WorldWideScience

Sample records for liver extracts

  1. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  2. Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus exasperata protects the Liver against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ficus exasperata is an important medicinal plant with a wide geographical distribution in Africa particularly in Nigeria. In this study, aqueous stem bark extracts of Ficus exasperata were administered to investigate its hepatoprotective effects on Paracetamol induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats. A total of Twenty Five Wistar rats ...

  3. Extraction of liver volumetry based on blood vessel from the portal phase CT dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, Ahmed S.; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-02-01

    At liver surgery planning stage, the liver volumetry would be essential for surgeons. Main problem at liver extraction is the wide variability of livers in shapes and sizes. Since, hepatic blood vessels structure varies from a person to another and covers liver region, the present method uses that information for extraction of liver in two stages. The first stage is to extract abdominal blood vessels in the form of hepatic and nonhepatic blood vessels. At the second stage, extracted vessels are used to control extraction of liver region automatically. Contrast enhanced CT datasets at only the portal phase of 50 cases is used. Those data include 30 abnormal livers. A reference for all cases is done through a comparison of two experts labeling results and correction of their inter-reader variability. Results of the proposed method agree with the reference at an average rate of 97.8%. Through application of different metrics mentioned at MICCAI workshop for liver segmentation, it is found that: volume overlap error is 4.4%, volume difference is 0.3%, average symmetric distance is 0.7 mm, Root mean square symmetric distance is 0.8 mm, and maximum distance is 15.8 mm. These results represent the average of overall data and show an improved accuracy compared to current liver segmentation methods. It seems to be a promising method for extraction of liver volumetry of various shapes and sizes.

  4. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge extract on liver cirrhosis in rats | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.extract(SMBE) on diethylnitrosamine(DEN)- induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods: SMBE was obtained by extracting dried Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. in water. Liver cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by injecting diethylnitrosamine in abdominal cavity once a week for ...

  5. [A case of liver abscess due to Streptococcus anginosus infection secondary to a dental extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Hideyuki; Matsui, Noriaki; Tsukamoto, Shinji; Funakoshi, Sadahiro; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kabemura, Teppei; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro

    2015-08-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a high fever. He had undergone a dental extraction about 1 month prior to admission because of apical periodontitis. Imaging study revealed liver abscess lesions. Infection with Streptococcus anginosus was confirmed using both stab and blood culture. An adequate selection of antibiotics was administered, and a good outcome was obtained. There have been no case reports of liver abscess caused by intraoral commensal flora related to dental extraction in healthy adults. This case shows that liver abscesses can occur secondary to dental extractions, even in healthy adults.

  6. Automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Junki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Kimura, Shouta; Hasegawa, Junichi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Nawano, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast X-ray CT images is investigated. Because even in Japan, cases of metastatic liver cancers are increased due to recent Europeanization and/or Americanization of Japanese eating habits, development of a system for computer aided diagnosis of them is strongly expected. Our automated extraction procedure consists of following four steps; liver region extraction, density transformation for enhancement of cancer regions, segmentation for obtaining candidate cancer regions, and reduction of false positives by shape feature. Parameter values used in each step of the procedure are decided based on density and shape features of typical metastatic liver cancers. In experiments using practical 20 cases of metastatic liver tumors, it is shown that 56% of true cancers can be detected successfully from CT images by the proposed procedure. (author)

  7. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hesami; Maryam Ayatollahi; Bita Geramizadeh; Akram Jamshidzadeh; Akbar Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), we used immunohistochemical analysis ...

  8. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Enzyme Activity Assay in Fasciola spp. Para-sites and Liver Tissue Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Assady

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this comparative study was to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica parasites, infected and healthy liver tissues in order to determine of species effects and liver infection on SODs activity level.Methods: Fasciola spp. parasites and sheep liver tissues (healthy and infected liver tissues, 10 samples for each, were collected, homogenized and investigated for protein measurement, protein detection and SOD enzyme activity assay. Protein concentration was measured by Bradford method and SODs band protein was detected on SDS-PAGE. SODs activity was determined by iodonitrotetrazolium chloride, INT, and xanthine substrates. Independent samples t-test was conducted for analysis of SODs activities difference.Results: Protein concentration means were detected for F. hepatica 1.3 mg/ ml, F. gigantica 2.9 mg/ml, healthy liver tissue 5.5 mg/ml and infected liver tissue 1.6 mg/ml (with similar weight sample mass. Specific enzyme activities in the samples were obtained 0.58, 0.57, 0.51, 1.43 U/mg for F. hepatica, F. gigantica, healthy liver and infected liver respectively. Gel electrophoresis of Fasciola spp. and sheep liver tissue extracts revealed a band protein with MW of 60 kDa. The statistical analysis revealed significant difference between SOD activities of Fasciola species and also between SOD activity of liver tissues (P<.05.Conclusion: Fasciola species and liver infection are effective causes on SOD enzyme activity level.

  9. Mangosteen peel extract reduces formalin-induced liver cell death in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiana Rohmani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Formalin is a xenobiotic that is now commonly used as a preservative in the food industry. The liver is an organ that has the highest metabolic capacity as compared to other organs. Mangosteen or Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML peel contains xanthones, which are a source of natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mangosteen peel extract on formalin-induced liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression in Wistar rats. Methods Eighteen rats received formalin orally for 2 weeks, and were subsequently divided into 3 groups, consisting of the formalin-control group receiving a placebo and treatment groups 1 and 2, which were treated with mangosteen peel extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kgBW/day, respectively. The treatment was carried out for 1 week, and finally the rats were terminated. The differences in liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression were analyzed. Results One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant differences in liver cell mortality rate among the three groups (p=0.004. The liver cell mortality rate in the treatment group receiving 400 mg/kgBW/day extract was lower than that in the formalin-control group. There was no p53 expression in all groups. Conclusions Garcinia mangostana Linn peel extract reduced the mortality rate of liver cells in rats receiving oral formalin. Involvement of p53 expression in liver cell mortality in rats exposed to oral formalin is presumably negligible.

  10. Development of an automated extraction method for liver tumors in three dimensional multiphase multislice CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Junya; Shimizu, Akinobu; Kobatake, Hidefumi

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a tumor detection method using four phase three dimensional (3D) CT images of livers, i.e. non-contrast, early, portal, and late phase images. The method extracts liver regions from the four phase images and enhances tumors in the livers using a 3D adaptive convergence index filter. Then it detects local maximum points and extracts tumor candidates by a region growing method. Subsequently several features of the candidates are measured and each candidate is classified into true tumor or normal tissue based on Mahalanobis distances. Above processes except liver region extraction are applied to four phase images, independently and four resultant images are integrated into one. We applied the proposed method to 3D abdominal CT images of ten patients obtained with multi-detector row CT scanner and confirmed that tumor detection rate was 100% without false positives, which was quite promising results. (author)

  11. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radioprotective effects of Asparagus racemosus extracts against free radical damage in rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boloor, K.K.; Kamat, J.P.; Devasagayam, T.P.A.; Venkatachalam, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The possible antioxidant effect of the extracts of Asparagus racemosus against membrane damage induced by free radicals generated during γ-radiation was examined in rat liver/brain mitochondria. These extracts displayed significant antioxidant properties in mitochondria against oxidation of both lipids and proteins as assessed by lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and depletion of thiols. The inhibitory effect of the extracts, rich in polysaccharides like galactose, was more than that of the established antioxidants glutathione and ascorbic acid. (author)

  13. Evaluation of methanolic extract of Phragmites karka on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta ur Rehman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phragmites karka has been reported for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Here, extracts of leaf and rhizome of the plant were individually investigated in CCl4-induced hepatofibrosis in male Wistar rats by administering CCl4 intraperitoneally biweekly for 6 weeks. Afterwards the animals were investigated for liver fibrosis at biochemical, molecular and histological levels, and it showed a profound increase (p<0.001 in elevation of serum levels of transaminases, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, mRNA expression of α smooth muscle actin, collagen and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, and extracellular matrix deposition and perilobular necrosis. Both extracts markedly (p<0.001 decreased the elevated levels of these markers. Histopathological investigations also substantiated the above results by exhibiting a decreased in extracellular matrix deposition in post-treatment animals. In conclusion, both extracts had substantially modified the biochemical and molecular markers of liver fibrosis, in addition to histological improvement in architecture of liver.

  14. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hesami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, we used immunohistochemical analysis in male rats. Methods: In this project the 28 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 animals. The rats were divided into four experimental groups as follows: the first group (sham intraperitoneally received only olive oil as the solvent of carbon tetrachloride; second group (CCl4 intraperitoneally received carbon tetrachloride dissolved in olive oil (ratio of about 1: 1 at a concentration of 1 ml/kg and a twice a week for eight weeks; third group subcutaneously received only platelet extract at a concentration of 0.5 ml/kg twice a week for three weeks; and fourth group received both CCl4 intraperitoneally for eight weeks and platelet extract subcutaneously for last three weeks. After 8 weeks of trial blood and liver sampling were done. Blood samples sent for enzymatic (AST, ALT tests and liver samples tested for histological and immunohistochemical studies. The data were analyzed using  one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test by Graph pad Prism 5 software and data were considered significant at p≤ 0.05. Results: The results show that platelet extract causes a significant (p≤ 0.001 decrease in liver enzymes and albumin improves the function of liver. The level of alfa smooth muscle actin (α-SMA as an index of hepatic stellate cell activation was decreased by platelet extract administration which eventually reduced the necrosis and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in studied rats

  15. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA PEREGRINA LEAVES EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN -INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Samy Abdelfatah Abdel; Abdelrahem, Mohamed Taha; Said, Mostafa Mohamed; Khattab, Alshaimaa

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract against acetaminophen toxicity in rats. Induction of hepatotoxicity was done by chronic oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg bwt) for 4 weeks. To study the possible hepatoprotective effect, Moringa peregrina leaves extract (200 mg/kg bwt) or Silymarin (50 mg/kg bwt) was administered orally, for 4 weeks, along with acetaminophen. acetaminophen significantly increased serum liver enzymes and caused oxidative stress, evidenced by significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, hepatic DNA fragmentation, and significant decrease of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in liver, blood and brain. On the other hand, administration of Moringa peregrina leaves extract reversed acetaminophen-related toxic effects through: powerful malondialdehyde suppression, glutathione peroxidase normalization and stimulation of the cellular antioxidants synthesis represented by significant increase of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, blood and brain, besides, DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased in the liver tissue. acetaminophen induced oxidative damage can be improved by Moringa peregrina leaves extract-treatment, due to its antioxidant potential.

  16. Action of plasma and liver extract from adult mice on the mitotic activity of young mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A L; Inda, A M; Echave Llanos, J M

    1991-06-01

    Inbred C3HS male mice, standardized for periodicity analysis were used. A hundred and seventy 25 +/- 2 days old mice were injected at 16:00 hs with saline, plasma or liver extract from 27 mice 90 days old. Controls were made at 08/16, 12/20, 16/24, 08/40, 12/44, 16/48, 08/64, 12/68 and 16/72 (time of day/time post-injection). The mitotic activity of the hepatocytes and litoral cells were determined. The injection of small doses of extract and plasma inhibits the mitotic activity of hepatocytes during the first and second following days. A compensatory wave appears in the third day. The extract inhibits the mitotic activity of litoral cells in the first day of control only, whereas the plasma inhibits this variable in the second and third day.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca in liver of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAYS K. SCHAFFER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca. The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or mineral oil (i.p.. After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders.

  18. NMR-Based Identification of Metabolites in Polar and Non-Polar Extracts of Avian Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Fariba; Brun, Antonio; Rott, Katherine H; Falco Cobra, Paulo; Tonelli, Marco; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H; Markley, John L

    2017-11-16

    Metabolites present in liver provide important clues regarding the physiological state of an organism. The aim of this work was to evaluate a protocol for high-throughput NMR-based analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites from a small quantity of liver tissue. We extracted the tissue with a methanol/chloroform/water mixture and isolated the polar metabolites from the methanol/water layer and the non-polar metabolites from the chloroform layer. Following drying, we re-solubilized the fractions for analysis with a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a 1.7 mm cryogenic probe. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this protocol for metabolomics studies, we analyzed the metabolic profile of livers from house sparrow ( Passer domesticus ) nestlings raised on two different diets: livers from 10 nestlings raised on a high protein diet (HP) for 4 d and livers from 12 nestlings raised on the HP diet for 3 d and then switched to a high carbohydrate diet (HC) for 1 d. The protocol enabled the detection of 52 polar and nine non-polar metabolites in ¹H NMR spectra of the extracts. We analyzed the lipophilic metabolites by one-way ANOVA to assess statistically significant concentration differences between the two groups. The results of our studies demonstrate that the protocol described here can be exploited for high-throughput screening of small quantities of liver tissue (approx. 100 mg wet mass) obtainable from small animals.

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of Rauwolfia vomitoria extract on the liver of aduit wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezejindu D N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses primarily on investigating hepatoprotective effects of Rauwolfia vomitoria extract on the liver of adult wistar rats following oral administration. Twenty wistar rats of weights 195 – 215kg were divided into four groups designated as A,B,C and D. Group  A served as the control and were orally administered with 0.4ml of distilled water daily; the experimental groups B,C & D were orally administered with 0.6ml, 0.75ml and 0.81ml of Rauwolfia vomitoria extract for twenty eight days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were weighed, anasthetized under chloroform vapour and dissected. Liver tissues were removed, weighed and trimmed down for histological studies. The final body weight of the experimental groups (B,C &D increased significantly(P<0.001 with the control. The relative liver weight of the experimental groups B,C &D statistically increased (P<0.001 with the control (A. Histological results showed normal liver architecture in the experimental groups B,C, & D relative to the control (A.  This study therefore suggest that consumption of Rauwolfia vomitoria extract at different doses did not induce hepatotoxicity in the liver of adult wistar rats.

  20. Glechoma hederacea extracts attenuate cholestatic liver injury in a bile duct-ligated rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Yu; Lin, Shih-Yi; Chen, Wen-Ying; Liao, Su-Lan; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Pan, Pin-Ho; Chou, Su-Tze; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2017-05-23

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Glechoma hederacea is frequently prescribed to patients with cholelithiasis, dropsy, abscess, diabetes, inflammation, and jaundice. Polyphenolic compounds are main bioactive components of Glechoma hederacea. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of hot water extract of Glechoma hederacea against cholestatic liver injury in rats. Cholestatic liver injury was produced by ligating common bile ducts in Sprague-Dawley rats. Saline and hot water extract of Glechoma hederacea were orally administrated using gastric gavages. Liver tissues and bloods were collected and subjected to evaluation using histological, molecular, and biochemical approaches. Using a rat model of cholestasis caused by bile duct ligation (BDL), daily oral administration of Glechoma hederacea hot water extracts showed protective effects against cholestatic liver injury, as evidenced by the improvement of serum biochemicals, ductular reaction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Glechoma hederacea extracts alleviated BDL-induced transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor, and collagen expression, and the anti-fibrotic effects were accompanied by reductions in α-smooth muscle actin-positive matrix-producing cells and Smad2/3 activity. Glechoma hederacea extracts attenuated BDL-induced inflammatory cell infiltration/accumulation, NF-κB and AP-1 activation, and inflammatory cytokine production. Further studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Glechoma hederacea extracts on the axis of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)/toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) intracellular signaling pathways. The hepatoprotective, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic effects of Glechoma hederacea extracts seem to be multifactorial. The beneficial effects of daily Glechoma hederacea extracts supplementation were associated with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic potential, as well as down

  1. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on free radical metabolism of liver in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Free Radical Metabolism of Liver in mice during endurance exercise. Forty-eight mice were divided into the quiet group and the exercised group. And the two groups were both grouped again, including the control group and the drug-treated group.

  2. Ethanol extract from portulaca oleracea L. attenuated acetaminophen-induced mice liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Shi, Hong-Guang; Tang, Gu-Sheng; Wang, Wan-Yin; Zhou, Juan; Dong, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced liver injury represents the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the world. Portulaca oleracea L., a widely distributed weed, has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Previously, we reported that the ethanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of PO on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated that PO was an effective anti-oxidative agent, which could, to some extent, reverse APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver of mice. At the same time, PO treatment significantly decreased mice serum levels of IL-6 and TNFα and their mRNA expression in liver tissue IL-α and TNFα play an important role during APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, PO inhibited APAP and TNFα-induced activation of JNK, whose activation play an important effect during APAP induced liver injury. These findings suggested that administration of PO may be an effective strategy to prevent or treat liver injury induced by APAP. PMID:25901199

  3. The effect of aqueous extract of Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. leaves on liver enzymes' activity, oxidative stress parameters and liver histopathology in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hamzevi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Avicennia marina has antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This study was conducted to examine the effect of aqueous extract of A. marina on liver enzymes' activity, oxidative stress parameters and liver histopathology in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 male rats were allocated into the equal groups of control, diabetic control and experimental diabetic 1 and 2. The diabetes in diabetic control and experimental diabetic groups was induced using an intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The experimental diabetic groups received the aqueous extract of A. marina (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. in alternate days for one month. Sterile distilled water was injected to the animals of control and diabetic control groups. At the end of the treatment period, serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP were measured. Then, levels of SOD, GST, CAT and MDA were measured in the liver tissue. The liver sections were prepared and examined by an optical microscope. Results: Results showed that administration of the A. marina extract (100 and 300 mg/kg, ip to the diabetic rats significantly decreased the serum levels of liver enzymes and tissue level of MDA. Also, the activity of the liver tissue's antioxidant enzymes was increased (P<0.05. The A. marina extract dose-dependently decreased liver damages in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Administration of the A. marina extract improves liver tissue oxidative stress indices and decreases the serum level of liver enzymes. Also, A. marina extract improves liver tissue injuries induced by diabetes.

  4. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood, liver and kidney tissues of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayelom, K; Mekbeb, A; Eyasu, M; Wondwossen, E; Kelbesa, U

    2012-12-01

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes. However, there was a general reduction of activity in mice treated with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract and LD50 treated mice showed hypoactivity, grooming, prostration, piloroerection and irritation during administration towards the last days of the treatment period. The body weight gain difference in the 100mg/kg bw/day methanol extract treated group was not significant, while those of the others were significant as compared with the controls. Hematological results for the RBC count, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC in methanol extract treated mice showed no significant changes at both doses of treatments as compared with the controls. However, the value of lymphocytes was found significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Similarly, HGB was significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract treated groups. On the other hand, WBC and platelets count were significantly decreased after treatment with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. ALT, ALP, AST and urea values were significantly increased respectively at 100mg/kg bw/day and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Several histopathological changes of liver and kidney were observed in the extract treated mice as compared to the controls. Such histopathological changes observed in both liver and kidneys were inflammations and hydropic degenerations of hepatocytes at both doses of methanol. In addition, in the LD50 treated mice of the extracts there were also hemorrhages and signs in congestion of glomeruli of the kidney. chronic treatment with Clerodendrum myricoides extracts in mice causes reduction in body weight gain, damage to liver & kidney and changes in some

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Aiyalu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg. Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. Protection effect of piper betel leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shun-Chieh; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lin, Jing-Jing; Peng, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2007-01-01

    Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antimutation. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of PBL extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in a rat model. Fibrosis and hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl(4) (8%, 1 ml/kg body weight) thrice a week for 4 weeks. PBL extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST and ALT activities caused by CCl(4) intoxication. It also attenuated total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST alpha isoform activity, and on the other hand, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The histological examination showed the PBL extract protected liver from the damage induced by CCl(4) by decreasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-sma) expression, inducing active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression though Ras/Erk pathway, and inhibiting TIMP2 level that consequently attenuated the fibrosis of liver. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of PBL against liver fibrosis.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis vulgaris root on the activity of liver enzymes in male hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Taheri

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Noticing the antioxidant properties of B. vulgaris root extract  and its effects on reducing the activity of liver enzymes, the extract of this plant can be a good choice for improving the function of liver.

  8. Biochemical, liver and renal toxicities of Melissa officinals hydroalcoholic extract on balb/C mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namjoo Abdolrasool

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melissa officinalis is usually used as antispasmodic, antiaxiety and antibacterial agent. However, its toxicity has not been evaluated, yet. In this study biochemical, liver and renal toxicities of Melissa officinals hydroalcoholic extract were evaluated in balb/C mice. Methods: In an experimental study, 21 balb/C male mice were randomly designated to three equal groups. Group I was treated with normal saline and groups II and III were respectively treated with 0.450 and 1.350 g/kg, hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinals daily for two weeks, intraperitoneally. Then on 15th day of the experiment, blood samples were obtained from the heart. The blood was centrifuged and then the sera were evaluated for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine, using autoanalyzer and commercial kits. The liver and kidney tissues were also hystopathologically evaluated. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc test, and Kruskal-Wallis at a significance level of p<0.05. Results: Melissa officinals dose dependently caused a significant reduction in alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase levels compared to the control group. Furthermore, Melissa officinals extract had no effect on the amount of urea and creatinine compared to the control group. The liver and kidney histopathological changes in the groups that received different doses of the extract showed mild, moderate, and severe tissue injuries. Conclusion: The biochemical analysis in this study indicates that the extract of Melissa officinals causes liver tissue damage in mice; therefore, its consumption in high doses should be avoided.

  9. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin-induced liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, N; Garba, S H; Timothy, H

    2009-12-01

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six. Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100 mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days respectively. Rats in group III were administered 450 mg/kg body weight of Psidium guajava only for 7 days while rats in groups IV, V and VI were administered Psidium guajava extract for 7 days and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin for 14 days. Histopathological investigation of the liver tissues revealed striking oedema and mild periportal mononuclear cell infiltration of hepatic cords in the liver of rats administered 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract showed a slight degree of protection against the induced hepatic injury caused by 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained revealed a significant increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes measured in the groups administered with 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract compared to the control groups and those pretreated with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaf possesses hepatoprotective property at lower dose and a hepatotoxic property at higher dose but further studies with prolonged duration is recommended.

  10. A methodology for automated CPA extraction using liver biopsy image analysis and machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipouras, Markos G; Giannakeas, Nikolaos; Tzallas, Alexandros T; Tsianou, Zoe E; Manousou, Pinelopi; Hall, Andrew; Tsoulos, Ioannis; Tsianos, Epameinondas

    2017-03-01

    Collagen proportional area (CPA) extraction in liver biopsy images provides the degree of fibrosis expansion in liver tissue, which is the most characteristic histological alteration in hepatitis C virus (HCV). Assessment of the fibrotic tissue is currently based on semiquantitative staging scores such as Ishak and Metavir. Since its introduction as a fibrotic tissue assessment technique, CPA calculation based on image analysis techniques has proven to be more accurate than semiquantitative scores. However, CPA has yet to reach everyday clinical practice, since the lack of standardized and robust methods for computerized image analysis for CPA assessment have proven to be a major limitation. The current work introduces a three-stage fully automated methodology for CPA extraction based on machine learning techniques. Specifically, clustering algorithms have been employed for background-tissue separation, as well as for fibrosis detection in liver tissue regions, in the first and the third stage of the methodology, respectively. Due to the existence of several types of tissue regions in the image (such as blood clots, muscle tissue, structural collagen, etc.), classification algorithms have been employed to identify liver tissue regions and exclude all other non-liver tissue regions from CPA computation. For the evaluation of the methodology, 79 liver biopsy images have been employed, obtaining 1.31% mean absolute CPA error, with 0.923 concordance correlation coefficient. The proposed methodology is designed to (i) avoid manual threshold-based and region selection processes, widely used in similar approaches presented in the literature, and (ii) minimize CPA calculation time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  12. Extraction of Lesion-Partitioned Features and Retrieval of Contrast-Enhanced Liver Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most critical step in grayscale medical image retrieval systems is feature extraction. Understanding the interrelatedness between the characteristics of lesion images and corresponding imaging features is crucial for image training, as well as for features extraction. A feature-extraction algorithm is developed based on different imaging properties of lesions and on the discrepancy in density between the lesions and their surrounding normal liver tissues in triple-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT scans. The algorithm includes mainly two processes: (1 distance transformation, which is used to divide the lesion into distinct regions and represents the spatial structure distribution and (2 representation using bag of visual words (BoW based on regions. The evaluation of this system based on the proposed feature extraction algorithm shows excellent retrieval results for three types of liver lesions visible on triple-phase scans CT images. The results of the proposed feature extraction algorithm show that although single-phase scans achieve the average precision of 81.9%, 80.8%, and 70.2%, dual- and triple-phase scans achieve 86.3% and 88.0%.

  13. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A HYPOGLYCEMIC EXTRACT FROM CUCURBITA FICIFOLIA BOUCHE THAT INDUCES LIVER GLYCOGEN ACCUMULATION IN DIABETIC MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica, Garcia Gonzalez; Mario, Garcia Lorenzana; Alejandro, Zamilpa; Cesar, Almanza Perez Julio; Ivan, Jasso Villagomez E; Ruben, Roman Ramos; Javier, Alarcon-Aguilar Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia ( C. ficifolia ) fruit has demonstrated hypoglycemic effect, which may be attributed to some components in the extract. However, the major secondary metabolites in this fruit have not yet been identified and little is known about its extra-pancreatic action, in particular, on liver carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, in addition to the isolation and structural elucidation of the principal components in the aqueous extract of C. ficifolia , the aim of this study was to determine whether or not the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia ( C. ficifolia ) fruit is due to accumulation of liver glycogen in diabetic mice. The aqueous extract from fruit of C. ficifolia was fractionated and its main secondary metabolites were purified and chemically characterized (NMR and GC-MS). Alloxan-induced diabetic mice received daily by gavage the aqueous extract (30 days). The liver glycogen content was quantified by spectroscopic method and by PAS stain; ALT and AST by spectrometric method; glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase and GLUT2 by Western blot; the mRNA expression of GLUT2 and glucagon-receptor by RT-PCR; while serum insulin was quantified by ELISA method. A liver histological analysis was also performed by H&E stain. Chemical fingerprint showed five majoritarian compounds in the aqueous extract of C. ficifolia : p -coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicin, stigmast-7,2,2-dien-3-ol and stigmast-7-en-3-ol. The histological analysis showed accumulation of liver glycogen. Also, increased glycogen synthase and decreased glycogen phosphorylase were observed. Interestingly, the histological architecture evidenced a liver-protective effect due the extract. Five compounds were identified in C. ficifolia aqueous extract. The hypoglycemic effect of this extract may be partially explained by liver glycogen accumulation. The bioactive compound responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of this extract will be

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of Rhus oxyacantha root cortex extract against DDT-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Miled, Hanène; Barka, Zaineb Ben; Hallègue, Dorsaf; Lahbib, Karima; Ladjimi, Mohamed; Tlili, Mounira; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben; Ksouri, Riadh; Tebourbi, Olfa

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of R. oxyacantha root cortex (RE) against DDT-induced liver injury in male rats. The RE exhibited high total phenolic, flavonoid and condensed tannins contents. The antioxidant activity in vitro systems showed a significant potent free radical scavenging activity of the extract. The HPLC finger print of R. oxyacantha active extract showed the presence of five phenolic compounds with higher amounts of catechol and gallic acid. The in vivo results showed that a single intraperitoneal administration of DDT enhanced levels of hepatic markers (ALT, AST and LDH) in serum of experimental animals. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in increased levels of the lipid peroxidation with a significant induction of SOD and GPx, metallothioneins (MTs) and a concomitant decrease of non protein thiols (NPSH) in liver. However, pretreatment of rats with RE at a dose of 150 and 300mg/kg body weight significantly lowered serum transaminases and LDH in treated rats. A significant reduction in hepatic thiobarbituric reactive substances and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and hepatic MTs levels by treatment with plant extract against DDT, were observed. These biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations, suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of RE with the two doses used. These results strongly suggest that treatment with ethyl acetate extract normalizes various biochemical parameters and protects the liver against DDT-induced oxidative damage in rats and thus help in evaluation of traditional claim on this plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined endeavor of Neutrosophic Set and Chan-Vese model to extract accurate liver image from CT scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Sangeeta K; Latte, Mrityunjaya V

    2017-11-01

    Many different diseases can occur in the liver, including infections such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, cancer and over effect of medication or toxins. The foremost stage for computer-aided diagnosis of liver is the identification of liver region. Liver segmentation algorithms extract liver image from scan images which helps in virtual surgery simulation, speedup the diagnosis, accurate investigation and surgery planning. The existing liver segmentation algorithms try to extort exact liver image from abdominal Computed Tomography (CT) scan images. It is an open problem because of ambiguous boundaries, large variation in intensity distribution, variability of liver geometry from patient to patient and presence of noise. A novel approach is proposed to meet challenges in extracting the exact liver image from abdominal CT scan images. The proposed approach consists of three phases: (1) Pre-processing (2) CT scan image transformation to Neutrosophic Set (NS) and (3) Post-processing. In pre-processing, the noise is removed by median filter. The "new structure" is designed to transform a CT scan image into neutrosophic domain which is expressed using three membership subset: True subset (T), False subset (F) and Indeterminacy subset (I). This transform approximately extracts the liver image structure. In post processing phase, morphological operation is performed on indeterminacy subset (I) and apply Chan-Vese (C-V) model with detection of initial contour within liver without user intervention. This resulted in liver boundary identification with high accuracy. Experiments show that, the proposed method is effective, robust and comparable with existing algorithm for liver segmentation of CT scan images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of Forsythiae Fructus water extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Miao, Hui; Yan, Hongyu; Sheng, Yuchen; Ji, Lili

    2018-05-23

    The fruit of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, named Forsythiae Fructus (Lian-Qiao), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for clearing away heat and toxic material, eliminating the mass and relieving swelling. This study aims to observe the attenuation of the water extract of Forsythiae Fructus (FSE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatic fibrosis in male C57BL/6 mice. Hepatic fibrosis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection with 2 ml/kg CCl 4 (mixed 1: 3 in olive oil) twice a week for 4 weeks. At the same time, the mice were orally given with FSE (1, 2 g/kg) every day for 4 weeks. Serum biochemical parameters, gene and protein expression related to liver fibrosis were analyzed. The contents of forsythiaside A and forsythin in FSE were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) activity and liver histological evaluation both showed the protection of FSE against CCl 4 -induced liver injury. Further, the anti-fibrotic effects of FSE was evidenced by the results of Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining, liver hydroxyproline content, and serum amounts of hyaluronic acid, laminin, collagen Ⅳ and type III procollagen (PCIII). FSE also reduced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in livers from CCl 4 -injured mice. Additionally, FSE decreased the increased hepatic expression of fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) and vimentin induced by CCl 4 in mice. FSE attenuates CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis in mice by inhibiting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, reducing hepatic extracellular matrix (ECM) disposition and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of methanolic Tanacetum parthenium extract on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavar Mahmoodzadeh

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tanacetum Parthenium Extract (TPE on Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, biochemical factors, and liver enzymes in the rats damaged by Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4.54 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups each consisting of 6 rats. Two of the groups were control groups (normal and damage control groups, 4 of them were exposure groups which were respectively administered with 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg of TPE and silymarin for 14 days before being damaged by CCl4, and the other 3 groups were post-treatment groups which received 80 and 120 mg/kg of TPE and silymarin 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after being injected with CCl4. At the end of the study, biochemical factors, serum liver enzymes, malondialdehyde level, antioxidant enzymes, and liver morphology were assayed.Pre- and post-treatment with TPE could significantly decrease ALT, AST, ALP, TG, LDL, TC, and glucose levels and increase HDL, and albumin levels and catalase, SOD, and GPx activities compared to the CCl4-damaged control group.The results of this study are indicative of the antioxidant activity of TPE, its potential hepatoprotective effects, and its probable therapeutic properties for laboratory animals damaged by CCl4. Keywords: Tanacetum parthenium, Carbon tetrachloride, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant enzymes, Liver damage

  18. The protective effect of pomegranate extract against cisplatin toxicity in rat liver and kidney tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakır, Salih; Yazgan, Ümit Can; İbiloğlu, İbrahim; Elbey, Bilal; Kızıl, Murat; Kelle, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a histopathological investigation, at the light microscopy level, of the protective effects of pomegranate extract in cisplatin-induced liver and kidney damage in rats. Twenty-eight adult male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals: Group 1: Control; Group 2: Treated for 10 consecutive days by gavage with pomegranate juice (2 ml/kg/day); Group 3: Injected intraperitoneally with cisplatin (8 mg/kg body weight, single dose) onset of the day 5, and Group 4: Treated by gavage with pomegranate juice 10 days before and after a single injection of cisplatin onset of the day 5. After 10 days, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys and liver tissue samples were removed from each animal after experimental procedures. Cisplatin-induced renal and hepatic toxicity and the effect of pomegranate juice were evaluated by histopatological examinations. In the kidney tissue, pomegranate juice significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced structural alterations when compared with the cisplatin alone group. But in the liver tissue, although pomegranate juice attenuated the cisplatin-induced toxicity only in two rats, significant improvement was not observed. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the anti-oxidant pomegranate juice might have a protective effect against cisplatin-induced toxicity in rat kidney, but not in liver. Pomegranate juice could be beneficial as a dietary supplement in patients receiving chemotherapy medications.

  19. Extraction and quantitation of total cholesterol, dolichol and dolichyl phosphate from mammalian liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, D.C.; Carroll, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is described for the determination of total cholesterol, dolichol and dolichyl phosphate (Dol-P) in mammalian liver. It is based on extraction of these compounds into diethyl ether after alkaline saponification of the tissue. Extractability is affected by the length of saponification and concentration of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the saponification mixture. After extraction, total cholesterol and dolichol are quantitated directly by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) on C18. Dol-P requires further purification before quantitation by HPLC, this is accomplished by chromatography on silicic acid. These methods gave recoveries of over 90% for cholesterol and dolichol and about 60% for Dol-P, using [4- 14 C]cholesterol, a polyprenol containing 15 isoprene units, and [1- 14 C]Dol-P as recovery standards. Concentrations of total cholesterol, dolichol and Dol-P in livers from one month-old-CBA mice were found to be 5.7 +/- 0.7 mg/g, 66.3 +/- 1.2 micrograms/g and 3.7 +/- 0.3 micrograms/g, respectively

  20. Safety Profile of Meswak Root Extract on Liver, Kidney, Sexual Hormones and Hematological Parameters of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the safety profile of Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae aqueous alcoholic root extract by carrying out acute and sub-chronic toxicity assessment in order to find out any side effect of the traditionally using of these root sticks. Regarding to acute toxicity test, mice were administered the extract up to 5 g kg-1, intraperitoneally. Animals were then observed for behavioural changes; signs of toxicity, and mortality within 24 h. Surviving mice were monitored for 7 days for signs of delayed toxicity. In the sub-chronic toxicity test, rats were daily treated with the extract at a dose of 400 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally, for 30 days. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. In the acute toxicity test, the extract was practically non-toxic showing no mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity. The LD50, given intraperitoneally, was estimated to be 4 g kg-1. Administration of extract (at a dose of 400 mg Kg-1 b.wt. to male and female rats for 30 days did not produce any significant (P < 0.05 effect on hematological and most biochemical parameters also vital organs weights. The root extract showed adverse effects on sexual hormones, by increasing estrogen secretion and reducing testosterone level in male rats. At the same time, the extract reduces progesterone level in female satellite group. Overall, Meswak aqueous extract is safe concerning liver and kidney functions and hematological assessments; however, it induces reversal effect on sexual hormones levels determined in sera.

  1. Protective effect of Sida cordata leaf extract against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Sunil; Dutt, K R; Jena, J

    2013-04-13

    To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Sida cordata (Malvaceae) (S. cordata) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. Wister albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Group I served as control; Group II served as hepatotoxic (CCl(4) treated) group; Group III, IV and V served as (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) S. cordata leaf extract (SCLE) treated groups; Group VI served as positive control (Silymarin) treated group. Liver marker enzymes serum glutamate oxyloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured and compared along with histopathological studies. Obtained results show that the treatment with SCLE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently reduced CCl4 induced elevated serum level of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SCLE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels, which was confirmed by the histopathological studies. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SCLE against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats and thereby scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  3. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilievska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  4. Effect of broccoli extract enriched diet on liver cholesterol oxidation in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Lorenzini, Antonello; Bandini, Erika; Angeloni, Cristina; Hrelia, Silvana; Malaguti, Marco

    2017-05-01

    The effect of broccoli extract (BE)-enriched diet was studied in order to evaluate its ability to counteract liver cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) induced by acute strenuous exercise in rats. Thirty-two female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control diet without exercise (C), BE-enriched diet without exercise (B), control diet with acute exhaustive exercise (S) and BE-enriched diet with acute exhaustive exercise (BS). The study lasted 45days and on the last day, rats of S and BS groups were forced to run until exhaustion on a treadmill. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were determined in liver. Exhaustive exercise was clearly responsible for tissue damage, as evidenced by the increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) plasma activity in the S group. Moreover, the exercise protocol reduced CAT activity in liver, while it did not affect GST, GR and GPx. BE-enriched diet raised GST, GR and CAT activities in rats of BS group. The main COPs found were 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, cholestanetriol, 24-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol. The BE-enriched diet led to reduced cholesterol oxidation following exhaustive exercise; the highest level of COPs was found in the S group, whereas the BS rats showed the lowest amount. This study indicates that the BE-enriched diet increases antioxidant enzyme activities and exerts an antioxidant effect towards cholesterol oxidation in rat liver, suggesting the use of phytochemicals in the prevention of oxidative damage and in the modulation of the redox environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittiyaporn Dondee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (P. berghei Methods: For extraction of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera leaves, microwave with hot water method was used and acute toxicity study was then be done. Standard Peters’ test was carried out to test the efficacy of M. oleifera extract in vivo. The ICR mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 red blood cells infected with P. berghei strain by intraperitoneal injection. They were subsequently given with 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of this extract by intragastric route once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia was estimated using microscopy and levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin were also measured. Results: The M. oleifera leaf extract showed the protective activity on liver damage in mice infected with P. berghei in a dose-dependent fashion. It can be indicated by normal levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin in mice treated with extract. The 1000 mg/kg of extract was observed to present the highest activity. Interestingly, the dosedependent antimalarial activity was also found in the mice treated with extract. Conclusions: The M. oleifera leaf extract presented protective effect on liver damage in mice infected with P. berghei.

  6. Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Barton Price, R.; Berkman, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the liver for focal lesions is extremely important because the liver is one of the most common sites for metastatic disease. Most patients with metastatic deposits to the liver have a survival rate of about 6 months. Thus, metastatic disease to the liver has an extremely grave prognosis. In the past patients with hepatic lesions had no therapeutic recourse. However, with recent aggressive surgical advances (such as partial hepatectomies) and hepatic artery embolization, survival of patients with hepatic metastases has increased. Thus it is important for noninvasive imaging not only to detect lesions early in their course, but also to give their true hepatic involvement and the extent of the neoplastic process elsewhere in the body. Recent advances in imaging have been rapidly changing over the past 5 years. These changes have been more rapid in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound than in radionuclide imaging. Thus, the question addressed in this chapter is: What is the relationship of hepatic ultrasound to the other current diagnostic modalities in detecting metastatic liver disease and other focal liver lesions? Also, what is its possible future relationship to nuclear magnetic resonance?

  7. Features of the postirradiation regeneration of liver mitochondria of gamma-irradiated mice treated with the Testudo horsfieldi spleen extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turdyev, A.A.; Ivanov, V.I.; Trifonov, Yu.A.; Abbasova, I.A.; Usmanov, R.B.

    A study was made of the effect of a drug prepared from a spleen extract of Testudo horsfieldi on energy metabolism and lipid composition of liver mitochondria of irradiated mice (2.06 x 10/sup -1/ C/kg). It was shown that the decompensated low-energy state of liver mitochondria of the exposed mice was changed into the state of the compensated low-energy shift: the physicochemical properties of lipid microenvironment of mitochondria proteins were partially restored.

  8. Study on stability of labeled yttrium-90 with lipiodol by chemical extraction for liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, P.Y.; Jiang, X.L.; Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.J.

    2005-01-01

    Liver cancer, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma, is one of the most common malignant diseases in many developed and developing countries. It is also one of the most common diseases endangering the people's lives and health heavily. Surgery is very effective in early-stage patients. Unfortunately, there is less than 10% of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma fitting for surgical therapy. Instead of surgical therapy, other methods are considered for patients in whom surgery may not work well. Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents is not often considered in liver cancer patients, due to discouraging result and adverse side effects. Also, hepatocellular carcinoma is not keen on usual radioactive therapy. However, method of inner interventional radioactive nuclide is a potential way to cure liver tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma would be cured with inner interventional radioactive nuclide, which is a hot topic in experimental research on hepatocellular carcinoma at home and abroad. The purpose of the study is to label Yttrium-90 with lipiodol by means of the chemical extraction method and research the stability of labeled Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y-P204-Lipiodol) in serum of a newly-born cattle and human's blood. We chose to label steady yttrium with lipiodol, because radioactive yttrium has great nuclear character for liver cancer, yttrium-90 can eradiate pure β radial, and it's half time is 64 hours. Average energy of it is 0.93 Mev, the highest energy is 2.27 Mev. Yttrium-90 can be labeled with lipiodol by means of the chemical extraction method, which is mature in chemical techniques, combined with method of radioactive nuclide labeled in. nuclear medicine. At first, yttrium-90 is extracted in certain condition(pH, temperature, whisk time, whisk frequency, etc ) after adding yttrium-90 solution. We use some distilled water to balance the labeled organic phase twice, and test the stability of labeled yttrium-90 in serum of a newly-born cattle and

  9. Andrographis paniculata leaf extract prevents thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleya Abdulaziz Bardi

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg. Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson's Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed

  10. Andrographis paniculata leaf extract prevents thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control) or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis) three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg) or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg). Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson's Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed to result from

  11. Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tina; Peter, Andreas; Schulz, Nadja; Drescher, Andrea; Bergheim, Ina; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Siegel-Axel, Dorothea; Schürmann, Annette; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde) were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis.

  12. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight)...

  13. Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on Mice Liver against

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.; Sisodia, R.; Bhatia, A. I.

    2004-01-01

    India has a rich heritage of medicinal plants, many of which have been explored for the various bioactivities since ages, but the radioprotective potential of the plants have been hardly explored. Since Amaranthus, a common weed and very often caten as vegetable by rural population, has been used as emollient, astringent, diuretic, blood purifier, hemorrhagic diathesis and biliousness from time immemorial. Hence the present study aims to judge whether Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) has the antiradiation efficacy against radiation induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in mice liver. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) belongs to family Amaranthaceae and commonly called as Amaranth, has good natural sources of carotenoids (beta carotene-1490 μg/100 gm of edible portion), vitamin C and high level of critical lysine and methionine, protein content (22 gm/100 gm of edible portion). Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks weighing 22 ± 3 gm were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and two groups were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600 mg/Kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water for fifteen days. Fourth group was given distilled water, orally and ad libitum. Then two groups, one with drug treated and another with distilled water treated, were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure. the optimum dose was calculated to be 600mg/kg b.wt/day after treating mice with AE for fifteen consecutive days prior to irradiation (9 Gy) to get maximum protection against radiation injury. By the survival assay, DRF 1.43 was calculated with different doses of gammas radiation (6, 9, 12 Gy). The radiation induced augmentation in MDA, protein, glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatase content of liver is significantly ameliorated by the drug. The radiation induced

  14. Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa on biochemical and histological changes in paracetamol–induced liver damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. M. Alnuaimy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that paracetamol administration to male rats at 1 g /kg of body weight for 21 days resulted in significant increase in activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase. There was an increase in the total bilirubin and creatinine levels. Paracetamol caused hepatic damage in appearance characterized with degeneration, necrosis and fatty changes in liver, as well as central vein congestion. Treatment of the damaged liver rats with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 7, 14, 21 days led to a decrease in alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase activity, total bilirubin and creatinine levels, as well as an improve in the damaged liver tissues with increasing extract concentration. The results showed that treatment of the damaged liver rats with 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 14, 21 days gave protection against harmful effects of paracetamol.The protective effects of this extract determined by the rebound of the enzymes and biochemical variable levels to the pretreatment levels. High doses of this extract gave a decrease in harmful effects which resulted from the paracetamol in hepatic tissues.

  15. Amelioration of ionizing radiation induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver by Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh Kr; Dey, Sanjit; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-01-01

    Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Swiss albino mice, selected from an inbred colony, were administered with MoLE (300 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days before exposing to a single dose of 5 Gy 60 Co-gamma radiation. After treatments, animals were necropsied at different post irradiation intervals (days 1, 7 and 15) and hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were estimated to observe the relative changes due to irradiation and its possible amelioration by MoLE. It was observed that, MoLE treatment restored GSH in liver and prevented radiation induced augmentation in hepatic lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess various phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention of hepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals. (author)

  16. Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pulp Phenolic Extract Provides Protection against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice by Alleviating Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, and Liver Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhou, Qiuyun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yongxuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-11-08

    Liver injury is the most common consequence of alcohol abuse, which is promoted by the inflammatory response triggered by gut-derived endotoxins produced as a consequence of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of intestinal microbiota and barrier function, and liver inflammation contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) in alcohol-fed mice. Mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and downregulated key markers of inflammation. Moreover, LPPE supplementation reversed the ethanol-induced alteration of intestinal microbiota composition and increased the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, mucus protecting proteins, and antimicrobial proteins. Furthermore, in addition to decreasing serum endotoxin level, LPPE supplementation suppressed CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 expression, and repressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the liver. These data suggest that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and liver inflammation are improved by LPPE, and therefore, the intake of LPPE or Litchi pulp may be an effective strategy to alleviate the susceptibility to alcohol-induced hepatic diseases.

  17. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-09-11

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Up to 40% alcohol (12 mL/kg body weight) was administered orally 1 h after artichoke treatment. All mice were fed for 10 consecutive days. Results showed that artichoke extract significantly prevented elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, the decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were elevated by artichoke administration. Histopathological examination showed that artichoke attenuated degeneration, inflammatory infiltration and necrosis of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in liver tissues were significantly suppressed by artichoke treatment. Results obtained demonstrated that artichoke extract exhibited significant preventive protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury. This finding is mainly attributed to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and suppress the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. To the best of our knowledge, the underlying mechanisms of artichoke on acute ALD have been rarely reported.

  18. A study on toxicity of gasoline and GM-10 on liver of mice and it's amelioration by black tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramtej Jayram; Dave, Manjeet; Mathuria, Neeta

    2008-01-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the ameliorative effect of black tea extract on gasoline and GM-10 induced toxicity in liver of mice. Eighty healthy male mice weighing 38-40 g approximately were divided into eight groups which included untreated control and various treated groups. Mice were treated with Gasoline 462 mg/kg/day and GM-10 low dose (206 mg/kg/day) and high dose (412 mg/kg/day) subcutaneously for 30 days. Black tea extract was given as 2 g/100 mL drinking water (2% w/v) instead of pure drinking water. All the animals were sacrificed on 31st day by cervical dislocation and livers were isolated and weighed. Parameters such as lipid peroxidation, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione and total ascorbic acid were studied. The results revealed dose-dependent toxicity of gasoline and GM-10 on liver. Administration of black tea extract ameliorates this toxicity of gasoline and GM-10 in liver of mice. This proves the effective ameliorative effect of black tea extract.

  19. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Salvia officinalis L. against Acute Liver Toxicity of Acetaminophen in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Foruozandeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The medical herbs play important roles in the treatment of liver diseases. In the traditional medicine, Salvia officinalis is highly used to heal a wide range of diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of Saliva officinalis on hepatotoxicity due to acetaminophen. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 60 albino mice were studied. The rats were divided into 6 groups. The first, second, and third groups were physiological serum, crude extract of Saliva officinalis, and 500mg acetaminophen per 1Kg consumed as single dose, respectively. The fourth, fifth, and sixth groups received 5-day 125, 250, and 500mg per 1Kg extract of Saliva officinalis, respectively. Then, they received 500mg acetaminophen one hour after the last administration of extract. Blood sampling was done from the carotids of the rats 24hour later, and the levels of bilirubin and liver enzymes were measured. In addition, their liver tissues were studied. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using one-way ANOVA. Findings: There were significant increases in the direct and complete bilirubin concentration and liver enzymes due to acetaminophen compared to control group (p<0.05. There were significant reductions in the direct and complete bilirubin and liver enzymes due to 125, 250, and 500mg per 1Kg of the extract of Saliva officinalis compared to control group (p<0.05. The results were confirmed by the histology studies. Conclusion: 250 and 500mg per 1Kg of Saliva officinalis potentially protect the damages caused by acetaminophen. In addition, they considerably improve the tissue damage and the biochemical indices in the liver damages.

  20. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanan, Muthupillai; Krishnan, Manigandan; Padarthi, Pavankumar; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2014-01-01

    To explore the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic Mangifera indica (EMI) and methanolic Mangifera indica (MMI) leaf extracts in mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Toxicity in mice was induced with HgCl 2 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by oral intervention with EMI and MMI extracts (25 mg and 50 mg/kg. body wt.) for 30 days. The extent of liver damage was assessed from the extents of histopathological, morphological, antioxidant and liver enzymes. Mercuric chloride-induced mice showed an increased cellular damage whereas leaf extracts of EMI and MMI-treated mice showed recovery of damaged hepatocytes. Mercuric chloride intoxicated mice exhibited a significant (p Mangifera indica extract remarkably reduces hepatotoxicity in mice possibly through its antioxidant potentials. How to cite this article: Karuppanan M, Krishnan M, Padarthi P, Namasivayam E. Hepatoprotec-tive and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):18-24.

  1. The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Keskin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay.In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups.The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. 

  2. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) extract versus glibornuride on the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy-Sacan, Ozlem; Yanardag, Refiye; Orak, Haci; Ozgey, Yasemin; Yarat, Aysen; Tunali, Tugba

    2006-03-08

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is one of the medicinal herbs used by diabetics in Turkey. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of parsley (2g/kg) and glibornuride (5mg/kg) on the liver tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into six groups: control; control+parsley; control+glibornuride; diabetic; diabetic+parsley; diabetic+glibornuride. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Parsley extract and glibornuride were given daily to both diabetic and control rats separately, until the end of the experiment, at day 42. The drugs were administered to one diabetic and one control group from days 14 to 42. On day 42, liver tissues were taken from each rat. In STZ-diabetic group, blood glucose levels, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, uric acid, sialic acid, sodium and potassium levels, liver lipid peroxidation (LPO), and non-enzymatic glycosylation (NEG) levels increased, while liver glutathione (GSH) levels and body weight decreased. In the diabetic group given parsley, blood glucose, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, sialic acid, uric acid, potassium and sodium levels, and liver LPO and NEG levels decreased, but GSH levels increased. The diabetic group, given glibornuride, blood glucose, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum sialic acid, uric acid, potassium, and liver NEG levels decreased, but liver LPO, GSH, serum sodium levels, and body weight increased. It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley extract has a protective effect comparable to glibornuride against hepatotoxicity caused by diabetes.

  3. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhos...

  4. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzyszyn, Z; Czerny, B; Myśliwiec, Z; Pawlik, A; Droździk, M

    2010-06-01

    The effect of artichoke extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (including reaction kinetics) was studied. The effect of the extract on the activity of isolated cytochrome oxidase was also studied. Extract in the range of 0.68-2.72 microg/ml demonstrated potent and concentration-dependent inhibitory activity. Concentrations > or =5.4 microg/ml entirely inhibited MRC activity. The succinate oxidase system (MRC complexes II-IV) was the most potently inhibited, its activity at an extract concentration of 1.36 microg/ml being reduced by 63.3% compared with the control (p artichoke extracts may rely in part on the effects of their active compounds on the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain system.

  5. Fagraea racemosa leaf extract inhibits oxidative stress-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rachmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Kemampuan hati mengatasi stres oksidatif dapat ditingkatkan dengan konsumsi antioksidan eksogen yang berasal dari alam. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mempelajari kemampuan hepatoprotektif dari ekstrak metanol  daun  Fagraea racemosa, dengan menggunakan CCL4 sebagai model sumber radikal bebas. Metode: Tiga kelompok perlakuan tikus Wistar  (enam ekor per  kelompok, masing-masing diberi dosis ekstrak berturut-turut 50, 100, 200 mg/kg bb per oral, sekali perhari selama 30 hari. CCl4 diinjeksikan intraperitoneal kepada ketiga kelompok , dua kali per minggu (1,5 ml/kg bb.  Sebagai pembanding, digunakan dua kelompok kontrol, yaitu kontrol normal dan kontrol CCl4.  Pada hari ke-30, tikus dibunuh dan hati diwarnai dengan hematoksilin-eosin. Perubahan histopatologi ditentukan berdasar derajat steatosis, degenerasi hidropik, dan inflamasi. Data dianalisis dengan Anova dan uji post hoc LSD (p≤0.05 menggunakan SPSS versi 13.0 Hasil: Hasil menunjukkan perbaikan derajat degenerasi hidropik dan inflamasi (p≤0,05 pada ketiga kelompok perlakuan bila dibanding dengan kelompok kontrol CCl4. Tetapi, derajat steatosis meningkat pada kelompok perlakuan dosis  50 dan 100 mg/kg bb, dan kemudian menurun secara bermakna pada perlakuan 200 mg/kg bb. Kesimpulan : Ekstrak methanol daun Fagraea racemosa  mampu melindungi hati dari radikal bebas yang dihasilkan dari CCl4. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa Fagraea racemosa menjanjikan untuk dikembangkan sebagai suplemen antioksidan. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:46-51   Abstract Background: The ability of the liver in dealing with oxidative stress can be enhanced by consumption of exogenous antioxidants derived from nature. This study aimed to explore the hepatoprotective ability of Fagraea racemosa leaves methanolic extract against CCl4 exposure as a model of free radicals source. Methods: Three different doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg bw were administered orally to three treatment groups of Wistar rats

  6. Effect of Trifolium sp. Flowers extracts on the Status of Liver Histology of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlRawi, Maisaa M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of (water, hexane and ethanol) extracts prepared from the flower head of clover flowers (CF) (Trifolium alexandrinum), in the treatment of diabetes induced experimentally by streptozotocin (STZ) in male rats. More than fifty percent of diabetic rats were died by 48 hours post streptozotocin injection. A single dose of STZ (50mg/kg body weight) induced destruction of the liver architecture, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes and nuclei of many cells revealed clear signs of necrosis, leucocytic infiltration, liver fibrosis and fatty infiltration. Moreover, Dilatation and inflammation in central vein and blood vessels, the portal veins appeared congested with blood with fibrosis and leucocytic infiltration around it. After treatment with water, hexan and ethanol extracts of CF remarkable improvement in histological structure of liver sections of diabetic rats, the water extract is more potent than hexane and ethanol extracts. Thus, the result of the present study provides a scientific rationale for the use of Trifolium alexandrinum as promising antidiabetic agent. (author)

  7. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Psidium Guajava Leaves on Liver Enzymes, Histological Integrity and Hematological Indices in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboh, Friday E.; Okon, Iniobong E.; Ekong, Moses B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin and total protein levels, as well as the tissue histological assay are known to be useful in assessing the functional integrity of the liver. Also, assessment of red and white blood cells count, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations is useful in determining the effect of some chemical substances on hemotopoietic system. In recent times, reports from medicinal plants research indicate that extracts from some plants are both hepatotoxic and hematotoxic, while others on the other hand are reported to be hepatoprotective and hematopoietic in action. This study considers the effects of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) leaves on the histology and biochemical indices of liver function as well as hematological indices in rats. Methods In this study, phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves was carried out. Also, male and female rats were administered with 200 mg/kg body weight oral daily doses of aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves for a period of 30 days. At the end of the administration period, the rats were anaesthesized with chloroform vapors and dissected for the collection of blood and liver tissues which were used for the hematopoietic and liver functions investigations. Results Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant leaves showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenols, reducing compounds, saponins and tannins. Liver function tests revealed that the serum ALT, AST and ALP, as well as the concentrations of total protein and albumin in male and female rats were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the oral administration of the extract. Histopathological study also did not show any adverse alteration in the morphological architecture of the liver tissues in both sexes of the animal model. However, red blood cell counts, hemotocrit and hemoglobin concentrations increased

  8. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn. flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppan Nithianantham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Methods: The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis. Results: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40依2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21依0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC 50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione was found to be restored in extract treated animals compared to the groups treated with acetaminophen alone (P<0.05. Therapy of extract also showed its protective effect on histopathological alterations and supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: The present work confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.

  9. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis. GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature, could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  10. Enhanced Glucose Uptake in Human Liver Cells and Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Nordic Berry Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Thanh Thi Ho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A Western lifestyle with low physical activity and a diet rich in sugar, fat and processed food contribute to higher incidences of diabetes and obesity. Enhanced glucose uptake in human liver cells was observed after treatment with phenolic extracts from different Nordic berries. All berry extracts showed higher inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase than the anti-diabetic agent acarbose. Total phenolic content and phenolic profiles in addition to antioxidant activities, were also investigated. The berries were extracted with 80% methanol on an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE and then purified by C-18 solid phase extraction (SPE. Among the ASE methanol extracts, black chokeberry, crowberry and elderberry extracts showed high stimulation of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells and also considerable inhibitory effect towards carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. SPE extracts with higher concentrations of phenolics, resulted in increased glucose uptake and enhanced inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase compared to the ASE extracts. Crowberry and cloudberry were the most potent 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors, while bog whortleberry and lingonberry were the most active xanthine oxidase inhibitors. These results increase the value of these berries as a component of a healthy Nordic diet and have a potential benefit against diabetes.

  11. The Effect of Myrtus communis Extract on Liver Enzymes and Blood Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiballah Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the effect of Myrtus communis extract on liver enzymes and blood biochemical factors in diabetic adult male rats. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out experimentally and completely random. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided in 7 groups including: control which received no treatment, sham who received 2 mL of distilled water, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd experimental groups which received 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Myrtus communis leaf extract respectively, the 4th experimental group as the diabetic control group who received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg and the 5th experimental group as the diabetic treatment group who received 3 mg/kg of extract. This experiment lasted 14 days with prescript orally. After this period, all the rats, were weighted, anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the heart centrifuged and sera were evaluated for the concentration of various factors. In addition liver were removed and sliced. Results: According to the obtained results, the plasma concentration of liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol and glucose presented a significant decrease at (p≤0.05. Whereas no significant change were seen in body weight, triglyceride, urea, albumin and total protein. Histological studies of the liver tissue showed no significant difference among various groups. Conclusion: Myrtus communis is comprise of collections of flavonoids and other various components with antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Thence it can effective in treatment of liver diseases and decrease of blood sugar and cholesterol in diabetes mellitus patients.

  12. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60 μg/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO. PMID:24396831

  13. Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, N. M.; Mohamed, E.T.; Mansour, H.H; Hafez, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

  14. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleya Abdulaziz Bardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p. for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween, respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60 μg/mL. This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO.

  15. In vivo evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes for its protective effect against liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2-5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38-60 μ g/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO.

  16. Genotoxic and chemopreventive assessment of Cynara scolymus L. aqueous extract in a human-derived liver cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Regiane Pereira; Jacociunas, Laura Vicedo; de Carli, Raíne Fogliati; de Abreu, Bianca Regina Ribas; Lehmann, Mauricio; da Silva, Juliana; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Cynara scolymus L., popularly known as artichoke, is consumed as food and used as tea infusions for pharmacological purposes to treat liver dysfunctions and other conditions. Scientific data on the safety and protective effect of artichoke in human-derived liver cells is missing. This study investigated the genotoxic and modulatory effect of a liophilized extract suspended in water of C. scolymus L. leaves. Four extract concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL) were evaluated using the comet assay on human hepatocyte cultures, HepG2 cells. Genotoxicity was assessed after two treatment periods, 1 and 24 h. Antigenotoxicity was evaluated against oxidative lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide in pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols. Artichoke leaves aqueous extract induced genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells after 1- and 24-h treatments. In turn, extract concentrations of 0.62, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL, exhibited a protective effect in pretreatment, compared to hydrogen peroxide alone. However, in simultaneous and post-treatment protocols, only the lowest concentration reduced the frequency of DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, in the simultaneous treatment protocol, the highest artichoke extract concentration increased hydrogen peroxide genotoxicity. It can be concluded that artichoke is genotoxic, in vitro, to HepG2 cells, but can also modulate hydrogen peroxide DNA damage.

  17. Long-term study of liver damage following subcutaneous injection of airborne particle extracts and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiss, R.; Heinrich, U.; Offermann, M.; Themann, H.

    1982-02-01

    Female NMRI mice aged 9-12 weeks were each given a single subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml of a suspension containing either the total extracts or the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction of airborne particles. Both the total extracts and PAH fractions contain 3 microgram benzopyrene. After about 15 months the livers were removed from the animals, which had by that time developed tumors at the injection site, and were subjected to electron-microscopical study. The essential alterations were observed in the nucleoli and the cell nuclei, which had greatly proliferated and exhibited irregular nuclear membranes. Advanced fibrosis was observed in central liver specimens of all groups. Marked alterations were also observed in the mitochondria and the mitochondrial cristae as well as in the bile canaliculi, Intracytoplasmic glycogen usually occurred densely clustered along the periphery of the cell. It may be concluded from the observations that both the total extract of atmospheric suspended particulate matter and the PAH fraction cause hematogenic damage to the liver following subcutaneous injection, a finding which cannot be interpreted as metastatic carcinoma.

  18. Long-term study of liver damage following subcutaneous injection of airborne particle extracts and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiss, R.; Heinrich, U.; Offermann, M.; Themann, H.

    1982-02-01

    Female NMRI mice aged 9-12 weeks were each given a single subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml of a suspension containing either the total extracts or the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction of airborne particles. Both the total extracts and PAH fractions contain 3 ..mu..g benzopyrene. After about 15 months the livers were removed from the animals, which had by that time developed tumors at the injection site, and were subjected to electron-microscopical study. The essential alterations were observed in the nucleoli and the cell nuclei, which had greatly proliferated and exhibited irregular nuclear membranes. Advanced fibrosis was observed in central liver specimens of all groups. Marked alterations were also observed in the mitochondria and the mitochondrial cristae as well as in the bile canaliculi. Intracytoplasmic glycogen usually occurred densely clustered along the periphery of the cell. It may be concluded from the observations that both the total extract of atmospheric suspended particulate matter and the PAH fraction cause hematogenic damage to the liver following subcutaneous injection, a finding which cannot be interpreted as metastatic carcinoma.

  19. Hepatic and renal extraction of circulating type I procollagen aminopropeptide in patients with normal liver function and in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, S; Hansen, M; Møller, S

    1999-01-01

    40-65, palcoholic cirrhosis. Size-chromatography revealed no significant change in the ratio of the high and low molecular forms of PINP following extraction in liver and kidney......The circulating level and splanchnic and renal extraction of serum type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) was studied in 20 patients with normal liver function and in 15 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, the concentration of PINP....... It is concluded that circulating PINP is extracted in the normal liver and kidney, and that the serum concentration of PINP is significantly higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than in patients with normal liver function. Both the hepatic and the renal clearance of PINP are seriously impaired...

  20. Consumption of Coprinus comatus polysaccharide extract causes recovery of alcoholic liver damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozalp, F.O.; Canbek, M.; Yamac, M.; Kanbak, G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Uyanoglu, M.; Senturk, H.; Karlkava, K.; Oglakci, A.

    2014-01-01

    Excess use of alcohol is known to be associated with liver diseases such as fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Various practices may be applied to prevent or treat the damage caused by chronic alcoholism. Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers. (Agaricaceae) is a macrofungus that has been

  1. Dicranostiga leptopodu (Maxim.) Fedde extracts attenuated CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deping; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jinzhou; Mao, Aihong; Liao, Shiqi; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Dicranostiga Leptodu (Maxim.) fedde (DLF), a poppy plant, has been reported have many benefits and medicinal properties, including free radicals scavenging and detoxifying. However, the protective effect of DLF extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in mice liver has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function. In this study, the mice liver damage evoked by CCl 4 was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations of mitochondrial respiratory function. Interestingly, pretreatment with DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced morphological damage and increasing of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. Additionally, DLF extracts improved mitochondrial function by preventing the disruption of respiratory chain and suppression of mitochondrial Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, administration with DLF extracts elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and maintained the balance of redox status. This results showed that toxic protection effect of DLF extracts on mice liver is mediated by improving mitochondrial respiratory function and keeping the balance of redox status, which suggesting that DLF extracts could be used as potential toxic protection agent for the liver against hepatotoxic agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Effect of Aerial Parts Extract of Echinophora Platyloba.L on Liver and Kidney Function Tests in Obese Hypercholesterolaemia Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aqababa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and its complications such as hypertension, fatty liver, type 2 diabetes and kidney failure, can be mentioned as the main life-threating elements. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air parts extract of Echinophora platyloba.L (EP on changes in body weight as well as liver and kidney function tests in hypercholesterolaemia obese rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were divided in to five groups (n =8 including a control group with normal control diet, control hyperlipidemia group with fatty food diet and hypertriglyceridemia treatment groups which recieved the minimum dose (100 mg/kg, average dose (200 mg/kg maximum dose (300 mg/kg of EP extract via a gavage. At the end of this period (42 days, to measure cholesterol, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, alanine Aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, the blood samples were collected and the study data were analyzed. Results: Cholesterol, ALT, AST and ALP were reported to significantly decrease (in the minimum and maximum dose groups compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Albumin and total protein in the maximum dose extract group significantly increased compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Moreover, body weight in the group receiving the minimum dose of extract showed a significant decrease compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Conclusion: EP extract, specifically in the minimal doses, in addition to protecting liver, could be recommended as a good candidate in regard with the treatment of blood lipids, and body extra weight.

  3. The Acute Toxicity Test of Methanolic Extract of Hyptis pectinata Poit on Liver Balb/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, M.; Cahyono, B.; Astuti, P.

    2017-02-01

    Plants from Lamiaceae family has almost entirely reported having physiological activities. One of them is Hyptis pectinata Poit plant. Research on the toxicity of Hyptis pectinata needs to be done to protect people from the possibility of its harmful effects. This study aim to know the acute toxicity effects of Hyptis pectinata extract (HPE) on liver of Balb/c mice. This research was a laboratory experimental study using the post test only controlled group design. Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. K (control group), P1, P2 and P3 (treatment groups; given HPE 200mg/kgBW, 1000 mg/kgBW, and 5000 mg/kgBW, respectively). The extract was orally given with gastric tube on the first day and the mice were terminated at the 8th day then the livers were observed. The Kruskal-Wallis test for macroscopic morphological and volume of the liver showed there were no significant difference with p=0.406 and p=0.054. The highest liver histopathological score was in P3 group. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significantly difference (p=0.000). Continued with Mann-Withney test that showed a significant difference in K-P1 (p=0.009), K-P2 (p=0.009), K-P3 (p=0.009), P1-P2 (p=0.028), and P1-P3 (p=0.009). In conclusion, the HPE is safe to use which has no complication with liver of mice.

  4. Effects of an Agaricus blazei Aqueous Extract Pretreatment on Paracetamol-Induced Brain and Liver Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of an Agaricus blazei aqueous extract pretreatment on paracetamol injury in rats was examined not only in terms of the classical indicators (e.g., levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma but also in terms of functional and metabolic parameters (e.g., gluconeogenesis. Considering solely the classical indicators for tissue damage, the results can be regarded as an indication that the A. blazei extract is able to provide a reasonable degree of protection against the paracetamol injury in both the hepatic and brain tissues. The A. blazei pretreatment largely prevented the increased levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma (ASP, ALT, LDH, and ALP and practically normalized the TBARS levels in both liver and brain tissues. With respect to the functional and metabolic parameters of the liver, however, the extract provided little or no protection. This includes morphological signs of inflammation and the especially important functional parameter gluconeogenesis, which was impaired by paracetamol. Considering these results and the long list of extracts and substances that are said to have hepatoprotective effects, it would be useful to incorporate evaluations of functional parameters into the experimental protocols of studies aiming to attribute or refute effective hepatoprotective actions to natural products.

  5. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To-Wei Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective: In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE in vivo. Method: Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD, HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results: Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity.

  6. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, To-Wei; Chang, Chia-Ling; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Lin, Jenq-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE) in vivo. Method Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group) and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity. PMID:26475512

  7. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna N Shetty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD - butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group - vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin - a known hepatoprotective. Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001. Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001. In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract against CCl4 induced acute liver toxicity in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ramesh K; Hussain, Talib; Panigrahi, G; Das, Avik; Singh, Gireesh Narayan; Sweety, K; Faiyazuddin, Md; Rao, Chandana Venkateswara

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) (S. xanthocarpum) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. 50% ethanolic fruit extract of S. xanthocarpum (SXE, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered daily for 14 days in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl(4) administration (1 mL/kg i. p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Serum alkaline phosphatise (SALP) and total bilirubin. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were screened along with histopathological studies. Obtained results demonstrated that the treatment with SXE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently prevented chemically induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SXE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and catalase towards normal levels. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that SXE attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and led to reduction of inflammatory cells inflltration. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SXE against acute liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and there by scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective Effect of the Persian Gulf brittle star Ophiocoma Erinaceus extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  Brittle star possess  bioactive compounds which confer the wound healing capacity and regenerative potency of damaged  arms and organisms to this creature. The aim of the current study was to assess the   protective  effect  of  the  star extract on liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control, Sham exposed, experimental 1 (treated with %25 extract and experimental 2 (treated with %50 extract of star Ophiocoma Erinaceus. The control group received no treatment. The sham exposed groups received carbon tetrachloride .(50% in olive oil .0.5 ml/kg for 7 days. The experimental groups firstly received carbon tetrachloride, then received %25, %50 brittle star extract as intragastric for 7 days. Finally, the animals were sacrificed, and their bodies and livers were weighed. Then, the livers sections were prepared and were examined by means of light microscope. Finally, the obtained  quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS (V; 20, Mini Tab software, ANOVA, and Tukey. at the significant level of P<0.001. Results: Carbon tetrachloride significantly decreased the rats’ body weight, but it increased their livers weight (P<0.001. Histopathological evaluations showed .extensive liver damage. On the other hand, treatment with brittle star extract .ncreased liver weight, reduced. body weight and significantly altered other induced changes by carbon tetrachloride on liver structure such as hepatocytes number, Kupffer cells, and arteritis, which indicated  the improvement of damaged liver tissue (P<0.001. Conclusion: It was found that brittle star extract can exert protective effects on  liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride on male Wistar rat.

  10. Protective effect of Momordica charantia water extract against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice and the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Background : Momordica charantia is used in China for its jianghuo (heat-clearing and detoxifying) effects. The concept of shanghuo (the antonym of jianghuo , excessive internal heat) in traditional Chinese medicine is considered a type of stress response of the body. The stress process involves internal organs, especially the liver. Objective : We hypothesized that Momordica charantia water extract (MWE) has a hepatoprotective effect and can protect the body from stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of MWE against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Design : The mice were intragastrically administered with MWE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw) daily for 7 days. The Normal Control (NC) and Model groups were administered distilled water. A positive control group was intragastrically administered vitamin C 250 mg/kg bw. After the last administration, mice were restrained for 20 h. Results : MWE reduced the serum AST and ALT, reduced the NO content and the protein expression level of iNOSin the liver; significantly reduced the mitochondrial ROS content, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II in restraint-stressed mice. Conclusions : The results indicate that MWE has a protective effect against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Abbreviations : MWE: Momordica charantia water extract; M. charantia: Momordica charantia L.; ROS: reactive oxygen species; NO: nitric oxide; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1β: interleukin-1 beta; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IFN-γ: interferon gamma; VC: vitamin C; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; BCA: bicinchoninic acid; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; JC-B: Janus Green B; DW: dry weight; FC: Folin

  11. Hydroalcoholic extract of Stevia rebaudiana bert. leaves and stevioside ameliorates lipopolysaccharide induced acute liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Latha; Chaudhary, Sheetal; R S, Ray

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress and hepatic inflammatory response is primarily implicated in the pathogenesis of LPS induced acute liver injury. Stevioside, a diterpenoidal glycoside isolated from the Stevia rebaudiana leaves, exerts potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves (STE EXT) and its major phytochemical constituent, stevioside (STE) in LPS induced acute liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of STE EXT (500mg/kg p.o) and STE (250mg/kg p.o) was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS 5mg/kg i.p.) induced acute liver injury in male wistar rats. Our results revealed that both STE EXT and STE treatment ameliorated LPS induced hepatic oxidative stress, evident from altered levels of reduced SOD, Catalase, GSH, MDA, NO. Histopathological observations revealed that both STE EXT and STE attenuated LPS induced structural changes and hepatocellular apoptosis providing additional evidence for its hepatoprotective effect. Further, STE EXT and STE significantly restored the elevated serum and tissue levels of AST and ALT in LPS treated rats. Furthermore, both STE EXT and STE rescued hepatocellular dysfunctions to normal by altering the level of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 exhibiting its anti-inflammatory potential. In conclusion, both STE EXT and STE demonstrated excellent hepatoprotective effects against endotoxemia induced acute liver injury possibly through suppression of hepatic inflammatory response and oxidative stress, attributing to its medicinal importance in treating various liver ailments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytotoxic effects of some animal and vegetable extracts and some chemicals on liver and colon carcinoma and myosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayazit, Vahdettin

    2004-01-01

    To study, the cytotoxic effects of some biological and chemical agents on G, S, G, M and G phases of liver and colon carcinomas and myosarcoma cells obtained with chemical carcinogens dimethylbenzanthracene (Dmba) and cadmium chloride. Eight rabbit livers, colon carcinoma and myosarcoma cell lines were obtained by injection of Dmba in the Biology Laboratory, of the University of Dumlupinar, Kutahya, Turkey between January 2001 and June 2003. All lines were grown at 37degrees celsius and 5% carbon dioxide in sterile RPMI-1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum after addition of glutamate, penicillin (50 units/ml) and streptomycin (50 ug/ml) (complete medium). Cells were grown on standard tissue culture plastic flasks to 80% confluence and passed by trypsinization. Tortoise (Testudo graeca) shell, sponge (Geodia cydonium), medusa (Aurelia aurita), meat flies (Calliphora erythrocephala) larva, frog (Rana ridibunda) larva and juniper (Juniperus communis) berry extracts killed a large amount of the liver and colon carcinomas and the myosarcoma cells in G2, M and G0 phases (p<0.01). The mistletoe (Viscum album) extract had more effect in only the G0 phase (p<0.05). Genistein, genistin, glycitein, glycitin, daitzein and daitzin have significantly decreased in the cancer cells tests, particularly, genistein and daitzein caused the apoptotic effect in G2, M and G0 phases (p<0.01). Cesium chloride, a mixture of cesium chloride with magnesium chloride had the most effect on tumor cells (p<0.01). AzhexSi, Azhex-AzhepSi, Et-Azhex-AzhepSi, AzhepSi, Hexamine and DL 54 have been inhibited in various levels of the cancer cells (p<0.05, p<0.01). This data suggest that some biological extracts and chemicals tested may be useful chemotherapeutic agents to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This study sheds some light for new anti cancerogenic experiments preventing various cancers on humans. (author)

  13. Metabolic profiles and bile acid extraction rate in the liver of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, T; Oikawa, S; Iwasaki, Y; Mizunuma, Y; Takehana, K; Endoh, D; Kurosawa, T; Sato, H

    2004-04-01

    This study was designed to monitor lipid profile in the portal and hepatic blood of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis, and to compare the results with those in the jugular blood. The work was also carried out to investigate bile acid (BA) in these vessels, and further to investigate BA extraction rate in the liver. Five cows were equipped with catheters in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins (day 0), fasted for 4 days (day 1-day 4) and then refed (day 5-day 11). Before morning feeding, blood was sampled before, during and after fasting from the catheterized vessels. In the portal blood, the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) showed a progressive increase and at day 5 there was an approximate twofold rise. Increased NEFA concentrations were also found similarly in the other two veins. At day 5, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in the portal, hepatic and jugular blood rose to 197, 190 and 186% of the pre-fasting value, respectively. However, the concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in the three veins gradually returned to pre-fasting concentration during the refeeding period. Compared with the pre-fasting value at day 0, the content of liver triglyceride (TG) increased significantly at day 5 (P hepatic extraction rate of BA dropped from 3.1 times pre-fasting to 2.2 times during fasting. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of glucose, TG, total cholesterol, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol and phospholipids. The results of the current study show that metabolic alterations occur in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins during induction of hepatic lipidosis in cows, and mostly metabolites, with exception of BA concentration, run parallel. The decreased BA extraction rate in the liver of fasted cows was considered to reflect hepatic cell impairment caused by TG accumulation. Hopefully, the findings, at least in part, contribute to the explanation of the pathophysiology of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

  14. Biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of rats following administration of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O S; Akanji, M A

    2011-09-01

    Furtherance to a previous report on the anti-trypanosomal properties of Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, we have evaluated the effects of the daily intraperitoneal administration of P. guajava leaf extract to rats on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in the kidney, liver and serum. The results obtained revealed that the administration of the extract produced significant increase in the serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP when compared with the control (p < 0.05). Also AST, ALT and ALP and ACP activities in the tissues of animals administered the extract revealed inconsistent changes (p < 0.05) relative to control. The increase in the serum activity of ALP may be an indicator that there was a likely compromise to the integrity of the plasma membrane as a result of the ethanolic extract administration. This could have caused leakages of the other enzymes investigated, which may explain the corresponding increases in the serum activities of AST, ALT and ACP observed.

  15. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymn T. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  16. Classification of focal liver lesions on ultrasound images by extracting hybrid textural features and using an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoo Na; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Ga Young; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Kim, Sung Min

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of focal liver lesions by quantifying the key features of cysts, hemangiomas, and malignant lesions on ultrasound images. The focal liver lesions were divided into 29 cysts, 37 hemangiomas, and 33 malignancies. A total of 42 hybrid textural features that composed of 5 first order statistics, 18 gray level co-occurrence matrices, 18 Law's, and echogenicity were extracted. A total of 29 key features that were selected by principal component analysis were used as a set of inputs for a feed-forward neural network. For each lesion, the performance of the diagnosis was evaluated by using the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The results of the experiment indicate that the proposed method exhibits great performance, a high diagnosis accuracy of over 96% among all focal liver lesion groups (cyst vs. hemangioma, cyst vs. malignant, and hemangioma vs. malignant) on ultrasound images. The accuracy was slightly increased when echogenicity was included in the optimal feature set. These results indicate that it is possible for the proposed method to be applied clinically.

  17. The lemon balm extract ALS-L1023 inhibits obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in female ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongjun; Lee, Hyunghee; Lim, Jonghoon; Lee, Haerim; Yoon, Seolah; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that angiogenesis inhibitors regulate obesity. This study aimed to determine whether the lemon balm extract ALS-L1023 inhibits diet-induced obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in female ovariectomized (OVX) mice. OVX mice received a low fat diet (LFD), a high fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with ALS-L1023 (ALS-L1023) for 15 weeks. HFD mice exhibited increases in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) angiogenesis, body weight, VAT mass and VAT inflammation compared with LFD mice. In contrast, all of these effects were reduced in ALS-L1023 mice compared with HFD mice. Serum lipids and liver injury markers were improved in ALS-L1023 mice. Hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammatory cells and collagen levels were lower in ALS-L1023 mice than in HFD mice. ALS-L1023 mice exhibited a tendency to normalize hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and fibrosis to levels in LFD mice. ALS-L1023 also induced Akt phosphorylation and increased Nrf2 mRNA expression in livers of obese mice. Our results indicate that the angiogenesis inhibitor ALS-L1023 can regulate obesity, hepatic steatosis and fibro-inflammation, in part through improvement of VAT function, in obese OVX mice. These findings suggest that angiogenesis inhibitors may contribute to alleviation of NAFLD in post-menopausal women with obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mass spectrometric identification of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidycholine extracted from shark liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Li, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    The profile and structural characterization of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) from shark liver using liquid chromatographic/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) are described for the first time

  19. In vitro Inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea, and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extracts and Constituents on Human Liver Glucuronidation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husni, Zulhilmi; Ismail, Sabariah; Zulkiffli, Mohd Halimhilmi; Afandi, Atiqah; Haron, Munirah

    2017-07-01

    Andrographis paniculata , Gynura procumbens , Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza are commonly consumed as herbal medicines. However their effects on human liver glucuronidation activity are not yet evaluated. In this study, we evaluate the inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and their constituents on human liver glucuronidation activity. Herbal extracts (aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts) and their constituents were incubated with human liver microsomes with the addition of UDPGA to initiate the reaction. Working concentrations of herbal extracts and their constituents ranged from 10 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL and 10 μM to 300 μM respectively. IC50 was determined by monitoring the decrement of glucuronidation activity with the increment of herbal extracts or phytochemical constituent's concentrations. All herbal extracts inhibited human liver glucuronidation activity in range of 34.69 μg/mL to 398.10 μg/mL whereas for the constituents, only xanthorrhizol and curcumin (constituents of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ) inhibited human liver glucuronidation activity with IC50 of 538.50 and 32.26 μM respectively. In the present study, we have proved the capabilities of Andrographis paniculata , Gynura procumbens , Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza to interfere with in vitro glucuronidation process in human liver microsomes. This study documented the capabilities of Andrographis paniculata , Gynura procumbens , Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza to inhibit human liver glucuronidation activity which may affect the metabolism of therapeutic drugs or hazardous toxicants that follow the same glucuronidation pathway. Abbreviations used: UGT: Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase; 4-MU: 4-methylumbelliferone; IC50: Half Maximal Inhibitory Concentration; Km: Michaelis constant; Vmax: Maximum velocity.

  20. Aqueous calyxes extract of Roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn supplementation improves liver morphology in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazratun Nafizah, Akhtar Husin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Zaryantey, Abd Hamid; Mariati, Abd Rahman; Santhana, Raj Louis; Osman, Mohamad; Muhd Hanis, Md Idris; Jamaludin, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    The complex series of deleterious events among diabetes patients leads to multiple organ failure. Therefore, a holistic approach of treatment is urgently required to prevent worsening of complications. The present investigation was carried out to study the possible protective effects of Roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (HSL) calyxes aqueous extract, as an antidiabetic and antioxidant agent against oxidative liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A single dose of streptozotocin (45mg/kg body weight, iv) was used to induced diabetes in male Sprague Dawley rats which were then divided into two groups: Diabetic control (DC) and HSL-treated diabetic (DR) group. Normal rats were divided into normal control (NC), HSL-treated control (NR). Aqueous calyxes extract of HSL (100mg/kg/day, orally) was given for 28 consecutive days in the treated group. Weight, biochemical and histopathological (light and electron microscopic) parameters were compared in all groups. Supplementation of HSL significantly lowered the level of fasting blood glucose and increased plasma insulin level in DR group compared to DC group (p<0.05). Alanine aminotransaminases and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes level were found to be significantly reduced in DR compared to DC. Microscopic examination demonstrated destruction of the liver architecture, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes and signs of necrosis in diabetic rats. Moreover, dilatation and congestion of blood vessels with leucocytes adherence were detected. Ultrastructural study using electron microscope showed homogeneous substance accumulation in nuclear chromatin, a decrease of organelles and mitochondrial degeneration in the diabetic rats. Administration of HSL in diabetic rats causes significant decrease in hepatocyte destruction and prevented the changes associated with the diabetic condition. Thus, our findings provide a scientific rationale for the use of HSL as promising agent in preventing liver injury in

  1. An iso-α-acid-rich extract from hops (Humulus lupulus) attenuates acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Marianne; Jung, Finn; Sellmann, Cathrin; Jin, Chengjun; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bergheim, Ina

    2018-01-01

    Results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that consumption of beer is less harmful for the liver than consumption of spirits. It also has been suggested that secondary plant compounds derived from hops such as xanthohumol or iso-α-acids may have beneficial effects on the development of liver diseases of various etiologies. The aim of this study was to determine whether iso-α-acids consumed in doses achieved by "normal" beer consumption have beneficial effects on health. Female C57 Bl/6 J mice, pretreated for 4 d with an iso-α-acid-rich extract (∼30% iso-α-acids from hops, 0.75 mg/kg body weight), were fed one bolus of ethanol (6 g/kg body weight intragastric) or an iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of liver damage, toll-like receptor-4 signaling, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Furthermore, the effect of isohumulone on the lipopolysaccharide-dependent activation of J774 A.1 macrophages, used as a model of Kupffer cells, was determined. In the liver, acute ethanol administration led to a significant accumulation of fat (∼10-fold), which was accompanied by significantly higher inducible nitric oxide synthase protein level, elevated nitric oxide production, and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 protein concentration when compared to controls. In mice pretreated with iso-α-acids, these effects of alcohol were markedly attenuated. Pretreatment of J774 A.1 macrophages with isohumulone significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-6 as well as the release of nitric oxide. Taken together, iso-α-acids markedly attenuated the development of acute alcohol-induced damage in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... weight of either aqueous or methanolic extract of P. americana leaf daily for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the overall body weight gain of the hyperlipidaemic rats compared to normal control. However, the administration of the aqueous and methanolic extracts provoked 14 and.

  3. Electro-microscopic observations of liver lesions after intravenous inoculation of mouldy hay extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmi, A; Griffel, B

    1985-01-01

    With the aid of the electron microscope, a number of histopathological changes in the liver of mice caused by mycotoxins from mouldy hay were examined and studied. These changes were observed in the mitochondria, the cell nucleus, and the cell membranes, and included fatty and parenchymal degeneration, plasma granulation, vacuolisation and vesiculation, glycogen secretion, incorporation into RNA, karyolysis and karyolaxis, and space of Disse constriction.

  4. Effect of Turmeric Etanol Extract (Curcuma Longa L on Low Density Lipoprotein Level and Liver Histopathology Image in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model Induced by Streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Pratiwi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine levels of LDL and liver damage in rats (Rattus norvegicus models of type 1 diabetes mellitus inducted by streptozotocin (STZ with etanol extract of turmeric (Curcuma Longa L therapy. Animals used rat (Rattus norvegicus 3-month-old males who were divided into 5 groups, each group consisting of four mice. The group was divided according to treatment: negative control (not induced by STZ, the positive control group (STZ induced, groups of rats DM 1 with etanol turmeric extract therapy a dose of 1.2 g / kg, groups of rats DM 1 with etanol turmeric extract therapy a dose of 1.8 g / kg, and groups of rats DM 1 with etanol turmeric extract therapy a dose of 2.7 g / kg. LDL levels measured by direct method and the severity of liver damage was observed through histopatology picture. The results showed that the etanol extract of turmeric dose of 2.7 g / kg in a rats model of type 1 diabetes mellitus can lower LDL levels up to 59.55%, and reduced the severity of fatty liver with reduced fat vacuoles. The conclusion from this study that the etanol extract of turmeric contains antioxidants that can lower LDL levels and reduced the severity of fatty liver in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Soapwort extract supplementation alters antioxidant status of serum, liver and heart tissues in growing Japanese quails reared under chronic intermittent cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestami Dalkilic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant effect of dietary soapwort extract supplementation was studied in growing Japanese quails suffering from chronic intermittent cold stress. For this purpose, a total of ninety 15-d-old quails were divided into three groups with three replicates. Chronic intermittent cold stress was applied every night between 22.00 to 06.00 h; starting at 14 °C for the first week, and gradually weekly lowered to 8 °C. Three groups were fed with corn-soy based standard diets supplemented with 0, 50, and 100 ppm soapwort extract for four weeks. At the end of the study, three males and three females were slaughtered to determine total antioxidant and oxidant status of serum, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, superoxide dismutase of liver and heart tissues. Although the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on serum total antioxidant capacity, it significantly lowered the total oxidant status of serum in cold stressed quails. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity of liver and heart tissues were similar among groups. While the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on glutathione peroxidase activity of the heart tissue, it significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver tissue. In relation to the control group, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and heart tissues were significantly lower in soapwort extract groups. These data suggest that dietary soapwort extract could alleviate the detrimental effects of oxidative stress in growing Japanese quails exposed to cold stress.

  6. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge extract on liver cirrhosis in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights ... Methods: SMBE was obtained by extracting dried Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. in water. .... in the normal group (p < 0.05 for model vs.

  7. Protective effects of Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang), and its major component mangiferin, on iron-induced oxidative damage to rat serum and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Barrios, Mariela Forrellat; Curti, Carlos; Hernández, Ivones; Merino, Nelson; Lemus, Yeny; Martínez, Ioanna; Riaño, Annia; Delgado, René

    2008-01-01

    In vivo preventive effects of a Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang) or its major component mangiferin on iron overload injury have been studied in rats given respectively, 50, 100, 250 mg kg(-1) body weight of Vimang, or 40 mg kg(-1) body weight of mangiferin, for 7 days prior to, and for 7 days following the administration of toxic amounts of iron-dextran. Both Vimang or mangiferin treatment prevented iron overload in serum as well as liver oxidative stress, decreased serum and liver lipid peroxidation, serum GPx activity, and increased serum and liver GSH, serum SOD and the animals overall antioxidant condition. Serum iron concentration was decreased although at higher doses, Vimang tended to increase it; percent tranferrin saturation, liver weight/body mass ratios, liver iron content was decreased. Treatment increased serum iron-binding capacity and decreased serum levels of aspartate-amine transferase (ASAT) and alanine-amine transferase (ALAT), as well as the number of abnormal Kupffer cells in iron-loaded livers. It is suggested that besides acting as antioxidants, Vimang extract or its mangiferin component decrease liver iron by increasing its excretion. Complementing earlier in vitro results from our group, it appears possible to support the hypothesis that Vimang and mangiferin present therapeutically useful effects in iron overload related diseases.

  8. Inhibitory effects of crude extracts from some edible Thai plants against replication of hepatitis B virus and human liver cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiyaput Wanwisa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Edible plants such as Cratoxylum formosum (Jack Dyer, Curcumin longa Lin, Momordica charantia Lin and Moringa oleifera Lam have long been believed in Thai culture to relieve ulcers and the symptoms of liver disease. However, little is known about their anti-liver cancer properties and antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-liver cancer and anti-HBV activities of crude extracts from these edible plants on human liver cancer cells. Methods Plant samples were prepared and extracted using buffer and hydro-alcoholic solvents. The MTT assay was performed to investigate the effects of the plant extracts on the cell viability of HepG2 cells. The inhibitory effect on replication of HBV was analysed by determining the level of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA in transiently transfected HepG2 cells with the DNA expression plasmid of the HBV genome using a quantitative real-time PCR. Results Buffer and hydroalcoholic extracts from C. formosum (leaf reduced cell viability of HepG2 cells and they also inhibited HBV cccDNA. Crude extracts from C. longa (bulb in both solvents did not have any cytotoxic effects on the HepG2 cells, but they significantly decreased the level of HBV cccDNA. Buffer extracts from the leaves of M. charantia and the fruits of M. oleifera showed to have anti-HBV activity and also a mild cytotoxicity effect on the HepG2 cells. In addition, leaves of M. Oleifera extracted by hydroalcoholic solvent drastically decreased the level of cccDNA in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Conclusion Some crude extracts of edible plants contain compounds that demonstrate anti-liver cancer and anti-HBV activities.

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, T K; Dharmaraj, S; Bajaj, Jitendra; Dhanabal, S P; Manimaran, S; Nanjan, M J; Razdan, Rema

    2009-06-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing the hepatoprotective activity of 1:1:1 petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol (PDM) extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. The PDM extract (50, 200, and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard, silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) were tested for their antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by measuring aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total proteins in serum, glycogen, lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase levels in liver homogenate and by histopathological analysis of the liver tissue. In addition, the extract was also evaluated for its in vitro antioxidant activity using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. The extract at the dose of 800 mg/kg, p.o., significantly prevented CCl4-induced changes in the serum and liver biochemistry (P Scoparia dulcis L. possesses potential hepatoprotective activity, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging potential, due to the terpenoid constituents.

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of Chhit-Chan-Than extract powder against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability of Chhit-Chan-Than extract powder (CCTEP, 10% aqueous Ocimum gratissimum L. extract to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in vivo was investigated. Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group A was a normal control group given only vehicle; Group B, the hepatotoxic group, was injected intraperitoneally twice a week with repeated 8% CCl4/olive oil (0.1 mL/100 g of body weight; Groups C–E, extract-treated groups received CCl4 and different doses of CCTEP (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg or silymarin (200 mg/kg of body weight daily by gavage for 8 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the CCl4-induced histopathogical changes may be prevented by CCTEP through reducing the intercellular collogen stack, dropping blood serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and restoring the catalase activity and glutathione content. The hepatoprotective properties were further confirmed by the marked improvement in histopathological examination and by quantitative steatosis-fibrosis scoring. The above results suggest that CCTEP is able to prevent the liver inflammation and fibrosis induced by repeated CCl4 administration, and the hepatoprotective effects might be correlated partly with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects.

  11. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption.

  12. Schisandra sphenanthera extract (Wuzhi Tablet protects against chronic-binge and acute alcohol-induced liver injury by regulating the NRF2-ARE pathway in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhen Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse leads to alcoholic liver disease and no effective therapy is currently available. Wuzhi Tablet (WZ, a preparation of extract from Schisandra sphenanthera that is a traditional hepato-protective herb, exerted a significant protective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in our recent studies, but whether WZ can alleviate alcohol-induced toxicity remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of WZ to alcohol-induced liver injury by using chronic-binge and acute models of alcohol feeding. The activities of ALT and AST in serum were assessed as well as the level of GSH and the activity of SOD in the liver. The expression of CYP2E1 and proteins in the NRF2-ARE signaling pathway including NRF2, GCLC, GCLM, HO-1 were measured, and the effect of WZ on NRF2 transcriptional activity was determined. We found that both models resulted in liver steatosis accompanied by increased transaminase activities, but that liver injury was significantly attenuated by WZ. WZ administration also inhibited CYP2E1 expression induced by alcohol, and elevated the level of GSH and the activity of SOD in the liver. Moreover, the NRF2-ARE signaling pathway was activated by WZ and the target genes were all upregulated. Furthermore, WZ significantly activated NRF2 transcriptional activity. Collectively, our study demonstrates that WZ protected against alcohol-induced liver injury by reducing oxidative stress and improving antioxidant defense, possibly by activating the NRF2-ARE pathway.

  13. Light microscopic study of the effect of new antischistosmal drug (myrrh extract) on the liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Ahmed M A; el Ebiary, Faika H; Ibrahim, Suzi H

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy of purified oleo-resin extract of myrrh derived from Commiphora molmol tree, (known as Mirazid) was studied against an Egyptian strain of Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Seventy adult male mice were used in this study. They were divided into 4 groups: G.I: consisted of control noninfected nontreated mice. G.II: comprised the noninfected treated mice and was subdivided into two subgroups, subgroup II-A: included mice which received Myrrh extract dissolved in cremophore EL and subgroup II-B: included mice which were treated with cremophore EL. G.III: consisted of the infected nontreated animals and G.IV: included infected mice which were treated with myrrh extract. The drug was given 8 weeks post infection in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 5 successive days. All animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. Liver paraffin sections were prepared and stained with H&E, Masson's Trichrome stain, PAS stain and Wilder's technique. A morphometric study was performed for the mean number and perimeter of the granulomas. Area percentage of the total collagen content around central veins as well as in portal areas was also estimated. The livers of the animals in G.II which received either myrrh extract (subgroup II-A) or cremophore EL (subgroup II-B) showed a more or less normal histological profile when compared to G.I (noninfected-nontreated group). G.IV (Infected treated G.) showed complete preservation of the hepatic architecture. Most of the hepatocytes appeared almost normal. The reticular network in the central part of the granulomas as well as in the portal tracts appeared rarefied. The hepatic reticular network was preserved. A significant decrease in the number and size of granulomas with significant reduction in the collagen content deposition in portal tracts and around central veins was detected when compared to G.III (infected nontreated mice). The data of this study proved the efficacy of myrrh as a promising

  14. Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver cancer induced by dimethylnitrosamine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Abd El Moneim Hussein

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The protective effect of cannabis extract is more pronounced in group taking cannabis before DMNA. Cannabinoids might exert their anti-tumor effects by the direct induction of apoptosis and can decrease telomerase activity by inhibiting the expression of the TERT gene. Coordination between inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of apoptosis might be a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  15. The effect of aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of crude leaf extract of Carica papaya (Linn) on aspartate aminostransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, neutrophils, thrombocytes and on body weight of normal albino rats were investigated. Albino rats weighing between 74 g and 90.5 g, of both sexes ...

  16. Protective effect of Radix Bupleuri extract against liver cirrhosis in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some DENinduced rats were also treated with RBE, which was obtained by extracting dried Radix Bupleuri in water, for 8 weeks. Afterwards, biochemical indices and oxidative stress markers were assessed. Results: RBE significantly decreased serum concentrations of both alanine transaminase (137.3 ± 4.4 U/L, p < 0.01) ...

  17. Effect of extracts from araticum (Annona crassiflora on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roesler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ethanolic extracts of Annona crassiflora on the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes was examined. Extracts of A. crassiflora seeds and peel were administered orally (50 mg of galic acid equivalents.kg-1 to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days followed by a single oral dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 2 g.kg-1. Lipid peroxidation and the activities of hepatic catalase (CAT, cytochromes P450 (CP450 and b5, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GRed, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the content of glutathione equivalents (GSH were evaluated. The treatment with CCl4 increased lipid peroxidation, the level of GSH equivalents and the content of cytochrome b5 by 44, 140 and 32%, respectively, with concomitant reductions of 23, 34 and 39% in the activities of CAT, SOD, and CP450, respectively. The treatment with A. crassiflora seeds and peel extracts alone inhibited lipid peroxidation by 27 and 22%, respectively without affecting the CP450 content. The pretreatment with the A. crassiflora extracts prevented the lipid peroxidation, the increase in GSH equivalents and the decrease in CAT activity caused by CCl4, but it had no effect on the CCl4-mediated changes in CP450 and b5 and SOD. These results show that A. crassiflora seeds and peel contain antioxidant activity in vivo that could be of potential therapeutic use.

  18. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of Olea europaea leaves against Diclofenac-induced liver damages in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussi, Rawya; Hfaiedh, Najla; Guesmi, Fatma; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2018-04-20

    Historically, olive tree "Olea europaea" is one of the most important fruit trees in Mediterranean countries. Several studies suggest that olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds compared to olive oil and fruits. This study was undertaken to investigate, the protective effect of the aqueous extract of « Chemlali » olive leaves against diclofenac-induced damages in liver and haematological alterations in swiss albinos mice. For this, twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups: a control group, a diclofenac-treated group (2.37 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days, a group orally gavaged with aqueous extract of olive leaves, (3.3g/kg) during 28 days, and a group pre-treated with aqueous extract of olive leaves during 23 days then injected with diclofenac for 5 days. Results obtained from this study revealed that administration of diclofenac alone led to disturbance of some haematological parameters including red and white blood cells (RBC), (WBC) haemoglobin (Hb) and platelets content (PLT). However, diclofenac-treated mice group showed a increasing in the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, creatinine, urea, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). Additionally we noted a state of oxidative stress in hepatic tissue indicated by the increasing of lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Interstingly, pre-treatment with olive leaves extract improved the haematological parameters and minimised the adverse effect on the hepatic function markers induced by diclofenac. The beneficial effect of olive leaves could be attributed to its antioxidant components as confirmed by phytochemical analysis.

  19. Antiviral effect of Anthocleista nobilis root extract on the liver homogenate indices of poultry fowls infected with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodele P. O,; Okonko I. O,; Chukwuka K. S,; Odu N. N; Michael V. I

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the preliminary investigation of the antiviral effect of Anthocleista nobilis root extract on the liver homogenate indices of poultry fowls treated for Newcastle Disease (ND). Eighteen (18) weeks-old fowls were used for this study. These were divided into 3 groups, A (infected and with treatment), B (infected and without treatment) and C (control). Groups A and B were challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Group A and C were given ethanolic root extract of A. nobili...

  20. A comparative study on the hepatoprotective action of bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma aqueous extract on experimental liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Feng, Yibin; Cheung, Fan; Chow, Oi-Yee; Wang, Xuanbin; Su, Weiwei; Tong, Yao

    2012-11-29

    Bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma have been used in Chinese medicine with a long tradition in treating heat-diseases. Both bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma are used to treat liver diseases in clinical practice of Chinese Medicine. Since bears are currently endangered, it raises the question whether the use of bear bile is ethical. To look for substitute for bear bile, the aim of this study is to compare the anti-fibrotic effects of Coptidis Rhizoma and its major component berberine with the actions of bear bile and its major compound tauroursodeoxycholic acid on experimental liver fibrosis in rats. Quality assessment was conducted with high performance liquid chromatography. The experimental liver fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, and bile duct ligation respectively. The biochemical criteria in the blood and tissue samples were measured to evaluate the anti-fibrotic properties and underlying mechanisms of the drugs. Coptidis Rhizoma Aqueous Extract (CRAE), berberine, and bear bile exerted anti-fibrotic properties on various liver fibrosis models in rats. CRAE and berberine significantly reduced the peroxidative stress in liver through increasing the superoxide dismutase enzyme activity. CRAE and berberine were able to excrete bilirubin products from the liver and protect hepatocytes from cholestatic damage. The effect of CRAE and berberine are comparable to that of bear bile. Instead of using bear bile, CRAE and berberine can be potential substitutes in treating liver fibrosis.

  1. Protective effects of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and vitamin C against radiation-induced liver damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin; Ogungbenro, Bayo; Anyaegbu, Oluchi; Fafunso, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The radioprotective efficacy of methanolic extracts of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), and vitamin C (VIT C) against gamma radiation (4 Gy) induced liver damage was studied in male Wistar albino rats. VIT C was administered at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, while VA and HS were administered at doses; 200, 400 and 800-mg/kg body weight, orally for 4 weeks prior to radiation and 5 weeks after irradiation. The rats were sacrificed at 24 hours and 5 weeks after irradiation. Treatment with VIT C and VA (800 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) decreased the gamma radiation-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at 24 hours after irradiation, whereas, HS (400 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) decreased the serum ALT activity only. Similarly, treatment with VIT C and VA (800 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) decreased the serum conjugated bilirubin levels by 56% and 29%, respectively at 24 hours. Furthermore, VIT C, VA and HS significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increased the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at 24 hours. Treatment for 5 weeks after irradiation with VIT C, VA and HS significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of unconjugated bilirubin, while VIT C and VA alone decreased the levels of conjugated bilirubin. Furthermore, treatment with VA (400 and 800 mg/kg) decreased the serum ALT activities by 25% and 34%, respectively, at 5 weeks after irradiation. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated following treatment with VIT C and VA (400 and 800 mg/kg) at 5 weeks after irradiation. In addition, treatment with VIT C, VA (800 mg/kg) and HS (400 and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) elevated the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) by 61%, 56%, 41% and 44%, respectively, at 5 weeks. Similar elevation of antioxidant enzymes; SOD, glutathione-s-transferase and

  2. ELISA for detection of variant rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus RHDV2 antigen in liver extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, K P; Podadera, A; Granda, V; Nicieza, I; Del Llano, D; González, R; de Los Toyos, J R; García Ocaña, M; Vázquez, F; Martín Alonso, J M; Prieto, J M; Parra, F; Casais, R

    2018-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spread of variant of the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) require new diagnostic tools to ensure that efficient control measures are adopted. In the present study, a specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of RHDV2 antigens in rabbit liver homogenates, based on the use of an RHDV2-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) 2D9 for antigen capture and an anti-RHDV2 goat polyclonal antibody (Pab), was developed. This ELISA was able to successfully detect RHDV2 and RHDV2 recombinant virions with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.22%). No cross-reactions were detected with RHDV G1 viruses while low cross-reactivity was detected with one of the RHDVa samples analyzed. The ELISA afforded good repeatability and had high analytical sensitivity as it was able to detect a dilution 1:163,640 (6.10ng/mL) of purified RHDV-N11 VLPs, which contained approximately 3.4×10 8 molecules/mL particles. The reliable discrimination between closely related viruses is crucial to understand the epidemiology and the interaction of co-existing pathogens. In the work described here we design and validate an ELISA for laboratory based, specific, sensitive and reliable detection of RHDVb/RHDV2. This ELISA is a valuable, specific virological tool for monitoring virus circulation, which will permit a better control of this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits Fe2+-citrate-induced lipoperoxidation in isolated rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Andreu, Gilberto; Delgado, René; Velho, Jesus; Inada, Natalia M; Curti, Carlos; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2005-05-01

    The extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) is able to prevent iron mediated mitochondrial damage by means of oxidation of reduced transition metals required for the production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and direct free radical scavenging activity. In this study we report for the first time the iron-complexing ability of Vimang as a primary mechanism for protection of rat liver mitochondria against Fe2+ -citrate-induced lipoperoxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antimycin A-insensitive oxygen consumption were used as quantitative measures of lipoperoxidation. Vimang at 10 microM mangiferin concentration equivalent induced near-full protection against 50 microM Fe2+ -citrate-induced mitochondrial swelling and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi). The IC50 value for Vimang protection against Fe2+ -citrate-induced mitochondrial TBARS formation (7.89+/-1.19 microM) was around 10 times lower than that for tert-butylhydroperoxide mitochondrial induction of TBARS formation. The extract also inhibited the iron citrate induction of mitochondrial antimycin A-insensitive oxygen consumption, stimulated oxygen consumption due to Fe2+ autoxidation and prevented Fe3+ ascorbate reduction. The extracted polyphenolic compound, mainly mangiferin, could form a complex with Fe2+, accelerating Fe2+ oxidation and the formation of more stable Fe3+ -polyphenol complexes, unable to participate in Fenton-type reactions and lipoperoxidation propagation phase. The strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with an apparent IC50 of 2.45+/-0.08 microM suggests that besides its iron-complexing capacity, Vimang could also protect mitochondria from Fe2+ -citrate lipoperoxidation through direct free radical scavenging ability, mainly lipoperoxyl and alcoxyl radicals, acting as both a chain-breaking and iron-complexing antioxidant. These results are of pharmacological relevance since Vimang could be a potential candidate for antioxidant therapy in

  4. Filipendula ulmaria extracts attenuate cisplatin-induced liver and kidney oxidative stress in rats: In vivo investigation and LC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanić, Jelena; Matić, Sanja; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Kretschmer, Nadine; Boroja, Tatjana; Mihailović, Vladimir; Stanković, Vesna; Stanković, Nevena; Mladenović, Milan; Stanić, Snežana; Mihailović, Mirjana; Bauer, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Filipendula ulmaria, known as meadowsweet, is a perennial herb found in wild and cultivated habitats in Europe and Asia. Usage of F. ulmaria in traditional medicine is based on diuretic, astringent, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory properties of this plant. Exposure to cisplatin at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg caused significant increase in serum parameters of liver and kidneys function and tissue oxidative stress markers along with some histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues of experimental rats, as well as high level of genotoxicity. Administration of F. ulmaria extracts in three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) for 10 days resulted in a reduction of oxidative stress in tissues and decrease of serum parameters. Moreover, tested extracts attenuated the genotoxicity of cisplatin in reverse dose-dependent manner. F. ulmaria extracts had no in vitro cytotoxic activity at all applied concentrations (IC 50  > 50 μg/mL). Tested extracts, rich in polyphenolic compounds, attenuate cisplatin-induced liver and kidney oxidative stress, reduce tissue damage, and enhance the antioxidative status of experimental animals during cisplatin application. Therefore, F. ulmaria extracts may be used as supportive agent for the prevention and amelioration of cisplatin side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water Extract of Dolichos lablab Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in a Cellular Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Yun Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Song, Kwang Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide. Therapeutic strategies for patients with NAFLD are limited by a lack of effective drugs. In this report, we show that Dolichos lablab water extract (DLL-Ex) protects against free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation and attenuates expression of genes involved in lipid droplet accumulation in cellular NAFLD models. The hepatoprotective effects and underlying mechanism of DLL-Ex were assessed using an in vitro cellular model in which NAFLD was simulated by inducing excessive FFA influx into hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were treated with DLL-Ex and FFAs for 24 h, after which intracellular lipid content was observed by using Nile Red and Oil Red O staining. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression levels of genes related to FFA-mediated cellular energy depletion. Western blotting was used to measure protein levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 alpha. In HepG2 cells, DLL-Ex inhibited expression of CD36, which regulates fatty acid uptake, as well as BODIPY-labeled fatty acid uptake. Additionally, DLL-Ex significantly attenuated FFA-mediated cellular energy depletion and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Furthermore, DLL-Ex enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK, indicating that AMPK is a critical regulator of DLL-Ex-mediated inhibition of hepatic lipid accumulation, possibly through its antioxidative effect. These results demonstrate that DLL-Ex exerts potent anti-NAFLD activity, suggesting that it could be a potential adjuvant treatment for patients with NAFLD.

  6. Studies of single-walled carbon nanotubes-induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-based metabonomics of rat blood plasma and liver extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bencheng; Zhang, Huashan; Lin, Zhiqing; Fang, Yanjun; Tian, Lei; Yang, Honglian; Yan, Jun; Liu, Huanliang; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Zhuge

    2013-05-01

    The toxicological effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated after intratracheal instillation in male Wistar rats over a 15-day period using metabonomic analysis of 1H (nuclear magnetic resonance) NMR spectra of blood plasma and liver tissue extracts. Concurrent liver histopathology examinations and plasma clinical chemistry analyses were also performed. Significant changes were observed in clinical chemistry features, including alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and total cholesterol, and in liver pathology, suggesting that SWCNTs clearly have hepatotoxicity in the rat. 1H NMR spectra and pattern recognition analyses from nanomaterial-treated rats showed remarkable differences in the excretion of lactate, trimethylamine oxide, bilineurin, phosphocholine, amylaceum, and glycogen. Indications of amino acid metabolism impairment were supported by increased lactate concentrations and decreased alanine concentrations in plasma. The rise in plasma and liver tissue extract concentrations of choline and phosphocholine, together with decreased lipids and lipoproteins, after SWCNTs treatment indicated a disruption of membrane fluidity caused by lipid peroxidation. Energy, amino acid, and fat metabolism appeared to be affected by SWCNTs exposure. Clinical chemistry and metabonomic approaches clearly indicated liver injury, which might have been associated with an indirect mechanism involving nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress.

  7. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Identification of Proteins by Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry of Healthy and Diseased Human Liver Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsby, Joscelyn; Martin, Nicholas J.; Lalor, Patricia F.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2014-09-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA MS) has the potential to become a useful tool in the spatially-resolved profiling of proteins in substrates. Here, the approach has been applied to the analysis of thin tissue sections from human liver. The aim was to determine whether LESA MS was a suitable approach for the detection of protein biomarkers of nonalcoholic liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH), with a view to the eventual development of LESA MS for imaging NASH pathology. Two approaches were considered. In the first, endogenous proteins were extracted from liver tissue sections by LESA, subjected to automated trypsin digestion, and the resulting peptide mixture was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (bottom-up approach). In the second (top-down approach), endogenous proteins were extracted by LESA, and analyzed intact. Selected protein ions were subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry. The bottom-up approach resulted in the identification of over 500 proteins; however identification of key protein biomarkers, liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), and its variant (Thr→Ala, position 94), was unreliable and irreproducible. Top-down LESA MS analysis of healthy and diseased liver tissue revealed peaks corresponding to multiple (~15-25) proteins. MS/MS of four of these proteins identified them as FABP1, its variant, α-hemoglobin, and 10 kDa heat shock protein. The reliable identification of FABP1 and its variant by top-down LESA MS suggests that the approach may be suitable for imaging NASH pathology in sections from liver biopsies.

  8. Ameliorative Effects of Allium sativum Extract on iNOS Gene Expression and NO Production in Liver of Streptozotocin + Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Behrouj, Hamid; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Lotfi, Fatemeh

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, which is strongly associated with liver dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, through an oxidative stress pathway, damages various tissues. Herbal medicine is a good candidate to ameliorate hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. In this study, the effects of aqueous Allium sativum (garlic) extract (AGE) on gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and production of nitric oxide (NO) were evaluated in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. Four groups of rats contained normal control rats, garlic control rats (AGE), Streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats (DM), and diabetic rats treated with garlic (DM + AGE). Glucose levels and liver enzymes activities were determined by colorimetric assay in the serum. Gene expression of iNOS by real-time PCR, NO levels by Griess method, oxidative stress parameters by spectrophotometric method and histopathological examination by hematoxylin and eosin staining method were evaluated in the liver tissues. Glucose levels, activities of liver enzymes, oxidative stress markers, iNOS gene expression, and NO production increased significantly in diabetic rats in comparison with control rats, whereas after oral administration of garlic, these parameters decreased significantly, close to the normal levels. Hence, the beneficial effects of garlic on the liver injury of diabetes could be included in the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties of garlic via a decrease in gene expression of iNOS and subsequent NO production.

  9. Ethanol extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. reduced the carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in mice involving enhancement of NF-κB activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongguang; Liu, Xuefeng; Tang, Gusheng; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yinghui; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xuezhi; Wang, Wanyin

    2014-01-01

    Acute hepatic injury causes high morbidity and mortality world-wide. Management of severe acute hepatic failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. In present study, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used to induce acute liver damage in mice and the protective effects of ethanol extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. (PO) were examined. The aminotransferase activities were biochemical estimated and the liver damage was tested by morphological histological analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The role of PO on the activity of NF-κB was determined by luciferase reporter gene assay and immunohistochemistry. The level of p-p65 was tested by western blot. Our results showed that PO administration on mice would decrease the serum aminotransferase level and reduced the liver histological damage. We also found that nuclear translocation of p65 was enhanced in liver tissues of mice treated with PO compared with control animals. In addition, in cultured hepatic cells, PO increased the NF-κB luciferase reporter gene activity and upregulated the level of phosphorylation of p65, but had no effects on mice liver SOD activity and MDA level. Collectively, PO attenuated CCl4 induced mice liver damage by enhancement of NF-κB activity. PMID:25628785

  10. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-06-15

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling.

  11. Effects of Cinnamon extract on biochemical enzymes, TNF-α and NF-κB gene expression levels in liver of broiler chickens inoculated with Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli is a common disease in poultry industry. The use of antibiotics to treat diseases is facing serious criticism and concerns. The medicinal plants may be effective alternatives because of their multiplex activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon extract on the levels of liver enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB gene expressions in liver of broiler chickens infected with E. coli. Ninety Ross-308 broilers were divided into healthy or E. coli-infected groups, receiving normal or cinnamon extract (in concentrations of 100 or 200mg/kg of food supplemented diets. E. coli suspension (108cfu was injected subcutaneously after 12 days cinnamon administration. Seventy-two hours after E. coli injection, the blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis of liver enzymes in serum (spectrophotometrically, and liver tissue samples were obtained for detection of gene expression of inflammatory markers TNF-α and NF-κB, using real-time PCR. Infection with E. coli significantly increased the levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions as well as some liver enzymes including creatine-kinase (CK, lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine-transferase (ALT and aspartate-transferase (AST as compared with control group (P<0.05. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in broilers diet (in both concentrations significantly reduced the tissue levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions and enzymes CK and ALT in serum of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli in comparison with E. coli group (P<0.05 and P<0.01. The levels of LDH and AST were significantly decreased only by 200mg/kg cinnamon extract in infected broilers. The level of alkaline-phosphatase (ALP was not affected in any groups. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in diets of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli could significantly reduce the gene expression levels of pro

  12. Ginkgo biloba extract mitigates liver fibrosis and apoptosis by regulating p38 MAPK, NF-κB/IκBα, and Bcl-2/Bax signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Wang, Rong Wang, Yujie Wang, Ruqin Peng, Yan Wu, Yongfang Yuan Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai 9th People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Liver fibrosis is the consequence of diverse liver injuries and can eventually develop into liver cirrhosis. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE is an extract from dried ginkgo leaves that has many pharmacological effects because of its various ingredients and has been shown to be hepatoprotective. Purpose and methods: Aimed to investigate the underlying protective mechanisms of GBE on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (C, model group (M, low-dose group (L, and high-dose group (H. Liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 groups M, L, and H: group C was administered saline. In addition, GBE at different doses was used to treat groups L and H. Results: The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson’s trichrome staining, a liver function index, and a liver fibrosis index showed that GBE application noticeably mitigated fibrosis and improved the function of the liver. The western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses indicated that GBE reduced liver fibrosis not only by inhibiting p38 MAPK and NF-κBp65 via inhibition of IκBα degradation but also by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis via downregulation of Bax, upregulation of Bcl-2, and subsequent inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Inflammation-associated factors and hepatic stellate cell (HSC-activation markers further demonstrated that GBE could effectively inhibit HSC activation and inflammation as a result of its regulation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B/IκBα signaling. Conclusion: Our findings indicated a novel role for GBE in the treatment of liver fibrosis. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the following signaling pathways: 1 the p38 MAPK

  13. In vitro investigations of Cynara scolymus L. extract on cell physiology of HepG2 liver cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Löhr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of a potential influence of artichoke leaf extract (ALE on the cell physiology and gene expression of phase I/II enzymes of human liver cells HepG2 and investigation on potential cell protective effects against ethanol-induced cell toxicity against HepG2 cells. Cell biological assays under in vitro conditions using HepG2 liver cells and investigation of mitochondrial activity (MTT test, proliferation assay (BrdU incorporation ELISA, LDH as toxicity marker, gene expression analysis by RT-PCR and enzyme activity of glutationtransferase. Artichocke extract, containing 27% caffeoylquinic acids and 7% flavonoids induced mitochondrial activity, proliferation and total protein content under in vitro conditions in human liver cells HepG2. These effects could not be correlated to the well-known artichoke secondary compounds cynarin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. The flavones luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside had inhibitory effects at 100 µg/mL level on HepG2 cells, with luteolin being a significant stronger inhibitor compared to the respective glucoside. Artichoke leaf extract had minor stimulating effect on gene expression of CYP1A2, while CYP3A4, GGT, GPX2, GSR and GST were slightly inhibited. GST inhibition under in vitro conditions was also shown by quantification of GST enzyme activity. Induction of gene expression of CYP1A2 was shown to be supraadditive after simultaneous application of ethanol plus artichoke extract. Artichoke leaf extract exhibited cell protective effects against ethanol-induced toxicity within cotreatment under in vitro conditions. Also H2O2 damage was significantly inhibited by simultaneous artichoke incubation. Pre- and posttreatments did not exert protective effects. DMSO-induced toxicity was significantly reduced by pre-, post- and cotreatment with artichoke extract and especially with luteolin-7-O-glucoside, indicating a direct

  14. The Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza Glabra Root Against Liver-related Biochemical Factors Changes Induced by Thioacetamide in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Moghadamnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thioacetamide is a liver toxin that causes centrilobular necrosis. In this study, the protective effect of aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root against liver-related biochemical factors changes induced by thioacetamide in male rats was investigated. Materials and Methods: 35 male rats were divided into 5 groups of 7 : control group; sham group: receiving a single dose of 150mg/kg thioacetamide intraperitoneally; experimental groups 1 and 2 and 3: they received the aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root at the doses of 100,200,300mg/kg daily orally during 3 months respectively and then a single dose of thioacetamide at 150 mg/kg as intraperitoneal injection . The serum levels of albumin, bilirubin and total protein were measured. Results: The mean of body weight in all experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide did not show significant changes compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean levels of serum bilirubin in all experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide did not show significant changes compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean of serum albumin concentration in all experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide decreased significantly compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean of serum total protein concentration in experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide did not show significant changes compared to the group receiving thioacetamide( p<0. 05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root had protective effects against liver-related biochemical factors changes induced by thioacetamide in male rats. 

  15. Toxicological study of the butanol fractionated root extract of Asparagus africanus Lam., on some blood parameter and histopathology of liver and kidney in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Sintayehu; Afework, Mekbeb; Debella, Asfaw; Ergete, Wondwossen; Makonnen, Eyasu

    2016-01-27

    The butanol fractionated root extract of Asparagus africanus Lam., a traditional herb widely used to treat various ailments were analyzed for the presence of potential toxicity after single (acute) and repeated (subchronic) dose oral administration in adult swiss albino mice using gavages. For the acute study, butanol fractionated extract of the plant was administered in single doses of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. In the sub-chronic dose study, the extract was administered at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 42 days. Selected hematological and biochemical parameters of the blood followed by histopathological analysis were investigated after 42 days of daily administrations. The results were expressed as M ± SE, and differences at P fraction of the extract has high safety profile when given orally. After 42 days of daily dosing, in the sub-chronic study, no clinically significant changes were observed for hematological and biochemical parameters. Except an occasional small number of focal mononuclear lymphocytic cells infiltrations around the central and portal triad of the liver of a few mice, the histopathological parameters do not show significant change. It is concluded that, the butanol fractionated extract from A. africanus at the given dose does not show significant toxicity. The presence of focal inflammation on the liver of a few mice may be associated to the presence of flavonoid glycoside in the butanol fractionated extract.

  16. The Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Alpha-ketoglutarate Activity and Histopathologic Changes on Rat Liver Induced by Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Sh Emhemed Eshami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used food additive and found in most soups, fish, and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. However, the fear of consuming MSG has increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity in the liver. Nigella sativa (NS is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its notable pharmacological properties such as inhibit oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different doses of Nigella Sativa on alpha KGDH activity and liver histology of MSG-induced rats. The animals (n=30 were grouped into A (control, B (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw , C (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.1 g/kg.bw, D (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.2 g/kg.bw, E (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.4 g/kg.bw and F (given a daily NS extract 0.2 g/kg.bw. Alpha KGDH activity was investigated using ELISA method and liver histopathology by light microscope. The MSG treatment increased Alpha KGDH activity and disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The condition was normalized by treatment NS on dose 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg.bw. The findings showed that the administration of MSG increases alpha KGDH and induces damage in liver tissue. Nigella sativa extract can reduce alpha KGDH and prevent liver damage caused by MSG.

  17. Identification and quantification of metallothionein isoforms and superoxide dismutase in spiked liver extracts using HPLC-ESI-MS offline coupling and HPLC-ICP-MS online coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nischwitz, V; Michalke, B; Kettrup, A

    2003-01-01

    A two-dimensional chromatographic method for the characterization of metallothionein isoforms (MT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in spiked liver extracts was developed for the optimization of extraction procedures from liver samples. Element-specific detection (ICP-MS) and molecule-specific detection (ESI-MS) were applied for maximum species information. A special focus was laid on the quantitative data evaluation (species stoichiometry, calibration with and without matrix, recovery), which is neglected in most MT/SOD publications with hyphenated techniques. Linearity, precision (residual standard deviation of calibration curves <10%), and detection limits (<0.6 mg L(-1) for MT isoforms and 13 mg L(-1) for SOD) prove the suitability of the method for quantification. An alternative quantification is proposed for the extension towards other lesser or even unknown trace element species, especially the native porcine MT and SOD.

  18. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F. Methanol Leaf Extract on the Haematological Indices and Histomorphology of the Endometrium and Liver of Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Nwabuisi OKOYE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administration of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook f. methanol leaf extract on some hematological indices and histomorphology of the uterus and liver of female albino rats. Acute toxicity study of the extract was performed with female rats, following standard procedure. They were randomly assigned into 3 groups. The first group (A served as the untreated control and received distilled water, while the second group (B and third (C received 200 and 800 mg/kg mg/kg body weight of the methanol leaf extract of T. occidentalis respectively. Administration of the extract was done daily via the oral route for 21 days. Blood was collected for hematological evaluation at weekly intervals. Hematological parameters assessed were the packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin concentration (HB and total white blood cell (TWBC count. At the end of the study period uterine and liver tissues were excised and prepared for histological examination. Results showed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the mean PCV, RBC and HB values of the treatment groups, but only at the end of the second week of administration of the extract. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 in the mean total WBC throughout the duration of the study. Histological examination of uterine and liver tissues of the different groups did not show any lesions. It was concluded that the T. occidentalis leaf methanolic extract does not adversely affect the reproductive functions of the uterus.

  19. Aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris Linn induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis by down-regulating NF-κB signaling in liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jin Chul; Min, Jung Sun; Kim, Mi-Jee; Kim, Ji Ae; Kor, Myung Ho; Yoo, Hwa Seung; Ahn, Jeong Keun

    2011-06-14

    A medicinal herb Tribulus terrestris Linn has been used to treat various diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) in liver cancer cells. The antitumor activity of aqueous TT extract was analyzed by testing the cytotoxicity and the effect on clonogenecity in HepG2 cells. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induced by TT were dissected by flow cytometry and its inhibitory effect on NF-κB activity was determined by analyzing the expression levels of NF-κB/IκB subunit proteins. The suppression of NF-κB-regulated gene expression by TT was assessed by RT-PCR. TT extract repressed clonogenecity and proliferation, induced apoptosis, and enhanced accumulation in the G0/G1 phase of liver cancer cells. It also turned out that TT extract inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression and NF-κB subunit p50 expression, while it enhanced the cellular level of IκBα by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. In addition, IKK activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, TT extract suppressed the transcription of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, anti-apoptosis, and invasion. These data showed that TT extract blocks proliferation and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer cells through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Aqueous TT extract can be used as an anticancer drug for hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Turmeric Etanol Extract (Curcuma Longa L) on Low Density Lipoprotein Level and Liver Histopathology Image in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model Induced by Streptozotocin

    OpenAIRE

    Herlina Pratiwi; Djoko Winarso; Nunung Handoyo

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine levels of LDL and liver damage in rats (Rattus norvegicus) models of type 1 diabetes mellitus inducted by streptozotocin (STZ) with etanol extract of turmeric (Curcuma Longa L) therapy. Animals used rat (Rattus norvegicus) 3-month-old males who were divided into 5 groups, each group consisting of four mice. The group was divided according to treatment: negative control (not induced by STZ), the positive control group (STZ induced), groups of rats DM 1 wit...

  1. Preexposure to Olive Oil Polyphenols Extract Increases Oxidative Load and Improves Liver Mass Restoration after Hepatectomy in Mice via Stress-Sensitive Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Marinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols can act as oxidants in some conditions, inducing redox-sensitive genes. We investigated the effect of preexposure to the olive oil polyphenols extract (PFE on time-dependent changes in the hepatic oxidative state in a model of liver regeneration—a process in which oxidative stress associated with the metabolic overload accounts for the early events that contribute to the onset of liver self-repair. Liver regeneration was induced by one-third hepatectomy in mice. Prior to hepatectomy, mice were intraperitoneally given either PFE (50 mg/kg body weight or saline for seven consecutive days, while respective controls received vehicle alone. Redox state-regulating enzymes and thiol proteins along with the mRNA levels of Nrf2 gene and its targets γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and heme oxygenase-1 were determined at different time intervals after hepatectomy. The liver mass restoration was calculated to assess hepatic regeneration. The resulting data demonstrate the effectiveness of preexposure to PFE in stimulating liver regeneration in a model of a small tissue loss which may be ascribed to the transient increase in oxidant load during the first hours after hepatectomy and associated induction of stress response gene-profiles under the control of Nrf2.

  2. A hot water extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) suppresses acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchio, Ryusei; Higashi, Yohei; Kohama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hirao, Takashi; Muroyama, Koutarou; Murosaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.

  3. Radio protective effect of black mulberry extract on radiation-induced damage in bone marrow cells and liver in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemnezhad Targhi, Reza; Homayoun, Mansour; Mansouri, Somaieh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation by producing free radicals induces tissue oxidative stress and has clastogenic and cytotoxic effects. The radio protective effect of black mulberry extract (BME) has been investigated on liver tissue and bone marrow cells in the rat. Intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 200 mg/kg BME three days before and three days after 3 Gy and 6 Gy gamma irradiation significantly reduced the frequencies of micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and micro nucleated norm chromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs) and increased PCE/PCE+NCE ratio in rat bone marrow compared to the non-treated irradiated groups. Moreover, this concentration of BME extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as enhanced the total thiol content and catalase activity in rat's liver compared to the non-treated irradiated groups. It seems that BME extract with antioxidant activity reduced the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by gamma irradiation in bone marrow cells and liver in the rat.

  4. Effects of Artemisia dracunculus Aqueous Extract on Blood Sugar, Serum Insulin, Triglyceride and Liver Enzymes in Fructose Drinking Water Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Artemisia are various groups of plants which are used as an herbal medicine in all countries; the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Artemisia dracunculus (AD leaves aqueous extract on blood sugar, serum insulin, and triglyceride and liver enzymes in Fructose Drinking water (FDW male rats. Methods At the beginning of experiment, 48 Wistar-albino male rats, weighing 200 - 250g were divided into control (C and FDW groups (n = 24. FDW group received FDW (10%, w/v for a month but control group did not receive any agents during the trial period. A half of control and FDW groups received AD L aqueous extract daily during trial period. At the end, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from cervical vessels. Serum insulin, Blood glucose, insulin resistance index, triglyceride and liver enzymes were measured by ordinary methods. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-17 via one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results Our results showed that serum insulin, blood sugar, insulin resistance index, triglyceride, Aspartate amino transferase (AST and Alanine amino transferase (ALT values in FDW group significantly increased compared to C and C + E groups but these values in group FDW + E were significantly decreases compared to group FDW (P < 0.001. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that AD L aqueous extract improves blood sugar, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and liver enzymes in rat model.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Licorice Extract and Its Active Compounds, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Liquiritin and Liquiritigenin, in BV2 Cells and Mice Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the scientific basis for the anti-inflammatory effects of licorice extract in a t-BHP (tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide-induced liver damage model and the effects of its ingredients, glycyrrhizic acid (GA, liquiritin (LQ and liquiritigenin (LG, in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated microglial cell model. The GA, LQ and LG inhibited the LPS-stimulated elevation of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta and interleukin (IL-6 in BV2 (mouse brain microglia cells. Furthermore, licorice extract inhibited the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the livers of t-BHP-treated mice models. This result suggested that mechanistic-based evidence substantiating the traditional claims of licorice extract and its three bioactive components can be applied for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders, such as oxidative liver damage and inflammation diseases.

  6. Ginger extract modulates Pb-induced hepatic oxidative stress and expression of antioxidant gene transcripts in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omnia Ismail; El-Nahas, Abeer Fekry; El-Sayed, Yasser Said; Ashry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Spices and herbs are recognized sources of natural antioxidants that can protect from oxidative stress, thus play an important role in chemoprevention of liver diseases. Ginger is used worldwide primarily as a spicy condiment. This study evaluated the ability of ginger extract (GE) to ameliorate oxidative-hepatic toxicity induced by lead acetate (PbAc) in rats. Five groups of animals were used: group I kept as control; groups II, IV, and V received PbAc (1 ppm in drinking water daily for 6 weeks, and kept for an additional 2 weeks without PbAc exposure); group III treated orally with GE (350 mg/kg body weight, 4 d per week) for 6 weeks; group IV (protective) received GE for 2 weeks before and simultaneously with PbAc; and group V (treatment) received GE for 2 weeks after PbAc exposure. GC-MS analysis of GE revealed its content of gingerol (7.09%), quercetin (3.20%), dl-limonene (0.96%), and zingiberene (0.18%). Treatment of PbAc-treated rats with GE has no effect on hepatic Pb concentrations. However, it maintained serum aspartate aminotransferase level, increased hepatic glutathione (157%), glutathione S-transferase (GST) (228%), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (138%) and catalase (CAT) (112%) levels, and reduced hepatic malondialdehyde (80%). Co-treatment of PbAc group with GE upregulated mRNA expression of antioxidant genes: GST-α1 (1.4-fold), GPx1 (1.8-fold), and CAT (8-fold), while post-treatment with GE upregulated only mRNA expression of GPx1 (1.5-fold). GE has an antioxidant protective efficacy against PbAc-induced hepatotoxicity, which appears more effective than its therapeutic application. However, the changes in antioxidant gene expression were not reflected at the protein level.

  7. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of cactus cladodes extract against lithium-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Anouar; Dalel, Brahmi; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Smida, Amani; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-12-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Castaceae) (cactus) is used in Tunisian medicine for the treatment of various diseases. This study determines phytochemical composition of cactus cladode extract (CCE). It also investigates antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of CCE against lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 )-induced liver injury in rats. Twenty-four Wistar male rats were divided into four groups of six each: a control group given distilled water (0.5 mL/100 g b.w.; i.p.), a group injected with Li 2 CO 3 (25 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.; corresponding to 30% of the LD 50 ) twice daily for 30 days, a group receiving only CCE at 100 mg/kg of b.w. for 60 days and then injected with distilled water during the last 30 days of CCE treatment, and a group receiving CCE and then injected with Li 2 CO 3 during the last 30 days of CCE treatment. The bioactive components containing the CCE were identified using chemical assays. Treatment with Li 2 CO 3 caused a significant change of some haematological parameters including red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular volume (VCM) compared to the control group. Moreover, significant increases in the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were observed in the blood of Li 2 CO 3 -treated rats. Furthermore, exposure to Li 2 CO 3 significantly increased the LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hepatic tissues. CCE possesses a significant hepatoprotective effect.

  8. Protective effects of a polymethoxy flavonoids-rich Citrus aurantium peel extract on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seol-Wa; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Kim, Hong-Suk; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the possible protective effect of Citrus aurantium peel extract (CAE) against apoptosis in cholestatic liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in mice. Male ICR mice were divided to 5 groups: 1) Control group (Sham-operated mice), 2) Cholestatic liver injury group induced by bile duct ligation (BDL), 3) BDL mice treated with silymarin (200 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, 4) BDL mice treated with 50 mg/kg CAE for 4 weeks, 5) BDL mice treated with 200 mg/kg CAE for 4 weeks. Mice were sacrificed and liver fibrosis was evaluated by serum and hepatic tissue biochemistry tests and liver histopathological examination. Effects of CAE on inflammation and apoptosis gene regulation were investigated through real-time PCR. CAE effect on lipid metabolism related signaling was determined by western blot analysis. In BDL mice, administration of CAE for 4 weeks markedly attenuated liver fibrosis based on histopathological alteration. Serum and hepatic tissue biochemistry results revealed that CAE (50 and 200 mg/kg) decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, nitric oxide, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that CAE regulated inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism factors increased by BDL. Interleukin family, tumor necrosis factor α, and related apoptosis factors mRNA levels were increased by BDL treatment. However, these increases were suppressed by CAE administration. In addition, CAE effectively increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and related cytoprotective proteins. CAE can efficiently regulate BDL-induced liver injury with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal conditions for cordycepin production in surface liquid-cultured Cordyceps militaris treated with porcine liver extracts for suppression of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lai, Ying-Jang; Wu, She-Ching; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2018-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most crucial bioactive compounds produced by Cordyceps militaris and has exhibited antitumor activity in various cancers. However, industrial production of large amounts of cordycepin is difficult. The porcine liver is abundant in proteins, vitamins, and adenosine, and these ingredients may increase cordycepin production and bioconversion during C. militaris fermentation. We observed that porcine liver extracts increased cordycepin production. In addition, air supply (2 h/d) significantly increased the cordycepin level in surface liquid-cultured C. militaris after 14 days. Moreover, blue light light-emitting diode irradiation (16 h/d) increased cordycepin production. These findings indicated that these conditions are suitable for increasing cordycepin production. We used these conditions to obtain water extract from the mycelia of surface liquid-cultured C. militaris (WECM) and evaluated the anti-oral cancer activity of this extract in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that WECM inhibited the cell viability of SCC-4 oral cancer cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial fission) were observed in SCC-4 cells treated with WECM for 12 hours. Furthermore, WECM reduced tumor formation in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis through the downregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor, and c-fos expression. The results indicated that porcine liver extracts irradiated with blue light light-emitting diode and supplied with air can be used as a suitable medium for the growth of mycelia and production of cordycepin, which can be used in the treatment of oral cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kudzu (Pueraria lobata is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro.

  11. Effects of Freshwater Clam Extract Supplementation on Time to Exhaustion, Muscle Damage, Pro/Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Liver Injury in Rats after Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Wen Liao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent anti-inflammatory activities and tissue-protective effects of freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea have been well reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of freshwater clam extract (FCE supplementation on time to exhaustion, muscle damage, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and liver injury in rats after exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC; SC group with FCE supplementation (SC+FCE; exhaustive exercise (E; and E group with FCE supplementation (E+FCE. The SC+FCE and E+FCE groups were treated with gavage administration of 20 mg/kg for seven consecutive days. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of biochemical parameters. The cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were also examined. Twenty-four hours after exhaustive exercise, the rat livers were removed for H & E staining. The FCE supplementation could extend the time to exhaustion in exercised rats. The levels of CPK, LDH, AST, ALT, lactate, TNF-α and H & E stains of the liver injury were significantly decreased in the E+FCE group, but the blood glucose and IL-10 were significantly higher in comparison with the E group. This study suggests that FCE supplementation may improve endurance performance and reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, inflammatory stress and liver injury.

  12. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction coupled to square wave voltammetry at carbon fibre microelectrodes for the determination of fenbendazole in beef liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vázquez de Prada, A; Loaiza, Oscar A; Serra, B; Morales, D; Martínez-Ruiz, P; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2007-05-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer was developed and used for solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of the antihelmintic fenbendazole in beef liver samples. Detection of the analyte was accomplished using square wave voltammetry (SWV) at a cylindrical carbon fibre microelectrode (CFME). A mixture of MeOH/HAc (9:1) was employed both as eluent in the MISPE system and as working medium for electrochemical detection of fenbendazole. The limit of detection was 1.9x10(-7) mol L-1 (57 microg L-1), which was appropriate for the determination of fenbendazole at the maximum residue level permitted by the European Commission (500 microg kg-1 in liver). Given that the SW voltammetric analysis could not be directly performed in the sample extract as a consequence of interference from some sample components, a sample clean-up with a MIP for selectively retaining fenbendazole was performed. The MIP was synthesized using a 1:8:22 template/methacrylic acid/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate ratio. A Britton-Robinson Buffer of pH 9.0 was selected for retaining fenbendazole in the MIP cartridges, and an eluent volume of 5.0 mL at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1 was chosen in the elution step. Cross-reactivity with the MIP was observed for other benzimidazoles. The synthesized MIP exhibited a good selectivity for benzimidazoles with respect to other veterinary drugs. The applicability of the MISPE-SWV method was tested with beef liver samples, spiked with fenbendazole at 5,000 and 500 microg kg-1. Results obtained for ten different liver samples yielded mean recoveries of (95+/-12)% and (96+/-11)% for the upper and lower concentration level, respectively.

  14. Extract of Bauhinia vahlii Shows Antihyperglycemic Activity, Reverses Oxidative Stress, and Protects against Liver Damage in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, Ahmed H.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Mahrous, Engy A.; Khaleel, Amal E.; Elalfy, Taha S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have affirmed the effectiveness of some Bauhinia plants as antihyperglycemic agents. Objective: We investigated the possible effect of Bauhinia vahlii leaves extract in reducing hyperglycemia and reversing signs of organ damage associated with diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. Materials and Methods: Both polar fraction of the B. vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) and nonpolar fraction (n-hexane extract) were evaluated in vitro for α-glucosidase inhibition and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging potential. DEE was selected for further in vivo studies and was administered at two doses, i.e., 150 or 300 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rats for 4 weeks. Results: Only DEE exhibited in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities and its oral administration at both dose levels resulted in significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, signs of oxidative stress as indicated by hepatic reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels were completely reversed. In addition, histopathological examination and measurement of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels showed that DEE protected the liver from signs of liver pathogenesis when compared to diabetic untreated animals and those treated with metformin. Phytochemical analysis of DEE showed high flavonoids content with quercitrin as the major constituent along with other quercetin glycosides. Conclusion: This study strongly highlights the possible beneficial effect of B. vahlii leaves extract in relieving hyperglycemia and liver damage in STZ-diabetic rats and recommends further investigation of the value of quercetin derivatives in controlling diabetes and ameliorating liver damage associated with it. SUMMARY The polar fraction of the Bauhinia vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) exhibited both in vitro antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay and

  15. Hepatoprotective action of various partitions of methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaves against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity: involvement of the antioxidant mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Yahya, Farhana; Mamat, Siti Syariah; Mahmood, Nur Diyana; Mohtarrudin, Nurhafizah; Taher, Muhammad; Hamid, Siti Selina Abdul; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2016-06-11

    Methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea L. (family Fabaceae) (MEBP) possesses high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and recently reported to exert hepatoprotection against paracetamol (PCM)-induced liver injury in rats. In an attempt to identify the hepatoprotective bioactive compounds in MEBP, the extract was prepared in different partitions and subjected to the PCM-induced liver injury model in rats. Dried MEBP was partitioned successively to obtain petroleum ether (PEBP), ethylacetate (EABP) and aqueous (AQBP) partitions, respectively. All partitions were subjected to in vitro antioxidant (i.e. total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)- and superoxide-radicals scavenging assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and anti-inflammatory (i.e. lipooxygenase (LOX) and xanthine oxidase (XO) assay) analysis. The partitions, prepared in the dose range of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg, together with a vehicle (10 % DMSO) and standard drug (200 mg/kg silymarin) were administered orally for 7 consecutive days prior to subjection to the 3 mg/kg PCM-induced liver injury model in rats. Following the hepatic injury induction, blood samples and liver were collected for the respective biochemical parameter and histopathological studies. Body weight changes and liver weight were also recorded. The partitions were also subjected to the phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis. Of all partitions, EABP possessed high TPC value and demonstrated remarkable antioxidant activity when assessed using the DPPH- and superoxide-radical scavenging assay, as well as ORAC assay, which was followed by AQBP and PEBP. All partitions also showed low anti-inflammatory activity via the LOX and XO pathways. In the hepatoprotective study, the effectiveness of the partitions is in the order of EABP>AQBP>PEBP, which is supported by the microscopic analysis and histopathological scoring. In the biochemical analysis, EABP also exerted the most effective

  16. Effects of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. on oxidative stress and liver, spleen leptin, PARα and FAS mRNA expression in high-fat diet induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bendong; Zhou, Haining; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhou, Wenyan; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Guangshun

    2012-08-01

    We reported that an aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. inhibited high-fat-diet-induced oxidative injury in a dose-dependent manner. Male kunming mice (5-weeks-old, 24 g) were used in this experiment. After a 4-day adaptation period, animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group); Group 1: animals received normal powdered rodent diet; Group 2: animals received high fat diet; Groups 3 and 4: animals received high fat diet and were fed by gavage to mice once a day with aqueous extract at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. In mice fed with high-fat diet, blood and liver lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes activities were markedly decreased compared to normal control mice. Administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently reduced levels of blood and liver lipid peroxidation and increased the activities of blood and liver antioxidant enzymes activities in high fat mice. Moreover, administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently increase liver Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels. Taken together, these data demonstrate that aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. can markedly alleviate high fat diet-induced oxidative injury by enhancing blood and liver antioxidant enzyme activities, modulating Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels in mice.

  17. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron.

  18. Study of therapeutic and histopathologic effects of corn silk\\'s aqueous and metanolic extract against dosage induced by MDMA in isolated rat liver perfusion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk is obtained from the plant Zea mays L. A traditional herbal medicine is in China. This has been used in many parts of the world to treat edema, kidney infections, gout, kidney stones, kidney diseases and prostate. Reports of the antioxidant effects of this material are available. Although little scientific resources are available to confirm its efficacy. In this study we tried to find out the antioxidant effect and preventing of hepatotoxicity effect of Corn silk with IRLP Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion system. Material and Methods: The aqueous and methanol extracts of dried Corn silk doses (10, 20, 40, 50 and 100 mg/kg was used. Albino Rats weighing 220-180 g were examined after anesthesia by diethyl ether, the abdominal cavity of the animal T-shaped pattern excision in the abdomen and around is opened.Then portal vein connected to the perfusion flow by using small scalp Vienna (No. 23 into the portal vein. After reaching perfusion flow rate to 20 ml per minute, extracts and fraction with above doses were added to perfusion buffer. Fluid outflows from the inferior vena cava, were collected for measurement of glutathione. One sample of the liver was removed for glutathione measurement and one sample was maintained in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. Differences between group means were estimated using oneway ANOVA followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. Results: The results showed that reduced glutathione level increased significantly by aqueous and methanol extract in comparison with controls. Pathology results confirmed that by increasing dose of extracts, severity of tissue damage (hemorrhage, fibrosis, and necrosis is reduced. In samples taken at intervals of 120 minutes, changes in the glutathione of case groups showed significant difference in comparison with the control group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Findings indicated that aqueous and methanolic extracts of corn fiber, reduced hepatic damages of MDMA

  19. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  20. Alcohol extract of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) reduces fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and other complications of metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ratnesh K; Lui, Edmund; Wright, David; Taylor, Adrian; Bakovic, Marica

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) could reduce development of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in a mouse model (ETKO) of the disease. Young ETKO mice have no disease but similar to humans start to develop the fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and insulin resistance at 25-30 weeks of age, and the disease continues to progress with ageing. ETKO mice were orally given an ethanol extract of ginseng roots at 4 and 32 weeks of age. Treatments with ginseng eliminated the ETKO fatty liver, reduced hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion, and reduced the level of circulating lipids. Improvements by ginseng treatments were manifested as a reduction in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of fatty acid and triglyceride (fat) synthesis and secretion by the lipoproteins on one hand, and the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride degradation by lipolysis on the other hand. These processes altogether improved glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride metabolism, reduced liver fat load, and reversed the progression of metabolic syndrome. These data confirm that treatments with North American ginseng could alleviate metabolic syndrome through the maintenance of a better balance between glucose and fatty acid metabolism, lipoprotein secretion, and energy homeostasis in disease-prone states.

  1. Comparison of the Hepatoprotective Effects of Four Endemic Cirsium Species Extracts from Taiwan on CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Damage in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Wei Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of Cirsium (Asteraceae family have been used in folk hepatoprotective medicine in Taiwan. We collected four Cirsium species—including the aerial part of Cirsium arisanense (CAH, the aerial part of Cirsium kawakamii (CKH, the flower part of Cirsium japonicum DC. var. australe (CJF, and Cirsii Herba (CH—and then made extractions from them with 70% methanol. We compared the antioxidant contents and activities of these four Cirsium species extracts by a spectrophotometric method and high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD. We further evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of these extracts on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in C57BL/6 mice. The present study found CAH possesses the highest antioxidant activity among the four Cirsium species, and these antioxidant activities are closely related to phenylpropanoid glycoside (PPG contents. The extracts decreased serum ALT and AST levels elevated by injection with 0.2% CCl4. However, only CJF and CH decreased hepatic necrosis. Silibinin decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels and hepatic necrosis caused by CCl4. CJF and CH restored the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and decreased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA levels. CJF further restored the expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes including Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, and glutathione S-transferase (GST proteins. HPLC chromatogram indicated that CKH, CJF, and CH contained silibinin diastereomers (α and β. Only CJF contained diosmetin. Hence, the hepatoprotective mechanism of CJF against CCl4-induced acute liver damage might be involved in restoring the activities and protein expression of the hepatic antioxidant defense system and inhibiting hepatic inflammation, and these hepatoprotective effects are related to the contents of silibinin diastereomers and diosmetin.

  2. Study of a novel indolin-2-ketone compound Z24 induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-spectroscopy-based metabonomics of rat urine, blood plasma, and liver extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanjun; Jiang Ying; Wu Chunqi; Zhao Jianyu; Yu Shouzhong; Yuan Benli; Yan Xianzhong; Liao Mingyang

    2006-01-01

    Antiangiogenic compound has been believed to be an ideal drug in the current cancer biological therapy, but the angiogenesis inhibitors suffer setback for unknown toxicity now. A novel synthetic indolin-s-ketone small molecular compound, 3Z-3-[( 1 H-pyrrol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-1,3-2H-indol-2-one (Z24) can inhibit angiogenesis in new blood vessels. The hepatotoxicity effects of Z24 oral administration (dosed at 60, 130 and 200 mg/kg) have been investigated in female Wistar rats by using metabonomic analysis of 1 H NMR spectra of urine, plasma and liver extracts, as well as by clinical chemistry analysis, liver histopathology and electron micrographs examination. The 1 H NMR spectra of the biofluids were analyzed visually and via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis. The metabonomic trajectory analysis on the time-related hepatotoxicity of Z24 was carried out based on the 1 H NMR spectra of urine samples, which were collected daily predose and postdose over an 8-day period. Urinary excretion of citrate, lactate, 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate increased following Z24 dosing. Increased plasma levels of lactate, TMAO and lipid were observed, with concomitant decrease in the level of glucose and phosphatidylcholine. Metabolic profiling on aqueous soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed an increase in lactate and glutamine, together with a decrease in glucose, glycogen and choline. On the other hand, studies on lipid soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed increased level in lipid triglycerides and decreased level in unsaturated fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine. Moreover, the most notable effect of Z24 on the metabolism was the reduction in the urinary levels of creatinine and TMAO and the increase in acetate, citrate, succinate and 2-oxo-glutamate with time dependence. The results indicate that in rats Z24 inhibits mitochondrial function through altering the

  3. Salicornia Extract Ameliorates Salt-Induced Aggravation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Suk, Sujin; Jang, Woo Jung; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-07-01

    High-fat and high-salt intakes are among the major risks of chronic diseases including obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Salicornia is a halophytic plant known to exert antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hypolipidemic effects, and Salicornia-extracted salt (SS) has been used as a salt substitute. In this study, the effects of SS and purified salt (PS) on the aggravation of NAFLD/NASH were compared. C57BL/6J male mice (8-wk-old) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 mo and divided into 3 dietary groups, which were additionally fed HFD, HFD + SS, and HFD + PS for 13 wk. PS induced aggravation of NAFLD/NASH in HFD-fed mice. Although the actual salt intake was same between the PS and SS groups as 1% of the diet (extrapolated from the World Health Organization [WHO] guideline), SS induced less liver injury and hepatic steatosis compared to PS. The hepatic mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis marker were significantly lower in the SS group than the PS group. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Results of the component analysis showed that the major polyphenols that exhibited antioxidant activity in the Salicornia water extract were ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and isorhamnetin. These results suggest that even the level of salt intake recommended by WHO can accelerate the progression of liver disease in obese individuals consuming HFD. It is proposed that SS can be a salt substitute for obese individuals who consume HFD. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp stalls aflatoxin B1 – mediated oxidative rout in the liver of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek O. Ajiboye

    Full Text Available The effect of phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. ex G. Don, Fabaceae, pulp on aflatoxin B1 induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver was evaluated. Thirty-five male rats were randomized into seven groups of five animals each. Rats in group A served as control and received vehicle for drug administration (0.5% DMSO once daily at 24 h intervals for six weeks. Rats in groups B, D, E, F and G, received aflatoxin B1 (167 μg/kg body weight in 0.5% DMSO for three weeks, starting from the third week of the experimental period. Rats in Group C received 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks, while groups D, E and F rats were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks respectively. Group G rats received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C. Aflatoxin B1-mediated decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly attenuated. Aflatoxin B1 mediated the elevation in malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and significantly lowered DNA fragmentation percentage. Overall, the phenolic extract of P. biglobosa pulp stalls aflatoxin B1-mediated oxidative rout by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities leading to decreased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA fragmentation.

  5. Improvement of the liver pathology by the aqueous extract and the n-butanol fraction of Sida pilosa Retz in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatsa, Hermine Boukeng; Russo, Remo Castro; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Aguilar, Edenil Costa; Garcia, Cristiana Couto; Araújo, Emília Souza; Oliveira, Jailza Lima Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Vanessa Fernandes; de Oliveira, Vinícius Gustavo; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline Isaura; Braga, Fernão Castro; Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuente; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah Aparecida; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-03-02

    Sida pilosa Retz (Malvaceae) is a plant used in Africa for the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis, lower abdominal pains and dysmenorrhea. In order to determine the potential use of S. pilosa in the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni, we evaluated the schistosomicidal, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties of the aqueous extract and the n-butanol fraction of its aerial parts. S. pilosa aqueous extract (SpAE) at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg and n-butanol fraction (SpBF) at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg were administered per os to Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice for 4 weeks. Praziquantel (100mg/kg × 5 days) was used as reference drug. After sacrifice, worm burden and egg count, transaminases and proteins levels were evaluated. Malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxydes (LOOH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also measured. The anti-fibrotic effect of the plant was evaluated by the determination of hydroxyproline and γ-interferon (IFN-γ). The treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice by SpAE or SpBF resulted in a moderate reduction of worm burden and egg load in the liver and intestine. Both SpAE and SpBF significantly reversed the increasing liver proteins, MDA, LOOH and CAT levels induced by the infection. Moreover, SOD activity was improved by SpAE and SpBF. Schistosomiasis mansoni considerably increased the EPO (p<0.001) and MPO activities (p<0.001). SpAE treatment significantly reduced EPO and MPO activities at all doses. SpBF failed to reduce the increasing MPO and decreased EPO only at the highest dose. S. mansoni-infection induced an increase in hydroxyproline content (p<0.001) and a decrease in IFN-γ level (p<0.001). Both SpAE and SpBF significantly reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content, while only SpAE (p<0.05) improved IFN-γ level. These results suggest that the liver pathology in schistosomiasis mansoni is improved by S. pilosa aqueous extract, which disclosed a moderate schistosomicidal

  6. Evaluation of the effect of Fennel extract on TERT gene expression changes in mouse liver tumors induced with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Mousaee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of plants for therapeutic purposes is the source of many modern medical treatments. In this study, at first, the cytotoxicity of the Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel extract on cancer cells was studied. Then, TERT gene expression changes were estimated via induction of cancer and extract treatment. Materials and Methods: At first, different concentrations of the Fennel extract were obtained for cell morphology and the MTT assay. Afterwards, cancer in mice was induced. Sampling was performed to determine changes in gene expression after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. After that, RNA was extracted, cDNA was synthesized, and gene expression changes were studied. Results: Results showed an inhibitory effect on both cell lines at 50% inhibition (IC50 of proliferation at 200 µg/ml after 72 hours using the MTT assay. The morphology results in the third day in 100 and 200 concentrations showed that the extract caused complete degeneration and destruction of cancer cells. The results of analysis of the graphs revealed that the expression of TERT gene in treated cancer samples decreased on days 7, 14 and 28 compared with the control. Conclusion: The Fennel extract has dual effects on cancer cells through initiating intracellular events. In high concentrations, the extract stimulates proliferative growth in cancer cells and in low concentrations it has inhibitory effects on cell growth and proliferation. In the evaluation of the extract on TERT gene expression, a reduction was observed in gene expression on days 7, 14 and 28. Therefore, the Fennel extract can affect the gene expression through its effect on molecular pathways.

  7. Coffee bean extracts rich and poor in kahweol both give rise to elevation of liver enzymes in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouten Evert G

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee oil potently raises serum cholesterol levels in humans. The diterpenes cafestol and kahweol are responsible for this elevation. Coffee oil also causes elevation of liver enzyme levels in serum. It has been suggested that cafestol is mainly responsible for the effect on serum cholesterol levels and that kahweol is mainly responsible for the effect on liver enzyme levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether coffee oil that only contains a minute amount of kahweol indeed does not cause elevation of liver enzyme levels. Methods The response of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT to Robusta coffee oil (62 mg/day cafestol, 1.6 mg/day kahweol was measured in 18 healthy volunteers. Results After nine days one subject was taken off Robusta oil treatment due to an ALAT level of 3.6 times the upper limit of normal (ULN. Another two subjects stopped treatment due to other reasons. After 16 days another two subjects were taken off Robusta oil treatment. One of those subjects had levels of 5.8 ULN for ALAT and 2.0 ULN for ASAT; the other subject had an ALAT level of 12.4 ULN and an ASAT level of 4.7 ULN. It was then decided to terminate the study. The median response of subjects to Robusta oil after 16 days was 0.27 ULN (n = 15, 25th,75th percentile: 0.09;0.53 for ALAT and 0.06 ULN (25th,75th percentile -0.06;0.22 for ASAT. Conclusions We conclude that the effect on liver enzyme levels of coffee oil containing hardly any kahweol is similar to that of coffee oil containing high amounts of kahweol. Therefore it is unlikely that kahweol is the component of coffee oil that is responsible for the effect. Furthermore, we conclude that otherwise unexplained elevation of liver enzyme levels observed in patients might be caused by a switch from consumption of filtered coffee to unfiltered coffee.

  8. Indigofera suffruticosa Mill extracts up-regulate the expression of the π class of glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 in rat Clone 9 liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Liu, Chin-San; Li, Chien-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Liu, Te-Chung; Chen, Haw-Wen; Chen, Pei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Ling; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Liu, Kai-Li

    2013-09-01

    Because induction of phase II detoxification enzyme is important for chemoprevention, we study the effects of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill, a medicinal herb, on the expression of π class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in rat Clone 9 liver cells. Both water and ethanolic extracts of I. suffruticosa significantly increased the expression and enzyme activities of GSTP and NQO1. I. suffruticosa extracts up-regulated GSTP promoter activity and the binding affinity of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) with the GSTP enhancer I oligonucleotide. Moreover, I. suffruticosa extracts increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation as well as ARE transcriptional activity. The level of phospho-ERK was augmented by I. suffruticosa extracts, and the ERK inhibitor PD98059 abolished the I. suffruticosa extract-induced ERK activation and GSTP and NQO-1 expression. Moreover, I. suffruticosa extracts, especially the ethanolic extract increased the glutathione level in mouse liver and red blood cells as well as Clone 9 liver cells. The efficacy of I. suffruticosa extracts in induction of phase II detoxification enzymes and glutathione content implies that I. suffruticosa could be considered as a potential chemopreventive agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phyllanthus Niruri Standardized Extract Alleviates the Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Decreases Atherosclerotic Risk in Sprague–Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghdaa Hamdan Al Zarzour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri. NAFLD was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD. A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16% and visceral fat weight (22%, decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC (48%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL (65%, free fatty acids (FFAs (25%, alanine aminotransferase (ALT (45%, alkaline phosphatase (ALP (38%, insulin concentration (67%, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (73%, serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL (29%, LDL/HDL (66% and (TC–HDL/HDL (64%, hepatic content of cholesterol (43%, triglyceride (29% and malondialdehyde (MDA (40% compared to a non-treated HFD group. In vitro, 50% ME of P. niruri inhibited α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase enzymes and cholesterol micellization. It also had higher total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared to other extracts. Ellagic acid and phyllanthin were identified as major compounds. These results suggest that P. niruri could be further developed as a novel natural hepatoprotective agent against NAFLD and atherosclerosis.

  10. Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Glutathione Peroxidase Tissue Levels and Total Oxidative Capacity of Liver and Plasma Lipid Profile of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise causes increased oxygen consumption, leaving cells exposed to oxidative stress. Antioxidants may have a protective effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Thus, this study aims to examine the effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on glutathione peroxidase levels and total oxidative capacity of liver and plasma lipid profile of rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 female rats’ weight 155.8±2.7 grams were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups of exercise-saline, control-saline, exercise-mastic, and control-mastic. The exercise groups exercised for 8 weeks (5 days per week, 60 minutes daily, 25 meters per minute, on a zero degree slope. The rats received equal volumes of mastic and saline orally for 4 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were taken 72 hours after the last exercise session. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA.Results: Consumption of Pistacia atlantica extract together with endurance exercising for 8 weeks did not significantly affect glutathione peroxidase concentration, total oxidative capacity, LDL, triglyceride, or cholesterol, but significantly reduced HDL (p=0.002.Conclusion: Results showed that antioxidant and lipid profile levels were not affected by consumption of supplements and endurance exercising. However, further studies are required to assess the long term effects of this herbal extract.

  11. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Gholampour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7: Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection. After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Results: Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p

  12. Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response by ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia provides protection against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in liver by upregulation of glutathione metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2015-03-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia (SAE) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain were grouped into four: (1) control, (2) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight), (3) SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight), and (4) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight) + SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight). Alcohol and SAE were given orally each day by gastric intubation. The duration of treatment was 90 days. Results The activities of toxicity markers in liver and serum increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats and to a lesser extent in the group administered SAE + alcohol. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and the reactive oxygen species level were increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats but attenuated in the SAE co-administered group. Oxidative stress was increased in alcohol-treated rats as evidenced by the lowered activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased level of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased lipid peroxidation products, and decreased expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase in liver. The co-administration of SAE with alcohol almost reversed these changes. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase and translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus in the liver was increased in both the alcohol and alcohol + SAE groups, but the maximum changes were observed in the latter group. Discussion The SAE most likely elicits its antioxidant potential by reducing oxidative stress, enhancing the translocation of Nrf2 to nucleus and thereby regulating glutathione metabolism, leading to enhanced GSH content.

  13. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Rajput, Shahid; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Mohamed Khalil, Mahmoud; Gao, Xin; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-11-15

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB₁ contaminated corn (AFB₁); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB₁ + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB₁ + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB₁ alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB₁ significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB₁ contaminated diet reduced AFB₁ residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB₁ negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB₁ in broiler chickens.

  14. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB1 in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB1 contaminated corn (AFB1); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB1 (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB1 + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB1 (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB1 + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB1 alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB1 significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB1 contaminated diet reduced AFB1 residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB1 negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB1 in broiler chickens. PMID:29140290

  15. The Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-diabetic Effect of Boswellia serrata Triana and Planch Aqueous Extract in Fertile Female Diabetic Rats and the Possible Effects on Reproduction and Histological Changes in the Liver and Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mohamad Ebrahim; Namjoyan, Foroogh; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Ahmadpour, Forouzan; Darvish Padok, Azam; Panahi, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Boswellia serrata has been used in a wide variety of diseases, including diabetes mellitus and inflammatory diseases. This study focused on the effects of Boswellia serrata aqueous extract on blood glucose and the complications of diabetes in the liver and kidneys and examined the impact of plant on reproduction in diabetic rats. The antioxidant capacity of plant extract was performed using FRAP assay. Diabetic and control rats were administered 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg Boswellia serrata extract. Vaginal plaque was mentioned as a positive sign of pregnancy ;and treatment started with extract or vehicle from 1th to 17th day of gestation by gastric gavage. Blood glucose was measured during 17 days. The Administration of Boswellia serrata in diabetic rats significantly decreased the level of blood glucose and HbA1c after 17th days (P ≤ 0.01). In diabetic group that received no treatment, the abortion of fetus spontaneous was 19.14%. The percentage of absorptions significantly was elevated in vehicle-treated diabetic rats, in comparison with vehicle- treated healthy rats. In the diabetic group, separated necrosis of hepatocytes, anarchism of liver plates, and lymphocytic inflammation were improved. Diabetic complications were not seen and the severity of damage was reduced. These damages include: lymphocytic inflammation in the port areas, irregularities, apoptosis of liver cells, and dilatation of the sinusoids. The results suggest that Boswellia serrata extract has the antidiabetic effects and can prevent the complications of diabetes in the kidneys and liver.

  16. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Liver Pâtés with Annatto Extract (Bixa orellana L. and Date Palm Co-Products (Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Martín-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two novel ingredients were incorporated into spreadable liver pâtés to study their effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics and their possible use in the meat industry. Fresh date (Phoenix dactylifera, cv. Confitera co-products, as a paste (0, 2.5 and 7.5%, and annatto (Bixa orellana extract (0 and 128 mg/kg, as a colourant, and their combinations were incorporated into liver pâtés to study their effect on the final quality. The six formulations were analysed for chemical composition, physicochemical characteristics (pH, aw, colour, emulsion stability, and texture, and sensory properties. Pâtés tolerated suitable incorporation of date paste, providing emulsifying activity and being able to counteract to some extent the emulsion destabilisation caused by the annatto. All formulations showed an acceptable sensory quality, particularly pâtés with annatto and 7.5% date paste, which was softer, juicier, and presented redness values similar to the control as well as better emulsion stability. The combined use of these novel ingredients could be used as natural ingredients.

  17. Mechanism of the Inhibitory Effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Cortex Extracts (EUCE in the CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Lipid Accumulation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (EU has been used for treatment of liver diseases. The protective effects of Eucommia Ulmoides Oliv. cortex extracts (EUCE on the carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced hepatic lipid accumulation were examined in this study. Rats were orally treated with EUCE in different doses prior to an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg CCl4. Acute injection of CCl4 decreased plasma triglyceride but increased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol as compared to control rats. On the other hand, the pretreatment with EUCE diminished these effects at a dose-dependent manner. CCl4 treatment decreased glutathione (GSH and increased malondialdehyde (MDA accompanied by activated P450 2E1. The pretreatment with EUCE significantly improved these deleterious effects of CCl4. CCl4 treatment increased P450 2E1 activation and ApoB accumulation. Pretreatment with EUCE reversed these effects. ER stress response was significantly increased by CCl4, which was inhibited by EUCE. One of the possible ER stress regulatory mechanisms, lysosomal activity, was examined. CCl4 reduced lysosomal enzymes that were reversed with the EUCE. The results indicate that oral pretreatment with EUCE may protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. ER stress and its related ROS regulation are suggested as a possible mechanism in the antidyslipidemic effect of EUCE.

  18. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  19. Antioxidant and Preventive Effects of Extract from Nymphaea candida Flower on In Vitro Immunological Liver Injury of Rat Primary Hepatocyte Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea candida is traditional Uighur medicine that is commonly used to treat head pains, cough, hepatitis and hypertension in Xinjiang of China. In this article, the extract of N. candida was measured for antioxidant activity, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging assay and reducing power determination, and compared with those of the positive controls of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and gallic acid (GA. The active extract was further purified by liquid-liquid partition to afford four fractions, of which the ethyl acetate-soluble (EA fraction (NCE exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacity with IC50 value of 12.6 g/mL for DPPH. Thirteen phenolic compounds were isolated from this fraction, and they all showed significant antioxidant activities in DPPH model system. Furthermore, NCE showed potent antioxidant capacity with IC50 value of 59.32 g/mL, 24.48 g/mL and 86.85 g/mL, for O2−, ·OH and H2O2 radicals, respectively. Moreover, NCE on BCG plus LPS-induced immunological liver injury was evaluated using primary cultured rat hepatocytes. NCE produced significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased supernatant enzyme activities (AST—aspartate transaminase, P <  .01; ALT—alanine transferase, P <  .01 and nitric oxide (NO, P <  .01 production. These results revealed the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of NCE against immunological liver injury. Further investigations are necessary to verify these activities in vivo.

  20. A (1H NMR-Based Metabonomic Investigation of Time-Related Metabolic Trajectories of the Plasma, Urine and Liver Extracts of Hyperlipidemic Hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available The hamster has been previously found to be a suitable model to study the changes associated with diet-induced hyperlipidemia in humans. Traditionally, studies of hyperlipidemia utilize serum- or plasma-based biochemical assays and histopathological evaluation. However, unbiased metabonomic technologies have the potential to identify novel biomarkers of disease. Thus, to obtain a better understanding of the progression of hyperlipidemia and discover potential biomarkers, we have used a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-NMR-based metabonomics approach to study the metabolic changes occurring in the plasma, urine and liver extracts of hamsters fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Samples were collected at different time points during the progression of hyperlipidemia, and individual proton NMR spectra were visually and statistically assessed using two multivariate analyses (MVA: principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Using the commercial software package Chenomx NMR suite, 40 endogenous metabolites in the plasma, 80 in the urine and 60 in the water-soluble fraction of liver extracts were quantified. NMR analysis of all samples showed a time-dependent transition from a physiological to a pathophysiological state during the progression of hyperlipidemia. Analysis of the identified biomarkers of hyperlipidemia suggests that significant perturbations of lipid and amino acid metabolism, as well as inflammation, oxidative stress and changes in gut microbiota metabolites, occurred following cholesterol overloading. The results of this study substantially broaden the metabonomic coverage of hyperlipidemia, enhance our understanding of the mechanism of hyperlipidemia and demonstrate the effectiveness of the NMR-based metabonomics approach to study a complex disease.

  1. Covalent triazine framework-1 as adsorbent for inline solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of trace nitroimidazoles in porcine liver and environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2017-02-03

    In this study, covalent triazine framework-1 (CTF-1) was adopted as solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents, and a method of SPE inline coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was developed for trace analysis of three nitroimidazolaes (including metronidazole, ronidazole and dimetridazole) in porcine liver and environmental water samples. CTF-1 has rich π-electron and N containing triazine, thus can form π-π interaction and intermolecular hydrogen bond with three target polar nitroimidazoles, resulting in high extraction efficiency (87%-98%). Besides, CTF-1 has large specific area, which benefits rapid mass transfer and low column pressure, leading to fast adsorption/desorption dynamics. Several parameters affecting inline SPE including pH, sample flow rate, sample volume, desorption reagents, elution flow rate, elution volume, and ionic strength were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.11-0.13μg/L. The enrichment factors (EFs) ranged from 52 to 59 fold (theoretical EF was 60-fold). The relative standard deviations were in the range of 4.3-9.4% (n=7, c=1μg/L), and the linear range was 0.5-500μg/L for three target analytes. The sample throughput is 7/h. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of nitroimidazoles in porcine liver and environmental water samples with good recoveries for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. MARS treatment in posthepatectomy liver failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhove, Maarten-Paul; de Jong, Koert P.; Rijken, Arjen M.; de Pont, Anne-Cornélie J. M.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Posthepatactomy liver failure (PHLF) is a dramatic complication following extensive liver resection or liver resection in a compromised liver, leading to death in 80% of cases. Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) is able to extract water and protein bound toxins out of the blood in liver

  3. The Effects of Root Extract Ruellia tuberosa L on Histopathology and Malondialdehyde Levels on the Liver of Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Laily Kurniawati, Alfin; Aulanni'am; Srihardyastutie, Arie; Safitri, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study antidiabetic activity of root extract of Ruellia tuberosa L on rats (Rattus novergicus) induced by multiple-low dose streptozotocin as animal diabetic models. The parameters investigated were blood glucose levels, free radicals (MDA, malondialdehyde) levels and hepatic histopathology. The main materials used were n-hexane root extracts from Ruellia tuberosa L. Three groups of rats, including control group (group I), diabetic group (group II), and therapy group with Ruellia tuberosa L (group III), were used. Streptozotocin was given at multiple-low dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight for 5 times in 5 consecutive days i.p. to rats in groups II and III. The Ruellia tuberosa L extracts were then given orally for group III in the dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 3 weeks. Results of the current work showed that root extract Ruellia tuberosa L had lowered blood glucose levels on rats in group III by 60.3%, from 299.7 ± 24.7 mg/dL up to 119.0 ± 26.6 mg/dL. Moreover, the antidiabetic activity of Ruellia tuberosa L extracts also deduced from decrease of MDA levels in group III, from 3.5 ± 0.3 μg/mL up to 1.7 ± 0.4 μg/mL. The recovery of hepatic organ from treatment group has also been proven from the its histology profiles stained with hematoxylin-eosin.

  4. Extracts from the Mongolian traditional medicinal plants Dianthus versicolorFisch. and Lilium pumilum Delile stimulate bile flow in an isolated perfused rat liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obmann, Astrid; Tsendayush, Damba; Thalhammer, Theresia; Zehl, Martin; Vo, Thanh Phuong Nha; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Natsagdorj, Damdinsuren; Narantuya, Samdan; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2010-10-05

    Dianthus versicolor (Caryophyllaceae) and Lilium pumilum (Liliaceae) are two medicinal plants used in traditional Mongolian medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders. In this study aqueous (AE) and methanolic (ME) extracts of Dianthus versicolor and Lilium pumilum were investigated for their influence on the bile flow. The aqueous extracts of both plants were tested in absence and presence of 10 μM taurocholic acid at three different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 mg/L). The aqueous extract of Dianthus versicolor was further purified in order to locate the active principles. Two resulting fractions, one enriched in flavonoids and the other in sugars, were investigated for their influence on the bile flow in absence of taurocholic acid at 10, 20, and 40 mg/L. The aqueous extracts of both plants were analysed qualitatively by LC-MS(n) and quantitatively by UV-spectrophotometry. The bile flow experiments were performed in the isolated perfused rat liver. The compounds were identified by LC-DAD-MS(n) and TLC using references. The UV-spectrophotometric analysis was based on the monograph "Passiflorae herba" of the European Pharmacopoeia, and the total flavonoid contents were calculated and expressed as vitexin. AE and ME of both plants increased the bile flow dose-dependently (between 9% and 30%), and no hepatotoxic effect was seen even during longer perfusions. Stimulation of bile secretion was comparable in the presence and in the absence of taurocholic acid. The flavonoid fraction of Dianthus versicolor increased the bile flow by 18% (pDianthus versicolor AE (total flavonoid content 1.78%) revealed the presence of the isovitexin derivative saponarin. In the AE of Lilium pumilum (total flavonoid content 1.04%) the flavonoids rutoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were detected. The results show that choleresis under extract application is due to a stimulation of the bile-salt-independent bile flow which might be caused

  5. Basil extract inhibits the sulfotransferase mediated formation of DNA adducts of the procarcinogen 1′-hydroxyestragole by rat and human liver S9 homogenates and in HepG2 human hepatoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Punt, A.; Delatour, T.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a basil extract on the sulfation and concomitant DNA adduct formation of the proximate carcinogen 1′-hydroxyestragole were studied using rat and human liver S9 homogenates and the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Basil was chosen since it contains the procarcinogen estragole that can

  6. Basil extract inhibits the sulfotransferase mediated formation of DNA adducts of the procarcinogen 1'-hydroxyestragole by rat and human liver S9 homogenates and in HepG2 human hepatoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Punt, A.; Delatour, T.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a basil extract on the sulfation and concomitant DNA adduct formation of the proximate carcinogen 1¿-hydroxyestragole were studied using rat and human liver S9 homogenates and the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Basil was chosen since it contains the procarcinogen estragole that can

  7. Increased hepatic FAT/CD36, PTP1B and decreased HNF4A expression contributes to dyslipidemia associated with ethanol-induced liver dysfunction: Rescue effect of ginger extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Heshmati, Elaheh; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Chodari, Leila; Naderi, Roya; Majd, Farideh Nezami; Samadi, Mahrokh

    2018-05-28

    The association between chronic alcohol consumption and the development of alcpholic liver disease is a very well known phenomenon, but the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced liver disease remain elusive. This study aimed to characterize the lipid metabolism alterations and the molecular mediators which are related to lipid metabolism in liver under the heavy ethanol exposure alone or combined with ginger extract. Twenty-four male wistar rats were assigned into three groups, namely control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanol (GETE) groups. Six weeks after the treatment, the ethanol group showed a significant increase in fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and decrease hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 Alpha (HNF4A) genes expressions compared to the control group. The ethanol administration also significantly increased plasma LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed liver histhological changes, such as fibrosis, focal microvesicular steatosis, some apoptotic hepatocytes, spotty necrosis, portal lymphocytic inflammation, mallory-denk bodies, giant mitochondria, piecemeal necrosis. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol, partially ameliorated gene expression alteration and histological changes, improved undesirable lipid profile and liver enzymes changes compare to those in the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced liver abnormalities may in part be associated with lipid homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of FAT/CD36, PTP1B and downexpressionof HNF4A genes. It also show that these effects can be reduced by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Pre-treatment by n-hexane extract of Phyllanthus niruri can alleviate paracetamol-induced damage of the rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Jalaluddin Iqbal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to obtain and evaluate remedy against viral hepatitis with Phyllanthus niruri (Bhui amla. Viral infection and toxic doses of paracetamol produce similar pattern of hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering paracetamol (750 mg/kg body weight, single dose intraperitoneal into one group (group P of rats. Propylene glycol (vehicle was administered (2 ml into another group (group V of rats. 4 groups of P. niruri extract-pretreated (200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days rats were administered the same single dose of paracetamol on the 7th day. Extract of P. niruri were obtained through ethanol (E, hexane (H, dichloromethane (D and butane (B. Rat groups were V, P, E + P, H + P, D + P and B + P. Each group consisted of 6 rats and were sacrificed on the 9th day. Parameters for evaluation were biochemical (serum ALT, serum AST, serum ALP, serum bilirubin, hepatic reduced glutathione concentrations and hepatic histology. Propylene glycol (group V appeared non-toxic to the liver while significant degrees of centrilobuler hepatotoxicity was observed in group P paracetamol-treated rats. The E + P group suggested significant improvements in the serum parameters but these parameters appeared better alleviated in the H + P group. Hepatic reduced glutathione concentrations were replenished to the control level in both E + P and H + P groups. Hepatic histology supported biochemical and other observations in the P, E + P and H + P groups. Lesser degrees of alleviations were observed in the D + P and B + P groups. However, the hexane extract-pretreated group (H + P appeared to provide the most significant hepatoprotection against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the rat. Titration of the dose following isolation of the active ingredient might offer complete alleviation.

  9. Pre-treatment by n-hexane extract of Phyllanthus niruri can alleviate paracetamol-induced damage of the rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jalaluddin Iqbal, Fawzia Z. Dewan, S.A.R.Chowdhury, M.I.R. Mamun,

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to obtain and evaluate remedy against viral hepatitis with Phyllanthus niruri (Bhui amla. Viral infection and toxic doses of paracetamol produce similar pattern of hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering paracetamol (750 mg/kg body weight, single dose intraperitoneal into one group (group P of rats. Propylene glycol (vehicle was administered (2 ml into another group (group V of rats. Four groups of P. niruri extract-pretreated (200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days rats were administered the same single dose of paracetamol on the 7th day. Extract of P. niruri were obtained through ethanol (E, hexane (H, dichloromethane (D and butane (B. Rat groups were V, P, E + P, H + P, D + P and B + P. Each group consisted of 6 rats and were sacrificed on the 9th day. Parameters for evaluation were biochemical (serum ALT, serum AST, serum ALP, serum bilirubin, hepatic reduced glutathione concentrations and hepatic histology. Propylene glycol (group V appeared non-toxic to the liver while significant degrees of centrilobuler hepatotoxicity was observed in group P paracetamol-treated rats. The E + P group suggested significant improvements in the serum parameters but these parameters appeared better alleviated in the H + P group. Hepatic reduced glutathione concentrations were replenished to the control level in both E + P and H + P groups. Hepatic histology supported biochemical and other observations in the P, E + P and H + P groups. Lesser degrees of alleviations were observed in the D + P and B + P groups. However, the hexane extract-pretreated group (H + P appeared to provide the most significant hepatoprotection against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the rat. Titration of the dose following isolation of the active ingredient might offer complete alleviation.

  10. THE EFFECT OF CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. ETHANOL EXTRACTION ON THE PATHOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL INDEXES OF THE LIVER AND KIDNEY OF BROILERS REARED UNDER HEAT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khodadadi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of compounds with antioxidant properties as a source of phelanoeid compounds is highly recommendable in the poultry industry. Therefore, the effect of Cichorium intybus L. herb on pathobiochemical indexes of chicken under heat stress was studied. After exposure to heat stress (from day 21 to day 42 of growth, hydroalcoholic extraction was provided to 270 broiler chicks randomly divided into six groups and placed in two distinct poultry houses (heat stress and normal conditions. The three groups were recipient group of Cichorium intybus L. (1; recipient group of vitamin C (2 and control group (3. The birds in one of the houses were exposed to heat stress conditions (35 °C for 8 hours for a time period between 22 to 42 days and the birds in the other house were reared under normal conditions (20-22°C for the same time period. Blood samples collected from the birds showed that Cichorium intybus L. herb caused significant decrease in uric acid, Triglyceride, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total body clearance factors (CL- factors and right ventricular failure index (RVF and significant increase in K+ under heat stress condition (p< 0.05. Vitamin C caused significant decrease in uric acid, ALT, CL- factors and RVF index and significant increase in K+ and Na+ under heat stress condition (p< 0.05. A significant decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride in recipient group of Cichorium intybus L was observed compared to the recipient group of vitamin C under heat stress condition (p< 0.05. In a pathologic examination normal observations were in recipient group of Cichorium intybus L and recipient group of vitamin C compared to the control group. According to this study, use of Cichorium intybus L extract and vitamin C in chicken under heat stress induced improvement in liver, kidney activity and fat metabolism.

  11. Protective effect of Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth Hara extract on acute liver injury induced by Concanavalin A in mice through inhibition of TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Feng Zhai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth Hara (ERA, a traditional Chinese medicine has antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor, anti-hepatitis and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the hepatoprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of ERA on acute liver injury have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and liver protection of ERA against the acute liver injury induced by Concanavalin A (Con A and its underlying molecular mechanisms in mice. Mice received ERA (50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight by gavage before Con A intravenous administration. We found that ERA pretreatment was able to significantly reduce the elevated serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels and liver necrosis in Con A-induced hepatitis. In addition, ERA treatment significantly decreased the myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde levels and augmented superoxide dismutase level in the liver tissue, and also suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum, compared with Con A group by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we observed that ERA pretreatment can significantly decrease the expression level of Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 mRNA or protein in liver tissues. Further results showed that ERA pretreatment was capable of attenuating the activation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting IκBα kinase and p65 phosphorylation in Con A-induced liver injury. Our results demonstrate that ERA pretreatment has hepatoprotective property against Con A-induced liver injury through inhibition of inflammatory mediators in mice. The beneficial effect of ERA may be mediated by the downregulation of TLR4 expression and the inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  12. Managing the Combination of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome with Chinese Herbal Extracts in High-Fat-Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of Chinese herbal extracts from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Gardenia jasminoides (SGE on the combination of NAFLD and MetS induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. After 6 weeks of HFD feeding, rats (n=10 each group were treated with saline, rosiglitazone (RSG, and SGE for 4 weeks. HFD rats were obese, hyperinsulinemic, hyperlipidemic and increased hepatic enzymes with the histological images of NAFLD. Treatment with SGE significantly reduced serum triglycerides (TG, nonesterified fatty acids and enhanced insulin sensitivity, and ameliorated the elevated serum hepatic enzymes compared with HFD-saline group. SGE treatment also attenuated hepatic TG by 18.5% (P<0.05. Histological stains showed SGE decreased lipids droplets in hepatocytes (P<0.05 and normalized macrovesicular steatosis in HFD rats. Significant reduction of TNF-α and IL6 in adipose tissue was detected in SGE treated rats. The anti-inflammatory action may be, at least in part, the mechanism of SGE on MetS associated with NAFLD. This study discovered that SGE is capable of managing metabolic and histological abnormalities of NAFLD and MetS. SGE may be an optimal treatment for the combination of NAFLD and MetS.

  13. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang®) reduces plasma and liver cholesterol and leucocyte oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighello, Gabriel G; Inada, Natália M; Paim, Bruno A; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Vercesi, Anibal E; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2018-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of death worldwide. Beyond the classical cholesterol risk factor, other conditions such as oxidative stress are well documented to promote atherosclerosis. The Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang®) was reported to present antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties. Thus, here we evaluate the effects of Vimang treatment on risk factors of the atherosclerosis prone model of familial hypercholesterolemia, the LDL receptor knockout mice. Mice were treated with Vimang during 2 weeks and were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet during the second week. The Vimang treated mice presented significantly reduced levels of plasma (15%) and liver (20%) cholesterol, increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (10%) and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by spleen mononuclear cells (50%), P Vimang treated mice. Therefore, in this study we demonstrated that Vimang has protective effects on systemic and tissue-specific risk factors, but it is not sufficient to promote a reduction in the initial steps of atherosclerosis development. In addition, we disclosed a new antioxidant target of Vimang, the spleen mononuclear cells that might be relevant for more advanced stages of atherosclerosis. © 2018 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  14. Green tea extracts reduce leukocyte cell-Derived chemotaxin 2 and selenoprotein P levels in the livers of C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Shintaro; Kitazawa, Hidefumi; Meguro, Shinichi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro

    2018-05-31

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green tea extracts (GTEs), including catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate, have a beneficial effect on obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation. Although several studies have shown that catechins directly modulate the cellular and molecular alterations in the liver tissue, the contributions of indirect mechanisms underlying these systemic effects of catechins remain unclear. In this study, we report that, in the C57BL/6J mouse liver, GTEs reduce high-fat diet-induced increases in the levels of hepatokines, liver-derived secretary proteins such as leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 and selenoprotein P production, which have been shown to induce systemic adverse effects, including several metabolic diseases. These findings suggest that the systemic effects of GTEs involve the regulation of hepatokine production as an indirect mechanism.

  15. Determination and identification of hydrophilic and hydrophobic arsenic species in methanol extract of fresh cod liver by RP-HPLC with simultaneous ICP-MS and ESI-Q-TOF-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Lischka, Susanne; Piechotta, Christian; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2013-12-01

    The present study was focused on the determination and identification of arsenic species in methanolic extracts of cod liver. Arsenic species were fractionated and the fractions analysed by RP-HPLC-ICP-MS coupled with ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The total concentration of arsenic in the fresh cod liver was analysed by ICP-MS to be 1.53±0.02 mg As kg(-1)w.w. and the extraction recovery was ca. 100% and the column recovery >93%. Besides polar inorganic and methylated arsenic species (>70%) more hydrophobic arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons occurred. Based on the mass spectrometric data proposals for molecular structures were elaborated for 20 of the organic As species included 10 arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA) and an arsenic-containing hydrocarbon (AsHC) mentioned for the first time in fresh cod liver. Arsenobetaine was found as main water-soluble arsenic compound in cod liver followed by higher molecular mass arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Liver Hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  17. Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Liver Caused by Piroxicam in Mice and Protective Effects of Leaf Extract of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam is one of the important therapeutic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory class of drugs used mainly to suppress pain and inflammation in arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders. Besides being anti-inflammatory, these drugs are analgesic and antipyretic often used for the relief of nonspecific fever condition. Recently, piroxicam has also gained attention as an effective therapy for tumors, colorectal, and invasive bladder cancers. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of the alcoholic leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (AEH, Malvaceae, against piroxicam-induced toxicity in mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice ( Mus musculus were divided into four groups ( n = 10, which included a control group, a group treated orally with AEH (30 mg kg –1 b.w. for 15 days, a group treated orally with piroxicam (6.6 mg kg –1 b.w. for 15 days, and another group treated orally with piroxicam and AEH for 15 days. The results indicated that treatment with piroxicam alone resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum marker enzymes, namely, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase with profound hepatic lipid peroxidation as evidenced by a marked increment in the level of thoibarbituric acid reactive substances along with a distinct diminution in reduced glutathoine content and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver. However, treatment with AEH during piroxicam treatment retrieved or partially antagonized the effects induced by piroxicam toward the normal values of controls. Histopathological observations also corroborate with the above findings. It can be concluded that AEH exhibited a protective action against piroxicam toxicity and effective in combating oxidative stress-induced hepatic damage.

  18. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  19. Excellent survival after liver transplantation for isolated polycystic liver disease: an European Liver Transplant Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Keimpema, Loes; Nevens, Frederik; Adam, René

    2011-01-01

    Patients with end-stage isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) suffer from incapacitating symptoms because of very large liver volumes. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. This study assesses the feasibility of LT in PCLD. We used the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR......) database to extract demographics and outcomes of 58 PCLD patients. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for survival rates. Severe abdominal pain (75%) was the most prominent symptom, while portal hypertension (35%) was the most common complication in PCLD. The explantation of the polycystic liver...

  20. Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, L.W.Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Miyake, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Wang, Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Taniyasu, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: nob.yamashita@aist.go.jp; Lam, P.K.S. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2009-01-15

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n = 10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion ({approx}70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors. - Comparison between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin and finless porpoise in South China showed that a large proportion ({approx}70%) of the organofluorine is of unknown origin.

  1. Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Miyake, Y.; Wang, Y.; Taniyasu, S.; Yamashita, N.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n = 10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion (∼70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors. - Comparison between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin and finless porpoise in South China showed that a large proportion (∼70%) of the organofluorine is of unknown origin

  2. Stabilitas Mikrob Usus, Histologi Hati dan Ginjal Mencit Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Pliek u Bumbu Masak Tradisional Aceh (STABILITY OF GUT MICROBIAL AND HISTOLOGY OF LIVER AND KIDNEY OF MICE AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF PLIEK-U EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurliana .

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pliek u is one of the traditional spices of Aceh prepared by fermentation of coconut meat which is usedas chicken feed additive too. The stability of gut micro flora and histopathological changes of liver andkidney of mice were detected after three days oral administration of acute single dose of ethanol extract ofpliek u. Nine animals were used and grouped into three; in which group I and II (treatment groups wereadministered 370 and 733 mg/kg body weight of pliek u, respectively, and group III referred as the control.At the fourth day of experiment, all animals were sacrificed, and their livers, kidneys and intestinal gutwere excised. The gut microbial was measured by Total Plate Count (TPC. Livers and kidneys wereprocessed for paraffin procedure and hematoxyllin-eosin staining. The results showed that the ethanolextract of pliek u has no significant effect (P>0.05 on the TPC of the gut microbial and the structure of theliver and kidney of mice. It can be concluded that administration of the two doses (370 and 730 mg/kg bwof pliek u did not lowering the numbers of gut microbial and were not toxic to the livers and kidneys of themice.

  3. Extract of Kuding tea prevents high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice via liver X receptor (LXR β antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Fan

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of ilex kudingcha C. J. Tseng (kuding tea, a traditional beverage in China, on the metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diets.For the preventive experiment, the female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standard diet (Chow, high-fat diet (HF, and high-fat diet mixed with 0.05% ethanol extract of kuding tea (EK for 5 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, the C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet for 3 months, and then mice were split and EK was given with oral gavages for 2 weeks at 50 mg/day/kg. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were measured. At the end of treatment, the adipocyte images were assayed with a scanning electron microscope, and the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, serum lipid profile and lipids in the livers were analyzed. A reporter gene assay system was used to test the whether EK could act on nuclear receptor transcription factors, and the gene expression analysis was performed with a quantitative PCR assay.In the preventive treatment, EK blocked the body weight gain, reduced the size of the adipocytes, lowered serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, EK reduced the size of the white adipocytes, serum TG and fasting blood glucose levels in obese mice. With the reporter assay, EK inhibited LXRβ transactivity and mRNA expression of LXRβ target genes.We observed that EK has both preventive and therapeutic roles in metabolic disorders in mice induced with high-fat diets. The effects appear to be mediated through the antagonism of LXRβ transactivity. Our data indicate that kuding tea is a useful dietary therapy and a potential source for the development of novel anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs.

  4. Fraxinus rhynchophylla ethanol extract attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats via down-regulating the expressions of uPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-Huang; Tien, Yun-Chen; Huang, Chih-Yang; Huang, Tai-Hung; Liao, Jung-Chun; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lin, Ying-Chih

    2010-02-17

    To investigate the effect of Fraxinus rhynchophylla ethanol extract (FR(EtOH)) on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by oral administration of CCl(4). Sixty SD rats were divided randomly into 6 groups: control, CCl(4) group, silymarin group and three FR(EtOH)-treated groups. Except for the rats in control group, all rats were administered orally with CCl(4) (20%, 0.2 mL/100g body weight) twice a week for 8 weeks. Rats in FR(EtOH) groups were treated daily with FR(EtOH) (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o.) throughout the whole experimental period. Liver function parameters (such as activities of serum GOT and GPT levels), activities of liver anti-oxidant enzymes (such as catalase, SOD, GPx) and expressions of uPA, tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1, -2, -3, -4 in the liver fibrosis pathway were detected. The results showed that FR(EtOH) (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg BW) significantly reduced the elevated activities of sGOT and sGPT caused by CCl(4). FR(EtOH) (0.1 and 0.5 g/kg BW) and significantly increased the activities of GSH-Px. The histopathological study showed that FR(EtOH) (0.1 and 0.5 g/kg BW) reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, lymphocytes infiltration, cytoplasm vacuolization hepatic necrosis and fibrous connective tissue proliferated induced by CCl(4) in rats. In our study it was showed that CCl(4)-treated group significantly increased the protein levels of uPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1. FR(EtOH) (0.1 and 0.5 g/kg BW) could inhibit the protein levels of uPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1. Finally, the amount of esculetin in the FR(EtOH) was 33.54 mg/g extract. Oral administration of FR(EtOH) significantly reduces CCl(4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, probably by exerting a protective effect against hepatocellular fibrosis by its free radical scavenging ability. FR(EtOH) down-regulated the expressions of uPA, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats

  5. Induction of Nrf2-dependent Antioxidation and Protection Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Damage by Andrographis Herba (穿心蓮chuān xīn lián Ethanolic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haw-Wen Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is a traditional Chinese herb and displays diverse biological activities including antioxidation, anti-tumorigenesis, anti-virus, and anti-atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated the up-regulation of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata (APE on the antioxidant defense in rat livers and whether this enhancement protected against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered (i.g. 0, 0.75, or 2 g/kg/d APE for 5 d. At d 6, rats were sacrificed and liver tissues were removed. Some animals (n=8 were intraperitoneally injected CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 50% in olive oil and blood was drawn 24 h after CCl4 treatment. The results showed that APE increased hepatic glutathione (GSH content and superoxide dismutase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH S-transferase activities in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Results of immunoblotting and RT-PCR revealed that rats treated with APE had higher glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and GSH S-transferase Ya and Yb protein and mRNA expression than those of control rats. Moreover, APE increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 binding to DNA in rat liver. In the presence of CCl4, APE decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. These results suggest that APE protection against CCl4 insult is attributed, at least in part, to its up-regulation of antioxidant defense in rat liver.

  6. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  7. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  8. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  9. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  10. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO] on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals’ diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  11. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Keong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta ® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions.

  12. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  13. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  14. Protective effect of Allium sativum (garlic) aqueous extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain, liver, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj Kumar, V; Henley, A K; Nelson, C J; Indumati, O; Prabhakara Rao, Y; Rajanna, S; Rajanna, B

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative activity of Allium sativum against lead-induced oxidative stress in the brain, liver, and kidney of male rats. Four groups of male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were taken: group 1 received 1000 mg/L sodium acetate and group 2 was given 1000 mg/L lead acetate through drinking water for 2 weeks. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum and 500 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum, respectively, by oral intubation for a period of 2 weeks along with lead acetate. The rats were sacrificed after treatment and the brain, liver, and kidney were isolated on ice. In the brain, four important regions namely the hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and brain stem were separated and used for the present investigation. Blood was also drawn by cardiac puncture and preserved in heparinized vials at 4 °C for estimation of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity. The results showed a significant (p sativum resulted in tissue-specific recovery of oxidative stress parameters namely ROS, LPP, and TPCC. A. sativum treatment also restored the blood delta-ALAD activity back to control. Overall, our results indicate that A. sativum administration could be an effective antioxidant treatment strategy for lead-induced oxidative insult.

  15. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Firouzeh Gholampour; Fatemeh Behzadi Ghiasabadi; Seyed Mohammad Owji; Jaafar Vatanparast

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G...

  16. Analysis of Therapeutic Effect of Ilex hainanensis Merr. Extract on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through Urine Metabolite Profiling by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-jing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the most common form of chronic liver disease, is increased worldwide in parallel with the obesity epidemic. Our previous studies have showed that the extract of I. hainanensis (EIH can prevent NAFLD in rat fed with high-fat diet. In this work, we aimed to find biomarkers of NAFLD and investigate the therapeutic effects of EIH. NAFLD model was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by high-fat diet. The NAFLD rats were administered EIH orally (250 mg/kg for two weeks. After the experimental period, samples of 24 h urine were collected and analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF. Orthogonal partial least squares analysis (OPLSs models were built to find biomarkers of NAFLD and investigate the therapeutic effects of EIH. 22 metabolites, which are distributed in several metabolic pathways, were identified as potential biomarkers of NAFLD. Taking these biomarkers as screening indexes, EIH could reverse the pathological process of NAFLD through regulating the disturbed pathway of metabolism. The metabolomic results not only supply a systematic view of the development and progression of NAFLD but also provide a theoretical basis for the prevention or treatment of NAFLD.

  17. Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ridding your body of toxic substances. Liver disease can be inherited (genetic) or caused by a variety of factors that damage the ... that you can't stay still. Causes Liver disease has many ... or semen, contaminated food or water, or close contact with a person who is ...

  18. Liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    Liver scintigraphy can be classified into 3 major categories according to the properties of the radiopharmaceuticals used, i.e., methods using radiopharmaceuticals which are (1) incorporated by hepatocytes, (2) taken up by reticulo endothelial cells, and (3) distributed in the blood pool of the liver. Of these three categories, the liver scintigraphy of the present research falls into category 2. Radiopharmaceuticals which are taken up by endothelial cells include 198 Au colloids and 99m Tc-labelled colloids. Liver scintigraphy takes advantage of the property by which colloidal microparticles are phagocytosed by Kupffer cells, and reflect the distribution of endothelial cells and the intensity of their phagocytic capacity. This examination is indicated in the following situations: (i) when you suspect a localized intrahepatic lesion (tumour, abscess, cyst, etc.), (ii) when you want to follow the course of therapy of a localized lesion, (iii) when you suspect liver cirrhosis, (iv) when you want to know the severity of liver cirrhosis or hepatitis, (v) when there is hepatomegaly and you want to determine the morphology of the liver, (vi) differential diagnosis of upper abdominal masses, and (vii) when there are abnormalities of the right diaphragm and you want to know their relation to the liver

  19. Liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Bosman, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite great advances in analysing hemodynamic, morphological and biochemical changes during the process of liver regeneration, the exact (patho)physiological mechanism is still unknown. A short survey of literature is given of the kinetics of liver regeneration and the significance of different

  20. [Liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Liver transplantation represents the first choice treatment for patients with fulminant acute hepatitis and for patients with chronic liver disease and advanced functional failure. Patients in the waiting list for liver transplantation are classified according to the severity of their clinical conditions (evaluated using staging systems mostly based on hematochemical parameters related to liver function). This classification, together with the blood group and the body size compatibility, remains the main criterion for organ allocation. The main indications for liver transplantation are cirrhosis (mainly HCV-, HBV- and alcohol-related) and hepatocellular carcinoma emerging in cirrhosis in adult patients, biliary atresia and some inborn errors of metabolism in pediatric patients. In adults the overall 5-year survival ranges between 60 and 70%, in both American and European series. Even better results have been reported for pediatric patients: in fact, the 5-year survival rate for children ranges between 70 and 80% in the main published series. In this study we evaluated the main medical problems correlated with liver transplantation such as immunosuppressive treatment, acute and chronic rejection, infectious complications, the recurrence of the liver disease leading to transplantation, and cardiovascular and metabolic complications.

  1. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  2. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  3. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  4. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  5. Enlarged Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of liver damage. Medicinal herbs. Certain herbs, including comfrey, ma huang and mistletoe, can increase your risk ... herbs to avoid include germander, chaparral, senna, mistletoe, comfrey, ma huang, valerian root, kava, celandine and green ...

  6. Quantitative PET of liver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro- D -galactose ( 18 F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value ( SUV ) from a static liver 18 F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11 C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [ N -methyl- 11 C]cholylsarcosine ( 11 C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood ( K 1 ; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion , SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18 F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET.

  7. Quantitative PET of liver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-galactose (18F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value (SUV) from a static liver 18F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine (11C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood (K 1; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion, SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET. PMID:29755841

  8. Bitter melon extract ameliorates palmitate-induced apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells and high-fat/high-fructose-diet-induced fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Joung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter melon (BM improves glucose level, lipid homeostasis, and insulin resistance in vivo. However, the preventive mechanism of BM in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been elucidated yet. Aim & Design: To determine the protective mechanism of bitter melon extract (BME, we performed experiments in vitro and in vivo. BME were treated palmitate (PA-administrated HepG2 cells. C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: high-fat/high-fructose (HF/HFr without or with BME supplementation (100 mg/kg body weight. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis, and biochemical markers were then examined by western blot and real-time PCR analyses. Results: BME significantly decreased expression levels of ER-stress markers (including phospho-eIF2α, CHOP, and phospho-JNK [Jun N-terminal kinases] in PA-treated HepG2 cells. BME also significantly decreased the activity of cleaved caspase-3 (a well known apoptotic-induced molecule and DNA fragmentation. The effect of BME on ER stress–mediated apoptosis in vitro was similarly observed in HF/HFr-fed mice in vivo. BME significantly reduced HF/HFr-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic damage in mice. In addition, BME ameliorated HF/HFr-induced serum TG and serum-free fatty acids. Conclusion: These data indicate that BME has protective effects against ER stress mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells as well as in HF/HFr-induced fatty liver of mouse. Therefore, BME might be useful for preventing and treating NAFLD.

  9. Tumor suppression effects of bilberry extracts and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin in early preneoplastic liver cell lesions induced by piperonyl butoxide promotion in a two-stage rat hepatocarcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shintaro; Morita, Reiko; Ogawa, Takashi; Segawa, Risa; Takimoto, Norifumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Hamadate, Naobumi; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Odachi, Ayano; Ogiwara, Isao; Shibusawa, Sakae; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the protective effect of bilberry extracts (BBE) and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) on the hepatocarcinogenic process involving oxidative stress responses, we used a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model in N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and piperonyl butoxide (PBO)-promoted rats. We examined the modifying effect of co-administration with BBE or EMIQ on the liver tissue environment including oxidative stress responses, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/Akt and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signalings on the induction mechanism of preneoplastic lesions during early stages of hepatocellular tumor promotion. PBO increased the numbers and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)(+) liver cell foci and the numbers of Ki-67(+) proliferating cells within GST-P(+) foci. Co-administration of BBE or EMIQ suppressed these effects with the reductions of GST-P(+) foci (area) to 48.9-49.4% and Ki-67(+) cells to 55.5-61.4% of the PBO-promoted cases. Neither BBE nor EMIQ decreased microsomal reactive oxygen species induced by PBO. However, only EMIQ suppressed the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances to 78.4% of the PBO-promoted cases. PBO increased the incidences of phospho-PTEN(-) foci, phospho-Akt substrate(+) foci, phospho-Smad3(-) foci and Smad4(-) foci in GST-P(+) foci. Both BBE and EMIQ decreased the incidences of phospho-PTEN(-) foci in GST-P(+) foci to 59.8-72.2% and Smad4(-) foci to 62.4-71.5% of the PBO-promoted cases, and BBE also suppressed the incidence of phospho-Akt substrate(+) foci in GST-P(+) foci to 75.2-75.7% of the PBO-promoted cases. These results suggest that PBO-induced tumor promotion involves facilitation of PTEN/Akt and disruptive TGF-β/Smad signalings without relation to oxidative stress responses, but this promotion was suppressed by co-treatment with BBE or EMIQ through suppression of cell proliferation activity of preneoplastic liver cells

  10. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Johanna Debora; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2015-12-18

    An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract (GRE) was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP) intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg body weight (bw)/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs) of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study). Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  11. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenta, Chidi; Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Okpe, Oche

    2017-10-23

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata ( Saro, Ominni and Oranta ) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140-180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant ( p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases.

  12. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenta, Chidi; Okpe, Oche

    2017-01-01

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata (Saro, Ominni and Oranta) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140–180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant (p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. PMID:29065553

  13. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi Edenta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata (Saro, Ominni and Oranta on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w. were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula to normal rats (140–180 g for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase ALK-P, total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant (p < 0.05 changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL (1.53 ± 0.23 when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15, Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39 and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68 when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73, Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43 and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94. Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases.

  14. Increased liver alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daily, oral administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (2mg/kg body weight) for 18days on the alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities of rat liver and serum were investigated. Compared with the control, the activities of liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ...

  15. DNA damage and oxidative stress in human liver cell L-02 caused by surface water extracts during drinking water treatment in a waterworks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ai-Lin; Chen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Hui-Juan; Jin, Bang-Xiong; Lu, Wen-Hong; Li, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2010-04-01

    Because of the daily and life-long exposure to disinfection by-products formed during drinking water treatment, potential adverse human health risk of drinking water disinfection is of great concern. Toxicological studies have shown that drinking water treatment increases the genotoxicity of surface water. Drinking water treatment is comprised of different potabilization steps, which greatly influence the levels of genotoxic products in the surface water and thus may alter the toxicity and genotoxicity of surface water. The aim of the present study was to understand the influence of specific steps on toxicity and genotoxicity during the treatment of surface water in a water treatment plant using liquid chlorine as the disinfectant in China. An integrated approach of the comet and oxidative stress assays was used in the study, and the results showed that both the prechlorination and postchlorination steps increased DNA damage and oxidative stress caused by water extracts in human derived L-02 cells while the tube settling and filtration steps had the opposite effect. This research also highlighted the usefulness of an integrated approach of the comet and oxidative stress assays in evaluating the genotoxicity of surface water during drinking water treatment. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jin Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE, which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat, high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat, and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1, that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  17. Amoebic liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lymphadenopathy were noted. The right-sided pleural effusion with relaxation atelectasis was also con- firmed (Fig. 4). The diagnosis of pos- sible amoebic liver abscess complicat- ed by rupture to the gallbladder was made at that stage. Ultrasound-guided abscess drainage was done and approximately 300 ml of pus was.

  18. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  19. American Liver Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cirrhosis Clinical Trials Galactosemia Gilbert Syndrome Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency(LALD) Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Liver Biopsy Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Liver Function Tests ...

  20. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  1. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the padiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na. The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received 99mTcO4Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of 99mTcO4Na (PO extrato de Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb tem sido usado para tratar dificuldades de concentração, memória, age como antagonista do fator de ativação de plaquetas e previne contra danos causados por radicais livres. EGb é um extrato padronizado com 24% de flavonóides e 6% de lactonas terpênicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de um EGb na ultraestrutura de alguns órgãos isolados de ratos e na biodistribuição do radiofármaco pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO4Na. Os animais foram tratados com EGb e após 6 dias receberam 99mTcO4Na. Os órgãos foram isolados e a radioatividade determinada. Os tecidos foram fixados para microscopia eletrônica. Os resultados mostraram que EGb alterou a ultraestrutura do rim, figado e duodeno e modificou a biodistribuição do 99mTcO4Na. Sugerimos que substâncias presentes no EGb poderiam agir diretamente ou gerar metabólitos capazes de promover alterações na biodistribuição e na morfologia de órgãos em nível ultraestrutural.

  2. Biochemical and Histological effects of Aqueous extract of Cyperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Biochemical and Histological effects of Triton Wr-1339 and Aqueous extract. 674. INNIH, SO; UBHENIN, AE; ... fatty liver, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis is not giving much ..... Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Southern Iran: A Population Based ...

  3. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds ...

  5. Pyogenic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  6. An update on the mouse liver proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlak Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decoding of the liver proteome is subject of intense research, but hampered by methodological constraints. We recently developed an improved protocol for studying rat liver proteins based on 2-DE-MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. This methodology was now applied to develop a mouse liver protein database. Results Liver proteins were extracted by two different lysis buffers in sequence followed by a liquid-phase IEF pre-fractionation and separation of proteins by 2 DE at two different pH ranges, notably 5-8 and 7-10. Based on 9600 in gel digests a total of 643 mouse liver proteins with high sequence coverage (> 20 peptides per protein could be identified by MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. Notably, 255 proteins are novel and have not been reported so far by conventional two-dimensional electrophoresis proteome mapping. Additionally, the results of the present findings for mouse liver were compared to published data of the rat proteome to compile as many proteins as possible in a rodent liver database. Conclusion Based on 2-DE MALDI-TOF-MS a significantly improved proteome map of mouse liver was obtained. We discuss some prominent members of newly identified proteins for a better understanding of liver biology.

  7. Amebic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  8. Enhancement of liver regeneration and liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, P.B.

    2017-01-01

    Liver regeneration allows surgical resection of up to 75% of the liver and enables curative treatment potential for patients with primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Liver surgery is associated with substantial risks, reflected by considerable morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of

  9. Effect of airplane transport of donor livers on post-liver transplantation survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2016-11-07

    To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver ( P = 0.027). Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation.

  10. Using multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to characterize liver damage and fluorescein disposition in liver in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Studier, Hauke; Crawford, Darrell; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Liver disease is the fifth most common cause of death and unlike many other major causes of mortality, liver disease rates are increasing rather than decreasing. There is no ideal measurement of liver disease and although biopsies are the gold standard, this only allows for a spot examination and cannot follow dynamic processes of the liver. Intravital imaging has the potential to extract detailed information over a larger sampling area continuously. The aim of this project was to investigate whether multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy could detect early liver damage and to assess whether it could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein in normal and diseased livers. Four experimental groups were used in this study: 1) control; 2) ischemia reperfusion injury; 3) steatosis and 4) steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. Results showed that multiphoton microscopy could visualize morphological changes such as decreased fluorescence of endogenous fluorophores and the presence of lipid droplets, characteristic of steatosis. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy showed increase in NADPH in steatosis with and without ischemia reperfusion injury and could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein to fluorescein monoglurcuronide, which was impaired in steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. These results concluded that the combination of multiphoton microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging is a promising method of assessing early stage liver damage and that it can be used to study changes in drug metabolism in the liver as an indication of liver disease and has the potential to replace the traditional static liver biopsy currently used.

  11. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A; Canbay, Ali

    2015-02-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs.

  12. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  13. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver

  14. Immune mediated liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capac...

  15. Learning to Diagnose Cirrhosis with Liver Capsule Guided Ultrasound Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a computer-aided cirrhosis diagnosis system to diagnose cirrhosis based on ultrasound images. We first propose a method to extract a liver capsule on an ultrasound image, then, based on the extracted liver capsule, we fine-tune a deep convolutional neural network (CNN model to extract features from the image patches cropped around the liver capsules. Finally, a trained support vector machine (SVM classifier is applied to classify the sample into normal or abnormal cases. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract the liver capsules and accurately classify the ultrasound images.

  16. In Vitro Ion Chelating, Antioxidative Mechanism of Extracts from Fruits and Barks of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Their Protective Effects against Fenton Mediated Toxicity of Metal Ions on Liver Homogenates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moukette Moukette

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and protective potential of T. tetraptera extracts against ion toxicity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was investigated spectrophotometrically against several radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•, hydroxyl radical (HO•, and nitric oxide (NO•, followed by the ferric reducing power, total phenols, flavonoid, and flavonol contents. The effects of the extracts on catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and peroxidase activities were also determined using the standard methods as well as the polyphenol profile using HPLC. The results showed that the hydroethanolic extract of T. tetraptera (CFH has the lowest IC50 value with the DPPH, ABTS, OH, and NO radicals. The same extract also exhibited the significantly higher level of total phenols (37.24 ± 2.00 CAE/g dried extract; flavonoids (11.36 ± 1.88 QE/g dried extract; and flavonols contents (3.95 ± 0.39 QE/g dried extract. The HPLC profile of T. tetraptera revealed that eugenol (958.81 ± 00 mg/g DW, quercetin (353.78 ± 00 mg/g DW, and rutin (210.54 ± 00 mg/g DW were higher in the fruit than the bark extracts. In conclusion, extracts from T. tetraptera may act as a protector against oxidative mediated ion toxicity.

  17. Liver scanning in diffuse liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiginger, P.; Atefie, K.; Scherak, O.; Wolf, A.; Hoefer, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of liver scans performed with sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid in 169 patients suffering from diffuse liver diseases and in 48 normal controls were evaluated. The patients with reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis, fatty liver and fibrosis of the liver show only minimal deviations from the scintigraphic pattern. On the contrary, highly increased colloid uptake in the spleen is found in cases of chronic aggressive hepatitis, whilst the intrahepatic distribution of the colloid is approximately normal. In cases of liver cirrhosis, increased colloid uptake is found in the left lobe of the liver as well as in the spleen and in the bone marrow. Either normal findings or cirrhosis-like changes of the colloid distribution are observed in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. (orig.) [de

  18. Evaluation of liver marker enzymes and biochemical indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver marker enzymes, total protein, amylase and glucose were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with aqueous extract of Pennisetum purpureum. The liver marker enzymes evaluated were alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Sixteen wistar rats were grouped into ...

  19. Mechanism of activation of liver glycogen synthase by swelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A. J.; Baquet, A.; Gustafson, L.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Hue, L.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism linking the stimulation of liver glycogen synthesis to swelling induced either by amino acids or hypotonicity was studied in hepatocytes, in gel-filtered liver extracts, and in purified preparations of particulate glycogen to which glycogen-metabolizing enzymes are bound. High

  20. [Methods for enzymatic determination of triglycerides in liver homogenates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, H; Gartzke, J; Burck, D

    1987-10-01

    An enzymatic method is described for the determination of triacylglycerols in liver homogenate. In contrast to usual methods, higher reliability and selectivity are achieved by omitting the extraction step.

  1. The spleen-liver uptake ratio in liver scan: review of its measurement and correlation between hemodynamical changes of the liver in portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Chung, Y. A.; Chung, H. S.; Lee, H. G.; Kim, S. H.; Chung, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed correlation between changes of the Spleen-Liver Ratio in liver scintigram and hemodynamical changes of the liver in overall grades of portal hypertension by non-invasive, scintigraphic method. And the methods for measurement of the Spleen-Liver Ratio were also reviewed. Hepatic scintiangiograms for 120 seconds with 250-333 MBq of 99mTc-Sn-phytate followed by liver scintigrams were performed in 62 patients group consisted with clinically proven norma and various diffuse hepatocellular diseases. Hepatic Perfusion indices were calculated from the Time-Activity Curves of hepatic scintiangiograms. Each Spleen-Liver Ratios of maximum, average and total counts within ROIs of the liver and spleen from both anterior and posterior liver scintigrams and their geometrical means were calculated. Linear correlations between each Spleen-Liver Ratios and Hepatic Perfusion indices were evaluated. There was strong correlation (y=0.0002x 2 -0.0049x+0.2746, R=0.8790, p<0.0001) between Hepatic Perfusion Indices and Spleen-Liver Ratios calculated from posterior maxium counts of the liver scintigrams. Weaker correlations with either geometrical means of maximum and average count methods (R=0.8101, 0.7268, p<0.0001) or average counts of both posterior and anterior veiws (R=0.8134, 0.6200, p<0.0001) were noted. We reconfirmed that changes of Spleen-Liver Ratio in liver scintigrams represent hemodynamical changes in portal hypertension of diffuse hepatocellular diseases. Among them, the posterior Spleen-Liver Ratio measured by maximum counts will give the best information. And matching with Hepatic Perfusion index will be another useful index to evaluate characteristics splenic extraction coefficient of a certain radiocolloid for liver scintigram

  2. Non-invasive assessment of the liver using imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling Thompson, Camilla; Wang, Haolu; Liu, Xin; Liang, Xiaowen; Crawford, Darrell H.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease causes 2,000 deaths in Australia per year and early diagnosis is crucial to avoid progression to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. There is no ideal method to evaluate liver function. Blood tests and liver biopsies provide spot examinations and are unable to track changes in function quickly. Therefore better techniques are needed. Non-invasive imaging has the potential to extract increased information over a large sampling area, continuously tracking dynamic changes in liver function. This project aimed to study the ability of three imaging techniques, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, infrared thermography and photoacoustic imaging, in measuring liver function. Collagen deposition was obvious in multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging in fibrosis and cirrhosis and comparable to conventional histology. Infrared thermography revealed a significantly increased liver temperature in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging and photoacoustic imaging could both track uptake and excretion of indocyanine green in rat liver. These results prove that non-invasive imaging can extract crucial information about the liver continuously over time and has the potential to be translated into clinic in the assessment of liver disease.

  3. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.

  4. Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L Extract on Diethylnitrosamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the effects of Carthamus tinctorius L. extract (CTLE) on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)- induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods: CTLE was obtained by extracting the dried Carthamus tinctorius L. in water. Liver cirrhosis was induced by injecting the rats with DEN once a week for 8 weeks. Following this ...

  5. Potential Effect of Bacopa monnieri on Nitrobenzene Induced Liver Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, B Rajalakshmy; Rathi, M A; Thirumoorthi, L; Gopalakrishnan, V K

    2010-10-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri in acute experimental liver injury induced by Nitrobenzene in rats. The extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight was administered orally once every day for 10 days. The increased serum marker enzymes, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were restored towards normalization significantly by the extract. Significant increase in SOD, CAT and GPx was observed in extract treated liver injured experimental rats. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of Bacopa monieri plant possess good hepatoprotective activity.

  6. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver ...

  7. Diet - liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins normally help the body repair tissue. They also prevent fatty buildup and damage to the liver cells. In people with badly damaged livers, proteins are not properly processed. Waste products may build up and affect the brain. Dietary ...

  8. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...

  9. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  10. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autoimmune diseases of the liver Hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection Inflammation of the liver that is long-term (chronic) Iron overload in the body ( hemochromatosis ) People with hepatitis B or C are at high risk of ...

  11. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  12. Liver transplantation in polycystic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Paul S; Hillingsø, Jens; Kirkegaard, Preben

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a rare, hereditary, benign disorder. Hepatic failure is uncommon and symptoms are caused by mass effects leading to abdominal distension and pain. Liver transplantation (LTX) offers fully curative treatment, but there is still some controversy about...... whether it is a relevant modality considering the absence of liver failure, relative organ shortage, perioperative risks and lifelong immunosuppression. The purpose of this study was to review our experience of LTX for PLD and to compare the survival with the overall survival of patients who underwent LTX...... from 1992 to 2005. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of the journals of 440 patients, who underwent 506 LTXs between 1992 and 2005, showed that 14 patients underwent LTX for PLD. All patients had normal liver function. Three were receiving haemodialysis and thus underwent combined liver...

  13. An integrated study for the utilization of anthraquinone compounds extract “Heshouwu” In vivo and their comparative metabolism in liver microsomes using UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MSn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anthraquinone (AQ, a major bioactive component of the traditional Chinese medicine HeShouWu, has widespread applications in industry and medicine. The objective of the current study is to explore the differences in the bioavailability of anthraquinones in vivo and the metabolism in liver microsomes. Materials and Methods: In vivo, we used a reliable UPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS method to measure seven AQ compounds in the jugular vein plasma of rats following oral administration of HeShouWu. Furthermore, in order to quantify the bioavailability of AQs in vivo and to further understand the metabolism of these compounds, we compared the in vitro metabolism of AQ in different species with respect to metabolic profiles, the enzymes involved, and catalytic efficiency using liver microsomes from human (HLM, mouse (MLM, rat (RLM, and beagle dog (DLM. Results: We identified two metabolic pathways, including the hydroxylation and glucuronidation of AQ, in the liver microsomes of humans and other species using UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. We found that substitutions on the AQ ring were crucial to the activity and regioselectivity of its hydroxylation. In general, hydroxylation activity decreased greatly with β-COOH (rhein and enhanced dramatically with β-OH (emodin. We also found that glucuronidation of the compound emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside acts as the main isoform in AQ hydroxylation in HLM and DLM. Total microsomal intrinsic clearance values for AQ were greatest in mouse microsomes, followed by those in dog, human, and rat microsomes. Conclusion: The absorption of different anthrquinone compounds varied based on the compound structure, the metabolism types and products of anthraquinones in liver microsomes were different in different species. These findings provide vital information for a deeper unuunderstanding of the metabolism of AQs.

  14. Immune mediated liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  15. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  16. Morphology and morphometry of fetal liver at 16-26 weeks of gestation by magnetic resonance imaging: Comparison with embryonic liver at Carnegie stage 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamabe, Yui; Hirose, Ayumi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2013-06-01

    Normal liver growth was described morphologically and morphometrically using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of human fetuses, and compared with embryonic liver to establish a normal reference chart for clinical use. MRI images from 21 fetuses at 16-26 weeks of gestation and eight embryos at Carnegie stage (CS)23 were investigated in the present study. Using the image data, the morphology of the liver as well as its adjacent organs was extracted and reconstructed three-dimensionally. Morphometry of fetal liver growth was performed using simple regression analysis. The fundamental morphology was similar in all cases of the fetal livers examined. The liver tended to grow along the transversal axis. The four lobes were clearly recognizable in the fetal liver but not in the embryonic liver. The length of the liver along the three axes, liver volume and four lobes correlated with the bodyweight (BW). The morphogenesis of the fetal liver on the dorsal and caudal sides was affected by the growth of the abdominal organs, such as the stomach, duodenum and spleen, and retroperitoneal organs, such as the right adrenal gland and right kidney. The main blood vessels such as inferior vena cava, portal vein and umbilical vein made a groove on the surface of the liver. Morphology of the fetal liver was different from that of the embryonic liver at CS23. The present data will be useful for evaluating the development of the fetal liver and the adjacent organs that affect its morphology. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  17. Hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, Jose Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; Joao, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima, E-mail: ecamic@uol.com.br [Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes (HUOL/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Clinica Gastrocentro e Ambulatorios de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e de Cirurgia Hepatobiliopancreatica

    2017-09-01

    Background: The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. Aim: To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. Method: This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Results: Eighty eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. Conclusion: It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine amino transaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. (author)

  18. Liver and gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Liver is often a site of a variety of diseases. A palpable liver during a routine clinical examination is an important finding and requires further investigations. The availability of non-invasive liver imaging procedures using nuclear, ultrasound, CT (and now MRI) techniques have immensely enhanced diagnostic accuracy in liver diseases. In this Chapter, a detailed description of routinely practised nuclear medicine procedures related to liver is given. Brief reference is also made to other imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography, only for the purposes of comparison. Most of the information is based on our own clinical experience of past 30 years

  19. Liver and gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, M A

    1993-12-31

    Liver is often a site of a variety of diseases. A palpable liver during a routine clinical examination is an important finding and requires further investigations. The availability of non-invasive liver imaging procedures using nuclear, ultrasound, CT (and now MRI) techniques have immensely enhanced diagnostic accuracy in liver diseases. In this Chapter, a detailed description of routinely practised nuclear medicine procedures related to liver is given. Brief reference is also made to other imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography, only for the purposes of comparison. Most of the information is based on our own clinical experience of past 30 years 12 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  1. Liver insulinase and insulin-like activity of the blood plasma in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhikhareva, A I; Dokshina, G A [Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    Comparative quantitative analysis of the functional effect of radiation on the activity of liver insulinase of irradiated rats has shown that the insulinase activity of the blood plasma decreases (21-45%) one to three days after the exposure at betatron. Insulinase activity of the liver extracts is also inhibited (16-22%) as compared to intact liver extracts. Twelve days after the exposure and later, insulin-like activity of the plasma and the enzyme activity increase up to 37 per cent.

  2. Diagnosis of fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Shuichi; Nagamine, Takeaki; Takagi, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic values of various ultrasonographic findings were evaluated from fatty infiltration ratio calculated by liver specimens in 42 patients. The ratio of the CT number of liver to those of spleen were also compared with fatty infiltration ratio in 11 patients. Fatty bandless sign one plus (perirenal bright echo between the liver and the right kidney is masked partially) or more and the fatty score 3 (it is calculated by several ultrasonographic findings) and the less than 0.90 of the ratio of CT number of liver to those of spleen were useful for diagnosis of fatty liver, the sensitivity was 100%, 87.5%, 85.7% and the accuracy was 78.1%, 81.8%, 81.8% respectively. It was considered that these criteria were suitable in screening study of fatty liver. (author)

  3. [Liver and sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watelet, J

    2008-11-01

    The liver is a vital organ and plays a central role in energy exchange, protein synthesis as well as the elimination of waste products from the body. Acute and chronic injury may disturb a variety of liver functions to different degrees. Over the last three decades, the effects of physical activity and competitive sport on the liver have been described by various investigators. These include viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver disorders. Herein, we review acute and chronic liver diseases potentially caused by sport. Team physicians, trainers and others, responsible for the health of athletes, should be familiar with the risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of liver diseases that occur in sports.

  4. Determination of clenbuterol in bovine liver by combining matrix solid phase dispersion and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography/electrospray ion trap multiple stage mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crescenzi, C; Bayoudh, S; Cormack, P.A G; Klein, T; Ensing, K

    2001-01-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion(MSPD) is a new sample pretreatment for solid samples. This technique greatly simplifies sample pretreatment but, nonetheless, the extracts often still require an extra cleanup step that is both laborious and time-consuming. The potential;of combining MSPD with

  5. Robotic liver surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  6. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Christa; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-06-29

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively.

  7. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick-Melin, A J; Kalinski, M I; Kelly, K R

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging chronic liver disease and is reported to affect up to 70-80% of overweight and obese individuals. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from simple hepatic steatosis, to a more severe and treatment resistant stage...... that features steatosis plus inflammation, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may in turn progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and sub-acute liver failure. Thus, NAFLD and its subsequent complications create a significant health burden, and currently there is no effective treatment strategy...

  8. Hepatoprotective standardized EtOH–water extract from the seeds of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Sen; Guo, Tiantian; Cheng, Ni; Liu, Qingchao; Zhang, Yunting; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Li; Cao, Wei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Bai, Naisheng

    2016-01-01

    Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae), its stem barks are known as Cortex fraxini (?? q?n p?) listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Phytochemical study has indicated that methanol extracts from Qinpi has protective effect on acute liver injury. The present study investigates the hepatoprotective activity of EtOH?water extract from the seeds of F.?rhynchophylla Hance against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. The EtOH?water extract significantly alleviated liver damage as indicate...

  9. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Chamuleau, R. A.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Schipper, H. G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; van der Heyde, M. N.

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single-photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99mTc-colloid as tracer. The method was

  10. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  11. Liver Disease and IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The gallbladder is a sac attached below the liver to the common bile duct. Gallstones form when bile (the liquid stored in ... a stone may have passed down the common bile duct to the area where it joins the ... of the liver. Chronic (long term) hepatitis can be from inflammation ...

  12. Polyploidization of liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, there are a number of exceptions. Organisms containing an increase in DNA content by whole number multiples of the entire set of chromosomes are defined as polyploid. Cells that contain more than two sets of chromosomes were first observed in plants about a century ago and it is now recognized that polyploidy cells form in many eukaryotes under a wide variety of circumstance. Although it is less common in mammals, some tissues, including the liver, show a high percentage of polyploid cells. Thus, during postnatal growth, the liver parenchyma undergoes dramatic changes characterized by gradual polyploidization during which hepatocytes of several ploidy classes emerge as a result of modified cell-division cycles. This process generates the successive appearance of tetraploid and octoploid cell classes with one or two nuclei (mononucleated or binucleated). Liver cells polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence and to lead both to the progressive loss of cell pluripotency and a markedly decreased replication capacity. In adults, liver polyploidization is differentially regulated upon loss of liver mass and liver damage. Interestingly, partial hepatectomy induces marked cell proliferation followed by an increase in liver ploidy. In contrast, during hepatocarcinoma (HCC), growth shifts to a nonpolyploidizing pattern and expansion of the diploid hepatocytes population is observed in neoplastic nodules. Here we review the current state of understanding about how polyploidization is regulated during normal and pathological liver growth and detail by which mechanisms hepatocytes become polyploid.

  13. Prolactin and liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.C. Bauer (Alexander)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractCirrhosis of the liver is associated with profound endocrinological disturbances. Until recently it was thought that these disturbances were caused mainly by ineffective elimination of hormones by the diseased liver. It is now known that the pathogenesis of disturbed hormonal function in

  14. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, William; Lee, William M; Wendon, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades acute liver failure (ALF) has been transformed from a rare and poorly understood condition with a near universally fatal outcome, to one with a well characterized phenotype and disease course. Complex critical care protocols are now applied and emergency liver...

  15. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

  16. A new liver function test using the asialoglycoprotein-receptor system on the liver cell membrane, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawa, Soukichi; Hazama, Hiroshi; Kojima, Michimasa

    1986-01-01

    We produced labeled neoglycoprotein (GHSA) that is physiologically equivalent to ASGP, and quantitatively examined whether its uptake by the liver is dose-related using the following methods: 1) binding assay between GHSA and ASGP receptors, 2) measurement of the liver extraction ratio in the initial circulation following administration into the portal vein, and 3) measurement of clearance in normal rats and rats with galacosamine-induced acute liver disorder. The binding assay showed a linear relationship between the concentration of 125 I-GHSA and the amount of ASGP receptors obtained from the rat liver. A membrane assay using 125 I-GHSA and the liver cell membrane revealed similar results. The liver extraction ratio in the initial circulation following the administration into the portal vein of normal rabbits was highly dose-dependent (r = -0.95 in the range of 5 - 100 μg GHSA). Serial imaging of 99m Tc-GHSA during two-hour period after administration into the peripheral blood showed specific accumulation in the liver beginning immediately after the intravenous injection and subsequent transport mainly via the biliary system into the small intestine in the normal rat and mainly into the urine in the bile duct ligated rat. As a dynamic model of 99m Tc-GHSA, its circulation through the heart and liver and inactivated release from the liver was used, and two-compartment analysis was made on measurement curves in the heart and liver to obtain clearance parameters. The concentration of administered 99m Tc-GHSA (50 - 100 μg/100 g body weight) showed a positive linear relationship with clearance. Administration of 50 μg/100 g body weight of 99m Tc-GHSA revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.001) between clearance and ASGP receptor activity in normal rats and rats with galactosamine-induced acute liver disorder. (J.P.N.)

  17. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dengwang; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems.The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours.The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  18. Liver cancer oncogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Andersen, Jesper B

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancers are among the most rapidly evolving malignant tumors worldwide. An underlying chronic inflammatory liver disease, which precedes liver cancer development for several decades and frequently creates a pro-oncogenic microenvironment, impairs progress in therapeutic approaches....... Molecular heterogeneity of liver cancer is potentiated by a crosstalk between epithelial tumor and stromal cells that complicate translational efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with a drugable intend. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of cancer...... development. With regards to liver cancer, the unprecedented coverage of next-generation sequencing has created a detailed map of genetic alterations and identified key somatic changes such as CTNNB1 and TP53 as well as several previously unrecognized recurrent disease-causing alterations that could...

  19. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Fully automated MR liver volumetry using watershed segmentation coupled with active contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hieu Trung; Le-Trong, Ngoc; Bao, Pham The; Oto, Aytek; Suzuki, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Our purpose is to develop a fully automated scheme for liver volume measurement in abdominal MR images, without requiring any user input or interaction. The proposed scheme is fully automatic for liver volumetry from 3D abdominal MR images, and it consists of three main stages: preprocessing, rough liver shape generation, and liver extraction. The preprocessing stage reduced noise and enhanced the liver boundaries in 3D abdominal MR images. The rough liver shape was revealed fully automatically by using the watershed segmentation, thresholding transform, morphological operations, and statistical properties of the liver. An active contour model was applied to refine the rough liver shape to precisely obtain the liver boundaries. The liver volumes calculated by the proposed scheme were compared to the "gold standard" references which were estimated by an expert abdominal radiologist. The liver volumes computed by using our developed scheme excellently agreed (Intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.94) with the "gold standard" manual volumes by the radiologist in the evaluation with 27 cases from multiple medical centers. The running time was 8.4 min per case on average. We developed a fully automated liver volumetry scheme in MR, which does not require any interaction by users. It was evaluated with cases from multiple medical centers. The liver volumetry performance of our developed system was comparable to that of the gold standard manual volumetry, and it saved radiologists' time for manual liver volumetry of 24.7 min per case.

  1. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  2. Cytokines and Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Tilg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are pleiotropic peptides produced by virtually every nucleated cell in the body. In most tissues, including the liver, constitutive production of cytokines is absent or minimal. There is increasing evidence that several cytokines mediate hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and necrosis of liver cells, cholestasis and fibrosis. Interestingly, the same mediators also mediate the regeneration of liver tissue after injury. Among the various cytokines, the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a has emerged as a key factor in various aspects of liver disease, such as cachexia and/or cholestasis. Thus, antagonism of TNF-a and other injury-related cytokines in liver diseases merits evaluation as a treatment of these diseases. However, because the same cytokines are also necessary for the regeneration of the tissue after the liver has been injured, inhibition of these mediators might impair hepatic recovery. The near future will bring the exiting clinical challenge of testing new anticytokine strategies in various liver diseases.

  3. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Elastin in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kanta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of liver cirrhosis is the accumulation of large amounts of connective tissue with the prevailing content of type I collagen. Elastin is a minor connective tissue component in normal liver but it is actively synthesized by hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts in diseased liver. The accumulation of elastic fibers in later stages of liver fibrosis may contribute to the decreasing reversibility of the disease with advancing time. Elastin is formed by polymerization of tropoelastin monomers. It is an amorphous protein highly resistant to the action of proteases that forms the core of elastic fibers. Microfibrils surrounding the core are composed of fibrillins that bind a number of proteins involved in fiber formation. They include microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs, microfibrillar-associated proteins (MFAPs and fibulins. Lysyl oxidase (LOX and lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs are responsible for tropoelastin cross-linking and polymerization. TGF-β complexes attached to microfibrils release this cytokine and influence the behavior of the cells in the neighborhood. The role of TGF-β as the main profibrotic cytokine in the liver is well-known and the release of the cytokines of TGF-β superfamily from their storage in elastic fibers may affect the course of fibrosis. Elastic fibres are often studied in the tissues where they provide elasticity and resilience but their role is no longer viewed as purely mechanical. Tropoelastin, elastin polymer and elastin peptides resulting from partial elastin degradation influence fibroblastic and inflammatory cells as well as angiogenesis. A similar role may be performed by elastin in the liver. This article reviews the results of the research of liver elastic fibers on the backgound of the present knowledge of elastin biochemistry and physiology. The regulation of liver elastin synthesis and degradation may be important for the outcome of liver fibrosis.

  5. Automatic segmentation of liver structure in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, K.T.; Giger, M.L.; Chen, C.; Kahn, C.E. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The segmentation and three-dimensional representation of the liver from a computed tomography (CT) scan is an important step in many medical applications, such as in the surgical planning for a living-donor liver transplant and in the automatic detection and documentation of pathological states. A method is being developed to automatically extract liver structure from abdominal CT scans using a priori information about liver morphology and digital image-processing techniques. Segmentation is performed sequentially image-by-image (slice-by-slice), starting with a reference image in which the liver occupies almost the entire right half of the abdomen cross section. Image processing techniques include gray-level thresholding, Gaussian smoothing, and eight-point connectivity tracking. For each case, the shape, size, and pixel density distribution of the liver are recorded for each CT image and used in the processing of other CT images. Extracted boundaries of the liver are smoothed using mathematical morphology techniques and B-splines. Computer-determined boundaries were compared with those drawn by a radiologist. The boundary descriptions from the two methods were in agreement, and the calculated areas were within 10%

  6. A wandering liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Brandon W.; Figarola, Maria S.; Standley, Todd B.

    2010-01-01

    A wandering liver has been described throughout modern medical literature as a rare entity. During the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been reported associated with colonic volvulus. We report a 17-year-old with a hypermobile liver seen on multiple radiographs and CT. The intraoperative findings demonstrated the liver in its normal anatomic position. We suggest that this entity is more common than thought, and the rise in incidence is likely secondary to increased utilization of pre-operative imaging of patients with colonic obstruction. Increased suspicion might result in further increased incidence of this exceedingly rare entity. (orig.)

  7. A wandering liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Brandon W.; Figarola, Maria S.; Standley, Todd B. [University of South Alabama, Department of Radiology, Mobile, AL (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A wandering liver has been described throughout modern medical literature as a rare entity. During the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been reported associated with colonic volvulus. We report a 17-year-old with a hypermobile liver seen on multiple radiographs and CT. The intraoperative findings demonstrated the liver in its normal anatomic position. We suggest that this entity is more common than thought, and the rise in incidence is likely secondary to increased utilization of pre-operative imaging of patients with colonic obstruction. Increased suspicion might result in further increased incidence of this exceedingly rare entity. (orig.)

  8. 25 Ways to Love Your Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  9. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now The Progression of Liver ...

  10. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back ...

  11. Acute Liver Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause acute liver failure. It is an industrial chemical found in refrigerants and solvents for waxes, varnishes ... measures when spraying insecticides, fungicides, paint and other toxic chemicals. Follow product instructions carefully. Watch what gets on ...

  12. Liver Aspiration Cytology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-11-02

    Nov 2, 1974 ... S.A. MEDICAL. JOURNAL .... be the result of either an anatomical obstruction in the biliary system or of ... contour of these droplets indicates their canalicular origin. ..... terminology for cytological changes in the liver has not.

  13. [Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  14. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If cirrhosis is not treated, the liver will fail and will not be able to work well ... Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give ...

  15. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  16. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  17. Periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. METHODS: A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including 'liver cirrhosis', 'end-stage liver disease', 'liver diseases', 'oral...

  18. Antioxidant supplements for liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2011-01-01

    Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal.......Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal....

  19. Mice with humanized liver endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Filali, E.

    2014-01-01

    The only curative treatment option for a large proportion of patients suffering from a liver disorder is liver transplantation. The use of ex vivo genetically modified autologous liver cells instead of whole liver transplantation could overcome the problem of donor scarcity. Even though clinical

  20. 不同浓度胎牛血清肝浸汤培养基培养阴道毛滴虫效果观察%Observation of Trichomonas vaginalis cultured in liver extract medium with different concentrations of fetal bovine serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴武

    2009-01-01

    Three strains of Trichomonas vaginalis were cultured for 48 hours in liver extract medium, the respective trophozoite density of T. vaginalis was 0. 7× 10~5/ml, 1. 5× 10~5/ml, and 2.0× 10~5/ml. Culturing in the medium with fetal bovine serum at final concentrations of 1% , 5% , and 10% resulted in trophozoite density of 6. 0× 10~5/ml, 640× 10~5/ ml, and 1 280. 0× 10~5/ml for the first strain, 16.0× 10~5/ml, 1 600. 0× 10~5/ml, and 2 400 × 10~5/ml for the second strain, and 65. 0× 10~5/ml, 840. 0×10~5/ml, and 520.0× 10~5/ml for the third strain. Results indicated that a liver extract medium with the appropriate concentration of fetal bovine serum provides a good culture medium.%3株阴道毛滴虫用肝浸汤培养48 h,虫体密度分别为0.7×10~5/ml、1.5×10~5/ml和2.0×10~5/ml;用含终浓度为1%、5%、10%的胎牛血清肝浸汤培养48 h,虫株Ⅰ的密度分别为6.0×10~5/ml、640.0×10~5/ml和1 280.0×10~5/ml,虫株Ⅱ分别为16.0×10~5/ml、1 600.0×10~5/ml和2 400.0×10~5/ml,虫株Ⅲ分别为65.0×10~5/ml、840.0×10~5/ml和520.0×10~5/ml.表明肝浸汤添加适量胎牛血清后培养效果良好.

  1. Pretreatment of albino rats with aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The effect of the aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leaf on hepatic lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and total antioxidant status was studied in chronic alcohol-induced liver damage. Method: Alcohol-induced liver toxicity was created by oral administration of 40% alcohol solution (v/v, 1ml/100g) to rats for ...

  2. Pitfalls in liver imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji; Saida, Yukihisa [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Localized, abnormal attenuation/intensity areas on unenhanced and/or enhanced study of CT/MR imaging do not necessarily correspond to tumors themselves or real tumor size. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of liver tumor are described dividing into enhanced study (vascular variants, vascular abnormalities, hyperplastic nodules, around the tumor, and miscellaneous) and unenhanced study (fatty change, focal spared area of diffuse fatty liver, and miscellaneous). (orig.)

  3. Pitfalls in liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Yuji; Saida, Yukihisa

    2002-01-01

    Localized, abnormal attenuation/intensity areas on unenhanced and/or enhanced study of CT/MR imaging do not necessarily correspond to tumors themselves or real tumor size. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of liver tumor are described dividing into enhanced study (vascular variants, vascular abnormalities, hyperplastic nodules, around the tumor, and miscellaneous) and unenhanced study (fatty change, focal spared area of diffuse fatty liver, and miscellaneous). (orig.)

  4. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these.......Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these....

  5. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Cynara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: Cynara scolymus is a medicinal plant frequently used in traditional medicine for stomach and liver diseases. ... The antioxidant effect of the extracts was determined by 2,2- ..... Löhr G, Deters A, Hensel A. In vitro investigations.

  6. Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium ... tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as ... liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes.

  7. Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on acetaminophen - induced liver toxicity in albino rats. Samy Abdelfatah Abdel Azim, Mohamed Taha Abdelrahem, Mostafa Mohamed Said, Alshaimaa Khattab ...

  8. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  9. Autoimmune liver disease 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Luigi; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of diseases which comprises both cholestatic and hepatitic forms: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the so called "overlap" syndromes where hepatitic and cholestatic damage coexists. All these diseases are characterized by an extremely high heterogeneity of presentation, varying from asymptomatic, acute (as in a subset of AIH) or chronic (with aspecific symptoms such as fatigue and myalgia in AIH or fatigue and pruritus in PBC and PSC). The detection and characterization of non organ specific autoantibodies plays a major role in the diagnostic approach of autoimmune liver disease; anti nuclear reactivities (ANA) and anti smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) mark type 1 AIH, liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 AIH; antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are associated with PBC, while no specific marker is found in PSC, since anticytoplasmic neutrophil antibodies with perinuclear pattern (atypical p-ANCA or p-ANNA) are also detected in a substantial proportion of type 1 AIH cases. Treatment options rely on immunosoppressive therapy (steroids and azathioprine) in AIH and on ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic conditions; in all these diseases liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical approach for the end stage of liver disease.

  10. Gaming the Liver Transplant Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Snyder

    2010-01-01

    The liver transplant waiting list is designed to allocate livers to the sickest patients first. Before March 1, 2002, livers were allocated to patients based on objective clinical indicators and subjective factors. In particular, a center placing a prospective transplant recipient in the intensive care unit (ICU) leads to a higher position on the liver transplant waiting list. After March 1, 2002, a policy reform mandated that priority on the liver transplant waiting list no longer be influen...

  11. Bioartificial liver and liver transplantation: new modalities for the treatment of liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yitao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main features of liver failure are extensive necrosis of hepatocytes, rapid disease progression, and poor prognosis, and at present, there are no effective drugs and methods for the treatment of liver failure. This article summarizes four treatment methods for liver failure, i.e., medical treatment, cell transplantation, liver transplantation, and artificial liver support therapy, and elaborates on the existing treatment methods. The current medical treatment regimen should be optimized; cell transplantation has not been used in clinical practice; liver transplantation is the most effective method, but it is limited by donor liver shortage and high costs; artificial liver can effectively remove toxic substances in human body. Therefore, this article puts forward artificial liver as a transition for liver transplantation; artificial liver can buy time for liver regeneration or liver transplantation and prolong patients′ survival time and thus has a promising future. The new treatment modality of bioartificial liver combined with liver transplantation may bring good news to patients with liver failure.

  12. Perioperative management of liver surgery-review on pathophysiology of liver disease and liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Lukas; Eschertzhuber, Stephan; Tiefenthaler, Werner

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of patients present for liver surgery. Given the complex pathophysiological changes in chronic liver disease (CLD), it is pivotal to understand the fundamentals of chronic and acute liver failure. This review will give an overview on related organ dysfunction as well as recommendations for perioperative management and treatment of liver failure-related symptoms.

  13. Excellent survival after liver transplantation for isolated polycystic liver disease : an European Liver Transplant Registry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keimpema, Loes; Nevens, Frederik; Adam, Rene; Porte, Robert J.; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Becker, Thomas; Kirkegaard, Preben; Metselaar, Herold J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with end-stage isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) suffer from incapacitating symptoms because of very large liver volumes. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. This study assesses the feasibility of LT in PCLD. We used the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR)

  14. HYPERVASCULAR LIVER LESIONS IN RADIOLOGICALLY NORMAL LIVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, José Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; João, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araújo Lima

    2017-01-01

    The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Eighty-eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine aminotransaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. As lesões hepáticas hipervasculares representam um desafio diagnóstico. Identificar fatores de risco para câncer em pacientes portadores de lesão hepática hipervascular não-hemangiomatosa em fígado radiologicamente normal. Estudo prospectivo que incluiu pacientes com lesões hepáticas hipervasculares em que o diagnóstico final foi obtido por exame anatomopatológico ou, presumido a partir de seguimento mínimo de um ano. Diagnóstico prévio de cirrose ou radiológico de hemangioma foram considerados critérios de exclusão. Oitenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos. A relação mulher/homem foi de 5,3/1. A idade média foi de 42,4 anos. Na maior parte das vezes as lesões hepáticas foram únicas e com

  15. Computational Modeling in Liver Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Christ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for extended liver resection is increasing due to the growing incidence of liver tumors in aging societies. Individualized surgical planning is the key for identifying the optimal resection strategy and to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure and tumor recurrence. Current computational tools provide virtual planning of liver resection by taking into account the spatial relationship between the tumor and the hepatic vascular trees, as well as the size of the future liver remnant. However, size and function of the liver are not necessarily equivalent. Hence, determining the future liver volume might misestimate the future liver function, especially in cases of hepatic comorbidities such as hepatic steatosis. A systems medicine approach could be applied, including biological, medical, and surgical aspects, by integrating all available anatomical and functional information of the individual patient. Such an approach holds promise for better prediction of postoperative liver function and hence improved risk assessment. This review provides an overview of mathematical models related to the liver and its function and explores their potential relevance for computational liver surgery. We first summarize key facts of hepatic anatomy, physiology, and pathology relevant for hepatic surgery, followed by a description of the computational tools currently used in liver surgical planning. Then we present selected state-of-the-art computational liver models potentially useful to support liver surgery. Finally, we discuss the main challenges that will need to be addressed when developing advanced computational planning tools in the context of liver surgery.

  16. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  17. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  18. An acqueous extract of Bidens pilosa L. protects liver from cholestatic disease: experimental study in young rats Um extrato aquoso de Bidens pilosa L. protege o fígado da doença colestática: estudo experimental em ratos jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Izabel Suzigan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test the hepatoprotective effect of water extract from Bidens Pilosa L. (BPE in cholestatic liver disease induced by ligature and resection of the common bile ducts (LRBD in young rats. METHODS: We studied four groups of ten 21 days old (P21 Wistar rats, Group SW: sham operation and water; Group SD: sham operation and BPE (160 mg of fresh leaves/100 g of body weight/day; Group LW: LRBD and water and Group LD: LRBD and BPE daily. Pentobarbital sleeping time (PST and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined after the sacrifice (P70. A Ruwart's score for hepatic fibrosis (RS was given to each animal. Were employed two way ANOVA and the test of Tukey or a non-parametric test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between LW and LD in the measurements of the PST ((means LW=390; LD=173, AST (means LW=8, LD=5, ALT (medians LW=2; LD=1 e RS (medians LW=2; LD=1. CONCLUSION: BPE could be used in the phytotherapy of the hepatic damage induced by chronic obstructive cholestasis, because protects liver function, decreases the rate of necrosis and liver fibrosis in cholestatic liver disease.OBJETIVO: Testar o efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato aquoso de Bidens pilosa L. (EBP na doença hepática induzida pela ligadura e ressecção do ducto biliar comum (LRDBC em ratos jovens. MÉTODOS: Estudamos ratos Wistar com 21º. dia de vida (P21 divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais, Grupo SA: operação simulada e água; Grupo SD: operação simulada e EBP (160mg de folhas frescas/100g de peso corporal/dia; Grupo LA: LRDBC e água e Grupo LD: LRDBC e EBP diariamente. O tempo de sono por pentobarbital (TSP, aspartato (AST e alanina (ALT aminotransferase foram determinadas após o sacrifício (P70. O Score de Ruwart (SR para fibrose hepática foi atribuído para cada animal. Foi realizada análise de variância com dois fatores e pelo teste de Tukey

  19. Automatic liver volume segmentation and fibrosis classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Evgeny; Klang, Eyal; Amitai, Michal; Greenspan, Hayit

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present an automatic method for liver segmentation and fibrosis classification in liver computed-tomography (CT) portal phase scans. The input is a full abdomen CT scan with an unknown number of slices, and the output is a liver volume segmentation mask and a fibrosis grade. A multi-stage analysis scheme is applied to each scan, including: volume segmentation, texture features extraction and SVM based classification. Data contains portal phase CT examinations from 80 patients, taken with different scanners. Each examination has a matching Fibroscan grade. The dataset was subdivided into two groups: first group contains healthy cases and mild fibrosis, second group contains moderate fibrosis, severe fibrosis and cirrhosis. Using our automated algorithm, we achieved an average dice index of 0.93 ± 0.05 for segmentation and a sensitivity of 0.92 and specificity of 0.81for classification. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first end to end automatic framework for liver fibrosis classification; an approach that, once validated, can have a great potential value in the clinic.

  20. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Iaquinto, G

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  1. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  2. in Human Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Fujimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathways are strictly coordinated by several mechanisms to regulate adequate innate immune responses. Recent lines of evidence indicate that the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS family proteins, originally identified as negative-feedback regulators in cytokine signaling, are involved in the regulation of TLR-mediated immune responses. SOCS1, a member of SOCS family, is strongly induced upon TLR stimulation. Cells lacking SOCS1 are hyperresponsive to TLR stimulation. Thus, SOCS1 is an important regulator for both cytokine and TLR-induced responses. As an immune organ, the liver contains various types of immune cells such as T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, and Kupffer cells and is continuously challenged with gut-derived bacterial and dietary antigens. SOCS1 may be implicated in pathophysiology of the liver. The studies using SOCS1-deficient mice revealed that endogenous SOCS1 is critical for the prevention of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancers. Recent studies on humans suggest that SOCS1 is involved in the development of various liver disorders in humans. Thus, SOCS1 and other SOCS proteins are potential targets for the therapy of human liver diseases.

  3. Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.

  4. Liver biopsy in liver patients with coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, P.; Gronbaek, H.; Clausen, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The risk of severe bleeding after liver biopsy is estimated to be 1:12,000 in patients with near normal coagulation (INR 60 billion /l). Beyond these limits, the risk is higher, but still uncertain. The Danish guidelines require INR > 1.5, platelet count ... and normal APTT. In some instances the risk of not knowing the histology is so high that a biopsy is considered even with a more disturbed coagulation. Vitamin K, freshly frozen plasma and recombinant activated factor VII may reduce the risk of bleeding in specific situations, but no firm recommendations can...

  5. Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

  6. EFEITOS DO EXTRATO AQUOSO DA HYPTIS PECTINATA SOBRE A REGENERAÇÃO HEPÁTICA APÓS HEPATECTOMIA PARCIAL DE 70%: RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES EFFECTS OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HYPTIS PECTINATA ON LIVER REGENERATION AFTER 70% PARTIAL HEPATECTOMY: PRELIMINAR RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. de Melo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais tem aumentado bastante na população mundial. O objetivo desta pesquisa é avaliar os efeitos do extrato aquoso das folhas da Hyptis pectinata, popularmente conhecida como "sambacaitá" ou "canudinho", sobre a regeneração hepática após hepatectomia parcial de 70%. Foram utilizados 24 ratos, divididos em 4 grupos: grupo OS, em que se realizou operação simulada e aplicação oral de água destilada por 4 dias; grupo OSD200, também submetido à laparotomia com manipulação do fígado e aplicação de 200 mg de extrato/Kg de animal durante o mesmo período; grupo HP, hepatectomizado a 70% após 4 dias de aplicação por via oral de água destilada; e grupo HPD200, hepatectomizado a 70% após 4 dias de administração de 200 mg extrato/Kg de animal. Foram dosadas fosfatase alcalina, bilirrubina total e as aminotransferases e estudou-se o estado III da função mitocondrial. O grupo OSD200, quando comparado ao OS, apresentou redução significativa da fosfatase alcalina. O grupo HPD200, em comparação ao HP, teve redução estatisticamente significativa no nível da AST e do estado III da função mitocondrial.The use of medicinal plants has strongly increased by the world population. The objetive of this study is to assess the effects of the aqueous extract of Hyptis pectinata leaves, popularly known as "sambacaitá" or "canudinho", on liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy. Twenty four rats were divided into 4 groups: group OS, submitted to sham operation and oral administration of distilled water during 4 days; group OSD200, also submitted to sham operation and ingestion of 200 mg of extract/Kg of animal for the same period of time; group HP, which underwent 70% hepatectomy after 4 days of distilled water administration; and group HPD200, which underwent 70% hepatectomy after 4 days of oral administration of 200 mg of extract/Kg of animal. Alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and the serum level of

  7. Liver biopsy under hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P C; Stenn, P G

    1992-09-01

    Two patients underwent outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy under hypnosis without complications. One patient had severe anxiety about the procedure because of a previous adverse experience with liver biopsy and the other had a history of severe allergy to local anesthesia. Both patients had undergone a session of hypnosis at least once prior to the biopsy. One received no local anesthetic and the other received 1% lidocaine as a local anesthetic. Both patients were completely cooperative during the procedure with the required respiratory maneuvers. Both patients stated that they were aware of the procedure under hypnosis but described no pain and would be most willing to have the procedure done under hypnosis in the future. Hypnosis can be a useful method of preparing carefully selected patients for percutaneous liver biopsy.

  8. MANAGEMENT OF LIVER TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dova Subba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM To estimate the incidence of Liver Trauma injuries and grade their severity of injury. To assess the factors responsible for morbidity and mortality after Liver Trauma. To study the postoperative complications and the management of Liver Trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present prospective study was conducted on 100 patients who were admitted to Department of General Surgery for treatment who were managed operatively or non-operatively for abdominal trauma and having liver injury forms the material of the study. This study was conducted over a span of 24 months from June 2013 to November 2015. RESULTS Maximum number of patients are in the age group of 21-30 years (46%. 85% patients (85/100 are males and 15% of patients (15/100 are females. Lapse time of injury and admission varied from 25 minutes to 66 hours and 30 minutes. 75 % of the patients (75/100 presented within 24 hours after injury. Death rate of patients who reached hospital after 24 hours of injury was higher than the patients who reached hospital within 24 hours of injury. 28% of patients (28/100 had associated bony injuries, out of which 5% of patients (5/100 expired due to primary haemorrhage of fractured femur. More than one segment was injured in many patients. Segment V is involved commonly making 55% (55/100 of patients. Next common segment involved is segment VII, making 39% (39/100. CONCLUSION Mechanism of injury is the important factor which is responsible for morbidity in liver injury. Nonoperative management proved to be safe and effective and often has been used to treat patients with liver trauma.

  9. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  10. Atlas of liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This atlas is an outcome of an IAEA co-ordinated research programme. In addition to Japan, nine other Asian countries participated in the project and 293 liver scintigrams (116 from Japanese institutions and 177 from seven Asian countries) were evaluated by physicians from the participating Asian countries. The computer analysis of the scan findings of the individual physicians was carried out and individual scores have been separately tabulated for: (a) scan abnormality; (b) space occupying lesions; (c) cirrhosis and (d) diffuse liver diseases like hepatitis. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Management of liver trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M Alghamdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, the management of liver injury has evolved significantly. The advancement of imaging studies has played an important role in the conservative approach for management. A shift from operative to nonoperative management for most hemodynamically stable patients with hepatic injury has been prompted by speed and sensitivity of diagnostic imaging and by advances in critical care monitoring. In this review article, the up-to-date recommendation on the management approach of liver trauma will be discussed.

  12. The effects of Momordica charantia on the liver in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit aqueous extract on the liver histopathological changes in neonatal rats streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus type II. Diabetes mellitus was induced in one day old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats with STZ (85 mg/kg) and monitored for ...

  13. Bevalac extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill

  14. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat ...

  15. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have had a surgical procedure in which the liver bile duct has been connected to a loop of bowel are at much greater risk of developing a liver abscess after ablation. Women should always inform their ...

  16. Liver Hypertension: Treatment in Infancy !

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Liver Hypertension: Treatment in Infancy ! Liver Disease > Heart. No good non-invasive method. Repeated measurements problematic. Drug efficacy 50% at best. No predictors of response. We Need YOU !!

  17. Three cases of liver abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeyama, Toyoaki; Imamoto, Shoichiro; Hirai, Kenji; Nagasaki, Yoshikazu; Abe, Hirohiko

    1980-01-01

    Three patients with liver abscess were presented with special reference to the diagnostic evaluation of computed tomography (CT). CT findings were specific for liver abscess and valuable for its correct diagnosis and accurately defined the extent of involvement. (author)

  18. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  19. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Synchronous colorectal liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.M. van der Pool (Anne)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and ranks second in cancer-related deaths in many parts of the Western world. Once in the lymph or blood vessels, colorectal cancer can quickly spread and the liver is known to be a favourable site for metastases. The

  1. Polyploidization in liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    Polyploidy (alias whole genome amplification) refers to organisms containing more than two basic sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy was first observed in plants more than a century ago, and it is known that such processes occur in many eukaryotes under a variety of circumstances. In mammals, the development of polyploid cells can contribute to tissue differentiation and, therefore, possibly a gain of function; alternately, it can be associated with development of disease, such as cancer. Polyploidy can occur because of cell fusion or abnormal cell division (endoreplication, mitotic slippage, or cytokinesis failure). Polyploidy is a common characteristic of the mammalian liver. Polyploidization occurs mainly during liver development, but also in adults with increasing age or because of cellular stress (eg, surgical resection, toxic exposure, or viral infections). This review will explore the mechanisms that lead to the development of polyploid cells, our current state of understanding of how polyploidization is regulated during liver growth, and its consequence on liver function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  3. Cystoadenocarcinoma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jukemura, J.; Cunha, J.E.M. da; Bacchella, T.; Herman, P.; Cerri, G.G.; Machado, M.C.C.; Pinotti, H.W.; Magalhaes, A.

    1987-01-01

    One case of an old woman is related, wuth a tumor in the right side of abdomen. The patient was submitted to ultrasography computerized tomography, demostrating hepatic and renal cystrand areas of wild mass in the liver. Adenocarcinoma was demostrated by anotmopathologic examination. (author) [pt

  4. Angiomyolipoma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, T.; Nakamura, H.; Hori, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Mitani, T.; Kozuka, T.; Kimura, Y.; Monden, M.; Wakasa, K.; Sakurai, M.

    1993-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma, a rare benign liver tumor, was observed in a 50-year-old woman examined with US, CT, MR imaging and angiography. Dynamic studies using CT and MR imaging were valuable in differentiating the disease from hepatocellular carcinoma with fat deposits. (orig.)

  5. Angiogenesis in liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adlia, Amirah

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis emerges in parallel with liver fibrosis, but it is still unclear whether angiogenesis is a defense mechanism of the body in response to fibrosis, or whether it aggravates the fibrotic condition. In this thesis, Amirah Adlia applied different approaches to elucidate the role of

  6. Calcium signaling in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Thomas, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    In hepatocytes, hormones linked to the formation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) evoke transient increases or spikes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i), that increase in frequency with the agonist concentration. These oscillatory Ca2+ signals are thought to transmit the information encoded in the extracellular stimulus to down-stream Ca2+-sensitive metabolic processes. We have utilized both confocal and wide field fluorescence microscopy techniques to study the InsP3-dependent signaling pathway at the cellular and subcellular levels in the intact perfused liver. Typically InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]i spikes manifest as Ca2+ waves that propagate throughout the entire cytoplasm and nucleus, and in the intact liver these [Ca2+]i increases are conveyed through gap junctions to encompass entire lobular units. The translobular movement of Ca2+ provides a means to coordinate the function of metabolic zones of the lobule and thus, liver function. In this article, we describe the characteristics of agonist-evoked [Ca2+]i signals in the liver and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves in the intact organ.

  7. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  8. [Robot-assisted liver resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aselmann, H; Möller, T; Kersebaum, J-N; Egberts, J H; Croner, R; Brunner, M; Grützmann, R; Becker, T

    2017-06-01

    Robotic liver resection can overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopic liver surgery; therefore, it is a promising tool to increase the proportion of minimally invasive liver resections. The present article gives an overview of the current literature. Furthermore, the results of a nationwide survey on robotic liver surgery among hospitals in Germany with a DaVinci system used in general visceral surgery and the perioperative results of two German robotic centers are presented.

  9. Chemopreventive and Antiproliferative Effect of Andrographis Paniculata Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal RC

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An Andrographis paniculata leaf and stem extract was studied in Hela cells lines by In Vitro methods and anti promoting effect by skin tumour model. The dose dependent cytotoxicity was observed in HeLa cell lines by stem and leaves extracts of Andrographis paniculata extract. The prevention of bone marrow micronucleus formation by Andrographis paniculata leaves and stem extract was also observed. The reductions in tumour numbers were observed. The glutathione level was increased in the liver of animals which received the treatment of Andrographis extract along with DMBA + Croton Oil. The revealing information about the anticancer, antiproliferative and antimutagenic effect of an Andrographis paniculata extract was observed.

  10. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, P.L.M.; Chamuleau, R.A.F.; Leeuwen, D.J. van; Schippor, H.G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; Heyde, M.N. van der

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99m Tc-colloid as tracer. The method was assessed in 11 patients by comparing the pre- and post-operative volume measurement with the volume of the resected liver mass. Liver function was determined by measuring the galactose elimination capacity and the caffeine clearance. After a postoperative follow-up period of 50 days, the liver had regenerated maximally to a volume of 75 ± 2% of the preoperative liver mass. Maximal restoration of liver function was achieved 120 days after operation and amounted to 75 ± 10% for the caffeine clearance and to 100 ± 25% for the galactose elimination capacity. This study shows that SPECT is a useful method for assessing liver regeneration in patients after partial hepatectomy. The study furthermore shows that caffeine clearance correlates well with total liver volume, whereas the galactose elimination capacity overestimates total liver volume after partial hepatectomy. 22 refs

  11. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment ... are different types of treatment for patients with adult primary liver cancer. Different types of treatments are ...

  12. Nutrition and Liver Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan A

    2017-01-01

    Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions. At the level of the whole body, this is achieved through dietary supply and the capacity of the body to transform the substrates and cofactors necessary for metabolism. All of these domains (diet, metabolic capacity, activity of the microbiome, body composition and the level of demand for energy and nutrients) are influenced by levels of physical activity and can vary according to physiological and pathological disease states. The liver plays a central role in establishing and maintaining these regulated processes. Its capacity to achieve and maintain these functional capabilities is established during one's early life. When these capabilities are exceeded and the ability to maintain the milieu interieur is compromised, ill-health supervenes. Stress tests that assess flow through gateway pathways can be used to determine the maximal capacity and functional reserve for critical functions. The inability of the liver to reliably integrate body lipid metabolism and the accumulation of abnormal lipid are obvious manifestations of impaired regulation both in situations of weight loss, for example, the fatty liver of severe malnutrition, and in situations of energy excess, as in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The use of stable isotopic probes and the more recent definition of the variability in the metabolome in different nutritional and pathological states indicate the great potential for clinical tools

  13. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  14. Pediatric obesity and the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, B.G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent complication of obesity. In some of those with NAFLD, the fat accumulation in the liver will cause inflammation and fibrosis and can ultimately cause liver failure. In addition, in adults it has been established that NAFLD increases the risk of

  15. [Local treatment of liver tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, T.K.; Skjoldbye, Bjørn Ole

    2008-01-01

    Local treatment of non-resectable liver tumors is common. This brief review describes the local treatment techniques used in Denmark. The techniques are evaluated according to the evidence in literature. The primary local treatment is Radiofrequency Ablation of both primary liver tumors and liver...

  16. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  17. Heme synthesis in normal mouse liver and mouse liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic cancers from mice and rats demonstrate decreased levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway, and increased heme oxygenase, the heme-catabolizing enzyme. These findings suggest that diminution of P-450, b5, and catalase in these lesions may result from a heme supply that is limited by decreased heme synthesis and increased heme catabolism. Heme synthesis was measured in mouse liver tumors (MLT) and adjacent tumor-free lobes (BKG) by administering the radiolabeled heme precursors 55 FeCl3 and [2- 14 C]glycine and subsequently extracting the heme for determination of specific activity. Despite reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase activity in MLT, both tissues incorporated [2-14C]glycine into heme at similar rates. At early time points, heme extracted from MLT contained less 55Fe than that from BKG. This was attributed to the findings that MLT took up 55Fe at a slower rate than BKG and had larger iron stores than BKG. The amount of heme per milligram of protein was also similar in both tissues. These findings militate against the hypothesis that diminished hemoprotein levels in MLT result from limited availability of heme. It is probable, therefore, that decreased hemoprotein levels in hepatic tumors are linked to a general program of dedifferentiation associated with the cancer phenotype. Diminution of hemoprotein in MLT may result in a relatively increased intracellular heme pool. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthase and heme oxygenase are, respectively, negatively and positively regulated by heme. Thus, their alteration in MLT may be due to the regulatory influences of the heme pool

  18. A web-based procedure for liver segmentation in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rong; Luo, Ming; Wang, Luyao; Xie, Qingguo

    2015-03-01

    Liver segmentation in CT images has been acknowledged as a basic and indispensable part in systems of computer aided liver surgery for operation design and risk evaluation. In this paper, we will introduce and implement a web-based procedure for liver segmentation to help radiologists and surgeons get an accurate result efficiently and expediently. Several clinical datasets are used to evaluate the accessibility and the accuracy. This procedure seems a promising approach for extraction of liver volumetry of various shapes. Moreover, it is possible for user to access the segmentation wherever the Internet is available without any specific machine.

  19. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum ...

  20. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes.

  1. Oral administration of Rauwolfia vomitoria extract has no untoward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ethanolic extract of leaf and root of Rauwolfia vomitoria on kidney and liver functions in rats was investigated. Rats were given daily oral administration of ethanolic extracts of either root or leaf of R. vomitoria at two different concentrations (1.0 and 2.0 g/kg body weight) for a period of 14 days. Some biochemical ...

  2. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Y K; Ahn, S B [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  3. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Y. K.; Ahn, S. B.

    1969-01-01

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  4. Bridging a patient with acute liver failure to liver transplantation by the AMC-bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhove, Maarten-Paul; di Florio, Ernesto; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Mancini, Antonio; Belli, Antonello; Bracco, Adele; Scala, Daniela; Scala, Simona; Zeuli, Laura; Di Nicuolo, Giuseppe; Amoroso, Pietro; Calise, Fulvio; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Recently a phase I clinical trial has been started in Italy to bridge patients with acute liver failure (ALF) to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) by the AMC-bioartificial liver (AMC-BAL). The AMC-BAL is charged with 10 X 109 viable primary porcine hepatocytes isolated from a specified

  5. Liver manifestations of cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, Deniz; Akhan, Okan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic liver disease is one of the major complications of cystic fibrosis (CF). Significant liver disease is seen in 13-25% of children with CF. Improved life expectancy and prolonged follow-up have favored better characterization of the hepatic manifestations of CF and allowed direct observation of an increasing number of liver-related events. Liver disease typically develops in the first decade of life, with the incidence dropping rapidly after the age of 10 years. The wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from asymptomatic gallbladder abnormalities to biliary cirrhosis will be reviewed in this article

  6. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-06-07

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  7. Extraction of glycogen on mild condition lacks AIG fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Z; Rasouli, M

    2016-12-01

    Extraction of animal tissues with cold water or perchloric acid yields less glycogen than is obtained with hot-alkaline. Extraction with acid and alkaline gives two fractions, acid soluble (ASG) and insoluble glycogen (AIG). The aim of this work is to examine the hypothesis that not all liver glycogen is extractable by Tris-buffer using current techniques. Rat liver was homogenized with Tris-buffer pH 8.3 and extracted for the glycogen fractions, ASG and AIG. The degree of homogenization was changed to remove all glycogen. The content of glycogen was 47.7 ± 1.2 and 11.6 ± 0.8 mg/g wet liver in the supernatant and pellet of the first extraction respectively. About 24% of total glycogen is lost through the first pellet. Increasing the extent of homogenization from 30 to 180 sec and from 15000 to 20000 rpm followed with 30 sec ultrasonication did not improve the extraction. ASG and AIG constitute about 77% and 23% of the pellet glycogen respectively. Extraction with cold Tris-buffer failed to extract glycogen completely.  Increasing the extent of homogenization followed with ultrasonication also did not improve the extraction. Thus it is necessary to re-examine the previous findings obtained by extraction with cold Tris-buffer.

  8. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...... with wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = +0.54; P less than 0.01). The increase of testosterone after the load did not correlate significantly with sex hormone-binding globulin (r = +0.35; P greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the hepatic extraction of testosterone is significantly decreased...

  9. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  10. Polycystic Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linda, Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old African American male presented with intermittent abdominal pain for one week. He denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fevers, anorexia, or weight loss. He denied a family history of liver disease, recent travel, or history of intravenous drug abuse. His vital signs were normal. Labs revealed total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dl, hypoalbuminaemia 3.0 gm/dl and prolonged prothrombin time of 14.8 sec. Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multiple hepatic cysts with the largest cyst occupying the right abdomen, measuring 20.6 cm (Panel A and). This cyst had predominantly fluid attenuation, but also contained several septations. The patient underwent laparoscopic fenestration of the large hepatic cyst with hepatic cyst wall biopsy. Pathology revealed blood without malignant cells. The patient tolerated the procedure well with improvement of his abdominal pain and normalization of his liver function tests and coagulation profile

  11. Polycystic Liver Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda, Nguyen, E-mail: nguyenli@einstein.edu [5501 Old York Road, Philadelphia, PA 19141 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    A 77-year-old African American male presented with intermittent abdominal pain for one week. He denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fevers, anorexia, or weight loss. He denied a family history of liver disease, recent travel, or history of intravenous drug abuse. His vital signs were normal. Labs revealed total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dl, hypoalbuminaemia 3.0 gm/dl and prolonged prothrombin time of 14.8 sec. Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multiple hepatic cysts with the largest cyst occupying the right abdomen, measuring 20.6 cm (Panel A and). This cyst had predominantly fluid attenuation, but also contained several septations. The patient underwent laparoscopic fenestration of the large hepatic cyst with hepatic cyst wall biopsy. Pathology revealed blood without malignant cells. The patient tolerated the procedure well with improvement of his abdominal pain and normalization of his liver function tests and coagulation profile.

  12. Radioligand assay for biotin in liver tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettenmaier, R.

    1979-01-01

    A radioligand assay for biotin in liver tissue is described. 3 H-biotin is used as tracer and avidin as binder. The biotin-loaded avidin is separated from free biotin on dextran-coated charcoal, which leaves the avidin-biotin complex in the supernatant liquid. Thus, the avidin-biotin complex can easily be utilized for determination of the radioactivity. Calibration with known additions of biotin in the range 0.25-8.0 ng per assay sample yields a linear logit-log plot. The biotin is extracted from liver tissues by enzymatic proteolysis with papain. This treatment is optimized to liberate the bound forms of the vitamin. Microbiological parallel assays with Lactobacillus plantarum were in good agreement with the radioligand assay giving a regression coefficient of 0.974(n=44). The coefficient of variation was found to be 4.2% in the range 500-1200 ng of biotin per g of liver tissue (n=46). The method is simple and reliable and allows the simultaneous analysis of a considerable number of samples. (Auth.)

  13. Dataset of protein species from human liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Naryzhny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Zipf׳s law in proteomics” (Naryzhny et al., 2017 [1]. The protein composition in the human liver or hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 cells extracts was estimated using a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP protocol. The protein species/proteoform composition in the human liver was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE followed by Electrospray Ionization Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI LC-MS/MS. In the case of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE, the gel was stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R350, and image analysis was performed with ImageMaster 2D Platinum software (GE Healthcare. The 96 sections in the 2D gel were selected and cut for subsequent ESI LC-MS/MS and protein identification. If the same protein was detected in different sections, it was considered to exist as different protein species/proteoforms. A list of human liver proteoforms detected in this way is presented.

  14. Cancer chemoprevention by ginseng in mouse liver and other organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, H; Tokuda, H; Ii, T; Takemura, M; Kuchide, M; Kanazawa, M; Mou, X Y; Bu, P; Takayasu, J; Onozuka, M; Masuda, M; Satomi, Y; Konoshima, T; Kishi, N; Baba, M; Okada, Y; Okuyama, T

    2001-01-01

    Oral administration of red ginseng extracts (1% in diet for 40 weeks) resulted in the significant suppression of spontaneous liver tumor formation in C3H/He male mice. Average number of tumors per mouse in control group was 1.06, while that in red ginseng extracts-treated group was 0.33 (p<0.05). Incidence of liver tumor development was also lower in red ginseng extracts-treated group, although the difference from control group was not statistically significant. Anti-carcinogenic activity of white ginseng extracts, besides red ginseng extracts, was also investigated. In the present study, the administration of white ginseng extracts was proven to suppress tumor promoter-induced phenomena in vitro and in vivo. It is of interest that oral administration of the extracts of Ren-Shen-Yang- Rong-Tang, a white ginseng-containing Chinese medicinal prescription, resulted in the suppression of skin tumor promotion by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated CD-1 mice. These results suggest the usefulness of ginseng in the field of cancer prevention. PMID:11748379

  15. Osteodystrophy in liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezai, Shu-ichi; Ishizawa, Suguru; Yoshino, Katsumasa

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate the osteodystrophy in liver cirrhosis, 21 liver cirrhotic patients having no malignancy and normal renal function were examined by 99m Tc Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy. The cirrhotic subjects consisted of 14 males and 7 females. Their age was 31 - 80, average 55.7 years. The causes of their cirrhotic damage were 1 primary biliary cirrhosis, 9 alcoholic, 2 HB viral and 9 cryptogenic. The contents of their illness showed 9 cases in A, 4 in B and 8 in C of Child's classification. Abnormal hot spot(s) on bone in the cirrhotics could be observed very frequently in 99m Tc MDP bone scintigraphy (47.6 %; 10/21 cases). Those spots were seen more frequently in female and advanced stage of cirrhosis. The number of spot(s) increased also in advanced liver cirrhosis. Serum Ca, P and PTH were in normal range. All of three vitamin D 3 fractions decreased and especially 1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 was depressed more in scinti-positive cases. Metacarpal bone X-p with an alumimum step wedge as a reference was analyzed by a microdensitometry (MD) method (Inoue T et al) and the pattern of osteopathy (i.e. porosis, malacia and poromalacia) was examined according to Sumi Y et al. MD method was not known yet if there was any definite correlation with bone scintigraphy and the osteopathic pattern belonged to border categories. In conclusion, more attension on hepatic osteodystrophy will be significantly necessary due to the fact that it has been found very frequently in liver cirrhosis. 99m Tc MDP bone scintigraphy is a good means for detection of the hepatic osteodystrophy. (author)

  16. Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neveen Abd El Moneim Hussein

    2014-05-23

    May 23, 2014 ... Alexandria, Egypt b Department of Pathology, Medical Research Institute, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt c Toxicology Department, Forensic Science College, Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, Saudi Arabia d Clinical Pathology Department, Medical Military Academy, Alexandria, Egypt.

  17. Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alexandria Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 50, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Protective Role of Commiphora molmol Extract against Liver and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2016; 15 (1): 65-72 ... aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, cholesterol and triglycerides showed a ... rabbits and Giardia lamblia infection in rats [11]. ... [12], antigastric ulcer and cytoprotective effects ... temperature and humidity, fed with commercial.

  19. Management of liver trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Badger, S A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Blunt and penetrating liver trauma is common and often presents major diagnostic and management problems. METHODS: A literature review was undertaken to determine the current consensus on investigation and management strategies. RESULTS: The liver is the most frequently injured organ following abdominal trauma. Immediate assessment with ultrasound has replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the resuscitation room, but computerised tomography remains the gold standard investigation. Nonoperative management is preferred in stable patients but laparotomy is indicated in unstable patients. Damage control techniques such as perihepatic packing, hepatotomy plus direct suture, and resectional debridement are recommended. Major complex surgical procedures such as anatomical resection or atriocaval shunting are now thought to be redundant in the emergency setting. Packing is also recommended for the inexperienced surgeon to allow control and stabilisation prior to transfer to a tertiary centre. Interventional radiological techniques are becoming more widely used, particularly in patients who are being managed nonoperatively or have been stabilised by perihepatic packing. CONCLUSIONS: Management of liver injuries has evolved significantly throughout the last two decades. In the absence of other abdominal injuries, operative management can usually be avoided. Patients with more complex injuries or subsequent complications should be transferred to a specialist centre to optimise final outcome.

  20. Thrombospondin-1 expression may be implicated in liver atrophic mechanism due to obstructed portal venous flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Kuroki, Hideyuki; Higashi, Takaaki; Takeyama, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Naomi; Okabe, Hirohisa; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Beppu, Toru; Takamori, Hiroshi; Baba, Hideo

    2017-07-01

    Liver is an amazing organ that can undergo regenerative and atrophic changes inversely, depending on blood flow conditions. Although the regenerative mechanism has been extensively studied, the atrophic mechanism remains to be elucidated. To assess the molecular mechanism of liver atrophy due to reduced portal blood flow, we analyzed the gene expressions between atrophic and hypertrophic livers induced by portal vein embolization in three human liver tissues using microarray analyses. Thrombospondin (TSP)-1 is an extracellular protein and a negative regulator of liver regeneration through its activation of the transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling pathway. TSP-1 was extracted as the most upregulated gene in atrophic liver compared to hypertrophic liver due to portal flow obstruction in human. Liver atrophic and hypertrophic changes were confirmed by HE and proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling. In an in vivo model with portal ligation, TSP-1 and phosphorylated Smad2 expression were continuously induced at 6 h and thereafter in the portal ligated liver, whereas the induction was transient at 6 h in the portal non-ligated liver. Indeed, while cell proliferation represented by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression at 48 h was induced in the portal ligated liver, the sinusoidal dilatation and hepatocyte cell death with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling was detectable at 48 h in the portal ligated liver. Obstructed portal flow induces persistent TSP-1 expression and transforming growth factor-β/Smad signal activation in atrophic liver. Thrombospondin-1 may be implicated in the liver atrophic change due to obstructed portal flow as a pro-atrophic factor. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  1. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herson Antonio González-Ponce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP-induced acute liver failure (ALF is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800mg/kg/day, orally were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20mmol/LAPAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF.

  2. THE DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER ALLOGRAFT ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER BIOPSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shkalova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed histological examination of 80 liver allograft biopsies, the diagnosis of acute rejection was proved in 34 cases. Histological changes in liver biopsies in different grades of acute rejection were estimated according to Banff classification 1995, 1997 and were compared with current literature data. The article deals with the question of morphological value of grading acute rejection on early and late, also we analyze changes in treat- ment tactics after morphological verification of liver allograft acute rejection. 

  3. Hepatic stellate cell and myofibroblast-like cell gene expression in the explanted cirrhotic livers of patients undergoing liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, J Michael; O'Reilly, Linda; Grant, Geraldine; Piper, James; Jonsson, Johann; Afendy, Arian; Chandhoke, Vikas; Younossi, Zobair M

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. Cell signaling associated with an insult to the liver affects an HSC transdifferentiation to fibrogenic myofibroblast-like cells. To investigate the transcriptional expression distinguishing HSC and myofibroblast-like cells between livers with and without cirrhosis. Tissue from ten cirrhotic livers (undergoing transplant) and four non-cirrhotic livers from the National Disease Research Interchange underwent cell separation to extract HSC and myofibroblast-like cell populations. Separated cell types as well as LI-90 cells were subjected to microarray analysis. Selected microarray results were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Differential expression of some genes, such as IL-1beta, IL-1alpha, and IL-6, was associated with both transdifferentiation and disease. Other genes, such as fatty acid 2-hydroxylase only show differential expression in association with disease. Functional analysis supported these findings, indicating some signal transduction pathways (IL-6) are involved in disease and activation, whereas retinoid X receptor signaling in HSC from cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic livers varies in scope and quality. These findings indicate distinct phenotypes for HSC from cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, coordinated differential expression between genes involved in the same signal transduction pathways provides some insight into the mechanisms that may control the balance between fibrogenesis and fibrolysis.

  4. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on chronic liver disease: systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Mosannen Mozaffari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is long known that vitamin D deficiency was common in patients with liver disease, but little is known on the therapeutic effects of vitamin D, especially in patients with chronic liver disease. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the literatures and study the evidences in which the effects of vitamin D supplementation had been investigated on the severity of chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed by using the following key terms “vitamin D supplementation” and “chronic liver disease” in the PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar to find relevant articles. After collecting the eligible documents, data were extracted and described based on the purpose of this review.Result: Of total 196 articles found, only 7 relevant documents with 518 studied patients were included. The results of this study showed that the levels of 25(OH D were considerably lower in patients with chronic liver disease. Findings showed that vitamin D supplementation can rise up the mean serum level of 25(OH D in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency, especially patients with liver cirrhosis.Conclusion:The results of this review showed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of liver disease and may have prognostic value in the assessment of liver disease. Also, it was shown that vitamin D supplementation may be helpful for the treatment of liver disease at least in certain groups of patients.

  5. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicine Herbs Decoction on Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aziyah Mat-Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective and curative activities of aqueous extract of decoction containing 10 Chinese medicinal herbs (HPE-XA-08 were evaluated in Sprague–Dawley albino rats with liver damage induced by thioacetamide (TAA. These activities were assessed by investigating the liver enzymes level and also histopathology investigation. Increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT levels were observed in rats with cirrhotic liver. No significant alterations of the liver enzymes were observed following treatment with HPE-XA-08. Histopathology examination of rats treated with HPE-XA-08 at 250 mg/kg body weight, however, exhibited moderate liver protective effects. Reduced extracellular matrix (ECM proteins within the hepatocytes were noted in comparison to the cirrhotic liver. The curative effects of HPE-XA-08 were observed with marked decrease in the level of ALP (more than 3x and level of GGT (more than 2x in cirrhotic rat treated with 600 mg/kg body weight HPE-XA-08 in comparison to cirrhotic rat treated with just water diluent. Reversion of cirrhotic liver to normal liver condition in rats treated with HPE-XA-08 was observed. Results from the present study suggest that HPE-XA-08 treatment assisted in the protection from liver cirrhosis and improved the recovery of cirrhotic liver.

  6. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research.

  7. Multi-layer cube sampling for liver boundary detection in PET-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Yang, Jian; Song, Shuang; Song, Hong; Ai, Danni; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yurong; Wang, Yongtian

    2018-06-01

    Liver metabolic information is considered as a crucial diagnostic marker for the diagnosis of fever of unknown origin, and liver recognition is the basis of automatic diagnosis of metabolic information extraction. However, the poor quality of PET and CT images is a challenge for information extraction and target recognition in PET-CT images. The existing detection method cannot meet the requirement of liver recognition in PET-CT images, which is the key problem in the big data analysis of PET-CT images. A novel texture feature descriptor called multi-layer cube sampling (MLCS) is developed for liver boundary detection in low-dose CT and PET images. The cube sampling feature is proposed for extracting more texture information, which uses a bi-centric voxel strategy. Neighbour voxels are divided into three regions by the centre voxel and the reference voxel in the histogram, and the voxel distribution information is statistically classified as texture feature. Multi-layer texture features are also used to improve the ability and adaptability of target recognition in volume data. The proposed feature is tested on the PET and CT images for liver boundary detection. For the liver in the volume data, mean detection rate (DR) and mean error rate (ER) reached 95.15 and 7.81% in low-quality PET images, and 83.10 and 21.08% in low-contrast CT images. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is effective and robust for liver boundary detection.

  8. Ethnic Disparities in Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmer, Nyingi

    2011-01-01

    End-stage liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among ethnic minorities. In the United States, ethnic minorities comprise approximately 30% of all adult liver transplantations performed annually. Several studies have suggested that ethnic populations differ with respect to access and outcomes in the pre- and post-transplantation setting. This paper will review the existing literature on ethnic variations in the adult liver transplantation population.

  9. Abacavir-induced liver toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Diletta Pezzani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.

  10. Liver scintigraphy of fulminant hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Ishihara, Takashi; Mori, Toru

    1980-01-01

    The liver scintigraphies of five patients with fulminant hepatitis were examined. Scintiphotos using sup(99m)Tc-phytate were taken within two weeks after the onset. Scintiphotos of 12 normal subjects, 11 cases with acute hepatitis, 17 cases with liver cirrhosis were served as control. Their scintiphotos showed reduction of the size, well-maintained uptake, mostly homogenous RI distribution, and no left lobe enlargement, which could differentiate them from the chronic liver dysfunction. In one of the cases chronological changes in liver scintigraphy were observed. The size of the liver was reduced progressively until the 16th day and re-enlarged at the 30th day and thereafter. Three indices [S/W, (R + L)/W, and L/R] were calculated. S: area of liver, R or L: longitudinal length of the right or left lobe, W: body width. Relative size of the liver expressed by S/W or (R + L)/W showed significant reduction in fulminant hepatitis compared with acute hepatitis. However, they were not different significantly from those of normal subjects. Except for liver cirrhosis, L/R (left lobe swelling index) did not show significant differences among fulminant hepatitis, normal subjects, and acute hepatitis. These indices were also useful in follow-up study of the liver scintigraphy. The liver scintigraphy in the early phase of fulminant hepatitis seems to reflect the degree of massive hepatic necrosis. It is also useful to differentiate chronic hepatic failure. Apparant reduction in scintigraphical liver size seems to suggest poor prognosis, however, it should also kept in mind that the size of the liver in this condition might change quite rapidly and greatly. (author)

  11. Liver Disease in the Alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    The problem of liver damage in alcoholic patients is widespread. This review discusses hepatic damage on the basis of a histologic classification of increasing severity. In the early stages, or with compensated cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory findings may not accurately reflect hepatic involvement. Furthermore, there exists a group of alcoholic patients in whom liver disease may be caused by factors other than alcohol. Nevertheless, in most patients with liver disease, certain biochemical ...

  12. Fibropolycystic liver disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veigel, Myka Call; Prescott-Focht, Julia; Zinati, Reza; Rodriguez, Michael G.; Shao, Lei; Moore, Charlotte A.W.; Lowe, Lisa H.

    2009-01-01

    Fibropolycystic liver diseases are a group of associated congenital disorders that present most often in childhood. These disorders include congenital hepatic fibrosis, biliary hamartomas, autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease, choledochal cysts and Caroli disease. We present a discussion and illustrations of the embryology, genetics, anatomy, pathology, imaging approach and key imaging features that distinguish fibropolycystic liver disease in children. The pathogenesis of these disorders is believed to be abnormal development of the embryonic ductal plates, which ultimately form the liver and biliary systems. An understanding of the abnormal embryogenesis helps to explain the characteristic imaging features of these disorders. (orig.)

  13. The heart and the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Krag, Aleksander

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac failure affects the liver and liver dysfunction affects the heart. Chronic and acute heart failure can lead to cardiac cirrhosis and cardiogenic ischemic hepatitis. These conditions may impair liver function and treatment should be directed towards the primary heart disease and seek...... against the heart failure. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion and liver transplantation affect cardiac function in portal hypertensive patients and cause stress to the cirrhotic heart, with a risk of perioperative heart failure. The risk and prevalence of coronary artery disease...

  14. Parenteral Nutrition in Liver Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Chiarla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit a very large number of experiments have assessed the impact of various substrates on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, a limited number of clinical studies have evaluated artificial nutrition in liver resection patients. This is a peculiar topic because many patients do not need artificial nutrition, while several patients need it because of malnutrition and/or prolonged inability to feeding caused by complications. The optimal nutritional regimen to support liver regeneration, within other postoperative problems or complications, is not yet exactly defined. This short review addresses relevant aspects and potential developments in the issue of postoperative parenteral nutrition after liver resection.

  15. Death receptor and mitochondria-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis underlies liver dysfunction in rats exposed to organic pollutants from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghong; Zhou, Zhiwei; Cen, Yanli; Gui, Xiaolin; Zeng, Qibing; Ao, Yunxia; Li, Qian; Wang, Shiran; Li, Jun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants in drinking water impose a substantial risk to the health of human beings, but the evidence for liver toxic effect and the underlying mechanism is scarce. This study aimed to examine the liver toxicity and elucidate the molecular mechanism of organic pollutants in drinking water in normal human liver cell line L02 cells and rats. The data showed that organic extraction from drinking water remarkably impaired rat liver function, evident from the increase in the serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and cholinesterase, and decrease in the serum level of total protein and albumin. Organic extraction dose-dependently induced apoptotic cell death in rat liver and L02 cells. Administration of rats with organic extraction promoted death receptor signaling pathway through the increase in gene and protein expression level of Fas and FasL. Treatment of rats with organic extraction also induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via increasing the expression level of proapoptotic protein, Bax, but decreasing the expression level of antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, resulting in an upregulation of cytochrome c and activation of caspase cascade at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, organic extraction enhanced rat liver glutathione S-transferases activity and reactive oxygen species generation, and upregulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glutathione S-transferase A1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, the results indicate that organic extraction from drinking water impairs liver function, with the involvement of death receptor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in rats. The results provide evidence and molecular mechanisms for organic pollutants in drinking water-induced liver dysfunction, which may help prevent and treat organic extraction-induced liver injury. PMID:26316710

  16. Death receptor and mitochondria-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis underlies liver dysfunction in rats exposed to organic pollutants from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghong; Zhou, Zhiwei; Cen, Yanli; Gui, Xiaolin; Zeng, Qibing; Ao, Yunxia; Li, Qian; Wang, Shiran; Li, Jun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants in drinking water impose a substantial risk to the health of human beings, but the evidence for liver toxic effect and the underlying mechanism is scarce. This study aimed to examine the liver toxicity and elucidate the molecular mechanism of organic pollutants in drinking water in normal human liver cell line L02 cells and rats. The data showed that organic extraction from drinking water remarkably impaired rat liver function, evident from the increase in the serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and cholinesterase, and decrease in the serum level of total protein and albumin. Organic extraction dose-dependently induced apoptotic cell death in rat liver and L02 cells. Administration of rats with organic extraction promoted death receptor signaling pathway through the increase in gene and protein expression level of Fas and FasL. Treatment of rats with organic extraction also induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via increasing the expression level of proapoptotic protein, Bax, but decreasing the expression level of antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, resulting in an upregulation of cytochrome c and activation of caspase cascade at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, organic extraction enhanced rat liver glutathione S-transferases activity and reactive oxygen species generation, and upregulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glutathione S-transferase A1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, the results indicate that organic extraction from drinking water impairs liver function, with the involvement of death receptor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in rats. The results provide evidence and molecular mechanisms for organic pollutants in drinking water-induced liver dysfunction, which may help prevent and treat organic extraction-induced liver injury.

  17. CT liver volumetry using three-dimensional image data in living donor liver transplantation: Effects of slice thickness on volume calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Epstein, Mark L.; Baron, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate a relationship between slice thickness and calculated volume on CT liver volumetry by comparing the results for images with various slice thicknesses including three-dimensional images. Twenty adult potential liver donors (12 men, 8 women; mean age, 39 years; range, 24–64) underwent CT with a 64-section multi-detector row CT scanner after intra-venous injection of contrast material. Four image sets with slice thicknesses of 0.625 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm were used. First, a program developed in our laboratory for automated liver extraction was applied to CT images, and the liver boundary was obtained automatically. Then, an abdominal radiologist reviewed all images on which automatically extracted boundaries were superimposed, and edited the boundary on each slice to enhance the accuracy. Liver volumes were determined by counting of the voxels within the liver boundary. Mean whole liver volumes estimated with CT were 1322.5 cm3 on 0.625-mm, 1313.3 cm3 on 2.5-mm, 1310.3 cm3 on 5-mm, and 1268.2 cm3 on 10-mm images. Volumes calculated for three-dimensional (0.625-mm-thick) images were significantly larger than those for thicker images (Pvolumetry. If not, three-dimensional images could be essential. PMID:21850689

  18. When Your Child Needs a Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure is biliary atresia . This happens when the liver's bile ducts (tubes that carry bile out of the liver) ... the sick liver and put in the donated liver. Blood vessels and bile ducts from the new liver will be attached to ...

  19. Evaluation of selective boron absorption in liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaraviglio, D.; Grazia, F. De; Zonta, A.; Altieri, S.; Pedroni, P.; Braghieri, B.; Fossati, F.; Pinelli, T.; Perotti, A.; Specchiarello, S.; Perlini, G.; Rief, H.

    1988-01-01

    The first step was a pharmacokinetic study to identify substances which are good boron transporters and are therefore able to provide a high concentration of the nuclide with respect to the healthy hepatic tissue in the MHN. For this purpose the tumor M5076/73 (M5), which matastasizes spontaneously in liver, was inoculated subcutaneously in a group of C57B1/6 mice. Thirty days after the inoculation, when 90% of the liver was invaded by metastases, a boric acid 0.3 M solution enriched to 96% 10 B was injected into the caudal vein. The mice were sacrificed and the liver was frozen for measurements. Boron concentration in the various samples was achieved by measuring the energy distribution of α particles produced in the nuclear reaction 10 B(n, α) 7 Li induced by a thermal neutron beam extracted from the Triga Mark II reactor,

  20. Scintigraphic assessment of liver function in patients requiring liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cieślak, K.P.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis addresses various aspects of assessment of liver function using a quantitative liver function test, 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS). HBS enables direct measurement of at least one of the liver’s true processes with minimal external interference and offers the

  1. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert

    2008-01-01

    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.

  2. Potential Effect of Bacopa monnieri on Nitrobenzene Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, B. Rajalakshmy; Rathi, M. A.; Thirumoorthi, L.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri in acute experimental liver injury induced by Nitrobenzene in rats. The extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight was administered orally once every day for 10 days. The increased serum marker enzymes, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were restored towards normalization significantly by the extract. Significant increase in SOD, CAT and GPx was observ...

  3. Antifibrinolytics in liver surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalpa Makwana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperfibrinolysis, a known complication of liver surgery and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT, plays a significant role in blood loss. This fact justifies the use of antifibrinolytic drugs during these procedures. Two groups of drug namely lysine analogues [epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA and tranexamic acid (TA] and serine-protease-inhibitors (aprotinin are frequently used for this purpose. But uniform data or guidelines on the type of antifibrinolytic drugs to be used, their indications and correct dose, is still insufficient. Antifibrinolytics behave like a double-edged sword. On one hand, there are benefits of less transfusion requirements but on the other hand there is potential complication like thromboembolism, which has been reported in several studies. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Cochrane Library, and we included studies wherein antifibrinolytic drugs (EACA, TA, or aprotinin were compared with each other or with controls/placebo. We analysed factors like intraoperative red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma requirements, the perioperative incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis, venous thromboembolic events and mortality. Among the three drugs, EACA is least studied. Use of extensively studied drug like aprotinin has been restricted because of its side effects. Haemostatic effect of aprotinin and tranexamic acid has been comparable. However, proper patient selection and individualized treatment for each of them is required. Purpose of this review is to study various clinical trials on antifibrinolytic drugs and address the related issues like benefits claimed and associated potential complications.

  4. Infantile hemangioendothelioma of liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Choi, Choong Gon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-15

    Radiologic findings of hemangioendothelioma of the liver were retrospectively analyzed in twelve infants. The radiological examinations included were sonography in 12 patients, computed tomography (CT) in six, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in five, and angiography in two. Four patients were diagnosed pathologically, two by angiography, five by follow-up sonography, and one by clinical presentation with sonography. The common radiologic findings of the hemangioendothelioma were well circumscribed heterogeneous echogenic mass (75%) on sonography, peripheral massive enhancement (67%) on CT, bright high signal intensity on T2-weighted MR image (100%), and homogenous or peripheral enhancement (75%) on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted MR image. Dilated proximal aorta and enlarged draining hepatic veins on angiography and other studies were also important findings. The follow-up sonography demonstrated the involution of lesions with some calcification in four patients and complete resolution in one. The authors believe that these findings in an infant under the age of 6 months strongly suggest the diagnosis of hemangioendothelioma of the liver, and follow-up sonography should be done.

  5. Superpixel-based and boundary-sensitive convolutional neural network for automated liver segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wenjian; Wu, Jia; Han, Fei; Yuan, Yixuan; Zhao, Wei; Ibragimov, Bulat; Gu, Jia; Xing, Lei

    2018-05-01

    Segmentation of liver in abdominal computed tomography (CT) is an important step for radiation therapy planning of hepatocellular carcinoma. Practically, a fully automatic segmentation of liver remains challenging because of low soft tissue contrast between liver and its surrounding organs, and its highly deformable shape. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel superpixel-based and boundary sensitive convolutional neural network (SBBS-CNN) pipeline for automated liver segmentation. The entire CT images were first partitioned into superpixel regions, where nearby pixels with similar CT number were aggregated. Secondly, we converted the conventional binary segmentation into a multinomial classification by labeling the superpixels into three classes: interior liver, liver boundary, and non-liver background. By doing this, the boundary region of the liver was explicitly identified and highlighted for the subsequent classification. Thirdly, we computed an entropy-based saliency map for each CT volume, and leveraged this map to guide the sampling of image patches over the superpixels. In this way, more patches were extracted from informative regions (e.g. the liver boundary with irregular changes) and fewer patches were extracted from homogeneous regions. Finally, deep CNN pipeline was built and trained to predict the probability map of the liver boundary. We tested the proposed algorithm in a cohort of 100 patients. With 10-fold cross validation, the SBBS-CNN achieved mean Dice similarity coefficients of 97.31  ±  0.36% and average symmetric surface distance of 1.77  ±  0.49 mm. Moreover, it showed superior performance in comparison with state-of-art methods, including U-Net, pixel-based CNN, active contour, level-sets and graph-cut algorithms. SBBS-CNN provides an accurate and effective tool for automated liver segmentation. It is also envisioned that the proposed framework is directly applicable in other medical image segmentation scenarios.

  6. Nutritional support for liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Ronald L; Avenell, Alison; Lipman, Timothy O

    2012-05-16

    treatment; any nutrition provided to the controls; other interventions provided to the patients; number, sex, age of the study participants; hospital or outpatient status; underlying liver disease; risks of bias (sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome reporting, intention-to-treat analysis, selective outcome reporting, others (vested interests, baseline imbalance, early stopping)); mortality; hepatic morbidity (development or resolution of ascites or hepatic encephalopathy, occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding); quality of life scores; adverse events; infections; lengths of stay in the hospital or intensive care unit; costs; serum bilirubin; postoperative complications (surgical trials only); and nutritional outcomes (nitrogen balance, anthropometric measurements, body weight). The primary outcomes of this review were mortality, hepatic morbidity, quality of life, and adverse events. Data were extracted in duplicate; differences were resolved by consensus.Data for each outcome were combined in a meta-analysis (RevMan 5.1). Estimates were reported using risk ratios or mean differences, along with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Both fixed-effect and random-effects models were employed; fixed-effect models were reported unless one model, but not the other, found a significant difference (in which case both were reported). Heterogeneity was assessed by the Chi(2) test and I(2) statistic. Subgroup analyses were planned to assess specific liver diseases (alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma), acute or chronic liver diseases, and trials employing standard or branched-chain amino acid formulations (for the hepatic encephalopathy outcomes). Sensitivity analyses were planned to compare trials at low and high risk of bias and trials reported as full papers. The following exploratory analyses were undertaken: 1) medical and surgical trials were combined for each nutritional intervention; 2) intention-to-treat analyses in

  7. Epidemiology Of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Мартынова

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors of chronic liver disease is alcohol. The level of alcoholic liver disease incidence and cirrhosis mortality has increased considerably in the recent years in many countries. The risk of development and disease progression are determined by the effect of endogenous and exogenous factors: "drinking mode", female gender, heredity and genetic predisposition, obesity, concomitant viral hepatitis

  8. Hydroxycut-induced Liver Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jan-Feb 2014 | Vol 4 ... supplements can be responsible for documented or undocumented adverse drug effects. The ... Keywords: Hydroxycut, Liver toxicity, Nutritional supplements ... Caffeine anhydrous: 200 mg* ... series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss.

  9. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taourel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)], E-mail: p-taourel@chu-montpellier.fr; Vernhet, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Suau, A.; Granier, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Lopez, F.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Nimes (France); Aufort, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)

    2007-10-15

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications.

  10. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taourel, P.; Vernhet, H.; Suau, A.; Granier, C.; Lopez, F.M.; Aufort, S.

    2007-01-01

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications

  11. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  12. Leaching of Oil from Tuna Fish Liver by Using Solvent of Methyl-Ethyl Ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of oil leaching from Tuna Fish Liver has been carried out by extracting of tuna fish liver in soxhlet by using methyl-ethyl ketone as solvent. Liver of fresh tuna fish is blended, put into soxhlet, and extracted at temperatures of 60oC, 65oC, 70oC, 75oC, and 80oC. After obtaining the oil, separation between solvent and oil is carried out by distillation. Oil obtained is analyzed by testing the yield, acid number, Iodine value, viscosity, and its impurities content. Yield obtained is influenced by temperature and time of leaching. Both variables indicates that the higher the variables, the more fish liver oil obtained. Maximum yield obtained is 25.552% at operating condition of leaching temperature 80oC, and leaching duration of 5 hours.

  13. Radiation-induced liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, V.A.; Santiago-Delpin, E.A.; Lanaro, A.E.; Castro-Vita, H.; Arroyo, G.; Moscol, J.A.; Gomez, C.; Velazquez, J.; Prado, K.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer with or without chemotherapy, the risk of liver radiation damage has become a significant concern for the radiotherapist when the treated tumour is located in the upper abdomen or lower thorax. Clinically evident radiation liver damage may result in significant mortality, but at times patients recover without sequelae. The dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks to the entire liver with 5 fractions per week of 200 rads each, seems to be tolerated well clinically by adult humans. Lower doses may lead to damage when used in children, when chemotherapy is added, as in recent hepatectomy cases, and in the presence of pre-existent liver damage. Reduced fractionation may lead to increased damage. Increased fractionation, limitation of the dose delivered to the entire liver, and restriction of the high dose irradiation volume may afford protection. With the aim of studying the problems of hepatic radiation injury in humans, a project of liver irradiation in the dog is being conducted. Mongrel dogs are being conditioned, submitted to pre-irradiation studies (haemogram, blood chemistry, liver scan and biopsy), irradiated under conditions resembling human cancer therapy, and submitted to post-irradiation evaluation of the liver. Twenty-two dogs have been entered in the study but only four qualify for the evaluation of all the study parameters. It has been found that dogs are susceptible to liver irradiation damage similar to humans. The initial mortality has been high mainly due to non-radiation factors which are being kept under control at the present phase of the study. After the initial experiences, the study will involve variations in total dose and fractionation, and the addition of anticoagulant therapy for possible prevention of radiation liver injury. (author)

  14. The effect of phenobarbital on the transcriptional activity of liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardwick, J P; Schwalm, F; Richardson, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of phenobarbital on the transcriptional activity of liver was studied by measuring the synthesis of RNA by suspensions of hepatocytes isolated from rats treated with phenobarbital for various time periods. The absolute rates of RNA synthesis by isolated hepatocytes were determined by measuring the incorporation of [3H]orotic acid into RNA as UMP and the specific radioactivity of the UTP pool. The specific radioactivity of the UTP extracted from hepatocytes isolated from phenobarbit...

  15. Liver and water metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallot, P.

    1959-01-01

    The causes for the disturbance of hydro-electrolytic equilibrium observed in cirrhosis patients are far from clear. Studies on the static distribution of liquid in the organism and also on anomalies in the distribution of deuterium oxide and tritiated water provide no direct explanation of the nature of the water retaining mechanism. At the period when the illness is established, endocrine factors and electrolytic perturbations contribute to maintaining or increasing oliguresis, but they cannot be held solely responsible in the initial stages of evolution. An explanation of the ascites should therefore be looked for in a non-functioning of the polygonal or Kupffer cells. The hypothesis of an insufficient rejection of water outside the lymph spaces of the liver during cirrhosis is put forward, but the experimental demonstration of such a phenomenon proves very difficult. (author) [fr

  16. Hypertension and liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren

    2004-01-01

    to increased arterial blood pressure. Subjects with established arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin......Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic...... hemodynamics in cirrhosis. The most characteristic findings in cirrhotic patients are vasodilatation with low systemic vascular resistance, increased cardiac output, high arterial compliance, secondary activation of counterregulatory systems (sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...

  17. Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Patrizia; Zanetto, Alberto; Germani, Giacomo

    2018-02-09

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main important causes of cancer-related death and its mortality is increasingly worldwide. In Europe, alcohol abuse accounts for approximately half of all liver cancer cases and it will become the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the next future with the sharp decline of chronic viral hepatitis. The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis involves acetaldehyde catabolism, oxidative stress and chronic liver inflammation. Genetic background plays also a significant role and specific patterns of gene mutations in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized. Survival is higher in patients who undergo specific surveillance programmes than in patients who do not. However, patients with alcohol cirrhosis present a significantly greater risk of liver decompensation than those with cirrhosis due to other aetiologies. Furthermore, the adherence to screening program can be suboptimal. Liver transplant for patients with Milan-in hepatocellular carcinoma represents the best possible treatment in case of tumour recurrence/progression despite loco-regional or surgical treatments. Long-term result after liver transplantation for alcohol related liver disease is good. However, cardiovascular disease and de novo malignancies can significantly hamper patients' survival and should be carefully considered by transplant team. In this review, we have focused on the evolution of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma epidemiology and risk factors as well as on liver transplantation in alcoholic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Adelaine; Ortiz-Neira, Clara L.; Abou Reslan, Walid; Kaura, Deepak; Sharon, Raphael; Anderson, Ronald; Pinto-Rojas, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) typically presents with hepatomegaly and other signs of liver dysfunction. We present an 11-month-old child having only minimally elevated liver enzymes as an indication of liver involvement. Using sonography as the initial diagnostic tool followed by MRI, LCH of the liver was revealed. A review of sonographic, CT, MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography findings in liver LCH is presented. We recommend that physicians consider sonography and MRI screening for liver involvement in patients with newly diagnosed LCH, as periportal involvement may be present with little or no liver function abnormality present, as in this patient. (orig.)

  19. Correlation with liver scintigram, reticuloendothelial function test, plasma endotoxin level and liver function tests in chronic liver diseases. Multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Ideguchi, Seiji and others

    1989-02-01

    Liver scintigrams with Tc-99m phytate were reviewed in a total of 64 consecutive patients, comprising 28 with chronic hepatitis and 36 with liver cirrhosis. Reticuloendothelial (RES) function, plasma endotoxin (Et) levels and findings of general liver function tests were used as reference parameters to determine the diagnostic ability of liver scintigraphy. Multivariate analyses revealed that liver scintigrams had a strong correlation with RES function and Et levels in terms of morphology of the liver and hepatic and bone marrow Tc-99m uptake. General liver function tests revealed gamma globulin to be correlated with hepatic uptake and the degree of splenogemaly on liver scintigrams; and ICG levels at 15 min to be correlated with bone marrow and splenic uptake. Accuracy of liver scintigraphy was 73% for chronic hepatitis, which was inferior to general liver function tests (83%). When both modalities were combined, diangostic accuracy increased to 95%. Liver scintigraphy seems to be useful as a complementary approach. (Namekawa, K).

  20. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Adansonia digitata Extract on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Hanafy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae was examined for its hepatoprotective activity against liver damage induced by acetaminophen in rats. The principle depends on the fact that administration of acetaminophen will be associated with development of oxidative stress. In addition, hepatospecific serum markers will be disturbed. Treatment of the rats with the methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. prior to administration of acetaminophen significantly reduced the disturbance in liver function. Liver functions were measured by assessment of total protein, total bilirubin, ALP, ALT, and AST. Oxidative stress parameter and antioxidant markers were also evaluated. Moreover, histopathological evaluation was performed in order to assess liver case regarding inflammatory infiltration or necrosis. Animals were observed for any symptoms of toxicity after administration of extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. to ensure safety of the fruit extract.

  1. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Nauclea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2014; 13 (1): 109-115 ... Purpose: To determine the dose – toxicity profile of the aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia stem bark. (AQE). ... cause single-strand breaks in liver, kidney and.

  2. Assessment of oral safety profile of aqueous extract blend of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following treatment with the extract of the spice blend. Histological examinations of ... arthritic pains, in the treatment of hyperglycaemia .... Thin sections of the liver already fixed in 10 % formalin were ..... Elsevier Saunders; 2011; chap 14. 22.

  3. Alpha-Lipoic acid counteracts the promoted oxidative DNA damage in the liver of septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Allah, Adel R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Viral, parasitic infections and chemical carcinogens are among the etiological factors of liver cancer. It seems important to study the initiating and promoting agents to evaluate the etiology and prevention of such life threatening disease. Intestine-derived bacteria product, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is mainly detoxified by the liver. It has shown to induce a state of oxidative DNA damage is not fully investigated. Increased oxidative DNA damage and rate of cell proliferation may initiate or even promote cancer. In the present work, the capability of LPS to induce 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-HDG), a specific DNA adduct for oxidative DNA damage, in rat livers is tested. Furthermore, a possible protective effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is also assessed. Investigated parameters are liver contents of glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxides (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and 8-HDG in the liver-extracted DNA. Serum activities of ALT, AST and GGT as liver-function markers as well as IL2 are assessed. Moreover, liver histology is examined. LPS was given doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mg/kg once i.p. while, the rat mortality was examined 24 hours later. ALA was given in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg once i.p. 3h before LPS is found to be 5mg/kg. LPS increased the level of 8-HDG, MDA and NO in the liver. It also induced acute liver necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration as shown in liver-histopathology and in the significant increase in the activities of ALT, AST and GGT. LPS increased the serum level of IL2 as well. The dose 200mg/kg of ALA revealed a 100% protection against LPS-induced lethality. It also, prevented the LPS-induced increase in 8-HDG in liver extracted DNA, the liver contents of MDA and NO. ALA also rescued the LPS-induced GSH depletion. It corrected the liver function as shown by the prevention of increases in the activity of ALT, AST and GGT with a remarkable improvement in the liver histology. Moreover, it prevented the increase in serum level of IL2. These

  4. Efficacy of Boesenbergia rotunda Treatment against Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy M. Salama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Experimental research in hepatology has focused on developing traditional medicines into potential pharmacological solutions aimed at protecting liver from cirrhosis. Along the same line, this study investigated the effects of ethanol-based extract from a traditional medicine plant Boesenbergia rotunda (BR on liver cirrhosis. Methodology/Results. The BR extract was tested for toxicity on 3 groups of rats subjected to vehicle (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg and 2g/kg and 5g/kg doses of the extract, respectively. Next, experiments were conducted on a rat model of cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide injection. The rats were divided into five groups and, respectively, administered orally with 10% Tween-20 (5 mL/kg (normal control group, 10% Tween-20 (5 mL/kg (cirrhosis control group, 50 mg/kg of silymarin (reference control group, and 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of BR extract (experimental groups daily for 8 weeks. The rats in normal group were intraperitoneally injected with sterile distilled water (1 mL/kg 3 times/week, and those in the remaining groups were injected intraperitoneally with thioacetamide (200 mg/kg thrice weekly. At the end of the 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and samples were collected for comprehensive histopathological, coagulation profile and biochemical evaluations. Also, the antioxidant activity of the BR extract was determined and compared with that of silymarin. Data from the acute toxicity tests showed that the extract was safe to use. Histological analysis of the livers of the rats in cirrhosis control group revealed uniform coarse granules on their surfaces, hepatocytic necrosis, and lymphocytes infiltration. But, the surfaces morphologically looked much smoother and the cell damage was much lesser in those livers from the normal control, silymarin and BR-treated groups. In the high-dose BR treatment group, the livers of the rats exhibited nearly normal looking lobular architecture, minimal inflammation

  5. Liver Development, Regeneration, and Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet W. C. Kung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of putative liver stem cells has brought closer the previously separate fields of liver development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis. Significant overlaps in the regulation of these processes are now being described. For example, studies in embryonic liver development have already provided the basis for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. As a result, the understanding of the cell biology of proliferation and differentiation in the liver has been improved. This knowledge can be used to improve the function of hepatocyte-like cells for drug testing, bioartificial livers, and transplantation. In parallel, the mechanisms regulating cancer cell biology are now clearer, providing fertile soil for novel therapeutic approaches. Recognition of the relationships between development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis, and the increasing evidence for the role of stem cells in all of these areas, has sparked fresh enthusiasm in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and has led to new targeted therapies for liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancers.

  6. Arrhythmia risk in liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between the functioning of the heart andthe liver have been described, with heart diseasesaffecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart,and conditions that simultaneously affect both. Theheart is one of the most adversely affected organs inpatients with liver cirrhosis. For example, arrhythmiasand electrocardiographic changes are observed inpatients with liver cirrhosis. The risk for arrhythmia isinfluenced by factors such as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy,cardiac ion channel remodeling, electrolyte imbalances,impaired autonomic function, hepatorenal syndrome, metabolic abnormalities, advanced age, inflammatory syndrome, stressful events, impaired drug metabolism and comorbidities. Close monitoring of cirrhotic patients is needed for arrhythmias, particularly when QT intervalprolonging drugs are given, or if electrolyte imbalances or hepatorenal syndrome appear. Arrhythmia risk may persist after liver transplantation due to possible QT interval prolongation, persistence of the parasympathetic impairment, post-transplant reperfusion and chronic immunosuppression, as well as consideration of the fact that the transplant itself is a stressful event for the cardiovascular system. The aims of the present article were to provide a review of the most important data regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and biomarkers of arrhythmia risk in patients with liver cirrhosis, to elucidate the association with long-term outcome, and to propose future research directions.

  7. Automated diagnosis of focal liver lesions using bidirectional empirical mode decomposition features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Koh, Joel En Wei; Hagiwara, Yuki; Tan, Jen Hong; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Yaakup, Nur Adura; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Bin Mohd Fabell, Mohd Kamil; Yeong, Chai Hong

    2018-03-01

    Liver is the heaviest internal organ of the human body and performs many vital functions. Prolonged cirrhosis and fatty liver disease may lead to the formation of benign or malignant lesions in this organ, and an early and reliable evaluation of these conditions can improve treatment outcomes. Ultrasound imaging is a safe, non-invasive, and cost-effective way of diagnosing liver lesions. However, this technique has limited performance in determining the nature of the lesions. This study initiates a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to aid radiologists in an objective and more reliable interpretation of ultrasound images of liver lesions. In this work, we have employed radon transform and bi-directional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) to extract features from the focal liver lesions. After which, the extracted features were subjected to particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique for the selection of a set of optimized features for classification. Our automated CAD system can differentiate normal, malignant, and benign liver lesions using machine learning algorithms. It was trained using 78 normal, 26 benign and 36 malignant focal lesions of the liver. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of lesion classification were 92.95%, 90.80%, and 97.44%, respectively. The proposed CAD system is fully automatic as no segmentation of region-of-interest (ROI) is required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Jaundice and pathological liver values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-06-05

    Jaundice corresponds to elevated bilirubin- levels, whereat one has to distinguish between direct and indirect serum-bilirubin. In the present Mini Review causes and differential diagnosis of jaundice are outlined. Ultrasound-diagnostic plays a major role in identifying intrahepatic or extrahepatic jaundice. Attention is given to the differential diagnosis of elevated liver enzymes in presence of jaundice, pointing out the distinction between hepatocellular and cholestatic parameters as well as the differentiation in acute or chronic increase. Moreover, the consequences of liver enzyme elevations including further diagnostic procedures, are highlighted. Finally, possibilities and limitations of modern diagnostic tests for liver fibrosis are briefly overviewed.

  9. Dr. Liver: A preoperative planning system of liver graft volumetry for living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jae Do; Yu, Hee Chul; Choi, Younggeun; Yang, Kwangho; Lee, Tae Beom; Hwang, Hong Pil; Ahn, Sungwoo; You, Heecheon

    2018-05-01

    Manual tracing of the right and left liver lobes from computed tomography (CT) images for graft volumetry in preoperative surgery planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is common at most medical centers. This study aims to develop an automatic system with advanced image processing algorithms and user-friendly interfaces for liver graft volumetry and evaluate its accuracy and efficiency in comparison with a manual tracing method. The proposed system provides a sequential procedure consisting of (1) liver segmentation, (2) blood vessel segmentation, and (3) virtual liver resection for liver graft volumetry. Automatic segmentation algorithms using histogram analysis, hybrid level-set methods, and a customized region growing method were developed. User-friendly interfaces such as sequential and hierarchical user menus, context-sensitive on-screen hotkey menus, and real-time sound and visual feedback were implemented. Blood vessels were excluded from the liver for accurate liver graft volumetry. A large sphere-based interactive method was developed for dividing the liver into left and right lobes with a customized cutting plane. The proposed system was evaluated using 50 CT datasets in terms of graft weight estimation accuracy and task completion time through comparison to the manual tracing method. The accuracy of liver graft weight estimation was assessed by absolute difference (AD) and percentage of AD (%AD) between preoperatively estimated graft weight and intraoperatively measured graft weight. Intra- and inter-observer agreements of liver graft weight estimation were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) using ten cases randomly selected. The proposed system showed significantly higher accuracy and efficiency in liver graft weight estimation (AD = 21.0 ± 18.4 g; %AD = 3.1% ± 2.8%; percentage of %AD > 10% = none; task completion time = 7.3 ± 1.4 min) than the manual tracing method (AD = 70

  10. 3-Tesla MRI Response to TACE in HCC (Liver Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage A Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage B Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)

  11. Increased diacylglycerols characterize hepatic lipid changes in progression of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; comparison to a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorden, D Lee; Ivanova, Pavlina T; Myers, David S; McIntyre, J Oliver; VanSaun, Michael N; Wright, J Kelly; Matrisian, Lynn M; Brown, H Alex

    2011-01-01

    The spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and progression to cirrhosis. While differences in liver lipids between disease states have been reported, precise composition of phospholipids and diacylglycerols (DAG) at a lipid species level has not been previously described. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in lipid species through progression of human NAFLD using advanced lipidomic technology and compare this with a murine model of early and advanced NAFLD. Utilizing mass spectrometry lipidomics, over 250 phospholipid and diacylglycerol species (DAGs) were identified in normal and diseased human and murine liver extracts. Significant differences between phospholipid composition of normal and diseased livers were demonstrated, notably among DAG species, consistent with previous reports that DAG transferases are involved in the progression of NAFLD and liver fibrosis. In addition, a novel phospholipid species (ether linked phosphatidylinositol) was identified in human cirrhotic liver extracts. Using parallel lipidomics analysis of murine and human liver tissues it was determined that mice maintained on a high-fat diet provide a reproducible model of NAFLD in regards to specificity of lipid species in the liver. These studies demonstrated that novel lipid species may serve as markers of advanced liver disease and importantly, marked increases in DAG species are a hallmark of NAFLD. Elevated DAGs may contribute to altered triglyceride, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) levels characteristic of the disease and specific DAG species might be important lipid signaling molecules in the progression of NAFLD.

  12. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  13. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549, breast (MCF-7, liver (HepG2 and colon (HT-29 cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  14. Probabilistic liver atlas construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E

    2017-01-13

    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  15. Radiology of liver circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermine, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book proposes that careful evaluation of the arterioportogram is the cornerstone in assessing portal flow obstruction, being the most consistent of all observations including liver histology, portal venous pressure, size and number of portosystemic collaterals, and wedged hepatic venous pressure. Very brief chapters cover normal hepatic circulation and angiographic methods. Contrast volumes and flow rates for celiac, hepatic, and superior mesenteric injection are given, with the timing for venous phase radiographs. In the main body of the text, portal obstruction is divided very simply into presinusoidal (all proximal causes) and postsinusoidal (all distal causes, including Budd-Chiari). Changes are discussed regarding the splenic artery and spleen; hepatic artery and its branches; portal flow rate and direction; and arterioportal shunting and portosystemic collateral circulation in minimal, moderate, severe, and very severe portal obstruction and in recognizable entities such as prehepatic portal and hepatic venous obstructions. The major emphasis in this section is the recognition and understanding of flow changes by which level and severity of obstruction are assessed (not simply the anatomy of portosystemic collateral venous flow). Excellent final chapters discuss the question of portal hypertension without obstruction, and the contribution of arterioportography to the treatment of portal hypertension, again with an emphasis on hemodynamics before and after shunt surgery. There is a fascinating final chapter on segmental intrahepatic obstruction without portal hypertension that explains much of the unusual contrast enhancement sometimes seen in CT scanning of hepatic mass lesions

  16. Drug-induced liver injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... liver failure in the developed world and a prominent aetiological factor ... most drugs is not known and several epidemiological studies have had major ... eosinophilia, are also pointers towards the cause of the injury and are.

  17. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  19. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    Literature on liver morphology in untreated obesity reveals varying prevalences of various pathological findings. The purpose of this literature study was to summarize and evaluate the published observations and to discuss discrepant findings. A complete search was aimed at utilizing bibliographic...... methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...... of obesity, age, sex, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus) does not point towards a single causal factor. Co-influence of additional pathogenetic factors are likely in the development of liver changes in morbid obesity....

  20. Kava Linked to Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of these countries to remove kava from the market. Although liver damage appears to be rare, the ... are marketed to men, women, children, and the elderly. Advice to Consumers Safety is a concern for ...

  1. Smoking and risk of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie Kamstrup; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Eliasen, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is the most acknowledged risk factor for liver cirrhosis. Smoking is rarely considered to be a cause of liver cirrhosis even though a few studies have suggested the opposite. The aim of this study was to assess the independent effect of smoking on alcoholic liver cirrhosis and liver...

  2. Burden of liver disease in Europe: epidemiology and analysis of risk factors to identify prevention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpin, Laura; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Negro, Francesco; Corbould, Emily; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Webber, Laura; Sheron, Nick

    2018-05-16

    The burden of liver disease in Europe continues to grow. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of liver diseases and their risk factors in European countries, and identify public health interventions that could impact on these risk factors to reduce the burden of liver disease. As part of the HEPAHEALTH project, commissioned by EASL, we extracted information on historical and current prevalence and mortality from national and international literature and databases on liver disease in 35 countries in the WHO European region, as well as historical and recent prevalence data on their main determinants; alcohol consumption, obesity and hepatitis B and C virus infections. We extracted information from peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify public health interventions targeting these risk factors. The epidemiology of liver disease is diverse and countries cluster with similar pictures, although the exact composition of diseases and the trends in risk factors which drive them is varied. Prevalence and mortality data indicate that increasing cirrhosis and liver cancer may be linked to dramatic increases in harmful alcohol consumption in Northern European countries, and viral hepatitis epidemics in Eastern and Southern European countries. Countries with historically low levels of liver disease may experience an increase in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the future, given the rise of obesity across the majority of European countries. Interventions exist for curbing harmful alcohol use, reducing obesity, preventing or treating viral hepatitis, and screening for liver disease at an early stage. Liver disease in Europe is a serious issue, with increasing cirrhosis and liver cancer. The public health and hepatology communities are uniquely placed to implement measures aimed at reducing their causes: harmful alcohol consumption, child and adult obesity prevalence and chronic infection with hepatitis viruses, which will in turn reduce the burden of liver disease. The

  3. Computed tomography after liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, D.E.; Costello, P.

    1992-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation is commonly performed at many institutions around the world. The care of these critically ill patients has heavily relied upon cross-sectional imaging, specifically CT. CT is of enormous benefit in the postoperative management of the various complications which is common in this group of patients. This article reviews the role of CT and its respective strengths and weaknesses, in the adult liver transplant recipient. (orig.) [de

  4. Ventilatory strategy during liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Grocott, Hilary P; Niemann, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) may be reduced by hyperventilation in the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation surgery (LTx). Conversely, the brain may be subjected to hyperperfusion during reperfusion of the grafted liver. We investig......, this retrospective analysis suggests that attention to maintain a targeted EtCO2 would result in a more stable ScO2 during the operation....

  5. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    -epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  6. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Craig J.; Barve, Shirish S.; Barve, Ashutosh; Marsano, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition, both protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and deficiencies in individual nutrients, is a frequent complication of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Severity of malnutrition correlates with severity of ALD. Malnutrition also occurs in patients with cirrhosis due to etiologies other than alcohol. The mechanisms for malnutrition are multifactorial, and malnutrition frequently worsens in the hospital due to fasting for procedures and metabolic complications of liver disease, such as hepat...

  7. Radiological diagnosis of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty patients treated with an intra-arterial cytostatic drug for metastases from colo-rectal carcinoma were evaluated with angiography to determine prognostic parameters. The extent of tumour in the liver and an unchanged or diminished tumour volume following treatment, as demonstrated with angiography, were associated with significant prolongation of survival. Patients who developed occlusion of the hepatic artery or of branches of the portal vein, also survived longer. 189 patients examined with angiography, 161 with computed tomography (CT), 95 with computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) and 71 with ultrasound (US) were subjected to liver evaluation at laparotomy consisting of inspection and palpation. The result of this surgical liver evaluation was for the purpose of the study regarded as completely accurate and was used to assess the accuracy of the different radiological methods. The location of tumour in the liver lobes or segments was analysed, with a separate evaluation of the right and left liver lobes. The rate of detection of individual tumour nodules was also determined. Angiography detected 55% of liver areas affected by tumour and 47% of individual tumour nodules. CT detected 83% of liver lobes or segments containing tumour, and 70% of the tumour nodules. US detected 69% of the portions of liver holding tumour, and also 69% of the tumour nodules. CTA detected 85% of tumours areas and 74% of separate tumour nodules. Some lesions detected with CT were not seen with CTA and vice versa. More false-positive results were recorded with CTA than with CT using intravenous contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  8. Drug-induced liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mille Bækdal; Ytting, Henriette; Skalshøi Kjær, Mette

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The idiosyncratic subtype of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare reaction to medical treatment that in severe cases can lead to acute liver failure and death. The aim of this study was to describe the presentation and outcome of DILI and to identify potential predictive factors...... that DILI may be severe and run a fatal course, and that bilirubin and INR levels may predict poor outcome....

  9. Energy Metabolism in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial β oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

  10. Computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in CT by means of geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Epstein, Mark L.; Obajuluwa, Ademola M.; Xu Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Computerized liver extraction from hepatic CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in hepatic CT. Methods: The authors developed a computerized liver extraction scheme based on geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set contour evolution. First, an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to portal-venous-phase CT images for noise reduction while preserving the liver structure, followed by a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance the liver boundaries. Then, a nonlinear grayscale converter enhanced the contrast of the liver parenchyma. By using the liver-parenchyma-enhanced image as a speed function, a fast-marching level-set algorithm generated an initial contour that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic active contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour evolution refined the initial contour to define the liver boundaries more precisely. The liver volume was then calculated using these refined boundaries. Hepatic CT scans of 15 prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multidetector CT system. The liver volumes extracted by the computerized scheme were compared to those traced manually by a radiologist, used as ''gold standard.''Results: The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1504 cc, whereas the mean gold standard manual volume was 1457 cc, resulting in a mean absolute difference of 105 cc (7.2%). The computer-estimated liver volumetrics agreed excellently with the gold-standard manual volumetrics (intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (F=0.77; p(F{<=}f)=0.32). The average accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and percent volume error were 98.4%, 91.1%, 99.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. Computerized CT liver volumetry would require substantially less

  11. Computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in CT by means of geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Epstein, Mark L.; Obajuluwa, Ademola M.; Xu Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Computerized liver extraction from hepatic CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in hepatic CT. Methods: The authors developed a computerized liver extraction scheme based on geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set contour evolution. First, an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to portal-venous-phase CT images for noise reduction while preserving the liver structure, followed by a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance the liver boundaries. Then, a nonlinear grayscale converter enhanced the contrast of the liver parenchyma. By using the liver-parenchyma-enhanced image as a speed function, a fast-marching level-set algorithm generated an initial contour that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic active contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour evolution refined the initial contour to define the liver boundaries more precisely. The liver volume was then calculated using these refined boundaries. Hepatic CT scans of 15 prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multidetector CT system. The liver volumes extracted by the computerized scheme were compared to those traced manually by a radiologist, used as ''gold standard.''Results: The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1504 cc, whereas the mean gold standard manual volume was 1457 cc, resulting in a mean absolute difference of 105 cc (7.2%). The computer-estimated liver volumetrics agreed excellently with the gold-standard manual volumetrics (intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (F=0.77; p(F≤f)=0.32). The average accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and percent volume error were 98.4%, 91.1%, 99.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. Computerized CT liver volumetry would require substantially less completion time

  12. Multimodality postoperative imaging of liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, Giulia A.; Pedrosa, Ivan; Kruskal, Jonathan B.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the only effective and definitive treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. The shortage of cadaveric livers has lead to the increasing use of split-liver transplantation and living-donor liver transplantation, but the expansion of the donor pool has increased the risk for postoperative vascular and biliary complications. Early recognition of the imaging appearances of the various postoperative complications of liver transplantation is crucial for both graft and patient survival. This review describes the imaging findings of normal and abnormal transplanted liver parenchyma and of vascular and biliary post-transplantation complications. (orig.)

  13. Autoimmune liver disease and therapy in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Homan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the liver. In childhood, autoimmune liver disorders include autoimmune hepatitis type I and II, autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, Coombs-positive giant cell hepatitis, and de novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation. Autoimmune liver disease has a more aggressive course in children, especially autoimmune hepatitis type II. Standard therapy is a combination of corticosteroids and azathioprine. Around 80 % of children with autoimmune liver disease show a rapid response to combination therapy. The non-responders are treated with more potent drugs, otherwise autoimmune disease progresses to cirrhosis of the liver and the child needs liver transplantation as rescue therapy.

  14. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-15

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  15. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  16. The role of IL6 in liver cancer linked to metabolic liver disease ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The role of IL6 in liver cancer linked to metabolic liver disease. Liver cancer is highly fatal, it has very few treatment options, and it is one of the few cancers whose incidence is rising worldwide. One poorly understood risk factor for liver cancer is obesity/metabolic disease (such as diabetes and fatty liver disease).

  17. Plant extracts used as growth promoters in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSR Barreto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of plant extracts as alternatives for antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler diets. The performance experiment included 1,200 male broilers raised from 1 to 42 days of age. The metabolism experiment used 96 male broilers in the grower phase housed in metabolic cages for total excreta collection. At the end of the metabolism experiment, 24 birds were sacrificed to assess organ morphometrics. In both experiments, the following treatments were applied: control diet (CD; CD + 10 ppm avilamycin; CD + 1000 ppm oregano extract; CD + 1000 ppm clove extract; CD + 1000 ppm cinnamon extract; and CD + 1000 ppm red pepper extract. The microencapsulated extracts contained 20% of essential oil. No significant differences (P>0.05 in the studied performance parameters were observed among treatments. The dietary supplementation of the extracts did not influence (P>0.05 nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values. In general, organ morphometrics was not affected by the experimental treatments, but birds fed the control diet had higher liver relative weight (P<0.05 as compared to those fed the diet containing red pepper extract, which presented the lowest liver relative weight. These results showed that there was no effect of the tested plant extracts on live performance or in organ morphometrics.

  18. Metabonomics Research Progress on Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengqian; Zhu, Ying; Cong, Qingwei; Wu, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics as the new omics technique develops after genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and has rapid development at present. Liver diseases are worldwide public health problems. In China, chronic hepatitis B and its secondary diseases are the common liver diseases. They can be diagnosed by the combination of history, virology, liver function, and medical imaging. However, some patients seldom have relevant physical examination, so the diagnosis may be delayed. Many other liver diseases, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and autoimmune liver diseases, still do not have definite diagnostic markers; the diagnosis consists of history, medical imaging, and the relevant score. As a result, the clinical work becomes very complex. So it has broad prospects to explore the specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver diseases with metabolomics. In this paper, there are several summaries which are related to the current research progress and application of metabolomics on biomarkers of liver diseases.

  19. Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Our Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months-17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson's disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature.

  20. Nutritional Therapy in Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hammad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging. Preoperative loss of skeletal muscle mass, namely, sarcopenia, has a significant detrimental impact on post-transplant outcomes. It is essential to provide sufficient nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation. Oral nutrition is preferred, but tube enteral nutrition may be required to provide the needed energy intake. Herein, the latest currently employed perioperative nutritional interventions in liver transplant recipients are thoroughly illustrated including synbiotics, micronutrients, branched-chain amino acid supplementation, immunonutrition formulas, fluid and electrolyte balance, the offering of nocturnal meals, dietary counselling, exercise and rehabilitation.

  1. HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS IN LIVER DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Minov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an essential player in the pathway of coagulation in both primary and secondary hemostasis as it is the site of synthesis of all coagulation factors and their inhibitors. Liver diseases are associated with complex changes in coagulation and the delicate balance between pro and antithrombotic factors is preserved but reset to a lower level. There is growing evidence that portal and hepatic vein thrombosis is cause of disease progression in cirrhotic patients and worsens hemostatic abnormalities. These hemostatic abnormalities do not always lead to spontaneous bleeding, which may be triggered only by additional factors, such as infections. Usually therapy for coagulation disorders in liver disease is needed only during bleeding or before invasive procedures. In patients with end stage liver disease liver transplantation is the only treatment available, which can restore normal hemostasis, and correct genetic clotting defects. During liver transplantation hemorrhage may occur due to the pre-existing hypocoagulable state, the collateral circulation caused by portal hypertension and increased fibrinolysis. 

  2. Serum microRNA-122 predicts survival in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Waidmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRs circulating in the blood are an emerging new class of biomarkers. In particular, the serum level of the liver-specific miR-122 might be a clinically useful new parameter in patients with acute or chronic liver disease. AIM: Here we investigated if the serum level of miR-122 might be a prognostic parameter in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: 107 patients with liver cirrhosis in the test cohort and 143 patients in the validation cohort were prospectively enrolled into the present study. RNA was extracted from the sera obtained at the time of study enrollment and the level of miR-122 was assessed. Serum miR-122 levels were assessed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR and were compared to overall survival time and to different complications of liver cirrhosis. RESULTS: Serum miR-122 levels were reduced in patients with hepatic decompensation in comparison to patients with compensated liver disease. Patients with ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome had significantly lower miR-122 levels than patients without these complications. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the miR-122 serum levels were associated with survival independently from the MELD score, sex and age. CONCLUSIONS: Serum miR-122 is a new independent marker for prediction of survival of patients with liver cirrhosis.

  3. Digital quantification of fibrosis in liver biopsy sections: description of a new method by Photoshop software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahab, Gamal M; Kheriza, Mohamed M; El-Beltagi, Hussien M; Fouda, Abdel-Motaal M; El-Din, Osama A Sharaf

    2004-01-01

    The precise quantification of fibrous tissue in liver biopsy sections is extremely important in the classification, diagnosis and grading of chronic liver disease, as well as in evaluating the response to antifibrotic therapy. Because the recently described methods of digital image analysis of fibrosis in liver biopsy sections have major flaws, including the use of out-dated techniques in image processing, inadequate precision and inability to detect and quantify perisinusoidal fibrosis, we developed a new technique in computerized image analysis of liver biopsy sections based on Adobe Photoshop software. We prepared an experimental model of liver fibrosis involving treatment of rats with oral CCl4 for 6 weeks. After staining liver sections with Masson's trichrome, a series of computer operations were performed including (i) reconstitution of seamless widefield images from a number of acquired fields of liver sections; (ii) image size and solution adjustment; (iii) color correction; (iv) digital selection of a specified color range representing all fibrous tissue in the image and; (v) extraction and calculation. This technique is fully computerized with no manual interference at any step, and thus could be very reliable for objectively quantifying any pattern of fibrosis in liver biopsy sections and in assessing the response to antifibrotic therapy. It could also be a valuable tool in the precise assessment of antifibrotic therapy to other tissue regardless of the pattern of tissue or fibrosis.

  4. Silymarin/Silybin and Chronic Liver Disease: A Marriage of Many Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Federico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silymarin is the extract of Silybum marianum, or milk thistle, and its major active compound is silybin, which has a remarkable biological effect. It is used in different liver disorders, particularly chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic power. Indeed, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin is oriented towards the reduction of virus-related liver damages through inflammatory cascade softening and immune system modulation. It also has a direct antiviral effect associated with its intravenous administration in hepatitis C virus infection. With respect to alcohol abuse, silymarin is able to increase cellular vitality and to reduce both lipid peroxidation and cellular necrosis. Furthermore, silymarin/silybin use has important biological effects in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These substances antagonize the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, by intervening in various therapeutic targets: oxidative stress, insulin resistance, liver fat accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Silymarin is also used in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma that represent common end stages of different hepatopathies by modulating different molecular patterns. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine scientific studies concerning the effects derived from silymarin/silybin use in chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of hexane root extract of Alchornea laxiflora in sodium arsenate toxicity in wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Esosa Samuel Uhunmwangho; Nurudeen Olajide Rasaq; Iyanuoluwa Olubukola Osikoya

    2018-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are have been used in the treatment of myriad disease conditions, Alchornea laxiflora is one of such medicinal plant. Aim: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of hexane root extract of Alchornea laxiflora against sodium arsenate induced liver damage in wistar male rats. Setting and Design: Extraction and administration of bioactive extract. Materials and Methods: Extraction of air-dried ground root of Alchornea laxiflora was done by extracting 500 g with 50...

  6. Donor-derived infections among Chinese donation after cardiac death liver recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qi-Fa; Zhou, Wei; Wan, Qi-Quan

    2017-08-21

    To investigate blood cultures of deceased donors and report the confirmed transmission of bacterial infection from donors to liver recipients. We retrospectively studied the results of blood cultures among our donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors and calculated the donor-derived bacterial infection rates among liver recipients. Study participants underwent liver transplantation between January 1, 2010 and February 1, 2017. The study involved a total of 67 recipients of liver grafts from 67 DCD donors. We extracted the data of donors' and patients' characteristics, culture results and clinical outcomes, especially the post-transplant complications in liver recipients, from electronic medical records. We analyzed the characteristics of the donors and the corresponding liver recipients with emphasis put on donor-derived infections. Head trauma was the most common origin of death among our 67 DCD donors (46.3%). Blood taken prior to the procurement operation was cultured for 53 of the donors, with 17 episodes of bloodstream infections developing from 13 donors. The predominant organism isolated from the blood of donors was Gram-positive bacteria (70.6%). Only three (4.5%) of 67 liver recipients developed confirmed donor-derived bacterial infections, with two isolates of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and one isolate of multidrug-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes. The liver recipients with donor-derived infections showed relation to higher crude mortality and graft loss rates (33.3% each) within 3 mo post transplantation, as compared to those without donor-derived infections (9.4% and 4.7%, respectively). All three liver recipients received appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Liver recipients have high occurrence of donor-derived infections. The liver recipients with donor-derived multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections can have good outcome if appropriate antimicrobial therapy is given.

  7. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Some of the Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cnidoscolous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment for numerous ailments ranging from its ability to strengthen fingernails and darken gray hair to curing alcoholism, insomnia, gout, and scorpion stings. This study was to elucidate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius commonly used as food supplement on the kidney and liver of Sprague ...

  9. The Effect Of Hexane Extract Of Azidirachta indica Leaves On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved Neubauer's chamber was used to determine the testicular sperm reserve. The right testis, liver, kidney and spleen were routinely prepared for light microscopy. The control mice had significantly higher (P<0.05) testicular sperm reserve than the treatment group mice, which received the highest dose of the extract.

  10. Antifungal and Antihepatotoxic Effects of Sepia Ink Extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a great need for novel strategies to overcome the high mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised patients. To evaluate the antifungal and antihepatotoxic potentials of Sepia ink extract, its effect on liver oxidative stress levels was analyzed against IPA in ...

  11. The effect of aqueous extract of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, average weight, ...

  12. Hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (onion) extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver damage due to paracetamol hepatotoxicity is a major health challenge worldwide. It is against this background that this study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effects of the increasing dosage of Allium cepa methanolic extracts on paracetamol induced hepatotoxic rats. Fifty-four (54) adult male albino ...

  13. Alchornea cordifolia extract protects wistar albino rats against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The administration of 200-500 mg/kg A. cordifolia leaf extract for 2 weeks produced a significant dose-dependent curative/preventive effect on acetaminophen-nduced liver toxicity as reflected by the above biochemical markers. The protective effect compared favorably with putative antioxidant agents such as curcumin and ...

  14. Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    the extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves has protective effect against CCl4 induced liver toxicity and damage. ... our literature search, no report has been given on the effect of the plant .... We could not explain this trend in the result. Total and.

  15. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six . Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days ...

  16. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root was studied on rats. The indices of the study were the liver enzymes (transaminases), cholesterol, creatinine and urea serum levels as well as the ionic analysis. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a ...

  17. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of carmona microphylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Pharmacology, Hainan Medical University, School of ... Purpose: To investigate the hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of ... HepG2 liver cells, as well as in high-fat diet (HFD)- and triton WR-1339 ... antidote to food poisoning [14,15]. In the ..... atorvastatin (p.o. 5 mg/kg); C. microphylla aqueous.

  18. Effect of Calitropis Procera Aqueous Root Extract Against CCL4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR

    ABSTRACT. The hepatocurative effect of aqueous root extract of Calitropis Procera on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits was studied in groups of rabbit and the levels of liver enzymes; aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum concentrations of total ...

  19. Sub-Chronic Administration of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stem bark of Ficus sycomorus is used traditionally for cure of fungal infection, jaundice and dysentery in some parts of northern Nigeria. The leaves of Ficus sycomorus were collected, dried and extracted to screen for some phytochemicals and study its effect on liver and kidney functions in experimental rats.

  20. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of carmona microphylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Carmona microphylla (Lam.) G. Don. (CAE) in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The lipid-lowering effect of CAE was investigated in oleic acid (OA)-induced steatosis in HepG2 liver cells, as well as in high-fat diet (HFD)- and triton WR-1339 ...