (IR) are the major determinants of fibrosis progression and response to antiviral therapy. The pathogenetic link between IR and chronic HCV infection is complex, and is associated with HCV genotype. Liver steatosis is the most common in the patients infected with genotype 3 virus, possibly due to direct effects of genotype 3 viral proteins. To the contrary, hepatic steatosis in the patients infected with other genotypes is thought to be mostly due to the changes in host metabolism, involving IR. In HCV genotype 3, liver steatosis correlates with viral load, reverts after reaching the sustained virologic response and reoccurs in the relapsers. A therapeutic strategy to improve IR and liver steatosis and subsequently the response to antiviral treatment in these patients is warranted.

  17. Intravital imaging of the immune responses during liver-stage malaria infection: An improved approach for fixing the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Masoud; Kimura, Kazumi; Houts, James T; Yui, Katsuyuki

    2016-10-01

    The host-parasite relationship is one of the main themes of modern parasitology. Recent revolutions in science, including the development of various fluorescent proteins/probes and two-photon microscopy, have made it possible to directly visualize and study the mechanisms underlying the interaction between the host and pathogen. Here, we describe our method of preparing and setting-up the liver for our experimental approach of using intravital imaging to examine the interaction between Plasmodium berghei ANKA and antigen-specific CD8 + T cells during the liver-stage of the infection in four dimensions. Since the liver is positioned near the diaphragm, neutralization of respiratory movements is critical during the imaging process. In addition, blood circulation and temperature can be affected by the surgical exposure due to the anatomy and tissue structure of the liver. To control respiration, we recommend anesthesia with isoflurane inhalation at 1% during the surgery. In addition, our protocol introduces a cushion of gauze around the liver to avoid external pressure on the liver during intravital imaging using an inverted microscope, which makes it possible to image the liver tissue for long periods with minimal reduction in the blood circulation and with minimal displacement and tissue damage. The key point of this method is to reduce respiratory movements and external pressure on the liver tissue during intravital imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interleukin-13 is involved in the formation of liver fibrosis in Clonorchis sinensis-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanquan; Liang, Pei; Bian, Meng; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Jinsi; Shang, Mei; Qu, Hongling; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-07-01

    Clonorchiasis is a chronic infection disease often accompanied by formation of liver fibrosis. Previous study has identified that Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs) infection and CsRNASET2 (a member of CsESPs) immunization can drive Th2 immune response. IL-13, a multifunctional Th2 cytokine, has been widely confirmed to be profibrotic mediator. We want to determine whether IL-13 is involved in the generation of liver fibrosis during C. sinensis infection. A part of mice were infected with C. sinensis or immunized with CsRNASET2, respectively. Another part of mice were intravenously injected with rIL-13. Liver tissues of C. sinensis-infected mice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome, respectively. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of infected mice and rIL-13-treated mice were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, splenocytes of C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice were isolated, respectively. The levels of IL-13 in splenocytes were detected by ELISA. Our results displayed that the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice had serious chronic inflammation and collagen deposition. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice were obviously increased. Splenocytes from both C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice expressed high levels of IL-13. Moreover, rIL-13 treatment markedly promoted the transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1. These data implied that hepatic fibrosis was formed in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice, and IL-13 induced by C. sinensis infection and CsRNASET2 immunization might favor this progression.

  19. Elucidation of the first definitively identified life cycle for a marine turtle blood fluke (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) enables informed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Crespo-Picazo, Jose L; Cutmore, Scott C; Stacy, Brian A; Chapman, Phoebe A; García-Párraga, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Blood flukes of the family Spirorchiidae are significant pathogens of both free-ranging and captive marine turtles. Despite a significant proportion of marine turtle mortality being attributable to spirorchiid infections, details of their life cycles remain almost entirely unknown. Here we report on the molecular elucidation of the complete life cycle of a marine spirorchiid, identified as Amphiorchis sp., infecting vermetid gastropods and captive hatched neonate Caretta caretta in the Oceanogràfic Aquarium, in Valencia, Spain. Specimens of a vermetid gastropod, Thylaeodus cf. rugulosus (Monterosato, 1878), collected from the aquarium filtration system housing diseased C. caretta, were infected with sporocysts and cercariae consistent with the family Spirorchiidae. We generated rDNA sequence data [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial 28S rDNA] from infections from the vermetid which were identical to sequences generated from eggs from the serosa of the intestine of neonate C. caretta, and an adult spirorchiid from the liver of a C. caretta from Florida, USA. Given the reliability of these markers in the delineation of trematode species, we consider all three stages to represent the same species and tentatively identify it as a species of Amphiorchis Price, 1934. The source of infection at the Oceanogràfic Foundation Rehabilitation Centre, Valencia, Spain, is inferred to be an adult C. caretta from the western Mediterranean being rehabilitated in the same facility. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this Amphiorchis sp. is closely related to other spirorchiids of marine turtles (species of Carettacola Manter & Larson, 1950, Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Learedius Price, 1934). We discuss implications of the present findings for the control of spirorchiidiasis in captivity, for the better understanding of epidemiology in wild individuals, and the elucidation of further life cycles. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by

  20. Transient elastography for predicting liver-related events in cirrhotic HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Montes-Ramírez, M. L.; Berenguer, Juan; Miró, J. M.; Quereda, Carmen; Hernando Jeréz, María Asunción; Sanz, J.; Ortega, E.; Tural, Cristina; Wichmann, M. A.; Zamora, F. X.; González García, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed liver stiffness measurement (LSM) for the prediction of mortality and decompensation in HIVinfected patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. A prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients with confirmed liver cirrhosis from 9 hospitals in Spain. LSM was undertaken for each patient; clinical events were collected prospectively after the baseline visit, and patients were followed until death or the censoring date. We used univariate/multivariate Cox proportional haz...

  1. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver in a patient with congenital granulocytopenia and HCV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G. E-mail: ragsne@uniklink-saarland.de; Fries, P.; Samaras, P.; Remberger, K.; Uder, M.; Kramann, B

    2003-12-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the liver is a rare pathologic lesion. Although IPTs within the liver shows spontaneous regression, these lesions are frequently misdiagnosed as malignant on the basis of the clinical manifestation and the results of diagnostic imaging. With special regard to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), differential diagnosis such as hepatocellular or cholangiocellular carcinoma (HCC/CCC) as well as regenerative liver lesions are discussed in a case of IPT with concomitant hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and congenital granulocytopenia.

  2. Hepatitis E virus genotype three infection of human liver chimeric mice as a model for chronic HEV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D.B. van de Garde (Martijn D.B.); S.D. Pas (Suzan); G. van der Net (Guido); R.A. de Man (Robert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); A. Boonstra (Andre); T. Vanwolleghem (Thomas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenotype (gt) 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are emerging in Western countries. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of chronic HEV infection and progressive liver damage, but no adequate model system currently mimics this disease course. Here we explore the possibilities of in

  3. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 infection of human liver chimeric mice as a model for chronic HEV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D.B. van de Garde (Martijn D.B.); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Van Der Net, G. (Guido); R.A. de Man (Robert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); P.A. Boonstra (André); T. Vanwolleghem (Thomas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenotype 3 (gt3) hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are emerging in Western countries. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of chronic HEV infection and progressive liver damage, but no adequate model system currently mimics this disease course. Here we explore the possibilities of in

  4. Marijuana Use in Hepatitis C Infection does not Affect Liver Biopsy Histology or Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marijuana smoking is prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients. The literature assessing the influence of marijuana on liver disease progression and hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment outcomes is conflicting.

  5. Purification and biochemical characterization of a 22-kDa stable cysteine- like protease from the excretory-secretory product of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica by using conventional techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemici, Ahmed; Benerbaiha, Roumaila Sabrina; Bendjeddou, Dalila

    2017-11-15

    This study describes the purification and characterization of a stable protease activity isolated from Fasciola hepatica adult worms maintained in vitro by employing acetone precipitation (40-60%) followed by a gel filtration through Sephadex G-100 and DEAE- cellulose ion exchange column. Through this three-step purification, the enzyme was purified 11-fold with a specific activity of 1893.9U/mg and 31.5% recovery. After the final ultrafiltration step, the purification fold was increased up to 13.1 and the overall activity yield reached a rate of 18.8%. The MW of the purified protease was estimated by reducing SDS-PAGE to be 22kDa while the proteolytic activity detection was carried out by zymography on non-denaturing SDS-PAGE containing the casein as substrate. Using this substrate, the protease showed extreme proteolytic activity at pH 5.5 and temperature 35-40°C and was highly stable over a wide range of pH, from 5.0 to 10.0. In addition to its preference for the Z-Phe-Arg-AMC fluorogenic substrate resulting in maximum proteolytic activity (99.7%) at pH 7.0, the pure protease exhibited highest cleavage activity against hemoglobin and casein substrates at pH 5.5 (85.6% and 82.8%, respectively). The K m values obtained for this protease were 5.4, 13, 160 and approximately 1000μM using respectively the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC, hemoglobin, casein and albumin. The protease activity was completely inhibited either by E-64 inhibitor (5mM) or iodoacetamide (10mM), indicating its cysteine nature. The usefulness of the purified protease as an antigen was studied by immunoblotting. Thus, sera from sheep experimentally infected with F. hepatica recognized the protease band at 2 weeks post-infection (WPI) and strongly at 7 WPI. The early detection of antibodies anti- F. hepatica suggests the application of this molecule as a specific epitope for the serodiagnosis of fascioliasis disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Occult hepatitis B infection in children with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anshu; Mathias, Amrita; Yachha, Surender K; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2015-04-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) may adversely affect the outcome of patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). There are no data on OBI and CLD in children. This study determined the prevalence and effect of OBI in HBsAg-negative CLD children. CLD children were prospectively evaluated with a demographic, clinical, and investigative proforma. All HBsAg-negative CLD cases were tested for exposure to hepatitis B (total anti-HBc, anti-HBs). Serum hepatitis B virus DNA was measured in exposed (total anti-HBc positive) patients. A total of 115 HBsAg-negative CLD children (59 boys, age 9.0±3.6 years) were enrolled. The etiology of CLD was known in 94 cases and 21 children had cryptogenic CLD. Of these, 45 (39.1%) had evidence of HBV exposure (23 total anti-HBc positive, 17 total anti-HBc and anti-HBs positive, five only anti-HBs positive without previous vaccination). The anti-HBc-positive children had a higher Child's score than the anti-HBc-negative children [11 (5-13) vs. 7 (5-13); P=0.00]. A total of 4/45 children had seropositive OBI with serum HBV DNA of 8, 36, 133, and 156 IU/ml, respectively. The proportion of total anti-HBc positivity (8/21 vs. 32/94; P=0.8) and OBI (2/21 vs. 2/94; P=0.1) was similar in cryptogenic CLD and known cause CLD. Seropositive OBI is infrequent in Indian children with CLD. The prevalence is similar in cryptogenic and CLD of known etiology.

  7. Co-ordinate but disproportionate activation of apoptotic, regenerative and inflammatory pathways characterizes the liver response to acute amebic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosof, Lorraine C; Davis, Paul H; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaochun; Stanley, Samuel L

    2006-03-01

    The liver has the remarkable ability to respond to injury with repair and regeneration. The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the major cause of liver abscess worldwide. We report a transcriptional analysis of the response of mouse liver to E. histolytica infection, the first study looking at acute liver infection by a non-viral pathogen. Focusing on early time points, we identified 764 genes with altered transcriptional levels in amebic liver abscess. The response to infection is rapid and complex, with concurrent increased expression of genes linked to host defence through IL-1, TLR2, or interferon-induced pathways, liver regeneration via activation of IL-6 pathways, and genes associated with programmed cell death possibly through TNFalpha or Fas pathways. A comparison of amebic liver infection with the liver response to partial hepatectomy or toxins reveals striking similarities between amebic liver abscess and non-infectious injury in key components of the liver regeneration pathways. However, the response in amebic liver abscess is biased towards apoptosis when compared with acute liver injury from hepatectomy, toxins, or other forms of liver infection. E. histolytica infection of the liver simultaneously activates inflammatory, regenerative and apoptotic pathways, but the sum of these early responses is biased towards programmed cell death.

  8. diagnosing multiple opportunistic infections: the value of a liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HIV MEDICINE Spring 2008. 51 ... standard TB therapy. The initial HIV diagnosis ... with elevated transaminases and canalicular enzymes, ... pattern of liver enzyme abnormalities was unchanged. Of note ... This case illustrates the diagnostic value of liver biopsy in our local patient.

  9. Parvovirus B19 Infection in a Fatal Case of Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Alves, Arthur Daniel Rocha; Garcia, Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel; Melgaço, Juliana Gil; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2017-12-01

    B19V has been proposed as an etiologic agent for hepatitis, mainly in children, but this is a rare clinical occurrence. In this article, we report a case of non-A-E acute liver failure in an immunocompetent child with B19 infection. The clinical findings of severe anemia and pancytopenia combined with the detection of anti-B19 Immunoglobulin G (IgG), B19 DNA and B19 mRNA in liver indicate a persistent infection and suggest a diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated acute liver failure.

  10. Value of serum PCT in early diagnosis of bacterial infection in patients with liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chuanmin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT in early diagnosis of bacterial infection in patients with liver failure. MethodsA total of 463 patients with hepatitis B were selected from January to December, 2014, in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Taihe Hospital. According to the degree of liver injury, the patients were divided into four groups: mild liver injury group (n=120, moderate liver injury group (n=222, sever liver injury group (n=53, and liver failure group (n=68. Serum PCT was measured for all patients, and the white blood cell count (WBC and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were measured for patients with liver failure. The clinical manifestations were observed and recorded. The t test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data, while the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the Mann-Whitney U test was used for pairwise comparison of continuous data. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used for the analysis of predictive value. ResultsThe liver failure group had a significantly higher PCT level than the severe liver injury group, moderate liver injury group, and mild liver injury group (0.81[0.34-2.15] vs 0.53[0.21-1.59], 0.35[010-1.18], and 0.17[0.10-0.60], χ2=25.091, P<0.05. The liver failure patients with PCT levels of <0.25 ng/ml (n=10, 0.25-0.5 ng/ml (n=10, and >0.5 ng/ml (n=48 had infection rates of 20%, 30%, and 66.7%, respectively, with a significant difference between the patients with a PCT level of >0.5 ng/ml and those with PCT levels of <0.25 ng/ml and 0.25-0.5 ng/ml (χ2=5631,4650,P=0018,0031. Among the liver failure patients, the infection cases had significantly higher PCT, WBC, and hsCRP than the non-infection cases (PCT: 3.72±1.33 ng/ml vs 0.34±0.12 ng/ml, t=-2.547, P=0.015; hsCRP: 16.70±7.03 mg

  11. Gene Expression Profile in the Liver of BALB/c Mice Infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Caraballo, Jose; López-Abán, Julio; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Vicente, Belén; Collía, Francisco; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection still remains one of the helminthic neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It has a huge worldwide distribution, affecting mainly cattle and, sometimes, human beings. In addition to data reported about the immunological response induced by helminthic infections and that induced by Fasciola hepatica, little is known about the gene expression profile in its organ target, the liver, which is where adult worms are established and live for long periods of time, causing its characteristic pathology. In the present work, we study both the early and late gene expression profiles in the livers of mice infected with F. hepatica metacercariae using a microarray-based methodology. A total of 9 female-6-week-old BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain) weighing 20 to 35 g were used for the experiments. Two groups of BALB/c mice were orally infected with seven F. hepatica metacercariae, and the other group remained untreated and served as a control. Mice were humanely euthanized and necropsied for liver recovery, histological assessment of hepatic damage, RNA isolation, microarray design and gene expression analysis on the day of infection (t0), seven days post-infection (t7) and twenty-one days post-infection (t21). We found that F. hepatica infection induces the differential expression of 128 genes in the liver in the early stage of infection and 308 genes in the late stage, and most of them are up-regulated. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed significant changes in the pathways related to metabolism, biosynthesis and signaling as well as genes implicated in inducing liver-toxicity, injury and death. The present study provides us insights at the molecular level about the underlying mechanisms used by F. hepatica, leading to liver damage and its subsequent pathophysiology. The expression pattern obtained here could also be used to explain the lack of association between infection with F. hepatica and cholangiocarcinoma. However

  12. Comparison of rapid diagnostic tests to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disseminated infection in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tajbakhsh, Samaneh; Mosavari, Nader

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status. ELISA was performed to determine the MAP antibody activity in the serum. Acid-fast staining was performed on rectal scraping samples, and PCR was performed on rectal scraping and liver samples. PCR-positive liver samples were used for mycobacterial culture. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that MAP can be detected and cultured from liver of slaughtered cattle and rapid diagnostic tests of Johne's disease have limited value in detecting cattle with MAP infection in liver. These findings show that the presence of MAP in liver tissue may occur in cows with negative results for rapid diagnostic tests and vice versa. Hence, liver might represent another possible risk of human exposure to MAP. Given concerns about a potential zoonotic role for MAP, these results show the necessity to find new methods for detecting cattle with MAP disseminated infection.

  13. CT features of liver abscesses caused by the fasciola hepatica infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Dong; Li Peng; Sun Hua; Wang Zhihua; She Bo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study CT features of liver abscesses caused by the fasciola hepatica infection, and discuss its pathologic basis. Methods: CT images of 15 Patients were collected. All patients underwent both unenhanced and biphasic enhanced CT scanning, then its CT performances were analyzed. Results: round and nodular lesions were observed in 15 cases, branching and stripping lesions like dilated bile duct in 9 cases. The density of lesions was inhomogeneous, and the lesions were multifocal and multiform. The liver abscesses caused by the fasciola hepatica infection had no 'rim sign' or 'target' sign, Liver abscesses were less than 3.0 cm in diameter, and the dilation of the bile duct were not observed. Conclusion: Liver abscessed caused by the fasciola hepatica infection have characteristic CT features. Combined with clinical examination and laboratory test, the reliability of diagnosis will be considerably increased. (authors)

  14. Molecular phylogenetic identification of Fasciola flukes in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoriki, Takuya; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Devkota, Bhuminand; Rana, Hari B; Devkota, Shiva P; Humagain, Sudeep K; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2014-12-01

    Eighty-one Fasciola flukes collected from 8 districts in Nepal were analyzed for their species identification on the basis of their spermatogenic status and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and for their phylogenetic relation with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries on the basis of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. Sixty-one flukes (75.3%) were aspermic Fasciola sp., and 20 flukes (24.7%) were identified as Fasciola gigantica. All of the aspermic flukes displayed the Fh/Fg type in ITS1, which was predominant in aspermic Fasciola sp. from China, and most (60 flukes) displayed the Fsp-ND1-N1 haplotype in the nad1, which had an identical nucleotide sequence to the major haplotype (Fg-C2) of the aspermic flukes from China. These results suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. was introduced into Nepal from China. Furthermore, the results of the diversity indices, neutrality indices, and median-joining network analysis with reference haplotypes from Asian countries suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. rapidly expanded its distribution. In contrasts, F. gigantica displayed 10 nad1 haplotypes, which showed higher population diversity indices than the haplotypes of aspermic flukes, indicating that the F. gigantica population was clearly distributed in Nepal earlier than the aspermic Fasciola population. Although the F. gigantica haplotypes from Nepal formed a star-like phylogeny consisting of a main founder haplotype (Fg-ND1-N1), together with some F. gigantica haplotypes from Myanmar and Thailand, the Nepal population differed genetically from F. gigantica populations of neighboring countries as each country had distinct founder haplotype(s). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Atypical oral presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a patient after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, E M; Karp, D L; Wu, T C; Corio, R L

    1994-01-01

    An atypical oral presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a 49-year-old woman after orthotopic liver transplantation is reported. Clinically, the differential diagnosis included chronic hyperplastic candidiasis, nodular leukoplakia of undetermined etiology, and malignant neoplasm. An excisional biopsy revealed herpesvirus infection, and immunoperoxidase staining confirmed herpes simplex virus infection. This report describes the clinical and histologic appearance of these lesions and the course and treatment of the patient.

  16. Liver damage caused by hepatitis C viral infection and ethyl alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV is a complex disease, most commonly chronicle (80-85%. The aim of this research was to determinate the level of the liver damage in the patients cansed by HCV in conjunction with consuming ethyl alcohol. Methods. The research included 15 patients with chronic HCV infection supported by the misuse of ethyl alcohol, as well. The diagnosis of C infection hepatitis was proved using the ELISA test and PCR method. Results. The results of the study showed the liver damage by both HCV infection and ethyl alcohol, which was verified by the presence of biochemical changes and patohystological processing of the patients (liver biopsy and prosection. Patohystological changes were at the level of liver cirrhosis and carcinoma (2 patients. There was a signficant difference between the two subgroups (p < 0.001 regarding the examined values γ-GT, PLT and PTV. The basic therapeutic procedure was to introduce this category of patients into alcohol abstinence, and, in a few patients, to apply the antivirus therapy, as well. Conclusion. Based on the number of the examined patients (n = 15, we could conclude that a prolonged ethyl alcohol misuse with the presence of HCV infection was in a correlation with the liver disease progression.

  17. Host AMPK Is a Modulator of Plasmodium Liver Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida T. Grilo Ruivo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the master regulator of energy homeostasis AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity is a strategy used by many intracellular pathogens for successful replication. Infection by most pathogens leads to an activation of host AMPK activity due to the energetic demands placed on the infected cell. Here, we demonstrate that the opposite is observed in cells infected with rodent malaria parasites. Indeed, AMPK activity upon the infection of hepatic cells is suppressed and dispensable for successful infection. By contrast, an overactive AMPK is deleterious to intracellular growth and replication of different Plasmodium spp., including the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum. The negative impact of host AMPK activity on infection was further confirmed in mice under conditions that activate its function. Overall, this work establishes the role of host AMPK signaling as a suppressive pathway of Plasmodium hepatic infection and as a potential target for host-based antimalarial interventions.

  18. Involvement of Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages in Liver Pathology of Pirital Virus-Infected Syrian Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey L. Campbell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available New World arenaviruses cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in South America. Pirital virus (PIRV, a mammarenavirus hosted by Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni, causes a disease in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus (biosafety level-3, BSL-3 that has many pathologic similarities to the South American hemorrhagic fevers (BSL-4 and, thus, is considered among the best small-animal models for human arenavirus disease. Here, we extend in greater detail previously described clinical and pathological findings in Syrian hamsters and provide evidence for a pro-inflammatory macrophage response during PIRV infection. The liver was the principal target organ of the disease, and signs of Kupffer cell involvement were identified in mortally infected hamster histopathology data. Differential expression analysis of liver mRNA revealed signatures of the pro-inflammatory response, hematologic dysregulation, interferon pathway and other host response pathways, including 17 key transcripts that were also reported in two non-human primate (NHP arenavirus liver-infection models, representing both Old and New World mammarenavirus infections. Although antigen presentation may differ among rodent and NHP species, key hemostatic and innate immune-response components showed expression parallels. Signatures of pro-inflammatory macrophage involvement in PIRV-infected livers included enrichment of Ifng, Nfkb2, Stat1, Irf1, Klf6, Il1b, Cxcl10, and Cxcl11 transcripts. Together, these data indicate that pro-inflammatory macrophage M1 responses likely contribute to the pathogenesis of acute PIRV infection.

  19. Anti-soluble liver antigen (SLA) antibodies in chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitozzi, Susana; Lapierre, Pascal; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Marceau, Gabriel; Beland, Kathie; Alvarez, Fernando

    2004-05-01

    Hepatitis C infection is associated with autoimmune disorders, such as the production of autoantibodies. Anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1, immunomarkers of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, have been previously associated with a HCV infection. Anti-Soluble-Liver-Antigen autoantibodies (SLA) are specifically associated with type 1 and type 2 autoimmune hepatitis and more closely related to patients who relapse after steroid therapy. The recent molecular cloning of the soluble liver antigen provides the opportunity to develop more specific tests for the detection of antibodies against it. The aim of this work is to characterize anti-soluble-liver autoantibodies in sera from patients chronically infected by HCV. A recombinant cDNA from activated Jurkat cells coding for the full length tRNP(Ser)Sec/SLA antigen was obtained. ELISA, Western Blot and immunoprecipitation tests were developed and used to search for linear and conformational epitopes recognized by anti-SLA antibodies in sera from patients chronically infected by HCV. Anti-soluble liver antigen antibodies were found in sera from 10.4% of HCV-infected patients. The prevalence was significantly increased to 27% when anti-LKM1 was also present. Most anti-SLA reactivity was directed against conformational epitopes on the antigen. The means titers by ELISA were lower than those obtained in type 2 AIH. The result of autoantibody isotyping showed a subclass restriction to IgG1 and also IgG4. This study shows the presence of anti-SLA antibodies in approximately 10% of HCV infected patients. The prevalence of SLA autoantibodies in HCV infected patients increases when LKM1 autoantibodies are also present. The relationship between the prevalence of this characteristic autoimmune hepatitis autoantibody and the implication of an autoimmune phenomenon in the liver injury of patients chronically infected by HCV needs further investigation.

  20. Necrotizing Encephalitis Caused by Disseminated Aspergillus Infection after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation is the only available treatment for some patients with end-stage liver disease. Despite reduction in mortality rates due to advances related to surgical techniques, intensive medical management and immunosuppressive therapy, invasive fungal infections remain a serious complication in orthotopic liver transplantation. We report the case of an 18-year-old male diagnosed with autoimmune cirrhosis in 2009 who was assessed and listed for liver transplantation for massive variceal hemorrhage. One year after listing a successful orthotopic liver transplantation was performed. Uneventful early recovery was achieved; however, he developed pulmonary and neurological Aspergillus infection 23 and 40 days after surgery, respectively. Antibiotic therapy with voriconazole and amphotericin was started early, with no major response. Neuroimaging revealed multiple right frontal and right parietal lesions with perilesional edema; surgical management of the brain abscesses was performed. A biopsy with periodic acid-Schiff and Gomori stains revealed areas with mycotic microorganisms morphologically consistent with Aspergillus, later confirmed by culture. The patient developed necrotizing encephalitis secondary to aspergillosis and died. Necrotizing encephalitis as a clinical presentation of Aspergillus infection in an orthotopic liver transplant is not common, and even with adequate management, early diagnosis and prompt antifungal treatment, mortality rates remain high.

  1. [A case of liver abscess due to Streptococcus anginosus infection secondary to a dental extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Hideyuki; Matsui, Noriaki; Tsukamoto, Shinji; Funakoshi, Sadahiro; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kabemura, Teppei; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro

    2015-08-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a high fever. He had undergone a dental extraction about 1 month prior to admission because of apical periodontitis. Imaging study revealed liver abscess lesions. Infection with Streptococcus anginosus was confirmed using both stab and blood culture. An adequate selection of antibiotics was administered, and a good outcome was obtained. There have been no case reports of liver abscess caused by intraoral commensal flora related to dental extraction in healthy adults. This case shows that liver abscesses can occur secondary to dental extractions, even in healthy adults.

  2. Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical site infection in people undergoing liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ricardo A M B; Hasimoto, Claudia N; Kim, Anna; Hasimoto, Erica N; El Dib, Regina

    2015-12-05

    Surgical site infection is more frequent in liver transplantation than in other types of solid organ transplantation with different antibiotics. Studies have shown that the rate of surgical site infection varies from 8.8% to 37.5% after liver transplantation. Therefore, antimicrobial prophylaxis is likely an essential tool for reducing these infections. However, the literature lacks evidence indicating the best prophylactic antibiotic regimen that can be used for liver transplantation. To assess the benefits and harms of antibiotic prophylactic regimens for surgical site infection in people undergoing liver transplantation. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). The most recent search was performed on 11 September 2015. All eligible randomised clinical trials comparing any antibiotic regimen versus placebo, versus no intervention or versus another antibiotic regimen for surgical site infection in liver transplant recipients, regardless of age, sex and reason for transplantation. Quasi-randomised studies and other observational studies were considered for data on harm if retrieved with search results for randomised clinical trials. Two review authors selected relevant trials, assessed risk of bias of studies and extracted data. The electronic search identified 786 publications after removal of duplicates. From this search, only one seemingly randomised clinical trial, published in abstract form, fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this review. This trial was conducted at Shiraz Transplant Centre, Shiraz, Iran, where investigators randomly assigned a total of 180 consecutive liver transplant recipients. We judged the overall risk of bias of the trial published in abstract form as high. Researchers reported no numerical data but mentioned that 163 participants

  3. Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.

  4. A Histopathology Study of Caspian Seal (Pusa caspica (Phocidae, Mammalia Liver Infected with Trematode, Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Opisthorchidae, Trematoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Heckmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study was to investigate the invasive activity of the liver fluke, Pseudamphistomom truncatum against the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica and was exemplified at the gross, light microscopy (LM and electron microscopy (EM levels.The study was done on a freshly dead Caspian Seal in the southern coast of Caspian Sea. The checked Caspian seal probably being died of canine distemper virus and was found host to numerous parasites of four helminth species.P. truncatum caused edematous foci on the surface of the liver with prominent fluid accumulation. Sections of the liver viewed with LM had multiple necrotic areas with extensive hemorrhaging and disorganized hepatic lobules. Granulocytes and invasion of connective tissue were prominent. Whole worms were visible with invasive pathways through the host tissue. Damage to both hepatic ducts and blood vessels were prominent. At the EM level, organelles within the impacted hepatocytes were disorganized as exemplified by the cristae of the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Parasite eggs were scattered throughout the tissue.It was shown that this trematode can be very pathogenic to Caspian Seal and as this only mammal of Caspian Sea is an endangered species; this needs more investigation toward control or possible treatment of this helminth.

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, Elizabeth B; Niesters, Hubert G M; van den Berg, Arie P; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Porte, Robert J; Vennema, Harry; Reimerink, Johan H J; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is known to run a self-limited course. Recently, chronic hepatitis E has been described in several immunosuppressed patients after solid organ transplantation. The prevalence of HEV infection after transplantation, however, is unknown. We studied HEV parameters [HEV

  6. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola flukes from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Singh, T Shantikumar; Shoriki, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Fasciola flukes from eastern India were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear ITS1. Both Fasciola gigantica and aspermic Fasciola flukes were detected in Imphal, Kohima, and Gantoku districts. The sequences of mitochondrial nad1 were analyzed to infer their phylogenetical relationship with neighboring countries. The haplotypes of aspermic Fasciola flukes were identical or showed a single nucleotide substitution compared to those from populations in the neighboring countries, corroborating the previous reports that categorized them in the same lineage. However, the prevalence of aspermic Fasciola flukes in eastern India was lower than those in the neighboring countries, suggesting that they have not dispersed throughout eastern India. In contrast, F. gigantica was predominant and well diversified, and the species was thought to be distributed in the area for a longer time than the aspermic Fasciola flukes. Fasciola gigantica populations from eastern India were categorized into two distinct haplogroups A and B. The level of their genetic diversity suggests that populations belonging to haplogroup A have dispersed from the west side of the Indian subcontinent to eastern India with the artificial movement of domestic cattle, Bos indicus, whereas populations belonging to haplogroup B might have spread from Myanmar to eastern India with domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lassa virus infection in experimentally infected marmosets: liver pathology and immunophenotypic alterations in target tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Brasky, Kathleen; Mansfield, Keith; Johnson, Curtis; Gonzales, Monica; Ticer, Anysha; Lukashevich, Igor; Tardif, Suzette; Patterson, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Lassa virus causes thousands of deaths annually in western Africa and is considered a potential biological weapon. In an attempt to develop a small nonhuman primate model of Lassa fever, common marmosets were subcutaneously inoculated with Lassa virus strain Josiah. This inoculation resulted in a systemic disease with clinical and morphological features mirroring those in fatal human Lassa infection: fever, weight loss, high viremia and viral RNA load in tissues, elevated liver enzymes, and severe morbidity between days 15 and 20. The most prominent histopathology findings included multifocal hepatic necrosis with mild inflammation and hepatocyte proliferation, lymphoid depletion, and interstitial nephritis. Cellular aggregates in regions of hepatocellular necrosis were largely composed of HAM56-positive macrophages, devoid of CD3-positive and CD20-positive cells, and characterized by marked reductions in the intensity of HLA-DP, DQ, DR staining. A marked reduction in the major histocompatibility complex class II expression was also observed in the lymph nodes. Immunophenotypic alterations in spleen included reductions in overall numbers of CD20-positive and CD3-positive cells and the disruption of lymphoid follicular architecture. These findings identify the common marmoset as an appropriate model of human Lassa fever and present the first experimental evidence that replication of Lassa virus in tissues is associated with alterations that would be expected to impair adaptive immunity.

  8. Initial prevalence of anal human papilloma virus infection in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grąt, Michał; Grąt, Karolina; Hołówko, Wacław; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Walter de Walthoffen, Szymon; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Kobryń, Konrad; Patkowski, Waldemar; Majewski, Sławomir; Młynarczyk, Grażyna; Krawczyk, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Although liver transplant recipients are at increased risk of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related anal cancer, limited data are available regarding the initial prevalence of anal HPV infection in this population. Anal swabs collected from 50 liver transplant recipients within the first three postoperative weeks were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of the four HPV genotypes: 6, 11, 16, and 18. Predictors of any, low-risk, and high-risk anal HPV infection were evaluated. Overall, the prevalence of any anal HPV infection was 18.0%, with the corresponding rates for high- and low-risk HPV genotypes being 8.0% and 10.0%, respectively. Infection with any type of anal HPV was higher in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (P = 0.027), ≥3 sexual partners (P = 0.031), and alcoholic liver disease (P = 0.063). HBV infection was the only factor significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.038). Male sex (P = 0.050), age ≥52 years (P = 0.016), ≥30 sexual partners (P = 0.003), age at first intercourse ≤18 years (P = 0.045), and time since first intercourse ≥38 years (P = 0.012) were identified as predictors of low-risk HPV infection. These results indicate that HPV vaccination of liver transplant candidates and screening for anal HPV infection in high-risk groups should be considered. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  9. Pharmacological manipulation of the chronic granulomatous reactions in the livers of mice infected with schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, K D

    1985-01-01

    The severe granulomatous reactions in the liver which occur following infestation by adult Schistosoma mansonii are largely initiated by invading eosinophils and monocytes. The present studies were designed to investigate the possibility that (a) anti-inflammatory drugs could be employed beneficially to attenuate the liver granulomatous reactions in schistosomiasis, and (b) that part of the therapeutic effects of anti-schistosomal (AS) drugs might be due to possible influences on arachidonate metabolism. Therefore the effects were determined of (a) AS as compared with NSAI drugs on eicosanoid metabolism in isolated human peripheral leucocyte populations, and (b) electron-microscopic changes in the livers of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni in response to AS and/or NSAI drugs. Of the AS drugs only praziquantel (10-100 microM) inhibited 5-HETE production by the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. No effects were observed of this or the other AS drugs on prostaglandin production. In S. mansoni infected mice, praziquantel (250 mg/kg/d), given orally with indomethacin (5 mg/kg/d) for 5 days did not improve the inflammatory reactions around worms or eggs of schistosomes. Furthermore, both indomethacin (5 mg/kg/d) alone and benoxaprofen (20 mg/kg/d for 5 days) elicited liver changes suggestive of specific liver damage by these drugs. These results suggest that liver pathology may be enhanced by NSAI drugs perhaps as a consequence of the liver metabolism of these drugs being compromised. Their use to modify inflammatory reactions at the peak of liver schistosome infections may thus be contraindicated.

  10. Interaction of vinyl chloride monomer exposure and hepatitis B viral infection on liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ruey-Hong; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der; Du, Chung-Li; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2003-04-01

    Vinyl-chloride monomer (VCM), a human carcinogen, has caused angiosarcoma of the liver. Recent studies have shown that VCM exposure is associated with hepatocellular cancer. In Taiwanese studies, the majority of VCM-exposed workers with liver cancer had history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To determine the role of HBV on the development of liver cancer in the VCM-exposed workers, we conducted a case-control study from a previously established polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cohort consisting of 4096 male workers from six PVC polymerization plants. A total of 18 patients with liver cancer, and 68 control subjects matched for age and specific plant of employment were selected. Detailed history of the participants that included alcohol consumption status, cigarette use, occupation, and family history of chronic liver disease were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. When the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative subjects without history of tank-cleaning were used as the reference, the HBsAg-negative subjects with history of tank-cleaning demonstrated a 4.0-fold greater risk of liver cancer (95% confidence interval: 95% CI = 0.2-69.1). The HBsAg carriers without history of tank-cleaning revealed a 25.7-fold greater risk of liver cancer (95% CI = 2.9-229.4). Whereas the HBsAg carriers with history of tank-cleaning revealed the greatest risk (matched odds ratio (ORm) 396.0, 95% CI = 22.6 -infinity) of developing liver cancer among subjects with different VCM-exposure status and HBsAg status categories. Further analysis showed the interaction term was significant (P < .01). Therefore, our results suggest an interaction between occupational VCM exposure and HBV infection for the development of liver cancer.

  11. Gene Expression Profile in the Liver of BALB/c Mice Infected with Fasciola hepatica.

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    Jose Rojas-Caraballo

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica infection still remains one of the helminthic neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. It has a huge worldwide distribution, affecting mainly cattle and, sometimes, human beings. In addition to data reported about the immunological response induced by helminthic infections and that induced by Fasciola hepatica, little is known about the gene expression profile in its organ target, the liver, which is where adult worms are established and live for long periods of time, causing its characteristic pathology. In the present work, we study both the early and late gene expression profiles in the livers of mice infected with F. hepatica metacercariae using a microarray-based methodology.A total of 9 female-6-week-old BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain weighing 20 to 35 g were used for the experiments. Two groups of BALB/c mice were orally infected with seven F. hepatica metacercariae, and the other group remained untreated and served as a control. Mice were humanely euthanized and necropsied for liver recovery, histological assessment of hepatic damage, RNA isolation, microarray design and gene expression analysis on the day of infection (t0, seven days post-infection (t7 and twenty-one days post-infection (t21.We found that F. hepatica infection induces the differential expression of 128 genes in the liver in the early stage of infection and 308 genes in the late stage, and most of them are up-regulated. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed significant changes in the pathways related to metabolism, biosynthesis and signaling as well as genes implicated in inducing liver-toxicity, injury and death.The present study provides us insights at the molecular level about the underlying mechanisms used by F. hepatica, leading to liver damage and its subsequent pathophysiology. The expression pattern obtained here could also be used to explain the lack of association between infection with F. hepatica and cholangiocarcinoma

  12. Procalcitonin Identifies Cell Injury, Not Bacterial Infection, in Acute Liver Failure.

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    Jody A Rule

    Full Text Available Because acute liver failure (ALF patients share many clinical features with severe sepsis and septic shock, identifying bacterial infection clinically in ALF patients is challenging. Procalcitonin (PCT has proven to be a useful marker in detecting bacterial infection. We sought to determine whether PCT discriminated between presence and absence of infection in patients with ALF.Retrospective analysis of data and samples of 115 ALF patients from the United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group randomly selected from 1863 patients were classified for disease severity and ALF etiology. Twenty uninfected chronic liver disease (CLD subjects served as controls.Procalcitonin concentrations in most samples were elevated, with median values for all ALF groups near or above a 2.0 ng/mL cut-off that generally indicates severe sepsis. While PCT concentrations increased somewhat with apparent liver injury severity, there were no differences in PCT levels between the pre-defined severity groups-non-SIRS and SIRS groups with no documented infections and Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock groups with documented infections, (p = 0.169. PCT values from CLD patients differed from all ALF groups (median CLD PCT value 0.104 ng/mL, (p ≤0.001. Subjects with acetaminophen (APAP toxicity, many without evidence of infection, demonstrated median PCT >2.0 ng/mL, regardless of SIRS features, while some culture positive subjects had PCT values <2.0 ng/mL.While PCT appears to be a robust assay for detecting bacterial infection in the general population, there was poor discrimination between ALF patients with or without bacterial infection presumably because of the massive inflammation observed. Severe hepatocyte necrosis with inflammation results in elevated PCT levels, rendering this biomarker unreliable in the ALF setting.

  13. Bacterial infections and hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis-prophylaxis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Damian; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth is also responsible for hyperammonemia, which leads to hepatic encephalopathy. All of these complications make this group of patients at high risk for mortality. The role of antibiotics in liver cirrhosis is to treat and in some cases to prevent the development of infectious complications. Based on our current knowledge, antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, low ascitic fluid protein concentration combined with liver or renal failure, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis as a secondary prophylaxis, as well as after hepatic encephalopathy episodes (also as a secondary prophylaxis). In some cases, the use of non-antibiotic prophylaxis can also be considered. Current knowledge of the treatment of infections allows the choice of a preferred antibiotic for empiric therapy depending on the infection location and whether the source of the disease is nosocomial or community-acquired. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chlamydia pneumoniae acute liver infection affects hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Fiorino, Erika; Gilardi, Federica; Aldini, Rita; Scotti, Elena; Nardini, Paola; Foschi, Claudio; Donati, Manuela; Montagnani, Marco; Cevenini, Monica; Franco, Placido; Roda, Aldo; Crestani, Maurizio; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has been linked to atherosclerosis, strictly associated with hyperlipidemia. The liver plays a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Since in animal models C. pneumoniae can be found at hepatic level, this study aims to elucidate whether C. pneumoniae infection accelerates atherosclerosis by affecting lipid metabolism. Thirty Balb/c mice were challenged intra-peritoneally with C. pneumoniae elementary bodies and thirty with Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar D. Thirty mice were injected with sucrose-phosphate-glutamate buffer, as negative controls. Seven days after infection, liver samples were examined both for presence of chlamydia and expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism. C. pneumoniae was isolated from 26 liver homogenates, whereas C. trachomatis was never re-cultivated (P triglycerides levels compared both with negative controls (P metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inflammatory bowel disease after liver transplantation : a role for cytomegalovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, Robert C; Haagsma, Elizabeth B; Van Den Berg, Aad P; Karrenbeld, Arend; Slooff, Maarten J H; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Dijkstra, Gerard

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the use of immunosuppressive drugs, recurrent and de novo inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can develop after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. The aim of this study was to

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease after liver transplantation : A role for cytomegalovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, RC; Haagsma, EB; Van Den Berg, AP; Karrenbeld, A; Slooff, MJH; Kleibeuker, JH; Dijkstra, G

    Objective. Despite the use of immunosuppressive drugs, recurrent and de novo inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can develop after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. The aim of this study was to

  17. Frequency of hepatitis B and C co-infection in chronic liver disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (HCV) virus are becoming a significant causative factors in the aetiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) worldwide. However, the information on the frequency of HBsAg and HCV virus co-infection in CLD is sparsely reported in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the frequency of HBsAg and HCV ...

  18. Frequency of Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection in Chronic Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (HCV) virus are becoming a significant causative factors in the aetiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) worldwide. However, the information on the frequency of HBsAg and HCV virus co-infection in CLD is sparsely reported in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the frequency of HBsAg ...

  19. Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease and Infection with Opisthorchis felineus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Saltykova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system. This study investigated the influence of infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus on the biliary microbiome of residents of the Tomsk region of western Siberia.Samples of bile were provided by 56 study participants, half of who were infected with O. felineus, and all of who were diagnosed with gallstone disease. The microbiota of the bile was investigated using high throughput, Illumina-based sequencing targeting the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. About 2,797, discrete phylotypes of prokaryotes were detected. At the level of phylum, bile from participants with opisthorchiasis showed greater numbers of Synergistetes, Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, TM7 and Verrucomicrobia. Numbers of > 20 phylotypes differed in bile of the O. felineus-infected compared to non-infected participants, including presence of species of the genera Mycoplana, Cellulosimicrobium, Microlunatus and Phycicoccus, and the Archaeans genus, Halogeometricum, and increased numbers of Selenomonas, Bacteroides, Rothia, Leptotrichia, Lactobacillus, Treponema and Klebsiella.Overall, infection with the liver fluke O. felineus modified the biliary microbiome, increasing abundance of bacterial and archaeal phylotypes.

  20. Bacterial infections in alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sargenti, Konstantina; Prytz, Hanne; Bertilsson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    .001), this relationship was not significant after adjustment for confounders in Cox regression analysis (P=0.056). Resistance to piperacilin-tazobactam and carbapenems was more common in infections occurring in alcoholic versus nonalcoholic cirrhosis (13 vs. 5%, P=0.057 and 12 vs. 2%, P=0.009). Alcoholic etiology...

  1. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Animal models for the study of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver-related death in more than 300,000 people annually. Treatments for patients with chronic HCV are suboptimal, despite the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents. There is no vaccine that prevents HCV infection. Relevant animal models are important...... for HCV research and development of drugs and vaccines. Chimpanzees are the best model for studies of HCV infection and related innate and adaptive host immune responses. They can be used in immunogenicity and efficacy studies of HCV vaccines. The only small animal models of robust HCV infection are T......- and B- cell deficient mice with human chimeric livers. Although these mice cannot be used in studies of adaptive immunity, they have provided new insights into HCV neutralization, interactions between virus and receptors, innate host responses, and therapeutic approaches. Recent progress in developing...

  3. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  4. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  5. Tuberculosis and hepatic steatosis are prevalent liver pathology findings among HIV-infected patients in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Liver disease epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa has shifted as a result of HIV and the increased use of antiretroviral therapy leading to a need for updated data on common causes of liver disease. We retrospectively reviewed records from all hospitalized patients who had liver biopsy at a single hospital in South Africa from 2001 to 2009 and compared diagnosis by HIV status. During the period of study 262 patients had liver biopsy, 108 (41% were HIV-infected, 25 (10% were HIV-sero-negative, and 129 (49% had unknown or unrecorded HIV status. Overall 81% of biopsies provided additional diagnostic data. Malignancy was the most common finding reported on 56 (21% biopsies followed by granuloma or TB, hepatic steatosis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. HIV-infected patients were more likely to have granulomas and steatosis. Half of patients with granulomas were already on TB treatment, suggesting paradoxical reactions or drug induced liver injury may have been important causes of liver inflammation among these patients. We note that TB, paradoxical reactions during TB treatment, possible drug induced liver injury, and hepatic steatosis are important causes of liver pathology among HIV-infected hospitalized patients with unclear etiology of liver disease after initial assessment. Among HIV sero-negative patients, malignancy was the major cause of liver disease. Our findings re-enforce the importance of TB as a diagnosis among HIV-infected individuals.

  6. Performance of diagnostic biomarkers in predicting liver fibrosis among hepatitis C virus-infected Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser E Nassef

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify specific markers that mirror liver fibrosis progression as an alternative to biopsy when biopsy is contraindicated, especially in children. After liver biopsies were performed, serum samples from 30 hepatitis C virus (HCV paediatric patients (8-14 years were analysed and compared with samples from 30 healthy subjects. All subjects were tested for the presence of serum anti-HCV antibodies. Direct biomarkers for liver fibrosis, including transforming growth factor-β1, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, hyaluronic acid (HA, procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide (PIIINP and osteopontin (OPN, were measured. The indirect biomarkers aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin and bilirubin were also tested. The results revealed a significant increase in the serum marker levels in HCV-infected children compared with the healthy group, whereas albumin levels exhibited a significant decrease. Significantly higher levels of PIIINP, TIMP-1, OPN and HA were detected in HCV-infected children with moderate to severe fibrosis compared with children with mild fibrosis (p < 0.05. The diagnostic accuracy of these direct biomarkers, represented by sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value, emphasises the utility of PIIINP, TIMP-1, OPN and HA as indicators of liver fibrosis among HCV-infected children.

  7. Multistate outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with undercooked chicken livers--northeastern United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    In October 2012 the Vermont Department of Health (VDH) identified three cases of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter jejuni infection in Vermont residents; the isolates had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. A query of PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, led to the identification of one additional case each from New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont that had been reported in the preceding 6 months. An investigation led by VDH found that all six patients had been exposed to raw or lightly cooked chicken livers that had been produced at the same Vermont poultry establishment (establishment A). Livers collected from this establishment yielded the outbreak strain of C. jejuni. In response, establishment A voluntarily ceased the sale of chicken livers on November 9. A food safety assessment conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) found no major violations at the establishment. This is the first reported multistate outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with chicken liver in the United States. Public health professionals, members of the food industry, and consumers should be aware that chicken livers often are contaminated with Campylobacter and that fully cooking products made with chicken liver is the only way to prepare them so they are safe to eat.

  8. MicroRNA-gene expression network in murine liver during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica remains a significant public health problem in China and Southeast Asian countries. The most typical and serious outcome of the chronic oriental schistosomiasis is the progressive granuloma and fibrosis in the host liver, which has been a major medical challenge. However, the molecular mechanism underling the hepatic pathogenesis is still not clear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarrays, we quantified the temporal gene expression profiles in the liver of Schistosoma japonicum-infected BALB/c mice at 15, 30, and 45 day post infection (dpi with that from uninfected mice as controls. Gene expression alternation associated with liver damage was observed in the initial phase of infection (dpi 15, which became more magnificent with the onset of egg-laying. Up-regulated genes were dominantly associated with inflammatory infiltration, whereas down-regulated genes primarily led to the hepatic functional disorders. Simultaneously, microRNA profiles from the same samples were decoded by Solexa sequencing. More than 130 miRNAs were differentially expressed in murine liver during S. japonicum infection. MiRNAs significantly dysregulated in the mid-phase of infection (dpi 30, such as mmu-miR-146b and mmu-miR-155, may relate to the regulation of hepatic inflammatory responses, whereas miRNAs exhibiting a peak expression in the late phase of infection (dpi 45, such as mmu-miR-223, mmu-miR-146a/b, mmu-miR-155, mmu-miR-34c, mmu-miR-199, and mmu-miR-134, may represent a molecular signature of the development of schistosomal hepatopathy. Further, a dynamic miRNA-gene co-expression network in the progression of infection was constructed. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents a global view of dynamic expression of both mRNA and miRNA transcripts in murine liver during S. japonicum infection, and highlights that miRNAs may play a variety of regulatory roles in balancing the immune responses during the

  9. Liver mortality attributable to chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Denmark and Scotland - using spontaneous resolvers as the benchmark comparator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, H; Hutchinson, S J; Obel, N

    2016-01-01

    Liver mortality among individuals with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is common, but the relative contribution of CHC per se versus adverse health behaviours is uncertain. We explored data on spontaneous resolvers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a benchmark group, to uncover the independent...... contribution of CHC on liver mortality. Using national HCV diagnosis and mortality registers from Denmark and Scotland, we calculated the liver mortality rate (LMR) for persons diagnosed with CHC infection (LMRchronic ) and spontaneously resolved infection (LMRresolved ), according to subgroups defined by: age...

  10. Hepatic steatosis progresses faster in HIV mono-infected than HIV/HCV co-infected patients and is associated with liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembroke, Thomas; Deschenes, Marc; Lebouché, Bertrand; Benmassaoud, Amine; Sewitch, Maida; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Halme, Alex; Vuille-Lessard, Elise; Pexos, Costa; Klein, Marina B; Sebastiani, Giada

    2017-10-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) seems common in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the relative effect of HIV, as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV) in those co-infected, and the influence of HS on liver fibrosis progression are unclear. The LIVEr disease in HIV (LIVEHIV) is a Canadian prospective cohort study using transient elastography and associated controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) to screen for HS and liver fibrosis, in unselected HIV-infected adults. HS progression was defined as development of any grade HS (CAP ⩾248dB/m), or transition to severe HS (CAP >292dB/m), for those with any grade HS at baseline. Fibrosis progression was defined as development of significant liver fibrosis (liver stiffness measurement [LSM] >7.1kPa), or transition to cirrhosis (LSM >12.5kPa) for those with significant liver fibrosis at baseline. Cox regression analysis was used to assess predictors of HS and fibrosis progression. A prospective cohort study was conducted, which included 726 HIV-infected patients (22.7% HCV co-infected). Prevalence of any grade HS did not differ between HIV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients (36.1% vs. 38.6%, respectively). 313 patients were followed for a median of 15.4 (interquartile range 8.5-23.0) months. The rate of HS progression was 37.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.2-49.0) and 21.9 (95% CI 15.6-30.7) per 100 person-years in HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection, respectively. HCV co-infection was an independent negative predictor of HS progression (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.89). HS predicted liver fibrosis progression in HIV mono-infection (aHR 4.18, 95% CI 1.21-14.5), but not in HIV/HCV co-infection. HS progresses faster and is associated with liver fibrosis progression in HIV mono-infection but not in HIV/HCV co-infection. Lay summary: Fatty liver is the most frequent liver disease in Western countries. People living with HIV seem at high risk of fatty liver due to

  11. Schistosoma mansoni infection suppresses the growth of Plasmodium yoelii parasites in the liver and reduces gametocyte infectivity to mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeko Moriyasu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and schistosomiasis are major parasitic diseases causing morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Epidemiological surveys have revealed coinfection rates of up to 30% among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate the impact of coinfection of these two parasites on disease epidemiology and pathology, we carried out coinfection studies using Plasmodium yoelii and Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Malaria parasite growth in the liver following sporozoite inoculation is significantly inhibited in mice infected with S. mansoni, so that when low numbers of sporozoites are inoculated, there is a large reduction in the percentage of mice that go on to develop blood stage malaria. Furthermore, gametocyte infectivity is much reduced in mice with S. mansoni infections. These results have profound implications for understanding the interactions between Plasmodium and Schistosoma species, and have implications for the control of malaria in schistosome endemic areas.

  12. Targeted induction of interferon-λ in humanized chimeric mouse liver abrogates hepatotropic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shin-ichiro; Hirata, Yuichi; Kameyama, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Yuko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Hirabayashi, Kazuko; Yano, Junichi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Tateno, Chise; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Inoue, Kazuaki; Yoshiba, Makoto; Takaoka, Akinori; Kohara, Michinori

    2013-01-01

    The interferon (IFN) system plays a critical role in innate antiviral response. We presume that targeted induction of IFN in human liver shows robust antiviral effects on hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study used chimeric mice harboring humanized livers and infected with HCV or HBV. This mouse model permitted simultaneous analysis of immune responses by human and mouse hepatocytes in the same liver and exploration of the mechanism of antiviral effect against these viruses. Targeted expression of IFN was induced by treating the animals with a complex comprising a hepatotropic cationic liposome and a synthetic double-stranded RNA analog, pIC (LIC-pIC). Viral replication, IFN gene expression, IFN protein production, and IFN antiviral activity were analyzed (for type I, II and III IFNs) in the livers and sera of these humanized chimeric mice. Following treatment with LIC-pIC, the humanized livers of chimeric mice exhibited increased expression (at the mRNA and protein level) of human IFN-λs, resulting in strong antiviral effect on HBV and HCV. Similar increases were not seen for human IFN-α or IFN-β in these animals. Strong induction of IFN-λs by LIC-pIC occurred only in human hepatocytes, and not in mouse hepatocytes nor in human cell lines derived from other (non-hepatic) tissues. LIC-pIC-induced IFN-λ production was mediated by the immune sensor adaptor molecules mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor molecule-1 (TICAM-1), suggesting dual recognition of LIC-pIC by both sensor adaptor pathways. These findings demonstrate that the expression and function of various IFNs differ depending on the animal species and tissues under investigation. Chimeric mice harboring humanized livers demonstrate that IFN-λs play an important role in the defense against human hepatic virus infection.

  13. Targeted induction of interferon-λ in humanized chimeric mouse liver abrogates hepatotropic virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichiro Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: The interferon (IFN system plays a critical role in innate antiviral response. We presume that targeted induction of IFN in human liver shows robust antiviral effects on hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV. METHODS: This study used chimeric mice harboring humanized livers and infected with HCV or HBV. This mouse model permitted simultaneous analysis of immune responses by human and mouse hepatocytes in the same liver and exploration of the mechanism of antiviral effect against these viruses. Targeted expression of IFN was induced by treating the animals with a complex comprising a hepatotropic cationic liposome and a synthetic double-stranded RNA analog, pIC (LIC-pIC. Viral replication, IFN gene expression, IFN protein production, and IFN antiviral activity were analyzed (for type I, II and III IFNs in the livers and sera of these humanized chimeric mice. RESULTS: Following treatment with LIC-pIC, the humanized livers of chimeric mice exhibited increased expression (at the mRNA and protein level of human IFN-λs, resulting in strong antiviral effect on HBV and HCV. Similar increases were not seen for human IFN-α or IFN-β in these animals. Strong induction of IFN-λs by LIC-pIC occurred only in human hepatocytes, and not in mouse hepatocytes nor in human cell lines derived from other (non-hepatic tissues. LIC-pIC-induced IFN-λ production was mediated by the immune sensor adaptor molecules mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor molecule-1 (TICAM-1, suggesting dual recognition of LIC-pIC by both sensor adaptor pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that the expression and function of various IFNs differ depending on the animal species and tissues under investigation. Chimeric mice harboring humanized livers demonstrate that IFN-λs play an important role in the defense against human hepatic virus infection.

  14. Prevalence of infection and molecular confirmation by using ITS-2 region of Fasciola gigantica found in domestic cattle from Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalee, Anawat; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the infection of Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) in domestic cattle from Chiang Mai province and molecular confirmation using ITS-2 region. The liver and gall bladder of Bubalus bubalis (B. bubalis) and Bos taurus (B. taurus) from slaughterhouses were examined adult worms and prevalence investigation. The species confirmation with phylogenetic analysis using ITS-2 sequences was performed by maximum likelihood and UPGMA methods. The total prevalences of infection in B. bubalis and Bubalus taurus (B. taurus) were 67.27% and 52.94% respectively. The respective prevalence in both B. bubalis and B. taurus were acquired from Doi-Saket, Muang, and Sanpatong districts, with 81.25%, 62.50% and 60.00% for B. bubalis and 62.50%, 50.00% and 47.06% for Bos taurus respectively. The species confirmation of F. gigantica and some related species by basing on maximum likelihood and UPGMA methods used, 4 groups of trematodes were generated, first F. gigantica group including specimen of Chiang Mai, second 2 samples of F. hepatica, third group of 3 rumen flukes; Orthocoelium streptocoelium, F. elongatus and Paramphistomum epliclitum and fourth group of 3 minute intestinal flukes; Haplorchis taichui, Stellantchasmu falcatus, Haplorchoides sp. and liver fluke; Opisthorchis viverrini respectively. These results can be confirmed the Giant liver fluke which mainly caused fascioliasis in Chiang Mai was identified as F. gigantica and specimens were the same as those of F. gigantica recorded in other different countries. Nucleotide sequence of ITS-2 region has been proven as effective diagnostic tool for the identification of F. gigantica. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Marijuana use in hepatitis C infection does not affect liver biopsy histology or treatment outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Theresa; Howell, Glen T; Turner, Lucy; Corace, Kimberley; Garber, Gary; Cooper, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marijuana smoking is prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients. The literature assessing the influence of marijuana on liver disease progression and hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment outcomes is conflicting.METHODS: The authors evaluated hepatitis C virus RNA-positive patients followed at The Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic (Ottawa, Ontario) from 2000 to 2009. Using The Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic database and charts, information regarding demograph...

  16. The Possible Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori which colonizes the stomach can cause a wide array of gastric disorders, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Recently, accumulating evidence has implicated H. pylori infection in extragastrointestinal diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases. At the same time, many scholars have noted the relationship between H. pylori infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Despite the positive association between H. pylori and NAFLD reported in some researches, there are opposite perspectives denying their relationship. Due to high prevalence, unclear etiology and difficult treatment of NAFLD, confirming the pathogenicity of H. pylori infection in NAFLD will undoubtedly provide insights for novel treatment strategies for NAFLD. This paper will review the relationship between H. pylori infection and NAFLD and the possible pathogenic mechanisms.

  17. Oxidative stress-mediated mouse liver lesions caused by Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sejung; Lee, Hye Won; Bashir, Qudsia; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Tae Jin; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Tong-Soo; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2016-03-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a high-risk pathogenic helminth that strongly provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Chronic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of various cancers due to the disruption of redox homeostasis. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to examine the time course relationship between histopathological changes and the appearance of oxidative stress markers, including lipid peroxidation, enzymes involved in lipid peroxidation, and mutagenic DNA adducts in the livers of mice infected with C. sinensis, as well as proinflammatory cytokines in infected mouse sera. Histopathological phenotypes such as bile duct epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis, edema and inflammatory infiltration increased in infected livers in a time-dependent manner. Intense immunoreactivity of lipid peroxidation products (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; malondialdehyde), cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine were concomitantly observed in these injured regions. We also found elevated expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase in C. sinensis excretory-secretory product-treated cholangiocarcinoma cells. Moreover, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, ILβ-1 and IL-6 were differentially upregulated in infected sera. With regard to oxidative stress-mediated carcinogenesis, our findings suggest that C. sinensis infestation may disrupt host redox homeostasis, creating a damaging environment that favors the development of advanced hepatobiliary diseases such as clonorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatitis C virus liver disease in women infected with contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is carried out by detection of antibodies to the virus (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA)) with confirmation by identification of HCV RNA genome in serum (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)). We describe the histological features on liver biopsy in 88 women with chronic HCV infection (serum positive on ELISA, RIBA and PCR) acquired from virus contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. For the majority of these patients the time interval from virus infection to presentation was between 17 and 18 years. We separately assessed necroinflammatory disease activity and architectural features on liver biopsy and applied a scoring system which permitted semi-quantitative documentation of abnormal features. Only three women showed liver biopsies within normal limits (+\\/-focal steatosis). The remaining 85 cases showed a predominantly mild or moderate degree of disease activity with interface hepatitis (56.8% of cases), spotty necrosis, apoptosis and focal inflammation (88.6% of cases) and portal inflammation (90.9% of cases). Confluent necrosis was an uncommon finding (2.3% of cases). Assessment of architectural features showed normal appearance in 35.2% of biopsies. The predominant architectural abnormality noted was portal tract fibrosis. Ten per cent of cases, however, showed significant fibrous band and\\/or nodule formation.

  19. Pneumoconiosis and liver cirrhosis are not risk factors for tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.P.; Pan, Y.H.; Hua, C.C.; Shieh, H.B.; Jiang, B.Y.; Yu, T.J. [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chilung (Taiwan)

    2007-05-15

    It is unclear whether patients with liver cirrhosis and coal miners with pneumoconiosis are at increased risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Furthermore, little is known of the likelihood of pneumonia in patients with bronchiectasis, haemodialysis, diabetes mellitus or advanced lung cancer being due to TB. To answer these questions, patients with these clinical comorbidities were analysed. The study was retrospective and included 264 TB patients, 478 non-TB pneumonia patients, and as negative controls, 438 subjects without pneumonia. The parameters analysed were age, gender and the presence of pneumoconiosis, bronchiectasis, liver cirrhosis, haemodialysis, diabetes mellitus and advanced lung cancer. Male gender was the only significant factor increasing the risk of pulmonary TB. When compared with non-TB pneumonia and control patients, the odds ratios were 1.862 and 2.182, respectively. Patients with liver cirrhosis did not show an increased risk of pulmonary TB after regression analysis. Pneumoconiosis resulted in a 2.260 (P = 0.003) odds ratio for pulmonary TB, compared with the controls. However, there was no difference in pneurmoconiosis between TB and non-TB pneumonia patients. Patients with bronchiectasis, lung cancer and those receiving haemodialysis had a lower risk for pulmonary TB in lower respiratory tract infection, with odds ratios of 0.342, 0.311 and 0.182, respectively. Physicians should first consider non-TB bacterial infection rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in pneumonia in patients with bronchiectasis, lung cancer or those receiving haemodialysis.

  20. Molecular characterization of Fasciola flukes obtained from wild sika deer and domestic cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Shiroma, Tomoko; Kariya, Tatsuya; Nakao, Ryo; Ohari, Yuma; Hayashi, Kei; Fukumoto, Shinya

    2017-10-01

    The number of wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) continues to increase in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The major concern for the livestock industry is the transmission of pathogens between sika deer and cattle. Fasciolosis is an important disease that can occur in both animals. The aim of this study was to examine the possible mutual transmission of this disease in Hokkaido Prefecture. A total of 105 Fasciola flukes were obtained from sika deer and 96 from domestic cattle. The Fasciola flukes in Japan are reported to possess no mature sperm. However, in this study, 14 flukes from sika deer and eight flukes from cattle contained mature sperm in their seminal vesicles. All the Fasciola flukes from the two host animals had Fh/Fg type in nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) gene, with a mixed fragment pattern derived from F. hepatica and F. gigantica, which are considered to be hybrid Fasciola flukes. However, almost all the flukes had Fsp1 haplotype in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, indicating that their maternal lineage was F. hepatica. A new haplotype, Fsp3, was detected in one fluke obtained from cattle and differed in one nucleotide from Fsp1. Therefore, the Fasciola flukes detected in both host species had almost identical molecular characteristics. These findings suggest the mutual transmission of Fasciola flukes between sika deer and domestic cattle in Hokkaido. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Mannose-binding lectin and Ficolin-2 gene polymorphisms predispose to cytomegalovirus (re)infection after orthotopic liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Bert-Jan F.; van der Beek, Martha T.; van Hoek, Bart; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.; ten Hove, W. Rogier; Roos, Anja; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; Porte, Robert J.; van der Reijden, Johan J.; Coenraad, Minneke J.; Hommes, Daniel W.; Verspaget, Hein W.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims: The lectin pathway of complement activation is a crucial effector cascade of the innate immune response to pathogens. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs frequently in immunocompromised patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms

  2. Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Rainer; Sabin, Caroline A.; Friis-Møller, Nina; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Kirk, Ole; Dabis, Francois; Law, Matthew G.; Pradier, Christian; de Wit, Stephane; Akerlund, Börje; Calvo, Gonzalo; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Ledergerber, Bruno; Phillips, Andrew N.; Lundgren, Jens D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are due to complications of liver diseases. METHODS: We investigated the frequency of and risk factors associated with liver-related

  3. Molecular profiling of early stage liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieche, Ivan; Asselah, Tarik; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Vidaud, Dominique; Degot, Claude; Paradis, Valerie; Bedossa, Pierre; Valla, Dominique-Charles; Marcellin, Patrick; Vidaud, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, end-stage hepatitis (cirrhosis), and hepatocellular carcinoma have been extensively studied, but little is known of the changes in liver gene expression during the early stages of liver fibrosis associated with chronic HCV infection, that is, the transition from normal liver (NL) of uninfected patients to the first stage of liver fibrosis (F1-CH-C). To obtain insight into the molecular pathogenesis of F1-CH-C, we used real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to study the mRNA expression of 240 selected genes in liver tissue with F1-CH-C, in comparison with NL. The expression of 54 (22.5%) of the 240 genes was significantly different between F1-CH-C and NL; 46 genes were upregulated and 8 were downregulated in F1-CH-C. The most noteworthy changes in gene expression mainly affected the transcriptional network regulated by interferons (IFNs), including both IFN-α/β-inducible genes (STAT1, STAT2, ISGF3G/IRF9, IFI27, G1P3, G1P2, OAS2, MX1) and IFN-γ-inducible genes (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11). Interesting, upregulation of IFN-α/β-inducible genes (but not IFN-γ-inducible genes) was independent of histological scores (grade and stage of fibrosis) and HCV characteristics (hepatic HCV mRNA levels and the HCV genotype), and was specific to HCV (as compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV)). Other genes dysregulated in F1-CH-C, albeit less markedly than IFN-α/β- and IFN-γ-inducible genes, were mainly involved in the activation of lymphocytes infiltrating the liver (IFNG, TNF, CXCL6, IL6, CCL8, CXCR3, CXCR4, CCR2), cell proliferation (p16/CDKN2A, MKI67, p14/ARF), extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP9, ITGA2), lymphangiogenesis (XLKD1/LYVE), oxidative stress (CYP2E1), and cytoskeleton microtubule organization (STMN2/SCG10). Thus, a limited number of signaling pathways, and particularly the transcriptional network regulated by interferons, are dysregulated in the first

  4. Oral Valganciclovir as a Preemptive Treatment for Cytomegalovirus (CMV Infection in CMV-Seropositive Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Man Kim

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV infections in liver transplant recipients are common and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Intravenous ganciclovir or oral valganciclovir are the standard treatment for CMV infection. The present study investigates the efficacy of oral valganciclovir in CMV infection as a preemptive treatment after liver transplantation.Between 2012 and 2013, 161 patients underwent liver transplantation at Samsung Medical Center. All patients received tacrolimus, steroids, and mycophenolate mofetil. Patients with CMV infection were administered oral valganciclovir (VGCV 900mg/day daily or intravenous ganciclovir (GCV 5mg/kg twice daily as preemptive treatment. Stable liver transplant recipients received VGCV.Eighty-three patients (51.6% received antiviral therapy as a preemptive treatment because of CMV infection. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD score and the proportions of Child-Pugh class C, hepatorenal syndrome, and deceased donor liver transplantation in the CMV infection group were higher than in the no CMV infection group. Sixty-one patients received GCV and 22 patients received VGCV. The MELD scores in the GCV group were higher than in the VGCV group, but there were no statistical differences in the pretransplant variables between the two groups. AST, ALT, and total bilirubin levels in the GCV group were higher than in the VGCV group when CMV infection occurred. The incidences of recurrent CMV infection in the GCV and VGCV groups were 14.8% and 4.5%, respectively (P=0.277.Oral valganciclovir is feasible as a preemptive treatment for CMV infection in liver transplant recipients with stable graft function.

  5. Diagnostic Usefulness of APRI and FIB-4 for the Prediction of Liver Fibrosis After Liver Transplantation in Patients Infected with Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, H; Kamei, H; Onishi, Y; Ishizu, Y; Ishigami, M; Goto, H; Ogura, Y

    2018-06-01

    Aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) are well known as representative indirect serum biomarkers related to liver fibrosis. The usefulness of these markers for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis after liver transplantation (LT) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients and the influence of splenectomy were investigated. From June 2003 to May 2014, 31 HCV-infected patients who underwent LT and postoperative follow-up liver biopsies were included in this study. The association between liver fibrosis and serum biomarkers and the influence of splenectomy on APRI and FIB-4 were also investigated. A total of 195 biopsy specimens were collected, and liver fibrosis was identified as: F0, 59.7%; F1, 34.1%; and F2, 6.3%. Both APRI and FIB-4 were significantly higher in patients who showed F1 and F2 in liver biopsy specimen than F0 (P values, .009 and .022, respectively); sensitivity and specificity of APRI were, respectively, 63.4% and 66.7%, and those of FIB-4 were 57.7% and 69.6%. In 11 patients (35.5%) who underwent splenectomy at the time of LT, the cutoff values for APRI and FIB-4 were 0.61 and 1.41, which were significantly lower than the corresponding values (1.00 and 3.64) of patients without splenectomy. APRI and FIB-4 could effectively estimate liver fibrosis after LT for HCV-related liver disease. For LT patients with splenectomy, APRI and FIB-4 were also useful to estimate liver fibrosis, but the standard values should be adjusted lower than those for patients without splenectomy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential metabonomic profiles of primary hepatocellular carcinoma tumors from alcoholic liver disease, HBV-infected, and HCV-infected cirrhotic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Ding; Cai, Can; Ye, Mingxin; Gong, Junhua; Wang, Menghao; Li, Jinzheng; Gong, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to comparatively profile the metabolite composition of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors from alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected, and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected cirrhotic patients. Primary HCC tumors were collected from ALD, HBV-infected, and HCV-infected cirrhotic patients (n=20 each). High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and metabonomic data analysis were performed to compare HCC ...

  7. The Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Clostridium difficile Infection in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy; Weinberg, Alan; Rana, Meenakshi; Patel, Gopi; Huprikar, Shirish

    2016-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common after liver transplantation (LT); however, few studies have examined the risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of CDI in this population. A retrospective study of adults who underwent LT between January 1, 2011, and April 4, 2013, at The Mount Sinai Hospital was conducted. Potential risk factors were evaluated via univariate and multivariable analysis to determine predictors of CDI in this population. The clinical manifestations of CDI and patient outcomes were also reviewed. Clostridium difficile infection occurred in 27 (14%) of 192 patients after LT. In multivariable analysis, CDI was associated with having a model for end-stage liver disease score of 20 or greater (hazards ratio, 2.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-6.52; P = 0.010), and receiving a LT from a living donor (hazards ratio, 3.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-9.67; P = 0.006). Forty-one percent of CDI cases occurred within 1 week of LT. Seven percent of patients with CDI had a serum white blood cell count greater than 12 000 cells per μL, and 26% had a temperature greater than 38.0°C. After treatment 6 (22%) patients developed CDI relapse, and all were successfully treated. No patients died of CDI after a mean follow-up time of 1.8 years; however, overall survival was significantly lower among those with CDI (78% vs 92%; P = 0.033). Clostridium difficile infection after LT was associated with higher model for end-stage liver disease scores and receiving a LT from a living donor. Clostridium difficile infection often occurred soon after LT and was infrequently associated with leukocytosis or fever. Clostridium difficile infection in LT recipients was associated with lower overall survival.

  8. Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Barton Price, R.; Berkman, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the liver for focal lesions is extremely important because the liver is one of the most common sites for metastatic disease. Most patients with metastatic deposits to the liver have a survival rate of about 6 months. Thus, metastatic disease to the liver has an extremely grave prognosis. In the past patients with hepatic lesions had no therapeutic recourse. However, with recent aggressive surgical advances (such as partial hepatectomies) and hepatic artery embolization, survival of patients with hepatic metastases has increased. Thus it is important for noninvasive imaging not only to detect lesions early in their course, but also to give their true hepatic involvement and the extent of the neoplastic process elsewhere in the body. Recent advances in imaging have been rapidly changing over the past 5 years. These changes have been more rapid in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound than in radionuclide imaging. Thus, the question addressed in this chapter is: What is the relationship of hepatic ultrasound to the other current diagnostic modalities in detecting metastatic liver disease and other focal liver lesions? Also, what is its possible future relationship to nuclear magnetic resonance?

  9. A case of probable mixed-infection with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp.: CT and parasitological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Yun, Ji Hye; Kim, Jeong Ju; Choi, Won Hyung; Oh, In Hwan; Song, Hyun Ouk; Chu, Jong Phil

    2010-06-01

    We report here a human case probably mixed-infected with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp. who was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan, serological findings, and/or fecal examination. The patient was a 43-year-old Korean female and was admitted to Kyung Hee University Hospital with the complaints of fever and abdominal pain. On admission, marked eosinophilia was noted in her peripheral blood. CT scan showed specific lesions for clonorchiasis and fascioliasis in the liver, along with lesions suggestive of amebic abscess. Micro-ELISA revealed positive results for the 2 helminthic infections. Eggs of C. sinensis and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were observed in the stool. Treatment with praziquantel followed by metronidazole and tinidazole reduced abnormalities in the liver and eosinophilia. This is the first case report of a possible co-infection with 2 kinds of liver flukes in the Republic of Korea.

  10. Pyogenic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  11. Liver-related death among HIV/hepatitis C virus-co-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, Daniel; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Juergen K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver-related ......BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver.......7-2.9), but substantial in those with F2/F3 and F4 fibrosis (sHR 10.3%, 95% CI 7.6-13.5; and sHR 14.0%, 95% CI 10.3-18.3, respectively). CONCLUSION: Treatment with DAAs should be prioritized for those with at least F2 fibrosis. Early initiation of cART with the aim of avoiding low CD4 cell counts should be considered...

  12. Long-term outcomes of liver transplant patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and end-stage-liver-disease: single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernadakis S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Orthotopic-liver-transplantation (OLT in patients with Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus infection (HIV and end-stage-liver-disease (ESDL is rarely reported. The purpose of this study is to describe our institutional experience on OLT for HIV positive patients. Material and methods This is a retrospective study of all HIV-infected patients who underwent OLT at the University Hospital of Essen, from January 1996 to December 2009. Age, sex, HIV transmission-way, CDC-stage, etiology of ESDL, concomitant liver disease, last CD4cell count and HIV-viral load prior to OLT were collected and analysed. Standard calcineurin-inhibitors-based immunosuppression was applied. All patients received anti-fungal and anti-pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis post-OLT. Results Eight transplanted HIV-infected patients with a median age of 46 years (range 35-61 years were included. OLT indications were HCV (n = 5, HBV (n = 2, HCV/HBV/HDV-related cirrhosis (n = 1 and acute liver-failure (n = 1. At OLT, CD4 cell-counts ranged from 113-621 cells/μl, and HIV viral-loads from Conclusions OLT in HIV-infected patients and ESLD is an acceptable therapeutic option in selected patients. Long-term survival can be achieved without HIV disease-progression under antiretroviral therapy and management of the viral hepatitis co-infection.

  13. Helmintic infections in water buffaloes on Italian farms: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in the study area. The survey was conducted on 127 water buffalo farms, which were selected in the study area using a grid sampling approach, followed by proportional allocation. Faecal samples (n. = 1,883 collected from the 127 farms were examined using the Flotac dual technique. Gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent helminths (33.1% on the tested farms, followed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (7.1%, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (7.1%, the nematode Strongyloides spp. (3.1%, the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (2.4% and the tapeworm Moniezia spp. (2.4%. In order to display the spatial distribution of the various helminths detected on the water buffalo farms (used as epidemiological unit in our study, point maps were drawn within the GIS. In addition, for each helminth, clustering of test-positive farms were investigated based on location determined by exact coordinates. Using spatial scan statistic, spatial clusters were found for the flukes F. hepatica and C. daubneyi and the cestode Moniezia spp.; these findings are consistent with the life cycle of these parasites, which have strong environmental determinants. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, with the appropriate survey-based data at hand, GIS is a useful tool to study epidemiological patterns of infections in veterinary health, in particular in water buffaloes.

  14. Risk Factors for Bloodstream Infection After Living-donor Liver Transplantation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kensuke; Funaki, Takanori; Kasahara, Mureo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Fukuda, Akinari; Vaida, Florin; Ito, Kenta; Miyairi, Isao; Saitoh, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative bloodstream infection (BSI) is the most important determinant of recipient morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT). Children who underwent LT are at the highest risk of developing BSI because of the significant surgical intervention, use of multiple devices, and administration of immunosuppressive agents. However, information regarding the risk factors for BSI in children after LT is limited. We retrospectively reviewed 210 children who underwent living-donor LT at the largest pediatric LT center in Japan. Patients' characteristics, blood culture results and clinical outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for BSI. Among the 210 LT recipients, 53 (25%) recipients experienced 86 episodes of BSI during the observational period. The source of the BSI was identified only in 38%: catheter-related BSI (27%) peritonitis (7%), urinary tract infection (2%), pneumonia (1%) and infectious endocarditis (1%). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that body weight (P = 0.03), volume of blood loss during LT (P 24 months), blood loss and pediatric end-stage liver disease/model for end-stage liver disease versus positive CMV antigenemia. The volume of blood loss, postoperative CMV antigenemia positivity and body weight were associated with the development of BSI after LT in pediatric living-donor recipients. To identify the age-specific predictors of BSI in children who underwent LT, age-specific analyses are crucial.

  15. Host scavenger receptor SR-BI plays a dual role in the establishment of malaria parasite liver infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Cristina D.; Hannus, Michael; Prudencio, Miguel; Martin, Cecilie; Goncalves, Ligia A.; Portugal, Silvia; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Akinc, Akin; Hadwiger, Philipp; Jahn-Hofmann, Kerstin; Roehl, Ingo; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Franetich, Jean-Francois; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Sauerwein, Robert; Mazier, Dominique; Koteliansky, Victor; Vornlocher, Hans-Peter; Echeverri, Christophe J.; Mota, Maria M.

    2008-01-01

    An obligatory step of malaria parasite infection is Plasmodium sporozoite invasion of host hepatocytes, and host lipoprotein clearance pathways have been linked to Plasmodium liver infection. By using RNA interference to screen lipoprotein-related host factors, we show here that the class B, type I

  16. Immunoexpression of intermediate filaments and morphological changes in the liver and bile duct of rats infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, L; Laszczyńska, M; Masiuk, M; Grabowska, M; Skrzydlewska, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the immunoexpression of the intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin and desmin, and the morphological changes in the liver of rats during experimental fasciolosis at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection. Rats were infected with 30 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. Paraffin sections of the liver were stained using H & E, PAS and azan stains. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against cytokeratin and desmin. The experimental F. hepatica infection led to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver, and to inflammation of the common bile ducts. The expression of cytokeratin was increased in the epithelial cells of both the liver bile ductules at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection and in the common bile ducts at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection compared to uninfected rats; expression in the common bile ducts was more intense. The myofibroblasts of the liver and smooth myocytes of the interlobular bile ducts and common bile ducts, showed a slight increase in desmin expression compared to the uninfected rats. The increased expression of cytokeratins in the hyperplastic rat common bile duct epithelium during the biliary phase of fasciolosis at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection may be explained by mechanical irritation by the parasite and an inflammatory reaction in the bile duct epithelium and in periductal fibrous tissue.

  17. Time course of gene expression profiling in the liver of experimental mice infected with Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyong Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe chronic parasitic disease which behaves like a slow-growing liver cancer. Clinical observations suggest that the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis influences liver homeostasis and hepatic cell metabolism. However, this has never been analyzed during the time course of infection in the common model of secondary echinococcosis in experimental mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression profiles were assessed using DNA microarray analysis, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after injection of E. multilocularis metacestode in the liver of susceptible mice. Data were collected at different time points to monitor the dynamic behavior of gene expression. 557 differentially expressed genes were identified at one or more time points, including 351 up-regulated and 228 down-regulated genes. Time-course analysis indicated, at the initial stage of E. multilocularis infection (month 1-2, that most of up-regulated pathways were related to immune processes and cell trafficking such as chemokine-, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, and down-regulated pathways were related to xenobiotic metabolism; at the middle stage (month 3, MAPK signaling pathway was maintained and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway emerged; at the late stage (month 6, most of up-regulated pathways were related to PPAR signaling pathway, complement and coagulation cascades, while down-regulated pathways were related to metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a random selection of 19 genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray data. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was increased in the liver of E. multilocularis infected mice from 2 months to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: E. multilocularis metacestode definitely exerts a deep influence on liver homeostasis, by modifying a number of gene

  18. Alpha-fetoprotein and hepatitis B virus infection in chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solina, A.

    1987-01-01

    Among 177 patients with chronic non-malignant liver disease, the prevalence of raised levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was 11.2 percent. A close association between the severity of the liver disease and AFP concentrations was observed. The most frequent pattern of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in these patients was the presence of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), whilst only 5 cases were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Sixty seven patients, 18 of whom with high AFP, were longitudinally studied over a period ranging from 1 to 6 years. The evaluation of AFP was transient in 6 cases and persistent in 12 cases. The patients in the former group had high activity of liver disease and none of them developed primary liver cell cancer during the follow-up. In contrast, only two patients in the latter group had high activity, and 3 developed PLC. Active HBV replication was significantly more frequent among those with transient elevation of AFP, whereas anti-HBs and anti-HBc positive cases were significantly more frequent among those with persistent elevation of AFP. It is concluded that the severity of the liver disease is the major factor of elevation of AFP. Transiently raised levels of AFP are not related with PLC, whereas persistently high levels represent a premalignant condition. At variance with data obtained in areas with high prevalence of PLC, HBsAg seems not to be related with persistent elevation of AFP. The high rate positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc in this group remains to be clarified

  19. Pathogen infection distribution and drug resistance analysis of patients with severe liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi CHEN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the infection distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in patients with severe liver disease, and provide reference for clinical medication. Methods Retrospective analysis of the microbiological specimens from patients with severe liver disease in Department of Infection of our hospital from August 2014 to November 2016 and the drug susceptibility testing were carried out by means of K-B disc diffusion method after bacterial culturing, and the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens were analyzed. Results Totally 17 of 73 patients with severe liver disease developed hospital infection (23.3%. 104 strains of bacteria were isolated and 78 strains out of them were multidrug-resistant bacteria (75.0%. Among them, 28(26.9% strains were gram-positive coccus, mainly consisting of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and 58(55.8% were gram-negative coccus, mainly composed of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii, and 18(17.3% strains fungi. S.aureus and enterococci were resistant to penicillin, erythromycin and levofloxacin, the resistance rates were above 80.0%, but had low resistance rates to vancomycin, teicoplanin and tigecycline. The resistance rates of E.coli and K.pneumoniae to piperacillin, cefazolin and cefuroxime sodium were above 85.0%, but they had lower resistance rates to tigecycline and amikacin. Acinetobacter baumannii was 100% resistant to piperacillin and tazobactam, ceftazidime, imipenem and amikacin, but had low resistance to tigecycline and minocycline. Conclusions Multi-drug resistant bacteria are the main bacterial pathogens in patients with severe liver disease and have a high resistance rate to commonly used antibiotics, empirical treatment in the population at high risk of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections requires the use of broad-spectrum or high-grade antibiotics (e.g. carbapenems or tigecycline and drugs against specific pathogenic

  20. Clinical Predictors of Liver Fibrosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection From Children to Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Feng; Song, Shih-Hsi; Lee, Chee-Seng; Chen, Huey-Ling; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Hsu, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Tzee-Chung; Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2018-04-11

    This study aimed to elucidate predictors of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Transient elastography was performed to define liver stiffness in 533 patients with chronic HBV infection (mean age ± standard deviation, 30.72 ± 0.57 years). Protein array was performed on serum samples and lysates of Huh7 cells transfected with HBV mutants; the results were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were examined in patients with chronic HBV infection with and without liver fibrosis. Male sex, age ≥18 years, and serum α-fetoprotein level >3.6 ng/mL were independent predictors of a liver stiffness measurement of ≥7 kPa (P = .005, .019, and rs16944 and the CC genotype at rs1143627 in the gene encoding IL-1β were associated with higher serum IL-1β levels and liver fibrosis. Male sex, age ≥18 years, elevated α-fetoprotein level, and HBeAg-negative hepatitis are risk factors for liver fibrosis. IL-1β is involved in the progression of liver fibrosis in subjects with HBeAg-negative hepatitis.

  1. Non-invasive index of liver fibrosis induced by alcohol, thioacetamide and schistosomal infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagy Doha M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non invasive approaches will likely be increasing utilized to assess liver fibrosis. This work provides a new non invasive index to predict liver fibrosis induced in mice. Methods Fibrosis was generated by thioacetamide (TAA, chronic intake of ethanol, or infection with S. mansoni in 240 mice. Both progression and regression of fibrosis (after treatment with silymarin and/or praziquantel were monitored. The following methods were employed: (i The METAVIR system was utilized to grade and stage liver inflammation and fibosis; (ii Determination of hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen; and (iii Derivation of a new hepatic fibrosis index from the induced changes, and its prospective validation in a group of 70 mice. Results The index is composed of 4 serum variable including total proteins, γ-GT, bilirubin and reduced glutathione (GSH, measured in diseased, treated and normal mice. These parameters were highly correlated with both the histological stage and the grade. They were combined in a logarithmic formula, which non-invasively scores the severity of liver fibrosis through a range (0 to 2, starting with healthy liver (corresponding to stage 0 to advanced fibrosis (corresponding stage 3.Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC for the accuracy of the index to predict the histological stages demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC were 0.954, 0.979 and 0.99 for index values corresponding to histological stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Also, the index was correlated with stage and grade, (0.947 and 0.859, respectively. The cut off values that cover the range between stages 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 are 0.4, 1.12 and 1.79, respectively. The results in the validation group confirmed the accuracy of the test. The AUROC was 0.869 and there was good correlation with the stage of fibrosis and grade of inflammation. Conclusion The index fulfils the basic criteria of non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis since it is liver

  2. Pyogenic liver abscess in a child with concomitant infections – Staphylococcus aureus, Echinococcus multilocularis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antolová D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic liver abscess is an uncommon but important and potentially life-threatening disease that occurs whenever there is failure of clearance of an infection in the liver. Work presents a rare case of pyogenic liver abscess with confirmed bacterial aetiology of Staphylococcus aureus, subsequently confirmed Echinococcus multilocularis and suspected Mycobacterium tuberculosis liver infection in 6 years old child. Moreover, several other parasitic diseases were recorded. According to clinical presentation of diseases, it could be supposed that liver impairment caused by alveolar echinococcosis and potentially also by M. tuberculosis could be the predisposition site for the capture of Staphylococcus aureus in altered liver tissues during its haematogenous spreading, and thus contributed to the development and subsequent clinical presentation of pyogenic liver abscess. The presence of three different aetiological agents complicated the diagnostic process as well as the therapy of the patient and made her prognosis uncertain. Proper diagnosis of multiloculated liver abscesses, with echinococcosis and hepatic tuberculosis considered in the differential diagnosis, is therefore crucial to administration of early and appropriate treatment.

  3. [Hepatitis A and E enterically transmitted virus infections of the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegl, G

    2004-08-01

    Hepatitis A virus (a picornavirus) and hepatitis E virus (so far unclassified) are small, non-enveloped and relatively stable RNA viruses with many similar, yet, not identical characteristics. Both viruses are transmitted preferentially by the fecal-oral route. Consequently, their spread is favoured by poor personal hygiene and inappropriate sanitary conditions. Infection can pass subclinically, take an acute and self limiting course, and can also manifest as fulminant hepatitis with liver failure. True chronic disease is unknown. Laboratory diagnosis is preferentially performed by serology, but can also be complemented by assay for viral RNA in stool or serum. Resolution of infection leads to immunity which, in the case of hepatitis A, is known to be fully protective and most likely lifelong. Available hepatitis A vaccines are able to induce a similar state of protection. Vaccines for hepatitis E are under development. Specific antiviral treatment is not yet available, neither for hepatitis A nor for hepatitis E.

  4. Successful Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Patient with Severe Complicated Clostridium difficile Infection after Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Markus Schneider

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI represents one of the most common healthcare-associated infections. Due to increasing numbers of recurrences and therapy failures, CDI has become a major disease burden. Studies have shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT can both be a safe and highly efficacious therapy for patients with therapy-refractory CDI. However, patients undergoing solid organ transplantation are at high risk for CDI due to long-term immunosuppression, previous antibiotic therapy, and proton pump inhibitor use. Additionally, these patients may be especially prone to adverse events related to FMT. Here, we report a successful FMT in a patient with severe therapy-refractory CDI after liver transplantation.

  5. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).

  6. Inhibitory effect of glutathione on oxidative liver injury induced by dengue virus serotype 2 infections in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of dengue virus (DV infection has not been completely defined and change of redox status mediated by depletion of glutathione (GSH in host cell is a common result of viral infection. Our previous study has demonstrated that DV serotype 2 (DV2 infection alters host intracellular GSH levels, and exogenous GSH inhibits viral production by modulating the activity of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. GSH is the most powerful intracellular antioxidant and involved in viral infections. Thus, this study was to investigate whether DV2 infection can induce alteration in redox balance and effect of GSH on the disease in HepG2 xenografts SCID mice. Our results revealed that mice infected with DV2 showed alterations in oxidative stress by increasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, an end product of lipid peroxidation, and GSSG/GSH ratio. DV2-infected mice also showed a decrease in the activity of catalase (CAT and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD in the serum and/or observed organs, especially the liver. Moreover, DV2 infection resulted in elevated serum levels of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interlukin-6 and obvious histopathological changes in the liver. The administration of exogenous GSH significantly reversed all of the aforementioned pathological changes and prevented significant liver damage. Furthermore, in vitro treatment of HepG2 cells with antioxidants such as GSH inhibited viral entry as well as the production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH prevents DV2-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in mice by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production, and GSH and may be a promising therapeutic agent for prevention of oxidative liver damage during DV infection.

  7. Chronic hepatitis C infection and liver disease in HIV-coinfected patients in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durier, N; Yunihastuti, E; Ruxrungtham, K; Kinh, N V; Kamarulzaman, A; Boettiger, D; Widhani, A; Avihingsanon, A; Huy, B V; Syed Omar, S F B; Sanityoso, A; Chittmittrapap, S; Dung, N T H; Pillai, V; Suwan-Ampai, T; Law, M; Sohn, A H; Matthews, G

    2017-03-01

    Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT and liver fibrosis (FibroScan ® ) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centres in South-East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7-42.5) years, 365 (76.0%) reported HCV exposure through injecting drug use, and 453 (94.4%) were on combination antiretroviral therapy. The median (IQR) CD4 count was 446 (325-614) cells/mm 3 and 208 (94.1%) of 221 patients tested had HIV-1 RNA F4). One patient (0.3%) had FibroScan ® failure. In conclusion, a high proportion of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients had chronic HCV infection. HCV GT1 was predominant, and 62% of patients had liver disease warranting prompt treatment (≥F2). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Infection of the left sided gallbladder simulating liver abscess and gastric antral tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Ahn, Jae Sung [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    The left sided gallbladder, being a rare occurrence, may create diagnostic problem especially when it becomes infected. Recently, we have experienced 2 cases of infection of left sided gallbladder at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Case I was a 32-year-old housewife with dyspepsia, epigastric pain and recurring bouts of high fever of 2 months duration. Under the provisional diagnosis of liver abscess liver scan was performed which revealed well defined cold area in the left lobe supporting the provisional diagnosis. Tender cystic mass was aspirated and pus was drained. The injected air at the occasion of aspiration outlined well defined cystic structure. Because aspiration failed to control the symptoms, laparotomy was performed. Surgeon found a left sided gallbladder which was empyematous. Case II was a 38 year old business man admitted to the hospital because of tender ill defined mass in mid epigastrium. The patient was febrile (39.4 .deg. C) and anemic. An upper GI series disclosed an irregular filling defect involving the antrum of the stomach. The mass was primarily extrinsic but was closely fixed to the gastric wall. Surgical intervention revealed chronic cholecystitis and pericholecystitis with thick adhesion to the distal stomach.

  9. Algorithm of Golgi protein 73 and liver stiffness accurately diagnoses significant fibrosis in chronic HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhujun; Li, Ziqiang; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yuhan; Xu, Yumin; Mo, Ruidong; Ren, Peipei; Chen, Lichang; Lu, Jie; Li, Hong; Zhuang, Yan; Liu, Yunye; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Gangde; Tang, Weiliang; Xiang, Xiaogang; Cai, Wei; Liu, Longgen; Bao, Shisan; Xie, Qing

    2017-11-01

    Serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a potential biomarker for fibrosis assessment. We aimed to develop an algorithm based on GP73 and liver stiffness (LS) for further improvement of accuracy for significant fibrosis in patients with antiviral-naïve chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Diagnostic accuracy evaluation of GP73 and development of GP73-LS algorithm was performed in training cohort (n = 267) with an independent cohort (n = 133) for validation. A stepwise increasing pattern of serum GP73 was observed across fibrosis stages in patients with antiviral-naïve chronic HBV infection. Serum GP73 significantly correlated (rho = 0.48, P 73, accuracy: 63.6%). Using GP73-LS algorithm, GP73 < 63 in agreement with LS < 8.5 provided accuracy of 81.7% to excluded significant fibrosis. GP73 ≥ 63 in agreement with LS ≥ 8.5 provided accuracy of 93.3% to confirm significant fibrosis. Almost 64% or 68% of patients in the training or validation cohort could be accurately classified. Serum GP73 is a robust biomarker for significant fibrosis diagnosis. GP73-LS algorithm provided better diagnostic accuracy than currently available approaches. More than 60% antiviral naïve CHB patients could use this algorithm without resorting to liver biopsy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prediction of occult hepatitis B virus infection in liver transplant donors through hepatitis B virus blood markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandoi, Francesco; Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Pittaluga, Fabrizia; Abate, Maria Lorena; Smedile, Antonina; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus infection is defined as detectable HBV-DNA in liver of HBsAg-negative individuals, with or without detectable serum HBV-DNA. In deceased liver donors, results of tissue analysis cannot be obtained prior to allocation for liver transplantation. we investigated prevalence and predictability of occult hepatitis B using blood markers of viral exposure/infection in deceased liver donors. In 50 consecutive HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive and 20 age-matched HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-negative donors, a nested-PCR assay was employed in liver biopsies for diagnosis of occult hepatitis B according to Taormina criteria. All donors were characterized for plasma HBV-DNA and serum anti-HBs/anti-HBe. In liver tissue, occult hepatitis B was present in 30/50 anti-HBc-positive (60%) and in 0/20 anti-HBc-negative donors (pdonors with detectable HBV-DNA in plasma (n=5) or anti-HBs>1,000 mIU/mL (n=5) eventually showed occult infection, i.e, 10/30 occult hepatitis B-positive donors which could have been identified prior to transplantation. In the remaining 40 anti-HBc-positive donors, probability of occult infection was 62% for anti-HBe-positive and/or anti-HBs ≥ 58 mIU/mL; 29% for anti-HBe-negative and anti-HBsdonors, combining anti-HBc with other blood markers of hepatitis B exposure/infection allows to predict occult hepatitis B with certainty and speed in one third of cases. These findings might help refine the allocation of livers from anti-HBc-positive donors. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of host-related factors on the intensity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Luciano Bello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the identification of factors associated with liver disease progression in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. We assessed host-related factors associated with a histologically advanced stage of this disease and determined the rate of liver fibrosis progression in HCV-infected patients. We included patients submitted to liver biopsy, who were anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive, who showed a parenteral risk factor (blood transfusion or intravenous drug use, and who gave information about alcohol consumption.Patients were divided into two groups for analysis: group 1 - grades 0 to 2; group 2 - grades 3 to 4. The groups were compared in terms of sex, age at the time of infection, estimated duration of infection and alcoholism. The rate of fibrosis progression (index of fibrosis was determined based on the relationship between disease stage and duration of infection (years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age at the time of infection (P or = 40 years (median = 0.47. The main factors associated with a more rapid fibrosis progression were age at the time of infection and the estimated duration of infection. Patients who acquired HCV after 40 years of age showed a higher rate of fibrosis progression.

  12. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids of Fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenborg, V.; Vugt, F. van; Golde, L.M.G. van

    1. 1. The phospholipid composition of Fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluke, was compared to that of the liver of the host animals (rats and cattle). Considerable differences were found: monoacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, hardly detectable in the liver, was found in significant amounts in

  13. Proteomic and transcriptomic studies of HBV-associated liver fibrosis of an AAV-HBV-infected mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Fangming; Ye, Lei; Yan, Tao; Cao, Jiaqi; Zheng, Jianhua; Li, Wuping

    2017-08-22

    Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important public health issue in the Asia-Pacific region and is associated with chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and even liver cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of HBV-associated liver fibrosis remain incompletely understood. In the present study, proteomic and transcriptomic approaches as well as biological network analyses were performed to investigate the differentially expressed molecular signature and key regulatory networks that were associated with HBV-mediated liver fibrosis. RNA sequencing and 2DE-MALDI-TOF/TOF were performed on liver tissue samples obtained from HBV-infected C57BL/6 mouse generated via AAV8-HBV virus. The results showed that 322 genes and 173 proteins were differentially expressed, and 28 HBV-specific proteins were identified by comprehensive proteomic and transcriptomic analysis. GO analysis indicated that the differentially expressed proteins were predominantly involved in oxidative stress, which plays a key role in HBV-related liver fibrosis. Importantly, CAT, PRDX1, GSTP1, NXN and BLVRB were shown to be associated with oxidative stress among the differentially expressed proteins. The most striking results were validated by Western blot and RT-qPCR. The RIG-I like receptor signaling pathway was found to be the major signal pathway that changed during HBV-related fibrosis. This study provides novel insights into HBV-associated liver fibrosis and reveals the significant role of oxidative stress in liver fibrosis. Furthermore, CAT, BLVRB, NXN, PRDX1, and IDH1 may be candidates for detection of liver fibrosis or therapeutic targets for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  14. Liver is the major source of elevated serum lipocalin-2 levels after bacterial infection or partial hepatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ming-Jiang; Feng, Dechun; Wu, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    cell type responsible for LCN2 production after bacterial infection or PHx, and this response is dependent on IL-6 activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Thus, hepatocyte-derived LCN2 plays an important role in inhibiting bacterial infection and promoting liver regeneration....... or E. coli. These mice also had increased enteric bacterial translocation from the gut to the mesenteric lymph nodes and exhibited reduced liver regeneration after PHx. Treatment with interleukin (IL)-6 stimulated hepatocytes to produce LCN2 in vitro and in vivo. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of the IL...

  15. Random and systematic sampling error when hooking fish to monitor skin fluke (Benedenia seriolae) and gill fluke (Zeuxapta seriolae) burden in Australian farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, J R; Bubner, E; D'Antignana, T; Landos, M; Caraguel, C G B

    2018-05-01

    The Australian farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi, YTK) industry monitor skin fluke (Benedenia seriolae) and gill fluke (Zeuxapta seriolae) burden by pooling the fluke count of 10 hooked YTK. The random and systematic error of this sampling strategy was evaluated to assess potential impact on treatment decisions. Fluke abundance (fluke count per fish) in a study cage (estimated 30,502 fish) was assessed five times using the current sampling protocol and its repeatability was estimated the repeatability coefficient (CR) and the coefficient of variation (CV). Individual body weight, fork length, fluke abundance, prevalence, intensity (fluke count per infested fish) and density (fluke count per Kg of fish) were compared between 100 hooked and 100 seined YTK (assumed representative of the entire population) to estimate potential selection bias. Depending on the fluke species and age category, CR (expected difference in parasite count between 2 sampling iterations) ranged from 0.78 to 114 flukes per fish. Capturing YTK by hooking increased the selection of fish of a weight and length in the lowest 5th percentile of the cage (RR = 5.75, 95% CI: 2.06-16.03, P-value = 0.0001). These lower end YTK had on average an extra 31 juveniles and 6 adults Z. seriolae per Kg of fish and an extra 3 juvenile and 0.4 adult B. seriolae per Kg of fish, compared to the rest of the cage population (P-value sampling towards the smallest and most heavily infested fish in the population, resulting in poor repeatability (more variability amongst sampled fish) and an overestimation of parasite burden in the population. In this particular commercial situation these finding supported that health management program, where the finding of an underestimation of parasite burden could provide a production impact on the study population. In instances where fish populations and parasite burdens are more homogenous, sampling error may be less severe. Sampling error when capturing fish

  16. Farm-level risk factors for fish-borne zoonotic trematode infection in integrated small-scale fish farms in northern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thi Phan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Northern Vietnam is an endemic region for fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT, including liver and intestinal flukes. Humans acquire the FZT infection by eating raw or inadequately cooked fish. The production of FZT-free fish in aquaculture is a key component in establishing a sustainable program to prevent and control the FZT transmission to humans. Interventions in aquaculture should be based on knowledge of the main risk factors associated with FZT transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A longitudinal study was carried out from June 2006 to May 2007 in Nam Dinh province, Red River Delta to investigate the development and risk factors of FZT infections in freshwater cultured fish. A total of 3820 fish were sampled six times at two-month intervals from 96 fish farms. Logistic analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate potential risk factors based on information collected through questionnaire interviews with 61 fish farm owners. The results showed that the FZT infections significantly increased from first sampling in June to July 2006 (65% to sixth sampling in April to May, 2007 (76%. The liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis and different zoonotic intestinal flukes including Haplochis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus and Procerovum varium were found in sampled fish. Duration of fish cultured (sampling times, mebendazole drug self-medication of household members, presence of snails in the pond, and feeding fish with green vegetation collected outside fish farms all had a significant effect on the development of FZT prevalence in the fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The FZT prevalence in fish increased by 11 percentage points during a one-year culture period and the risk factors for the development of infection were identified. Results also highlight that the young fish are already highly infected when stocked into the grow-out systems. This knowledge should be incorporated into control

  17. Liver fibrosis in treatment-naïve HIV-infected and HIV/HBV co-infected patients: Zambia and Switzerland compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Vinikoor, Michael J; Kovari, Helen; Battegay, Manuel; Calmy, Alexandra; Cavassini, Matthias; Bernasconi, Enos; Schmid, Patrick; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Sinkala, Edford; Chi, Benjamin H; Egger, Matthias; Rauch, Andri

    2016-10-01

    To examine the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients in Zambia and Switzerland. HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy in two clinics in Zambia and Switzerland were included. Liver fibrosis was evaluated using the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio index (APRI), with a ratio >1.5 defining significant fibrosis and a ratio >2.0 indicating cirrhosis. The association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity, HBV replication, and liver fibrosis was examined using logistic regression. In Zambia, 96 (13.0%) of 739 patients were HBsAg-positive compared to 93 (4.5%) of 2058 in Switzerland. HBsAg-positive patients were more likely to have significant liver fibrosis than HBsAg-negative ones: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 3.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-7.33) in Zambia and 2.50 (95% CI 1.19-5.25) in Switzerland. Patients with a high HBV viral load (≥20000 IU/ml) were more likely to have significant liver fibrosis compared to HBsAg-negative patients or patients with an undetectable viral load: aOR 3.85 (95% CI 1.29-11.44) in Zambia and 4.20 (95% CI 1.64-10.76) in Switzerland. In both settings, male sex was a strong risk factor for significant liver fibrosis. Despite the differences in HBV natural history between Sub-Saharan Africa and Europe, the degree of liver fibrosis and the association with important risk factors were similar. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. miRNA signatures can predict acute liver failure in hepatitis E infected pregnant females

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    Nirupma Trehanpati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute viral hepatitis E (AVH-E can often result in acute liver failure (ALF during pregnancy. microRNAs serve as mediators in drug induced liver failure. We investigated their role as a biomarker in predicting ALF due to HEV (ALF-E. Methods: We performed next generation sequencing and subsequent validation studies in PBMCs of pregnant (P self limiting AVH-E, ALF due to HEV (ALF-E and compared with AVH-E in non-pregnant (NP females and healthy controls. Findings: Eleven microRNAs were significantly expressed in response to HEV infection; importantly, miR- 431, 654, 1468 and 4435, were distinctly expressed in pregnant self-limiting AVH-E and healthy females (p = 0.0005, but not in ALF-E. Sixteen exclusive microRNAs differentiated ALF-E from self limiting AVH-E in pregnant females. miR-450b which affects cellular proliferation and metabolic processes through RNF20 and SECB was predominanlty upregulated and correlated with poor outcome (ROC 0.958, p = 0.001. Interpretation: Our results reveal that a specific microRNA profile can predict fatality in ALF-E in pregnancy. These microRNAs could be exploited as prognostic biomarkers and help in the development of new therapeutic interventions. Keywords: Health sciences, Virology

  19. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Chronic Hepatitis E Infection in German Renal Transplant Recipients With Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Choi, MD

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions. This retrospective study showed that prevalence of chronic HEV infection was high in our renal transplant patient cohort and was associated with significant liver impairment and the occurrence of renal injury. Ribavirin treatment was effective and should be initiated early to avoid complications, but the risk of severe hemolytic anemia makes strict monitoring essential.

  20. Whole Blood Polymerase Chain Reaction in a Neonate with Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus Infection and Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Scoble

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A late preterm neonate born by cesarean section with intact membranes presented at 9 days of life with shock and liver failure. Surface cultures were negative but whole blood polymerase chain reaction was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2, underscoring the value of this test in early diagnosis of perinatally acquired disseminated herpes simplex virus infection without skin lesions.

  1. Soluble CD163 predicts incident chronic lung, kidney and liver disease in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte M; Mejer, Niels; Knudsen, Troels B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if monocyte and macrophage activity may be on the mechanistic pathway to non-AIDS comorbidity by investigating the associations between plasma-soluble CD163 (sCD163) and incident non-AIDS comorbidities in well treated HIV-infected individuals. DESIGN: Prospective single...... was examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for pertinent covariates. RESULTS: In HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 799), the highest quartile of plasma sCD163 was associated with incident chronic lung disease [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34; 7.......46] and incident chronic kidney disease (aHR, 10.94; 95% CI: 2.32; 51.35), when compared with lowest quartiles. Further, (every 1 mg) increase in plasma sCD163 was positively correlated with incident liver disease (aHR, 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05; 1.19). The sCD163 level was not associated with incident cancer...

  2. Liver-related deaths among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: The D:A:D Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, R; Sabin, CA; Friis-Møller, Nina

    2006-01-01

    . RESULTS: There were 1246 deaths (5.3%; 1.6 per 100 person-years); 14.5% were from liver-related causes. Of these, 16.9% had active hepatitis B virus (HBV), 66.1% had hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 7.1% had dual viral hepatitis co-infections. Predictors of liver-related deaths were latest CD4 cell count...... (adjusted relative rate [RR], 16.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1-31.7 for or =500/microL), age (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4 per 5 years older), intravenous drug use (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4), HCV infection (RR, 6.7; 95% CI, 4.0-11.2), and active HBV infection (RR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2...

  3. Invasion of Flukes of the Echinostomatidae Family in Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia var. domestica) Lofts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Dolka, Beata; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Over 4 years, only two known cases of fluke invasions were diagnosed in racing pigeons ( Columba livia ) originating from different regions of Poland. In both cases, the invasion was characterized by a very high mortality (approximately 70%), and the source of the infestation was snails of the Lymnaeidae family eaten by pigeons. Fluke invasions in pigeons are extremely rare and to date have not been described in Poland. Therefore, the occurrence of the symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and sudden deaths of either adult pigeons or nestlings were suspected to be associated with poisoning. Autopsy revealed an invasion of flukes causing hemorrhagic enteritis. Renal failure and spleen atrophy were also found in the birds. Using molecular biology techniques, infestation with the fluke Echinostoma revolutum was determined in the second case.

  4. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajtová, P.; Štefanić, S.; Hradilek, M.; Dvořák, Jan; Vondrášek, J.; Jílková, A.; Ulrychová, L.; McKerrow, J.H.; Caffrey, C.R.; Mareš, M.; Horn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2015), e0003827 ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * schistosomiasis * prolyl oligopeptidase * blood fluke Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2015

  5. Removal of waterborne pathogens from liver transplant unit water taps in prevention of healthcare-associated infections: a proposal for a cost-effective, proactive infection control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Y; Hu, B J; Qin, L; Lin, Y E; Watanabe, H; Zhou, Q; Gao, X D

    2014-04-01

    Hospital water supplies often contain waterborne pathogens, which can become a reservoir for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We surveyed the extent of waterborne pathogen contamination in the water supply of a Liver Transplant Unit. The efficacy of point-of-use (POU) water filters was evaluated by comparative analysis in routine clinical use. Our baseline environmental surveillance showed that Legionella spp. (28%, 38/136), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, 11/136), Mycobacterium spp. (87%, 118/136) and filamentous fungi (50%, 68/136) were isolated from the tap water of the Liver Transplant Unit. 28.9% of Legionella spp.-positive water samples (n = 38) showed high-level Legionella contamination (≥10(3) CFU/L). After installation of the POU water filter, none of these pathogens were found in the POU filtered water samples. Furthermore, colonizations/infections with Gram-negative bacteria determined from patient specimens were reduced by 47% during this period, even if only 27% (3/11) of the distal sites were installed with POU water filters. In conclusion, the presence of waterborne pathogens was common in the water supply of our Liver Transplant Unit. POU water filters effectively eradicated these pathogens from the water supply. Concomitantly, healthcare-associated colonization/infections declined after the POU filters were installed, indicating their potential benefit in reducing waterborne HAIs. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  6. Starvation beneficially influences the liver physiology and nutrient metabolism in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream (Pagrus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sipra; Chakraborty, Tapas; Shimizu, Sonoko; Urasaki, Shintaro; Matsubara, Takahiro; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Ohta, Kohei

    2015-11-01

    Dietary compromises, especially food restrictions, possess species-specific effects on the health status and infection control in several organisms, including fish. To understand the starvation-mediated physiological responses in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream, especially in the liver, we performed a 20-day starvation experiment using 4 treatment (2 fed and 2 starved) groups, namely, fed-placebo, starved-placebo, fed-infected, and starved-infected, wherein bacterial exposure was done on the 11th day. In the present study, the starved groups showed reduced hepatosomatic index and drastic depletion in glycogen storage and vacuole formation. The fed-infected fish showed significant (Pred sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unhealthy alcohol use, HIV infection and risk of liver fibrosis in drug users with hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Muga

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze alcohol use, clinical data and laboratory parameters that may affect FIB-4, an index for measuring liver fibrosis, in HCV-monoinfected and HCV/HIV-coinfected drug users. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients admitted for substance abuse treatment between 1994 and 2006 were studied. Socio-demographic data, alcohol and drug use characteristics and clinical variables were obtained through hospital records. Blood samples for biochemistry, liver function tests, CD4 cell count, and serology of HIV and HCV infection were collected at admission. Multivariate linear regression was used to analyze the predictors of FIB-4 increase. RESULTS: A total of 472 (83% M, 17% F patients were eligible. The median age at admission was 31 years (Interquartile range (IQR 27-35 years, and the median duration of drug use was 10 years (IQR 5.5-15 years. Unhealthy drinking (>50 grams/day was reported in 32% of the patients. The FIB-4 scores were significantly greater in the HCV/HIV-coinfected patients (1.14, IQR 0.76-1.87 than in the HCV-monoinfected patients (0.75, IQR 0.56-1.11 (p<0.001. In the multivariate analysis, unhealthy drinking (p = 0.034, lower total cholesterol (p = 0.042, serum albumin (p<0.001, higher GGT (p<0.001 and a longer duration of addiction (p = 0.005 were independently associated with higher FIB-4 scores in the HCV-monoinfected drug users. The effect of unhealthy drinking on FIB-4 scores disappeared in the HCV/HIV-coinfected patients, whereas lower serum albumin (p<0.001, a lower CD4 cell count (p = 0.006, higher total bilirubin (p<0.001 and a longer drug addiction duration (p<0.001 were significantly associated with higher FIB-4 values. CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthy alcohol use in the HCV-monoinfected patients and HIV-related immunodeficiency in the HCV/HIV-coinfected patients are important risk factors associated with liver fibrosis in the respective populations.

  8. Demonstration of Hepatitis C Virus RNA with In Situ Hybridization Employing a Locked Nucleic Acid Probe in Humanized Liver of Infected Chimeric Mice and in Needle-Biopsied Human Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Shiogama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In situ hybridization (ISH with high sensitivity has been requested to demonstrate hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE sections of the liver. Methods. ISH employing a locked-nucleic-acid- (LNA-modified oligonucleotide probe and biotin-free catalyzed signal amplification system (CSAII was applied to HCV-RNA detection in the liver tissue. Nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed for HCV genotyping using total RNA extracted from FFPE sections. The target tissues included FFPE tissue sections of humanized livers in HCV-infected chimeric mice (HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a and noninfected and of needle-biopsied livers from HCV-infected patients. Results. HCV-RNA was demonstrated with the ISH technique in HCV-infected liver tissues from both chimeric mice and 9 (82% of 11 patients with HCV infection. The HCV signals were sensitive to RNase. Nested RT-PCR confirmed the genotype in 8 (73% of 11 livers (type 1b: 6 lesions and type 2a: 2 lesions. HCV-RNA was not identified in chronic hepatitis B lesions, fatty liver, autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion. ISH using the LNA-modified oligonucleotide probe and CSAII was applicable to detecting HCV-RNA in routinely prepared FFPE liver specimens.

  9. Amebic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  10. Bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis: clinical characteristics and the role of C-reactive protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Melanie; Manolakopoulos, Spilios; Andreadis, Ioannis; Giannaris, Markos; Kontos, George; Kranidioti, Hariklia; Pirounaki, Maria; Koskinas, John

    2018-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients may be difficult, because of the absence of classical signs such as fever and raised white blood cell count. The role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in this context has not been clearly defined. Methods: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of 210 consecutive cirrhotic patients with (n=100) or without (n=110) bacterial infection were compared with a control group of non-cirrhotic patients with infection (n=106). Results: Significantly fewer patients with cirrhosis had a body temperature ≥37°C when presenting with bacterial infection (56% cirrhotic vs. 85.5% non-cirrhotic patients, P=0.01). Mean leukocyte count was 6.92 × 103/mm3 in patients with cirrhosis and infection, 5.75 × 103/mm3 (P=0.02) in cirrhotic patients without infection, and 11.28 × 103/mm3 in non-cirrhotic patients with infection (P10 mg/L indicated the presence of infection with a sensitivity of 68%, a specificity of 84.5% and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.8197. CRP cutoff level differed according to the severity of the liver disease: Child-Pugh score (CPS) A: 21.3 mg/L, B: 17 mg/L, and C: 5.78 mg/L. Conclusions: CRP at admission could help diagnose infection in cirrhotic patients. Since the severity of liver disease seems to affect the CRP values, lower CRP levels might indicate infection. Clinical suspicion is necessary to avoid delay in diagnosis and initiate antibiotic treatment. PMID:29333070

  11. Bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis: clinical characteristics and the role of C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Melanie; Manolakopoulos, Spilios; Andreadis, Ioannis; Giannaris, Markos; Kontos, George; Kranidioti, Hariklia; Pirounaki, Maria; Koskinas, John

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients may be difficult, because of the absence of classical signs such as fever and raised white blood cell count. The role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in this context has not been clearly defined. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of 210 consecutive cirrhotic patients with (n=100) or without (n=110) bacterial infection were compared with a control group of non-cirrhotic patients with infection (n=106). Significantly fewer patients with cirrhosis had a body temperature ≥37°C when presenting with bacterial infection (56% cirrhotic vs. 85.5% non-cirrhotic patients, P=0.01). Mean leukocyte count was 6.92 × 10 3 /mm 3 in patients with cirrhosis and infection, 5.75 × 10 3 /mm 3 (P=0.02) in cirrhotic patients without infection, and 11.28 × 10 3 /mm 3 in non-cirrhotic patients with infection (P10 mg/L indicated the presence of infection with a sensitivity of 68%, a specificity of 84.5% and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.8197. CRP cutoff level differed according to the severity of the liver disease: Child-Pugh score (CPS) A: 21.3 mg/L, B: 17 mg/L, and C: 5.78 mg/L. CRP at admission could help diagnose infection in cirrhotic patients. Since the severity of liver disease seems to affect the CRP values, lower CRP levels might indicate infection. Clinical suspicion is necessary to avoid delay in diagnosis and initiate antibiotic treatment.

  12. Effect of the Filamentous Fungus Mucor circinelloides On The Development of Eggs of the Rumen Fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Fabián; Hernández, José A; Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana F; Pedreira, José; Sanchís, Jaime; Romasanta, Ángel; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Arias, María S

    2017-06-01

    Ruminants infected by Paramphistomidae flukes shed eggs in the feces, which pass through different stages in the environment until the infective stages (metacercariae) are reached. The activity of the soil fungus Mucor circinelloides on the development of eggs of the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi was presently tested with 3 probes, i.e., in petri plates, feces, and an aqueous environment (tubes). The effect of the fungus was assessed by recording the numbers of undeveloped, nonviable, and embryonated eggs. Nonviable eggs were considered when vacuolization occurred, the inner structures were not clearly observed, the eggshell was broken, or the embryo inside was destroyed. By considering the ability of hyphae of M. circinelloides to develop in the presence of C. daubneyi eggs, attach to their surface, and penetrate and destroy the inner embryo, this ovicidal effect was classified as type 3. After a period of 50 days, the percentage of undeveloped eggs in the feces of infected cattle was 40%; furthermore, 27% of the eggs were nonviable, and 33% were embryonated (1 miracidium inside). The addition of 4 doses of M. circinelloides spores directly onto the feces resulted in 9-31% undeveloped eggs, 38-60% nonviable eggs, and 9-21% embryonated eggs, and no statistical significances were obtained among the different doses. Placing the eggs of C. daubneyi into an aqueous solution containing 10 7 spores of M. circinelloides/ml for 29 days resulted in 43% undeveloped eggs, 40% nonviable eggs, and 17% embryonated eggs, whereas in the controls, the percentages were 48%, 12%, and 40%, respectively. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the spores of the fungus M. circinelloides in limiting the development of the eggs of the trematode C. daubneyi.

  13. Histopathological changes in the liver and stomach of Didelphis virginiana (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) during natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Montoya, E H; Zazueta-Moreno, J M; Osuna-Martínez, L U; Castillo-Ureta, H; Silva-Hidalgo, G; López-Moreno, H S; Osuna-Ramírez, I; Noguera-Corona, E; Rendón-Maldonado, J G

    2017-11-06

    Gnathostoma turgidum is a nematode parasite that exploits the stomach of Virginian opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Latin America. The opossum is the definitive host of G. turgidum in the wild. Intrahepatic growth and maturation of the parasite, subsequent migration to the stomach and spontaneous expulsion are common. However, the histopathological lesions caused by G. turgidum are poorly described. A better understanding of the life cycle of this parasite and the pathological changes in natural host-parasite interactions could help to clarify the progression of human infections caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes in the liver and stomach of D. virginiana during natural infection and adult worm expulsion. Three opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum were captured from an endemic area of gnathostomosis. Three uninfected opossums captured from a non-endemic area were used as controls. The opossums were sacrificed at different stages of infection (March, May and December), and a histopathological study of their livers and stomachs was conducted. Injuries in livers were observed by histopathology - areas of necrosis and collagen septa were identified. Parasites caused nodules with necrosis on the periphery of lesions, and collagen fibres were also observed in stomachs. Collagen septa may be caused by antigenic remains of the parasite. Further immunological studies are necessary to verify that stimulation is caused by these factors.

  14. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

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    Kittiyaporn Dondee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (P. berghei Methods: For extraction of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera leaves, microwave with hot water method was used and acute toxicity study was then be done. Standard Peters’ test was carried out to test the efficacy of M. oleifera extract in vivo. The ICR mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 red blood cells infected with P. berghei strain by intraperitoneal injection. They were subsequently given with 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of this extract by intragastric route once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia was estimated using microscopy and levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin were also measured. Results: The M. oleifera leaf extract showed the protective activity on liver damage in mice infected with P. berghei in a dose-dependent fashion. It can be indicated by normal levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin in mice treated with extract. The 1000 mg/kg of extract was observed to present the highest activity. Interestingly, the dosedependent antimalarial activity was also found in the mice treated with extract. Conclusions: The M. oleifera leaf extract presented protective effect on liver damage in mice infected with P. berghei.

  15. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

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    Fujiwara, S.; Cologne, J.; Akahoshi, M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, S.; Kodama, K.; Yoshizawa, H.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze various laboratory indicators of inflammation measured in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects are 6304 survivors who underwent inflammatory tests at RERF between 1998 and 1992 and whose radiation doses (DS86) are available. Inflammatory tests include leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1 globulin, alpha 2 globulin, and sialic acid. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence, regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence showed statistically significant associations with radiation dose for leukocyte counts (71.0 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.00151), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.58 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.14 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 1 globulin (0.0057 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 2 globulin (0.0128 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), and sialic acid (1.2711 mg/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), but not for neutrophil counts (29.9 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.1729). Standardized scores combining results from these seven inflammatory tests showed significant associations with radiation dose both for persons with and without inflammatory disease, and for two inflammatory conditions in particular, chronic thyroiditis and chronic liver disease. In analyses of data from 403 AHS patients, in whom both inflammation indicators and T-cell ratios were measured, increased inflammation correlates with decreases in CD4 T-cells. Since the laboratory indicators of inflammation that we studied are not specific for particular clinical diseases, the implication of their dose-response-pattern is hard to interpret. The general occurrence of infectious diseases in survivors is not related to radiation dose. Such a relationship does exist, however, for other diseases in which infection may play an etiologic role. Virologic studies in A-bomb survivors have suggested dose-response alterations in immune

  16. Performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of free-range laying hens naturally infected with Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Hunt, P W; Hine, B C; Sharma, N K; Chung, A; Swick, R A; Ruhnke, I

    2018-03-16

    A study was conducted to determine the performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of laying hens exposed to ranges contaminated with Ascaridia galli. Sixteen-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) were divided into 4 treatments with 5 replicates containing 10 hens per pen. Hens of treatment 1 [negative control (NC)] ranged on a decontaminated area, and hens of treatments 2 (low infection) and 3 (medium infection) ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 250 and 1,000 embryonated A. galli eggs, respectively. The hens of treatment 4 [positive control (PC)] ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 2,500 embryonated A. galli eggs, and in addition these hens were orally inoculated with 1,000 embryonated eggs. Results indicated that hens of the medium infection group had a higher number of intestinal A. galli worms and A. galli eggs in the coprodeum excreta (43.9 ± 4.0 and 3,437 ± 459 eggs/g) compared to hens of the low infection group (23.8 ± 4.0 and 1,820 ± 450 eggs/g) (P  0.05). Egg production, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not affected by A. galli infection (P > 0.05). Egg quality parameters (egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell weight, shell thickness, shell percentage, shell breaking strength, deformation, albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk score) were not affected by A. galli infection (P > 0.05). Highly infected hens had lower liver lipid content (2.72 ± 0.51 g) compared to uninfected hens (4.46 ± 0.58 g, P ranges contaminated with A. galli resulted in infection of the ranging hens, but this did not affect egg production or egg quality. Infection with A. galli lowered the liver lipid reserves of the host significantly, suggesting infected hens use more energy reserves for maintenance and production.

  17. Outcomes associated with Clostridium difficile infection in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Kierra M; Aitken, Samuel L; Sofjan, Amelia K; Shah, Dhara N; Aparasu, Rajender R; Garey, Kevin W

    2018-05-09

    Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have frequent exposure to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) risk factors but the incidence and aetiology of CDI on this population is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, disease presentation and outcomes of CDI in patients with underlying CLD. The Health Care and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) 2009 dataset was used to identify patients with CLD who developed CDI along with matched non-CLD patients with CDI. Using the NIS dataset, the incidence rate of CDI was 189.4/10 000 discharges in CLD patients vs. 83.7/10 000 discharges in the non-CLD matched cohort (P CLD, comorbidity-matched controls with CDI, CLD patients with CDI had higher likelihood of in-hospital mortality (8.8% vs. 18.6%, P CLD and CDI (n = 41) compared with patients with CDI but not CLD (n = 111), CLD patients had significantly higher Charlson comorbidity index (P CLD patients. In conclusion, CDI-related risk factors were almost universally present in the CLD population. CDI resulted in worse outcomes in this population.

  18. Molecular characterization of occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients with end-stage liver disease in Colombia.

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    Julio Cesar Rendon

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV occult infection (OBI is a risk factor to be taken into account in transfusion, hemodialysis and organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize at the molecular level OBI cases in patients with end-stage liver disease.Sixty-six liver samples were obtained from patients with diagnosis of end-stage liver disease submitted to liver transplantation in Medellin (North West, Colombia. Samples obtained from patients who were negative for the surface antigen of HBV (n = 50 were tested for viral DNA detection by nested PCR for ORFs S, C, and X and confirmed by Southern-Blot. OBI cases were analyzed by sequencing the viral genome to determine the genotype and mutations; additionally, viral genome integration events were examined by the Alu-PCR technique.In five cases out of 50 patients (10% the criteria for OBI was confirmed. HBV genotype F (subgenotypes F1 and F3, genotype A and genotype D were characterized in liver samples. Three integration events in chromosomes 5q14.1, 16p13 and 20q12 affecting Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T, Ras Protein Specific Guanine Nucleotide Releasing Factor 2, and the zinc finger 263 genes were identified in two OBI cases. Sequence analysis of the viral genome of the 5 OBI cases showed several punctual missense and nonsense mutations affecting ORFs S, P, Core and X.This is the first characterization of OBI in patients with end-stage liver disease in Colombia. The OBI cases were identified in patients with HCV infection or cryptogenic cirrhosis. The integration events (5q14.1, 16p13 and 20q12 described in this study have not been previously reported. Further studies are required to validate the role of mutations and integration events in OBI pathogenesis.

  19. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2010-03-15

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  20. A retrospective 15-year review: survival advantage after switching to sirolimus in hepatitis C virus infected liver graft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Shankar, A; Gee, I; Nash, K; Hoare, M; Gibbs, P; Davies, S; Alexander, G J M

    2015-02-01

    The use of sirolimus-based immune suppression in liver transplantation, particularly in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected recipients, remains contentious. There is some evidence that sirolimus retards hepatic fibrosis, is renal sparing and may be of benefit in preventing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. Sirolimus has not been adopted by many transplant centres because of persistent concerns regarding an increased risk of hepatic artery thrombosis, graft loss and death with de novo sirolimus. To review the impact of switching to sirolimus monotherapy in HCV-infected liver recipients with respect to survival, graft loss and hepatic fibrosis. A retrospective review of 190 patients from a single centre undergoing first liver transplantation for HCV over 15 years. 113 patients were switched from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based therapy to low-dose sirolimus monotherapy at a median of 15 months after transplantation for HCV-related fibrosis (72%), renal impairment (14%) or high-risk HCC (5%). Patients switched to sirolimus had improved survival (P diabetes (P = 0.03). These data suggest selective switching to low-dose sirolimus monotherapy in HCV-positive liver recipients improves clinical outcome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Liver cytosolic 1 antigen-antibody system in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, M; Manotti, P; Muratori, L; Cataleta, M; Ballardini, G; Cassani, F; Bianchi, F B

    1995-01-01

    Within the multiform liver/kidney microsomal (LKM) family, a subgroup of sera that reacts with a liver cytosolic (LC) protein has been isolated and the new antigen-antibody system is called LC1. Unlike LKM antibody type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-LC1 is said to be unrelated to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and has therefore been proposed as a marker of 'true' autoimmune hepatitis type 2. Altogether 100 LKM1 positive sera were tested by immunodiffusion (ID). Twenty five gave a precipitation line with human liver cytosol; 17 of the 25 also reacted with rat liver cytosol. Thirteen of the 25 sera were anti-HCV positive by second generation ELISA: anti-HCV positive patients were significantly older (p LKM1, and that it is an additional marker of juvenile autoimmune hepatitis type 2. It does not, however, discriminate between patients with and without HCV infection. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7797126

  2. Progression of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Co-Infection: A Comparison between Non-Invasive Assessment Methods and Liver Biopsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmid

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic performance of seven non-invasive tests (NITs of liver fibrosis and to assess fibrosis progression over time in HIV/HCV co-infected patients.Transient elastography (TE and six blood tests were compared to histopathological fibrosis stage (METAVIR. Participants were followed over three years with NITs at yearly intervals.Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC for significant fibrosis (> = F2 in 105 participants was highest for TE (0.85, followed by FIB-4 (0.77, ELF-Test (0.77, APRI (0.76, Fibrotest (0.75, hyaluronic acid (0.70, and Hepascore (0.68. AUROC for cirrhosis (F4 was 0.97 for TE followed by FIB-4 (0.91, APRI (0.89, Fibrotest (0.84, Hepascore (0.82, ELF-Test (0.82, and hyaluronic acid (0.79. A three year follow-up was completed by 87 participants, all on antiretroviral therapy and in 20 patients who completed HCV treatment (9 with sustained virologic response. TE, APRI and Fibrotest did not significantly change during follow-up. There was weak evidence for an increase of FIB-4 (mean increase: 0.22, p = 0.07. 42 participants had a second liver biopsy: Among 38 participants with F0-F3 at baseline, 10 were progessors (1-stage increase in fibrosis, 8 participants; 2-stage, 1; 3-stage, 1. Among progressors, mean increase in TE was 3.35 kPa, in APRI 0.36, and in FIB-4 0.75. Fibrotest results did not change over 3 years.TE was the best NIT for liver fibrosis staging in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. APRI-Score, FIB-4 Index, Fibrotest, and ELF-Test were less reliable. Routinely available APRI and FIB-4 performed as good as more expensive tests. NITs did not change significantly during a follow-up of three years, suggesting slow liver disease progression in a majority of HIV/HCV co-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy.

  3. Progression of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Co-Infection: A Comparison between Non-Invasive Assessment Methods and Liver Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Patrick; Bregenzer, Andrea; Huber, Milo; Rauch, Andri; Jochum, Wolfram; Müllhaupt, Beat; Vernazza, Pietro; Opravil, Milos; Weber, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of seven non-invasive tests (NITs) of liver fibrosis and to assess fibrosis progression over time in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Transient elastography (TE) and six blood tests were compared to histopathological fibrosis stage (METAVIR). Participants were followed over three years with NITs at yearly intervals. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for significant fibrosis (> = F2) in 105 participants was highest for TE (0.85), followed by FIB-4 (0.77), ELF-Test (0.77), APRI (0.76), Fibrotest (0.75), hyaluronic acid (0.70), and Hepascore (0.68). AUROC for cirrhosis (F4) was 0.97 for TE followed by FIB-4 (0.91), APRI (0.89), Fibrotest (0.84), Hepascore (0.82), ELF-Test (0.82), and hyaluronic acid (0.79). A three year follow-up was completed by 87 participants, all on antiretroviral therapy and in 20 patients who completed HCV treatment (9 with sustained virologic response). TE, APRI and Fibrotest did not significantly change during follow-up. There was weak evidence for an increase of FIB-4 (mean increase: 0.22, p = 0.07). 42 participants had a second liver biopsy: Among 38 participants with F0-F3 at baseline, 10 were progessors (1-stage increase in fibrosis, 8 participants; 2-stage, 1; 3-stage, 1). Among progressors, mean increase in TE was 3.35 kPa, in APRI 0.36, and in FIB-4 0.75. Fibrotest results did not change over 3 years. TE was the best NIT for liver fibrosis staging in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. APRI-Score, FIB-4 Index, Fibrotest, and ELF-Test were less reliable. Routinely available APRI and FIB-4 performed as good as more expensive tests. NITs did not change significantly during a follow-up of three years, suggesting slow liver disease progression in a majority of HIV/HCV co-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy.

  4. Patients Receiving Prebiotics and Probiotics Before Liver Transplantation Develop Fewer Infections Than Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawas, Tarek; Al Halabi, Shadi; Hernaez, Ruben; Carey, William D; Cho, Won Kyoo

    2015-09-01

    Among patients who have received liver transplants, infections increase morbidity and mortality and prolong hospital stays. Administration of antibiotics and surgical trauma create intestinal barrier dysfunction and microbial imbalances that allow enteric bacteria to translocate to the blood. Probiotics are believed to prevent bacterial translocation by stabilizing the intestinal barrier and stimulating proliferation of the intestinal epithelium, mucus secretion, and motility. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the effects of probiotics on infections in patients receiving liver transplants. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of prebiotics and probiotics on infections in patients who underwent liver transplantation. Heterogeneity was analyzed by the Cochran Q statistic. Pooled Mantel-Haenszel relative risks were calculated with a fixed-effects model. We identified 4 controlled studies, comprising 246 participants (123 received probiotics, 123 served as controls), for inclusion in the meta-analysis. In these studies, the intervention groups received enteric nutrition and fiber (prebiotics) with probiotics, and the control groups received only enteric nutrition and fiber without probiotics. The infection rate was 7% in groups that received probiotics vs 35% in control groups (relative risk [RR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.41; P = .001). The number needed to treat to prevent 1 infection was 3.6. In subgroup analyses, only 2% of subjects in the probiotic groups developed urinary tract infections, compared with 16% of controls (RR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04-0.47; P probiotic groups developed intra-abdominal infections, compared with 11% of controls (RR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.78; P = .02). Subjects receiving probiotics also had shorter stays in the hospital than controls (mean difference, 1.41 d; P probiotics and prebiotics before, or on the day of, liver transplantation reduces the rate of infection after

  5. Urinary Tract Infections Among Hospitalized Adults in the Early Post-Liver Transplant Period: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Causative Agents, and Microbial Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Jafarpour, Zahra; Firoozifar, Mohammad; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rasekh, Razieh; Khosravifard, Leila; Janghorban, Parisa

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are among the most common infections after liver transplant, especially soon after surgery. This study analyzed urinary tract infections or bacteriuria, their causative agents, and related risk factors in the early period after liver transplant in hospitalized adult transplant recipients in the main liver transplant referral center in Iran. In this prospective study, 389 consecutive adult patients who underwent liver transplant at the Nemazee Teaching Hospital were enrolled between October 2014 and October 2015. Risk factors were compared for patients who developed urinary tract infections or bacteriuria ("infection group "; n = 63 [16.2% ]) and patients without evidence of infection ("control group "; n = 211 [54.2% ]). Patients with sites of infection other than the urinary tract were excluded. Antimicrobial sus ceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared variables between the 2 groups. Seventy-nine episodes of urinary tract infections or bacteriuria occurred in the infection group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, hospitalization 2 to 7 days before transplant, and frequency of abdominal exploration were 11.0, 5.9, and 3.0 times more common in the infection group than in the control group. The chance of infection rises 1.1 times with each one unit increase of body mass index. The most common infection causes were gram-negative bacteria (n = 50; 63.3%), predominantly Escherichia coli (n = 24; 30.4%); followed by gram-positive bacteria (n = 20; 25.3%), predominantly Enterococcus species (n = 14; 17.8%) that had a high incidence of vancomycin resistance (n = 10; 71.4%); and non-Candida albicans species isolates (n = 9; 11.4%). Urinary tract infections are a common infection in hospitalized adult patients soon after liver transplant. Female sex, hospitalization shortly before transplant, more frequent abdominal exploration, and higher

  6. Paramphistomum cervi: surface topography of the tegument of adult fluke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyarachun, Busaba; Sobhon, Prasert; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Anupunpisit, Vipavee; Anuracpreeda, Panat

    2010-06-01

    Adult Paramphistomum cervi or rumen fluke are pear-shaped, slightly concave ventrally and convex dorsally. The worm measures about 5-13 mm in length and 2-5 mm in width across the mid-section. As observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the tegumental surface in all part of the body, appears highly corrugated with transverse folds alternating with grooves and is spineless. At high magnification, the surface of the fold is composed of microfolds or ridges separated by microgrooves or pits. Corrugations and invaginations of the ventral surface are also more extensive than on the dorsal surface of the body. Both anterior and posterior suckers have thick rims covered with transverse folds without spine. The genital pore is situated at the anterior third of the body. There are two types of sensory papillae on the surface: type 1 is bulbous in shape, measuring 10-15 microm in diameter at the base with nipple-like tips, and type 2 has a similar shape and size and also a short cilia on top. These sensory papillae usually occur in large clusters, each having between 5 and 20 units depending on the region of the body. Clusters of papillae on the ventral surface and around the anterior suckers tend to be more numerous and larger in size. The dorsal surface of the body has the least number of papillae. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatitis A infection in patients with chronic viral liver disease: a cross-sectional study in Jahrom, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Vasmehjani, A; Javeshghani, D; Baharlou, R; Shayestehpour, M; Mousavinasab, S D; Joharinia, N; Enderami, S E

    2015-02-01

    Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) in patient with chronic liver disease (CLD; due to hepatitis B or hepatitis C) may cause severe disease and fulminant liver failure. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HAV antibodies in patients infected with HCV or HBV in Iran (Jahrom city). A total of 159 patients with underlying CLD were recruited between September 2012 and February 2013. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV was 79·2%. Patients aged 20-30 years had the lowest (28·3%) anti-HAV seropositivity and those aged >50 years had the highest (95%) seropositivity. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV in patients with chronic HCV and HBV infection was 93·7% and 77·1%, respectively. The anti-HAV seropositivity in liver cirrhosis patients was 100% compared to CLD patients. Because of low HAV immunity in younger CLD patients, vaccination against HAV should be considered.

  8. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  9. Changes in epidemiological patterns of HCV infection and their impact on liver disease over the last 20 years in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvas, S P; Koskinas, J; Sinani, C; Hadziyannis, A; Spanou, F; Hadziyannis, S J

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Greek patients with chronic infection as well as possible secular changes in their distribution in relation to modes of transmission, age and time at acquisition of the infection and other variables. We evaluated 434 unselected patients, 241 males and 193 females with a median age of 46.2 years (18-75), with chronic HCV infection presenting during the period 1996-2000. HCV infection was confirmed by the detection of HCV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while HCV genotyping was performed by the Inno-LiPA assay. Liver biopsies were evaluated according to Ishak's scoring system. Of 434 patients, 167 had a history of blood transfusion [post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH)], 80 were i.v. drug users and in 187 the route of infection remained unknown. The overall distribution of HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 47, 8.3, 27 and 15.2%, respectively. Genotype 3 was common in younger adults and i.v. drug users, whereas genotype 1 predominated in older people and PTH patients (P duration of infection (P = 0.013). Our study revealed a change of HCV genotype distribution in the last 20 years among Greek patients with chronic HCV infection as a result of epidemiological changes in HCV transmission. The presence of cirrhosis was associated only with the duration of infection. These observations have impact both on prevention and treatment.

  10. SmCL3, a gastrodermal cysteine protease of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dvorák

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma are platyhelminth parasites that infect 200 million people worldwide. Digestion of nutrients from the host bloodstream is essential for parasite development and reproduction. A network of proteolytic enzymes (proteases facilitates hydrolysis of host hemoglobin and serum proteins.We identified a new cathepsin L termed SmCL3 using PCR strategies based on S. mansoni EST sequence data. An ortholog is present in Schistosoma japonicum. SmCL3 was heterologously expressed as an active enzyme in the yeast, Pichia pastoris. Recombinant SmCL3 has a broad pH activity range against peptidyl substrates and is inhibited by Clan CA protease inhibitors. Consistent with a function in degrading host proteins, SmCL3 hydrolyzes serum albumin and hemoglobin, is localized to the adult gastrodermis, and is expressed mainly in those life stages infecting the mammalian host. The predominant form of SmCL3 in the parasite exists as a zymogen, which is unusual for proteases. This zymogen includes an unusually long prodomain with alpha helical secondary structure motifs. The striking specificity of SmCL3 for amino acids with large aromatic side chains (Trp and Tyr at the P2 substrate position, as determined with positional scanning-synthetic combinatorial library, is consistent with a molecular model that shows a large and deep S2 pocket. A sequence similarity network (SSN view clusters SmCL3 and other cathepsins L in accordance with previous large-scale phylogenetic analyses that identify six super kingdoms.SmCL3 is a gut-associated cathepsin L that may contribute to the network of proteases involved in degrading host blood proteins as nutrients. Furthermore, this enzyme exhibits some unusual sequence and biophysical features that may result in additional functions. The visualization of network inter-relationships among cathepsins L suggests that these enzymes are suitable 'marker sequences' for inclusion in future phylogenetic analyses.

  11. Inverse association between hepatitis B virus infection and fatty liver disease: a large-scale study in populations seeking for check-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lung Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although many studies have attempted to clarify the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and fatty liver disease, no prior studies have emphasized the relationship of HBV and fatty liver regarding different demographics of age and body mass index (BMI. AIM: To investigate the correlation of HBV and fatty liver in the different demographics of age and BMI. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive subjects who had received health check-up services at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009 and ultrasonography was used to diagnose fatty liver according to the practice guidelines of the American Gastroenterological Association. RESULTS: Among the 33,439 subjects enrolled in this study, fatty liver was diagnosed in 43.9% of the population and 38.9% of patients with chronic HBV infection. Multivariate analysis showed that BMI, age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, and platelet counts were positively associated, while hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg positivity was inversely associated with fatty liver, especially for subjects with BMI>22.4 kg/m(2 and age>50 years. On the contrary, HBV infection was positively correlated with the presence of elevated serum ALT levels in subjects with fatty liver disease regardless of their age and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic factors are important determinants for the prevalence of fatty liver. Patients with HBV infection were inversely associated with fatty liver disease than the general population, especially in older and obese patients. Furthermore, metabolic factors and HBV infection were associated with elevated serum ALT levels in fatty liver disease.

  12. Decreased expression of liver X receptor-α in macrophages infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae in human atherosclerotic arteries in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    In in vitro experiments, Chlamydia pneumoniae has been shown to infect macrophages and to accelerate foam cell formation. It has been hypothesized that the C. pneumoniae infection affects foam cell formation by suppressing the expression of liver X receptors (LXR), but whether such an event occurs in human atherosclerosis is not known. In this study we examined carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The expression of LXR-α in macrophages infected with C. pneumoniae and macrophages that were not infected was compared using a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. The analysis revealed a 2.2-fold reduction in the expression of LXR-α in C. pneumoniae-infected cells around the lipid cores in atherosclerotic plaques. In the cytoplasm of laser-capture microdissected cells that were immunopositive for C. pneumoniae, electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of structures with the appearance of elementary, reticulate and aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae. We conclude that LXR-α expression is reduced in C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages in human atherosclerotic lesions which supports the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae infection might suppress LXR expression in macrophages transforming into foam cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Generalized Liver- and Blood-Derived CD8+ T-Cell Impairment in Response to Cytokines in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Burke Schinkel

    Full Text Available Generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and the contribution of liver-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells to the immunopathogenesis of this infection remain poorly understood. It is hypothesized that this impairment is partially due to reduced CD8+ T-cell activity in response to cytokines such as IL-7, particularly within the liver. To investigate this, the phenotype and cytokine responsiveness of blood- and liver-derived CD8+ T-cells from healthy controls and individuals with HCV infection were compared. In blood, IL-7 receptor α (CD127 expression on bulk CD8+ T-cells in HCV infection was no different than controls yet was lower on central memory T-cells, and there were fewer naïve cells. IL-7-induced signalling through phosphorylated STAT5 was lower in HCV infection than in controls, and differed between CD8+ T-cell subsets. Production of Bcl-2 following IL-7 stimulation was also lower in HCV infection and inversely related to the degree of liver fibrosis. In liver-derived CD8+ T-cells, STAT5 activation could not be increased with cytokine stimulation and basal Bcl-2 levels of liver-derived CD8+ T-cells were lower than blood-derived counterparts in HCV infection. Therefore, generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in HCV infection is characterized, in part, by impaired IL-7-mediated signalling and survival, independent of CD127 expression. This impairment is more pronounced in the liver and may be associated with an increased potential for apoptosis. This generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment represents an important immune dysfunction in chronic HCV infection that may alter patient health.

  14. High prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis E virus in HIV-infected patients with unexplained liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchante, Nicolás; Parra-Sánchez, Manuel; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Cifuentes, Celia; Camacho, Ángela; Macías, Juan; Martínez-Dueñas, Loreto; Pérez-Navarro, Elisabet; Rivero, Antonio; Pineda, Juan A

    2015-10-01

    To look for evidence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) exposure in HIV-infected patients with unexplained elevations of liver stiffness (LS). Case-control study conducted in 31 HIV-infected patients with unexplained elevations of LS and in 31 HIV-controls with normal LS, matched by age, sex and CD4 cell-counts. Serum HEV antibodies were tested by two ELISA procedures and by Immunoblot. We defined exposure to HEV as the detection of serum HEV antibodies by at least one of the two ELISA assays, provided that it was confirmed by Immunoblot. A real-time PCR RNA assay was conducted in all plasma samples to identify subjects with active HEV infection. Exposure to HEV was demonstrated, according to the criteria used in this study, in 9 (29%) of the cases, whereas it was shown in 5 (16%) of the controls (p=.3). Serum HEV RNA was detected in none of the controls and in only in one case. This patient had a documented chronic hepatitis E with progression to cirrhosis. HEV antibodies are frequently found in HIV-infected patients with unexplained liver disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. A case of a facultative life-cycle diversification in the fluke Pleurogenoides sp. (Lecithodendriidae, Plagiorchiida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassl, Andreas R

    2010-10-01

    Numerous specimens of the native, intestinal digenean fluke Pleurogenoides sp. (Lecithodendriidae, Plagiorchiida), a genus known for the simultaneous co-existence of genuine adults and progenetic, adult-like metacercaria, were found by chance parasitizing in the oesophagus of a recently imported, tropical Bristly Bush Viper (Atheris hispida). The snake had before been force-fed with native water frogs, the assumed definitive host of these flukes. Hence water frogs act as the second intermediate host or as a paratenic host for Pleurogenoides flukes, as they must house progenetic fluke larvae, which develop to genuine adults when transmitted to an appropriate consecutive host, the ancestral definitive host, a reptile. The European Pleurogenoides fluke species seem to display a facultative life-cycle diversification, they can adjust their life-history strategy according to their immediate transmission opportunities. This phenotypic plasticity allows the parasite to respond quickly to any changes in the abundance of a host; usually this biological oddity results in a life-cycle truncation by the elimination of the definitive host.

  16. Differential Protein Expression in the Hemolymph of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Infected with Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulwadee Suwannatrai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is a freshwater snail that serves as the first intermediate host of the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. This parasite is a major public health problem in different countries throughout the Greater Mekong sub-region (Thailand, southern Vietnam, Lao PDR and Cambodia. Chronic O. viverrini infection also results in a gradual increase of fibrotic tissues in the biliary tract that are associated with hepatobiliary diseases and contribute to cholangiocarcinoma (a fatal type of bile duct cancer. Infectivity of the parasite in the snail host is strongly correlated with destruction of helminths by the snail's innate immune system, composed of cellular (hemocyte and humoral (plasma defense factors. To better understand this important host-parasite interface we applied sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS to identify and quantify the proteins from the hemolymph of B. siamensis goniomphalos experimentally infected with O. viverrini and compare them to non-infected snails (control group. A total of 362 and 242 proteins were identified in the hemocytes and plasma, respectively. Of these, 145 and 117 proteins exhibited significant differences in expression upon fluke infection in hemocytes and plasma, respectively. Among the proteins with significantly different expression patterns, we found proteins related to immune response (up-regulated in both hemocyte and plasma of infected snails and proteins belonging to the structural and motor group (mostly down-regulated in hemocytes but up-regulated in plasma of infected snails. The proteins identified and quantified in this work will provide important information for the understanding of the factors involved in snail defense against O. viverrini and might facilitate the development of new strategies to control O. viverrini infection in endemic areas.

  17. Immunomorphologic Manifestations in Mice Liver Infected with Influenza A/H5N1, A/Goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana V. Potapova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1 viruses can infect mammals, including humans, causing severe systemic disease with the inhibition of the immune system and a high mortality rate. In conditions of lymphoid tissue depletion, the liver plays an important role in host defence against viruses. The changes in mice liver infected with HPAI H5N1 virus A/goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 have been studied. It has been shown that the virus persistence in the liver leads to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and intracellular proteases (lysozyme, cathepsin D, and myeloperoxidase by Kupffer cells. Defective antiviral response exacerbates destructive processes in the liver accelerating the development of liver failure.

  18. Use of irradiation to control infectivity of food-borne parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Food-borne parasitic diseases are common throughout the world, pose significant health problems and cause economic losses in terms of agricultural commodities and human productivity. The diseases usually occur through consumption of raw or partially cooked foods with are infected by various parasites (e.g. tapeworms, roundworms, flukes, parasitic protozoa, etc.). The problem is significant in developing countries where the population has the habit of consuming raw food of animal origin. Available data, with the exception of data on Trichinella spiralis, a parasitic nematode, were insufficient for the use of irradiation technology to control food-borne parasites. Therefore, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Irradiation to Control Infectivity of Food-Borne Parasites was implemented by the FAO/IAEA in 1986. The results of the work carried out over five years (1986-1991) by twelve researchers participating in the programme, have established conclusively the potential for application of food irradiation in the control of liver flukes, tapeworms, roundworms, trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, etc. This report includes the conclusions and recommendations of the participants concerning the results obtained and need for further research. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, W.

    1976-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against economically important parasitic diseases of farm animals has met with mixed success. Examples are presented ranging from the highly effective and much used commercial vaccine against cattle lungworm to the almost completely unsuccessful attempts to immunize sheep against liver fluke. The results presented emphasize that this approach is likely to be successful only if there is evidence of a strong degree of acquired immunity to the natural infection. The extension of immunological control to those systems where the parasite provokes only a modest resistance by the host will probably depend on a much greater understanding of the mechanism of the immune response. Such fundamental studies are likely to rely heavily on nuclear techniques, e.g. in the labelling of antigens, antibodies and parasites with radioactive isotopes. (author)

  20. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Infected by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that play key roles in regulation of various biological processes. In order to better understand the biological significance of miRNAs in the context of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala, small RNA libraries obtained from fish liver at 0 (non-infection, 4, and 24 h post infection (poi were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 11,244,207, 9,212,958, and 7,939,157 clean reads were obtained from these three RNA libraries, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis identified 171 conserved miRNAs and 62 putative novel miRNAs. The existence of ten randomly selected novel miRNAs was validated by RT-PCR. Pairwise comparison suggested that 61 and 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed at 4 and 24 h poi, respectively. Furthermore, the expression profiles of nine randomly selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. MicroRNA target prediction, gene ontology (GO annotation, and Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis indicated that a variety of biological pathways could be affected by A. hydrophila infection. Additionally, transferrin (TF and transferrin receptor (TFR genes were confirmed to be direct targets of miR-375. These results will expand our knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the immune response of M. amblycephala to A. hydrophila infection, and facilitate the development of effective strategies against A. hydrophila infection in M. amblycephala.

  1. Protease Inhibitors of Parasitic Flukes: Emerging Roles in Parasite Survival and Immune Defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Shiwanthi L; McManus, Donald P

    2017-05-01

    Protease inhibitors play crucial roles in parasite development and survival, counteracting the potentially damaging immune responses of their vertebrate hosts. However, limited information is currently available on protease inhibitors from schistosomes and food-borne trematodes. Future characterization of these molecules is important not only to expand knowledge on parasitic fluke biology but also to determine whether they represent novel vaccine and/or drug targets. Moreover, protease inhibitors from flukes may represent lead compounds for the development of a new range of therapeutic agents against inflammatory disorders and cancer. This review discusses already identified protease inhibitors of fluke origin, emphasizing their biological function and their possible future development as new intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Eye-flukes in fish, living in cooling water from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeglund, J.; Thulin, J.

    1988-01-01

    We report here on the effects of raised water temperature on the prevalence, mean infrapopulation density and consequences of eye-flukes in fish. The study was mainly performed in the Biotest basin situated 120 km north of Stockholm, Sweden. This 1 km 2 basin is an enclosed brackish water (5 permillage) area receiving heated (about 8 degree C) cooling water (90 m 3 /s) from Forsmark nuclear power station. Both morphological and experimental studies of the parasite larvae of sampled fish indicate that we are dealing with four strains of Diplostomum, two of which occur in perch and the other two in roach. Since taxonomic revisions are under hand elsewhere we prefer to name these strains Diplostomum sp1-4. Metacercariae of D.sp 1 were found between the retina and sclera in the eye of perch while that of D.sp 4 were found in the eye-lens of roach in over 90 % of fish examined. Metacercariae of the other two D.-species and of Tylodelphys clavata and Cotylurus sp were found at lower frequencies. Cercariae of Diplostomum spp were found to develop from sporocysts in snails of the genus Lymnaea. The period of cercarial shedding starts about one month earlier and is also prolonged in the Biotest basin compared to the reference locality. The infection procedure, however, is the same in both areas. During experimental infections with cercariae on yearlings of bleak we found a distinct correlation between an increased fry mortality and an increased cercariae density, a connection which was strengthened at increased water temperature. Furthermore, the results indicate that the defence mechanisms of the fish respond slower towards infections with Diplostomum spp than that is known to be the case with bacterial infections. The speed with which the metacercariae accumulate in the eye of the fish is higher in the Biotest basin than in the reference locality. In spite of this, the mean infrapopulation density of metacercariae in older fish is not higher here than in the reference

  3. [Influence of kaempferol on TGF-β1/Smads signal path in liver tissue of mice with Schistosoma japonicum infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hua-rong; Zhang, Shu-ling

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the influence of kaempferol on transforming growth factor(TGF-β1/Smads signal tiransduction in liver tissue of mice with schistosomiasis liver fibrosis. Forty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into a normal control group (8 mice), a praziquantel group (8 mice ), and 4 praziquantel + kaempferol groups with different kaempferol dosages (5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg respectively, 6 mice each group). Besides the normal control group, all the mice in the other 5 groups were infected with Schistosoma japonicum. After the infection for 6 weeks, the praziquantel group and the 4 praziquantel + kaempferol groups were treated with praziquantel 500 mg/(kg.d) for 2 d, then the mice in the praziquantel group were drenched with normal saline for 6 weeks, and those in the 4 praziquantel + kaempferol groups were drenched with kaempferol 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg respectively for 6 weeks. After the treatment, all the animals were sacrificed by the cervical dislocation method, and the area of egg granuloma and the degree of fibrosis in the livers of the mice were observed by HE and Masson staining. The expressions of TGF-β1, Smad2/3, Smad7 proteins were measured by the immunohistochemical method, and the mRNA levels of the 3 proteins were detected by RT-PCR. Compared with the mice in the praziquantel group, the areas of egg granuloma of the liver of the mice in the 4 praziquantel + kaempferol groups were smaller, and the degrees of the hepatic fibrosis of the mice were lesser, and their expressions of Smad2 and Smad3 at protein and their mRNA levels were significantly lower (all P kaempferol can significantly reduce the degrees of hepatic fibrosis and granuloma caused by schistosome eggs after the praziquantel treatment.

  4. effect of hepatitis b virus co-infection on cd4 cell count and liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-01

    Mar 1, 2015 ... total Protein, and liver enzymes were determined using standard ... The mean serum ALT, AST and ALP of mono ... HIV positivity was diagnosed by positive reactions to ..... the colorimetric Biuret method of protein determi.

  5. HBsAg-redirected T cells exhibit antiviral activity in HBV-infected human liver chimeric mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Robert L; Shum, Thomas; Tashiro, Haruko; Barzi, Mercedes; Yi, Zhongzhen; Whitten-Bauer, Christina; Legras, Xavier; Bissig-Choisat, Beatrice; Garaigorta, Urtzi; Gottschalk, Stephen; Bissig, Karl-Dimiter

    2018-04-06

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains incurable. Although HBsAg-specific chimeric antigen receptor (HBsAg-CAR) T cells have been generated, they have not been tested in animal models with authentic HBV infection. We generated a novel CAR targeting HBsAg and evaluated its ability to recognize HBV+ cell lines and HBsAg particles in vitro. In vivo, we tested whether human HBsAg-CAR T cells would have efficacy against HBV-infected hepatocytes in human liver chimeric mice. HBsAg-CAR T cells recognized HBV-positive cell lines and HBsAg particles in vitro as judged by cytokine production. However, HBsAg-CAR T cells did not kill HBV-positive cell lines in cytotoxicity assays. Adoptive transfer of HBsAg-CAR T cells into HBV-infected humanized mice resulted in accumulation within the liver and a significant decrease in plasma HBsAg and HBV-DNA levels compared with control mice. Notably, the fraction of HBV core-positive hepatocytes among total human hepatocytes was greatly reduced after HBsAg-CAR T cell treatment, pointing to noncytopathic viral clearance. In agreement, changes in surrogate human plasma albumin levels were not significantly different between treatment and control groups. HBsAg-CAR T cells have anti-HBV activity in an authentic preclinical HBV infection model. Our results warrant further preclinical exploration of HBsAg-CAR T cells as immunotherapy for HBV. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of fermentation time and low temperature during the production process of Thai pickled fish (pla-som) on the viability and infectivity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsurathum, Sudarat; Pinlaor, Porntip; Haonon, Ornuma; Chaidee, Apisit; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Intuyod, Kitti; Boonmars, Thidarut; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2016-02-02

    Contamination of a popular fermented fish dish, pla-som, by Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OVMC) is a possible cause of carcinogenic liver fluke infection in Thailand. Affected individuals are at risk of bile duct cancer, which is a major health problem for people in the Greater Mekong Subregion. In order to investigate concerns about food safety, we studied the effects of fermentation time and low temperature on the viability and infectivity of OVMC during the pla-som production process. Pla-som was prepared at room temperature for up to 1 week in duplicate experiments using cyprinid freshwater fish obtained from an O. viverrini-endemic area. OVMC were then isolated and identified under a stereomicroscope. Complete and viable OVMC were found on days 1-4 of fermentation, while their morphology was degenerated thereafter. After OVMC were fed to hamsters, the percentage of the worm recovery after 1 to 2 months of infection was 52%, 44.7%, 11.3% and 1% for days 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In order to measure the effect of low temperature on OVMC, fish were kept in a refrigerator (4 °C) for up to five days and then subsequently fermented for three days. In fish stored in a refrigerator for 1 and 2 days, viable OVMC were clearly observed and were able to infect hamsters, a worm-recovery percentage of 3.3% and 12.7%, respectively. By contrast, in pla-som prepared from fish stored for 3 to 5 days, OVMC were degenerated and could not infect the host. In conclusion, pla-som fermentation for more than four days and refrigerating fish for three days before pla-som processing can prevent O. viverrini infection. This study may increase awareness of fermented-fish dish preparation to prevent liver fluke infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological aspects of liver CT in patients with HIV infections. CT-morphologische Aspekte der Leber bei Patienten mit HIV-Infektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schedel, H [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Wicht, L [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Roegler, G [2. Medizinische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Langer, R [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Felix, R [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1994-07-01

    CT examinations of the liver in HIV-infected patients show more frequent pathological findings. The extended spectrum of differential diagnosis and atypical manifestations of disorders in immunodeficient patients needs to be considered in the interpretation of CT scans. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in HIV-infected patients are demonstrated in the following. Besides the relatively common findings in HIV-infection such as hepato- or hepatosplenomegalia, lymphoma, and inflammatory changes of the bowel an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis, and local steatosis of the liver are discussed as the rare causes for suspect computertomographic findings in the live of HIV-infected patients. The examinations were obtained consecutively in 76 HIV-infected patients during abdominal CT staging. (orig.)

  8. Changes in Liver Steatosis After Switching From Efavirenz to Raltegravir Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Juan; Mancebo, María; Merino, Dolores; Téllez, Francisco; Montes-Ramírez, M Luisa; Pulido, Federico; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Raffo, Miguel; Pérez-Pérez, Montserrat; Merchante, Nicolás; Cotarelo, Manuel; Pineda, Juan A

    2017-09-15

    Antiretroviral drugs with a lower potential to induce hepatic steatosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection need to be identified. We compared the effect of switching efavirenz (EFV) to raltegravir (RAL) on hepatic steatosis among HIV-infected patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) receiving EFV plus 2 nucleoside analogues. HIV-infected patients on EFV plus tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine with NAFLD were randomized 1:1 to switch from EFV to RAL (400 mg twice daily), maintaining nucleoside analogues unchanged, or to continue with EFV plus 2 nucleoside analogues. At baseline, eligible patients should show controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) values ≥238 dB/m. Changes in hepatic steatosis at 48 weeks of follow-up over baseline levels were measured by CAP. Overall, 39 patients were included, and 19 of them were randomized to switch to RAL. At week 48, median CAP for the RAL group was 250 (Q1-Q3, 221-277) dB/m and 286 (Q1-Q3, 269-314) dB/m for the EFV group (P = .035). The median decrease in CAP values was -20 (Q1-Q3, -67 to 15) dB/m for the RAL arm and 30 (Q1-Q3, -17 to 49) dB/m for the EFV group (P = .011). CAP values hepatic steatosis, as measured by CAP, compared with those continuing with EFV. In addition, the proportion of patients without significant hepatic steatosis after 48 weeks was greater for those who switched to RAL. NCT01900015. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Prevalence and co-infection of intestinal parasites among thai rural residents at high-risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma: a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co- infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.

  10. Viral infection of human progenitor and liver-derived cells encapsulated in three-dimensional PEG-based hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam-Joon; Elazar, Menashe; Xiong, Anming; Glenn, Jeffrey S [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CCSR Building Room 3115A, 269 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chiao, Eric; Baker, Julie [Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Frank, Curtis W, E-mail: jeffrey.glenn@stanford.ed, E-mail: curt.frank@stanford.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    We have studied the encapsulation of human progenitor cells into 3D PEG hydrogels. Replication-incompetent lentivirus promoter reporter vectors were found to efficiently detect the in vivo expression of human hepatic genes in hydrogel-encapsulated liver progenitor cells. Similarly, hydrogel-encapsulated cells could be efficiently infected with hepatitis C virus, and progeny infectious virus could be recovered from the media supernatants of the hydrogels. Provocatively, the diameters of these virus particles range from {approx}50 to 100 nm, while the calculated mesh size of the 8 k hydrogel is 44.6 +- 1.7 A. To reconcile how viral particles can penetrate the hydrogels to infect the encapsulated cells, we propose that microfractures/defects of the hydrogel result in a functional pore size of up to 20 fold greater than predicted by theoretical mesh calculations. These results suggest a new model of hydrogel structure, and have exciting implications for tissue engineering and hepatitis virus studies. (communication)

  11. Viral infection of human progenitor and liver-derived cells encapsulated in three-dimensional PEG-based hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam-Joon; Elazar, Menashe; Xiong, Anming; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Lee, Wonjae; Chiao, Eric; Baker, Julie; Frank, Curtis W

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the encapsulation of human progenitor cells into 3D PEG hydrogels. Replication-incompetent lentivirus promoter reporter vectors were found to efficiently detect the in vivo expression of human hepatic genes in hydrogel-encapsulated liver progenitor cells. Similarly, hydrogel-encapsulated cells could be efficiently infected with hepatitis C virus, and progeny infectious virus could be recovered from the media supernatants of the hydrogels. Provocatively, the diameters of these virus particles range from ∼50 to 100 nm, while the calculated mesh size of the 8 k hydrogel is 44.6 ± 1.7 A. To reconcile how viral particles can penetrate the hydrogels to infect the encapsulated cells, we propose that microfractures/defects of the hydrogel result in a functional pore size of up to 20 fold greater than predicted by theoretical mesh calculations. These results suggest a new model of hydrogel structure, and have exciting implications for tissue engineering and hepatitis virus studies. (communication)

  12. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection of the liver mimicking malignancy: Presentation of a new case and review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoulis, Nikolaos; Zerbinis, Helen; Simatos, Georgios; Nisiotis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis or "pinworm" infection of the liver is an extremely rare condition with only five cases previously reported in literature. It is characterized by the presence of granulomas in the liver with a necrotic core, containing adult helminthes or their ova. Because of the relatively mild symptomatology associated with this disease, prior to the arrival of modern imaging methods hepatic enterobiasis was an incidental intra-operative finding during abdominal surgery for other conditions. In recent years however, with high-resolution abdominal imaging readily available and the improved safety of hepatic resection, a lower threshold for treating suspicious hepatic nodules aggressively with surgery is being adopted. We present the second case in international literature, where E. vermicularis of the liver was mistaken for malignancy and led to hepatic resection and perform a literature review of the five previously documented cases of hepatic enterobiasis. Our report identifies certain trends in this condition's aetiology and clinical behaviour, but due to its rarity definitive answers cannot yet be established. We do not advocate a change in the current approach of suspicious hepatic nodules, but we do feel that better understanding of the mechanisms involved with hepatic enterobiasis could, in the future, prevent unnecessary surgery.

  13. Hepatitis C virus infection associated with liver-kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) autoantibodies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Flavia; Muratori, Luigi; Jara, Paloma; Hierro, Loreto; Verucchi, Gabriella; Giacchino, Raffaella; Barbera, Cristiana; Zancan, Lucia; Guido, Maria; Resti, Massimo; Pedditzi, Sabrina; Bianchi, Francesco; Gatta, Angelo

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical pattern and evolution of chronic hepatitis C in children with liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 autoantibodies (LKM1). A multicenter, retrospective study, including the following groups of children with hepatitis C virus infection: (1). 21 consecutive LKM1-positive patients, (2). 42 age- and sex- matched LKM1-negative patients, and (3). 4 interferon-induced LKM1-positive cases. LKM1 reactivity to human microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) was assayed by immunoblotting. Clinical and biochemical features overlapped in LKM1-positive and LKM1-negative children, but a fibrosis score >3 (range 0-6) was significantly more frequent (P =.04) in the former. Reactivity to microsomal protein and CYP2D6 was significantly (P =.02) associated with LKM1 titers >or=1:320 and was found in 39% of patients, including severe cases and both children (of 4 treated) who achieved a sustained alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization after steroid treatment. Five of 7 LKM1-positive children treated with interferon had an ALT exacerbation. LKM1-positive hepatitis C in children is characterized by a wide spectrum of biochemical, serologic, and histologic features. Whether autoimmunity may contribute to liver damage in a subgroup of patients with more severe liver disease, high LKM1 titers, and reactivity to CYP2D6 is a question deserving further investigation.

  14. Progression of biopsy-measured liver fibrosis in untreated patients with hepatitis C infection: non-Markov multistate model analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bacchetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibrosis stages from liver biopsies reflect liver damage from hepatitis C infection, but analysis is challenging due to their ordered but non-numeric nature, infrequent measurement, misclassification, and unknown infection times. METHODS: We used a non-Markov multistate model, accounting for misclassification, with multiple imputation of unknown infection times, applied to 1062 participants of whom 159 had multiple biopsies. Odds ratios (OR quantified the estimated effects of covariates on progression risk at any given time. RESULTS: Models estimated that progression risk decreased the more time participants had already spent in the current stage, African American race was protective (OR 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.95, p = 0.018, and older current age increased risk (OR 1.33 per decade, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.54, p = 0.0002. When controlled for current age, older age at infection did not appear to increase risk (OR 0.92 per decade, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 1.79, p = 0.80. There was a suggestion that co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus increased risk of progression in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment beginning in 1996 (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 4.4, p = 0.059. Other examined risk factors may influence progression risk, but evidence for or against this was weak due to wide confidence intervals. The main results were essentially unchanged using different assumed misclassification rates or imputation of age of infection. DISCUSSION: The analysis avoided problems inherent in simpler methods, supported the previously suspected protective effect of African American race, and suggested that current age rather than age of infection increases risk. Decreasing risk of progression with longer time already spent in a stage was also previously found for post-transplant progression. This could reflect varying disease activity, with recent progression indicating

  15. Community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess: an emerging infection in Ireland and Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, R

    2013-02-05

    INTRODUCTION: Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as a predominant cause of community-acquired mono-microbial pyogenic liver abscess. This was first described in Taiwan and has been widely reported in Asia. This infectious entity has been described in Europe, with single case reports predominating. METHODS: We present three cases in one year from our institution in Ireland and review the European literature to date. RESULTS\\/CONCLUSION: Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive liver abscess syndrome is now emerging in Europe and notably is not restricted to individuals of Asian descent.

  16. Expression of pattern recognition receptors in liver biopsy specimens of children chronically infected with HBV and HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Służewski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs constitute a pivotal arm of innate immunity. Their distribution is widespread and not limited to cells of the immune system. Following our previous findings concerning the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs 2, 3 and 4 in chronic viral hepatitis C of children, we wished to search for other PRRs, including other TLRs, NOD-like receptors (NLRs and RIG-1-like helicase receptors (RLR in infected hepatocytes. Liver biopsy fragments from ten children with chronic hepatitis B and C were used and two others in which hepatotropic virus infection was excluded. Frozen sections of liver samples were subjected to ABC immunohistochemistry (IHC following incubation with a set of antibodies. Results of IHC findings were screened for correlation with clinical/laboratory data of patients. It was found that several PRRs could be shown in affected hepatocytes, but the incidence was higher in hepatitis C than in B. In hepatitis C, TLR1, 2, 4, NALP and RIG-1 helicase showed the most marked expression. In hepatitis B, TLR1, 3, 9, NOD1 and NALP expression were the most conspicuous. Expression PRRs in liver from hepatitis of unknown origin was much lower. It was also the case in cytospins from human hepatoma cell line. Several correlations between PRRs expression and clinical findings in patients could be shown by statistical exploration. In conclusion, this data suggests some role for PRRs in the pathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 410–416

  17. Prevalence of genotype D in chronic liver disease patients with occult HBV infection in northern region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meher Rizvi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Etiology of nearly 30% cases of chronic viral hepatitis remains undetected. Occult HBV infection (OBI has emerged as an important clinical entity in this scenario. Apart from prevalence and clinical outcome of OBI patients genotype was determined in northern region of India. Materials and Methods: A total of 847 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD were screened for common viral etiologies and others serological markers of HBV. Amplification of surface, precore and polymerase genes of HBV was performed in patients negative for other etiologies. Genotyping and sequencing of the precore region was performed for OBI cases. Results: Twenty-nine (7.61% cases of OBI were identifiedof which 9 had chronic liver disease (CHD, 11 liver cirrhosis (LC and 9 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Majority of OBI cases were detected by amplification of surface gene 26 (89.6%, followed by pre-core gene 12 (41.3%. Their liver functions tests were significantly deranged in comparison to overt HBV cases. IgG anti HBc was present in 8 (27.6% OBI cases. Mutation was observed in 8 (32% in pre-core region at nt. 1896 of overt HBV cases. Genotype D was the predominant genotype. In conclusion: OBI in our study was characterized by predominance of genotype D and more severe clinical and biochemical profile in comparison to overt HBV. IgG anti HBc positivity could be utilized as a marker of OBI. We recommend use of sensitive nested PCR for diagnosis of OBI, amplifying at least surface and precore gene.

  18. Statin-induced liver injury in an area endemic for hepatitis B virus infection: risk factors and outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yueh; Huang, Yi-Shin; Perng, Chin-Lin; Huang, Bryan; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Statin-induced liver injury (SILI) is quite rare, but may be severe. Little is known about the impact of chronic hepatitis B infection (CHBI) on SILI. We aimed to investigate the risk factors and outcome of SILI, with special reference to its interaction with CHBI. Patients with SILI were recruited from our hospital, and three-to-one drug-matched controls were randomly selected. The clinical data of the patients were then compared. A total of 108 patients with SILI and 324 controls were enrolled. The patients with SILI were both older and had a higher statin dose than the controls. There was no predilection of liver injury associated with the seven available statins. Among the SILI patients, there was no statistical difference between the baseline and peak liver enzyme tests, and latency and severity between hepatitis B carriers (n = 16) and non-carriers (n = 92). High dose of statin and age were the two independent risk factors of SILI (OR and 95% CI: 1.93, 1.08-3.35, P = 0.025, and 1.73, 1.07-2.80, P = 0.027, respectively). Permanent discontinuation of statin was noted in 50 (46.3%) patients with SILI due to severe SILI or recurrent hepatotoxicity after rechallenge of other statins. High dose of statin and old age may increase patient susceptibility to SILI; however, CHBI and abnormal baseline liver tests are not risk factors of SILI. Nonetheless, SILI is still worthy of notice, because nearly half of the overt cases discontinued statin treatment due to severe hepatotoxicity in this study. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Best single time point correlations with AUC for cyclosporine and tacrolimus in HIV-infected kidney and liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, Lynda A; Tan-Tam, Clara C; Barin, Burc; Browne, Matt; Wolfe, Alan R; Stock, Peter G; Roland, Michelle; Benet, Leslie Z

    2014-03-27

    Interactions between antiretrovirals (ARVs) and transplant immunosuppressant agents (IS) among HIV-infected transplant recipients may lead to lack of efficacy or toxicity. In transplant recipients not infected with HIV, tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels (C0) or cyclosporine (CsA) drawn at C0 or 2 hours after dosing (C2) correlate with drug exposure (area under the curve [AUC]/dose) and outcomes. Because of ARV-IS interactions in HIV-infected individuals, and the high rate of rejection in these subjects, this study investigated the correlations between IS concentrations and exposure to determine the best method to monitor immunosuppressant levels. This study prospectively studied 50 HIV-infected transplant recipients undergoing kidney or liver transplantation evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the IS in 150 studies over time after transplantation (weeks 2 to 4, 12, 28, 52, and 104). IS levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and AUC calculated using WinNonlin 9.0. Correlation analyses were run on SAS 9.2. CsA concentration at C4 correlated better with AUC than C0 or C2, and over time TAC concentration correlated better at C0 or C2. It is suggested that C0 is acceptable for TAC monitoring, but poor predictability will occur at C0 with CsA. The low correlation of C0 with CsA AUC could be responsible for the higher rejection rates on CsA that has been reported in these subjects.

  20. Immunological and pathophysiological studies on the infection of animals with liver specific trichocephalid Capillaris hepatica. Part a coordinated programme on isotopes and radiation in animal parasitology and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahner, H.

    1976-07-01

    The effect of X-ray radiation on the infection of animal liver with Capillaria hepatica was investigated. A dose of 70 Krd could not prevent an invasion of the liver with the parasite, and no differences in the number of lesions was found to occur between normal and irradiated parasite eggs. With regard to the fertility of the eggs, reproductivity was found to decrease after X-ray irradiation. Studies on cross- and histopathology were performed after infections with normal and irradiated (2 Krd and 5 Krd) eggs. Alterations of serum-enzyme activities were followed and the development of antibodies was demonstrated using an extract of non-embryonated C. hepatica eggs. Immunization experiments ascertained the immunizing capacity of a vaccine (as irradiated embryonated eggs) in comparison to normal infections and to intraperitoneal injections of nonembryonated eggs. The effect was determined with regard to the egg production of sublethal challenge infections and to the mortality after normally lethal challenge infections

  1. [Detection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus and human parvovirus 4 infections in blood samples among 95 patients with liver disease in Nanjing by nested PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Rui; Zhou, Wei-Min; Liu, Xi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Lou, Yong-Liang; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the infection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus (HBoV) and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) in blood samples among patients with liver disease in Nanjing by molecular detection. Nested PCR assays were designed and validated to detect B19, HBoV and PARV4, respectively. The assays were used to screen three parvoviruses in blood samples from 95 patients with different liver disease in Nanjing. The parvovirus infection was analyzed statistically. The detection limits were 10 copies of genomic DNA equivalents per reaction for each assays and the good specificity were observed. The frequency of B19 and HBoV were 2/95 (2.1%) and 9/95 (9.5%) in blood samples respectively. No PARV4 was detected. HBoV was detected in 3/5 patients with drug-induced hepatitis. Both B19 and HBoV infection were detected in blood from patients with liver disease.

  2. Liver disease in adult transfusion-dependent beta-thalassaemic patients: investigating the role of iron overload and chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouras, Dimitrios; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos J; Fatourou, Evangelia; Dalagiorgos, Efthimios; Chrysanthos, Nikolaos; Berdoussi, Helen; Vgontza, Niki; Karagiorga, Markissia; Lagiandreou, Athanasios; Kaligeros, Konstantinos; Voskaridou, Ersi; Roussou, Paraskevi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Koskinas, John

    2013-03-01

    Iron overload and hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection, have been implicated in the evolution of liver disease, in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassaemia major (BTM). However, the impact of these factors in late stages of liver disease in adults with BTM, has not been extensively studied. To investigate serum indices of iron overload, HCV infection and liver disease, in a cohort of 211 adult Greek patients with BTM, in relation with the findings from liver biopsies. In this cross-sectional study, 211 patients with BTM were enrolled and studied, in relation with HCV infection, ferritin, transaminases, chelation treatment and antiviral treatment. Based on 109 patients biopsied, we correlated liver fibrosis, haemosiderosis and inflammation, with serum indices and HCV status Among all patients, 74.4% were anti-HCV positive (HCV+). Ferritin was positively correlated with transaminases and negatively correlated with age, while it was not significantly different among HCV+ and HCV- patients. Among the HCV+ patients, 55.4% reported antiviral treatment, while genotype 1 predominated. In a subfraction of 109 patients, in which liver biopsy was performed, 89% were HCV+ and 11% HCV-. Fibrosis was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.046), AST (P = 0.004), ALT (P = 0.044) and inflammation (P overload may be the critical determinant, since fibrosis is related to the minimal haemosiderosis, independently of HCV history. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Sorafenib tosylate, Ribavirn and Sofosbuvir combination therapy for HCV virus infected patients with decompensated liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Bushra; Ahmed, Bilal; Kiran, Shumaila; Jalal, Fatima; Zahoor, Muhammad Kashif; Shehzadi, Saba; Oranab, Sadaf; Kamran, Sayed Kashif; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis C is the most common health problem worldwide and is major cause of death due to proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma. The medicines available for HCV treatment overcome up-to 95% complications of HCV. However, liver cancer needs some additional care. Normally Sorafenib tosylate 200 mg is recommended for liver cancer. There is no such trial in which this drug could effectively be used in combination of direct acting antivirals for HCV. The study was conducted for HCV patients (n=30) with liver cancer having decompensated stage. Combination of Sorafenib tosylate, Ribavirn and Sofosbuvir were used for the pharmacokinetics of these medicines. Child pugh score less then 7 (CP A) in adults during treatment phase (received 12 weeks of Sorafenib tosylate 200 mg, Ribavirn and Sofosbuvir 400 mg once daily) have no side effect while child pugh score 7-9 (CP B) have evidence of hypertension. The main efficiency end point sustained virology response with overcoming liver cancer as well in 12 weeks after end treatment (SVR-LLC 12). Mean pharmacokinetic exposure to Sorafenib tosylate 200 mg, Ribavirn and Sofosbuvir at week 8th was 2.1, 1.5,1.2 times greater in CP B than in CP A. Adverse effects (AEs) were observed in 12 out of 30 patients but not severe as lethal for life. Treatment with Sorafenib tosylate, Ribavirn and Sofosbuvir for twelve weeks was harmless and well accepted, 100 % patients achieve (SVR LLC 12) with 10-fold cure rate more than previous ones. The combination therapy of Sorafenib tosylate, Ribavirn and Sofosbuvir was found helpful for the management of decompensated liver cancer.

  4. NS3 protease resistance-associated substitutions in liver tissue and plasma samples from patients infected by hepatitis C virus genotype 1A or 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsica, Giulia; Andolina, Andrea; Merli, Marco; Messina, Emanuela; Hasson, Hamid; Lazzarin, Adriano; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Bagaglio, Sabrina

    2017-08-01

    The presence of naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in the HCV-protease domain has been poorly investigated in the liver, the main site of HCV replication. We evaluated the natural resistance of the virus to NS3 protease inhibitors in liver tissue and plasma samples taken from HCV-infected patients. RASs were investigated by means of viral population sequencing in liver tissue samples from 18 HCV-infected patients harbouring genotype 1a or genotype 1b; plasma samples from 12 of these patients were also available for virological investigation. A discordant genotype was found in two of the 12 patients (16.6%) who provided samples from both compartments. Sequence analysis of the NS3 protease domain showed the presence of RASs in four of the 18 liver tissue samples (22.2%), two of which showed cross-resistance to protease inhibitors in clinical use or phase 2-3 trials. The analysis of the 12 paired tissues and plasma samples excluded the presence of RASs in the plasma compartment. The dominance of discordant genotypes in the paired liver and plasma samples of some HCV-infected patients suggests mixed infection possibly leading to the selective advantage of different genotype in the two compartments. The presence of RASs at intra-hepatic level is not uncommon and may lead to the early emergence of cross-resistant strains.

  5. Genetic interrelationships of North American populations of giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazsalovicsová, E.; Kráľová-Hromadová, I.; Štefka, Jan; Minárik, G.; Bokorová, S.; Pybus, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, MAY 28 2015 (2015), s. 288 ISSN 1756-3305 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematoda * Fasciolidae * Mitochondrial DNA * Cytochrome c oxidase * Nicotinamide dehydrogenase * Spatial distribution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  6. Partial purification and properties of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) from liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Husain; Abeer, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphatase (ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.3.;ATPase) is a membrane -bound enzyme which transport protons across the plasma membrane using ATP as an energy source. The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase ; EC: 3.6.1.3) was extracted from membrane preparations of adult Fasciola hepatica by chloroform treatment and purified by means of ammonium sulphate fractionation, gel filtration on sephadex G-200 and DEAE- Cellulose chromatography. The molecular weight was calculated to be 305.000 dalton by gel filtration. Kinetic experiments demonstrated a biphasic linear lineweaver - burk relationship (km=0.142 and 1.66 mM) thus revealing the existence of two substrate binding enzyme sites. In our study revealed that partial inhibition of Mg²⁺ dependent purified enzyme by oligomycin suggest the absence of mitochondrial ATPase in F. hepatica.

  7. 2-Hexadecynoic acid inhibits plasmodial FAS-II enzymes and arrests erythrocytic and liver stage Plasmodium infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M

    2010-11-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of Plasmodium yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC(50) value 6.6 μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC(50) value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescence analysis (IC(50) 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory activity against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC(50) values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC(50) control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml), respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50) values 3.7-31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC(50) 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC(50) values 4.1-13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature, and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggests that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to

  8. 2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC50 value 6.6. μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC50 value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescense analysis (IC50 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC50 values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC50 control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml) respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 values 3.7–31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC50 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC50 values 4.1–13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggest that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to study the interaction of fatty

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878, the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra K. Biswal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps

  10. Evaluation of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10 and parasite density in spleen and liver of L. (L.) chagasi naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE F Michelin, A; Perri, S H V; De Lima, V M F

    2011-07-01

    Dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of L. (L.) chagasi. Once in the vertebrate host, the parasite can cause visceral leishmaniasis, which can also be transmitted to humans. Cytokines are key elements of the host immune response against Leishmania spp. To investigate whether tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 are associated with pattern infection in dogs, these cytokines were quantified in the spleen and liver of dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi, with or without clinical manifestations, and their levels were correlated with the parasite load verified in these organs. A total of 40 adult dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi were assessed, together with 12 uninfected control dogs. Samples from spleen and liver were used to determine the cytokine levels by capture ELISA and for quantifying parasite load by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using the minimum Chi square method and group means were compared using the Tukey test. TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 levels in infected dogs were higher than in control groups; the liver was the main cytokine-producing organ during infection. The level of splenic TNF-α showed correlation with parasite load and may represent an important marker for infection process evolution, with the participation of IL-10. These results may contribute to a clearer understanding of the immune response in dogs infected with L. (L.) chagasi, which may lead to the development of prophylactic or preventive measures for these animals.

  11. Liver function assessment in malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemchukwu, B N; Ibe, C C; Udedi, S C; Iroha, A; Ubaoji, K I; Ogundapo, S S

    2014-06-01

    Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most endemic diseases in the tropics and are associated with poverty and underdevelopment with significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases can lead to liver damage if not properly treated. The liver function assessment was therefore conducted on (90) volunteer patients; comprising (30) patients with malaria only, (30) with typhoid only and (30) with malaria-typhoid co-infection randomly selected from Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and (20) healthy individuals were used as control. Blood samples collected from these subjects were screened for malaria parasite and Staphylococcus typhi using standard methods. Mean serum levels of ALP (112.55±84.23), AST (31.33±12.80), ALT (23.10±11.84), TB (19.43±5.02), CB (5.91±3.03) and ALP (116.69±48.68), AST (28.33±11.72), ALT (22.8±5.94), TB (19.31±5.84),CB (5.60±2.50) were obtained for those subjects with malaria and typhoid respectively and subjects with malaria-typhoid co-infection recorded the following; ALP (134.33±56.62), AST (33.97±8.43), ALT (24.40±4.37),TB (21.27±2.96),CB (6.58±3.10) while the control subjects had mean serum levels ofALP (71.05±18.18), AST (16.65±7.45), ALT (13.85±6.09), TB (10.05±4.85) and CB (3.00±1.67). These mean values were subjected to a statistical test using students t-test which revealed a significant increase (p<0.05).The results suggest that malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection can elevate ALP, AST, ALT, TB and CB serum levels and can lead to liver damage if not properly treated.

  12. Comparison of liver fibrosis blood tests developed for HCV with new specific tests in HIV/HCV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, Paul; Halfon, Philippe; Batisse, Dominique; Carrat, Fabrice; Perré, Philippe; Penaranda, Guillaume; Guyader, Dominique; d'Alteroche, Louis; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Michelet, Christian; Veillon, Pascal; Lambert, Jérôme; Weiss, Laurence; Salmon, Dominique; Cacoub, Patrice

    2010-08-01

    We compared 5 non-specific and 2 specific blood tests for liver fibrosis in HCV/HIV co-infection. Four hundred and sixty-seven patients were included into derivation (n=183) or validation (n=284) populations. Within these populations, the diagnostic target, significant fibrosis (Metavir F > or = 2), was found in 66% and 72% of the patients, respectively. Two new fibrosis tests, FibroMeter HICV and HICV test, were constructed in the derivation population. Unadjusted AUROCs in the derivation population were: APRI: 0.716, Fib-4: 0.722, Fibrotest: 0.778, Hepascore: 0.779, FibroMeter: 0.783, HICV test: 0.822, FibroMeter HICV: 0.828. AUROCs adjusted on classification and distribution of fibrosis stages in a reference population showed similar values in both populations. FibroMeter, FibroMeter HICV and HICV test had the highest correct classification rates in F0/1 and F3/4 (which account for high predictive values): 77-79% vs. 70-72% in the other tests (p=0.002). Reliable individual diagnosis based on predictive values > or = 90% distinguished three test categories: poorly reliable: Fib-4 (2.4% of patients), APRI (8.9%); moderately reliable: Fibrotest (25.4%), FibroMeter (26.6%), Hepascore (30.2%); acceptably reliable: HICV test (40.2%), FibroMeter HICV (45.6%) (ptests). FibroMeter HICV classified all patients into four reliable diagnosis intervals ( or =F1, > or =F2) with an overall accuracy of 93% vs. 79% (pfibrosis. Tests designed for HCV infections are less effective in HIV/HCV infections. A specific test, like FibroMeter HICV, was the most interesting test for diagnostic accuracy, correct classification profile, and a reliable diagnosis. With reliable diagnosis intervals, liver biopsy can therefore be avoided in all patients. Copyright 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cutaneous infection by different Alternaria species in a liver transplant recipient

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    Susana Brás

    2015-06-01

    To our knowledge this is the first case of cutaneous concomitant infection due to those two species reported not only in Portugal but also worldwide. The patient was treated with surgical excision of the lesions and oral itraconazol without relapse.

  14. Hybrid origin of Asian aspermic Fasciola flukes is confirmed by analyzing two single-copy genes, pepck and pold

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAYASHI, Kei; ICHIKAWA-SEKI, Madoka; MOHANTA, Uday Kumar; SHORIKI, Takuya; CHAICHANASAK, Pannigan; ITAGAKI, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear gene markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold), have been developed for precise discrimination of Fasciola flukes instead of internal transcribed spacer 1. In this study, these two genes of 730 Fasciola flukes from eight Asian countries were analyzed. The results were compared with their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) lineages for obtaining a definitive evidence of the hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes. All the flukes categorized into the aspermic nad1 lineages possessed both the fragment patterns of F. hepatica and F. gigantica (mixed types) in pepck and/or pold. These findings provide clear evidence for the hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola lineages and suggest that “aspermic Fasciola flukes” should hereafter be called “hybrid Fasciola flukes”. PMID:29187710

  15. Antiviral effect of Anthocleista nobilis root extract on the liver homogenate indices of poultry fowls infected with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodele P. O,; Okonko I. O,; Chukwuka K. S,; Odu N. N; Michael V. I

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the preliminary investigation of the antiviral effect of Anthocleista nobilis root extract on the liver homogenate indices of poultry fowls treated for Newcastle Disease (ND). Eighteen (18) weeks-old fowls were used for this study. These were divided into 3 groups, A (infected and with treatment), B (infected and without treatment) and C (control). Groups A and B were challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Group A and C were given ethanolic root extract of A. nobili...

  16. Impact of perioperative liver dysfunction on in-hospital mortality and long-term survival in infective endocarditis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, M; Sponholz, C; von Loeffelholz, C; Scheffel, P; Bauer, M; Kortgen, A; Lehmann, T; Färber, G; Pletz, M W; Doenst, T

    2017-12-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is often associated with multiorgan dysfunction and mortality. The impact of perioperative liver dysfunction (LD) on outcome remains unclear and little is known about factors leading to postoperative LD. We performed a retrospective, single-center analysis on 285 patients with left-sided IE without pre-existing chronic liver disease referred to our center between 2007 and 2013 for valve surgery. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was used to evaluate organ dysfunction. Chi-square, Cox regression, and multivariate analyses were used for evaluation. Preoperative LD (Bilirubin >20 μmol/L) was present in 68 of 285 patients. New, postoperative LD occurred in 54 patients. Hypoxic hepatitis presented the most common origin of LD, accompanied with high short-term mortality. In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with preoperative and postoperative LD compared to patients without LD (51.5, 24.1, and 10.4%, respectively, p endocarditis is an independent predictor of short- and long-term mortalities. After surviving the hospital stay, 5-year prognosis is not different and quality of life is not affected by LD. S. aureus and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass represent risk factors for postoperative LD.

  17. The clinical features and outcomes of acute liver failure associated with dengue infection in adults: a case series

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    Soek-Siam Tan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical manifestations and outcome of acute liver failure (ALF associated with dengue viral infection, a rare but severe complication. METHODS: One hundred and fifty five consecutive patients with ALF admitted to the national liver centre from 2001 to 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Eight cases due to dengue infection were identified and their clinical characteristics are described. RESULTS: All patients had severe dengue with one dengue shock syndrome. The median (minimum, maximum age was 33.5 (17, 47 years with 50% female. The median (minimum, maximum duration from the onset of fever to development of ALF was 7.5 (5, 13 days and the maximum hepatic encephalopathy (HE grade were III in five patients and II in three patients. Three patients had systemic inflammatory responses (SIRS on admission and were in grade III HE. The presence of SIRS on admission was associated with higher grade of HE and its development during the course of hospitalization was associated with worsening HE grade. The hepatitis was characterized by marked elevations in: alanine transaminase [median admission 1140.5 u/L (639, 4161; median peak 2487 u/L (998, 5181], serum bilirubin [median admission 29 µmol/L (23, 291; median peak 127 µmol/L (72, 592], and prothrombin time [median admission 16.8 s (15.3, 26.2; median peak 22 s (15.3, 40.7]. The survival rate with standard medical therapy alone was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue associated ALF manifest about one week after the onset of fever with severe hepatitis and encephalopathy. In our experience, the outcome with standard medical therapy alone is excellent.

  18. Investigation of occult hepatitis B virus infection in anti-hbc positive patients from a liver clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmela; Kok, Chee Choy; Baleriola, Cristina; Robertson, Peter; Rawlinson, William D

    2015-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is manifested by presence of very low levels (Hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV DNA) in the blood and the liver while exhibiting undetectable HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). The molecular mechanisms underlying this occurrence are still not completely understood. This study investigated the prevalence of OBI in a high-risk Australian population and compared the HBV S gene sequences of our cohort with reference sequences. Serum from HBV DNA positive, HBsAg negative, and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive patients (study cohort) were obtained from samples tested at SEALS Serology Laboratory using the Abbott Architect, as part of screening and diagnostic testing. From a total of 228,108 samples reviewed, 1,451 patients were tested for all three OBI markers. Only 10 patients (0.69%) out of the 1,451 patients were found to fit the selection criteria for OBI. Sequence analysis of the HBV S gene from 5 suspected OBI infected patients showed increased sequence variability in the 'a' epitope of the major hydrophilic region compared to reference sequences. In addition, a total of eight consistent nucleotide substitutions resulting in seven amino acid changes were observed, and three patients had truncated S gene sequence. These mutations appeared to be stable and may result in alterations in HBsAg conformation. These may negatively impact the affinity of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) and may explain the false negative results in serological HBV diagnosis. These changes may also enable the virus to persist in the liver by evading immune surveillance. Further studies on a bigger cohort are required to determine whether these amino acid variations have been acquired in the process of immune escape and serve as markers of OBI.

  19. Novel Electron Spin Resonance-Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Occult Hepatitis B Infection in HCV Chronic Liver Disease

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    Hala Badawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus infection in patients who lack detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg is called occult hepatitis B infection (OHB. The very low level of HBV genome may hamper its detection by molecular techniques. Recently, a highly sensitive EIA utilizing a novel modified electron spin resonance (ESR technique (modified ESR-EIA was developed to detect HBsAg by measuring stabilized nitroxide radicals. Aim: to detect occult HBV infection, using ESR-EIA among HCV-related chronic liver disease (CLD Egyptian patients who were seronegative for HBsAg by standard EIA. Methods: The study was conducted on two periods of time; in 1st period, 72 inpatients in Tropical Medicine Department of TBRI, were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups; 44 seropositive anti-HCV patients (Group I, 28 seronegative anti-HCV patients (Group II. Sera were subjected to virological assays for HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs, anti-HCV and HCV RNA. We also examined serum HBV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique and real-time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR. In the 2nd period; modified ESR-EIA was applied on 32 TBRI inpatients, 23 in Tropical Medicine Department (Group I and 9 from hemodialysis unit (Group II with HCV-related CLD. Results: OHB was detected in 18.1% and 86.9% of our patients in 2002 and 2006 respectively. In phase 1, there was a higher detection rate among HCV patients in Group I (25% than Group II (7%, with higher prevalence (52.4% in patients with positive HCV RNA in Group I versus those with negative HCV viremia (8% in Group II. HBV DNA by either PCR or RTD-PCR was negative in all patients of both groups as the HBV viral load of the samples were below detectable level of the methods used; less than 100 copies/ml. None of 9 hemodialysis patients were positive for OHB. Conclusion: The newly developed quantitative ESR-EIA technique represents a great evolution for screening and

  20. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autoimmune diseases of the liver Hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection Inflammation of the liver that is long-term (chronic) Iron overload in the body ( hemochromatosis ) People with hepatitis B or C are at high risk of ...

  1. Recurrence of hepatitis C virus genotype- 4 infection following orthotopic liver transplantation: natural history and predictors of outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudawi, Hatim; Helmy, Ahmed; Kamel, Yasser; AlSaghier, Mohammed; AlSofayan, Mohammed; AlSebayel, Mohammed; Khalaf, Hatem; AlBahili, Hamad; Alhiek, Yasser; Alawi, Khalil; Mohamed, Hazem; AlJedai, Ahmed; AlHamoudi, Waleed; Abdo, Ayman

    2007-01-01

    There are few reports on hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4) recurrences after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Therefore, we undertook a study to determine the epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of patients with biopsy-proven recurrent HCV infection and analyzed the factors that influence recurrent disease severity. We also compared disease recurrence and outcomes between HCV-4 and other genotypes. All patients who underwent OLT (locally or abroad) for HCV related hepatic cirrhosis from 1991 to 2006 and had recurrent HCV infection were identified. Clinical, laboratory and pathological data before and after OLT were collected and analyzed. Of 116 patients who underwent OLT for hepatitis C, 46 (39.7%) patients satisfied the criteria of recurrent hepatitis C. Twenty-nine (63%) patients were infected with HCV genotype 4. Mean (SD) for age was 54.9 (10.9) years. Nineteen of the HCV genotype 4 patients (65.5%) were males, 21 (72.4%) received deceased donor grafts, and 7 (24.1%) developed > - 1 acute rejection episodes. Pathologically, 7 (24.1%) and 4 (13.8%) patients had inflammation grade 3-4 and fibrosis stage 3-4, respectively. Follow-up biopsy in 9 (31%) HCV genotype 4 patients showed stable, worse and improved fibrosis stage in 5, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. Of the 7 patients in the recurrent HCV group who died, 6 were infected with genotype 4 and 4 of them died of HCV-related disease. This analysis suggests that HCV recurrence following OLT in HCV-4 patients is not significantly different from its recurrence for other genotypes. (author)

  2. Liver dysfunction after chemotherapy in lymphoma patients infected with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdar, Omer; Tapan, Umit; Aksoy, Sercan; Harputluoglu, Hakan; Kilickap, Saadettin; Barista, Ibrahim

    2008-05-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers undergoing chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy is a well-documented complication. However, data on the consequence of chemotherapy on the course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HCV+ patients have been controversial. Here, we review the current knowledge about the complications related to HCV in lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy/immunosuppressive therapy. Although less frequent than HBV, these complications occur in a subset of patients with mortality rates up to 45%. Therefore, baseline screening for HBV and HCV before initiation of chemotherapy is crucial. High-risk patients having chronic active hepatitis, high baseline HCV viral load, HBV co-infection and receiving cytotoxic drugs, corticosteroids and rituximab (particularly if combined) should be closely monitored for serum transaminase, bilirubin and HCV RNA levels.

  3. Novel syndrome of four-limb proximal fragility fractures associated with HIV infection, cholestatic liver failure, and histiocytic infiltration of bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Nissen, Nicholas N; Balzer, Bonnie; Fan, Xuemo

    2012-01-01

    We report a syndrome of four-limb proximal fragility fractures associated with HIV infection, cholestatic liver failure, and histiocytic infiltration of bone marrow in a 40-year-old African American man. The patient presented with multiple fractures in the proximal humeri and femurs without osteopenia in the vertebrae. His right humerus appeared normal on chest X-ray film 3 years before presentation when he was first diagnosed with HIV infection and abnormal liver functions. At presentation, the patient had vitamin D deficiency, hypogonadism, and low IGF- 1 levels, but did not have hyperparathyroidism. Bone biopsy showed diffuse foamy histiocytic infiltration of bone marrow at all fracture sites without evidence of infectious or neoplastic processes. Exhaustive search did not identify any similar cases in the English literature. Our case likely represents a novel syndrome, the etiology of which is probably multifactorial and includes HIV infection, cholestatic liver failure, immobility, and endocrine abnormalities. The case further calls for the need for monitoring of bone health in patients with HIV infection or liver disease.

  4. An analysis of content in comprehensive cancer control plans that address chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections as major risk factors for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh; Richardson, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV) infections are among the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Chronic viral hepatitis is the cause of most primary liver cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer deaths globally and the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The extent to which comprehensive cancer control (CCC) programs in states, tribal governments and organizations, territories, and Pacific Island jurisdictions address chronic hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C infections as risk factors for liver cancer or recommend interventions for liver cancer prevention in their CCC plans remains unknown. We searched CCC plans for this information using the search tool at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/ncccp/ to access the content of plans for this information. A combination of key search terms including "liver cancer", "hepatitis", "chronic alcohol", and "alcohol abuse" were used to identify potential content regarding liver cancer risk factors and prevention. Relevant content was abstracted for further review and classification. Of 66 (Although CDC funds 65 programs, one of the Pacific Island Jurisdiction grantees is the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This national program supports four FSM states, each of which submits a cancer plan to CDC for a total of 69 plans. During this time period, 66 plans were available on the website.) CCC plans, 27% (n = 18) addressed liver cancer using the above-mentioned search terms. In the 23 plans that addressed HBV and/or HCV, there were 25 goals, objectives, strategies, and outcomes aimed at reducing the incidence or prevalence of HBV and/or HCV infection. While nearly a third of CCC programs identify at least one goal, objective, strategy, outcome, or prevention program to reduce cancer burden in their CCC plans, few plans discuss specific actions needed to reduce the burden of liver cancer.

  5. Proteomic analysis of human skin treated with larval schistosome peptidases reveals distinct invasion strategies among species of blood flukes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ingram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin invasion is the initial step in infection of the human host by schistosome blood flukes. Schistosome larvae have the remarkable ability to overcome the physical and biochemical barriers present in skin in the absence of any mechanical trauma. While a serine peptidase with activity against insoluble elastin appears to be essential for this process in one species of schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, it is unknown whether other schistosome species use the same peptidase to facilitate entry into their hosts.Recent genome sequencing projects, together with a number of biochemical studies, identified alternative peptidases that Schistosoma japonicum or Trichobilharzia regenti could use to facilitate migration through skin. In this study, we used comparative proteomic analysis of human skin treated with purified cercarial elastase, the known invasive peptidase of S. mansoni, or S. mansoni cathespin B2, a close homolog of the putative invasive peptidase of S. japonicum, to identify substrates of either peptidase. Select skin proteins were then confirmed as substrates by in vitro digestion assays.This study demonstrates that an S. mansoni ortholog of the candidate invasive peptidase of S. japonicum and T. regenti, cathepsin B2, is capable of efficiently cleaving many of the same host skin substrates as the invasive serine peptidase of S. mansoni, cercarial elastase. At the same time, identification of unique substrates and the broader species specificity of cathepsin B2 suggest that the cercarial elastase gene family amplified as an adaptation of schistosomes to human hosts.

  6. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Immune-Mediated Liver Injury and Compromise Virus Control During Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengmeng; Yuan, Xu; Liu, Dan; Ma, Yuhong; Zhu, Jun; Cui, Jun; Yu, Mengxue; Li, Changyong; Guo, Deyin

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as therapeutic tools not only for their ability to differentiate toward different cells, but also for their unique immunomodulatory properties. However, it is still unknown how MSCs may affect immunity during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study was designed to explore the effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in a mouse model of acute HBV infection. Mice were injected with 1 × 10 6 BM-MSCs, which stained with chloromethyl derivatives of fluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, 24 h before hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA (pHBV1.3) through the tail vein. In vivo imaging system revealed that BM-MSCs were accumulated in the injured liver, and they attenuated immune-mediated liver injury during HBV infection, as shown by lower alanine aminotransferase levels, reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver. Importantly, administration of BM-MSCs restrained the increased expression of natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D), an important receptor required for NK cell activation in the liver from HBV-infected mice. BM-MSCs also reduced NKG2D expression on NK cells and suppressed the cytotoxicity of NK cells in vitro. Furthermore, BM-MSC-derived transforming growth factor-β1 suppressed NKG2D expression on NK cells. As a consequence, BM-MSC treatment enhanced HBV gene expression and replication in vivo. These results demonstrate that adoptive transfer of BM-MSCs influences innate immunity and limits immune-mediated liver injury during acute HBV infection by suppressing NK cell activity. Meanwhile, the effect of BM-MSCs on prolonging virus clearance needs to be considered in the future.

  7. Metabolic Disturbances in Liver {sup 1}H MR Spectroscopy in HIV and HCV Co-infected Patients as a Potential Marker of Hepatocyte Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasow, E.; Wierciska-Drapao, A.; Jaroszewicz, J.; Siergiejczyk, L.; Orzechowska-Bobkiewicz, A.; Prokopowicz, D.; Walecki, J. [Medical Academy Hospital, Bialystok (Poland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-12-01

    Purpose : To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) features in order to assess hepatocellular activation in chronic hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C (HIV/HCV) co-infected patients. Material and Methods : Liver in vivo {sup 1}H MR spectra were obtained in 14 patients with hepatitis C virus infection (HCV), 20 HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, and 24 healthy volunteers. Resonances of lipids, glutamine/glutamate (Glx), phosphomonoesters (PME), glycogen/glucose (Glc) were assessed and metabolite ratios to total lipids (TL) were calculated. Results : A significant increase in Glx/TL and PME/TL was observed in the HCV group as compared to healthy individuals. Patients with HIV and HCV co-infection had a further increase of all metabolite ratios. Changes in metabolite ratios were due to both the increase in particular metabolite contents and to the decrease in lipid levels. HIV/HCV-infected patients treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) showed elevated PME and Glx levels and significantly decreased TL compared to patients not undergoing anti-retroviral treatment. Conclusions : Our findings suggest clinical usefulness of liver {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy in detecting even slight disturbances in liver metabolism.

  8. Metabolic Disturbances in Liver 1H MR Spectroscopy in HIV and HCV Co-infected Patients as a Potential Marker of Hepatocyte Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasow, E.; Wierciska-Drapao, A.; Jaroszewicz, J.; Siergiejczyk, L.; Orzechowska-Bobkiewicz, A.; Prokopowicz, D.; Walecki, J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) features in order to assess hepatocellular activation in chronic hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C (HIV/HCV) co-infected patients. Material and Methods : Liver in vivo 1 H MR spectra were obtained in 14 patients with hepatitis C virus infection (HCV), 20 HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, and 24 healthy volunteers. Resonances of lipids, glutamine/glutamate (Glx), phosphomonoesters (PME), glycogen/glucose (Glc) were assessed and metabolite ratios to total lipids (TL) were calculated. Results : A significant increase in Glx/TL and PME/TL was observed in the HCV group as compared to healthy individuals. Patients with HIV and HCV co-infection had a further increase of all metabolite ratios. Changes in metabolite ratios were due to both the increase in particular metabolite contents and to the decrease in lipid levels. HIV/HCV-infected patients treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) showed elevated PME and Glx levels and significantly decreased TL compared to patients not undergoing anti-retroviral treatment. Conclusions : Our findings suggest clinical usefulness of liver 1 H MR spectroscopy in detecting even slight disturbances in liver metabolism

  9. MOLECULAR APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF TREMATODE PARASITES : THE BLOOD FLUKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T. LoVerde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One important aspect of reproductive development in trematode parasites is the formation of a hardened eggshell which allows the zygote to develop into a miracidium in a hostile environment. The miracidium then can transfer the germline from the vertebrate host to snail intermediate host. Schistosome parasites, unlike other trematodes, have separate sexes and female reproductive development is known to depend on the presence of a male parasite. These facts make the blood flukes ideal material to study the mechanisms that underlie female reproductive development and eggshell formatian. We reasoned that the morphological and biochemical differences between the male and female must be reflected at the molecular level in the differential expression of sexually regulated genes. Radioactive single stranded cDNA was first transcribed from female RNA; and then sequences common to both male and female were removed by hybridization to an excess of male RNA. This probe was used to screen a cDNA library made from mRNA of adult worm paris. One hybridizing clone, pSMf 61-46, was shown to correspond to a 0.9 kilobase mRNA that is present only in mature female worms and is not detectable in female schistosomes from single-sex infections, in male worms or in eggs. Thus expression of the gene was female-specific. During normal bisexual infection this mRNA is first detected 28 days after infection (the time of worm pairing and increases to a high level at 35 days postinfection, coinciding with egg production. Thus the temporal expression of the gene was dependent on paining with male worm. The nucleotide sequence of the gene shows an open reading frame that encodes a 16 kDA polypeptide that shows strong homology with eggshell proteins on insects. A second female-specific cDNA clone, F-4, represents a 1.6 kilobase mRNA whose expression is also correlated with worm pairing and subsequent egg production, encodes a different putative eggshell component of 44 kDA. The

  10. Multiple origins of European populations of the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), a liver parasite of ruminants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Štefka, Jan; Špakulová, M.; Vávrová, S.; Szemes, T.; Tkach, V.; Trudgett, A.; Pybus, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, 3/4 (2011), 373-383 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Biogeography * Alien species * Introduced parasite * Mitochondrial DNA * Cytochrome c oxidase * Nicotinamide dehydrogenase Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  11. Qidong hepatitis B virus infection cohort: a 25-year prospective study in high risk area of primary liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Taoyang; Qian, Gengsun; Fan, Chunsun; Sun, Yan; Wang, Jinbing; Lu, Peixin; Xue, Xuefeng; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Qinan; Jin, Yan; Wu, Yiqian; Gan, Yu; Lu, Jianquan; Kensler, Thomas W; Groopman, John D; Tu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Qidong hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection cohort (QBC) is a prospective community-based study designed to investigate causative factors of primary liver cancer (PLC) in Qidong, China, where both PLC and HBV infection are highly endemic. Residents aged 20-65 years, living in seven townships of Qidong, were surveyed using hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serum test and invited to participate in QBC from June 1991 to December 1991. A total of 852 and 786 participants were enrolled in HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative sub-cohorts in May 1992, respectively. All participants were actively followed up in person, received HBsAg, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) tests and upper abdominal ultrasonic examination, and donated blood and urine samples once or twice a year. The total response rate was 99.6%, and the number of incident PLC was 201 till the end of February 2017. The ratio of incidence rates was 12.32 (95% confidence interval[CI]=7.16-21.21, P PLC was 13.25 (95% CI=6.67-26.33, P PLC-related mutations including A2159G, A2189C and G2203W at the C gene, A799G, A987G and T1055A at the P gene of HBV genome were identified by using samples from the cohort. The mutation in hepatitis B virus (HBV) basal core promoter region of HBV genome has an accumulative effect on the occurrence of PLC. In addition, the tripartite relationship of aflatoxin exposure, P53 mutation and PLC was also investigated. Dynamic prediction model for PLC risk by using its long-term follow-up information and serial blood samples for QBC was developed. This model is expected to improve the efficiency of PLC screening in HBV infection individuals.

  12. Chemotactic and inflammatory responses in the liver and brain are associated with pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever virus infection in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly K Gray

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a major human and animal pathogen associated with severe disease including hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis. RVFV is endemic to parts of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but there is significant concern regarding its introduction into non-endemic regions and the potentially devastating effect to livestock populations with concurrent infections of humans. To date, there is little detailed data directly comparing the host response to infection with wild-type or vaccine strains of RVFV and correlation with viral pathogenesis. Here we characterized clinical and systemic immune responses to infection with wild-type strain ZH501 or IND vaccine strain MP-12 in the C57BL/6 mouse. Animals infected with live-attenuated MP-12 survived productive viral infection with little evidence of clinical disease and minimal cytokine response in evaluated tissues. In contrast, ZH501 infection was lethal, caused depletion of lymphocytes and platelets and elicited a strong, systemic cytokine response which correlated with high virus titers and significant tissue pathology. Lymphopenia and platelet depletion were indicators of disease onset with indications of lymphocyte recovery correlating with increases in G-CSF production. RVFV is hepatotropic and in these studies significant clinical and histological data supported these findings; however, significant evidence of a pro-inflammatory response in the liver was not apparent. Rather, viral infection resulted in a chemokine response indicating infiltration of immunoreactive cells, such as neutrophils, which was supported by histological data. In brains of ZH501 infected mice, a significant chemokine and pro-inflammatory cytokine response was evident, but with little pathology indicating meningoencephalitis. These data suggest that RVFV pathogenesis in mice is associated with a loss of liver function due to liver necrosis and hepatitis yet the long-term course of disease for those that

  13. Impact of hepatitis C virus infection on health-related quality of life before and after liver transplantation: a multidisciplinary point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfieri, Lucia; Gitto, Stefano; Morelli, Maria Cristina; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Grandi, Silvana; Andreone, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Hepatitis C negatively changes patient quality of life even in the absence of advanced liver disease. The specific patterns of quality of life of hepatitis C positive patients waiting for transplant or after surgery are not widely studied. Areas covered: A significant percentage of infected patients show cognitive impairment, fatigue, and/or a 'brain fog', that cannot be explained by the liver disease. Depression can be diagnosed in one third of hepatitis C positive patients. Conflicting data are available regarding the possible role of Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score as predictor of impaired quality of life. In the first period after liver transplant, quality of life tends to increase at the pre-transplant period but in the medium and long-term period, it declines. The recurrence of hepatitis C infection represents a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality and can significantly affect the global quality of life of patients. Expert commentary: Hepatologists, surgeons and psychologists should collaborate to support infected patients in all phases of transplant including the long-term period after surgery. Education and information should be implemented especially regarding the positive role of new direct antivirals.

  14. Association between elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake with normal liver enzymes in HIV-HCV infected individuals: results from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, M Patrizia; Lions, Caroline; Sogni, Philippe; Winnock, Maria; Roux, Perrine; Mora, Marion; Bonnard, Philippe; Salmon, Dominique; Dabis, François; Spire, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to investigate whether polyphenol rich food intake through coffee and/or daily chocolate consumption could play a role in reducing liver enzymes levels. Longitudinal data collection included self-administered questionnaires and medical data (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver enzymes). Two analyses were performed to assess the association between coffee (≥3 cups a day) and daily chocolate intake and abnormal values of AST and ALT (AST or ALT >2.5 × upper normal limit (UNL)) (N=990) over time, after adjustment for known correlates. Logistic regression models based on generalized estimating equations were used to take into account the correlations between repeated measures and estimate adjusted odds ratio. After adjustment, patients reporting elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake were less likely to present abnormal ALT (OR=0.65; p=0.04 and OR=0.57; p=0.04, for coffee and chocolate respectively), while only patients reporting elevated coffee consumption were less likely to have abnormal AST values (p=0.05). Nevertheless, the combined indicator of coffee and chocolate intake was most significantly associated with approximately 40% reduced risk of abnormal liver enzymes (p=0.003 for AST; p=0.002 for ALT). Elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake appear to be associated with reduced levels of liver enzymes in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Further experimental and observational research is needed to better understand the role that polyphenol intake or supplementation can play on liver disease and liver injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle using capture-ELISA assay for detecting antigen in faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Capture-ELISA assay is a diagnosis for antigen detection in the serum or faeces using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of capture-ELISA assay using polyclonal antibody for diagnosing Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle by detecting antigen in the faeces. In this study, faecal samples and livers were collected from 141 cattle slaughtered in the abattoir in Jakarta. From each animal, liver was processed for liver flukes count and the corresponding faecal sample was analysed for coproantigen. The result of capture-ELISA assay for antigen detection showed that from 85 cattle infected with Fasciola gigantica, 83 had OD > 0.52 (range from 0.52-1.39 and 2 cattle had OD < 0.52 (range from 0.17-0.51. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 97.6% and 92.8% respectively. The assay also able to detect 50 ng/ml of antigen in faecal supernatant. It suggests that this assay will have the advantage over the other methods on its ability to detect the active infection. Collection of faeces, rather than serum, will allow a more cost-effective and adaptable method.

  16. Liver function tests in HIV-1 infected asymptomatic patients and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean ± SEM serum ALB concentration of 23.5 ± 1.2 g/L in AIDS patients was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than those of HIV-1 infected asymptomatic patients and healthy controls; 38.9 ± 3.1g/L and 39.4 ± 2.8g/L respectively. The mean ± SEM TB concentration of 17.8 ± 1.3 μmol/L in AIDS patients was significantly ...

  17. Survival and antigenic profile of irradiated malarial sporozoites in infected liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhrbier, A.; Winger, L.A.; Castellano, E.; Sinden, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Exoerythrocytic (EE) stages of Plasmodium berghei derived from irradiated sporozoites were cultured in vitro in HepG2 cells. They synthesized several antigens, predominantly but not exclusively those expressed by normal early erythrocytic schizonts. After invasion, over half the intracellular sporozoites, both normal and irradiated, appeared to die. After 24 h, in marked contrast to the normal parasites, EE parasites derived from irradiated sporozoites continued to break open, shedding their antigens into the cytoplasm of the infected host cells. Increasing radiation dosage, which has previously been shown to reduce the ability of irradiated sporozoites to protect animals, correlated with reduced de novo antigen synthesis by EE parasites derived from irradiated sporozoites

  18. Assessment of Biochemical Changes and Protein Pattern in Kidney of Fasciola gigantica. Infected Rabbit Untreated and Treated with Triclabendazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, M.A.; Hafez, E.N.

    2014-01-01

    high significant increase (p<0.001) in infected group and a significant increase (p<0.01) in both treated and infected treated groups compared to normal control group. The three bands of globulins alpha, beta and gamma proteins showed significant difference in infected, treated and infected treated groups (P<0.01) compared to normal control group. It has been concluded that F. gigantica induced not only hepatic but also renal damage in infected rabbits. The use of liver-associated enzymes assay, changes in serum urea and creatinine level were considered as supplementary indicators of fluke-induced pathology. Treatment of infected with triclabendazole prevents liver damage by eliminating parasite burden

  19. Low prevalence of liver disease but regional differences in HBV treatment characteristics mark HIV/HBV co-infection in a South African HIV clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ive

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in South Africa however, there is limited data on the degree of liver disease and geographic variation in HIV/HBV coinfected individuals. In this study, we analysed data from the CIPRA-SA 'Safeguard the household study' in order to assess baseline HBV characteristics in HIV/HBV co-infection participants prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation.812 participants from two South African townships Soweto and Masiphumelele were enrolled in a randomized trial of ART (CIPRA-SA. Participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, and HBV DNA. FIB-4 scores were calculated at baseline.Forty-eight (5.9% were HBsAg positive, of whom 28 (58.3% were HBeAg positive. Of those with HBV, 29.8% had an HBV DNA<2000 IU/ml and ALT<40 IU/ml ; 83.0% had a FIB-4 score <1.45, consistent with absent or minimal liver disease. HBV prevalence was 8.5% in Masiphumelele compared to 3.8% in Soweto (relative risk 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3-4.0. More participants in Masiphumelele had HBeAg-negative disease (58% vs. 12%, p = 0.002 and HBV DNA levels ≤2000 IU/ml, (43% vs. 6% p<0.007.One third of HIV/HBV co-infected subjects had low HBV DNA levels and ALT while the majority had indicators of only mild liver disease. There were substantial regional differences in HBsAg and HbeAg prevalence in HIV/HBV co-infection between two regions in South Africa. This study highlights the absence of severe liver disease and the marked regional differences in HIV/HBV co-infection in South Africa and will inform treatment decisions in these populations.

  20. Protective role of purified cysteine proteinases against Fasciola gigantica infection in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ahwany, Eman; Rabia, Ibrahim; Nagy, Faten; Zoheiry, Mona; Diab, Tarek; Zada, Suher

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is one of the public health problems in the world. Cysteine proteinases (CP) released by Fasciola gigantica play a key role in parasite feeding, migration through host tissues, and in immune evasion. There has been some evidence from several parasite systems that proteinases might have potential as protective antigens against parasitic infections. Cysteine proteinases were purified and tested in vaccine trials of sheep infected with the liver fluke. Multiple doses (2 mg of CP in Freund's adjuvant followed by 3 booster doses 1 mg each at 4 week intervals) were injected intramuscularly into sheep 1 week prior to infect orally with 300 F. gigantica metacercariae. All the sheep were humanely slaughtered 12 weeks after the first immunization. Changes in the worm burden, ova count, and humoral and cellular responses were evaluated. Significant reduction was observed in the worm burden (56.9%), bile egg count (70.7%), and fecel egg count (75.2%). Immunization with CP was also found to be associated with increases of total IgG, IgG(1), and IgG(2) (P<0.05). Data showed that the serum cytokine levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, revealed significant decreases (P<0.05). However, the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-6, showed significant increases (P<0.05). In conclusion, it has been found that CP released by F. gigantica are highly important candidates for a vaccine antigen because of their role in the fluke biology and host-parasite relationships.

  1. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  2. Heme-Oxygenase-1 Expression Contributes to the Immunoregulation Induced by Fasciola hepatica and Promotes Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carasi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica, also known as the liver fluke, is a trematode that infects livestock and humans causing fasciolosis, a zoonotic disease of increasing importance due to its worldwide distribution and high economic losses. This parasite immunoregulates the host immune system by inducing a strong Th2 and regulatory T immune response by immunomodulating dendritic cell (DC maturation and alternative activation of macrophages. In this paper, we show that F. hepatica infection in mice induces the upregulation of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of free heme that regulates the host inflammatory response. We show and characterize two different populations of antigen presenting cells that express HO-1 during infection in the peritoneum of infected animals. Cells that expressed high levels of HO-1 expressed intermediate levels of F4/80 but high expression of CD11c, CD38, TGFβ, and IL-10 suggesting that they correspond to regulatory DCs. On the other hand, cells expressing intermediate levels of HO-1 expressed high levels of F4/80, CD68, Ly6C, and FIZZ-1, indicating that they might correspond to alternatively activated macrophages. Furthermore, the pharmacological induction of HO-1 with the synthetic metalloporphyrin CoPP promoted F. hepatica infection increasing the clinical signs associated with the disease. In contrast, treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor SnPP protected mice from parasite infection, indicating that HO-1 plays an essential role during F. hepatica infection. Finally, HO-1 expression during F. hepatica infection was associated with TGFβ and IL-10 levels in liver and peritoneum, suggesting that HO-1 controls the expression of these immunoregulatory cytokines during infection favoring parasite survival in the host. These results contribute to the elucidation of the immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by F. hepatica in the host and provide alternative checkpoints to control fasciolosis.

  3. Effect of an artificial Ascaridia galli infection on egg production, immune response, and liver lipid reserve of free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Hunt, P W; Hine, B C; McNally, J; Sharma, N K; Iqbal, Z; Normant, C; Andronicos, N M; Swick, R A; Ruhnke, I

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Ascaridia galli infection on free-range laying hens. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) at 17 wk of age were allocated to 4 treatment groups (n = 50 per group), each with 5 replicate pens of 10 hens. Hens in 3 treatment groups were orally inoculated with different doses of embryonated A. galli eggs: low (250 eggs), medium (1,000 eggs), and high (2,500 eggs) levels, whereas hens of the control group were not infected. Infection levels were monitored using excreta egg counts and mature A. galli worm counts in the intestine. Anti A. galli antibody titers (IgY) in the serum were measured prior to infection, and at 6, 11, 15, and 20 wk post infection (PI) and in egg yolk at 11 and 20 wk PI. Parameters evaluated included feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, liver weight, liver fat, and intra epithelial immune cell infiltration. The results showed no difference in feed intake, body weight, or FCR among any treatment groups (P > 0.05). Egg production was lower in the low infection group compared to other groups at 20 wk of age (P < 0.01). Serum IgY was higher in the infected groups' hens at 20 wk PI compared to control group hens (P < 0.01). Yolk IgY increased significantly over time and was higher in infected hens compared to hens of the control group at 11 and 20 wk PI (P < 0.001). No differences were observed in liver lipid content or intraepithelial lymphocytes infiltration among treatment groups. Ascaridia galli eggs in the coprodeum content and adult A. galli worm count were higher in infected hens compared to hens of the control group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the effects of artificial infection with A. galli on the parameters investigated were minor, and egg yolk antibody may be a more reliable indicator of A. galli infection than serum antibody or excreta egg count. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population. Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441) and non-Inuit (94) in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136). Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035). Alcohol intake was associated with AST (pbiochemistry. Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified the effect of alcohol intake on AST. HBV infection was slightly associated with ALP but not with other liver biochemistry parameters.

  5. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajtová, Pavla; Štefanic, S.; Hradilek, Martin; Dvořák, Jan; Vondrášek, Jiří; Jílková, Adéla; Ulrychová, Lenka; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael; Horn, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2015), e0003827/1-e0003827/24 ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1481; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * schistosomiasis * prolyl oligopeptidase * blood fluke Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2015 http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0003827

  6. 'Surprise': Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Denehy, Emma

    2012-10-01

    In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness. A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises. All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate), and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4-118.6). No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination. Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  7. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Emily; Denehy, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Objective In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness. Methods A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises. Results All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate), and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6). No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination. Discussion Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended. PMID:23908933

  8. Cyst infection in hospital-admitted autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients is predominantly multifocal and associated with kidney and liver volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbo, B.E.P. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R. [Divisão de Medicina Nuclear, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jayanthi, S.K. [Divisão de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dettoni, J.B. [Divisão de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, I.; Onuchic, L.F. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-13

    Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has improved cyst infection (CI) management in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The determinants of kidney and/or liver involvement, however, remain uncertain. In this study, we evaluated clinical and imaging factors associated with CI in kidney (KCI) and liver (LCI) in ADPKD. A retrospective cohort study was performed in hospital-admitted ADPKD patients with suspected CI. Clinical, imaging and surgical data were analyzed. Features of infected cysts were evaluated by PET/CT. Total kidney (TKV) and liver (TLV) volumes were measured by CT-derived multiplanar reconstruction. CI was detected in 18 patients who experienced 24 episodes during an interval of 30 months (LCI in 12, KCI in 10 and concomitant infection in 2). Sensitivities of CT, magnetic resonance imaging and PET/CT were 25.0, 71.4, and 95.0%. Dysuria (P<0.05), positive urine culture (P<0.01), and previous hematuria (P<0.05) were associated with KCI. Weight loss (P<0.01) and increased C-reactive protein levels (P<0.05) were associated with LCI. PET/CT revealed that three or more infected cysts were present in 70% of the episodes. TKV was higher in kidney-affected than in LCI patients (AUC=0.91, P<0.05), with a cut-off of 2502 mL (72.7% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity). TLV was higher in liver-affected than in KCI patients (AUC=0.89, P<0.01) with a cut-off of 2815 mL (80.0% sensitivity, 87.5% specificity). A greater need for invasive procedures was observed in LCI (P<0.01), and the overall mortality was 20.8%. This study supports PET/CT as the most sensitive imaging method for diagnosis of cyst infection, confirms the multifocal nature of most hospital-admitted episodes, and reveals an association of kidney and liver volumes with this complication.

  9. Molecular epidemiology and pathology of spirorchiid infection in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe A. Chapman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirorchiid blood fluke infections affect endangered turtle populations globally, and are reported as a common cause of mortality in Queensland green sea turtles. Both the flukes and their ova are pathogenic and can contribute to the stranding or death of their host. Of particular interest are ova-associated brain lesions, which have been associated with host neurological deficits. Accurate estimations of disease frequency and the relative effect of infection relating to different spirorchiid species are made difficult by challenges in morphological identification of adults of some genera, and a lack of species-level identifying features for ova. A new specifically designed molecular assay was used to detect and identify cryptic spirorchiids and their ova in Queensland green sea turtle tissues collected from 2011 to 2014 in order to investigate epidemiology, tissue tropisms and pathology. Eight spirorchiid genotypes were detected in 14 distinct tissues, including multiple tissues for each. We found no evidence of a characteristic pathway of the eggs to the exterior; instead the results suggest that a high proportion of eggs become lost in dead-end tissues. The most common lesions observed were granulomas affecting most organs with varying severity, followed by arteritis and thrombi in the great vessels. The number of spirorchiid types detected increased with the presence and severity of granulomatous lesions. However, compared with other organs the brain showed relatively low levels of spirorchiid diversity. An inverse relationship between host age and spirorchiid diversity was evident for the liver and kidneys, but no such relationship was evident for other organs. Molecular data in this study, the first of its kind, provides the first species-level examination of spirorchiid ova and associated pathology, and paves the way for the future development of targeted ante-mortem diagnosis of spirorchiidiasis.

  10. Enhanced depletion of glutathione and increased liver oxidative damage in aflatoxin-fed mice infected with Plasmodium berghei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankrah, N A; Sittie, A; Addo, P G

    1995-01-01

    levels accompanied by a significant increase in serum cholinesterase and liver malonic dialdehyde levels in the mice fed aflatoxin compared with those in the control group. The results suggested that malaria parasites can enhance depletion of host glutathione and oxidative damage of the liver in mice fed...

  11. Transcriptome analysis of duck liver and identification of differentially expressed transcripts in response to duck hepatitis A virus genotype C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Lan, Daoliang; Zhang, Huanrong; Ma, Jing; Yue, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Duck is an economically important poultry and animal model for human viral hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying host-virus interaction remain unclear because of limited information on the duck genome. This study aims to characterize the duck normal liver transcriptome and to identify the differentially expressed transcripts at 24 h after duck hepatitis A virus genotype C (DHAV-C) infection using Illumina-Solexa sequencing. After removal of low-quality sequences and assembly, a total of 52,757 unigenes was obtained from the normal liver group. Further blast analysis showed that 18,918 unigenes successfully matched the known genes in the database. GO analysis revealed that 25,116 unigenes took part in 61 categories of biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Among the 25 clusters of orthologous group categories (COG), the cluster for "General function prediction only" represented the largest group, followed by "Transcription" and "Replication, recombination, and repair." KEGG analysis showed that 17,628 unigenes were involved in 301 pathways. Through comparison of normal and infected transcriptome data, we identified 20 significantly differentially expressed unigenes, which were further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of the 20 unigenes, nine matched the known genes in the database, including three up-regulated genes (virus replicase polyprotein, LRRC3B, and PCK1) and six down-regulated genes (CRP, AICL-like 2, L1CAM, CYB26A1, CHAC1, and ADAM32). The remaining 11 novel unigenes that did not match any known genes in the database may provide a basis for the discovery of new transcripts associated with infection. This study provided a gene expression pattern for normal duck liver and for the previously unrecognized changes in gene transcription that are altered during DHAV-C infection. Our data revealed useful information for future studies on the duck genome and provided new insights into the molecular

  12. E. coli infection modulates the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin by targeting P-glycoprotein in small intestine and CYP450 3A in liver and kidney of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengjie; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Bughio, Shamsuddin; Dai, Xiaohua; Ren, Weilong; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression determines the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of many drugs in the body. Also, up-regulation of P-gp acts as a defense mechanism against acute inflammation. This study examined expression levels of abcb1 mRNA and localization of P-gp protein in the liver, kidney, duodenum, jejunum and ileum in healthy and E. coli infected broilers by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, pharmacokinetics of orally administered enrofloxacin was also investigated in healthy and infected broilers by HPLC. The results indicated that E. coli infection up-regulated expression of abcb1 mRNA levels significantly in the kidney, jejunum and ileum (P0.05). However, the expression level of CYP 3A37 mRNA were observed significantly decreased only in liver and kidney of E. coli infected broilers (Penrofloxacin, significantly decreased Cmax (0.34 vs 0.98 µg mL(-1), P = 0.000) and AUC0-12h (4.37 vs 8.88 µg mL(-1) h, P = 0.042) of enrofloxacin, but increased Tmax (8.32 vs 3.28 h, P = 0.040), T1/2a(2.66 vs 1.64 h(-1), P = 0.050) and V/F (26.7 vs 5.2 L, P = 0.040). Treatment with verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp, significantly improved the absorption of enrofloxacin in both healthy and infected broilers. The results suggest that the E. coli infection induces intestine P-gp expression, altering the absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin in broilers.

  13. Biliary cystadenoma associated with Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Srivorakul, Saralee; Khochakul, Varangpicha; Pringproa, Kidsadagon

    2018-05-05

    A 12-year-old, female, domestic cat (Felis catus) presented with dehydration, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy. The cat was unresponsive to medical treatment and euthanized; the carcass was submitted for pathological diagnosis. Necropsy revealed icteric mucous membranes. The liver was enlarged, with multinodular, cystic, white masses, 0.5-4.0 cm in diameter, scattered throughout. Microscopically, the biliary epithelium presented with a proliferation of multifocal cystic masses, occasionally with periodic acid-Schiff-positive fluid within the cysts. Simple cuboidal epithelial cells showed small, round to oval, vesicular nuclei and rare mitotic figures. There were also multifocal trematode-like parasites situated within the biliary tracts. Immunohistochemistry of the cystic masses was positive for pan-cytokeratin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, while negative for vimentin. Molecular analysis and gene sequencing of the parasite indicated that it was Opisthorchis viverrini. Based on the pathological findings and molecular analysis, the cat was diagnosed with biliary cystadenoma related to O. viverrini infection. This report described an unusual case of O. viverrini infection associated with biliary tumor in a cat, and raises the possibility of domestic cats as a reservoir host of the human liver fluke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Humoral immune responses during experimental infection with Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica in goats and comparison of their excretory/secretory products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novobilský, A.; Kašný, M.; Mikeš, L.; Kovařčík, K.; Koudela, Břetislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 2 (2007), s. 357-364 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) FRVŠ 805/G3/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : giant liver fluke * sheep liver fluke * humoral immune responses in goats Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  15. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the liver amphistome Explanatum explanatum (Creplin, 1847) Fukui, 1929 in ruminants from Bangladesh and Nepal based on nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and mitochondrial nad1 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, U K; Rana, H B; Devkota, B; Itagaki, T

    2017-07-01

    Explanatum explanatum flukes, liver amphistomes of ruminants, cause significant economic loss in the livestock industry by inducing severe liver damage. A total of 66 flukes from 26 buffaloes and 7 cattle in four different geographic areas of Bangladesh and 20 flukes from 10 buffaloes in the Chitwan district of Nepal were subjected for analysis. The sequences (442 bp) of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA and the variable fragments (657 bp) of mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) of E. explanatum flukes from Bangladesh and Nepal were analysed. The aim of this study was molecular characterization of the flukes and to elucidate their origin and biogeography. In the ITS2 region, two genotypes were detected among the flukes from Bangladesh, while flukes from Nepal were of only one genotype. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the nad1 gene revealed that at least four divergent populations (groups I-IV) are distributed in Bangladesh, whereas two divergent populations were found to be distributed in Nepal. Fst values (pairwise fixation index) suggest that Bangladeshi and Nepalese populations of group I to IV are significantly different from each other; but within groups III and IV, the populations from Bangladesh and Nepal were genetically close. This divergence in the nad1 gene indicates that each lineage of E. explanatum from diverse geography was co-adapted during the multiple domestication events of ruminants. This study, for the first time, provides molecular characterization of E. explanatum in Bangladesh and Nepal, and may provide useful information for elucidating its origin and dispersal route in Asia.

  16. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Denehy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness.Methods: A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises.Results: All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate, and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6. No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination.Discussion: Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  17. Multiple viral/self immunological cross-reactivity in liver kidney microsomal antibody positive hepatitis C virus infected patients is associated with the possession of HLA B51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, D-P; Lenzi, M; Okamoto, M; Rigopoulou, E I; Muratori, P; Ma, Y; Muratori, L; Tsantoulas, D; Mieli- Vergani, G; Bianchi, F B; Vergani, D

    2004-01-01

    Liver Kidney Microsomal autoantibody type 1(LKM1) directed to cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) characterises autoimmune hepatitis type-2 (AIH-2), but is also found in a proportion of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients, CYP2D6252-271 being a major B- cell autoepitope. Molecular mimicry and immunological cross-reactivity between CYP2D6252-271, HCV polyprotein and the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) have been suggested as triggers for the induction of LKM1, but reactivity and cross-reactivity to the relevant sequences have not been investigated experimentally. CYP2D6252-271 and its viral homologues were constructed and tested by ELISA in the sera of 46 chronically infected HCV patients, 23 of whom were LKM1 positive. Reactivity to the E1 HCV and ICP4 HSV1 mimics was frequently found in HCV infected patients irrespectively of their LKM1 status; viral/self cross-reactivity (as indicated by inhibition studies), however, was present in the only 2 of the 23 LKM1 seropositive HCV patients, who possessed the HLA allotype B51. Our results indicate that in HCV infected patients virus/self cross-reactivity is dependent on a specific immunogenetic background, a finding awaiting confirmation by studies in larger series of patients.

  18. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  19. Delisting HCV-infected liver transplant candidates who improved after viral eradication: Outcome 2 years after delisting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, Giovanni; Duvoux, Christophe; Berenguer, Marina; Cortesi, Paolo A; Vinaixa, Carmen; Facchetti, Rita; Mazzarelli, Chiara; Rockenschaub, Susanne-Rasoul; Martini, Silvia; Morelli, Cristina; Monico, Sara; Volpes, Riccardo; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Belli, Luca S

    2018-05-11

    Treating patients with decompensated cirrhosis with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy while on the waiting list for liver transplantation results in substantial improvement of liver function allowing 1 in 4 patients to be removed from the waiting list or delisted, as reported in a previous study promoted by the European Liver and Intestine Transplant Association (ELITA). The aim of this study was to report on clinical outcomes of delisted patients, including mortality risk, hepatocellular carcinoma development and clinical decompensation requiring relisting. One hundred and forty-two HCV-positive patients on the liver transplant waiting list for decompensated cirrhosis, negative for hepatocellular carcinoma, between February 2014 and June 2015 were treated with DAA therapy and were prospectively followed up. Forty-four patients (30.9%) were delisted following clinical improvement. This percentage was higher than in the original study because of a number of patients being delisted long after starting DAAs. The median Child-Pugh and MELD score of delisted patients was 5.5 and 9 respectively. Four patients were relisted, because of HCC diagnosis in 1 case and 3 patients developed ascites. One further patient died (2.4%) because of rapidly progressing hepatocellular carcinoma twenty-two months after delisting. Of the 70 patients who received a liver graft, 9 died (13%). Antiviral therapy allows for a long-term improvement of liver function and the delisting of one-third of treated patients with risk of liver-related complications after delisting being very low. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A growing degree-day model for determination of Fasciola hepatica infection risk in New Zealand with future predictions using climate change models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydock, L A J; Pomroy, W E; Stevenson, M A; Lawrence, K E

    2016-09-15

    Infections of ruminants with Fasciola hepatica are considered to be of regional importance within New Zealand but there is very little recent information on its prevalence or severity other than anecdotal reports. Generally they are considered to be of secondary importance compared to gastrointestinal nematode infections. Utilizing data from Virtual Climate Stations (n=11491) distributed on a 5km grid around New Zealand a growing degree-day model was used to describe the risk of infection with liver fluke from 1972 to 2012 and then to apply the predictions to estimate the risk of fluke infections within New Zealand for the years 2040 and 2090. The growing degree-day model was validated against the most recent survey of infection within New Zealand in 1984. A strong positive linear relationship for 1984 between F. hepatica prevalence in lambs and infection risk (prisk values from 14 regions in New Zealand for 1972-2012 did not show any discernible change in risk of infection over this time period (p>0.05). Post-hoc comparisons indicate the risk in Westland was found to be substantially higher (prisk in 2040 and 2090 were detected although they did vary between different climate change scenarios. The highest average percentage changes in infection risk were found in regions with low initial risk values such as Canterbury and Otago; in these regions 2090 infection risk is expected to rise by an average of 186% and 184%, respectively. Despite the already high levels of infection risk in Westland, values are expected to rise by a further 76% by 2090. The model does show some areas with little change with Taranaki predicted to experience only very minor increases in infection risk with average 2040 and 2090 predicted changes of 0% and 29%, respectively. Overall, these results suggest the significance of F. hepatica in New Zealand farming systems is probably underestimated and that this risk will generally increase with global warming following climate change. Copyright

  1. Vitamin D, cod liver oil, sunshine, and phototherapy: Safe, effective and forgotten tools for treating and curing tuberculosis infections - A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Patrick J; Lehrer, Douglas S

    2018-03-01

    Tuberculosis remains an epidemic throughout the world, with over 2 billion people, or more than one third of the world's population, infected with TB. In 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new cases of tuberculosis, and 1.8 million deaths, making TB one of the top ten causes of death worldwide. Approximately 95% of new TB cases occur in developing countries, where the costs of treatment force many patients and their families into poverty. The United Nations and the World Health Organization are working to end this global epidemic. Historically, cod liver oil in the 1840's, phototherapy in the 1890's, sunshine in the 1890's and 1930's, oral vitamin D in doses of 100,000-150,000 international units a day the 1940's, and injectable vitamin D in the 1940's were all shown to be able to safely treat tuberculosis. However, for reasons that are unclear, these treatments are no longer being used to treat tuberculosis. We will review several reports that documented the clinical efficacy of these seemingly disparate treatments in treating tuberculosis. Taken together, however, these reports show the consistent efficacy of vitamin D in treating tuberculosis infections, regardless of whether the vitamin D was produced in the skin from the effects of phototherapy or sunshine, taken orally as a pill or in cod-liver oil, or put into solution and injected directly into the body. We will discuss how vitamin D, through its action as a steroid hormone that regulates gene transcription in cells and tissues throughout the body, enables the body to eradicate TB by stimulating the formation of a natural antibiotic in white blood cells, the mechanism of which was discovered in 2006. We will speculate as to why vitamin D, cod liver oil, sunshine, and phototherapy are no longer being used to treat tuberculosis, in spite of their proven efficacy in safely treating this disease dating back to the early 1800's. In fact, in 1903 the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology was awarded to a

  2. THE LIVER OF WOODCHUCKS CHRONICALLY INFECTED WITH THE WOODCHUCK HEPATITIS VIRUS CONTAINS FOCI OF VIRUS CORE ANTIGEN NEGATIVE HEPATOCYTES WITH BOTH ALTERED AND NORMAL MORPHOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Yamamoto, Toshiki; Zhou, Tianlun; Aldrich, Carol E.; Frank, Katy; Cullen, John M.; Jilbert, Allison R.; Mason, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The livers of woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) contain foci of morphologically altered hepatocytes (FAH) with “basophilic”, “amphophilic” and “clear cell” phenotypes, which are possibly pre-neoplastic in nature. Interestingly, most fail to express detectable levels of WHV proteins and nucleic acids. We studied sections of WHV-infected liver tissue to determine if all foci of hepatocytes that failed to express detectable levels of WHV, as assessed by immunoperoxidase staining for WHV core antigen, could be classified morphologically as FAH. We found that at least half of the foci of WHV core antigen negative hepatocytes did not show clear morphological differences in either H&E or PAS (periodic acid Schiff) stained sections from surrounding hepatocytes, and were therefore not designated as FAH. In the second approach, we assayed core antigen negative foci for the presence of fetuin B, a serum protein produced by normal hepatocytes, but not by neoplastic hepatocytes in hepatocellular carcinomas. Basophilic and amphophilic FAH had reduced levels of fetuin B compared to hepatocytes present in the surrounding liver; fetuin B staining was detected in clear cell FAH but the level could not be accurately assessed because of the displacement of fetuin B to the cell periphery by accumulated glycogen. The foci of morphologically normal WHV core antigen negative hepatocytes had similar levels of fetuin B to that of the surrounding hepatocytes. The co-existence of at least four types of WHV core antigen negative foci, including those with no obvious morphologic changes, raises the possibility that the different foci arise from distinct primary events. We hypothesize that a common event is loss of the ability to express WHV, allowing these hepatocytes to escape immune mediated cell death and to undergo clonal expansion to form distinct foci. PMID:17078989

  3. Association between Opisthorchis viverrini and Leptospira spp. infection in endemic Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Chinh Dang; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Arimatsu, Yuji; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-08-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is an important foodborne trematodiasis in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Interestingly, the opisthorchiasis endemic region overlaps with an area of leptospirosis emergence. Here we report an association between opisthorchiasis and leptospirosis in Thailand. Of 280 sera collected from villagers living around the Lawa wetland complex in Khon Kaen province, 199 (71%) were seropositive for leptospirosis by immunochromatography. Individuals with O. viverrini infection had a significantly higher rate of leptospirosis than those without (P=0.001). Significant higher leptospirosis prevalence was found in males than females (P=0.002). However, females but not males with O. viverrini infection showed a significantly higher seroprevalence of leptospirosis. Twenty-one of 35 environmental samples from the lake (water, mud and fish skin mucus) were positive for Leptospira spp. DNA sequencing, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic analysis of some positive nested PCR products revealed both pathogenic and intermediate pathogenic strains of Leptospira in the samples. Strikingly, O. viverrini metacercariae from the fish were positive for L. interrogans. These results suggest a close association between opisthorchiasis and leptospirosis. Contact with water, mud or eating raw fish harboring liver fluke metacercariae may be risk factors for Leptospira infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Liver cancer and non-hodgkin lymphoma in hepatitis C virus-infected patients: results from the danvir cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Jepsen, Peter; Krarup, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and most likely non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). No studies have compared the risk of these cancers between patients with chronic and cleared HCV-infection. The aim of this study was to estimate the 10-year risk of HCC and NHL...... in HCV-infected patients and to compare the risk of these cancers between HCV-infected patients and the general population in Denmark and between patients with chronic and cleared HCV-infection. Nationwide cohorts were used: 11,975 HCV-infected patients in the DANVIR cohort and 71,850 individuals from...... an age- and gender-matched general population cohort. Within DANVIR, 4,158 patients with chronic HCV-infection and 2,427 patients with cleared HCV-infection were studied. The 10-year risks of HCC and NHL in HCV-infected patients were 1.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8 - 1.3%) and 0.1% (95% CI: 0...

  5. Improvement of the liver pathology by the aqueous extract and the n-butanol fraction of Sida pilosa Retz in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatsa, Hermine Boukeng; Russo, Remo Castro; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Aguilar, Edenil Costa; Garcia, Cristiana Couto; Araújo, Emília Souza; Oliveira, Jailza Lima Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Vanessa Fernandes; de Oliveira, Vinícius Gustavo; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline Isaura; Braga, Fernão Castro; Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuente; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah Aparecida; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-03-02

    Sida pilosa Retz (Malvaceae) is a plant used in Africa for the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis, lower abdominal pains and dysmenorrhea. In order to determine the potential use of S. pilosa in the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni, we evaluated the schistosomicidal, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties of the aqueous extract and the n-butanol fraction of its aerial parts. S. pilosa aqueous extract (SpAE) at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg and n-butanol fraction (SpBF) at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg were administered per os to Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice for 4 weeks. Praziquantel (100mg/kg × 5 days) was used as reference drug. After sacrifice, worm burden and egg count, transaminases and proteins levels were evaluated. Malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxydes (LOOH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also measured. The anti-fibrotic effect of the plant was evaluated by the determination of hydroxyproline and γ-interferon (IFN-γ). The treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice by SpAE or SpBF resulted in a moderate reduction of worm burden and egg load in the liver and intestine. Both SpAE and SpBF significantly reversed the increasing liver proteins, MDA, LOOH and CAT levels induced by the infection. Moreover, SOD activity was improved by SpAE and SpBF. Schistosomiasis mansoni considerably increased the EPO (p<0.001) and MPO activities (p<0.001). SpAE treatment significantly reduced EPO and MPO activities at all doses. SpBF failed to reduce the increasing MPO and decreased EPO only at the highest dose. S. mansoni-infection induced an increase in hydroxyproline content (p<0.001) and a decrease in IFN-γ level (p<0.001). Both SpAE and SpBF significantly reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content, while only SpAE (p<0.05) improved IFN-γ level. These results suggest that the liver pathology in schistosomiasis mansoni is improved by S. pilosa aqueous extract, which disclosed a moderate schistosomicidal

  6. The susceptibility of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury and chronic hepatitis C infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-En; Huang, Yi-Shin; Chang, Chih-Hao; Perng, Chin-Lin; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Hou, Ming-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATDILI) is a major safety concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The impact of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection on the risk of ATDILI is still controversial. We aimed to assess the influence of CHC infection on ATDILI through a systematic review and meta-analysis. We systemically reviewed all English-language literature in the major medical databases with the subject search terms "anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury" and "anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity". We then performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the papers relevant to hepatitis C in qualified publications. A total of 14 studies were eligible for analysis, which included 516 cases with ATDILI and 4301 controls without ATDILI. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of all studies for CHC infection to ATDILI was 3.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.30-4.49). Subgroup analysis revealed that the CHC carriers had a higher risk of ATDILI than those without CHC both in Asians (OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.79-4.90) and Caucasians (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.70-6.14), in those receiving standard four combination anti-TB therapy (OR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.95-4.41) and isoniazid monotherapy (OR = 4.18, 95% CI: 2.36-7.40), in those with a strict definition of DILI (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] > 5 upper limit of normal value [ULN], OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.58-4.25) and a loose definition of DILI (ALT > 2 or 3 ULN, OR = 4.34, 95% CI: 2.96-6.37), and in prospective studies (OR = 4.16, 95% CI: 2.93-5.90) and case-control studies (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.29-4.58). This meta-analysis suggests that CHC infection may increase the risk of ATDILI. Regular liver tests are mandatory for CHC carriers under anti-TB therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  7. The Histopathological Characteristics Caused by Trionyx sinensis Hemorrhagic Syndrome Virus (TSHSV) and Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Liver Tissue in TSHSV-Infected Chinese Soft-Shelled Turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Cao, Zheng; Lin, Feng; Ye, Xueping; Lu, Shujuan; Lyv, Sunjian

    2017-01-01

    Trionyx sinensis hemorrhagic syndrome virus (TSHSV) is a pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic syndrome and irreversible damage to different infected tissues of Pelodis cus sinensis, ending in the death of affected organisms. In the present study, the histopathological characteristics of TSHSV-infected P. sinensis were analyzed and compared by HE staining. Relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis was employed to explore the molecular pathology of liver injury. Anatomical features indicated that TSHSV caused obvious congestion in the liver, kidney, intestine, and other tissues of P. sinensis. The typical clinical symptoms included hepatomegaly, fragility, spotty and severe congestion in liver tissue, and also obvious intestinal bleeding. The histopathological studies corroborated such lesions in the liver and kidney, etc. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis revealed that there were 252 differentially expressed proteins in the liver tissue between healthy and infected P. sinensis, of which 118 proteins were upregulated and 134 proteins were downregulated. GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis initially revealed the molecular mechanism of pathological changes in P. sinensis by TSHSV infection. The expression of some differentially expressed proteins was further confirmed by qRT-PCR. These results provided important information for the pathological diagnosis of TSHSV-caused disease, as well as the mechanism underlying TSHSV-caused disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Malaria parasite-synthesized heme is essential in the mosquito and liver stages and complements host heme in the blood stages of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Arun Nagaraj

    Full Text Available Heme metabolism is central to malaria parasite biology. The parasite acquires heme from host hemoglobin in the intraerythrocytic stages and stores it as hemozoin to prevent free heme toxicity. The parasite can also synthesize heme de novo, and all the enzymes in the pathway are characterized. To study the role of the dual heme sources in malaria parasite growth and development, we knocked out the first enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS, and the last enzyme, ferrochelatase (FC, in the heme-biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium berghei (Pb. The wild-type and knockout (KO parasites had similar intraerythrocytic growth patterns in mice. We carried out in vitro radiolabeling of heme in Pb-infected mouse reticulocytes and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human RBCs using [4-(14C] aminolevulinic acid (ALA. We found that the parasites incorporated both host hemoglobin-heme and parasite-synthesized heme into hemozoin and mitochondrial cytochromes. The similar fates of the two heme sources suggest that they may serve as backup mechanisms to provide heme in the intraerythrocytic stages. Nevertheless, the de novo pathway is absolutely essential for parasite development in the mosquito and liver stages. PbKO parasites formed drastically reduced oocysts and did not form sporozoites in the salivary glands. Oocyst production in PbALASKO parasites recovered when mosquitoes received an ALA supplement. PbALASKO sporozoites could infect mice only when the mice received an ALA supplement. Our results indicate the potential for new therapeutic interventions targeting the heme-biosynthetic pathway in the parasite during the mosquito and liver stages.

  9. Pharmacogenetic & pharmacokinetic biomarker for efavirenz based ARV and rifampicin based anti-TB drug induced liver injury in TB-HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Yimer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Implication of pharmacogenetic variations and efavirenz pharmacokinetics in concomitant efavirenz based antiviral therapy and anti-tubercular drug induced liver injury (DILI has not been yet studied. We performed a prospective case-control association study to identify the incidence, pharmacogenetic, pharmacokinetic and biochemical predictors for anti-tubercular and antiretroviral drugs induced liver injury (DILI in HIV and tuberculosis (TB co-infected patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Newly diagnosed treatment naïve TB-HIV co-infected patients (n = 353 were enrolled to receive efavirenz based ART and rifampicin based anti-TB therapy, and assessed clinically and biochemically for DILI up to 56 weeks. Quantification of plasma efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefaviernz levels and genotyping for NAT2, CYP2B6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, UGT2B7 and SLCO1B1 genes were done. The incidence of DILI and identification of predictors was evaluated using survival analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model. The incidence of DILI was 30.0%, or 14.5 per 1000 person-week, and that of severe was 18.4%, or 7.49 per 1000 person-week. A statistically significant association of DILI with being of the female sex (p = 0.001, higher plasma efavirenz level (p = 0.009, efavirenz/8-hydroxyefavirenz ratio (p = 0.036, baseline AST (p = 0.022, ALT (p = 0.014, lower hemoglobin (p = 0.008, and serum albumin (p = 0.007, NAT2 slow-acetylator genotype (p = 0.039 and ABCB1 3435TT genotype (p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: We report high incidence of anti-tubercular and antiretroviral DILI in Ethiopian patients. Between patient variability in systemic efavirenz exposure and pharmacogenetic variations in NAT2, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 genes determines susceptibility to DILI in TB-HIV co-infected patients. Close monitoring of plasma efavirenz level and liver enzymes during early therapy and/or genotyping practice in HIV clinics is recommended for early identification

  10. Frequency of HCV infection and its genotypes among patients attending a liver clinic and voluntary blood donors in a rural area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.Z.; Ali, M.; Muhammad, A.H.; Shaw, S.; Abbas, S.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its genotypic distribution in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. Methodology: Retrospective study of patients attending the Free Liver Clinic (FLC), and investigated for detectable HCV antibodies (n=1638), and those screened for HCV infection prior to voluntary blood donation (n=804) at a teaching hospital, located in rural Sindh. All patients had HCV antibodies tested by ELISA. A total of 1022 patients, who tested 'reactive' to HCV antibodies, and who could financially afford to have HCV RNA tested by PCR, had their results analysed. A total of 200 patients also had their HCV genotyped and analysed. Results: Patients at FLC had a higher chance of being reactive for HCV antibodies, compared to voluntary blood donors (20% VS 14% - p = 0.004). HCV RNA was detectable in 904/1022 (88%) patients. Among type able genotypes, 125/166 (75%) had a single genotype, and 7 patients (4%) were infected with genotype 1, either alone (n=4) or in combination with 3a. Conclusions: One out of every five people tested in our FLC, and 14% of 'healthy' voluntary blood donors were seropositive for HCV antibodies. Genotype 1 is very rare in our region. (author)

  11. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Panic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed.

  12. The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis: New Assembly, Reannotation and Analysis of the Genome and Characterization of Tissue Transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Hailiang; Chen, Yangyi; Guo, Lei; Luo, Fang; Sun, Jiufeng; Mao, Qiang; Liang, Pei; Xie, Zhizhi; Zhou, Chenhui; Tian, Yanli; Lv, Xiaoli; Huang, Lisi; Zhou, Juanjuan; Hu, Yue; Li, Ran; Zhang, Fan; Lei, Huali; Li, Wenfang; Hu, Xuchu; Liang, Chi; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

    2013-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), an important food-borne parasite that inhabits the intrahepatic bile duct and causes clonorchiasis, is of interest to both the public health field and the scientific research community. To learn more about the migration, parasitism and pathogenesis of C. sinensis at the molecular level, the present study developed an upgraded genomic assembly and annotation by sequencing paired-end and mate-paired libraries. We also performed transcriptome sequence analyses on multiple C. sinensis tissues (sucker, muscle, ovary and testis). Genes encoding molecules involved in responses to stimuli and muscle-related development were abundantly expressed in the oral sucker. Compared with other species, genes encoding molecules that facilitate the recognition and transport of cholesterol were observed in high copy numbers in the genome and were highly expressed in the oral sucker. Genes encoding transporters for fatty acids, glucose, amino acids and oxygen were also highly expressed, along with other molecules involved in metabolizing these substrates. All genes involved in energy metabolism pathways, including the β-oxidation of fatty acids, the citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and fumarate reduction, were expressed in the adults. Finally, we also provide valuable insights into the mechanism underlying the process of pathogenesis by characterizing the secretome of C. sinensis. The characterization and elaborate analysis of the upgraded genome and the tissue transcriptomes not only form a detailed and fundamental C. sinensis resource but also provide novel insights into the physiology and pathogenesis of C. sinensis. We anticipate that this work will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis. PMID:23382950

  13. The carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis: new assembly, reannotation and analysis of the genome and characterization of tissue transcriptomes.

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    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, an important food-borne parasite that inhabits the intrahepatic bile duct and causes clonorchiasis, is of interest to both the public health field and the scientific research community. To learn more about the migration, parasitism and pathogenesis of C. sinensis at the molecular level, the present study developed an upgraded genomic assembly and annotation by sequencing paired-end and mate-paired libraries. We also performed transcriptome sequence analyses on multiple C. sinensis tissues (sucker, muscle, ovary and testis. Genes encoding molecules involved in responses to stimuli and muscle-related development were abundantly expressed in the oral sucker. Compared with other species, genes encoding molecules that facilitate the recognition and transport of cholesterol were observed in high copy numbers in the genome and were highly expressed in the oral sucker. Genes encoding transporters for fatty acids, glucose, amino acids and oxygen were also highly expressed, along with other molecules involved in metabolizing these substrates. All genes involved in energy metabolism pathways, including the β-oxidation of fatty acids, the citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and fumarate reduction, were expressed in the adults. Finally, we also provide valuable insights into the mechanism underlying the process of pathogenesis by characterizing the secretome of C. sinensis. The characterization and elaborate analysis of the upgraded genome and the tissue transcriptomes not only form a detailed and fundamental C. sinensis resource but also provide novel insights into the physiology and pathogenesis of C. sinensis. We anticipate that this work will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

  14. Pleural epitheliod hemangioendothelioma: What started as a liver fluke and ended up being almost mistaken for malignant mesothelioma

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    Omer H Jamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheliod hemangioendothelioma (EHE is a rare tumor of vascular origin. The pleural variant has only been reported around 20 times in English literature. It commonly occurs in older men and carries a poor prognosis with average survival lasting from a few weeks to months. Pleural EHE (PEHE can be a diagnostic challenge due to its rarity as well as similarities to other pleural and vascular tumors. There is currently no standard treatment for EHE. Due to the rarity of this disease, reaching a final diagnosis is challenging. It′s clinical, radiological, and pathological resemblance to malignant mesothelioma can cause a delay in diagnosis. Special stains such as CD31, CD34, and factor VIII related antigen can help differentiate between the two. Ordering appropriate stains in a timely manner can help avoid misdiagnosing PEHE.

  15. Serum, liver, and lung levels of the major extracellular matrix components at the early stage of BCG-induced granulomatosis depending on the infection route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, L B; Shkurupy, V A; Putyatina, A N

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on the model of mouse BCG-induced granulomatous showed that the content of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the liver and lungs are changed at the early stages of inflammation (days 3 and 30 postinfection) before cell destruction in the organs begins. This is related to degradation of extracellular matrix structures. Their high content in the blood and interstitium probably contributes to the formation of granulomas, fibroblast proliferation and organ fibrosis. These processes depend on the infection route that determines different conditions for generalization of the inflammation process. Intravenous method of vaccine injection is preferable to use when designing the experiments simulating tuberculosis granulomatosis, especially for the analysis of its early stages.

  16. Abnormal liver stiffness assessed using transient elastography (Fibroscan® in HIV-infected patients without HBV/HCV coinfection receiving combined antiretroviral treatment.

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    Sang Hoon Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver stiffness measurement (LSM using transient elastography (Fibroscan® can identify individuals with potential underlying liver disease. We evaluated the prevalence of abnormal LSM values as assessed using LSM and its predictors in HIV-infected asymptomatic patients receiving combined antiretroviral treatment (cART without HBV/HCV coinfection. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 93 patients who had consistently been undergoing cART for more than 12 months at Severance Hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from June to December 2010. LSM values >5.3 kPa were defined as abnormal. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (41.9% had abnormal LSM values. On multivariate correlation analysis, the cumulative duration of boosted and unboosted protease inhibitors (PIs were the independent factors which showed a negative and positive correlation to LSM values, respectively (β = -0.234, P = 0.023 and β = 0.430, P<0.001. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the cumulative exposure duration of boosted-PIs and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels were selected as the independent predictors which showed a negative and positive correlation with abnormal LSM values, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 0.941; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.889-0.997; P = 0.039 and OR, 1.032; 95% CI, 1.004-1.060; P = 0.023. CONCLUSION: The high percentage of HIV-infected asymptomatic patients receiving cART without HBV/HCV coinfection had abnormal LSM values. The cumulative exposure duration of boosted-PIs and γ-GT level were independent predictors which showed a negative and positive correlation with abnormal LSM values, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of local immune response to Fasciola hepatica experimental infection in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes of goats immunized with Sm14 vaccine antigen

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    Ricardo E Mendes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Protection against Fasciola hepatica in goats immunized with a synthetic recombinant antigen from Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid-binding protein 14 (rSm14 was investigated by assessing worm burdens, serum levels of hepatic enzymes, faecal egg count and hepatic damage, which was evaluated using gross and microscopic morphometric observation. The nature of the local immune response was assessed by examining the distribution of CD2+, CD4+, CD8+ and γ´+ T lymphocytes along with IgG+, IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ cells in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes (HLN. The goats used consisted of group 1 (unimmunized and uninfected, group 2 [infected control - immunized with Quillaia A (Quil A] and group 3 (immunized with rSm14 in Quil A and infected, each containing seven animals. Immunization with rSm14 in Quil A adjuvant induced a reduction in gross hepatic lesions of 56.6% (p < 0.001 and reduced hepatic and HLN infiltration of CD2+, CD4+, CD8+ and γ´+ T lymphocytes as well as IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ cells (p < 0.05. This is the first report of caprine immunization against F. hepatica using a complete rSm14 molecule derived from S. mansoni. Immunization reduced hepatic damage and local inflammatory infiltration into the liver and HLN. However, considering that Quil A is not the preferential/first choice adjuvant for Sm14 immunization, further studies will be undertaken using the monophosphoryl lipid A-based family of adjuvants during clinical trials to facilitate anti-Fasciolavaccine development.

  18. Independent predictive factors for significant liver histological changes in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal alanine aminotransferase level

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    LI Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the independent predictive factors for significant liver histological changes (SLHCs in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and a normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT level. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 116 previously untreated patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load (HBV DNA≥105 copies/ml chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level (<50 U/L who were hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center Affiliated to Fudan University from June 2013 to August 2015. The definition of SLHCs was inflammation ≥G2 and/or fibrosis≥S2. The t-test or Mann-Whitney U rank sum test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine independent predictive factors for SLHCs. ResultsOf all the 116 patients, 47(40.5% had SLHCs. The multivariate analysis showed that age (OR=2.828, P<0.05, ALT (OR=1.011, P<0.05, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT (OR=1.089, P<0.05 were independent predictors for SLHCs in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level. The patients aged ≤30 years had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those aged>30 years (21.6% vs 49.4%, χ2=6.42, P=0.015, the patients with ALT ≤30 U/L had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those with 30 U/L<ALT≤50 U/L (17.6% vs 50.0%, χ2=19.86, P<0.001, and the patients with GGT≤40 U/L had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those with GGT>40 U/L (28.8% vs 66.7%, χ2=28.63, P<0.001. ConclusionIn patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level, those with an age of>30 years, ALT>30 U/L, and GGT>40 U/L tend to develop SLHCs and need liver biopsy.

  19. Risk factors for Clonorchis sinensis infection transmission in humans in northern Vietnam: A descriptive and social network analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Hoang Quang; Phimpraphai, Waraphon; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Smith, John F; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Dung, Do Trung; Duong, Tran Thanh; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-04-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is major fish-borne trematode, endemic in North Vietnam. Risk factors described so far include individual eating behaviors and environmental factors. Here, additional to conventional risk factors, we report on socially influenced liver fluke transmission in endemic communities. A cross-sectional study on risk factors and fish sharing networks was conducted in 4 villages of Gia Thinh Commune, Ninh Binh Province. A total of 510 residents in 272 households were recruited for risk factor analysis while 220 households, 28 fishermen and 10 fish-sellers were enrolled for social network study. Fecal examination for C. sinensis eggs was performed. Average C. sinensis infection rate at Gia Thinh commune was 16.5% (range 2% to 34.4%). Higher infection rates were significantly associated with males, lower educational levels, eating raw fish, and location of the villages. Social network analysis (SNA) showed a strong positive correlation between ego network size (number of households in fish sharing network) and quantity of raw fish consumed (r=0.603, Psinensis infection transmission in northern Vietnam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to N-nitroso compounds in a population of high liver cancer regions in Thailand: volatile nitrosamine (VNA) levels in Thai food.

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    Mitacek, E J; Brunnemann, K D; Suttajit, M; Martin, N; Limsila, T; Ohshima, H; Caplan, L S

    1999-04-01

    The recent case-control studies in Thailand indicate that a high incidence of liver cancer in Thailand has not been associated with common risk factors such as hepatitis B infection, aflatoxin intake and alcohol consumption. While the infestation by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) accounted for the high risk in north-east Thailand, there was no such exposure in the other regions of the country where the incidence of liver cancer is also high. Case-control studies suggest that exposure to exogenous and possibly endogenous nitrosamines in food or tobacco in betel nut and cigarettes may play a role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while OV infestation and chemical interaction of nitrosamines may also be aetiological factors in the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Over 1800 samples of fresh and preserved food were systematically collected and tested between 1988 and 1996. All the food items identified by anthropological studies to be consumed frequently in four major regions of Thailand were analysed for volatile nitrosamines using gas chromatography combined with a thermal energy analyser. Relatively high levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) were detected in fermented fish ("Plasalid"). NDMA was also detected at levels ranging from trace amounts to 66.5 microg/kg in several salted and dried fish ("Larb-pla" and "Pla-siu"). NDMA and NPYR were frequently detected in several vegetables, particularly fermented beans ("Tau-chiau") at levels ranging between 1 and 95.1 microg/kg and 0-146 microg/kg, respectively. The possible role of nitrosamines in Thai food in the aetiology of liver cancer (HCC, CCA) is discussed.

  1. Simultaneous splenectomy during liver transplantation augments anti-viral therapy in patients infected with hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Heng-Cheng; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Hsu, Kuo-Feng; Fan, Hsiu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Chen, Teng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous splenectomy in liver transplantation (LT) is selectively indicated because of splenoportal venous thromboses and increased sepsis. Therefore, its impact should be further investigated. Of the 160 liver transplant patients, only 40 underwent simultaneous splenectomy. Clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes were compared between the splenectomy and non-splenectomy group using retrospective analysis. Although the groups were similar and had no significant difference in the intra- and postoperative data, non-splenectomy group had more male patients. However, splenectomy group showed significantly higher platelet and leukocyte counts at 1 month and 6 months after the transplantation and higher hepatitis C virus anti-viral therapy completion. Furthermore, 3 patients developed portal or splenic vein thrombosis during the postoperative follow-up, but the overall survival rate did not significantly differ between these groups. Simultaneous splenectomy in LT can be safely performed, particularly in patients with hepatitis C virus cirrhosis, small-for-size grafts, hypersplenism, and ABO blood group incompatible (ABO - incompatible) LT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Techniques for the diagnosis of Fasciola infections in animals: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre Y

    2014-01-01

    The common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, causes fascioliasis, a significant disease in mammals, including livestock, wildlife and humans, with a major socioeconomic impact worldwide. In spite of its impact, and some advances towards the development of vaccines and new therapeutic agents, limited attention has been paid to the need for practical and reliable methods for the diagnosis of infection or disease. Accurate diagnosis is central to effective control, particularly given an emerging problem with drug resistance in F. hepatica. Traditional coprological techniques have been widely used, but are often unreliable. Although there have been some advances in establishing immunologic techniques, these tools can suffer from a lack of diagnostic specificity and/or sensitivity. Nonetheless, antigen detection tests seem to have considerable potential, but have not yet been adequately evaluated in the field. Moreover, advanced nucleic acid-based methods appear to offer the most promise for the diagnosis of current infection. This chapter (i) provides a brief account of the biology and significance of F. hepatica/fascioliasis, (ii) describes key techniques currently in use, (iii) compares their advantages/disadvantages and (iv) reviews polymerase chain reaction-based methods for specific diagnosis and/or the genetic characterization of Fasciola species. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased oxidative stress associated with the severity of the liver disease in various forms of hepatitis B virus infection

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    Aslan Mehmet

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress can be defined as an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity. There is limited information about the oxidative status in subjects with hepatitis B virus infection. We aimed to evaluate the oxidative status in patients with various clinical forms of chronic hepatitis B infection. Methods Seventy-six patients with hepatitis B virus infection, in whom 33 with chronic hepatitis, 31 inactive carriers and 12 with cirrhosis, and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurement, and calculation of oxidative stress index were performed in all participants. Results Total antioxidant response was significantly lower in cirrhotics than inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (p = 0.008 and p = 0.008, respectively. Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index was significantly higher in cirrhotic (p 0.05/6. Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were also comparable in inactive HBsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6. Serum alanine amino transferase level was positively correlated with total peroxide level and oxidative stress index only in chronic hepatitis B subjects (p = 0.002, r = 0.519 and p = 0.008, r = 0.453, respectively. Conclusion Oxidative stress occurs secondarily to increased total lipid peroxidation and inadequate total antioxidant response and is related to severity of the disease and replication status of virus in hepatitis B infection.

  4. Increased oxidative stress associated with the severity of the liver disease in various forms of hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun Filiz; Horoz, Mehmet; Aslan, Mehmet; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-10-31

    Oxidative stress can be defined as an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity. There is limited information about the oxidative status in subjects with hepatitis B virus infection. We aimed to evaluate the oxidative status in patients with various clinical forms of chronic hepatitis B infection. Seventy-six patients with hepatitis B virus infection, in whom 33 with chronic hepatitis, 31 inactive carriers and 12 with cirrhosis, and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurement, and calculation of oxidative stress index were performed in all participants. Total antioxidant response was significantly lower in cirrhotics than inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (p = 0.008 and p = 0.008, respectively). Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index was significantly higher in cirrhotic (p Total antioxidant response was comparable in chronic hepatitis B subjects, inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6). Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were also comparable in inactive HBsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6). Serum alanine amino transferase level was positively correlated with total peroxide level and oxidative stress index only in chronic hepatitis B subjects (p = 0.002, r = 0.519 and p = 0.008, r = 0.453, respectively). Oxidative stress occurs secondarily to increased total lipid peroxidation and inadequate total antioxidant response and is related to severity of the disease and replication status of virus in hepatitis B infection.

  5. Quantitation of HBV cccDNA in anti-HBc-positive liver donors by droplet digital PCR: a new tool to detect occult infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Abate, Maria Lorena; Tandoi, Francesco; Ciancio, Alessia; Amoroso, Antonio; Salizzoni, Mauro; Saracco, Giorgio Maria; Rizzetto, Mario; Romagnoli, Renato; Smedile, Antonina

    2018-04-02

    The accurate diagnosis of occult HBV infection (OBI) requires the demonstration of HBV DNA in liver biopsies of HBsAg-negative subjects. However, in clinical practice a latent OBI is deduced by the finding of the antibody to the HB-core antigen (anti-HBc). We investigated the true prevalence of OBI and the molecular features of intrahepatic HBV in anti-HBc-positive subjects. The livers of 100 transplant donors (median age 68.2 years; 64 males, 36 females) positive for anti-HBc at standard serologic testing, were examined for total HBV DNA by nested-PCR and for the HBV covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA) with an in-house droplet digital PCR assay (ddPCR) (Linearity: R 2 = 0.9998; lower limit of quantitation and detection of 2.4 and 0.8 copies/10 5 cells, respectively). A true OBI status was found in 52% (52/100) of the subjects and cccDNA was found in 52% (27/52) of the OBI-positive, with a median 13 copies/10 5 cells (95% confidence interval 5-25). Using an assay specific for anti-HBc of IgG class, the median antibody level was significantly higher in HBV cccDNA-positive than negative donors (5.7 [3.6-9.7] vs. 17.0 [7.0-39.2] COI, p = 0.007). By multivariate analysis, an anti-HBc IgG value above a 4.4 cut-off index (COI) was associated with the finding of intrahepatic HBV cccDNA (OR = 8.516, p = 0.009); a lower value ruled out its presence with a negative predictive value of 94.6%. With a new in-house ddPCR-based method, intrahepatic HBV cccDNA was detectable in quantifiable levels in about half of the OBI cases examined. The titer of anti-HBc IgG may be a useful surrogate to predict the risk of OBI reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form of the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) sustains the persistence of the virus even after decades of resolution of the florid infection (Occult HBV infection=OBI). In the present study we developed an highly sensitive method based on droplet digital PCR technology for the detection

  6. Identification of Fasciola flukes in Thailand based on their spermatogenesis and nuclear ribosomal DNA, and their intraspecific relationships based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Ichikawa, Madoka; Sobhon, Prasert; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed 147 Fasciola flukes obtained from cattle in Thailand based on their spermatogenetic ability, and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial nicotiamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) genes as molecular markers. One hundred twenty-eight flukes, which had abundant sperm in their seminal vesicles (spermic) and showed the PCR-RFLP pattern of F. gigantica in the ITS1, were accurately identified as F. gigantica. The other 19 flukes that had no sperm in their seminal vesicles were aspermic Fasciola sp. with the RFLP patterns identical to that of F. gigantica. Twenty-nine ND1 haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 2-30) were distinguished in the 128 F. gigantica flukes and were divided into haplotypes unique to Thailand and those common to other countries, suggesting the possibility that ancestral haplotypes were introduced into Thailand. Three haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 7, 9 and 27) appeared to be the major haplotypes found in F. gigantica from Thailand. Only one haplotype (Fg-ND1-Thai 1) was found in the 19 aspermic Fasciola sp. flukes obtained from geographical regions, and the nucleotide sequence of Fg-ND1-Thai 1 was identical to that of the aspermic Fasciola sp. from Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam and Myanmar, suggesting that they were descendants with a common provenance and expanded to these countries in the relatively recent past. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The energy metabolism of Fasciola hepatica during its development in the final host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1984-01-01

    Mature liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica, of different ages were isolated from the bile ducts of experimentally infected rats. Their energy metabolism was studied during aerobic incubation with [6-14C]glucose. The results showed that the aerobic potentials of the parenchymal liver flukes are not lost

  8. CD8+ T cells from a novel T cell receptor transgenic mouse induce liver-stage immunity that can be boosted by blood-stage infection in rodent malaria.

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    Lei Shong Lau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To follow the fate of CD8+ T cells responsive to Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection, we generated an MHC I-restricted TCR transgenic mouse line against this pathogen. T cells from this line, termed PbT-I T cells, were able to respond to blood-stage infection by PbA and two other rodent malaria species, P. yoelii XNL and P. chabaudi AS. These PbT-I T cells were also able to respond to sporozoites and to protect mice from liver-stage infection. Examination of the requirements for priming after intravenous administration of irradiated sporozoites, an effective vaccination approach, showed that the spleen rather than the liver was the main site of priming and that responses depended on CD8α+ dendritic cells. Importantly, sequential exposure to irradiated sporozoites followed two days later by blood-stage infection led to augmented PbT-I T cell expansion. These findings indicate that PbT-I T cells are a highly versatile tool for studying multiple stages and species of rodent malaria and suggest that cross-stage reactive CD8+ T cells may be utilized in liver-stage vaccine design to enable boosting by blood-stage infections.

  9. Liver Hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  10. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  11. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  12. Psychometrics of the chronic liver disease questionnaire for Southern Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Elegance Ting Pui; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Lai, Ching Lung; Yuen, Man Fung; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To test the psychometric properties of a Chinese [(Hong Kong) HK] translation of the chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ). METHODS: A Chinese (HK) translation of the CLDQ was developed by iterative translation and cognitive debriefing. It was then administered to 72 uncomplicated and 78 complicated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in Hong Kong together with a structured questionnaire on service utilization, and the Chinese (HK) SF-36 Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2). RESULTS: Scaling success was ≥ 80% for all but three items. A new factor assessing sleep was found and items of two (Fatigue and Systemic Symptoms) subscales tended to load on the same factor. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.58-0.90 for different subscales. Construct validity was confirmed by the expected correlations between the SF-36v2 Health Survey and CLDQ scores. Mean scores of CLDQ were significantly lower in complicated compared with uncomplicated CHB, supporting sensitivity in detecting differences between groups. CONCLUSION: The Chinese (HK) CLDQ is valid, reliable and sensitive for patients with CHB. Some modifications to the scaling structure might further improve its psychometric properties. PMID:19598306

  13. Factors Predicting HBsAg Seroclearance and Alanine Transaminase Elevation in HBeAg-Negative Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients with Persistently Normal Liver Function.

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    Tai-Long Chien

    Full Text Available A certain proportion of hepatitis B virus (HBV-infected patients with persistently normal alanine transaminase (ALT levels have significant fibrosis. Using liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® and laboratory data, including serum ALT, quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg, and HBV DNA, we attempted to predict the natural histories of these patients.Non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal ALT were followed up prospectively with the end points of HBsAg seroclearance and ALT elevation above the upper limit of normal. The factors that were predictive of the end points were identified.A total of 235 patients with an average age of 48.1 +/- 10.7 years were followed up for 7 years. Eight patients (3.4% lost HBsAg, and 15 patients (6.4% experienced ALT elevation. The overall cumulative HBsAg seroclearances were 0.4%, 1.3% and 2.3% at years 1, 3 and 5, respectively. Regarding HBsAg seroclearance, the qHBsAg (< 30 IU/ml cutoff resulted in a hazard ratio (HR of 19.6 with a 95% confidence interval (CI of 2.2-166.7 (P = 0.008. The baseline ALT level (odd ratio (OR 1.075, 95% CI 1.020-1.132, P = 0.006 and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (3.7, 1.1-12.4, P = 0.032 were associated with ALT elevation. Limited to men, the baseline liver stiffness (1.6, 1.0-2.5, P = 0.031 and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (10.4, 2.1-52.4, P = 0.004 were factors that were independently associated with ALT elevation.A low qHBsAg level predicted HBsAg clearance. Baseline ALT and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml were independent predictive factors for ALT elevation. Among the men, the independent predictive factors for ALT elevation were qHBsAg and liver stiffness.

  14. Structural basis for the inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8, a key epigenetic player in the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Martin Marek

    Full Text Available The treatment of schistosomiasis, a disease caused by blood flukes parasites of the Schistosoma genus, depends on the intensive use of a single drug, praziquantel, which increases the likelihood of the development of drug-resistant parasite strains and renders the search for new drugs a strategic priority. Currently, inhibitors of human epigenetic enzymes are actively investigated as novel anti-cancer drugs and have the potential to be used as new anti-parasitic agents. Here, we report that Schistosoma mansoni histone deacetylase 8 (smHDAC8, the most expressed class I HDAC isotype in this organism, is a functional acetyl-L-lysine deacetylase that plays an important role in parasite infectivity. The crystal structure of smHDAC8 shows that this enzyme adopts a canonical α/β HDAC fold, with specific solvent exposed loops corresponding to insertions in the schistosome HDAC8 sequence. Importantly, structures of smHDAC8 in complex with generic HDAC inhibitors revealed specific structural changes in the smHDAC8 active site that cannot be accommodated by human HDACs. Using a structure-based approach, we identified several small-molecule inhibitors that build on these specificities. These molecules exhibit an inhibitory effect on smHDAC8 but show reduced affinity for human HDACs. Crucially, we show that a newly identified smHDAC8 inhibitor has the capacity to induce apoptosis and mortality in schistosomes. Taken together, our biological and structural findings define the framework for the rational design of small-molecule inhibitors specifically interfering with schistosome epigenetic mechanisms, and further support an anti-parasitic epigenome targeting strategy to treat neglected diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens.

  15. Liver enzyme abnormalities and associated risk factors in HIV patients on efavirenz-based HAART with or without tuberculosis co-infection in Tanzania.

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    Sabina Mugusi

    Full Text Available To investigate the timing, incidence, clinical presentation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetic predictors for antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury (DILI in HIV patients with or without TB co-infection.A total of 473 treatment naïve HIV patients (253 HIV only and 220 with HIV-TB co-infection were enrolled prospectively. Plasma efavirenz concentration and CYP2B6*6, CYP3A5*3, *6 and *7, ABCB1 3435C/T and SLCO1B1 genotypes were determined. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline and up to 48 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. DILI case definition was according to Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS. Incidence of DILI and identification of predictors was evaluated using Cox Proportional Hazards Model. The overall incidence of DILI was 7.8% (8.3 per 1000 person-week, being non-significantly higher among patients receiving concomitant anti-TB and HAART (10.0%, 10.7 per 1000 person-week than those receiving HAART alone (5.9%, 6.3 per 1000 person-week. Frequency of CYP2B6*6 allele (p = 0.03 and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype (p = 0.06 was significantly higher in patients with DILI than those without. Multivariate cox regression model indicated that CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype and anti-HCV IgG antibody positive as significant predictors of DILI. Median time to DILI was 2 weeks after HAART initiation and no DILI onset was observed after 12 weeks. No severe DILI was seen and the gain in CD4 was similar in patients with or without DILI.Antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis DILI does occur in our setting, presenting early following HAART initiation. DILI seen is mild, transient and may not require treatment interruption. There is good tolerance to HAART and anti-TB with similar immunological outcomes. Genetic make-up mainly CYP2B6 genotype influences the development of efavirenz based HAART liver injury in Tanzanians.

  16. Liver inflammation is a Risk Factor for Prediabetes in At-Risk Latinos with and without Hepatitis C Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Blaire E; Bacchetti, Peter; Ayala, Claudia E.; Gelman, Nicholas; Melgar, Jennifer; Khalili, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Early recognition of prediabetes can lead to timely clinical interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes. Both Latino ethnicity and chronic hepatitis C (HCV) have been identified as diabetic risk factors. We aimed to investigate predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), a common prediabetic state, among Latinos with and without HCV. Methods One hundred Latino adults with no history of diabetes or cirrhosis underwent clinical, laboratory, and metabolic evaluation, including oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and insulin suppression testing to quantify directly measured insulin resistance (IR). Isolated IFG was defined as fasting glucose ≥100mg/dL and prediabetes among Latinos with and without HCV. Among HCV-infected individuals, early antiviral therapy could mitigate the effect of inflammation and represent an important intervention to prevent diabetes in this at-risk population. PMID:25156890

  17. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum.

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    Lihui Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production.

  18. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihui; Zhao, Jiangping; Wang, Jianbin; Hu, Chao; Peng, Jinbiao; Luo, Rong; Zhou, Chunjing; Liu, Juntao; Lin, Jiaojiao; Jin, Youxin; Davis, Richard E; Cheng, Guofeng

    2016-02-01

    Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production.

  19. Low efficacy of single-dose albendazole and mebendazole against hookworm and effect on concomitant helminth infection in Lao PDR.

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    Phonepasong Ayé Soukhathammavong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg and mebendazole (500 mg for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples were randomly assigned to albendazole (n=100 and mebendazole (n=100. Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment, and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline at 21-23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.8; P=0.01, and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001.

  20. Low Efficacy of Single-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Hookworm and Effect on Concomitant Helminth Infection in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong Ayé; Sayasone, Somphou; Phongluxa, Khampheng; Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hatz, Christoph; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Keiser, Jennifer; Odermatt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg) and mebendazole (500 mg) for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. Methodology We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples) were randomly assigned to albendazole (n = 100) and mebendazole (n = 100). Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment), and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline) at 21–23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. Principal Findings Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2–0.8; P = 0.01), and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively) and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001 PMID:22235353

  1. Liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the United States 2002-2014: An analysis of the UNOS/OPTN registry.

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    Georg Dultz

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a leading cause for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT in the U.S. We investigated characteristics of HCV-infected patients registered for OLT, and explored factors associated with mortality. Data were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing and Organ Procurement and Transplantation network (UNOS/OPTN registry. Analyses included 41,157 HCV-mono-infected patients ≥18 years of age listed for cadaveric OLT between February 2002 and June 2014. Characteristics associated with pre- and post-transplant survival and time trends over the study period were determined by logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses and Poisson regressions. Most patients were white (69.1% and male (70.8%. At waitlist registration, mean age was 54.6 years and mean MELD was 16. HCC was recorded in 26.9% of the records. A total of 51.2% of the patients received an OLT, 21.0% died or were too sick; 15.6% were delisted and 10.4% were still waiting. Factors associated with increased waitlist mortality were older age, female gender, blood type 0, diabetes, no HCC and transplant region (p<0.001. OLT recipient characteristics associated with increased risk for post OLT mortality were female gender, age, diabetes, race (p<0,0001, and allocation MELD (p = 0.005. Donor characteristics associated with waitlist mortality included age, ethnicity (p<0.0001 and diabetes (p<0.03. Waitlist registrations and OLTs for HCC significantly increased from 14.4% to 37.3% and 27.8% to 38.5%, respectively (p<0.0001. Pre- and post-transplant survival depended on a variety of patient-, donor-, and allocation- characteristics of which most remain relevant in the DAA-era. Still, intensified HCV screening strategies and timely and effective treatment of HCV are highly relevant to reduce the burden of HCV-related OLTs in the U.S.

  2. Tiny staining spots in liver cirrhosis associated with HCV infection observed by computed tomographic hepatic arteriography. Follow-up study

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    Tsuchiyama, Tomoya; Terasaki, Shuichi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kaji, Kyosuke; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-10-01

    It is important to distinguish small lesions with increased arterial perfusion observed by computed tomographic arteriography (CT-A) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the clinical characteristics and prognosis of such lesions have not been clarified. We retrospectively examined 200 patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who had undergone both CT-A and CT arterioportography between 1995 and 1998, and found 80 tiny staining spots (TSS)s, with a diameter of 5-10 mm, by CT-A (35 patients). The mean TSS observation period was 29.0 months. If the major axis was larger than 10 mm and showed a 1.5-fold or more increase, the lesion was regarded as tumor growth (TG). The TSS lesions were divided into two groups according to whether the patient had or did not have HCC. The prognosis of TSS was classified into three groups; HCC-suspected group, nontumor group, and unclassified group, in which TG was negative although transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) had been performed. Of the 40 TSSs in 14 patients without HCC, 2 (5%) were suspected as HCC. Of the 40 TSSs in 21 patients with HCC, 13 (32.5%) were suspected as HCC. There were no significant differences in the size, position, and morphology of TSSs among the three prognostic groups. Of the 7 TSSs with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, 5 were in the HCC-suspected group. We recommend early treatment of TSSs accompanying HCC or showing features of malignancy at the imaging workup. (author)

  3. Clonorchis sinensis lysophospholipase A upregulates IL-25 expression in macrophages as a potential pathway to liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lina; Shi, Mengchen; Zhao, Lu; Lin, Zhipeng; Tang, Zeli; Sun, Hengchang; Chen, Tingjin; Lv, Zhiyue; Xu, Jin; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2017-06-17

    Liver fibrosis is an excessive wound-healing reaction that requires the participation of inflammatory cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The pathogenesis of liver fibrosis caused by viruses and alcohol has been well characterized, but the molecular mechanisms underlying liver fibrosis induced by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis are poorly understood. Lysophospholipase A (LysoPLA), which deacylates lysophospholipids, plays a critical role in mediating the virulence and pathogenesis of parasites and fungi; however, the roles of C. sinensis lysophospholipase A (CsLysoPLA) in C. sinensis-induced liver fibrosis remain unknown. A mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) was cultured and treated with CsLysoPLA. IL-25 and members of its associated signaling pathway were detected by performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. A human hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) was cultured and exposed to IL-25. LX-2 cell activation markers were examined via quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Migration was analyzed in transwell plates. Treating RAW264.7 cells with CsLysoPLA significantly induced IL-25 expression. Elevated PKA, B-Raf, and ERK1/2 mRNA levels and phosphorylated B-Raf and ERK1/2 were detected in CsLysoPLA-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The PKA inhibitor H-89 weakened B-Raf and ERK1/2 phosphorylation whereas the AKT activator SC79 attenuated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in RAW264.7 cells. Both H-89 and SC79 inhibited CsLysoPLA-induced IL-25 upregulation. In addition, stimulation of LX-2 cells with IL-25 upregulated the expression of mesenchymal cell markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen type I (Collagen-I), and promoted cell migration. CsLysoPLA activates HSCs by upregulating IL-25 in macrophages through the PKA-dependent B-Raf/ERK1/2 pathway and potentially promotes hepatic fibrosis during C. sinensis infection.

  4. Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD score as a predictor and monitor of mortality in patients with Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections.

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    Kuo-Chin Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections (VNSSTIs usually predispose patients with or without preexisting liver disease to septic shock, and then evolve to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, thus resulting in high mortality in humans. However, clinicians do not have a valid prediction model to provide a reliable estimate of case-fatality rate when caring for these acutely and/or critically ill patients.We retrospectively analyzed 39 consecutive patients with VNSSTIs (mean age: 65.7 ± 11.3 years at our institution between 2007 and 2010. All patients were treated with the same protocol. Demographic and clinical characteristics, disease severity on admission, treatment details, and outcomes were collected for each patient and extracted for analyses. We studied the predictive value of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD, modified MELD including sodium (MELD-Na, and laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC scores for case-fatality. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses were performed. The mean MELD, MELD-Na and LRINEC scores on admission were 15.1 ± 1.1, 17.7 ± 1.1, and 3.4 ± 0.4 points, respectively. After admission, these patients had temporary or progressive deterioration of nearly all their scores and lab values. The area under the ROC curve for the MELD and ΔMELD scoring models were 0.929 (p = 0.002 and 0.897 (p = 0.005, respectively. An optimal MELD/ΔMELD cutoff value ≥ 20/2 had a good sensitivity and specificity (all > 80%, with a 64/13-fold increased odds for case-fatality. Additionally, the development of severe forms of anemia (p = 0.014 and hypoalbuminemia (p = 0.019 were associated with an increased case-fatality rate.The MELD/ΔMELD scoring model is an effective risk stratification indicator at the time of admission and also an excellent condition monitor during hospitalization for medical care of acutely and/or critically ill patients

  5. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  6. Transcriptional profiles of cytokine/chemokine factors of immune cell-homing to the parasitic lesions: a comprehensive one-year course study in the liver of E. multilocularis-infected mice.

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    Junhua Wang

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of chronically developing alveolar echinococcosis (AE is characterized by a continuous, granulomatous, periparasitic infiltration of immune cells surrounding the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis (E.multilocularis in the affected liver. A detailed cytokine and chemokine profile analysis of the periparasitic infiltrate in the liver has, however, not yet been carried out in a comprehensive way all along the whole course of infection in E. multilocularis intermediate hosts. We thus assessed the hepatic gene expression profiles of 18 selected cytokine and chemokine genes using qRT-PCR in the periparasitic immune reaction and the subsequent adjacent, not directly affected, liver tissue of mice from day 2 to day 360 post intra-hepatic injection of metacestode. DNA microarray analysis was also used to get a more complete picture of the transcriptional changes occurring in the liver surrounding the parasitic lesions. Profiles of mRNA expression levels in the hepatic parasitic lesions showed that a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response, characterized by the concomitant presence of IL-12α, IFN-γ and IL-4, was established very early in the development of E. multilocularis. Subsequently, the profile extended to a combined tolerogenic profile associating IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-β. IL-17 was permanently expressed in the liver, mostly in the periparasitic infiltrate; this was confirmed by the increased mRNA expression of both IL-17A and IL-17F from a very early stage, with a subsequent decrease of IL-17A after this first initial rise. All measured chemokines were significantly expressed at a given stage of infection; their expression paralleled that of the corresponding Th1, Th2 or Th17 cytokines. In addition to giving a comprehensive insight in the time course of cytokines and chemokines in E. multilocularis lesion, this study contributes to identify new targets for possible immune therapy to minimize E. multilocularis-related pathology and to

  7. ATTIRE: Albumin To prevenT Infection in chronic liveR failurE: study protocol for a single-arm feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Louise; Muirhead, Nicola; Skene, Simon S; Shabir, Zainib; De Maeyer, Roel P H; Maini, Alexander A N; Gilroy, Derek W; O'Brien, Alastair J

    2016-01-25

    Circulating prostaglandin E2 levels are elevated in acutely decompensated cirrhosis and have been shown to contribute to immune suppression. Albumin binds and inactivates this hormone. Human albumin solution could thus be repurposed as an immune restorative drug in these patients.This feasibility study aims to determine whether it is possible and safe to restore serum albumin to >30 g/L and maintain it at this level in patients admitted with acute decompensated cirrhosis using repeated 20% human albumin infusions according to daily serum albumin levels. Albumin To prevenT Infection in chronic liveR failurE (ATTIRE) stage 1 is a multicentre, open label dose feasibility trial. Patients with acutely decompensated cirrhosis admitted to hospital with a serum albumin of albumin solution will be infused, according to serum albumin levels, for up to 14 days or discharge in all patients. The primary end point is daily serum albumin levels for the duration of the treatment period and the secondary end point is plasma-induced macrophage dysfunction. The trial will recruit 80 patients. Outcomes will be used to assist with study design for an 866 patient randomised controlled trial at more than 30 sites across the UK. Research ethics approval was given by the London-Brent research ethics committee (ref: 15/LO/0104). The clinical trials authorisation was issued by the medicines and healthcare products regulatory agency (ref: 20363/0350/001-0001). Will be disseminated through peer reviewed journals and international conferences. Recruitment of the first participant occurred on 26/05/2015. The trial is registered with the European Medicines Agency (EudraCT 2014-002300-24) and has been adopted by the NIHR (ISRCTN 14174793). This manuscript refers to V.4.0 of the protocol; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Liver-related deaths in HIV-infected patients between 1995 and 2010 in France: the Mortavic 2010 study in collaboration with the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA (ANRS) EN 20 Mortalité 2010 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, E; Roussillon, C; Salmon-Céron, D; Georget, A; Hénard, S; Huleux, T; Gueit, I; Mortier, E; Costagliola, D; Morlat, P; Chêne, G; Cacoub, P

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of liver-related diseases (LRDs) as a cause of death in HIV-infected patients in France and to compare the results with data from our five previous surveys. In 2010, 24 clinical wards prospectively recorded all deaths occurring in around 26 000 HIV-infected patients who were regularly followed up. Results were compared with those of previous cross-sectional surveys conducted since 1995 using the same design. Among 230 reported deaths, 46 (20%) were related to AIDS and 30 (13%) to chronic liver diseases. Eighty per cent of patients who died from LRDs had chronic hepatitis C, 16.7% of them being coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Among patients who died from an LRD, excessive alcohol consumption was reported in 41%. At death, 80% of patients had undetectable HIV viral load and the median CD4 cell count was 349 cells/μL. The proportion of deaths and the mortality rate attributable to LRDs significantly increased between 1995 and 2005 from 1.5% to 16.7% and from 1.2‰ to 2.0‰, respectively, whereas they tended to decrease in 2010 to 13% and 1.1‰, respectively. Among liver-related causes of death, the proportion represented by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) dramatically increased from 5% in 1995 to 40% in 2010 (p = 0.019). The proportion of LRDs among causes of death in HIV-infected patients seems recently to have reached a plateau after a rapid increase during the decade 1995-2005. LRDs remain a leading cause of death in this population, mainly as a result of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection, HCC representing almost half of liver-related causes of death. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  9. Better Alone or in Ill Company? The Effect of Migration and Inter-Species Comingling on Fascioloides magna Infection in Elk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvot, Mathieu; Lejeune, Manigandan; Kutz, Susan; Hutchins, Wendy; Musiani, Marco; Massolo, Alessandro; Orsel, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Migratory movements and alteration of host communities through livestock production are examples of ecological processes that may have consequences on wildlife pathogens. We studied the effect of co-grazing of cattle and wild elk, and of elk migratory behaviour on the occurrence of the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, in elk. Migratory elk and elk herds with a higher proportion of migratory individuals were significantly less likely to be infected with F. magna. This may indicate a decreased risk of infection for migratory individuals, known as the "migratory escape" hypothesis. Elk herds overlapping with higher cattle densities also had a lower prevalence of this parasite, even after adjustment for landscape and climate variables known to influence its life cycle. Serological evidence suggests that even in low-prevalence areas, F. magna is circulating in both elk and cattle. Cattle are "dead-end" hosts for F. magna, and this may, therefore, indicate a dilution effect where cattle and elk are co-grazing. Migratory behaviour and host community composition have significant effects on the dynamics of this wildlife parasite; emphasizing the potential impacts of decisions regarding the management of migratory corridors and livestock-wildlife interface.

  10. Better Alone or in Ill Company? The Effect of Migration and Inter-Species Comingling on Fascioloides magna Infection in Elk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Pruvot

    Full Text Available Migratory movements and alteration of host communities through livestock production are examples of ecological processes that may have consequences on wildlife pathogens. We studied the effect of co-grazing of cattle and wild elk, and of elk migratory behaviour on the occurrence of the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, in elk. Migratory elk and elk herds with a higher proportion of migratory individuals were significantly less likely to be infected with F. magna. This may indicate a decreased risk of infection for migratory individuals, known as the "migratory escape" hypothesis. Elk herds overlapping with higher cattle densities also had a lower prevalence of this parasite, even after adjustment for landscape and climate variables known to influence its life cycle. Serological evidence suggests that even in low-prevalence areas, F. magna is circulating in both elk and cattle. Cattle are "dead-end" hosts for F. magna, and this may, therefore, indicate a dilution effect where cattle and elk are co-grazing. Migratory behaviour and host community composition have significant effects on the dynamics of this wildlife parasite; emphasizing the potential impacts of decisions regarding the management of migratory corridors and livestock-wildlife interface.

  11. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  12. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  13. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  14. The Dynamics of Treg/Th17 and the Imbalance of Treg/Th17 in Clonorchis sinensis-Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui; Li, Bo; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Qian; Li, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Ying; Pan, Wei; Liu, Xiang-Ye; Tang, Ren-Xian; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, is a chronic parasitic infection regulated by T cell subsets. An imbalance of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) and interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells (Th17) may control inflammation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of immune evasion. In the present study, we assessed the dynamics of Treg/Th17 and determined whether the Treg/Th17 ratio is altered in C. sinensis-infected mice. The results showed that the percentages of splenic Treg cells in CD4+ T cells were suppressed on day 14 post-infection (PI) but increased on day 56 PI, while Th17 cells were increased on day 56 PI compared with normal control (NC) mice. The Treg/Th17 ratio steadily increased from day 28 to day 56 PI. The hepatic levels of their specific transcription factors (Foxp3 for Treg and RORγt for Th17) were increased in C. sinensis-infected mice from day 14 to 56 PI, and significantly higher than those in NC mice. Meanwhile, serum levels of IL-2 and IL-17 were profoundly increased in C. sinensis-infected mice throughout the experiment; while the concentrations of IL-6 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) peaked on day 14 PI, but then decreased on day 28 and 56 PI. Our results provide the first evidence of an increased Treg/Th17 ratio in C. sinensis-infected mice, suggesting that a Treg/Th17 imbalance may play a role in disease outcomes of clonorchiasis. PMID:26599407

  15. The Dynamics of Treg/Th17 and the Imbalance of Treg/Th17 in Clonorchis sinensis-Infected Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yan

    Full Text Available Clonorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, is a chronic parasitic infection regulated by T cell subsets. An imbalance of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg and interleukin (IL-17-secreting T cells (Th17 may control inflammation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of immune evasion. In the present study, we assessed the dynamics of Treg/Th17 and determined whether the Treg/Th17 ratio is altered in C. sinensis-infected mice. The results showed that the percentages of splenic Treg cells in CD4+ T cells were suppressed on day 14 post-infection (PI but increased on day 56 PI, while Th17 cells were increased on day 56 PI compared with normal control (NC mice. The Treg/Th17 ratio steadily increased from day 28 to day 56 PI. The hepatic levels of their specific transcription factors (Foxp3 for Treg and RORγt for Th17 were increased in C. sinensis-infected mice from day 14 to 56 PI, and significantly higher than those in NC mice. Meanwhile, serum levels of IL-2 and IL-17 were profoundly increased in C. sinensis-infected mice throughout the experiment; while the concentrations of IL-6 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 peaked on day 14 PI, but then decreased on day 28 and 56 PI. Our results provide the first evidence of an increased Treg/Th17 ratio in C. sinensis-infected mice, suggesting that a Treg/Th17 imbalance may play a role in disease outcomes of clonorchiasis.

  16. T cell-mediated hepatitis in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Liver cell destruction by H-2 class I-restricted virus-specific cytotoxic T cells as a physiological correlate of the 51Cr-release assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkernagel, R.M.; Haenseler, E.; Leist, T.; Cerny, A.; Hengartner, H.; Althage, A.

    1986-01-01

    A model for immunologically T cell-mediated hepatitis was established in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of hepatitis was monitored histologically and by determination of changes in serum levels of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), and alkaline phosphatase (AP). Kinetics of histological disease manifestations, increases of liver enzyme levels in the serum, and cytotoxic T cell activities in livers and spleens all correlated and were dependent upon several parameters: LCMV-isolate; LCMV-WE caused extensive hepatitis, LCMV-Armstrong virtually none. Virus dose. Route of infection; i.v. or i.p. infection caused hepatitis, whereas infection into the footpad did not. The general genetic background of the murine host; of the strains tested, Swiss mice and A-strain mice were more susceptible than C57BL or CBA mice; BALB/c and DBA/2 mice were least susceptible. The degree of immunocompetence of the murine host; T cell deficient nu/nu mice never developed hepatitis, whereas nu/+ or +/+ mice always did. B cell-depleted anti-IgM-treated mice developed immune-mediated hepatitis comparably or even more extensively than control mice. Local cytotoxic T cell activity; mononuclear cells isolated from livers during the period of overt hepatitis were two to five times more active than equal numbers of spleen cells. Adoptive transfer of nylon wool-nonadherent anti-Thy-1.2 and anti-Lyt-2 plus C-sensitive, anti-L3T4 plus C-resistant lymphocytes into irradiated mice preinfected with LCMV-WE caused a rapid time- and dose-dependent linear increase of serum enzyme levels. This increase was caused by adoptive transfer of lymphocytes if immune cell donors and recipient mice shared class I, but not when they shared class II histocompatibility antigens

  17. Data mining of routine laboratory tests can predict liver disease progression in Egyptian diabetic patients with hepatitis C virus (G4) infection: a cohort study of 71 806 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Yasmin; Awad, Abobakr; Alakel, Wafaa; Doss, Wahid; Awad, Tahany; Mabrouk, Mahasen

    2018-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are prevalent diseases worldwide, associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and mutual association. The aims of this study were as follows: (i) find the prevalence of DM among 71 806 Egyptian patients with chronic HCV infection and its effect on liver disease progression and (ii) using data mining of routine tests to predict hepatic fibrosis in diabetic patients with HCV infection. A retrospective multicentered study included laboratory and histopathological data of 71 806 patients with HCV infection collected by Egyptian National Committee for control of viral hepatitis. Using data mining analysis, we constructed decision tree algorithm to assess predictors of fibrosis progression in diabetic patients with HCV. Overall, 12 018 (16.8%) patients were diagnosed as having diabetes [6428: fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl (9%) and 5590: fasting blood glucose ≥110-126 mg/dl (7.8%)]. DM was significantly associated with advanced age, high BMI and α-fetoprotein (AFP), and low platelets and serum albumin (P≤0.001). Advanced liver fibrosis (F3-F4) was significantly correlated with DM (P≤0.001) irrespective of age. Of 16 attributes, decision tree model for fibrosis showed AFP was most decisive with cutoff of 5.25 ng/ml as starting point of fibrosis. AFP level greater than cutoff in patients was the first important splitting attribute; age and platelet count were second important splitting attributes. (i) Chronic HCV is significantly associated with DM (16.8%). (ii) Advanced age, high BMI and AFP, low platelets count and albumin show significant association with DM in HCV. (iii) AFP cutoff of 5.25 is a starting point of fibrosis development and integrated into mathematical model to predict development of liver fibrosis in diabetics with HCV (G4) infection.

  18. Establishment of a novel radioligand assay using eukaryotically expressed cytochrome P4502D6 for the measurement of liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Gregorio, G; Gäken, J; Muratori, L; Bianchi, F B; Mieli-Vergani, G; Vergani, D

    1997-06-01

    Liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1) is the diagnostic marker of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 2 and is also found in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) is the documented target antigen of LKM1 in AIH, but not in HCV infection. To compare the reactivity in the two conditions, we established a radioligand assay using eukaryotically expressed CYP2D6 as target. A 1.2-kb human CYP2D6 cDNA was isolated from a human liver cDNA library and subcloned into an in vitro transcription vector pSP64 Poly(A). Recombinant CYP2D6 was then produced by in vitro transcription/translation, metabolically labelled with 35S methionine and used in the immunoprecipitation assay. Antibodies that bound radiolabelled CYP2D6 were immunoprecipitated and their levels assessed as cpm. Sera from 50 LKM1-positive patients (26 with AIH; 24 with HCV infection), 128 LKM1-negative patients and 57 normal controls were tested. Reactivity to 35S labelled CYP2D6 was observed in all LKM1-positive sera from patients with AIH and HCV infection, but in none of the controls. The cpm in both conditions were significantly higher than in normal controls (pLKM1 (r 0.87, p<0.001 and r=0.64, p<0.001 for AIH and HCV infection, respectively). Reactivity to 35S labelled CYP2D6 was inhibited by addition of an excess of eukaryotically expressed CYP2D6. CYP2D6 is a major target antigen of both AIH and HCV infection. The novel radioligand assay is highly sensitive and specific.

  19. Clinical analysis of 11 cases with pulmonary fungal infection after liver transplantation%肝移植术后肺部真菌感染11例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建斌; 魏思东; 陈国勇; 孙建军; 汤高枫; 袁振华

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨肝移植术后肺部真菌感染的临床特点、诊断及治疗措施.方法 回顾性分析了74例2013年10月至2014年10月在郑州人民医院肝移植术后出现肺部真菌感染的11例患者的临床资料,采取个体化的治疗和管理,并对临床数据进行总结分析.结果 在74例肝移植病例中,肺部真菌感染受者占14.9%(11/74).11例肝移植术后肺部真菌感染患者中,8例治愈,治愈率为72.7%;3例死亡,病死率为27.3%.结论 肝移植术后肺部真菌感染的患者均无典型的临床特点,容易干扰临床诊断,应引起肝移植中心医师的足够重视,尽早鉴定菌种并根据药敏试验使用敏感抗菌药物是成功救治肝移植术后肺部真菌感染的关键.%Objective To investigate clinical feature, diagnosis, and treatment of pulmonary fungal infection after liver transplantation.Methods This is a retrospective analysis of the clinical data of11 patients who underwent pulmonary fungal infections after liver transplantation from October2013 to October2014 in Zhengzhou People''s Hospital. The patients appeared to take individualized treatment and management, and the clinical data were analyzed.Results Among the74 cases of liver transplantation patients which affected by pulmonary fungal infection accounted for14.9%(11/74). Among11 cases of pulmonary fungal infection after liver transplantation patients, eight patients were cured, the cure rate was72.7%. A total of3 patients died, and the mortality rate was 27.3%.Conclusion Patients with pulmonary fungal infection after liver transplantation showed no typical clinical features, which was easy to interfere the clinical diagnosis. For patients with suspected pulmonary fungal infection sputum(and) blood culture should be done as soon as possible to identify species of fungal, and using drugs in accordance with sensitive antimicrobial susceptibility test is the key to the successful treatment of pulmonary fungal infections in patients

  20. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research.

  1. Global status of fish-borne zoonotic trematodiasis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; Madsen, Henry; Fried, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    ) are listed. Some trematodes, which are highly pathogenic for humans such as Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus are discussed in detail, i.e. infection status in humans in endemic areas, clinical aspects, symptoms and pathology of disease caused by these flukes. Other liver fluke species...

  2. HCV-related liver cancer in people with haemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.; Haagsma, E. B.

    . The topic of this monograph is liver cancer associated with chronic HCV infection. We start with some background information on chronic HCV infection and its long-term sequelae, one of which is liver cancer. The rest of the article is concerned with liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  3. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  4. Improvement of liver stiffness in patients with hepatitis C virus infection who received direct-acting antiviral therapy and achieved sustained virological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Mizuno, Kazuyuki; Sone, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Saki; Hashinokuchi, Shinichi

    2017-12-01

    There is insufficient research on whether direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy can improve liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). We evaluated sequential changes in liver stiffness using shear wave elastography in patients with HCV who received DAA therapy. A total of 210 patients with HCV who received daclatasvir and asunaprevir therapy and achieved sustained virological response (SVR) were analyzed. Liver stiffness, as evaluated by shear wave elastography, and laboratory data were assessed before treatment (baseline), at end of treatment (EOT), and at 24 weeks after EOT (SVR24). Alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT) decreased over time, and there were significant differences between baseline and EOT and between EOT and SVR24. Although platelet counts did not significantly differ between baseline and EOT, they increased significantly from EOT to SVR24. The median (interquartile range) liver stiffness values at baseline, EOT, and SVR24 were 10.2 (7.7-14.7), 8.8 (7.1-12.1), and 7.6 (6.3-10.3) kPa, respectively (P liver) and Fibrosis-4 index > 2.0 (n = 75), the liver stiffness values at baseline, EOT, and SVR24 were 9.6 (7.7-15.2), 9.2 (7.3-12.1), and 7.7 (6.3-10.1) kPa, respectively (P liver stiffness starts during the administration of DAAs in patients who achieve SVR, and this effect is particularly pronounced in patients with progressive liver fibrosis. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus infection after pediatric living related liver transplantation:a fourteen cases analysis%儿童亲属活体肝移植术后EB病毒感染14例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康永振; 孙晓叶; 蔡金贞; 高伟; 刘懿禾; 沈中阳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)infection after pediatric living related liver transplantation and analyze related treatment and prognosis. Methods The medical records of pediatric liver transplant recipients who received living related liver transplantation because of biliary atresia and biliary cirrhosis in Tianjin First Center Hospital during January 1,2012 and December 31,2013 were analyzed retrospectively,with diagnostic standard of positive blood EBV-DNA. The incidence of Epstein-Barr virus infection after pediatric living related liver transplantation and corresponding treatment and prognosis were analyzed. Results 14(16.3%)out of 86 pediatric liver transplant recipients were turned out to be EBV-DNA positive in blood,which were defined as EBV infection,9 cases occurred within the first 3 months after transplantation and 5 after 3 months;when therapy of reducing immunosuppressants and multi antivirus drugs were applied,a total of 13 recipients acquired favorable prognosis,and one case may turn into chronic EBV infection. Conclusion When appropriate immunosuppressants adjustment and antivirus drugs were applied,most pediatric liver transplant recipients who developed EBV infection can acquire satisfying prognosis.%目的探讨儿童亲属活体肝移植术后EB病毒(EBV)感染的发生、治疗及预后情况。方法回顾性分析2012年1月1日至2013年12月31日因胆道闭锁、胆汁淤积性肝硬化于天津市第一中心医院接受亲属活体肝移植术患儿的病历资料和随访资料,以血EBV-DNA阳性为诊断标准,对其中EBV感染的发生、治疗及预后情况进行综合分析。结果86例接受亲属活体肝移植术的患儿中有14例(占16.3%)血EBV-DNA阳性,发生了EBV感染,其中9例发生在术后3个月内,5例发生在术后3个月以后。在应用了免疫抑制药物减量的基础治疗方案和多种抗病毒药物治疗的个体化方案后,13例患儿

  6. Detection on immunoblot of new proteins from the soluble fraction of the cell recognized either by anti-liver-kidney microsome antibodies type 1 or by anti-liver cytosol antibodies type 1--relationship with hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballot, E; Desbos, A; Monier, J C

    1996-09-01

    Antibodies directed against liver cytosol protein, called anti-liver cytosol type 1 (LC1 Ab), have been described by both immunofluorescence (IF) and immunodiffusion techniques in sera from patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). They have never been found in association with antibodies directed against the hepatitis C virus (HCV), unlike the anti-liver-kidney microsome antibodies type 1 (LKM1 Ab), the serological marker of AIH type 2. This suggests that there are two subgroups of AIH type 2, i.e., HCV-related and non-HCV-related. In this study, immunoblotting experiments were performed using proteins from the soluble phase of the rat liver cell; 141 sera which tested positive for LKM1 Ab by IF, 24 identified as having LC1 Ab by IF, and 50 from blood donors as controls were analyzed. Three bands were stained by LC1 Ab sera more often than by the control sera, and with a statistically significant frequency. These 3 proteins were located at apparent Mr 50,000, 55,000, and 60,000. The LKM1 Ab-positive sera as defined by IF stained six bands with a statistically significant frequency compared to the controls. Their apparent Mr were 35,000, 39,000, 47,000, 50,000, 55,000, and 60,000. LKM1 Ab-positive sera which were anti-HCV negative recognized a 60,000 protein belonging to the soluble phase of the cell, with a statistically significant frequency compared to LKM1 Ab-positive sera which were anti-HCV positive. This 60,000 protein was also recognized by LC1 Ab-positive sera, which were almost always anti-HCV negative. The presence of antibodies against a 60,000 protein from the soluble phase of the cell is discussed in terms of the anti-HCV serological markers found in the sera from patients with AIH.

  7. Influence of Arvs on Some Biochemical Changes in Liver Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    This study evaluated the effect of HIV infection and ... The severity of the liver disease may range from the absence of symptoms ... includes alcohol consumption, because alcohol is a ... with liver disease include old age (Campos et al.,. 2002) ...

  8. Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ridding your body of toxic substances. Liver disease can be inherited (genetic) or caused by a variety of factors that damage the ... that you can't stay still. Causes Liver disease has many ... or semen, contaminated food or water, or close contact with a person who is ...

  9. Liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    Liver scintigraphy can be classified into 3 major categories according to the properties of the radiopharmaceuticals used, i.e., methods using radiopharmaceuticals which are (1) incorporated by hepatocytes, (2) taken up by reticulo endothelial cells, and (3) distributed in the blood pool of the liver. Of these three categories, the liver scintigraphy of the present research falls into category 2. Radiopharmaceuticals which are taken up by endothelial cells include 198 Au colloids and 99m Tc-labelled colloids. Liver scintigraphy takes advantage of the property by which colloidal microparticles are phagocytosed by Kupffer cells, and reflect the distribution of endothelial cells and the intensity of their phagocytic capacity. This examination is indicated in the following situations: (i) when you suspect a localized intrahepatic lesion (tumour, abscess, cyst, etc.), (ii) when you want to follow the course of therapy of a localized lesion, (iii) when you suspect liver cirrhosis, (iv) when you want to know the severity of liver cirrhosis or hepatitis, (v) when there is hepatomegaly and you want to determine the morphology of the liver, (vi) differential diagnosis of upper abdominal masses, and (vii) when there are abnormalities of the right diaphragm and you want to know their relation to the liver

  10. Liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Bosman, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite great advances in analysing hemodynamic, morphological and biochemical changes during the process of liver regeneration, the exact (patho)physiological mechanism is still unknown. A short survey of literature is given of the kinetics of liver regeneration and the significance of different

  11. Tingkat Infeksi Cacing Hati Kaitannya dengan Kerugian Ekonomi Sapi Potong yang Disembelih di Rumah Potong Hewan Wilayah Eks-Kresidenan Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munadi Munadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The level of liver flukes infection and its relation to the economic loss of beef cattle at the abattoir of banyumas ex-resident ABSTRACT. The aims of this study was (i to find out the level of liver flukes infection based on body weight, age of beef cattle and their background of origin, and (ii to know the relationship between the level of liver flukes infection, body weight, age, background of origin and the level of economic losses of beef cattle. This study was conducted at four abattoir located at Banyumas, Cilacap, Purbalingga and Banjarnegara regencies, Central Java province. The sample was taken by purposive sampling. 20 beef cattle that infected by liver fluke in each abattoir were involved in this study. Multiple linear regression was applied in data analysis. This study revealed that (1 Average of the liver flukes infection level in this areas was 47 present. (2 Under 1-2 of age, the highest liver flukes infection level found at thin body condition (53% and moderate (31%; under 2,5-3 of age, they are found at fat body condition (75% and moderate (62%; under 3,5-4 of age the highest liver flukes infection level found at moderate and far body condition (100% and 67%, respectively. (3 Economic loss of beef cattle (Y affected by factors of the liver flukes infection level (X1, body weight (X2, age (X3, background of origin (Dummy with determinant coefficient 0,625 and regression equation as fallow; Y = 18792,397 + 207,334 X1 - 17,905 X2 – 1981,969 X3 - 1178,544 D.

  12. Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.

  13. [Liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Liver transplantation represents the first choice treatment for patients with fulminant acute hepatitis and for patients with chronic liver disease and advanced functional failure. Patients in the waiting list for liver transplantation are classified according to the severity of their clinical conditions (evaluated using staging systems mostly based on hematochemical parameters related to liver function). This classification, together with the blood group and the body size compatibility, remains the main criterion for organ allocation. The main indications for liver transplantation are cirrhosis (mainly HCV-, HBV- and alcohol-related) and hepatocellular carcinoma emerging in cirrhosis in adult patients, biliary atresia and some inborn errors of metabolism in pediatric patients. In adults the overall 5-year survival ranges between 60 and 70%, in both American and European series. Even better results have been reported for pediatric patients: in fact, the 5-year survival rate for children ranges between 70 and 80% in the main published series. In this study we evaluated the main medical problems correlated with liver transplantation such as immunosuppressive treatment, acute and chronic rejection, infectious complications, the recurrence of the liver disease leading to transplantation, and cardiovascular and metabolic complications.

  14. Clinical aspects of pulmonary radioactivity observed in radiocolloid liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Young; Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young; Lee, Won Woo

    2002-01-01

    We studied clinical aspects and courses of patients with pulmonary radioactivity on liver scintigraphy and speculated the mechanism of pulmonary uptake of radiocolloids. Forty-nine patients with pulmonary radioactivity were classified into 5 diseases groups-liver disease, infection, cancer, ischemic necrosis of liver, etc.- and their presence of absence of chronic liver disease (CLD), Child-Pugh class, serum levels of AST and ALT, results of follow-up liver scintigraphy and clinical course were checked. Of total 49 patients 25 had CLD; there were 23 liver disease patients, 16 infection patients, 7 advanced cancer patients, 2 ischemic necrosis of liver patients, and 1 hemolytic anemia patient. Reversible rise of serum levels of AST and ALT was observed in all patients with liver disease and ischemic necrosis of liver; on one-way ANOVA, these rise were statistically significant (p<0.01). Serum level of ALT of liver disease group patients without CLD was significantly higher than that of infection group patients without CLD (p<0.05). Among 17 patients who underwent follow-up liver scintigraphy, 13 showed no pulmonary radioactivity. Total 12 patients died during follow-up and most of them were terminal cancer patients or CLD patients of Child-Pugh class C. Pulmonary radioactivity of radiocolloid liver scintigraphy could be attributed to the mobilization of reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells by the activation of RES cells in severe infection and terminal cancer, and also by the extensive liver desctruction in liver diseases

  15. Pediatric liver transplantation in 31 consecutive children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhong-yang; WANG Zi-fa; ZHU Zhi-jun; ZANG Yun-jin; ZHENG Hong; DENG Yong-lin; PAN Cheng; CHEN Xin-guo

    2008-01-01

    Background Although liver transplantation has become a standard therapy for end-stage liver diseases, the experience of pediatric liver transplantation is limited in China. In this article we report our experience in pediatric liver transplantation, and summarize its characters in their indications, surgical techniques, and postoperative managements. Methods Thirty-one children (≤18 years old) underwent liver transplantation in our centers. The mean age at transplantation was 12.4 years old (ranged from 5 months to 18 years) with 7 children being less than 4 years of age at transplantation. The most common diagnosis of patients who underwent liver transplantation were biliary atresia, Wilson's disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, glycogen storage disease, hepatoblastoma, urea cycle defects, fulminant hepatic failure, etc. The surgical procedures included 12 standard (without venovenous bypass), 6 pigyback, 6 reduced-size, 3 split, 3 living donor liver transplantation, and 1 Domino liver transplantation. The triple-drug (FK506, steroid, and mycophenolate mofetil) immunosuppressive regimen was used in most of patients. Patients were followed up for a mean of 21.8 months. Results Five of the 31 patients died during perioperative time; mortality rate was 16.1%. The reasons of death were infections, primary non-function, heart failure, and hypovolemic shock. Postoperative complications in 10 patients included biliary leakage, acute rejection, abdominal infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and pulmonary infection. Overall patient cumulative survival rate at 1-, 3-, and 5-year was 78.1%, 62.6%, 62.6%, respectively.Conclusions The most common indications of pediatric liver transplantation were congenital end-stage liver diseases. According to patients' age and body weight, standard, piggyback, reduced-size, split, or living donor liver transplantation should be performed. Pediatric liver transplantation especially requires higher

  16. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  17. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  18. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  19. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  20. First two cases of severe multifocal infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Switzerland: characterization of an atypical non-K1/K2-serotype strain causing liver abscess and endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babouee Flury, Baharak; Donà, Valentina; Buetti, Niccolò; Furrer, Hansjakob; Endimiani, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    We describe the first two multifocal invasive infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae recently observed in Switzerland. Phenotypic (MIC assays and string test) and molecular analyses (PCR/Sequencing for bla, virulence factor genes and whole genome sequencing for one strain) were performed to characterize the causative K. pneumoniae isolates. Both K. pneumoniae isolates (Kp1 and Kp2) were pan-susceptible to antibiotics and produced narrow-spectrum SHV β-lactamases. However, only Kp1 was string test positive. Kp1 was of ST380 and caused liver abscess as well as pneumonia and orbital phlegmon in an Eritrean patient. It belonged to the hypervirulent capsular serotype K2 and harboured the classic virulence-associated rmpA and aerobactin genes, fulfilling both the clinical and microbiological definitions for an invasive K. pneumoniae syndrome. Kp2 was of ST1043 and caused both liver abscess and endocarditis in a Swiss patient. Moreover, it did not possess the classic virulence-associated genes. Whole genome sequencing identified less well-known virulence factors in Kp2 that might have contributed to its virulence. Among these there were genes important for intestinal colonization and/or invasion, such as genes involved in adhesion (e.g., fimABCD and mrkABCD), regulation of capsule polysaccharide biosynthesis (e.g., evgS-evgA), as well as iron uptake (iroN), energy conversion, and metabolism. This report confirms the continuous dissemination of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains among patients of non-Asian descent in Europe. Moreover, it highlights the genetic background of an atypical hypervirulent K. pneumoniae causing a severe invasive infection despite not possessing the classical virulence characteristics of hypermucoviscous strains. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enlarged Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of liver damage. Medicinal herbs. Certain herbs, including comfrey, ma huang and mistletoe, can increase your risk ... herbs to avoid include germander, chaparral, senna, mistletoe, comfrey, ma huang, valerian root, kava, celandine and green ...

  2. Limited value of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET for the differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, O. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine]|[Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). 2. Dept. of Internal Medicine; Trojan, J.; Zeuzem, S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). 2. Dept. of Internal Medicine; Baum, R.P. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-12-31

    Aim: The differentiation of HCC from liver metastasis or benign disorders by imaging studies based upon morphological aspects may be difficult. Method: In order to evaluate the role of tumour metabolism, we performed FDG-PET (whole-body PET and transmission-corrected regional scans of the liver as well as the SUV determined 60 min after injection of FDG) in ten consecutive patients with HCV-associated focal liver lesions. Definite diagnosis was established after ultrasound-guided liver biopsy followed by histopathological examination. These results were compared with ultrasound, computed tomography, serum anti-p53, and p53 protein expression. Results: The histologic examination revealed a HCC in five patients, regenerative nodules in three patients, and liver metastasis (primary malignancy: One adenocarcinoma and one neuroendocrine tumour) in the remaining two patients. Three of ten lesions were detectable by FDG-PET: two HCCs and one metastatic adenocarcinoma. Seven lesions were not distinguishable by FDG-PET (three HCCs, three regeneration nodules and one metastatic neuroendocrine tumour). In each patient hepatic lesions were visible either by ultrasound or CT. Both tumours (metatatic adenocarcinoma, moderately well-differentiated HCC) with the strongest expression of p53 also presented with highly increased FDG uptake. Conclusions: FDG-PET is not superior to ultrasound or CT and therefore does not allow the non-invasive differentiation of HCV-associated focal liver lesions. Tissue-diagnosis by means of liver-biopsy followed by histopathological examination remains the gold-standard for the differentiation of HCV-related liver lesions. The finding of the relationship of p53 protein overexpression with the SUV needs further confirmation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Eine Differenzierung des hepatozellulaeren Karzinoms (HCC) gegenueber Lebermetastasen oder benignen Erkrankungen ist durch Einsatz morphologischer bildgebender Verfahren nicht immer moeglich. Untersuchungen

  3. Identification of lead chemotherapeutic agents from medicinal plants against blood flukes and whipworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Giacomin, Paul R; Pearson, Mark S; Smout, Michael J; Loukas, Alex

    2016-08-30

    Schistosomiasis and trichuriasis are two of the most common neglected tropical diseases (NTD) that affect almost a billion people worldwide. There is only a limited number of effective drugs to combat these NTD. Medicinal plants are a viable source of parasiticides. In this study, we have investigated six of the 19 phytochemicals isolated from two Bhutanese medicinal plants, Corydalis crispa and Pleurospermum amabile, for their anthelmintic properties. We used the xWORM technique and Scanning Electron Microscope-based imaging to determine the activity of the compounds. Of the six compounds tested, isomyristicin and bergapten showed significant anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris with bergapten being the most efficacious compound one against both parasites (S. mansoni IC50 = 8.6 μg/mL and T. muris IC50 = 10.6 μg/mL) and also against the schistosomulum stage of S. mansoni. These two compounds induced tegumental damage to S. mansoni and affected the cuticle, bacillary bands and bacillary glands of T. muris. The efficacy against multiple phylogenetically distinct parasites and different life stages, especially the schistosomulum where praziquantel is ineffective, makes isomyristicin and bergapten novel scaffolds for broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug development that could be used for the control of helminths infecting humans and animals.

  4. A systematically improved high quality genome and transcriptome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Protasio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases, affecting millions of people in developing countries. Amongst the human-infective species, Schistosoma mansoni is also the most commonly used in the laboratory and here we present the systematic improvement of its draft genome. We used Sanger capillary and deep-coverage Illumina sequencing from clonal worms to upgrade the highly fragmented draft 380 Mb genome to one with only 885 scaffolds and more than 81% of the bases organised into chromosomes. We have also used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq from four time points in the parasite's life cycle to refine gene predictions and profile their expression. More than 45% of predicted genes have been extensively modified and the total number has been reduced from 11,807 to 10,852. Using the new version of the genome, we identified trans-splicing events occurring in at least 11% of genes and identified clear cases where it is used to resolve polycistronic transcripts. We have produced a high-resolution map of temporal changes in expression for 9,535 genes, covering an unprecedented dynamic range for this organism. All of these data have been consolidated into a searchable format within the GeneDB (www.genedb.org and SchistoDB (www.schistodb.net databases. With further transcriptional profiling and genome sequencing increasingly accessible, the upgraded genome will form a fundamental dataset to underpin further advances in schistosome research.

  5. Case finding strategies for hepatitis C infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is a viral liver disease affecting approximately 3% of the world’s population and 0.1 to 0.4% of the population of the Netherlands. HCV infection can lead to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. In addition to the severe burden of disease, the failure to find and treat

  6. Polyploidization in liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    Polyploidy (alias whole genome amplification) refers to organisms containing more than two basic sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy was first observed in plants more than a century ago, and it is known that such processes occur in many eukaryotes under a variety of circumstances. In mammals, the development of polyploid cells can contribute to tissue differentiation and, therefore, possibly a gain of function; alternately, it can be associated with development of disease, such as cancer. Polyploidy can occur because of cell fusion or abnormal cell division (endoreplication, mitotic slippage, or cytokinesis failure). Polyploidy is a common characteristic of the mammalian liver. Polyploidization occurs mainly during liver development, but also in adults with increasing age or because of cellular stress (eg, surgical resection, toxic exposure, or viral infections). This review will explore the mechanisms that lead to the development of polyploid cells, our current state of understanding of how polyploidization is regulated during liver growth, and its consequence on liver function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyclonal immunoglobulins from a chronic hepatitis C virus patient protect human liver-chimeric mice from infection with a homologous hepatitis C virus strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanwolleghem, Thomas; Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The role of the humoral immune response in the natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widely debated. Most chronically infected patients have immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies capable of neutralizing HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) in vitro. It is, however, not clear whether these Ig...... were loaded with chronic phase polyclonal IgG and challenged 3 days later with a 100% infectious dose of the acute phase H77C virus, both originating from patient H. Passive immunization induced sterilizing immunity in five of eight challenged animals. In the three nonprotected animals, the HCV...... infection was attenuated, as evidenced by altered viral kinetics in comparison with five control IgG-treated animals. Plasma samples obtained from the mice at viral challenge neutralized H77C-HCVpp at dilutions as high as 1/400. Infection was completely prevented when, before administration to naïve...

  8. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Denehy; Amy Parry; Emily Fearnley

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness.Methods: A guest list was obtained and a retro...

  9. Quantification of intrahepatic total HBV DNA in liver biopsies of HBV-infected patients by a modified version of COBAS® Ampliprep/COBAS®TaqMan HBV test v2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpini, Romina; Piermatteo, Lorenzo; Gill, Upkar; Battisti, Arianna; Stazi, Francesca; Guenci, Tania; Giannella, Sara; Serafini, Valentina; Kennedy, Patrick T F; Perno, Carlo Federico; Svicher, Valentina; Ciotti, Marco

    2017-08-01

    Intrahepatic total HBV DNA (it-HBV DNA) level might reflect the size of virus reservoir and correlate with the histological status of the liver. To quantitate it-HBV DNA in a series of 70 liver biopsies obtained from hepatitis B chronic patients, a modified version of the COBAS ® Ampliprep/COBAS ® TaqMan HBV test v2.0 was used for this purpose. The linearity and reproducibility of the modified protocol was tested by quantifying serial dilutions of a full-length HBV containing plasmid and it-HBV DNA from a reference patient. A good linear trend between the expected values and those generated by the assay was observed at different concentrations of both plasmid and reference patient (R 2  = 0.994 and 0.962, respectively). Differences between the values obtained in two independent runs were ≤0.3 log IU for the plasmid and ≤0.6 log IU/mg for the reference patient, showing a high inter-run reproducibility. In the 70 liver biopsies, it-HBV DNA level ranged from 1.4 to 5.4 log IU/mg, with a good linearity and reproducibility between the values obtained in two runs [R 2  = 0.981; median (IQR) difference of it-HBV DNA 0.05 (0.02-0.09) IU/mg]. The modified COBAS ® Ampliprep/COBAS ® TaqMan HBV test v2.0 allows an accurate quantitation of it-HBV DNA. Its determination may have prognostic value and may be a useful tool for the new therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating the HBV infection.

  10. MAIT cells: new guardians of the liver

    OpenAIRE

    Kurioka, Ayako; Walker, Lucy J; Klenerman, Paul; Willberg, Christian B

    2016-01-01

    The liver is an important immunological organ that remains sterile and tolerogenic in homeostasis, despite continual exposure to non-self food and microbial-derived products from the gut. However, where intestinal mucosal defenses are breached or in the presence of a systemic infection, the liver acts as a second 'firewall', because of its enrichment with innate effector cells able to rapidly respond to infections or tissue dysregulation. One of the largest populations of T cells within the h...

  11. Therapeutic plasma exchange versus double plasma molecular absorption system in hepatitis B virus-infected acute-on-chronic liver failure treated by entercavir: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yue-Meng; Li, Yu-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Jing; Yang, Li-Hong; Xu, Ying; Yang, Jin-Hui

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and double plasma molecular absorption system (DPMAS) were two extracorporeal liver support systems. Few studies compared their efficacy profile. This study was to compare the efficacy of TPE and DPMAS on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV-ACLF). 60 HBV-ACLF patients were enrolled and prospectively studied. All patients received entecavir therapy, and were assigned to TPE group (n = 33) and DPMAS group (n = 27). Primary end-points were the effects of TPE and DPMAS on liver function and serum inflammatory markers. Serum procalcitonin, interleukin (IL)-6, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were significantly elevated in patients with HBV-ACLF. TPE achieved significantly higher removal rates of total bilirubin (TBIL, P = .002), direct bilirubin (DBIL, P = .006), and hsCRP (P = .010) than DPMAS, but DPMAS displayed lower loss rate of albumin (P = .000). TPE and DPMAS resulted in similarly increased serum IL-6 levels and comparable 12-week survivals (P > .05). Multivariate analysis showed that hospital stay (Relative Risk [RR]: 1.062, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.011-1.115, P = .016), prothrombin time (RR: 1.346, 95% CI: 1.077-1.726, P = .010), and international normalized ratio (RR: 0.013, 95% CI: 0.006-0.788, P = .041) were independent predictors for 12-week survival. Both TPE and DPMAS treatments were well-tolerated. Compared to DPMAS, TPE was more efficient in eliminating TBIL, DBIL, and hsCRP, but it was associated with higher loss rate of albumin. TPE and DPMAS were similar in improving 12-week survivals in HBV-ACLF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Studies on metabolic antigen of F. Hepatica. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopes and radiation in animal parasitology and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperlovic, K.

    1977-06-01

    The final report submitted by Dr. Cuperlovic covers research findings on the immunological mechanisms and responses involved in liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infections in rabbits and sheep. Series of experiments were carried out to test the immunogenecity of labelled fluke tissue-fractions in rabbits. Hyperimmunization with secretory-excretory antigens gave conflicting results and it was concluded that only a very limited immunity is being conferred. Trials with anti-liver antibodies suggest that even autoimmune processes are involved

  13. Liver and Bile Duct Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver. Start here to find information on liver and bile duct cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  14. Sequence analysis of ribosomal and mitochondrial genes of the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae): intraspecific variation and differentiation from Fasciola hepatica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kráľová-Hromadová, I.; Špakulová, M.; Horáčková, Eva; Turčeková, Ĺ.; Novobilský, A.; Beck, R.; Koudela, Břetislav; Marinculić, A.; Rajský, D.; Pybus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2008), s. 58-67 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA AV ČR IAA6022404 Grant - others:Slovak Research and Development Agency(SK) APVV-51-062205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Fascioloides magna * Fasciola hepatica * ribosomal genes * mitochondrial genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2008

  15. A comparative study of karyotypes and chromosomal location of rDNA genes in important liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reblánová, M.; Špakulová, M.; Orosová, Martina; Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Rajský, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 4 (2011), s. 2021-1028 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : SCHISTOSOMA-MANSONI * DIFFERENTIATION * FISH * ITS2 * HYBRIDIZATION * EPIDEMIOLOGY * LOCALIZATION * CYTOGENETICS * SHEEP Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  16. Development and characterization of multiplex panels of polymorphic microsatellite loci in giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), using next-generation sequencing approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minárik, G.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Zvijáková, Ĺ.; Štefka, Jan; Pálková, L.; Kraľová-Hromadová, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 1 (2014), s. 30-33 ISSN 0166-6851 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Short tandem repeats * Population genetics * Invasive parasite * Microsatellites * Fascioloides magna Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.787, year: 2014

  17. Recurrent emergence of structural variants of LTR retrotransposon CsRn1 evolving novel expression strategy and their selective expansion in a carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hee; Kong, Yoon; Bae, Young-An

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous retrotransposons, in which replication and transcription are coupled, encode the essential gag and pol genes as a fusion or separate overlapping form(s) that are expressed in single transcripts regulated by a common upstream promoter. The element-specific expression strategies have driven development of relevant translational recoding mechanisms including ribosomal frameshifting to satisfy the protein stoichiometry critical for the assembly of infectious virus-like particles. Retrotransposons with different recoding strategies exhibit a mosaic distribution pattern across the diverse families of reverse transcribing elements, even though their respective distributions are substantially skewed towards certain family groups. However, only a few investigations to date have focused on the emergence of retrotransposons evolving novel expression strategy and causal genetic drivers of the structural variants. In this study, the bulk of genomic and transcribed sequences of a Ty3/gypsy-like CsRn1 retrotransposon in Clonorchis sinensis were analyzed for the comprehensive examination of its expression strategy. Our results demonstrated that structural variants with single open reading frame (ORF) have recurrently emerged from precedential CsRn1 copies encoding overlapping gag-pol ORFs by a single-nucleotide insertion in an upstream region of gag stop codon. In the parasite genome, some of the newly evolved variants appeared to undergo proliferative burst as active master lineages together with their ancestral copies. The genetic event was similarly observed in Opisthorchis viverrini, the closest neighbor of C. sinensis, whereas the resulting structural variants might have failed to overcome purifying selection and comprised minor remnant copies in the Opisthorchis genome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lineage-specific expansion and loss of tyrosinase genes across platyhelminths and their induction profiles in the carcinogenic oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hee; Bae, Young-An

    2017-09-01

    Tyrosinase provides an essential activity during egg production in diverse platyhelminths by mediating sclerotization of eggshells. In this study, we investigated the genomic and evolutionary features of tyrosinases in parasitic platyhelminths whose genomic information is available. A pair of paralogous tyrosinases was detected in most trematodes, whereas they were lost in cyclophyllidean cestodes. A pseudophyllidean cestode displaying egg biology similar to that of trematodes possessed an orthologous gene. Interestingly, one of the paralogous tyrosinases appeared to have been multiplied into three copies in Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini. In addition, a fifth tyrosinase gene that was minimally transcribed through all developmental stages was further detected in these opisthorchiid genomes. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the tyrosinase gene has undergone duplication at least three times in platyhelminths. The additional opisthorchiid gene arose from the first duplication. A paralogous copy generated from these gene duplications, except for the last one, seemed to be lost in the major neodermatans lineages. In C. sinensis, tyrosinase gene expressions were initiated following sexual maturation and the levels were significantly enhanced by the presence of O2 and bile. Taken together, our data suggest that tyrosinase has evolved lineage-specifically across platyhelminths related to its copy number and induction mechanism.

  19. The effect of x-irradiation on the development of Fasciola gigantica (cobbold, 1885) in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Chandra

    1976-01-01

    The effect of varying doses (1 kr, 3 kr, 5 kr) of x-irradiation on the development of Fasciola gigantica, the common liver fluke of livestock in India has been investigated in goat kids with a view to develop a radiation attenuated vaccine against the pathogen. The growth and development of the flukes recovered from animals infected with irradiated metacercarie is found to be retarded. Metacecariae exposed to 3 kr can develop further, but number of flukes recovered from animals infected with metacecariae exposed to 5 kr is considerably less than the one from animals infected with non-irradiated metacercariae. (M.G.B.)

  20. Amoebic liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lymphadenopathy were noted. The right-sided pleural effusion with relaxation atelectasis was also con- firmed (Fig. 4). The diagnosis of pos- sible amoebic liver abscess complicat- ed by rupture to the gallbladder was made at that stage. Ultrasound-guided abscess drainage was done and approximately 300 ml of pus was.

  1. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  2. American Liver Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cirrhosis Clinical Trials Galactosemia Gilbert Syndrome Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency(LALD) Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Liver Biopsy Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Liver Function Tests ...

  3. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  4. Liver stiffness is not associated with short- and long-term plasma HIV RNA replication in immunocompetent patients with HIV infection and with HIV/HCV coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Basso, Monica; Mengoli, Carlo; Scaggiante, Renzo; Andreis, Samantha; Franzetti, Marzia Maria; Cattelan, Anna Maria; Zago, Daniela; Cruciani, Mario; Andreoni, Massimo; Piovesan, Sara; Palù, Giorgio; Alberti, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be directly responsible for liver damage but there are contrasting data regarding the influence of detectable plasma viremia. We analyzed the influence of plasma HIV RNA (pHIV) detectability and of other clinical and viro-immunological variables on liver stiffness (LS) measurement in adult immunocompetent HIV-monoinfected patients and in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Methods Logistic regression analysis was performed using the value of LS>7.1 kPa as the dependent variable. A linear regression model was applied using LS measurement after log10 transformation (lkpa) as the dependent variable and we analyzed the predicted values versus the observed lkpa values; pHIV was classified as detectable or undetectable in the 12- and 36-month study periods before LS measurement. Results We studied 251 patients (178 with HIV monoinfection), most of whom were on antiviral treatment; 36-month study time was available for 154 subjects. The mean CD4+ cell count was 634 cells/mm3 in HIV-monoinfected patients and 606 cells/mm3 in coinfected patients. No difference in LS was found between patients with detectable or undetectable pHIV in either the 12- or the 36-month study period before transient elastography. The mean LS was higher in HIV/HCV coinfected patients (P<0.0001) than in the HIV-monoinfected subjects; lkpa was positively correlated with HCV coinfection (P<0.0001) and aspartate aminotransferase levels (P<0.0001). Detectable pHIV failed to reach significance. Eight HIV-monoinfected patients had a predicted LS measurement lower than the observed one, while eight patients had the opposite result. Conclusion LS was not correlated with ongoing HIV replication during the 12- and 36-month study periods in immunocompetent HIV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. PMID:28845109

  5. Defective glucose and lipid metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy involve liver, muscle tissue and pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Dela, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    .01. Disposition index (i.e. first-phase insulin response to intravenous glucose multiplied by incremental glucose disposal) was reduced by 46% (P = 0.05) in LIPO compared with the combined groups of NONLIPO and NAIVE, indicating an impaired adaptation of beta-cell function to insulin resistance in LIPO...... of glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and beta-cell function in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients. METHODS: [3-3H]glucose was applied during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps in association with indirect calorimetry in 43 normoglycaemic HIV-infected patients (18 lipodystrophic patients on HAART (LIPO......), 18 patients without lipodystrophy on HAART (NONLIPO) and seven patients who were naive to antiretroviral therapy (NAIVE) respectively). beta-cell function was evaluated by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE separately, LIPO displayed markedly reduced ratio...

  6. Diminishing Use of Liver Biopsy among Liver Transplant Recipients for Hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth Aby; Melissa A.Jimenez; Jonathan F.Grotts; Vatche Agopian; Samuel W.French; Ronald W.Busuttil; Sammy Saab

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis is the leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States and recurrent HCV following liver transplantation is a major cause of allograft loss and mortality.Liver biopsies are commonly used to identify recurrent HCV and determine the need for antiviral therapy.The introduction of directacting antiviral agents (DAAs) has changed the management of recurrent HCV infection.This study aimed to describe the role of liver biopsies in liver transplant recipients with HCV after the introduction of DAAs.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed looking at the rate of liver biopsies post-liver transplantation for HCV.The analysis included 475 adult liver transplants for hepatitis C performed at the University of California,Los Angeles from January 1,2006 to October 1,2015.Patients were divided into two eras,pre-and post-introduction of DAAs on December 1,2013.Results:In the era before the introduction of DAAs,the percentage of patients biopsied was significantly higher compared to the era after the introduction of DAAs (56.1% vs.26.9%,p < 0.001).Conclusion:The introduction of DAAs has changed the management of liver biopsy following liver transplantation and the management of recurrent HCV.Given that DAAs are well tolerated and have high efficacy,liver biopsies are no longer routinely used to justify the use antiviral therapy following liver transplantation.

  7. HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS IN LIVER DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Minov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an essential player in the pathway of coagulation in both primary and secondary hemostasis as it is the site of synthesis of all coagulation factors and their inhibitors. Liver diseases are associated with complex changes in coagulation and the delicate balance between pro and antithrombotic factors is preserved but reset to a lower level. There is growing evidence that portal and hepatic vein thrombosis is cause of disease progression in cirrhotic patients and worsens hemostatic abnormalities. These hemostatic abnormalities do not always lead to spontaneous bleeding, which may be triggered only by additional factors, such as infections. Usually therapy for coagulation disorders in liver disease is needed only during bleeding or before invasive procedures. In patients with end stage liver disease liver transplantation is the only treatment available, which can restore normal hemostasis, and correct genetic clotting defects. During liver transplantation hemorrhage may occur due to the pre-existing hypocoagulable state, the collateral circulation caused by portal hypertension and increased fibrinolysis. 

  8. Liver Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  9. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  10. Emerging roles of the RB/E2F pathway in fatty liver disease and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matondo, R.B.

    2018-01-01

    Liver cancer in humans is ranked number five concerning cancer related deaths accounted worldwide. Many risk factors related to liver cancer have been identified including hepatitis virus infection, exposure to mycotoxins, and fatty liver disease. These risk factors predispose livers to develop

  11. Aspects of the granulomatous reaction in the liver of mice infected and reinfected with two different geographical strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Raso

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, which was undertaken in relation to the histopathologic behavior of two different strains (LE-Belo Horizonte, MG and SJ - São José dos Campos, SP in infections and reinfections (homologous or heterologous with Schistosoma mansoni, the authors confirmed a more accentuated pathogenicity of the SJ strain. All the reinfections showed the presence of typical granulomas of the acute phase, when performed either with the same strain (homologous or with a different strain (heterologous of the parasite of the primo infection. The possible mechanisms responsible for reactivation of the immunopathologic response in reinfections are discussed.No presente estudo, verificou-se o comportamento histopatológico das infecções e reinfecções, homólogas ou heterólogas, das cepas LE (Belo Horizonte, MG e SJ (São José dos Campos, SP de Schistosoma mansoni. Confirmou-se uma maior patogenicidade da cepa SJ de S. mansoni. As reinfecções, independentemente de terem sido feitas com a mesma cepa (homóloga ou cepa diferente da primo infecção (heteróloga do parasito, mostraram a presença de granulomas típicos da fase aguda. São discutidos os possíveis mecanismos responsáveis pela reagudização da resposta imunopatológica nas reinfecções.

  12. Liver safety of non-tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in rheumatic patients with past hepatitis B virus infection: an observational, controlled, long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalopoulos, Ioannis; Fanouriakis, Antonis; Kougkas, Nikolaos; Flouri, Irini; Sourvinos, George; Bertsias, George; Repa, Argyro; Avgoustidis, Nestor; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos

    2018-01-01

    The risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation with non-tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (non-TNFi) biologic agents in patients with rheumatic diseases and past HBV infection has not been definively elucidated. We assessed the comparative safety of non-TNFi and TNFi biologic agents in such patients in real-life clinical settings. We carried out a retrospective cohort study from the Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital of Heraklion. Patients who received abatacept (ABA), tocilizumab (TCZ) or rituximab (RTX) during the period 2003-2016 and were HbsAg(-), anti-HBc(+), anti-HBs(±) at baseline, were monitored for HBV reactivation. Patients treated with TNFi agents during the same period were used as a control group. 101 cases of non-TNFi (39 ABA, 32 RTX and 30 TCZ) and 111 cases of TNFi treatment were identified. In non-TNFi, 76 cases (75.2%) were anti-HBc(+)/anti-HBs(+) and 25 (24.8%) were anti-HBc(+)/anti-HBs(-), as compared to 82 (73.9%) and 29 (26.1%) in TNFi-treated, respectively. After a median (IQR) observation of 24.0 (34.7) months, two cases (2.0%) of HBV reactivation were identified in the non-TNFi group; one with ABA, successfully treated with entecavir, and one fatal case with RTX and prior exposure to cyclophosphamide. No reactivation was observed in the TNFi group (p=0.226 vs. non-TNFi). Αnti-HBs titres were significantly reduced compared to baseline in the non-TNFi group [median (IQR) 203.9 (954.7) mIU/ml before treatment versus 144.9 (962.9) mIU/ml after treatment, p=0.03]. Two cases of HBV reactivation highlight the risk for this complication in patients with past HBV infection under biologic therapy.

  13. Helminths and malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennervald, Birgitte J; Polman, K.

    2009-01-01

    -malignant change has taken place. Three helminth infections have been classified as definitely carcinogenic to humans (group 1 carcinogens), namely Schistosoma haematobium, which is associated with cancer of the urinary bladder and the food-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini......It has been estimated that chronic infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites contribute to 17.8% of the global burden of cancer, although only a relatively small proportion of the infection-related cancers can be attributed to helminth infections. These are important because of the high...... coupled with health education, especially in relation to food-borne liver fluke infections....

  14. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Circulating FoxP3+ Regulatory T and Interleukin17-Producing Th17 Cells Actively Influence HBV Clearance in De Novo Hepatitis B Virus Infected Patients after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Yang, Mei; Liu, Yuan; Guo, Xiaodong; Li, Hanwei; Liu, Zhenwen; Zhao, Jingmin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To longitudinally investigate the role of FoxP3+ Regulatory T cells (Treg) and interleukin17-producing T helper 17 cells (Th17) in De Novo Hepatitis B Virus infection after orthotopic Liver Transplantation (DNHB-OLT), and analyze the possible correlation between these cells and HBV clearance of the disease. Methods We enrolled 12 control cases after orthotopic Liver Transplantation (OLT) and 24 patients, including 12 diagnosed with DNHB-OLT and 12 diagnosed with Acute Hepatitis B Virus infection (AHB), into the study from the liver transplantation and research center at Beijing 302 Hospital. Flow cytometry was used to detect the frequencies of Treg and Th17, and ELISA was applied to detect the concentration of IL6, IL22, TGF-β and IL2 in peripheral blood. We also measured the gene expression level by real time-quantitative PCR and protein expression using immunohistochemistry and western-blot. Furthermore, we divided DNHB-OLT patients into the clearance and non-clearance groups and examined longitudinally Th17, Treg cells at different times. Results The percentage of Treg cells, expression of FoxP3 mRNA and related anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL2 and TGF-β1 in the DNHB-OLT group were significantly higher than that in the AHB and OLT groups. The percentage of Th17 cells, expression of RORγt mRNA and related pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL17 and IL22 in the DNHB-OLT group were significantly lower than that in the AHB group, but the levels of these cytokines are very similar to the OLT group. The ratios of Treg to Th17 in the DNHB-OLT group were significantly higher than that in the OLT and AHB groups. Treg frequencies significantly correlated with HBV DNA, whereas IL17 frequencies didn’t significantly correlate with ALT. In DNHB-OLT patients, the clearance group was accompanied by a rapid increase in the Th17 cells during the first 4th week and afterwards continuously decrease to the control group, together with a continuously decrease in

  16. Selective CD4+ T Cell Loss Promotes Liver Cancer Development | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, commonly develops in patients with underlying chronic liver disease, such as hepatitis B or C virus infection or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

  17. Changes in Liver Function Enzymes of HIV/AIDS Patients Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    on liver enzyme markers (Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase ... the diagnosis and advanced infection of the liver cells by HIV. ... recommended guideline for the treatment of HIV ... HIV-positive patients not on treatment and.

  18. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease represents the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the USA and Europe and HCV recurrence is universal in recipients who are viremic at LT. Until a few years ago, pegylated-interferon in association with ribavirin was the only therapeutic strategy, usable only in compensated cirrhotic patients, in order to prevent post-LT viral recurrence. The recent advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically increased the chances of curative treatment for the transplant population and the debate about which should be the best time for treating the infection is still open: whether to pursue HCV eradication 1) before LT, in order to improve liver function, delist some patients and prevent graft infection; or 2) as early as possible after LT, rather than 3) waiting for hepatitis C recurrence before starting treatment. In addition, in the DAA era, the use of HCV-positive donors may represent a potential approach to safely expanding the donor pool. As more HCV patients achieve cure with DAA regimens, the LT trend for HCV in the future would be expected to mimic the trend observed for hepatitis B virus in the past decade and in the United States, during the DAA-period 2014-2015, the rate of LT wait-listing for HCV complicated by decompensated cirrhosis has already decreased by 32%. This review summarizes the published data and emphasizes DAA treatment applicability to patients with decompensated cirrhosis and to liver transplant recipients.

  19. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds ...

  20. Tears from children with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are infectious vehicles of HBV transmission: experimental transmission of HBV by tears, using mice with chimeric human livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Tateno, Akihiko; Shimokawa, Reiko; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2012-08-15

    Body fluids such as saliva, urine, sweat, and tears from hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers are potential sources of HBV transmission. Thirty-nine children and 8 adults who were chronically infected with HBV were enrolled. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the quantification of HBV DNA. HBV DNA was detected in 73.7% of urine samples (14 of 19), 86.8% of saliva samples (33 of 38), 100% of tear samples (11 of 11), and 100% of sweat samples (9 of 9). Mean HBV DNA levels (±SD) in urine, saliva, tears, and sweat were 4.3 ± 1.1 log copies/mL, 5.9 ± 1.2 log copies/mL, 6.2 ± 0.7 log copies/mL, and 5.2 ± 0.6 log copies/mL, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the HBV DNA level in serum specimens and HBV DNA levels in saliva and tear specimens (r = 0.88; P Tear specimens from a child were injected intravenously into 2 human hepatocyte-transplanted chimeric mice. One week after inoculation, both chimeric mice had serum positive for HBV DNA. The levels of HBV DNA in tear specimens from young children were high. Tears were confirmed to be infectious, using chimeric mice. Strict precautions should be taken against direct contact with body fluids from HBV carriers with high-level viremia.

  1. Advances in sepsis-associated liver dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed liver dysfunction as an early event in sepsis. Sepsis-associated liver dysfunction is mainly resulted from systemic or microcirculatory disturbances, spillovers of bacteria and endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, and subsequent activation of inflammatory cytokines as well as mediators. Three main cell types of the liver which contribute to the hepatic response in sepsis are Kupffer cells (KCs, hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs. In addition, activated neutrophils, which are also recruited to the liver and produce potentially destructive enzymes and oxygen-free radicals, may further enhance acute liver injury. The clinical manifestations of sepsis-associated liver dysfunction can roughly be divided into two categories: Hypoxic hepatitis and jaundice. The latter is much more frequent in the context of sepsis. Hepatic failure is traditionally considered as a late manifestation of sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. To date, no specific therapeutics for sepsis-associated liver dysfunction are available. Treatment measure is mainly focused on eradication of the underlying infection and management for severe sepsis. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of liver response in sepsis may lead to further increase in survival rates.

  2. Imaging evaluation of complications after liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Mingyue

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation is an effective treatment for end-stage chronic liver diseases and acute liver failure. With the rapid development of surgical techniques, organ preservation technology, and pharmacotherapy, patients' survival rates are improved constantly. However, postoperative complications are still major influencing factors for postoperative incidence and mortality rates. Since clinical and laboratory examinations lack specificity and it is difficult to diagnose various postoperative complications, the application of imaging techniques effectively solves such problems. This article summarizes the imaging findings of common complications after liver transplantation, such as vascular complications, biliary complications, liver parenchyma lesions, and postoperative infection, and points out that imaging examinations have significant advantages and can be used for comprehensive evaluation of disease progression.

  3. Enhancement of liver regeneration and liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, P.B.

    2017-01-01

    Liver regeneration allows surgical resection of up to 75% of the liver and enables curative treatment potential for patients with primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Liver surgery is associated with substantial risks, reflected by considerable morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of

  4. Sera of children with hepatitis C infection and anti-liver-kidney microsome-1 antibodies recognize different CYP2D6 epitopes than adults with LKM+/HCV+ sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, D; Yamamoto, A M; Jara, P; Maggiore, G; Sarles, J; Alvarez, F

    1999-11-01

    Liver-kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) antibodies are specific markers of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 2. Antibodies to LKM1 have been found in 2% to 3% of adults infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) without AIH. Thirty percent of these antibodies are directed against linear sequences of CYP2D6 protein. LKM1 antibodies in HCV+/LKM1+ sera and in sera of AIH patients do not recognize the same CYP2D6 epitopes. The current study was conducted to determine whether LKM1 antibodies in HCV+/LKM1+ children's sera are the result of the same immune response as the antibodies described in AIH type 2 and in HCV+/LKM1+ adult patients. Sera from 10 HCV+/LKM1+ children were tested against human liver microsomal and cytosolic proteins by Western blot analysis and against synthetic peptides of the CYP2D6 sequence between amino acids 200 and 429 by dot blot. The same sera were tested against radiolabeled CYP2D6 by immunoprecipitation. Four of 10 sera tested by Western blot analysis showed immunoglobulin (Ig) G-type antibodies against CYP2D6, and 2 had antibodies against proteins of 58, 66, and 84 kDa. One of the sera also contained IgM-type anti-66-kDa and 84-kDa proteins. The radioligand test detected anti-CYP2D6 antibodies in 9 of 10 patients. Five of the anti-CYP2D6-positive sera recognized a peptide between amino acids 200 and 429 including amino acids 254-271. Most HCV+/LKM1+ sera from childr