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Sample records for live streptococcus suis

  1. Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René; Gaïni, Shahin; Kjaeldgaard, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Meningitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus suis is a rare disease which is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs. We report a 54-y-old pig-farm worker with S. suis meningitis and septicaemia complicated with thoracal and lumbar spine spondylodiscitis. The S. suis strain involve...... in this case report was identified as serotype 14, which has only been described in 2 previous cases. It is important to report infection with S. suis as a work accident for compensation if the patient has been occupationally exposed to pigs....

  2. Assessment of protective efficacy of live and killed vaccines based on a non-encapsulated mutant of Streptococcus suis serotype 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Stockhofe Zurwieden, N.; Hilgers, L.A.T.; Smith, H.E.

    2002-01-01

    The protective efficacy of a live and killed non-encapsulated isogenic mutant of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 was determined in pigs, and compared with the efficacy of the capsulated wild-type strain. SPF pigs were vaccinated twice intramuscularly at 4 and 7 weeks of age with a dose of 1x109 formal

  3. Beheersing van Streptococcus suis bij gespeende biggen voor management maatregelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Dirx-Kuijken, N.C.P.M.M.; Raymakers, R.; Lamers, J.

    2008-01-01

    Via een vragenlijst, die ingevuld is door 50 varkenshouders, is inzicht verkregen in risicofactoren ten aanzien van Streptococcus suis bij gespeende biggen en in managementmaatregelen die varkenshouders kunnen nemen om de streptococcenproblematiek op hun bedrijf te verminderen

  4. Lysozyme Resistance in Streptococcus suis Is Highly Variable and Multifactorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichgers, P.J.; Weeghel, van C.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Smits, M.A.; Putten, van J.P.M.; Smith, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is an important infectious agent for pigs and occasionally for humans. The host innate immune system plays a key role in preventing and eliminating S. suis infections. One important constituent of the innate immune system is the protein lysozyme, which is present in a v

  5. Phagocytosis and killing of Streptococcus suis by porcine neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Roy, Geneviève; Willson, Philip; Segura, Mariela; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2006-07-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen responsible for diverse infections, mainly meningitis. Virulence factors and the pathogenesis of infection are not well understood. Neutrophils may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infection given that infiltration by neutrophils and mononuclear cells are frequently observed in lesions caused by S. suis. The objective of this work was to study the interactions between S. suis serotype 2 and porcine neutrophils. Results showed that suilysin is toxic to neutrophils and this could help S. suis evade innate immunity. Moreover, suilysin appears to affect complement-dependent killing by decreasing the opsonization of S. suis and the bactericidal capacity of neutrophils. Our results confirm that capsule polysaccharide protects S. suis against killing and phagocytosis by neutrophils. We also showed that the presence of specific IgG against S. suis serotype 2 promoted killing by neutrophils, indicating that the induction of a strong humoral response is beneficial for clearance of this pathogen.

  6. Detection of Streptococcus suis in bioaerosols of swine confinement buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifait, Laetitia; Veillette, Marc; Létourneau, Valérie; Grenier, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia. Also recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent, it is responsible for outbreaks of human infections in Asian countries. Serotype 2 is the predominant isolate from diseased animals and humans. The aerosolization of S. suis in the air of swine confinement buildings (SCB) was studied. The presence of S. suis in bioaerosols was monitored in SCB where cases of infection had been reported and in healthy SCB without reported infections. Using a quantitative-PCR (qPCR) method, we determined the total number of bacteria (1 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(8) airborne/m(3)), total number of S. suis bacteria (4 × 10(5) to 10 × 10(5) airborne/m(3)), and number of S. suis serotype 2 and 1/2 bacteria (1 × 10(3) to 30 × 10(3) airborne/m(3)) present in the air. S. suis serotypes 2 and 1/2 were detected in the air of all growing/finishing SCB that had documented cases of S. suis infection and in 50% of healthy SCB. The total number of bacteria and total numbers of S. suis and S. suis serotype 2 and 1/2 bacteria were monitored in one positive SCB during a 5-week period, and it was shown that the aerosolized S. suis serotypes 2 and 1/2 remain airborne for a prolonged period. When the effect of aerosolization on S. suis was observed, the percentage of intact S. suis bacteria (showing cell membrane integrity) in the air might have been up to 13%. Finally S. suis was found in nasal swabs from 14 out of 21 healthy finishing-SCB workers, suggesting significant exposure to the pathogen. This report provides a better understanding of the aerosolization, prevalence, and persistence of S. suis in SCB.

  7. Detection and transmission of extracellular fac-tor producing Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swildens, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831271

    2009-01-01

    DETECTION AND TRANSMISSION OF EXTRACELLULAR FACTOR PRODUCING STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS SEROTYPE 2 STRAINS IN PIGS INTRODUCTION Streptococcus suis (S.suis) has been implicated in the etiology of many diseases among which meningitis in pigs. The virulent extracellular factor-positive strains of S.suis

  8. Detection and transmission of extracellular fac-tor producing Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swildens, B.

    2009-01-01

    DETECTION AND TRANSMISSION OF EXTRACELLULAR FACTOR PRODUCING STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS SEROTYPE 2 STRAINS IN PIGS INTRODUCTION Streptococcus suis (S.suis) has been implicated in the etiology of many diseases among which meningitis in pigs. The virulent extracellular factor-positive strains of S.suis seroty

  9. [Streptococcus suis meningitis in a meat factory employee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceuster, Laura M E; van Dillen, Jeroen J; Wever, Peter C; Rozemeijer, Wouter; Louwerse, Elisabeth S

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Streptococcus suis is a rare cause of meningitis. Over the past few years, the number of reported cases worldwide has increased. The bacterium is mainly isolated in pigs, but humans can also become infected. At the Emergency Department, a 60-year-old man presented with headache, confusion, fever and nuchal rigidity. He worked at a meat factory. Laboratory testing showed abnormalities linked to bacterial meningitis. S. suis was cultured from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with dexamethasone, ceftriaxone and later benzylpenicillin intravenously. He recovered well, but had bilateral perceptive hearing loss as a sequela. Particularly people who are in close contact with pigs have an increased risk of S. suis infection. S. suis meningitis can be very severe and lead to serious complications and even death. Rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment are critical. Permanent hearing loss is the most frequent sequela.

  10. Intestinal translocation of Streptococcus suis type 2 EF+ in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swildens, B.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Meulen, van der J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Nielen, M.; Niewold, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sepsis with subsequent multisystem organ failure after translocation of bacteria from the gut is a serious risk associated with stress situations. We showed that intestinal bacterial translocation could be one of the pathways for pathogenic Streptococcus suis infections in the pig. In 24 piglets wei

  11. Immune receptors involved in Streptococcus suis recognition by dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Lecours

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent of septicemia and meningitis. Knowledge on host immune responses towards S. suis, and strategies used by this pathogen for subversion of these responses is scarce. The objective of this study was to identify the immune receptors involved in S. suis recognition by dendritic cells (DCs. Production of cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory molecules by DCs were shown to strongly rely on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, suggesting that DCs recognize S. suis and become activated mostly through Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling. Supporting this fact, TLR2(-/- DCs were severely impaired in the release of several cytokines and the surface expression of CD86 and MHC-II. The release of IL-12p70 and CXC10, and the expression of CD40 were found to depend on signaling by both TLR2 and TLR9. The release of IL-23 and CXCL1 were partially dependent on NOD2. Finally, despite the fact that MyD88 signaling was crucial for DC activation and maturation, MyD88-dependent pathways were not implicated in S. suis internalization by DCs. This first study on receptors involved in DC activation by S. suis suggests a major involvement of MyD88 signaling pathways, mainly (but not exclusively through TLR2. A multimodal recognition involving a combination of different receptors seems essential for DC effective response to S. suis.

  12. Detection of virulent strains of Streptococcus suis type 2 and highly virulent strains of Streptococcus suis type 1 in tonsillar specimens of pigs by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Reek, F.H.; Vecht, U.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Smits, M.A.; Smith, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a PCR assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of virulent Streptococcus suis type 2 and highly virulent S. suis type 1 in tonsillar specimens from pigs. The PCR primers were based on the sequence of the gene encoding the EF-protein of virulent S. suis type 2 strains (MRP EF ) and hi

  13. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C, vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2 y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about

  14. Streptococcus suis Meningitis: First Case Reported in Quebec

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    Sophie Michaud

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Very few Streptococcus suis infections in humans have been reported in Canada, although the condition is frequent in pigs. Meningitis, often accompanied by severe hearing loss, is the most common clinical manifestation. The disease is an occupational illness affecting persons in contact with pigs and may be underdiagnosed because of misidentification of the responsible bacterium. Since Quebec is the leading province for swine production in Canada, physicians and microbiologists should be aware of this infection, especially when a streptococcal meningitis is diagnosed in swine workers. The first case of S suis type 2 meningitis reported in Quebec is described.

  15. A novel endolysin disrupts Streptococcus suis with high efficiency.

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    Ji, Wenhui; Huang, Qingqing; Sun, Liang; Wang, Hengan; Yan, Yaxian; Sun, Jianhe

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) is a zoonotic pathogen that exhibits high-level resistance and multi-drug resistance to classic antibiotics and causes serious human casualties and heavy economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. Therefore, alternative therapies or novel antibacterial agents need to be developed to combat this pathogen. A novel endolysin derived from the S. suis temperate phage phi7917, termed Ly7917, was identified, which had broad lytic activity against S. suis type 1, 2, 7 and 9. Ly7917 consisted of an N-terminal cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidase catalytic domain and C-terminal SH3b cell wall binding domain. The endolysin maintained activity at high pH and its catalytic activity could be improved by addition of 10 μM 1.5 mM Ca(2+). In animal studies, 90% of BALB/c mice challenged with typical virulent strain HA9801 of S. suis 2 were protected by Ly7917 treatment. The bacterial load in the blood of HA9801-challenged mice was efficiently reduced almost 50% by Ly7917 while that of penicillin-G-treated mice kept almost unchanged. Our data suggest that Ly7917 may be an alternative therapeutic agent for infections caused by virulent S. suis strains.

  16. Third Case of Streptococcus suis Infection in Greece

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    Marianneta Chatzopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus that can cause severe disease to both pigs and humans. Its zoonotic potential was first recognized in 1968 when the first human case of meningitis was reported in Denmark. Since then, over 1600 human cases have been reported worldwide, the vast majority of which originated in Southeast Asia, and, thus, S. suis has been fairly characterized as an emerging pathogen. Infection in humans presents most commonly as bacteremia and/or meningitis while less common clinical manifestations such as endocarditis and septic arthritis can occur. S. suis infection is extremely uncommon in Greece and this is the third human case to be reported. Correct identification is of importance for optimization of antimicrobial treatment and epidemiological monitoring.

  17. Effects of Suilysin on Streptococcus suis-induced platelet aggregation

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    Shengwei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood platelets play important roles during pathological thrombocytopenia in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS. Streptococcus suis (S. suis an emerging human pathogen, can cause STSS similarly to S. pyogenes. However, S. suis interactions with platelets are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY, different from other bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs, was the sole stimulus that induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the inside-out activation of GPIIb/IIIa of platelets mediated SLY-induced platelet aggregation. This process was triggered by Ca2+ influx that depend on the pore forming on platelets by SLY. Additionally, although SLY induced α-granule release occurred via the MLCK-dependent pathway, PLC-β-IP3/DAG-MLCK and Rho-ROCK-MLCK signaling were not involved in SLY-induced platelet aggregation. Interestingly, the pore dependent Ca2+ influx was also found to participate in the induction of platelet aggregation with pneumolysin (PLY and streptolysin O (SLO, two other CDCs. It is possible that the CDC-mediated platelet aggregation we observed in S. suis is a similar response mechanism to that used by a wide range of bacteria. These findings might lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for S. suis-associated STSS.

  18. Effects of Suilysin on Streptococcus suis-Induced Platelet Aggregation

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    Zhang, Shengwei; Wang, Junping; Chen, Shaolong; Yin, Jiye; Pan, Zhiyuan; Liu, Keke; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yuling; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Blood platelets play important roles during pathological thrombocytopenia in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Streptococcus suis (S. suis) an emerging human pathogen, can cause STSS similarly to S. pyogenes. However, S. suis interactions with platelets are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), different from other bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), was the sole stimulus that induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the inside-out activation of GPIIb/IIIa of platelets mediated SLY-induced platelet aggregation. This process was triggered by Ca2+ influx that depend on the pore forming on platelets by SLY. Additionally, although SLY induced α-granule release occurred via the MLCK-dependent pathway, PLC-β-IP3/DAG-MLCK and Rho-ROCK-MLCK signaling were not involved in SLY-induced platelet aggregation. Interestingly, the pore dependent Ca2+ influx was also found to participate in the induction of platelet aggregation with pneumolysin (PLY) and streptolysin O (SLO), two other CDCs. It is possible that the CDC-mediated platelet aggregation we observed in S. suis is a similar response mechanism to that used by a wide range of bacteria. These findings might lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for S. suis-associated STSS. PMID:27800304

  19. Reappraisal of the taxonomy of Streptococcus suis serotypes 20, 22 and 26: Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov.

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    Nomoto, R; Maruyama, F; Ishida, S; Tohya, M; Sekizaki, T; Osawa, Ro

    2015-02-01

    In order to clarify the taxonomic position of serotypes 20, 22 and 26 of Streptococcus suis, biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on isolates (SUT-7, SUT-286(T), SUT-319, SUT-328 and SUT-380) reacted with specific antisera of serotypes 20, 22 or 26 from the saliva of healthy pigs as well as reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26. Comparative recN gene sequencing showed high genetic relatedness among our isolates, but marked differences from the type strain S. suis NCTC 10234(T), i.e. 74.8-75.7 % sequence similarity. The genomic relatedness between the isolates and other strains of species of the genus Streptococcus, including S. suis, was calculated using the average nucleotide identity values of whole genome sequences, which indicated that serotypes 20, 22 and 26 should be removed taxonomically from S. suis and treated as a novel genomic species. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 99.0-100 % sequence similarities for the 16S rRNA genes between the reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26, and our isolates. Isolate STU-286(T) had relatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with S. suis NCTC 10234(T) (98.8 %). SUT-286(T) could be distinguished from S. suis and other closely related species of the genus Streptococcus using biochemical tests. Due to its phylogenetic and phenotypic similarities to S. suis we propose naming the novel species Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov., with SUT-286(T) ( = JCM 30273(T) = DSM 29126(T)) as the type strain.

  20. Streptococcus suis Meningitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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    Anusha van Samkar

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is the most common cause of meningitis in pork consuming and pig rearing countries in South-East Asia. We performed a systematic review of studies on S. suis meningitis to define the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome.Studies published between January 1, 1980 and August 1, 2015 were identified from main literature databases and reference lists. Studies were included if they were written in West-European languages and described at least 5 adult patients with S. suis meningitis in whom at least one clinical characteristic was described.We identified 913 patients with S. suis meningitis included in 24 studies between 1980 and 2015. The mean age was 49 years and 581 of 711 patients were male (82%. Exposure to pigs or pork was present in 395 of 648 patients (61% while other predisposing factors were less common. 514 of 528 patients presented with fever (97%, 429 of 451 with headache (95%, 462 of 496 with neck stiffness (93% and 78 of 384 patients (20% had a skin injury in the presence of pig/pork contact. The case fatality rate was 2.9% and hearing loss was a common sequel occurring in 259 of 489 patients (53%. Treatment included dexamethasone in 157 of 300 (52% of patients and was associated with reduced hearing loss in S. suis meningitis patients included in a randomized controlled trial.S. suis meningitis has a clear association with pig and pork contact. Mortality is low, but hearing loss occurs frequently. Dexamethasone was shown to reduce hearing loss.

  1. Comparative analysis of whole-genome sequences of Streptococcus suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pengli; WEI Wu; LI Yixue; MA Yuanyuan; DING Guohui; LI Xiaoping; WANG Xiaojing; ZHANG Liwen; SUN Jingchun; WANG Yong; TU Kang; WANG Ningning; HAO Pei; WANG Chuan; CAO Zhiwei; SHI Tieliu

    2006-01-01

    The outbreak of Streptococcus suis recently in some districts of Sichuan Province in China has caused over 30 deaths and over 200 infections in human beings. In order to study the pathogenicity mechanism and to prevent the bacteria from spreading and infecting human beings and swine, we have annotated and analyzed the genomes of two strains, Streptococcus suis P1/7 and 89-1591 respectively. The whole length of P1/7 is 2.007 Mb,and has 1969 ORFs. In contrast, the partial genome sequence of 89-1591 is 1.98 Mb in length and exists in 177 contigs with 1918 ORFs. Analysis shows that the average lengths of CDSs in two genomes are very close, and the numbers of the homolog ORFs are 1306 between those two strains. Most of the toxicity factors of the two strains are homologeous, but there are still some significant differences between those two strains. For example, among the 11 genes (cps2A-cps2K) encoding for the capsules in P1/7, 4(cps2A, 2B, 2I, 2J) are not detected in strain 89-1591.At the same time, the genes encoding EF and Haemolysin in P1/7 are also not found in strain 89-1591. Besides, the genes related to DNA replication, repair and recombination differ from each other significantly and there also exist certain differences among the surface proteins. Those characteristics indicate that those two strains have evolved their own specific functions to adapt to the different environments and that the pathogenesis of the two strains is different. We have accumulated comprehensive genomics information for future systematic studies of S.sui. Our results are helpful for disease prevention,vaccine development, as well as drug design for S.suis.

  2. Epidemiological relationship of human and swine Streptococcus suis isolates.

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    Tarradas, C; Luque, I; de Andrés, D; Abdel-Aziz Shahein, Y E; Pons, P; González, F; Borge, C; Perea, A

    2001-06-01

    Two cases of meningitis due to Streptococcus suis in humans are reported here. A butcher and an abattoir worker were referred to a health centre in Castellón (Spain) with fever and symptoms of meningitis. After adequate treatment, a slight hipoacusia persisted as sequelae in both cases. Colonies of S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ were isolated from cerebroespinal fluid. Epidemiological studies showed that both workers had in common the handling of pork meat of slaughtered healthy pigs from three closed farms. A study of the tonsils from apparently healthy, slaughtered pigs was carried out. A total of 234 tonsillar samples were obtained and 81 strains of S. suis were isolated from them. Serotype 2 appeared to be the most frequent (50.6%), and the analysis for phenotype showed a high percentage of tonsillar strains with the phenotype MRP+EF+ (35.9%). The humans and 28 tonsillar swine strains showed a similar profile (S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+). A total of 26 of the swine isolates were analysed by ribotyping using EcoRI. The human strains showed the same six-band hybridization pattern that shared five bands with the pattern most frequently shown by most of the tonsillar N. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ strains, differing only in the lightest, faintest band which was slightly less anodical in human (> or = 1.8 kb) than in swine (approximately 1.8 kb). From these results, both groups of strains, humans and porcine, showed differences; how can these differences in the pattern of ribotyping be explained if they should have the same origin? Is it possible that they have undergone an adaptation to the new host or perhaps the modification is due to other unknown causes? Further studies in this area are required in order to answer these questions.

  3. Crystal structure of cytotoxin protein suilysin from Streptococcus suis.

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    Xu, Lingfeng; Huang, Bo; Du, Huamao; Zhang, Xuejun C; Xu, Jianguo; Li, Xuemei; Rao, Zihe

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDC) are pore forming toxins. A prototype of the CDC family members is perfringolysin O (PFO), which directly binds to the cell membrane enriched in cholesterol, causing cell lysis. However, an exception of this general observation is intermedilysin (ILY) of Streptococcus intermedius, which requires human CD59 as a receptor in addition to cholesterol for its hemolytic activity. A possible explanation of this functional difference is the conformational variation between the C-terminal domains of the two toxins, particularly in the highly conserved undecapeptide termed tryptophan rich motif. Here, we present the crystal structure of suilysin, a CDC toxin from the infectious swine pathogen Streptococcus suis. Like PFO, suilysin does not require a host receptor for hemolytic activity; yet the crystal structure of suilysin exhibits a similar conformation in the tryptophan rich motif to ILY. This observation suggests that the current view of the structure-function relationship between CDC proteins and membrane association is far from complete.

  4. Virulence-associated gene profiling of Streptococcus suis isolates by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, L.M.G.; Baums, C.G.; Rehm, T.; Wisselink, H.J.; Goethe, R.; Valentin-Weigand, P.

    2006-01-01

    Definition of virulent Streptococcus suis strains is controversial. One successful approach for identification of virulent European strains is differentiation of capsular serotypes (or the corresponding cps types) and subsequent detection of virulence-associated factors, namely the extracellular fac

  5. Establishment of a Cre recombinase based mutagenesis protocol for markerless gene deletion in Streptococcus suis.

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    Koczula, A; Willenborg, J; Bertram, R; Takamatsu, D; Valentin-Weigand, P; Goethe, R

    2014-12-01

    The lack of knowledge about pathogenicity mechanisms of Streptococcus (S.) suis is, at least partially, attributed to limited methods for its genetic manipulation. Here, we established a Cre-lox based recombination system for markerless gene deletions in S. suis serotype 2 with high selective pressure and without undesired side effects.

  6. The cps locus of Streptococcus suis serotype 16: Development of a serotype-specific PCR assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K.; Weixing, Fan; Wisselink, H.J.; Chengping, Lu

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 16 can infect pigs and humans. We describe the identification and the characterization of the capsular polysaccharides synthesis locus of S. suis serotype 16. Using PCR primers flanking the capsular polysaccharides synthesis locus, a 30,101-bp fragment was amplified. Twen

  7. Host-pathogen Interaction at the Intestinal Mucosa Correlates With Zoonotic Potential of Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; de Greeff, Astrid; van Rooijen, Willemien J. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background. Streptococcus suis has emerged as an important cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. The ingestion of undercooked pork is a risk factor for human S. suis serotype 2 (SS2) infection. Here we provide experimental evidence indicating that the gastrointestinal tract is an entry site of...

  8. Latest developments on Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen: part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segura, M.; Zheng, H.; Greeff, de A.; Gao, G.F.; Gremier, D.; Jiang, Y.; Chengping, L.; Maskell, D.; Oishi, K.; Okura, M.; Osawa, R.; Schultsz, C.; Schwerk, C.; Sekizaki, T.; Smith, H.; Srimanote, P.; Takamatsu, D.; Tang, J.; Tenenbaum, T.; Tharavichitkul, P.; Hoa, N.T.; Valentin-Weigand, P.; Wells, J.M.; Wertheim, H.; Zhu, B.; Xu, J.; Gottschalk, M.

    2014-01-01

    This second and final chapter of the report on the First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis follows on from Part 1, published in the April 2014, volume 9, issue 4 of Future Microbiology. S. suis is a swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent afflicting people in close contact with infected pigs

  9. Discovery, characterization and applications of natural DNA transformation in Streptococcus suis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaccaria, E.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is Gram-positive bacterium and its natural habitat is the upper respiratory tract of pigs, and in particular the tonsils and nasal cavity. Although it is considered to be a normal member of the adult pig microbiome, it can cause serious diseases in pigs and humans. S. suis is in f

  10. Streptococcal Adhesin P (SadP) contributes to Streptococcus suis adhesion to the human intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; Willemse, Niels; Zaccaria, Edoardo; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Ende, van der Arie; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen, causing meningitis and septicemia. We previously demonstrated that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an entry site for zoonotic S. suis infection. Here we studied the contribution of Streptococcal adhesin Protein (SadP) to hostpathogen

  11. TroA of Streptococcus suis is required for manganese acquisition and full virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichgers Schreur, P.J.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Smits, M.A.; Putten, van J.P.M.; Smith, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis causes infections in pigs and occasionally in humans resulting in 23 manifestations as meningitis, sepsis, arthritis and septic shock. For survival within the 24 host, S. suis requires numerous nutrients including trace metals. Little is known about 25 the specific proteins involv

  12. Rapid Evolution of Virulence and Drug Resistance in the Emerging Zoonotic Pathogen Streptococcus suis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holden, M.T.G.; Hauser, H.; Sanders, M.; Hoa Ngo, Thi; Cherevach, I.; Cronin, A.; Goodhead, I.; Mungall, K.; Quail, M.A.; Price, C.; Rabbinowitsch, E.; Sharp, S.; Croucher, N.; Chieu, Tran Bich; Nguyen, Thi Hoang Mai; To, Song Diep; Nguyen, Tran Chinh; Kehoe, M.; Leigh, J.A.; Ward, P.N.; Dowson, C.G.; Whatmore, A.M.; Chanter, N.; Iversen, P.; Gottschalk, M.; Slater, J.D.; Smith, H.E.; Spratt, B.G.; Jianguo, Xu; Changyun, Ye; Bentley, S.; Barrell, B.G.; Schultsz, C.; Maskell, D.J.; Parkhill, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that infects pigs and can occasionally cause serious infections in humans. S. suis infections occur sporadically in human Europe and North America, but a recent major outbreak has been described in China with high levels of mortality. The mechan

  13. An enzyme-based in situ hybridisation method for the identification of Streptococcus suis - Brief report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.W.; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Henrik E

    2001-01-01

    A method for enzyme-based in situ hybridisation of Streptococcus suis was developed. It enables the light microscopic localization of bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. A unique sequence in the 16S rRNA of S. suis was targeted. Different pretreatment...

  14. Streptococcus suis, an important cause of adult bacterial meningitis in northern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiman F L Wertheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis can cause severe systemic infection in adults exposed to infected pigs or after consumption of undercooked pig products. S. suis is often misdiagnosed, due to lack of awareness and improper testing. Here we report the first fifty cases diagnosed with S. suis infection in northern Viet Nam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, diagnostics for S. suis were set up at a national hospital in Hanoi. That year there were 43 S. suis positive cerebrospinal fluid samples, of which S. suis could be cultured in 32 cases and 11 cases were only positive by PCR. Seven patients were blood culture positive for S. suis but CSF culture and PCR negative; making a total of 50 patients with laboratory confirmed S. suis infection in 2007. The number of S. suis cases peaked during the warmer months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: S. suis was commonly diagnosed as a cause of bacterial meningitis in adults in northern Viet Nam. In countries where there is intense and widespread exposure of humans to pigs, S. suis can be an important human pathogen.

  15. Whole genome investigation of a divergent clade of the pathogen Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiyad eBaig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a major porcine and zoonotic pathogen responsible for significant economic losses in the pig industry and an increasing number of human cases. Multiple isolates of S. suis show marked genomic diversity. Here we report the analysis of whole genome sequences of nine pig isolates that caused disease typical of S. suis and had phenotypic characteristics of S. suis, but their genomes were divergent from those of many other S. suis isolates. Comparison of protein sequences predicted from divergent genomes with those from normal S. suis reduced the size of core genome from 793 to only 397 genes. Divergence was clear if phylogenetic analysis was performed on reduced core genes and MLST alleles. Phylogenies based on certain other genes (16S rRNA, sodA, recN and cpn60 did not show divergence for all isolates, suggesting recombination between some divergent isolates with normal S. suis for these genes. Indeed, there is evidence of recent recombination between the divergent and normal S. suis genomes for 249 of 397 core genes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and 132 genes that were conserved between the divergent isolates and representatives of the broader Streptococcus genus showed that divergent isolates were more closely related to S. suis. Six out of nine divergent isolates possessed a S. suis-like capsule region with variation in capsular gene sequences but the remaining three did not have a discrete capsule locus. The majority (40/70, of virulence-associated genes in normal S. suis were present in the divergent genomes. Overall, the divergent isolates extend the current diversity of S. suis species but the phenotypic similarities and the large amount of gene exchange with normal S. suis gives insufficient evidence to assign these isolates to a new species or subspecies. Further sampling and whole genome analysis of more isolates is warranted to understand the diversity of the species.

  16. Sub-MIC Tylosin Inhibits Streptococcus suis Biofilm Formation and Results in Differential Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Yang, Yanbei; Zhao, Yulin; Zhao, Honghai; Bai, Jingwen; Chen, Jianqing; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Chang; Li, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S.suis) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe diseases in humans and pigs. Biofilms of S. suis can induce persistent infections that are difficult to treat. In this study, the effect of tylosin on biofilm formation of S. suis was investigated. 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 1/4 MIC of tylosin were shown to inhibit S. suis biofilm formation in vitro. By using the iTRAQ strategy, we compared the protein expression profiles of S. suis grown with sub-MIC tylosin treatment and with no treatment. A total of 1501 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Ninety-six differentially expressed proteins were identified (Ratio > ±1.5, p MIC tylosin treatment. Thus, our data revealed the rough regulation of biofilm formation that may provide a foundation for future research into mechanisms and targets.

  17. The Phage Lysin PlySs2 Decolonizes Streptococcus suis from Murine Intranasal Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Daniel B.; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; Thandar, Mya; Euler, Chad W.; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infects pigs worldwide and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans with a mortality rate of up to 20%. S. suis has been shown to develop in vitro resistance to the two leading drugs of choice, penicillin and gentamicin. Because of this, we have pursued an alternative therapy to treat these pathogens using bacteriophage lysins. The bacteriophage lysin PlySs2 is derived from an S. suis phage and displays potent lytic activity against most strains of that species including serotypes 2 and 9. At 64 μg/ml, PlySs2 reduced multiple serotypes of S. suis by 5 to 6-logs within 1 hour in vitro and exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml for a S. suis serotype 2 strain and 64 μg/ml for a serotype 9 strain. Using a single 0.1-mg dose, the colonizing S. suis serotype 9 strain was reduced from the murine intranasal mucosa by >4 logs; a 0.1-mg dose of gentamicin reduced S. suis by 5-logs. While resistance to gentamicin was induced after systematically increasing levels of gentamicin in an S. suis culture, the same protocol resulted in no observable resistance to PlySs2. Thus, PlySs2 has both broad and high killing activity against multiple serotypes and strains of S. suis, making it a possible tool in the control and prevention of S. suis infections in pigs and humans. PMID:28046082

  18. Prevalence of the suilysin gene in Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased and healthy carrier pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabisiak, M; Kita, J; Jedryczko, R; Binek, M

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of virulence factors of Streptococcus suis is limited. Several virulence factor candidates have been proposed, among them suilysin, which is responsible for a toxic effect on epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to detect the suilysin gene sequence in Streptococcus suis strains of various origin. In total 63 Streptococcus suis isolates were investigated. Forty four of them originated from tissues of streptococcosis affected animals. The remaining 19 strains were isolated from tonsils of healthy carrier pigs. Suilysin gene specific sequence was detected in 79% of the strains tested. In isolates obtained from pigs with signs of streptococcosis this gene sequence was recorded in 85% of cases. In Streptococcus suis strains isolated from healthy carrier pigs the suilysin gene was detected in 63% of the isolates. It seems that suilysin toxic activity is only one of the many steps involved in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis infection and that strain's virulence cannot be stated only on the basis of suilysin gene sequence presence.

  19. FATAL CASE OF STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS INFECTION IN A YOUNG WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA) FROM SOUTHWESTERN SPAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, David; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Gonçalves, Pilar; Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Rosales, Rubén; Gómez, Luis; de Mendoza, Javier Hermoso

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus suis is a recognized pathogen that may cause important diseases in pigs and humans. This microorganism has been repeatedly isolated from wild boar (Sus scrofa). However, its health implications for this wild species are still unknown. This article reports a detailed description of a fatal case of septicemia by S. suis affecting a young wild boar. The affected animal, about 15 days old, was found near death and exhibiting neurologic signs at a wild boar estate in southwestern Spain. Postmortem examination showed generalized congestion, brain hemorrhages and lobular pneumonia. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated the presence of meningitis and encephalitis with marked congestion and suppurative bronchopneumonia. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 isolates exhibiting important virulence factors (extracellular factor, muramidase-released protein, and suylisin) were isolated from the affected animal. This study confirms the presence of potentially virulent and zoonotic strains of S. suis in wild boar from Spain.

  20. Passive immunization of pigs against experimental infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Tegtmeier, Conny

    2001-01-01

    The safety and protective efficacy of a horse antiserum raised against inactivated whole cell preparations of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 was investigated in pigs by experimental challenge. The antiserum was evaluated in two similar experiments each comprising 12 4-week-old pigs treated with 6 ...... indicate that passive immunization of pigs may be a way to reduce or control S. suis serotype 2 infections in pigs....

  1. Subcytolytic effects of suilysin on interaction of Streptococcus suis with epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, M; Baums, C G; Neis, C; Benga, L; Fulde, M; Rohde, M; Goethe, R; Valentin-Weigand, P

    2013-12-27

    Suilysin is a pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin secreted by Streptococcus suis (S. suis), an important swine and zoonotic pathogen. The role of suilysin in S. suis host-cell interaction is still unclear. We found a higher adherence and invasion rate of an unencapsulated sly-positive strain in comparison to its isogenic sly-negative mutant. Electron microscopy revealed that formation of membrane ruffles accompanying invasion of the sly-positive strain was abolished in the sly-negative mutant. Inhibition experiments showed that the actin cytoskeleton was involved in suilysin-mediated effects. Point-mutation of the domain putatively responsible for macropore-formation resulted in abolished hemolytic and cytolysin activity, but had no effect on S. suis host cell association. Concluding, our results indicate that subcytolytic suilysin promotes S. suis association with epithelial cells.

  2. Effect of licochalcone A on growth and properties of Streptococcus suis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaijie Hao

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S.suis is an important emerging worldwide pig pathogen and zoonotic agent with rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance. In this study, we wanted to investigate the effect of licochalcone A on growth and properties of Streptococcus suis. The antimicrobial activity of licochalcone A was tested by growth inhibition assay and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs also were determined. The effect of licochalcone A on S.suis biofilm formation was characterized by crystal violet staining. The effect of licochalcone A on suilysin secretion was evaluated by titration of hemolytic activity. To understand the antimicrobial effect, gene expression profile of S.suis treated by licochalcone A was analyzed by DNA microarray. Our results demonstrated that licochalcone A showed antimicrobial activity on S.suis with MICs of 4 µg/ml for S.suis serotype 2 strains and 8 µg/ml for S.suis serotype 7 strains. Biofilm formation was inhibited by 30-40% in the presence of licochalcone A (3 µg/ml and suilysin secretion was also significantly inhibited in the presence of licochalcone A (1.5 µg/ml. The gene expression profile of S.suis in the presence of licochalcone A showed that 132 genes were differentially regulated, and we analyzed the regulated genes in the aspect of the bacterial cell cycle control. Among the deregulated genes, the genes responsible for the mass doubling was increased expression, but the genes responsible for DNA replication and cell division were inhibited the expression. So, we think the regulation of the cell cycle genes might provide a mechanistic understanding of licochalcone A mediated antimicrobial effect against S.suis.

  3. Sub-MICs of Azithromycin Decrease Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus suis and Increase Capsular Polysaccharide Content of S. suis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Bei; Chen, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Lin; Bai, Jing-Wen; Ding, Wen-Ya; Zhou, Yong-Hui; Chen, Xue-Ying; Liu, Di; Li, Yan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) caused serious disease symptoms in humans and pigs. S. suis is able to form thick biofilms and this increases the difficulty of treatment. After growth with 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azithromycin, 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, or 1/8 MIC of azithromycin, biofilm formation of S. suis dose-dependently decreased in the present study. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the obvious effect of azithromycin against biofilm formation of S. suis. Especially, at two different conditions (1/2 MIC of azithromycin non-treated cells and treated cells), we carried out comparative proteomic analyses of cells by using iTRAQ technology. Finally, the results revealed the existence of 19 proteins of varying amounts. Interestingly, several cell surface proteins (such as ATP-binding cassette superfamily ATP-binding cassette transporter (G7SD52), CpsR (K0FG35), Cps1/2H (G8DTL7), CPS16F (E9NQ13), putative uncharacterized protein (G7SER0), NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G5L259), putative uncharacterized protein (G7S2D6), amino acid permease (B0M0G6), and NsuB (G5L351)) were found to be implicated in biofilm formation. More importantly, we also found that azithromycin affected expression of the genes cps1/2H, cpsR and cps16F. Especially, after growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin and 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, the capsular polysaccharide content of S. suis was significantly higher. PMID:27812354

  4. Associations of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 ribotype profiles with clinical disease and antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S. R.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting in the identificat......A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting...... of resistance to antibiotics because strains isolated from pigs with meningitis were resistant to sulfamethazoxazole and strains isolated from pigs with pneumonia, endocarditis, pericarditis, or septicemia were resist-ant to tetracycline....

  5. [Occurrence and diagnostic relevance of virulence-associated factors in Streptococcus suis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, C G; Da Silva, L M; Goethe, R; Valentin-Weigand, P

    2003-09-01

    Streptococcus suis (Sc. suis) can cause very different clinical entities. In contrast to Sc. suis-associated pneumonia, the induction of meningitis, septicemia, and polyarthritis by certain Sc. suis strains requires the expression of virulence factors that contribute to the invasiveness of the pathogen. In the presented study, we examined the occurrence of known virulence-associated factors in Sc. suis isolates from samples sent to the Institute of Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, in order to evaluate their significance as potential virulence factors in different disease complexes in Northern Germany. The results show that (i) MRP + EF + serotype 2 and MRP* EF-serotype 9 strains are statistically significant associated with the disease complex meningitis/septicemia/arthritis and, thus, have to be considered invasive strains, (ii) serotyping alone is not sufficient for identification of virulent strains, (iii) there is a remarkable heterogeneity among pneumonia-associated Sc. suis strains and (iv) activity of haemolysin or suilysin appears to be not appropriate as virulence marker. Finally, it has to be noted that at present only half of the Sc. suis isolates from pigs with meningitis/septicemia/poyarthritis can be characterised by the detection of virulence-associated factors. Thus, the identification and characterisation of additional, serotype independent virulence factors of Sc. suis is a very important issue in future studies.

  6. In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Dawei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of biofilms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

  7. Prevalence of Streptococcus suis Isolated from Clinically Healthy Sows in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-ping; NING Yi-bao; ZHANG Zhong-qiu; SONG Li; QIU Hui-shen; GAO He-yi; FAN Xue-zheng

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in pigs.Transmission of this pathogen is generally believed to occur between healthy carrier sows and their offspring,so the carrier status orS.suis in healthy sows is important for the control of S.suis infections in pigs,especially in suckling and growing pigs.In this study,the prevalence orS.suis isolated from clinically healthy sows in China was studied for the first time.A total of 1043 tonsil samples were collected from clinically healthy sows from 10 regions in China from 2005 to 2007.Among the 421 S.suis isolates,31 strains were identified as capsular type 2.The results showed that S.suis was widespread in swine herds in China with the carrier rates in different herds ranging from 19.5 to 93.9%.Overall,40.4 and 3.0% of clinically healthy sows harbored S.suis and capsular type 2 in their palatine tonsils,respectively.Statistically significant differences of carrier rates of S.suis and capsular type 2 between the different farms were observed,which was independent of herd sizes and geographic distributions of different herds.

  8. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Properties of Membrane Vesicles Produced by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, more particularly serotype 2, is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent worldwide that mainly causes meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Although several potential virulence factors produced by S. suis have been identified in the last decade, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections is still not fully understood. In the present study, we showed that S. suis produces membrane vesicles (MVs that range in diameter from 13 to 130 nm and that appear to be coated by capsular material. A proteomic analysis of the MVs revealed that they contain 46 proteins, 9 of which are considered as proven or suspected virulence factors. Biological assays confirmed that S. suis MVs possess active subtilisin-like protease (SspA and DNase (SsnA. S. suis MVs degraded neutrophil extracellular traps, a property that may contribute to the ability of the bacterium to escape the host defense response. MVs also activated the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway in both monocytes and macrophages, inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may in turn contribute to increase the permeability of the blood brain barrier. The present study brought evidence that S. suis MVs may play a role as a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis infections, and given their composition be an excellent candidate for vaccine development.

  9. Characterization of Streptococcus suis through serotyping, SE-AFLP and virulence profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco F. Calderaro

    Full Text Available Abstract: Streptococcus suis is one of most important pathogens in the swine industry worldwide. Despite its importance, studies of S. suis characterization in South America are still rare. This study evaluates S. suis isolates from distinct Brazilian states, from 1999 to 2004, and its molecular and serological characterization. A total of 174 isolates were studied. S. suis identification was confirmed by PCR and isolates were further serotyped and genotyped by SE-AFLP and amplification of virulence markers. Serotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 18, 22 and 32 were identified among the studied isolates, and only 4% were characterized as non-typeable. The mrp+/epf+/sly+ genotype was the most frequent. The SE-AFLP analysis resulted in 29 patterns distributed in three main clusters with over 65% of genetic similarity. Isolates presented a slight tendency to cluster according to serotype and origin; however, no further correlation with virulence genotypes was observed.

  10. Streptococcus suis infections in pigs : use of virulence-associated markers in diagnostics and vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, Hendrikus Jan

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pig pathogen which is mainly associated with meningitis, arthritis and septicaemia. Control of the disease is hampered by the lack of effective vaccines and the lack of reliable diagnostic tests with high specificity and sensitivity. The development of these tools

  11. A zebrafish larval model to assess virulence of porcine streptococcus suis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaccaria, Edoardo; Cao, Rui; Wells, Jerry M.; Baarlen, Van Peter

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an encapsulated Gram-positive bacterium, and the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in young pigs resulting in considerable economic losses in the porcine industry. It is also considered an emerging zoonotic agent. In the environment, both avirulent and virulent strains

  12. Risk Factors of Streptococcus suis Infection in Vietnam. A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.N.H.; Thi, P.T.L.; Wolbers, M.; Quang, T.C.; van, M.H.N.; Vu, T.N.T.; Hoan, P.N.; Thi, H.C.T.; Xuan, S.D.; Song, D.T.; Thi, T.H.H.; Truong, H.; Campbell, J.; van, V.C.N.; Tran, C.N.; van, D.N.; Thi, H.N.; Spratt, B.G.; Tinh, H.T.; Farrar, J.; Schultsz, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus suis infection, an emerging zoonosis, is an increasing public health problem across South East Asia and the most common cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Little is known of the risk factors underlying the disease. Methods and Findings: A case-control

  13. Streptococcus suis, an emerging drug-resistant animal and human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio ePalmieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen, has been receiving growing attention not only for its role in severe and increasingly reported infections in humans, but also for its involvement in drug resistance. Recent studies and the analysis of sequenced genomes have been providing important insights into the S. suis resistome, and have resulted in the identification of resistance determinants for tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, antifolate drugs, streptothricin, and cadmium salts. Resistance gene-carrying genetic elements described so far include integrative and conjugative elements, transposons, genomic islands, phages, and chimeric elements. Some of these elements are similar to those reported in major streptococcal pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus agalactiae and share the same chromosomal insertion sites. The available information strongly suggests that S. suis is an important antibiotic resistance reservoir that can contribute to the spread of resistance genes to the above-mentioned streptococci. S. suis is thus a paradigmatic example of possible intersections between animal and human resistomes.

  14. Draft genome sequences of nine Streptococcus suis strains isolated in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen responsible for economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Additionally, it is a zoonotic agent that can cause severe infections in those in close contact with infected pigs and/or who consume uncooked or undercooked pork products. Here, we report nine draf...

  15. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Warneboldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus (S. suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions. Further experiments confirmed the clearance of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 within 30 min in stomach contents with a pH of 4.7 independently of the bacterial growth phase. Finally, an oral infection experiment was conducted, feeding each of 18 piglets a diet mixed with 1010 CFU of S. suis serotype 2 or 9. Thorough bacteriological screenings of various mesenteric-intestinal lymph nodes and internal organs after different times of exposure did not lead to any detection of the orally applied challenge strains. In conclusion, the porcine stomach constitutes a very efficient barrier against oro-gastrointenstinal S. suis infections. Conditions leading to the passage of S. suis through the stomach remain to be identified.

  16. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneboldt, Franziska; Sander, Saara J; Beineke, Andreas; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Kamphues, Josef; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2016-08-06

    Streptococcus (S.) suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions. Further experiments confirmed the clearance of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 within 30 min in stomach contents with a pH of 4.7 independently of the bacterial growth phase. Finally, an oral infection experiment was conducted, feeding each of 18 piglets a diet mixed with 10(10) CFU of S. suis serotype 2 or 9. Thorough bacteriological screenings of various mesenteric-intestinal lymph nodes and internal organs after different times of exposure did not lead to any detection of the orally applied challenge strains. In conclusion, the porcine stomach constitutes a very efficient barrier against oro-gastrointenstinal S. suis infections. Conditions leading to the passage of S. suis through the stomach remain to be identified.

  17. Recombination between Streptococcus suis ICESsu32457 and Streptococcus agalactiae ICESa2603 yields a hybrid ICE transferable to Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Emanuela; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna

    2015-07-09

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome but retain the ability to undergo excision and to transfer by conjugation. Genes involved in drug resistance, virulence, or niche adaptation are often found among backbone genes as cargo DNA. We recently characterized in Streptococcus suis an ICE (ICESsu32457) carrying resistance genes [tet(O/W/32/O), tet(40), erm(B), aphA, and aadE] in the 15K unstable genetic element, which is flanked by two ∼1.3kb direct repeats. Remarkably, ∼1.3-kb sequences are conserved in ICESa2603 of Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R, which carry heavy metal resistance genes cadC/cadA and mer. In matings between S. suis 32457 (donor) and S. agalactiae 2603V/R (recipient), transconjugants were obtained. PCR experiments, PFGE, and sequence analysis of transconjugants demonstrated a tandem array between ICESsu32457 and ICESa2603. Matings between tandem array-containing S. agalactiae 2603V/R (donor) and Streptococcus pyogenes RF12 (recipient) yielded a single transconjugant containing a hybrid ICE, here named ICESa2603/ICESsu32457. The hybrid formed by recombination of the left ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESsu32457 and the ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESa2603. Interestingly, the hybrid ICE was transferable between S. pyogenes strains, thus demonstrating that it behaves as a conventional ICE. These findings suggest that both tandem arrays and hybrid ICEs may contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in streptococci, creating novel mobile elements capable of disseminating new combinations of antibiotic resistance genes.

  18. Swine infection by Streptococcus suis: a retrospective study Infecção em suínos por Streptococcus suis: estudo retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Del'Arco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic aspects of swine infections caused by Streptococcus suis were studied, focusing mainly on the occurrence of several serotypes. A total of 323 samples of S. suis were isolated from clinically ill animals, serotyped according to the co-agglutination procedure, and analyzed. The serotyping revealed that S. suis was present in several Brazilian states. The largest number was isolated from the states of Minas Gerais (62.5%, São Paulo (10.8%, and Paraná (9.3%. Serotype 2 was the most frequent (61.0%, followed by the serotypes 1, 3, 4, 7, and 8. The largest number of isolations was obtained from the brain (60.1%, followed by the lungs (10.4%. About 9.4% of the cases were due to septicemia.Estudaram-se os aspectos epidêmicos das infecções de suínos causadas por Streptococcus suis, enfocando, principalmente, a ocorrência de diferentes sorotipos. Foram analisadas 323 amostras isoladas de animais clinicamente doentes, as quais foram sorotipadas de acordo com o procedimento de co-aglutinação. Foi verificado que S. suis está presente em vários estados brasileiros e o maior número de isolados originou-se dos estados de Minas Gerais (62,5%, São Paulo (10,8% e Paraná (9,3%. O sorotipo 2 foi o mais freqüente (61.0%, seguido pelos sorotipos 1, 3, 4, 7 e 8. Os isolamentos foram obtidos principalmente de cérebro (60,1% e pulmões (10,4%. Os casos de septicemia representaram 9,4%.

  19. Understanding Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection in pigs through a transcriptional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Tiansi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2 is an important pathogen of pigs. S suis 2 infections have high mortality rates and are characterized by meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia. S. suis 2 is also an emerging zoonotic agent and can infect humans that are exposed to pigs or their by-products. To increase our knowledge of the pathogenesis of meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia in pigs caused by S. suis 2, we profiled the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, brain and lung tissues to infection with S. suis 2 strain SC19 using the Affymetrix Porcine Genome Array. Results A total of 3,002 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the three tissues, including 417 unique genes in brain, 210 in lung and 213 in PBMC. These genes showed differential expression (DE patterns on analysis by visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID. The DE genes involved in the immune response included genes related to the inflammatory response (CD163, the innate immune response (TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, TIRAP, cell adhesion (CD34, SELE, SELL, SELP, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, antigen processing and presentation (MHC protein complex and angiogenesis (VEGF, together with genes encoding cytokines (interleukins. Five selected genes were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions We studied the response to infection with S. suis 2 strain SC19 by microarray analysis. Our findings confirmed some genes identified in previous studies and discovered numerous additional genes that potentially function in S. suis 2 infections in vivo. This new information will form the foundation of future investigations into the pathogenesis of S. suis.

  20. Prevalência de Streptococcus suis sorotipo 2: discussão da literatura brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis é mundialmente considerado um dos patógenos de maior impacto sanitário e econômico na indústria suinícola. Dentre os sorotipos descritos como zoonóticos, o sorotipo 2 é o mais frequentemente isolado de animais e humanos doentes na maioria dos países. O estudo da epidemiologia das infecções por S. suis no Brasil é importante para a implantação de medidas efetivas de controle. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma revisão crítica da literatura brasileira, com sup...

  1. Assessment of MALDI-TOF MS as Alternative Tool for Streptococcus suis Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Vela, Ana Isabel; García-Seco, Teresa; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identifying Streptococcus suis isolates obtained from pigs, wild animals, and humans was evaluated using a PCR-based identification assay as the gold standard. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was compared with the commercial multi-tests Rapid ID 32 STREP system. From the 129 S. suis isolates included in the study and identified by the molecular method, only 31 isolates (24.03%) had score values ≥2.300 and 79 isolates (61.24%) gave score values between 2.299 and 2.000. After updating the currently available S. suis MALDI Biotyper database with the spectra of three additional clinical isolates of serotypes 2, 7, and 9, most isolates had statistically significant higher score values (mean score: 2.65) than those obtained using the original database (mean score: 2.182). Considering the results of the present study, we suggest using a less restrictive threshold score of ≥2.000 for reliable species identification of S. suis. According to this cut-off value, a total of 125 S. suis isolates (96.9%) were correctly identified using the updated database. These data indicate an excellent performance of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of S. suis. PMID:26347858

  2. Interaction of Fibrinogen and Muramidase-released Protein Promotes the Development of Streptococcus suis Meningitis

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    Junping eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Muramidase-released protein (MRP is as an important virulence marker of Streptococcus suis (S. suis serotype 2. Our previous works have shown that MRP can bind human fibrinogen (hFg; however, the function of this interaction in S.suis meningitis is not known. In this study, we found that the deletion of mrp significantly impairs the hFg-mediated adherence and traversal ability of S. suis across human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3. Measurement of the permeability to Lucifer yellow in vitro and Evans blue extravasation in vivo show that the MRP-hFg interaction significantly increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. In the mouse meningitis model, wild type S. suis caused higher bacterial loads in the brain and more severe histopathological signs of meningitis than the mrp mutant at day 3 post-infection. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence observations reveal that the MRP-hFg interaction can destroy the cell adherens junction protein p120-catenin of hCMEC/D3. These results indicate that the MRP-hFg interaction is important in the development of S. suis meningitis.

  3. An emerging zoonotic clone in the Netherlands provides clues to virulence and zoonotic potential of Streptococcus suis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, N.; Howell, K.J.; Weinert, L.A.; Heuvelink, A.; Pannekoek, Y.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Smith, H.E.; Ende, Van Der A.; Schultsz, C.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic swine pathogen and a major public health concern in Asia, where it emerged as an important cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. While associated with food-borne transmission in Asia, zoonotic S. suis infections are mainly occupational hazards elsewhere. To ide

  4. Slaughterhouse Pigs Are a Major Reservoir of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capable of Causing Human Infection in Southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, T.H; Tran, T.B.C.; Tran, T.T.N.; Nguyen, V.D.; Campbell, J.; Pham, H.A.; Huynh, H.T.; Nguyen, V.V.C.; Bryant, J.E.; Tran, T.H.; Farrar, J.; Schultsz, C.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serot

  5. Involvement of NF-¿B and MAP-kinases in the transcriptional response of alveolar macrophages to Streptococcus suis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, de A.; Benga, A.; Wichgers, P.J.; Valentin-Weigand, P.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Smith, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Interaction of Streptococcus suis with primary porcine alveolar macrophages was Studied using transcriptomics. Transcriptional response of macrophages to two different S. suis strains was studied: wild-type S10 that is resistant to phagocytosis, and its non-encapsulated mutant that is phagocytosed e

  6. Role of capsule and suilysin in mucosal infection of complement-deficient mice with Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Maren; Beineke, Andreas; Singpiel, Alena; Willenborg, Jörg; Dutow, Pavel; Goethe, Ralph; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Klos, Andreas; Baums, Christoph G

    2014-06-01

    Virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains are invasive extracellular bacteria causing septicemia and meningitis in piglets and humans. One objective of this study was to elucidate the function of complement in innate immune defense against S. suis. Experimental infection of wild-type (WT) and C3(-/-) mice demonstrated for the first time that the complement system protects naive mice against invasive mucosal S. suis infection. S. suis WT but not an unencapsulated mutant caused mortality associated with meningitis and other pathologies in C3(-/-) mice. The capsule contributed also substantially to colonization of the upper respiratory tract. Experimental infection of C3(-/-) mice with a suilysin mutant indicated that suilysin expression facilitated an early disease onset and the pathogenesis of meningitis. Flow cytometric analysis revealed C3 antigen deposition on the surface of ca. 40% of S. suis WT bacteria after opsonization with naive WT mouse serum, although to a significantly lower intensity than on the unencapsulated mutant. Ex vivo multiplication in murine WT and C3(-/-) blood depended on capsule but not suilysin expression. Interestingly, S. suis invasion of inner organs was also detectable in C5aR(-/-) mice, suggesting that chemotaxis and activation of immune cells via the anaphylatoxin receptor C5aR is, in addition to opsonization, a further important function of the complement system in defense against mucosal S. suis infection. In conclusion, we unequivocally demonstrate here the importance of complement against mucosal S. suis serotype 2 infection and that the capsule of this pathogen is also involved in escape from complement-independent immunity.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of nisin against the swine pathogen Streptococcus suis and its synergistic interaction with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Geneviève; Piché, Fanny; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, including meningitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, this bacterium is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Recently, increased antibiotic resistance in S. suis has been reported worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nisin, a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic class, as an antibacterial agent against the pathogen S. suis serotype 2. In addition, the synergistic activity of nisin in combination with conventional antibiotics was assessed. Using a plate assay, the nisin-producing strain Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of S. suis (n=18) belonging to either sequence type (ST)1, ST25, or ST28. In a microdilution broth assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of purified nisin ranged between 1.25 and 5 μg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 5 and 10 μg/mL toward S. suis. The use of a capsule-deficient mutant of S. suis indicated that the presence of this polysaccharidic structure has no marked impact on susceptibility to nisin. Following treatment of S. suis with nisin, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed lysis of bacteria resulting from breakdown of the cell membrane. A time-killing curve showed a rapid bactericidal activity of nisin. Lastly, synergistic effects of nisin were observed in combination with several antibiotics, including penicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ceftiofur. This study brought clear evidence supporting the potential of nisin for the prevention and treatment of S. suis infections in pigs.

  8. Bacterial Adhesion of Streptococcus suis to Host Cells and Its Inhibition by Carbohydrate Ligands

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    Sauli Haataja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a Gram-positive bacterium, which causes sepsis and meningitis in pigs and humans. This review examines the role of known S. suis virulence factors in adhesion and S. suis carbohydrate-based adhesion mechanisms, as well as the inhibition of S. suis adhesion by anti-adhesion compounds in in vitro assays. Carbohydrate-binding specificities of S. suis have been identified, and these studies have shown that many strains recognize Galα1-4Gal-containing oligosaccharides present in host glycolipids. In the era of increasing antibiotic resistance, new means to treat infections are needed. Since microbial adhesion to carbohydrates is important to establish disease, compounds blocking adhesion could be an alternative to antibiotics. The use of oligosaccharides as drugs is generally hampered by their relatively low affinity (micromolar to compete with multivalent binding to host receptors. However, screening of a library of chemically modified Galα1-4Gal derivatives has identified compounds that inhibit S. suis adhesion in nanomolar range. Also, design of multivalent Galα1-4Gal-containing dendrimers has resulted in a significant increase of the inhibitory potency of the disaccharide. The S. suis adhesin binding to Galα1-4Gal-oligosaccharides, Streptococcal adhesin P (SadP, was recently identified. It has a Galα1-4Gal-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal LPNTG-motif for cell wall anchoring. The carbohydrate-binding domain has no homology to E. coli P fimbrial adhesin, which suggests that these Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial adhesins recognizing the same receptor have evolved by convergent evolution. SadP adhesin may represent a promising target for the design of anti-adhesion ligands for the prevention and treatment of S. suis infections.

  9. Genomic signatures of human and animal disease in the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Lucy A; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Wang, Jinhong; Peters, Sarah E; Corander, Jukka; Jombart, Thibaut; Baig, Abiyad; Howell, Kate J; Vehkala, Minna; Välimäki, Niko; Harris, David; Chieu, Tran Thi Bich; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Campbell, James; Schultsz, Constance; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Langford, Paul R; Rycroft, Andrew N; Wren, Brendan W; Farrar, Jeremy; Baker, Stephen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Holden, Matthew T G; Tucker, Alexander W; Maskell, Duncan J

    2015-03-31

    Streptococcus suis causes disease in pigs worldwide and is increasingly implicated in zoonotic disease in East and South-East Asia. To understand the genetic basis of disease in S. suis, we study the genomes of 375 isolates with detailed clinical phenotypes from pigs and humans from the United Kingdom and Vietnam. Here, we show that isolates associated with disease contain substantially fewer genes than non-clinical isolates, but are more likely to encode virulence factors. Human disease isolates are limited to a single-virulent population, originating in the 1920, s when pig production was intensified, but no consistent genomic differences between pig and human isolates are observed. There is little geographical clustering of different S. suis subpopulations, and the bacterium undergoes high rates of recombination, implying that an increase in virulence anywhere in the world could have a global impact over a short timescale.

  10. Temporal Regulation of the Transformasome and Competence Development in Streptococcus suis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Edoardo; Wels, Michiel; van Baarlen, Peter; Wells, Jerry M.

    2016-01-01

    In S. suis the ComX-inducing peptide (XIP) pheromone regulates ComR-dependent transcriptional activation of comX (or sigX) the regulator of the late competence regulon. The aims of this study were to identify the ComR-regulated genes and in S. suis using genome-wide transcriptomics and identify their function based on orthology and the construction of specific knockout mutants. The ComX regulon we identified, includes all homologs of the “transformasome” a type 4-like pilus DNA binding and transport apparatus identified in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus thermophilus. A conserved CIN-box (YTACGAAYW), predicted to be bound by ComX, was found in the promoters of operons encoding genes involved in expression of the transformasome. Mutants lacking the major pilin gene comYC were not transformable demonstrating that the DNA uptake pilus is indeed required for competence development in S. suis. Competence was a transient state with the comX regulon shut down after ~15 min even when transcription of comX had not returned to basal levels, indicating other mechanisms control the exit from competence. The ComX regulon also included genes involved in DNA repair including cinA which we showed to be required for high efficiency transformation. In contrast to S. pneumoniae and S. mutans the ComX regulon of S. suis did not include endA which converts the transforming DNA into ssDNA, or ssbA, which protects the transforming ssDNA from degradation. EndA appeared to be essential in S. suis so we could not generate mutants and confirm its role in DNA transformation. Finally, we identified a putative homolog of fratricin, and a putative bacteriocin gene cluster, that were also part of the CIN-box regulon and thus may play a role in DNA release from non-competent cells, enabling gene transfer between S. suis pherotypes or S. suis and other species. S. suis mutants of oppA, the binding subunit of the general oligopeptide transporter were not

  11. Identification of a novel virulence determinant with serum opacification activity in Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Christoph G; Kaim, Ute; Fulde, Marcus; Ramachandran, Girish; Goethe, Ralph; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2006-11-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a porcine and human pathogen with adhesive and invasive properties. In other streptococci, large surface-associated proteins (>100 kDa) of the MSCRAMM family (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) are key players in interactions with host tissue. In this study, we identified a novel opacity factor of S. suis (OFS) with structural homology to members of the MSCRAMM family. The N-terminal region of OFS is homologous to the respective regions of fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBA) of Streptococcus dysgalactiae and the serum opacity factor (SOF) of Streptococcus pyogenes. Similar to these two proteins, the N-terminal domain of OFS opacified horse serum. Serum opacification activity was detectable in sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of wild-type S. suis but not in extracts of isogenic ofs knockout mutants. Heterologous expression of OFS in Lactococcus lactis demonstrated that a high level of expression of OFS is sufficient to provide surface-associated serum opacification activity. Furthermore, serum opacification could be inhibited by an antiserum against recombinant OFS. The C-terminal repetitive sequence elements of OFS differed significantly from the respective repeat regions of FnBA and SOF as well as from the consensus sequence of the fibronectin-binding repeats of MSCRAMMs. Accordingly, fibronectin binding was not detectable in recombinant OFS. To investigate the putative function of OFS in the pathogenesis of invasive S. suis diseases, piglets were experimentally infected with an isogenic mutant strain in which the ofs gene had been knocked out by an in-frame deletion. The mutant was severely attenuated in virulence but not in colonization, demonstrating that OFS represents a novel virulence determinant of S. suis.

  12. Real-time PCR for detection of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Diep, To Song; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Campbell, James; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and is the main cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adult patients in Vietnam. We developed an internally controlled real-time PCR for detection of S. suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples targeted at the cps2J gene. Sensitivity and specificity in culture-confirmed clinical samples were 100%. The PCR detected S. suis serotype 2 infection in 101 of 238 (42.4%) prospectively collected CSF samples, of which 55 (23%) were culture positive. Culture-negative but PCR-positive CSF samples were significantly associated with the use of antimicrobial agents before admission. S. suis serotype 2 infection was more common than infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis combined. Our results strikingly illustrate the additional diagnostic value of PCR in patients who are pretreated with antimicrobial agents and demonstrate the extremely high prevalence of S. suis infections among Vietnamese adult patients with bacterial meningitis. PMID:21767702

  13. Response of Streptococcus suis to iron-restricted growth conditions at high and low oxygen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhoff, Nora; Goethe, Ralph; Gruening, Petra; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important pathogen in pigs and has to overcome strict iron limitations in its host environment. Here, we studied iron-restricted growth of a highly virulent S. suis strain in vitro at aerobic and CO2-enriched growth conditions. At both conditions, depleting of iron in the culture medium with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) resulted in decreased growth rates and down regulation of several proteins. Sensitivity to NTA was significantly higher at aerobic versus CO2-enriched conditions. Growth could not be restored by addition of host iron sources such as ferritin, hemin, hemoglobin, lactoferrin or transferrin. Accordingly, S. suis was not able to produce detectable amounts of siderophores. On the other hand, growth at iron-restricted conditions was fully restored by addition of Mn2+ (at aerobic and CO2-enriched conditions) or Mg2+ (only at CO2-enriched conditions). In conclusion our results suggest that, unlike many other bacteria, S. suis adapts to iron restricted conditions by a change in its metabolism in order to replace Fe2+ by Mn2+ or Mg2+ rather than by expressing specific iron uptake systems.

  14. Sub-MIC tylosin inhibits Streptococcus suis biofilm formation and results in differential protein expression

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    Shuai eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis is a crucial zoonotic pathogen which causes severe diseases in humans and pigs. Biofilms of S. suis can induce persistent infections which are harder to treat. Sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC of tylosin can inhibit biofilm formation in bacteria. By using iTRAQ strategy, we compared the protein expression profiles of S. suis grown with sub-MIC tylosin treatment or no treatement. The result showed that 96 proteins expression were changed with 77 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated proteins. Several metabolism proteins (such as phosphoglycerate kinase, as well as cell surface proteins (such as ABC transporter proteins, were found to be involved in biofilm formation. Overall, our results indicated that S. suis metabolic regulation, cell surface proteins, and virulence proteins appear to be of importance in biofilm growth by sub-MIC tylosin treated. Thus, our data analyzed rough regulation of biofilm formation that lay the foundation for the future research of mechanism and targets.

  15. Recruitment of Factor H to the Streptococcus suis Cell Surface is Multifactorial

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    David Roy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important bacterial swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent. Recently, two surface proteins of S. suis, Fhb and Fhbp, have been described for their capacity to bind factor H—a soluble complement regulatory protein that protects host cells from complement-mediated damages. Results obtained in this study showed an important role of host factor H in the adhesion of S. suis to epithelial and endothelial cells. Both Fhb and Fhbp play, to a certain extent, a role in such increased factor H-dependent adhesion. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS of S. suis, independently of the presence of its sialic acid moiety, was also shown to be involved in the recruitment of factor H. However, a triple mutant lacking Fhb, Fhbp and CPS was still able to recruit factor H resulting in the degradation of C3b in the presence of factor I. In the presence of complement factors, the double mutant lacking Fhb and Fhbp was similarly phagocytosed by human macrophages and killed by pig blood when compared to the wild-type strain. In conclusion, this study suggests that recruitment of factor H to the S. suis cell surface is multifactorial and redundant.

  16. Recruitment of Factor H to the Streptococcus suis Cell Surface is Multifactorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, David; Grenier, Daniel; Segura, Mariela; Mathieu-Denoncourt, Annabelle; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2016-07-07

    Streptococcus suis is an important bacterial swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent. Recently, two surface proteins of S. suis, Fhb and Fhbp, have been described for their capacity to bind factor H-a soluble complement regulatory protein that protects host cells from complement-mediated damages. Results obtained in this study showed an important role of host factor H in the adhesion of S. suis to epithelial and endothelial cells. Both Fhb and Fhbp play, to a certain extent, a role in such increased factor H-dependent adhesion. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of S. suis, independently of the presence of its sialic acid moiety, was also shown to be involved in the recruitment of factor H. However, a triple mutant lacking Fhb, Fhbp and CPS was still able to recruit factor H resulting in the degradation of C3b in the presence of factor I. In the presence of complement factors, the double mutant lacking Fhb and Fhbp was similarly phagocytosed by human macrophages and killed by pig blood when compared to the wild-type strain. In conclusion, this study suggests that recruitment of factor H to the S. suis cell surface is multifactorial and redundant.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Selective Metabolic Adaptation of Streptococcus suis to Porcine Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Anna; Jarek, Michael; Visscher, Christian; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph; Willenborg, Jörg

    2017-02-15

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe pathologies such as septicemia and meningitis in its natural porcine host as well as in humans. Establishment of disease requires not only virulence of the infecting strain but also an appropriate metabolic activity of the pathogen in its host environment. However, it is yet largely unknown how the streptococcal metabolism adapts to the different host niches encountered during infection. Our previous isotopologue profiling studies on S. suis grown in porcine blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed conserved activities of central carbon metabolism in both body fluids. On the other hand, they suggested differences in the de novo amino acid biosynthesis. This prompted us to further dissect S. suis adaptation to porcine blood and CSF by RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq). In blood, the majority of differentially expressed genes were associated with transport of alternative carbohydrate sources and the carbohydrate metabolism (pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism). In CSF, predominantly genes involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were differentially expressed. Especially, isoleucine biosynthesis seems to be of major importance for S. suis in CSF because several related biosynthetic genes were more highly expressed. In conclusion, our data revealed niche-specific metabolic gene activity which emphasizes a selective adaptation of S. suis to host environments.

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Selective Metabolic Adaptation of Streptococcus suis to Porcine Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Koczula

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe pathologies such as septicemia and meningitis in its natural porcine host as well as in humans. Establishment of disease requires not only virulence of the infecting strain but also an appropriate metabolic activity of the pathogen in its host environment. However, it is yet largely unknown how the streptococcal metabolism adapts to the different host niches encountered during infection. Our previous isotopologue profiling studies on S. suis grown in porcine blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF revealed conserved activities of central carbon metabolism in both body fluids. On the other hand, they suggested differences in the de novo amino acid biosynthesis. This prompted us to further dissect S. suis adaptation to porcine blood and CSF by RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq. In blood, the majority of differentially expressed genes were associated with transport of alternative carbohydrate sources and the carbohydrate metabolism (pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism. In CSF, predominantly genes involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were differentially expressed. Especially, isoleucine biosynthesis seems to be of major importance for S. suis in CSF because several related biosynthetic genes were more highly expressed. In conclusion, our data revealed niche-specific metabolic gene activity which emphasizes a selective adaptation of S. suis to host environments.

  19. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis isolates as determined by comparative genome hybridization

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    Thi Hoa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that causes infections in young piglets. S. suis is a heterogeneous species. Thirty-three different capsular serotypes have been described, that differ in virulence between as well as within serotypes. Results In this study, the correlation between gene content, serotype, phenotype and virulence among 55 S. suis strains was studied using Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH. Clustering of CGH data divided S. suis isolates into two clusters, A and B. Cluster A isolates could be discriminated from cluster B isolates based on the protein expression of extracellular factor (EF. Cluster A contained serotype 1 and 2 isolates that were correlated with virulence. Cluster B mainly contained serotype 7 and 9 isolates. Genetic similarity was observed between serotype 7 and serotype 2 isolates that do not express muramidase released protein (MRP and EF (MRP-EF-, suggesting these isolates originated from a common founder. Profiles of 25 putative virulence-associated genes of S. suis were determined among the 55 isolates. Presence of all 25 genes was shown for cluster A isolates, whereas cluster B isolates lacked one or more putative virulence genes. Divergence of S. suis isolates was further studied based on the presence of 39 regions of difference. Conservation of genes was evaluated by the definition of a core genome that contained 78% of all ORFs in P1/7. Conclusions In conclusion, we show that CGH is a valuable method to study distribution of genes or gene clusters among isolates in detail, yielding information on genetic similarity, and virulence traits of S. suis isolates.

  20. Immunization with Streptococcus suis bacterin plus recombinant Sao protein in sows conveys passive immunity to their piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Kai-Jen; Cheng, Li-Ting; Lee, Jai-Wei; Chung, Yao-Chi; Chung, Wen-Bin; Chu, Chun-Yen

    2017-01-07

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) causes arthritis, meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death in pigs and is also an zoonotic agent for humans. The present study demonstrated that immunization with recombinant Sao-L (surface antigen one-L, rSao-L) protein from a strain of S. suis serotype 2 in pigs was able to increase cross-serotype protection against S. suis serotype 1 and 2 challenge. Since weaning piglets are more susceptible to S. suis infections due to the stresses associated with weaning, prepartum immunization in sows may convey passive immunity to piglets and provide protection. Pregnant sows were immunized with a vaccine containing inactivated S. suis serotype 2 plus rSao as the antigens. Blood samples were collected from their piglets after birth for analysis of antigen-specific antibody titers and levels of various cytokines. Results demonstrated that the titers of S. suis and rSao-specific antibodies were significantly (p sows when compared to piglets from unvaccinated sows. In addition, piglets were challenged by heterologous and homologous S. suis. All piglets from unvaccinated sows developed severe symptoms of bacteremia, fever, anorexia, depression, and arthritis. On the other hand, piglets from vaccinated sows had significantly (p sows with the vaccine containing inactivated S. suis bacterin plus rSao as the antigens is able to enhance passive immunity against heterologous and homologous S. suis challenge in their piglets.

  1. Virulence-associated gene profiling of Streptococcus suis isolates by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciana M G; Baums, Christoph G; Rehm, Thomas; Wisselink, Henk J; Goethe, Ralph; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Definition of virulent Streptococcus suis strains is controversial. One successful approach for identification of virulent European strains is differentiation of capsular serotypes (or the corresponding cps types) and subsequent detection of virulence-associated factors, namely the extracellular factor (EF, epf), the muramidase-released protein (MRP, mrp) and the hemolysin suilysin (SLY, sly). In this work we present a novel multiplex PCR (MP-PCR) and an mrp variant PCR for identification and characterization of virulent S. suis strains. These new methods were used to identify association of disease with particular profiles of virulence-associated genes. The MP-PCR allowed identification of S. suis through detection of the housekeeping gene gdh, differentiation of four cps types (1, 2, 7 and 9), and detection of epf, mrp, sly and arcA (arginine deiminase from S. suis). Furthermore, this study describes the first PCR assay for differentiation of at least six mrp variants. Expression of the corresponding size variants of MRP was shown for four of the six mrp variants, but was undetectable for the two larger mrp variants in the particular strains investigated. The results of this study suggest that cps7 strains are associated with pneumonia and that variation of mrp is very pronounced among these strains. Gene profiles of invasive, pneumonia and carrier S. suis isolates by combination of PCR assays allowed differentiation of 24 different genotypes among cps1, 2, 7 and 9 strains. Forty-five percent of the invasive S. suis diseases investigated in this study were caused by only two of these genotypes, namely cps2/mrp+/epf+/sly+ and cps9/mrp(*)/epf-/sly+. Thus, this study demonstrates for the first time a uniform profile of the particular virulence-associated genes for the vast majority of the investigated invasive cps9 strains.

  2. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of Streptococcus suis infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Vu Thi Lan; Ha, Ngo; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Horby, Peter; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Zhu, Xiaotong; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Hien, Tran Tinh; Zamora, Javier; Schultsz, Constance; Wertheim, Heiman Frank Louis; Hirayama, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    Streptococcus suis, a bacterium that affects pigs, is a neglected pathogen that causes systemic disease in humans. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize global estimates of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of this zoonosis. We searched main literature databases for all studies through December 2012 using the search term "streptococcus suis." The prevalence of S. suis infection is highest in Asia; the primary risk factors are occupational exposure and eating of contaminated food. The pooled proportions of case-patients with pig-related occupations and history of eating high-risk food were 38.1% and 37.3%, respectively. The main clinical syndrome was meningitis (pooled rate 68.0%), followed by sepsis, arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. The pooled case-fatality rate was 12.8%. Sequelae included hearing loss (39.1%) and vestibular dysfunction (22.7%). Our analysis identified gaps in the literature, particularly in assessing risk factors and sequelae of this infection.

  3. Two Spx regulators modulate stress tolerance and virulence in Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkun Zheng

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important zoonotic pathogen causing severe infections in pigs and humans. The pathogenesis of S. suis 2 infections, however, is still poorly understood. Spx proteins are a group of global regulators involved in stress tolerance and virulence. In this study, we characterized two orthologs of the Spx regulator, SpxA1 and SpxA2 in S. suis 2. Two mutant strains (ΔspxA1 and ΔspxA2 lacking the spx genes were constructed. The ΔspxA1 and ΔspxA2 mutants displayed different phenotypes. ΔspxA1 exhibited impaired growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, while ΔspxA2 exhibited impaired growth in the presence of SDS and NaCl. Both mutants were defective in medium lacking newborn bovine serum. Using a murine infection model, we demonstrated that the abilities of the mutant strains to colonize the tissues were significantly reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain. The mutant strains also showed a decreased level of survival in pig blood. Microarray analysis revealed a global regulatory role for SpxA1 and SpxA2. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that Spx is involved in triggering the host inflammatory response. Collectively, our data suggest that SpxA1 and SpxA2 are global regulators that are implicated in stress tolerance and virulence in S. suis 2.

  4. In vitro Transcriptome Analysis of Two Chinese Isolates of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dake Zhang; Nan Du; Sufang Ma; Qingtao Hu; Guangwen Lu; Wei Chen; Changqing Zeng

    2014-01-01

    The Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) isolates 05ZYH33 and 98HAH33 have caused severe human infections in China. Using a strand-specific RNA-seq analysis, we compared the in vitro transcriptomes of these two Chinese isolates with that of a reference strain (P1/7). In the 89K genomic island that is specific to these Chinese isolates, a toxin–antitoxin system showed relatively high levels of transcription among the S. suis. The known virulence factors with high transcriptional activity in these two highly-pathogenic strains are mainly involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, hemolysis and the synthesis and transport of the outer membrane protein. Furthermore, our analysis of novel transcripts identified over 50 protein-coding genes with one of them encoding a toxin protein. We also predicted over 30 small RNAs (sRNAs) in each strain, and most of them are involved in riboswitches. We found that six sRNA candidates that are related to bacterial virulence, including cspA and rli38, are specific to Chinese isolates. These results provide insight into the factors responsible for the difference in virulence among the different S. suis 2 isolates.

  5. Impact of a Food Safety Campaign on Streptococcus suis Infection in Humans in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Dan; Kerdsin, Anusak; Akeda, Yukihiro; Chiranairadul, Piphat; Loetthong, Phacharaphan; Tanburawong, Nutchada; Areeratana, Prasanee; Puangmali, Panarat; Khamisara, Kasean; Pinyo, Wirasinee; Anukul, Rapeepun; Samerchea, Sutit; Lekhalula, Punpong; Nakayama, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kouji; Hirose, Masayo; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Dejsirilert, Surang; Oishi, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    AbstractStreptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen in swine and humans that causes sepsis and meningitis. Our previous study in Thailand showed that the prevalence of S. suis infection in humans, especially in northern areas of Thailand, and the transmission of the pathogen occurred mainly through the consumption of traditional raw pork products. Considering the high incidence proportion and mortality rate of the disease as an important public health problem, we implemented a food safety campaign in the Phayao Province in northern Thailand in 2011. We evaluated the effects of a food safety campaign by comparing the sociodemographic, clinical, and bacteriological characteristics of cases before and after the campaign. The follow-up study showed a marked decrease of the incidence proportion in the first 2 years, indicating the effectiveness of the campaign. In the third year, however, the incidence proportion slightly increased again, indicating the existence of deep-rooted cultural behaviors and the necessity of continuous public health intervention. Furthermore, epidemiological analysis of the cases made it possible to estimate the infectivity of the pathogen via the oral route of infection. In the present study, we showed the effectiveness of the food safety campaign for controlling the S. suis infection, and we present a role model public health intervention for prevalent areas affected by S. suis infection in humans.

  6. Risk factors of Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Le, Thi Phuong Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Thai, Cao Quang; Cao, Quang Thai; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Nguyen, Van Minh Hoang; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Tran, Vu Thieu Nga; Thao, Le Thi Phuong; Le, Thi Phuong Thao; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nguyen, Hoan Phu; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Tran, Thi Hong Chau; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Dinh, Xuan Sinh; Diep, To Song; To, Song Diep; Hang, Hoang Thi Thanh; Hoang, Thi Thanh Hang; Truong, Hoang; Campbell, James; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Nguyen, Tran Chinh; Dung, Nguyen Van; Nguyen, Van Dung; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Ngo, Thi Hoa; Spratt, Brian G; Hien, Tran Tinh; Tran, Tinh Hien; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-03-08

    Streptococcus suis infection, an emerging zoonosis, is an increasing public health problem across South East Asia and the most common cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Little is known of the risk factors underlying the disease. A case-control study with appropriate hospital and matched community controls for each patient was conducted between May 2006 and June 2009. Potential risk factors were assessed using a standardized questionnaire and investigation of throat and rectal S. suis carriage in cases, controls and their pigs, using real-time PCR and culture of swab samples. We recruited 101 cases of S. suis meningitis, 303 hospital controls and 300 community controls. By multivariate analysis, risk factors identified for S. suis infection as compared to either control group included eating "high risk" dishes, including such dishes as undercooked pig blood and pig intestine (OR(1) = 2.22; 95%CI = [1.15-4.28] and OR(2) = 4.44; 95%CI = [2.15-9.15]), occupations related to pigs (OR(1) = 3.84; 95%CI = [1.32-11.11] and OR(2) = 5.52; 95%CI = [1.49-20.39]), and exposures to pigs or pork in the presence of skin injuries (OR(1) = 7.48; 95%CI = [1.97-28.44] and OR(2) = 15.96; 95%CI = [2.97-85.72]). S. suis specific DNA was detected in rectal and throat swabs of 6 patients and was cultured from 2 rectal samples, but was not detected in such samples of 1522 healthy individuals or patients without S. suis infection. This case control study, the largest prospective epidemiological assessment of this disease, has identified the most important risk factors associated with S. suis bacterial meningitis to be eating 'high risk' dishes popular in parts of Asia, occupational exposure to pigs and pig products, and preparation of pork in the presence of skin lesions. These risk factors can be addressed in public health campaigns aimed at preventing S. suis infection.

  7. ArgR is an essential local transcriptional regulator of the arcABC-operon in Streptococcus suis and crucial for biological fitness in acidic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulde, M.; Willenborg, J.; Greeff, de A.; Benga, L.; Smith, H.E.; Valentin-Weigand, P.; Goethe, R.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs and can also cause severe infections in humans. Despite its clinical relevance very little is known about the factors contributing to its virulence. Recently, we identified a new putative virulence factor in Streptococcus suis, the ar

  8. An emerging zoonotic clone in the Netherlands provides clues to virulence and zoonotic potential of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, N; Howell, K J; Weinert, L A; Heuvelink, A; Pannekoek, Y; Wagenaar, J A; Smith, H E; van der Ende, A; Schultsz, C

    2016-07-06

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic swine pathogen and a major public health concern in Asia, where it emerged as an important cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. While associated with food-borne transmission in Asia, zoonotic S. suis infections are mainly occupational hazards elsewhere. To identify genomic differences that can explain zoonotic potential, we compared whole genomes of 98 S. suis isolates from human patients and pigs with invasive disease in the Netherlands, and validated our observations with 18 complete and publicly available sequences. Zoonotic isolates have smaller genomes than non-zoonotic isolates, but contain more virulence factors. We identified a zoonotic S. suis clone that diverged from a non-zoonotic clone by means of gene loss, a capsule switch, and acquisition of a two-component signalling system in the late 19th century, when foreign pig breeds were introduced. Our results indicate that zoonotic potential of S. suis results from gene loss, recombination and horizontal gene transfer events.

  9. Functional definition of BirA suggests a biotin utilization pathway in the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huiyan; Cai, Mingzhu; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Zhencui; Wen, Ronghui; Feng, Youjun

    2016-05-24

    Biotin protein ligase is universal in three domains of life. The paradigm version of BPL is the Escherichia coli BirA that is also a repressor for the biotin biosynthesis pathway. Streptococcus suis, a leading bacterial agent for swine diseases, seems to be an increasingly-important opportunistic human pathogen. Unlike the scenario in E. coli, S. suis lacks the de novo biotin biosynthesis pathway. In contrast, it retains a bioY, a biotin transporter-encoding gene, indicating an alternative survival strategy for S. suis to scavenge biotin from its inhabiting niche. Here we report functional definition of S. suis birA homologue. The in vivo functions of the birA paralogue with only 23.6% identity to the counterpart of E. coli, was judged by its ability to complement the conditional lethal mutants of E. coli birA. The recombinant BirA protein of S. suis was overexpressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and verified with MS. Both cellulose TLC and MALDI-TOFF-MS assays demonstrated that the S. suis BirA protein catalyzed the biotinylation reaction of its acceptor biotin carboxyl carrier protein. EMSA assays confirmed binding of the bioY gene to the S. suis BirA. The data defined the first example of the bifunctional BirA ligase/repressor in Streptococcus.

  10. Structure, regulation, and putative function of the arginine deiminase system of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruening, Petra; Fulde, Marcus; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important cause of infectious diseases in young pigs. Little is known about the virulence factors or protective antigens of S. suis. Recently, we have identified two proteins of the arginine deiminase system (ADS) of S. suis, which were temperature induced and expressed on the streptococcal surface (N. Winterhoff, R. Goethe, P. Gruening, M. Rohde, H. Kalisz, H. E. Smith, and P. Valentin-Weigand, J. Bacteriol. 184:6768-6776, 2002). In the present study, we analyzed the complete ADS of S. suis. Due to their homologies to the recently published S. gordonii ADS genes, the genes for arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyl-transferase, and carbamate kinase, which were previously designated adiS, octS, and ckS, respectively, were renamed arcA, arcB, and arcC, respectively. Our data revealed that arcA, arcB, and arcC of the S. suis ADS are transcribed from an operon (arcABC operon). Additionally, putative ADS-associated genes were cloned and sequenced which, however, did not belong to the arcABC operon. These were the flpS gene upstream of the arcABC operon with homology to the flp transcription regulator of S. gordonii and the arcD, arcT, arcH, and argR genes downstream of the arcABC operon with high homologies to a putative arginine-ornithine antiporter, a putative dipeptidase of S. gordonii, a putative beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase of S. pneumoniae, and a putative arginine repressor of S. gordonii, respectively. The transcriptional start point of the arcABC operon was determined, and promoter analysis provided evidence that multiple factors contribute to the regulation of the ADS. Thus, a putative binding site for a transcription regulator of the Crp/Fnr family, an ArgR-binding site, and two cis-acting catabolite response elements were identified in the promoter-operator region of the operon. Consistent with this, we could demonstrate that the ADS of S. suis is inducible by arginine and reduced O2 tension and subject to carbon catabolite

  11. Evaluation on a Streptococcus suis vaccine using recombinant sao-l protein manufactured by bioreactors as the antigen in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, K-J; Lee, J-W; Hou, S-M; Chen, H-S; Chang, T-C; Chu, C-Y

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) can be classified into 33 serotypes based on the structure of capsular polysaccharides. Recent research indicated that a new surface protein designated as Sao (surface antigen one) reacts with 30 serotypes of convalescent-phase sera during S. suis infections, which makes Sao a good potential antigen for developing S. suis vaccines. The objectives of this study were to produce recombinant Sao-L protein (rSao-L) from a strain of S. suis serotype 2 by a prokaryotic expression system in bioreactors and to use rSao-L as the antigen for a S. suis vaccine in mouse and swine models. The antibody titres in mice and pigs immunized with rSao-L were significantly (P bacteria, the anatomical lesions in pigs immunized with rSao-L were reduced by 60%. These data indicated that immunization with rSao-L can confer cross-serotype protection against S. suis. Moreover, percentages of CD8(+) and CD4(+) /CD8(+) double-positive T cells in immunized pigs were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.01). Using bioreactors to produce rSao-L as the antigen for S. suis vaccines may broaden protective efficacy and reduce production costs.

  12. Impact of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Amoxicillin on Streptococcus suis Capsule Gene Expression and Inflammatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent worldwide causing meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis and septicemia. Among the 29 serotypes identified to date, serotype 2 is mostly isolated from diseased pigs. Although several virulence mechanisms have been characterized in S. suis, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections remains only partially understood. This study focuses on the response of S. suis P1/7 to sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin. First, capsule expression was monitored by qRT-PCR when S. suis was cultivated in the presence of amoxicillin. Then, the pro-inflammatory potential of S. suis P1/7 culture supernatants or whole cells conditioned with amoxicillin was evaluated by monitoring the activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes and quantifying pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages. It was found that amoxicillin decreased capsule expression in S. suis. Moreover, conditioning the bacterium with sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin caused an increased activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes following exposure to bacterial culture supernatants and to a lesser extent to whole bacterial cells. This was associated with an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1β by macrophages. This study identified a new mechanism by which S. suis may increase its inflammatory potential in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, a cell wall-active antibiotic, thus challenging its use for preventive treatments or as growth factor.

  13. 猪链球菌病的流行病学%Epidemiology of the disease caused by Streptococcus suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楷宬

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis can infect human and animal,causing meningitis,septicaemia,arthritis and death. With the development of molecular biology,microbiology and epidemiology,the epidemiology of Streptococcus suis with some new understand were known. From the characterization of Streptococcus suis,epidemiology feature,the status in China and other countries,this article introduced the range,level,trend and regularity of the epidemiology in Streptococcus suis. This paper will supply the reference epidemiology data to the prevention of the disease.%猪链球菌(Streptococcus suis)可感染人和动物,引起脑膜炎、败血症、关节炎等,甚至死亡。随着分子生物学、微生物学和流行病学的发展,对猪链球菌(病)的流行病学有了一些新的认识。本文围绕猪链球菌的特性、流行特点以及我国和其他国家的猪链球菌病流行情况等4方面,系统介绍了该病当前的流行范围、程度、趋势和规律等,为本病的防控提供可参考的流行病学依据。

  14. Streptococcus suis sorption on agricultural soils: role of soil physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Liu, Xing; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding pathogen sorption on natural soil particles is crucial to protect public health from soilborne and waterborne diseases. Sorption of pathogen Streptococcus suis on 10 agricultural soils was examined, and its correlations with soil physico-chemical properties were also elucidated. S. suis sorption isotherms conformed to the linear equation, with partition coefficients (Ks) ranging from 12.7 mL g(-1) to 100.1 mL g(-1). Bacteria were observed to sorb on the external surfaces of soil aggregates by scanning electron microscopy. Using Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis, solution pH was found to have significant negative correlations with Ks. Stepwise multiple regression and path analysis revealed that pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main factors influencing sorption behaviors. The obtained overall model (Ks=389.6-45.9×pH-1.3×CEC, R(2)=0.943, PKs values. However, the variability in Ks was less dependent on soil organic matter, specific surface area, soil texture and zeta potential, probably due to the internal-surface shielding phenomenon of soil aggregates. Additionally, the sorption trends cannot be interpreted by interaction energy barriers calculated using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, suggesting the limits of DLVO theory in describing pathogen sorption on natural soils. Our results also indicated soil pH and CEC should be preferentially considered when modeling S. suis sorption process.

  15. Streptococcal Adhesin P (SadP) contributes to Streptococcus suis adhesion to the human intestinal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; Willemse, Niels; Zaccaria, Edoardo; Pannekoek, Yvonne; van der Ende, Arie; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen, causing meningitis and septicemia. We previously demonstrated that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an entry site for zoonotic S. suis infection. Here we studied the contribution of Streptococcal adhesin Protein (SadP) to host-pathogen interaction at GIT level. Methods SadP expression in presence of Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IEC) was compared with expression of other virulence factors by measuring transcript levels using quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). SadP variants were identified by phylogenetic analysis of complete DNA sequences. The interaction of SadP knockout and complementation mutants with IEC was tested in vitro. Results Expression of sadP was significantly increased in presence of IEC. Sequence analysis of 116 invasive strains revealed five SadP sequence variants, correlating with genotype. SadP1, present in zoonotic isolates of clonal complex 1, contributed to binding to both human and porcine IEC and translocation across human IEC. Antibodies against the globotriaosylceramide Gb3/CD77 receptor significantly inhibited adhesion to human IEC. Conclusion SadP is involved in the host-pathogen interaction in the GIT. Differences between SadP variants may determine different affinities to the Gb3/CD77 host-receptor, contributing to variation in adhesion capacity to host IEC and thus to S. suis zoonotic potential. PMID:28407026

  16. Pre-absorbed immunoproteomics: a novel method for the detection of Streptococcus suis surface proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause infections in pigs and humans. Bacterial surface proteins are often investigated as potential vaccine candidates and biomarkers of virulence. In this study, a novel method for identifying bacterial surface proteins is presented, which combines immunoproteomic and immunoserologic techniques. Critical to the success of this new method is an improved procedure for generating two-dimensional electrophoresis gel profiles of S. suis proteins. The S. suis surface proteins identified in this study include muramidase-released protein precursor (MRP and an ABC transporter protein, while MRP is thought to be one of the main virulence factors in SS2 located on the bacterial surface. Herein, we demonstrate that the ABC transporter protein can bind to HEp-2 cells, which strongly suggests that this protein is located on the bacterial cell surface and may be involved in pathogenesis. An immunofluorescence assay confirmed that the ABC transporter is localized to the bacterial outer surface. This new method may prove to be a useful tool for identifying surface proteins, and aid in the development of new vaccine subunits and disease diagnostics.

  17. Literatuurstudie en in vitro onderzoek naar antibacteriële werking van voeradditieven ter vermindering van de Streptococcus suis problematiek = Desk study and in vitro analysis of antibacterial effects of feed additives to reduce Streptococcus suis in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, H.E.; Greeff, de A.; Faber, I.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kluivers-Poodt, M.; Troquet, L.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    In opdracht van het Productschap Vee en Vlees en het ministerie van Economische Zaken is een literatuurstudie uitgevoerd naar voeradditieven waarvan beschreven is dat zij een direct bacteriedodend effect hebben, bij voorkeur tegen Streptococcus suis. De top 5 voeradditieven, die uit deze studie naar

  18. Effect van geboortegewicht en voeropname voor spenen op het aantal gespeende biggen met Streptococcus suis verschijnselen = Effect of birth weight and feed intake before weaning on the number of weaned piglets with clinical signs of Streptococcus suis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Troquet, L.M.P.; Smith, H.E.; Greeff, de A.; Hout, van J.; Faber, I.

    2014-01-01

    Op VIC Sterksel is onderzocht wat het effect is van het geboortegewicht en voeropname voor spenen op het aantal biggen met klinische verschijnselen van een Streptococcus suis infectie. Het onderzoek is opgezet als een 2 x 2 factoriële proef met de volgende proeffactoren: 1) Hoog versus laag geboorte

  19. Role of glucose and CcpA in capsule expression and virulence of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, J; Fulde, M; de Greeff, A; Rohde, M; Smith, H E; Valentin-Weigand, P; Goethe, R

    2011-06-01

    Streptococcus suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs and is also an emerging zoonotic agent. After crossing the epithelial barrier, S. suis causes bacteraemia, resulting in meningitis, endocarditis and bronchopneumonia. Since the host environment seems to be an important regulatory component for virulence, we related expression of virulence determinants of S. suis to glucose availability during growth and to the sugar metabolism regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA). We found that expression of the virulence-associated genes arcB, representing arcABC operon expression, cps2A, representing capsular locus expression, as well as sly, ofs, sao and epf, differed significantly between exponential and early stationary growth of a highly virulent serotype 2 strain. Deletion of ccpA altered the expression of the surface-associated virulence factors arcB, sao and eno, as well as the two currently proven virulence factors in pigs, ofs and cps2A, in early exponential growth. Global expression analysis using a cDNA expression array revealed 259 differentially expressed genes in early exponential growth, of which 141 were more highly expressed in the CcpA mutant strain 10ΔccpA and 118 were expressed to a lower extent. Interestingly, among the latter genes, 18 could be related to capsule and cell wall synthesis. Correspondingly, electron microscopy characterization of strain 10ΔccpA revealed a markedly reduced thickness of the capsule. This phenotype correlated with enhanced binding to porcine plasma proteins and a reduced resistance to killing by porcine neutrophils. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CcpA has a significant effect on the capsule synthesis and virulence properties of S. suis.

  20. The arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD contributes to biological fitness of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulde, Marcus; Willenborg, Joerg; Huber, Claudia; Hitzmann, Angela; Willms, Daniela; Seitz, Maren; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD) is part of the Arginine Deiminase System (ADS), a catabolic, energy-providing pathway found in a variety of different bacterial species, including the porcine zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. The ADS has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenicity of S. suis, in particular in its survival in host cells. The contribution of arginine and arginine transport mediated by ArcD, however, has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we showed by experiments using [U-(13)C6]arginine as a tracer molecule that S. suis is auxotrophic for arginine and that bacterial growth depends on the uptake of extracellular arginine. To further study the role of ArcD in arginine metabolism, we generated an arcD-specific mutant strain and characterized its growth compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, a virulent serotype 2 strain. The mutant strain showed a markedly reduced growth in chemically defined media supplemented with arginine when compared to the WT strain, suggesting that ArcD promotes arginine uptake. To further evaluate the in vivo relevance of ArcD, we studied the intracellular bacterial survival of the arcD mutant strain in an epithelial cell culture infection model. The mutant strain was substantially attenuated, and its reduced intracellular survival rate correlated with a lower ability to neutralize the acidified environment. Based on these results, we propose that ArcD, by its function as an arginine-ornithine antiporter, is important for supplying arginine as substrate of the ADS and, thereby, contributes to biological fitness and virulence of S. suis in the host.

  1. Clinical resistance and decreased susceptibility in Streptococcus suis isolates from clinically healthy fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Bénédicte F; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek; Butaye, Patrick; Dewulf, Jeroen; Boyen, Filip

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) has often been reported as an important swine pathogen and is considered as a new emerging zoonotic agent. Consequently, it is important to be informed on its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. In the current study, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) population distribution of nine antimicrobial agents has been determined for nasal S. suis strains, isolated from healthy pigs at the end of the fattening period from 50 closed or semiclosed pig herds. The aim of the study was to report resistance based on both clinical breakpoints (clinical resistance percentage) and epidemiological cutoff values (non-wild-type percentage). Non-wild-type percentages were high for tetracycline (98%), lincomycin (92%), tilmicosin (72%), erythromycin (70%), tylosin (66%), and low for florfenicol (0%) and enrofloxacin (0.3%). Clinical resistance percentages were high for tetracycline (95%), erythromycin (66%), tylosin (66%), and low for florfenicol (0.3%) and enrofloxacin (0.3%). For tiamulin, for which no clinical breakpoint is available, 57% of the isolates did not belong to the wild-type population. Clinical resistance and non-wild-type percentages differed substantially for penicillin. Only 1% of the tested S. suis strains was considered as clinically resistant, whereas 47% of the strains showed acquired resistance when epidemiological cutoff values were used. In conclusion, MIC values for penicillin are gradually increasing, compared to previous reports, although pigs infected with strains showing higher MICs may still respond to treatment with penicillin. The high rate of acquired resistance against tiamulin has not been reported before. Results from this study clearly demonstrate that the use of different interpretive criteria contributes to the extent of differences in reported antimicrobial resistance results. The early detection of small changes in the MIC population distribution of isolates, while clinical failure may not yet be

  2. Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis in the Netherlands, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hout, Jobke; Heuvelink, Annet; Gonggrijp, Maaike

    2016-10-15

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolates from post-mortem samples from pigs in the Netherlands. S. suis isolates originated from diagnostic submissions of pigs sent to the Pathology Department of GD Animal Health, from April 2013 till June 2015. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of in total 15 antimicrobials were assessed by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. MIC50 and MIC90 values were determined and MICs were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate and resistant using CLSI veterinary breakpoints (when available). Emergence of resistance among S. suis (n=1163) derived from clinical submissions of pigs appeared to be limited. Resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, penicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline was 0.3%, 0.5%, 48.1%, 0.6%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 3.0%, and 78.4%, respectively. Cross-resistance between penicillin and ampicillin appeared to be incomplete. MIC values of erythromycin, clindamycin, neomycin, penicillin and tilmicosin for isolates originating from grower/finisher pigs were significantly more often lower than the MIC values of isolates from suckling/weaned piglets. It has to be kept in mind that these results represent only part of the Dutch pig population and it can be discussed whether this is a representative sample. Interpretation of the MIC results of (clinically relevant) antimicrobials tested for treatment of S. suis infection is strongly hampered by the lack of CLSI-defined veterinary clinical breakpoints that are animal species- and body site-specific. Therefore, and to conduct a clinically reliable monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of veterinary pathogens, more species- and organ-specific veterinary breakpoints are urgently needed.

  3. The arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD contributes to biological fitness of Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eFulde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD is part of the Arginine Deiminase System (ADS, a catabolic, energy-providing pathway found in a variety of different bacterial species, including the porcine zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. The ADS has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenicity of S. suis, in particular in its survival in host cells. The contribution of arginine and arginine transport mediated by ArcD, however, has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we showed by experiments using [U-13C6]arginine as a tracer molecule that S. suis is auxotrophic for arginine and that bacterial growth depends on the uptake of extracellular arginine. To further study the role of ArcD in arginine metabolism, we generated an arcD-specific mutant strain and characterized its growth compared to the wild-type (WT strain, a virulent serotype 2 strain. The mutant strain showed a markedly reduced growth rate in chemically defined media supplemented with arginine when compared to the WT strain, indicating that ArcD promotes arginine uptake. To further evaluate the in vivo relevance of ArcD, we studied the intracellular bacterial survival of the arcD mutant strain in an epithelial cell culture infection model. The mutant strain was substantially attenuated, and its reduced intracellular survival rate correlated with a lower ability to neutralize the acidified environment. Based on these results, we propose that ArcD, by its function as an arginine-ornithine antiporter, is important for supplying arginine as substrate of the ADS and, thereby, contributes to biological fitness and virulence of S. suis in the host.

  4. ApuA, a multifunctional x-glucan-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus suis, mediates adhesion to porcine epithelium and mucus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrando, M.L.; Fuentes, S.; Greeff, de A.; Smith, H.E.; Wells, J.

    2010-01-01

    We have identified apuA in Streptococcus suis, which encodes a bifunctional amylopullulanase with conserved -amylase and pullulanase substrate-binding domains and catalytic motifs. ApuA exhibited properties typical of a Gram-positive surface protein, with a putative signal sequence and LPKTGE cell-w

  5. Identification and characterization of two temperature-induced surface-associated proteins of Streptococcus suis with high homologies to members of the arginine deiminase system of Streptococcus pyogenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterhoff, N.; Goethe, R.; Gruening, P.; Rohde, M.; Kalisz, H.; Smith, H.E.; Valentin-Weigand, P.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was performed to identify stress-induced putative virulence proteins of Streptococcus suis. For this, protein expression patterns of streptococci grown at 32, 37, and 42°C were compared by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Temperature shifts from 32 and 37 to 42°C induc

  6. Astrocytes Enhance Streptococcus suis-Glial Cell Interaction in Primary Astrocyte-Microglial Cell Co-Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seele, Jana; Nau, Roland; Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Stangel, Martin; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Seitz, Maren

    2016-06-13

    Streptococcus (S.) suis infections are the most common cause of meningitis in pigs. Moreover, S. suis is a zoonotic pathogen, which can lead to meningitis in humans, mainly in adults. We assume that glial cells may play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions during S. suis infection of the central nervous system. Glial cells are considered to possess important functions during inflammation and injury of the brain in bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we established primary astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures to investigate interactions of S. suis with glial cells. For this purpose, microglial cells and astrocytes were isolated from new-born mouse brains and characterized by flow cytometry, followed by the establishment of astrocyte and microglial cell mono-cultures as well as astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures. In addition, we prepared microglial cell mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected astrocyte mono-culture supernatants and astrocyte mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected microglial cell mono-culture supernatants. After infection of the different cell cultures with S. suis, bacteria-cell association was mainly observed with microglial cells and most prominently with a non-encapsulated mutant of S. suis. A time-dependent induction of NO release was found only in the co-cultures and after co-incubation of microglial cells with uninfected supernatants of astrocyte mono-cultures mainly after infection with the capsular mutant. Only moderate cytotoxic effects were found in co-cultured glial cells after infection with S. suis. Taken together, astrocytes and astrocyte supernatants increased interaction of microglial cells with S. suis. Astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures are suitable to study S. suis infections and bacteria-cell association as well as NO release by microglial cells was enhanced in the presence of astrocytes.

  7. Streptococcus suis bacterin and subunit vaccine immunogenicities and protective efficacies against serotypes 2 and 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Christoph Georg; Kock, Christoph; Beineke, Andreas; Bennecke, Katharina; Goethe, Ralph; Schröder, Charlotte; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Streptococcus suis causes numerous diseases in pigs, most importantly, meningitis, arthritis, septicemia, and bronchopneumonia. One of the major problems in modern swine production is the lack of a vaccine protecting against more than one S. suis serotype. The objective of this study was to determine the protective efficacy of a serotype 2 murein-associated protein (MAP) fraction subunit vaccine in comparison to that of a bacterin against experimental challenge with serotype 2 (containing muramidase-released protein [MRP], extracellular factor, and suilysin [SLY]) and serotype 9 (containing MRP variant MRP* and SLY) strains. MAP was shown to include different surface-associated proteins, such as the MRP and surface antigen one (SAO) expressed by both pathotypes used for challenge. The results of this study demonstrated that the serotype 2 bacterin induced protective immunity against homologous challenge. In contrast, the protective efficacy of the MAP subunit vaccine was low, though MAP immunization resulted in high serum immunoglobulin G2 titers against MRP and SAO. Importantly, immunization with bacterin but not with MAP induced opsonizing antibody titers against the serotype 2 strain, and these antibody titers were found to correlate with protection. However, after absorption with a nonencapsulated isogenic mutant, the sera from bacterin-immunized piglets failed to facilitate neutrophil killing, indicating that antibodies directed against capsule may not have been essential for opsonophagocytosis. Furthermore, induction of opsonizing antibodies against serotype 9 was not detectable in the group receiving bacterin or in the group receiving the MAP vaccine. In agreement, protection against the heterologous serotype 9 strain was low in both groups. Thus, identification of an antigen protecting against these two important S. suis pathotypes remains an important goal of future studies.

  8. Functional definition and global regulation of Zur, a zinc uptake regulator in a Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Li, Ming; Zhang, Huimin; Zheng, Beiwen; Han, Huiming; Wang, Changjun; Yan, Jinghua; Tang, Jiaqi; Gao, George F

    2008-11-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all living organisms and plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes. However, an excess of zinc is extremely deleterious to cells. Bacteria have evolved complex machineries (such as efflux/influx systems) to control the concentration at levels appropriate for the maintenance of zinc homeostasis in cells and adaptation to the environment. The Zur (zinc uptake regulator) protein is one of these functional members involved in the precise control of zinc homeostasis. Here we identified a zur homologue designated 310 from Streptococcus suis serotype 2, strain 05ZYH33, a highly invasive isolate causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Biochemical analysis revealed that the protein product of gene 310 exists as a dimer form and carries zinc ions. An isogenic gene replacement mutant of gene 310, the Delta310 mutant, was obtained by homologous recombination. Physiological tests demonstrated that the Delta310 mutant is specifically sensitive to Zn(2+), while functional complementation of the Delta310 mutant can restore its duration capability, suggesting that 310 is a functional member of the Zur family. Two-dimensional electrophoresis indicated that nine proteins in the Delta310 mutant are overexpressed in comparison with those in the wild type. DNA microarray analyses suggested that 121 genes in the Delta310 mutant are affected, of which 72 genes are upregulated and 49 are downregulated. The transcriptome of S. suis serotype 2 with high Zn(2+) concentrations also showed 117 differentially expressed genes, with 71 upregulated and 46 downregulated. Surprisingly, more than 70% of the genes differentially expressed in the Delta310 mutant were the same as those in S. suis serotype 2 that were differentially expressed in response to high Zn(2+) concentration, consistent with the notion that 310 is involved in zinc homeostasis. We thus report for the first time a novel zinc-responsive regulator, Zur, from Streptococcus suis

  9. Comparative analysis of whole genome structure of Streptococcus suis using whole genome PCR scanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak associated with Streptococcus suis infection in humans emerged in Sichuan province, China in 2005. The outbreak is atypical for the apparent large number of human cases, high fatality rate and geographical spread. To determine whether the bacterium has changed, we compared both human and animal isolates from the Sichuan outbreak with those collected previously within China and in other countries using whole genome PCR scanning (WGPScaning) comparative sequencing of several known virulence factor genes and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. WGPScanning analysis showed that all primer pairs yielded PCR products of the expected sizes in all four strains tested. The nucleotide sequences of all the detected virulence factor genes are identical in the four strains and MLST results showed that the four isolates studied and reference strain all belonged to the ST1 complex. No new genetic changes were found in the genome structure of the isolates from this Sichuan outbreak.

  10. Comparative analysis of whole genome structure of Streptococcus suis using whole genome PCR scanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak associated with Streptococcus suis infection in humans emerged in Sichuan province, China in 2005. The outbreak is atypical for the apparent large number of human cases, high fatality rate and geographical spread. To determine whether the bacterium has changed, we compared both human and animal isolates from the Sichuan outbreak with those collected previously within China and in other countries using whole genome PCR scanning (WGPScaning) comparative sequencing of several known virulence factor genes and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. WGPScanning analysis showed that all primer pairs yielded PCR products of the expected sizes in all four strains tested. The nucleotide sequences of all the detected virulence factor genes are identical in the four strains and MLST results showed that the four isolates studied and reference strain all belonged to the ST1 com-plex. No new genetic changes were found in the genome structure of the isolates from this Sichuan outbreak.

  11. Immunogenicity of murein-associated proteins from temperature-stressed Streptococcus suis cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga, L; Goethe, R; Grosse Beilage, E; Valentin-Weigand, P

    2004-08-01

    We compared immunogenicity in pigs of whole cell lysate proteins (WCP) with murein-associated proteins (MAP) obtained from a virulent serotype 2 strain of Streptococcus (S.) suis grown at 32 or 42 degrees C. Protein fractions were tested for their ability to induce antibodies in 3-week-old piglets by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis. We found a significant increase in the antibody levels in all sera irrespective of the preparation used for immunization. However, alpha-WCP sera showed higher reactivities than alpha-MAP sera, and piglets immunized with 32 degrees C preparations (alpha-32 sera) showed higher responses than those immunized with 42 degrees C preparations (alpha-42 sera). Western blot analysis revealed that alpha-WCP sera in part reacted with different proteins when compared with alpha-MAP sera. Furthermore, some proteins were only detected by alpha-32 but not by alpha-42 sera. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the immunogenicity of cell wall MAP of S. suis, and highlight the importance of considering growth conditions in the preparation of subunit vaccines.

  12. Morin Attenuates Streptococcus suis Pathogenicity in Mice by Neutralizing Suilysin Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Lu, Gejin; Qi, Zhimin; Li, Hongen; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yanhui; Liu, Bowen; Niu, Xiaodi; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis, a Gram-positive pathogen, is widely recognized as an important agent of swine infection, and it is also known to cause a variety of zoonoses, such as meningitis, polyarthritis and pneumonia. Suilysin (SLY), an extracellular pore-forming toxin that belongs to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family, is an essential virulence factor of S. suis capsular type 2 (SS2). Here, we found that morin hydrate (morin), a natural flavonoid that lacks anti-SS2 activity, inhibits the hemolytic activity of SLY, protects J774 cells from SS2-induced injury and protects mice from SS2 infection. Further, by molecular modeling and mutational analysis, we found that morin binds to the “stem” domain 2 in SLY and hinders its transformation from the monomer form to the oligomer form, which causes the loss of SLY activity. Our study demonstrates that morin hinders the cell lysis activity of SLY through a novel mechanism of interrupting the heptamer formation. These findings may lead to the development of promising therapeutic candidates for the treatment of SS2 infections. PMID:28373868

  13. (p)ppGpp synthetases regulate the pathogenesis of zoonotic Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiawen; Zhang, Tengfei; Su, Zhipeng; Li, Lu; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Ran; Teng, Muye; Tan, Meifang; Zhou, Rui

    2016-10-01

    (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is one of the main adaption mechanism in bacteria, and the ability to adapt to environment is linked to the pathogenesis of bacterial pathogens. In the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis, there are two (p)ppGpp synthetases, RelA and RelQ. To investigate the regulatory functions of (p)ppGpp/(p)ppGpp synthetases on the pathogenesis of S. suis, the phenotypes of the [(p)ppGpp(0)] mutant ΔrelAΔrelQ and its parental strain were compared. Light and electron microscopy observation showed that the mutant strain had a longer chain-length than its parental strain. Disruption of relA and relQ led to decreased adhesive and invasive ability to HEp-2 cells, and increased sensitivity to the blood killing and phagocytosis. Mouse infection experiments showed that the mutant strain was attenuated and easier to be cleaned up in vivo. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expressions of virulence related genes involving in morphology and virulence were down-regulated in the mutant strain. Our study demonstrated that the (p)ppGpp synthetases or (p)ppGpp can regulate the pathogenesis of this important zoonotic pathogen.

  14. Mac Protein is not an Essential Virulence Factor for the Virulent Reference Strain Streptococcus suis P1/7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Genhui; Wu, Zongfu; Zhang, Shouming; Tang, Huanyu; Wang, Fengqiu; Lu, Chengping

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a major pathogen of pigs and also an important zoonotic agent for humans. A S. suis protein containing Mac-1 domain (designated Mac) is a protective antigen, exclusively cleaves porcine IgM, and contributes to complement evasion with the presence of high titers of specific porcine anti-S. suis IgM, but its role in S. suis virulence has not been investigated in natural healthy host without specific IgM. In this study, a mac deletion mutant was constructed by homologous recombination in S. suis serotype 2 virulent reference strain P1/7. Deletion of mac did not significantly influence phagocytosis or intracellular survival within murine macrophages RAW264.7, or the oxidative-burst induction of RAW264.7 and murine neutrophils. Furthermore, the mutant is as virulent as the wild-type strain in pig, mouse, and zebrafish infection models. Our data suggest that Mac is not essential for S. suis virulence in strain P1/7 in natural healthy host without specific IgM, and the immunogenicity of Mac does not appear to correlate with its significance for virulence.

  15. Distribution of capsular types and production of muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Smith, H.E.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Peperkamp, K.; Vecht, U.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus suis strains (n=411), isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries were serotyped using specific antisera against serotype 1 to 28, and were phenotyped on the basis of their muramidase-released-protein (MRP) and extracellular-factor protein (EF) production. Overall, S. suis

  16. Multiplex PCR assays for simultaneous detection of six major serotypes and two virulence-associated phenotypes of Streptococcus suis in tonsillar specimens from pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Joosten, J.J.; Smith, H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Multiplex PCR assays for the detection and identification of various Streptococcus suis strains in tonsillar specimens from pigs were developed and evaluated. In two separate reactions, five distinct DNA targets were amplified. Three targets, based on the S. suis capsular polysaccharide (cps) genes

  17. Simultaneous Quantification and Differentiation of Streptococcus suis Serotypes 2 and 9 by Quantitative Real-time PCR, Evaluated in Tonsillar and Nasal Samples of Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Niels; Daemen, Ineke; Verstappen, K.M.; Greeff, de A.; Smith, H.E.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Invasive Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infections in pigs are often associated with serotypes 2 and 9. Mucosal sites of healthy pigs can be colonized with these serotypes, often multiple serotypes per pig. To unravel the contribution of these serotypes in pathogenesis and epidemiology, simul

  18. FlpS, the FNR-like protein of streptococcus suis is an essential, oxygen-sensing activator of the arginine deiminase system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willenborg, Jörg; Koczula, Anna; Fulde, Marcus; Greeff, de Astrid; Beineke, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing septicemia and meningitis in pigs and humans. During infection S. suis must metabolically adapt to extremely diverse environments of the host. CcpA and the FNR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators are important for metabolic gene re

  19. Polysaccharide capsule and suilysin contribute to extracellular survival of Streptococcus suis co-cultivated with primary porcine phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga, Laurentiu; Fulde, Marcus; Neis, Christina; Goethe, Ralph; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2008-11-25

    Streptococcus suis is a major cause of meningitis, sepsis and arthritis in piglets and a zoonotic agent. Survival in the blood circulation system represents a major step in pathogenesis of S. suis infections. To get further insights into the mechanisms of S. suis survival in the host, we compared a highly virulent S. suis serotype 2 strain with its non-encapsulated and suilysin-deficient mutants in their abilities to resist phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and mononuclear cells. PMNs displayed a higher capacity to take up encapsulated bacteria than mononuclear cells, whereas both cell types internalized efficiently non-encapsulated S. suis. Differentiation of extracellular and intracellular survival of the WT strain revealed that in PMNs the majority of the cell-associated streptococci were intracellular, whereas in mononuclear cells the majority remained attached to the cell surface. S. suis survived mainly extracellularly, since both cells killed intracellular bacteria to a similar extent. As a consequence of different resistance to phagocytosis, only the encapsulated S. suis strains survived co-cultivation with PMNs. Comparison of the WT strain with its encapsulated suilysin-deficient mutant revealed reduced survival of the mutant after co-cultivation with PMNs. Involvement of suilysin in inhibition of phagocytosis was further confirmed by the use of anti-suilysin antibodies and recombinant suilysin. Kinetic experiments with PMNs suggested that reduced survival of the mutant strain was mainly associated with an increased uptake, whilst both strains adhered similarly. Concluding, our results indicate that the capsule and the suilysin play important roles in S. suis survival in the host by interfering with phagocytic uptake.

  20. Identification of major Streptococcus suis serotypes 2, 7, 8 and 9 isolated from pigs and humans in upper northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutravong, Thitima; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Jiwakanon, Netchanok; Wongchanthong, Wanlaya; Dejsirilerts, Surang; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infections occur in many provinces of north-eastern Thailand, knowledge concerning the prevalence of the common S. suis serotypes (1, 1/2, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 14 and 16) among healthy and diseased pigs in upper northeastern Thailand remains limited. This study investigated S. suis isolates from pigs (healthy and diseased) and also from humans using 11 conventional biochemical tests, 16S rDNA PCR and sequence analysis and multiplex PCR genotyping of porcine cps and gdh. Thirty-three isolates were obtained between 2009 and 2012 from blood or cerebrospinal fluid of patients from northeastern Thailand previously diagnosed with S. suis infection, based on clinical symptoms and laboratory diagnosis using 11 biochemical tests and PCR detection of 16S rDNA and cps. Eleven S. suis isolates were obtained between 2006 and 2009 from diseased pigs with clinical signs and laboratory diagnoses. In addition, 43 isolates obtained from 741 nasal swab cultures of slaughtered pigs between 2011 and 2012 were included. All three methods showed similar sensitivity in detection of S. suis from clinical and diseased pig specimens, although in healthy pigs, the 11 conventional biochemical methods yielded 2.3% false positives, and the gdh PCR detection method exhibited 31% false negatives. S. suis was present among healthy pigs in 8 of 10 provinces in upper northeastern Thailand, giving an average prevalence of 5.7% (range 1%-17%) using conventional methods together with 16S rDNA PCR assay. False positives by conventional methods were due to species with similar phenotypes, such as viridian streptococci, and are not statistically different from those obtained with the 16S rDNA PCR method, and the false negatives using gdh PCR assay will require further investigation. As S. suis was recovered from both diseased and healthy pigs, raw or undercooked pork products should be considered unsafe for handling or consumption in these regions of Thailand.

  1. Purification and Characterization of Suicin 65, a Novel Class I Type B Lantibiotic Produced by Streptococcus suis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Vaillancourt

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin that are considered as a promising alternative to the use of conventional antibiotics. Recently, our laboratory reported the purification and characterization of two lantibiotics, suicin 90-1330 and suicin 3908, produced by the swine pathogen and zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis (serotype 2. In this study, a novel bacteriocin produced by S. suis has been identified and characterized. The producing strain S. suis 65 (serotype 2 was found to belong to the sequence type 28, that includes strains known to be weakly or avirulent in a mouse model. The bacteriocin, whose production was only possible following growth on solid culture medium, was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The bacteriocin, named suicin 65, was heat, pH and protease resistant. Suicin 65 was active against all S. suis isolates tested, including antibiotic resistant strains. Amino acid sequencing of the purified bacteriocin by Edman degradation revealed the presence of modified amino acids suggesting a lantibiotic. Using the partial sequence obtained, a blast was performed against published genomes of S. suis and allowed to identify a putative lantibiotic locus in the genome of S. suis 89-1591. From this genome, primers were designed and the gene cluster involved in the production of suicin 65 by S. suis 65 was amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of ten open reading frames, including a duplicate of the structural gene. The structural genes (sssA and sssA' of suicin 65 encodes a 25-amino acid residue leader peptide and a 26-amino acid residue mature peptide yielding an active bacteriocin with a deducted molecular mass of 3,005 Da. Mature suicin 65 showed a high degree of identity with class I type B lantibiotics (globular structure produced by Streptococcus pyogenes (streptococcin FF22; 84.6%, Streptococcus macedonicus (macedocin ACA

  2. Multilocus sequence typing of Australian Streptococcus suis type 2 by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of PCR amplicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Mitchell D; Jordan, David; Chapman, Toni A; Jassim, Rafat Al

    2015-06-12

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a ubiquitous pathogen of swine and is known to cause severe disease in humans. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is ideal for characterising this organism because it permits isolates to be compared on a national and international scale. A novel approach to MLST using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MS-MLST) provides a more rapid alternative to dideoxy sequencing. This study used MS-MLST to define the multilocus sequence types (STs) present among a collection of Australian S. suis type 2, and thus, delivered a basis for comparison of Australian isolates with international strains already well characterised for virulence attributes. A collection of 45 isolates recovered from infected humans (n=3) and diseased pigs (n=42) was genotyped using MS-MLST and conventional MLST. Both methods were 100% concordant in their classification of sequence types (STs), although MS-MLST permitted much quicker analysis of sequence data. The collection contained ST25 (n=31), ST1 (n=10), ST28 (n=3) and ST369 (n=1). These results are consistent with the population structure of S. suis type 2 observed in diseased pigs and humans in Canada and the United Kingdom. MS-MLST may have utility for studying the population structure and epidemiology of S. suis in countries where the diversity of S. suis is greater and human disease is more common.

  3. Non-encapsulated strains reveal novel insights in invasion and survival of Streptococcus suis in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga, L; Goethe, R; Rohde, M; Valentin-Weigand, P

    2004-09-01

    Streptococcus suis is a porcine and human pathogen causing invasive diseases, such as meningitis or septicaemia. Host cell interactions of S. suis have been studied mainly with serotype 2 strains, but multiple capsular serotypes as well as non-typeable strains exist with diverse virulence features. At present, S. suis is considered an extracellular pathogen. However, whether or not it can also invade host cells is a matter of controversial discussions. We have assessed adherence and invasion of S. suis for HEp-2 epithelial cells by comparing 10 serotype 2 strains and four non-typeable (NT) strains. Only the NT strains and a non-encapsulated serotype 2 mutant strain, but none of the serotype 2 strains, adhered strongly and were invasive. Invasion seemed to be affected by environmental signals, as suggested from comparison of strains grown in different media. Further phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed a high diversity among the different strains. Electron microscopic analysis of invasion of selected invasive NT strains indicated different uptake mechanisms. One strain induced large invaginations comparable to those seen in 'caveolae' mediated uptake, whereas invasion of the other strains was accompanied by formation of filipodia-like membrane protrusions. Invasion of all strains, however, was similarly susceptible to hypertonic sucrose, which inhibits receptor-mediated endocytosis. Irrespective of the uptake pathway, streptococci resided in acidified phago-lysosome like vacuoles. All strains, except one, survived intracellularly as well as extracellular acidic conditions. Survival seemed to be associated with the AdiS protein, an environmentally regulated arginine deiminase of S. suis. Concluding, invasion and survival of NT strains of S. suis in epithelial cells revealed novel evidence that S. suis exhibits a broad variety of virulence-associated features depending on genetic variation and regulation.

  4. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Hoa Ngo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542 of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542 carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%. 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged.

  5. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones.

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    Mari Tohya

    Full Text Available Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs, ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes.

  6. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis isolate SS2-4 containing prophage SMP showed increased mortality in zebra fish compared to the wild-type isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2 being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type.

  7. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis isolate SS2-4 containing prophage SMP showed increased mortality in zebra fish compared to the wild-type isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2) being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type.

  8. Host-pathogen Interaction at the Intestinal Mucosa Correlates With Zoonotic Potential of Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; de Greeff, Astrid; van Rooijen, Willemien J. M.;

    2015-01-01

    of SS2 infection. Methods. We developed a noninvasive in vivo model to study oral SS2 infection in piglets. We compared in vitro interaction of S. suis with human and porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Results. Two out of 15 piglets showed clinical symptoms compatible with S. suis infection 24...... be considered a food-borne pathogen. S. suis interaction with human and pig IEC correlates with S. suis serotype and genotype, which can explain the zoonotic potential of SS2....

  9. Simultaneous Quantification and Differentiation of Streptococcus suis Serotypes 2 and 9 by Quantitative Real-Time PCR, Evaluated in Tonsillar and Nasal Samples of Pigs : Gelijktijdige kwantificering en differentiatie van Streptococcus suis serotypes 2 en 9 met kwantitatieve Real-Time PCR, onderzocht in tonsil en neus monsters van varkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Niels; Daemen, Ineke; Verstappen, Koen; de Greeff, Astrid; Smith, Hilde; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infections in pigs are often associated with serotypes 2 and 9. Mucosal sites of healthy pigs can be colonized with these serotypes, often multiple serotypes per pig. To unravel the contribution of these serotypes in pathogenesis and epidemiology, simultaneous q

  10. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole;

    2006-01-01

    and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic, infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p...... the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes...... signs and no arthritic lesions showed an APP response comparable to that of the other, clinically affected pigs. Thus, both acute clinical and subclinical S. suis infection could be revealed by the measurement of one or more of the APPs CRP, SAA, Hp, pig-MAP and Apo A-I. The combined measurement of two...

  11. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect Streptococcus suis and its application to retail pork meat in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Sakura; Tohya, Mari; Yamada, Ryoko; Osawa, Ro; Nomoto, Ryohei; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2015-09-02

    We here developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect Streptococcus suis in raw pork meat. This method, designated LAMPSS, targeted the recombination/repair protein (recN) gene of S. suis and detected all serotypes of S. suis, except those taxonomically removed from authentic S. suis, i.e., serotypes 20, 22, 26, 32, 33, and 34. The specificity of LAMPSS was confirmed and its detection limit was 5.4cfu/reaction. Among the 966 raw pork meat samples examined, including sliced pork, minced pork, and the liver, tongue, heart, and small intestine, 255 samples tested positive with LAMPSS. The rate of contamination was higher in the organs than in pork. No significant difference was observed in the total bacterial count between LAMPSS-positive and -negative samples. The number of shops that provided LAMPSS-positive pork was slightly higher in those that sold swine organs and pork than in those that sold only pork, suggesting that cross contamination occurred from the organs to pork. Among the 255 which tested positive for LAMPSS, only 47 samples tested positive for the previously described LAMP specific for S. suis serotype 2. Two isolates of S. suis serotype 2, belonging to sequence type 28, which is potentially hazardous to humans, as well as those of some other serotypes were obtained from 19 out of 47 samples by combining LAMP with a replica plating method. These results suggest that LAMPSS will be a useful tool for the surveillance of raw pork meat in the retail market. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Biofilms Inhibit the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Yi, Li; Yu, Ningwei; Wang, Guangyu; Ma, Zhe; Lin, Huixing; Fan, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) has emerged as a clinical problem in recent years. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are an important mechanism for the trapping and killing of pathogens that are resistant to phagocytosis. Biofilm formation can protect bacteria from being killed by phagocytes. Until now, there have only been a few studies that focused on the interactions between bacterial biofilms and NETs. SS2 in both a biofilm state and a planktonic cell state were incubated with phagocytes and NETs, and bacterial survival was assessed. DNase I and cytochalasin B were used to degrade NET DNA or suppress phagocytosis, respectively. Extracellular DNA was stained with impermeable fluorescent dye to quantify NET formation. Biofilm formation increased up to 6-fold in the presence of neutrophils, and biofilms were identified in murine tissue. Both planktonic and biofilm cells induced neutrophils chemotaxis to the infection site, with neutrophils increasing by 85.1 and 73.8%, respectively. The bacteria in biofilms were not phagocytized. The bactericidal efficacy of NETs on the biofilms and planktonic cells were equal; however, the biofilm extracellular matrix can inhibit NET release. Although biofilms inhibit NETs release, NETs appear to be an important mechanism to eliminate SS2 biofilms. This knowledge advances the understanding of biofilms and may aid in the development of treatments for persistent infections with a biofilm component. PMID:28373968

  13. Correlation between PFGE Groups and mrp/epf/sly Genotypes of Human Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Tharavichitkul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis infection is a severe zoonotic disease commonly found in Northern Thailand where people often consume raw pork and/or pig’s blood. The most frequent clinical presentations are meningitis, sepsis, and endocarditis with higher rate of mortality and hearing loss sequelae. To clarify the correlation between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of S. suis serotype 2, 62 patient and 4 healthy pig isolates from Northern Thailand were studied. By PFGE analysis, at 66% homology, most human isolates (69.4% and 1 pig isolate were in group A, whereas 14.5% of human isolates and 3 out of 4 pig isolates were in group D. According to mrp/epf/sly genotypes, 80.6% of human isolates were identified in mrp+epf−sly− and only 12.9% were in mrp−epf−sly+ genotypes; in contrast, 1 and 3 pig isolates were detected in these two genotypes, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates of S. suis serotype 2 classified in PFGE groups A, B, and E were set in mrp+epf−sly− genotypes. These data show a close correlation between PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of human S. suis serotype 2.

  14. ApuA, a multifunctional alpha-glucan-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus suis, mediates adhesion to porcine epithelium and mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; Fuentes, Susana; de Greeff, Astrid; Smith, Hilde; Wells, Jerry M

    2010-09-01

    We have identified apuA in Streptococcus suis, which encodes a bifunctional amylopullulanase with conserved alpha-amylase and pullulanase substrate-binding domains and catalytic motifs. ApuA exhibited properties typical of a Gram-positive surface protein, with a putative signal sequence and LPKTGE cell-wall-anchoring motif. A recombinant protein containing the predicted N-terminal alpha-amylase domain of ApuA was shown to have alpha-(1,4) glycosidic activity. Additionally, an apuA mutant of S. suis lacked the pullulanase alpha-(1,6) glycosidic activity detected in a cell-surface protein extract of wild-type S. suis. ApuA was required for normal growth in complex medium containing pullulan as the major carbon source, suggesting that this enzyme plays a role in nutrient acquisition in vivo via the degradation of glycogen and food-derived starch in the nasopharyngeal and oral cavities. ApuA was shown to promote adhesion to porcine epithelium and mucus in vitro, highlighting a link between carbohydrate utilization and the ability of S. suis to colonize and infect the host.

  15. Correlation between PFGE Groups and mrp/epf/sly Genotypes of Human Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Wongsawan, Kanreuthai; Takenami, Naoki; Pruksakorn, Sumalee; Fongcom, Achara; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Khanthawa, Banyong; Supajatura, Volaluk; Takai, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a severe zoonotic disease commonly found in Northern Thailand where people often consume raw pork and/or pig's blood. The most frequent clinical presentations are meningitis, sepsis, and endocarditis with higher rate of mortality and hearing loss sequelae. To clarify the correlation between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of S. suis serotype 2, 62 patient and 4 healthy pig isolates from Northern Thailand were studied. By PFGE analysis, at 66% homology, most human isolates (69.4%) and 1 pig isolate were in group A, whereas 14.5% of human isolates and 3 out of 4 pig isolates were in group D. According to mrp/epf/sly genotypes, 80.6% of human isolates were identified in mrp (+) epf (-) sly (-) and only 12.9% were in mrp (-) epf (-) sly (+) genotypes; in contrast, 1 and 3 pig isolates were detected in these two genotypes, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates of S. suis serotype 2 classified in PFGE groups A, B, and E were set in mrp (+) epf (-) sly (-) genotypes. These data show a close correlation between PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of human S. suis serotype 2.

  16. Distribution of Suicin Gene Clusters in Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Belonging to Sequence Types 25 and 28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn B. T. Athey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported the purification and characterization of three distinct lantibiotics (named suicin 90-1330, suicin 3908, and suicin 65 produced by Streptococcus suis. In this study, we investigated the distribution of the three suicin lantibiotic gene clusters among serotype 2 S. suis strains belonging to sequence type (ST 25 and ST28, the two dominant STs identified in North America. The genomes of 102 strains were interrogated for the presence of suicin gene clusters encoding suicins 90-1330, 3908, and 65. The gene cluster encoding suicin 65 was the most prevalent and mainly found among ST25 strains. In contrast, none of the genes related to suicin 90-1330 production were identified in 51 ST25 strains nor in 35/51 ST28 strains. However, the complete suicin 90-1330 gene cluster was found in ten ST28 strains, although some genes in the cluster were truncated in three of these isolates. The vast majority (101/102 of S. suis strains did not possess any of the genes encoding suicin 3908. In conclusion, this study indicates heterogeneous distribution of suicin genes in S. suis.

  17. Use of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance in Veterinary Medicine as Exemplified by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Willenborg, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is essential to control infectious diseases, thereby keeping animals healthy and animal products safe for the consumer. On the other hand, development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is of major concern for public health. Streptococcus (S.) suis reflects a typical bacterial pathogen in modern swine production due to its facultative pathogenic nature and wide spread in the pig population. Thus, in the present review we focus on certain current aspects and problems related to antimicrobial use and resistance in S. suis as a paradigm for a bacterial pathogen affecting swine husbandry worldwide. The review includes (i) general aspects of antimicrobial use and resistance in veterinary medicine with emphasis on swine, (ii) genetic resistance mechanisms of S. suis known to contribute to bacterial survival under antibiotic selection pressure, and (iii) possible other factors which may contribute to problems in antimicrobial therapy of S. suis infections, such as bacterial persister cell formation, biofilm production, and co-infections. The latter shows that we hardly understand the complexity of factors affecting the success of antimicrobial treatment of (porcine) infectious diseases and underlines the need for further research in this field.

  18. Temporal and spatial association of Streptococcus suis infection in humans and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome outbreaks in pigs in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, V T L; Thanh, L V; Phu, V D; Trinh, D T; Inui, K; Tung, N; Oanh, N T K; Trung, N V; Hoa, N T; Bryant, J E; Horby, P W; Kinh, N V; Wertheim, H F L

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in pigs are associated with increased susceptibility of pigs to secondary bacterial infections, including Streptococcus suis - an important zoonotic pathogen causing bacterial meningitis in humans. This case-control study examined the association between human S. suis infection and PRRS outbreaks in pigs in northern Vietnam. We included 90 S. suis case-patients and 183 non-S. suis sepsis controls from a referral hospital in Hanoi in 2010, a period of major PRRS epizootics in Vietnam. PRRS exposure was determined using data from the National Centre of Veterinary Diagnosis. By univariate analysis, significantly more S. suis patients were reported residing in or adjacent to a PRRS district compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 2·82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·35-5·89 and OR 3·15, 95% CI 1·62-6·15, respectively]. Only residency in adjacent districts remained significantly associated with risk of S. suis infection after adjusting for sex, occupation, and eating practices. SaTScan analysis showed a possible cluster of S. suis infection in humans around PRRS confirmed locations during the March-August period. The findings indicate an epidemiological association between PRRS in pigs and S. suis infections in humans. Effective strategies to strengthen control of PRRS in pigs may help reduce transmission of S. suis infection to humans.

  19. 猪链球菌2型新毒力相关基因的研究进展%Progress in Research on Novel Virulence-related Gene of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 何永聚; 冯书章

    2011-01-01

    猪链球菌2 W(Streptococcus suis serotype 2,S.suis 2)是一种重要的人兽共患病原菌,其毒力因子在S.suis 2致病中的作用机制仍不明确,越来越多的学者开始寻找其他相关的毒力基因.本文对近几年来S.suis 2S.suis新毒力基因的研究进展作一综述.%Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) is an important pathogen of zoonoses. However, the role of virulence factor in pathogenesis of S. suis 2 is still uncertain. More and more attentions are paid in investigating other virulence-related genes in recent years. This paper reviews the progress in research on novel virulence-related gene of S. suis 2.

  20. MsmK, an ATPase, Contributes to Utilization of Multiple Carbohydrates and Host Colonization of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei-Fang; Gao, Ting; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Yang, Xi; Zhu, Jia-Wen; Teng, Mu-Ye; Li, Lu; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition and metabolism of carbohydrates are essential for host colonization and pathogenesis of bacterial pathogens. Different bacteria can uptake different lines of carbohydrates via ABC transporters, in which ATPase subunits energize the transport though ATP hydrolysis. Some ABC transporters possess their own ATPases, while some share a common ATPase. Here we identified MsmK, an ATPase from Streptococcus suis, an emerging zoonotic bacterium causing dead infections in pigs and humans. Genetic and biochemistry studies revealed that the MsmK was responsible for the utilization of raffinose, melibiose, maltotetraose, glycogen and maltotriose. In infected mice, the msmK-deletion mutant showed significant defects of survival and colonization when compared with its parental and complementary strains. Taken together, MsmK is an ATPase that contributes to multiple carbohydrates utilization and host colonization of S. suis. This study gives new insight into our understanding of the carbohydrates utilization and its relationship to the pathogenesis of this zoonotic pathogen.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance genes, and multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus suis isolates from diseased pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Song, Yajing; Wei, Zigong; He, Hongkui; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing significant economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility, associated antibiotic-resistant determinants and sequence type (ST) of S. suis isolates from diseased pigs in China from 2008 to 2010. Serotype 2 was the most frequently observed strain (n=95) among the 106 S. suis strains collected, followed by serotypes 3 (n=3), 5 (n=3), 4 (n=2), 7 (n=1), 11 (n=1) and 28 (n=1). Multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed that ST1 (n=21) and ST7 (n=74) were the predominant STs, and serotype 2 was found to be significantly correlated with ST7 (P=0.017, Fisher's exact test) and CC1 (P=0.024, Fisher's exact test). The antimicrobial susceptibility results indicated that the antibiotic resistance rate was highest for tetracycline (99.1%), followed by azithromycin (68.9%), erythromycin (67.9%), clindamycin (67.9%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (16%), levofloxacin (2.8%), chloramphenicol (1.9%), cefaclor (0.9%) and ceftriaxone (0.9%). Antibiotic-resistant genes tet(M), tet(O), tet(O/W/32/O), tet(O/32/O), tet(S), tet(W), tet(L), tet(40), erm(B), mef(A/E) and msr(D) could be detected, and several tandem organizations of antibiotic resistance genes were also found in this study. In conclusion, S. suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in China were less diverse and multi-drug resistant.

  2. Suicin 90-1330 from a nonvirulent strain of Streptococcus suis: a nisin-related lantibiotic active on gram-positive swine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBel, Geneviève; Vaillancourt, Katy; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections (meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia) in pigs and is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Antibiotics have long been used in the swine industry for disease treatment/prevention and growth promoters. This pattern of utilization resulted in the spread of antibiotic resistance in S. suis worldwide. Interestingly, pigs may harbor S. suis in their tonsils without developing diseases, while North American strains belonging to the sequence type 28 (ST28) are nonvirulent in animal models. Consequently, the aim of this study was to purify and characterize a bacteriocin produced by a nonvirulent strain of S. suis serotype 2, with a view to a potential therapeutic and preventive application. S. suis 90-1330 belonging to ST28 and previously shown to be nonvirulent in an animal model exhibited antibacterial activity toward all S. suis pathogenic isolates tested. The bacteriocin produced by this strain was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Given its properties (molecular mass of nisin U produced by Streptococcus uberis. The putative gene cluster involved in suicin production was amplified by PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of 11 open reading frames, including the structural gene and those required for the modification of amino acids, export, regulation, and immunity. Further studies will evaluate the ability of suicin 90-1330 or the producing strain to prevent experimental S. suis infections in pigs.

  3. A Streptococcus suis LysM domain surface protein contributes to bacterial virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zongfu; Shao, Jing; Ren, Haiyan; Tang, Huanyu; Zhou, Mingyao; Dai, Jiao; Lai, Liying; Yao, Huochun; Fan, Hongjie; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Lu, Chengping

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus suis (SS) is a major swine pathogen, as well as a zoonotic agent for humans. Numerous factors contribute to SS virulence, but the pathogenesis of SS infection is poorly understood. Here, we show that a novel SS surface protein containing a LysM at the N-terminus (SS9-LysM) contributes to SS virulence. Homology analysis revealed that the amino acid sequence of SS9-LysM from the SS strain GZ0565 shares 99.8-68.7% identity with homologous proteins from other SS strains and 41.2% identity with Group B Streptococcal protective antigen Sip. Immunization experiments showed that 7 out of 30 mice immunized with recombinant SS9-LysM were protected against challenge with the virulent GZ0565 strain, while all of the control mice died within 48h following bacterial challenge. In mouse infection model, the virulence of the SS9-LysM deletion mutant (ΔSS9-LysM) was reduced compared with the wild-type (WT) strain GZ0565 and SS9-LysM complemented strain. In addition, ΔSS9-LysM was significantly more sensitive to killing by pig blood ex vivo and mouse blood in vivo compared with the WT strain and SS9-LysM complemented strain. In vivo transcriptome analysis in mouse blood showed that the WT strain reduced the expression of host genes related to iron-binding by SS9-LysM. Moreover, the total free iron concentration in blood from infected mice was significantly lower for the ΔSS9-LysM strain compared with the WT strain. Together, our data reveal that SS9-LysM facilitates SS survival within blood by releasing more free iron from the host. This represents a new mechanism of SS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Eukaryote-Like Serine/Threonine Kinase STK Regulates the Growth and Metabolism of Zoonotic Streptococcus suis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Sun, Wen; Tan, Meifang; Dong, Mengmeng; Liu, Wanquan; Gao, Ting; Li, Lu; Xu, Zhuofei; Zhou, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Like eukaryotes, bacteria express one or more serine/threonine kinases (STKs) that initiate diverse signaling networks. The STK from Streptococcus suis is encoded by a single-copy stk gene, which is crucial in stress response and virulence. To further understand the regulatory mechanism of STK in S. suis, a stk deletion strain (Δstk) and its complementary strain (CΔstk) were constructed to systematically decode STK characteristics by applying whole transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and phosphoproteomic analysis. Numerous genes were differentially expressed in Δstk compared with the wild-type parental strain SC-19, including 320 up-regulated and 219 down-regulated genes. Particularly, 32 virulence-associated genes (VAGs) were significantly down-regulated in Δstk. Seven metabolic pathways relevant to bacterial central metabolism and translation are significantly repressed in Δstk. Phosphoproteomic analysis further identified 12 phosphoproteins that exhibit differential phosphorylation in Δstk. These proteins are associated with cell growth and division, glycolysis, and translation. Consistently, phenotypic assays confirmed that the Δstk strain displayed deficient growth and attenuated pathogenicity. Thus, STK is a central regulator that plays an important role in cell growth and division, as well as S. suis metabolism. PMID:28326294

  5. Virulence Studies of Different Sequence Types and Geographical Origins of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in a Mouse Model of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Auger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing previously identified three predominant sequence types (STs of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: ST1 strains predominate in Eurasia while North American (NA strains are generally ST25 and ST28. However, ST25/ST28 and ST1 strains have also been isolated in Asia and NA, respectively. Using a well-standardized mouse model of infection, the virulence of strains belonging to different STs and different geographical origins was evaluated. Results demonstrated that although a certain tendency may be observed, S. suis serotype 2 virulence is difficult to predict based on ST and geographical origin alone; strains belonging to the same ST presented important differences of virulence and did not always correlate with origin. The only exception appears to be NA ST28 strains, which were generally less virulent in both systemic and central nervous system (CNS infection models. Persistent and high levels of bacteremia accompanied by elevated CNS inflammation are required to cause meningitis. Although widely used, in vitro tests such as phagocytosis and killing assays require further standardization in order to be used as predictive tests for evaluating virulence of strains. The use of strains other than archetypal strains has increased our knowledge and understanding of the S. suis serotype 2 population dynamics.

  6. Evolution and Diversity of the Antimicrobial Resistance Associated Mobilome in Streptococcus suis: A Probable Mobile Genetic Elements Reservoir for Other Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhu; Ma, Jiale; Shang, Kexin; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Yuan; Li, Daiwei; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Chen, Li; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a previously neglected, newly emerging multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play a key role in intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Although, previous studies showed the presence of several MGEs, a comprehensive analysis of AMR-associated mobilome as well as their interaction and evolution has not been performed. In this study, we presented the AMR-associated mobilome and their insertion hotspots in S. suis. Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), prophages and tandem MGEs were located at different insertion sites, while 86% of the AMR-associated MGEs were inserted at rplL and rum loci. Comprehensive analysis of insertions at rplL and rum loci among four pathogenic Streptococcus species (Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and S. suis) revealed the existence of different groups of MGEs, including Tn5252, ICESp1108, and TnGBS2 groups ICEs, Φm46.1 group prophage, ICE_ICE and ICE_prophage tandem MGEs. Comparative ICE genomics of ICESa2603 family revealed that module exchange and acquisition/deletion were the main mechanisms in MGEs' expansion and evolution. Furthermore, the observation of tandem MGEs reflected a novel mechanism for MGE diversity. Moreover, an in vitro competition assay showed no visible fitness cost was observed between different MGE-carrying isolates and a conjugation assay revealed the transferability of ICESa2603 family of ICEs. Our statistics further indicated that the prevalence and diversity of MGEs in S. suis is much greater than in other three species which prompted our hypothesis that S. suis is probably a MGEs reservoir for other streptococci. In conclusion, our results showed that acquisition of MGEs confers S. suis not only its capability as a multidrug resistance pathogen, but also represents a paradigm to study the modular evolution and matryoshkas of MGEs. PMID:27774436

  7. Identification of genes and genomic islands correlated with high pathogenicity in Streptococcus suis using whole genome tiling microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zheng

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause meningitis and sepsis in both pigs and humans. Infections in humans have been sporadic worldwide but two severe outbreaks occurred in China in recent years, while infections in pigs are a major problem in the swine industry. Some S. suis strains are more pathogenic than others with 2 sequence types (ST, ST1 and ST7, being well recognized as highly pathogenic. We analyzed 31 isolates from 23 serotypes and 25 STs by NimbleGen tiling microarray using the genome of a high pathogenicity (HP ST1 strain, GZ1, as reference and a new algorithm to detect gene content difference. The number of genes absent in a strain ranged from 49 to 225 with a total of 632 genes absent in at least one strain, while 1346 genes were found to be invariably present in all strains as the core genome of S. suis, accounting for 68% of the GZ1 genome. The majority of genes are located in chromosomal blocks with two or more contiguous genes. Sixty two blocks are absent in two or more strains and defined as regions of difference (RDs, among which 26 are putative genomic islands (GIs. Clustering and statistical analyses revealed that 8 RDs including 6 putative GIs and 21 genes within these RDs are significantly associated with HP. Three RDs encode known virulence related factors including the extracellular factor, the capsular polysaccharide and a SrtF pilus. The strains were divided into 5 groups based on population genetic analysis of multilocus sequence typing data and the distribution of the RDs among the groups revealed gain and loss of RDs in different groups. Our study elucidated the gene content diversity of S. suis and identified genes that potentially promote HP.

  8. Identification and characterization of two temperature-induced surface-associated proteins of Streptococcus suis with high homologies to members of the Arginine Deiminase system of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhoff, Nora; Goethe, Ralph; Gruening, Petra; Rohde, Manfred; Kalisz, Henryk; Smith, Hilde E; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2002-12-01

    The present study was performed to identify stress-induced putative virulence proteins of Streptococcus suis. For this, protein expression patterns of streptococci grown at 32, 37, and 42 degrees C were compared by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Temperature shifts from 32 and 37 to 42 degrees C induced expression of two cell wall-associated proteins with apparent molecular masses of approximately 47 and 53 kDa. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the two proteins indicated homologies of the 47-kDa protein with an ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) from Streptococcus pyogenes and of the 53-kDa protein with the streptococcal acid glycoprotein (SAGP) from S. pyogenes, an arginine deiminase (AD) recently proposed as a putative virulence factor. Cloning and sequencing the genes encoding the putative OCT and AD of S. suis, octS and adiS, respectively, revealed that they had 81.2 (octS) and 80.2% (adiS) identity with the respective genes of S. pyogenes. Both genes belong to the AD system, also found in other bacteria. Southern hybridization analysis demonstrated the presence of the adiS gene in all 42 serotype 2 and 9 S. suis strains tested. In 9 of these 42 strains, selected randomly, we confirmed expression of the AdiS protein, homologous to SAGP, by immunoblot analysis using a specific antiserum against the SAGP of S. pyogenes. In all strains AD activity was detected. Furthermore, by immunoelectron microscopy using the anti-S. pyogenes SAGP antiserum we were able to demonstrate that the AdiS protein is expressed on the streptococcal surface in association with the capsular polysaccharides but is not coexpressed with them.

  9. Protection of pigs against challenge with virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains by a muramidase-released protein and extracellular factor vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Vecht, U.; Stockhofe Zurwieden, N.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) vaccine in preventing infection and disease in pigs challenged either with a homologous or a heterologous Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain (MRP EF ) was compared with the efficacy of a vaccine containing formalin-k

  10. Characterization of the immune response and evaluation of the protective capacity of rSsnA against Streptococcus suis infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Tarradas, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The efforts made to develop vaccines against Streptococcus suis have failed because of lack of common antigens cross-reactive against different serotypes of this species. The cell wall-anchored proteins can be good vaccine candidates due to their high expression and accessibility to antibodies, a...

  11. Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Salmon, S.A.; Mevius, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n = 384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceft

  12. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and the protective efficacy of a novel identified immunogenic protein, SsPepO, of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinquan; Xia, Jin; Tan, Chen; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Chengkun; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng

    2011-09-02

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) is an important porcine and human pathogen. Some proteins secreted by S. suis 2 are thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of this organism and in its induced immune response. SsPepO has been previously identified as a secretary immunogenic protein using immunoproteomic techniques. In this study, we confirmed that the sequence of this protein is highly conserved in S. suis 2 and compared it with its homologues in other pathogens. To test the protective efficacy of SsPepO in animal models, the recombinant SsPepO protein was used to immunize mice and pigs. The results demonstrated that it could elicit a strong humoral antibody response and confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of S. suis 2 in mice and pig models. In addition, the antisera against rSsPepO could efficiently inhibit bacterial growth in a whole blood assay and conferred significant protection against S. suis 2 infection in passive immunization experiments. Our findings suggest that SsPepO plays an important role in the pathogenesis of S. suis 2 and would be a promising subunit vaccine candidate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of the Pivotal Carbon Metabolism of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 under ex Vivo and Chemically Defined in Vitro Conditions by Isotopologue Profiling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Jörg; Huber, Claudia; Koczula, Anna; Lange, Birgit; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen that has to adapt to the nutritional requirements in the different host niches encountered during infection and establishment of invasive diseases. To dissect the central metabolic activity of S. suis under different conditions of nutrient availability, we performed labeling experiments starting from [13C]glucose specimens and analyzed the resulting isotopologue patterns in amino acids of S. suis grown under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. In combination with classical growth experiments, we found that S. suis is auxotrophic for Arg, Gln/Glu, His, Leu, and Trp in chemically defined medium. De novo biosynthesis was shown for Ala, Asp, Ser, and Thr at high rates and for Gly, Lys, Phe, Tyr, and Val at moderate or low rates, respectively. Glucose degradation occurred mainly by glycolysis and to a minor extent by the pentose phosphate pathway. Furthermore, the exclusive formation of oxaloacetate by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation became evident from the patterns in de novo synthesized amino acids. Labeling experiments with S. suis grown ex vivo in blood or cerebrospinal fluid reflected the metabolic adaptation to these host niches with different nutrient availability; however, similar key metabolic activities were identified under these conditions. This points at the robustness of the core metabolic pathways in S. suis during the infection process. The crucial role of PEP carboxylation for growth of S. suis in the host was supported by experiments with a PEP carboxylase-deficient mutant strain in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25575595

  14. Characterization of the pivotal carbon metabolism of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 under ex vivo and chemically defined in vitro conditions by isotopologue profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Jörg; Huber, Claudia; Koczula, Anna; Lange, Birgit; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-02-27

    Streptococcus suis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen that has to adapt to the nutritional requirements in the different host niches encountered during infection and establishment of invasive diseases. To dissect the central metabolic activity of S. suis under different conditions of nutrient availability, we performed labeling experiments starting from [(13)C]glucose specimens and analyzed the resulting isotopologue patterns in amino acids of S. suis grown under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. In combination with classical growth experiments, we found that S. suis is auxotrophic for Arg, Gln/Glu, His, Leu, and Trp in chemically defined medium. De novo biosynthesis was shown for Ala, Asp, Ser, and Thr at high rates and for Gly, Lys, Phe, Tyr, and Val at moderate or low rates, respectively. Glucose degradation occurred mainly by glycolysis and to a minor extent by the pentose phosphate pathway. Furthermore, the exclusive formation of oxaloacetate by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation became evident from the patterns in de novo synthesized amino acids. Labeling experiments with S. suis grown ex vivo in blood or cerebrospinal fluid reflected the metabolic adaptation to these host niches with different nutrient availability; however, similar key metabolic activities were identified under these conditions. This points at the robustness of the core metabolic pathways in S. suis during the infection process. The crucial role of PEP carboxylation for growth of S. suis in the host was supported by experiments with a PEP carboxylase-deficient mutant strain in blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile and Genotypic Characteristics of Streptococcus suis Capsular Type 2 Isolated from Clinical Carrier Sows and Diseased Pigs in China

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    Chunping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important zoonotic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypic characterizations of S. suis 2 from carrier sows and diseased pigs remain largely unknown. In this study, 96 swine S. suis type 2, 62 from healthy sows and 34 from diseased pigs, were analyzed. High frequency of tetracycline resistance was observed, followed by sulfonamides. The lowest resistance of S. suis 2 for β-lactams supports their use as the primary antibiotics to treat the infection of serotype 2. In contrast, 35 of 37 S. suis 2 with MLSB phenotypes were isolated from healthy sows, mostly encoded by the ermB and/or the mefA genes. Significantly lower frequency of mrp+/epf+/sly+ was observed among serotype 2 from healthy sows compared to those from diseased pigs. Furthermore, isolates from diseased pigs showed more homogeneously genetic patterns, with most of them clustered in pulsotypes A and E. The data indicate the genetic complexity of S. suis 2 between herds and a close linkage among isolates from healthy sows and diseased pigs. Moreover, many factors, such as extensive use of tetracycline or diffusion of Tn916 with tetM, might have favored for the pathogenicity and widespread dissemination of S. suis serotype 2.

  16. Streptococcus suis Bacterin and Subunit Vaccine Immunogenicities and Protective Efficacies against Serotypes 2 and 9▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Christoph Georg; Kock, Christoph; Beineke, Andreas; Bennecke, Katharina; Goethe, Ralph; Schröder, Charlotte; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus suis causes numerous diseases in pigs, most importantly, meningitis, arthritis, septicemia, and bronchopneumonia. One of the major problems in modern swine production is the lack of a vaccine protecting against more than one S. suis serotype. The objective of this study was to determine the protective efficacy of a serotype 2 murein-associated protein (MAP) fraction subunit vaccine in comparison to that of a bacterin against experimental challenge with serotype 2 (containing muramidase-released protein [MRP], extracellular factor, and suilysin [SLY]) and serotype 9 (containing MRP variant MRP* and SLY) strains. MAP was shown to include different surface-associated proteins, such as the MRP and surface antigen one (SAO) expressed by both pathotypes used for challenge. The results of this study demonstrated that the serotype 2 bacterin induced protective immunity against homologous challenge. In contrast, the protective efficacy of the MAP subunit vaccine was low, though MAP immunization resulted in high serum immunoglobulin G2 titers against MRP and SAO. Importantly, immunization with bacterin but not with MAP induced opsonizing antibody titers against the serotype 2 strain, and these antibody titers were found to correlate with protection. However, after absorption with a nonencapsulated isogenic mutant, the sera from bacterin-immunized piglets failed to facilitate neutrophil killing, indicating that antibodies directed against capsule may not have been essential for opsonophagocytosis. Furthermore, induction of opsonizing antibodies against serotype 9 was not detectable in the group receiving bacterin or in the group receiving the MAP vaccine. In agreement, protection against the heterologous serotype 9 strain was low in both groups. Thus, identification of an antigen protecting against these two important S. suis pathotypes remains an important goal of future studies. PMID:19109449

  17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism of Streptococcus suis strains correlates with their profile of virulence-associated genes and clinical background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Thomas; Baums, Christoph G; Strommenger, Birgit; Beyerbach, Martin; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) typing was applied to 116 Streptococcus suis isolates with different clinical backgrounds (invasive/pneumonia/carrier/human) and with known profiles of virulence-associated genes (cps1, -2, -7 and -9, as well as mrp, epf and sly). A dendrogram was generated that allowed identification of two clusters (A and C) with different subclusters (A1, A2, C1 and C2) and two heterogeneous groups of strains (B and D). For comparison, three strains from each AFLP subcluster and group were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. The closest relationship and lowest diversity were found for patterns clustering within AFLP subcluster A1, which corresponded with sequence type (ST) complex 1. Strains within subcluster A1 were mainly invasive cps1 and mrp+ epf+ (or epf*) sly+ cps2+ strains of porcine or human origin. A new finding of this study was the clustering of invasive mrp* cps9 isolates within subcluster A2. MLST analysis suggested that A2 correlates with a single ST complex (ST87). In contrast to A1 and A2, subclusters C1 and C2 contained mainly pneumonia isolates of genotype cps7 or cps2 and epf- sly-. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that AFLP allows identification of clusters of S. suis strains with clinical relevance.

  18. The immunoglobulin M-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus suis, IdeSsuis, is involved in complement evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seele, Jana; Beineke, Andreas; Hillermann, Lena-Maria; Jaschok-Kentner, Beate; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2015-04-19

    Streptococcus (S.) suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs causing meningitis, arthritis, endocarditis and serositis. Furthermore, it is also an emerging zoonotic agent. In our previous work we identified a highly specific IgM protease in S. suis, designated Ide(Ssuis) . The objective of this study was to characterize the function of Ide(Ssuis) in the host-pathogen interaction. Edman-sequencing revealed that Ide(Ssuis) cleaves the heavy chain of the IgM molecule between constant domain 2 and 3. As the C1q binding motif is located in the C3 domain, we hypothesized that Ide(Ssuis) is involved in complement evasion. Complement-mediated hemolysis induced by porcine hyperimmune sera containing erythrocyte-specific IgM was abrogated by treatment of these sera with recombinant Ide(Ssuis) . Furthermore, expression of Ide(Ssuis) reduced IgM-triggered complement deposition on the bacterial surface. An infection experiment of prime-vaccinated growing piglets suggested attenuation in the virulence of the mutant 10Δide(Ssuis). Bactericidal assays confirmed a positive effect of Ide(Ssuis) expression on bacterial survival in porcine blood in the presence of high titers of specific IgM. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Ide(Ssuis) is a novel complement evasion factor, which is important for bacterial survival in porcine blood during the early adaptive (IgM-dominated) immune response.

  19. Caracterización de los sistemas de captación de zinc y de hierro en Streptococcus suis : potencial antigénico y protector

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda Rodríguez, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Streptococcus suis es un importante patógeno que causa grandes pérdidas económicas en la industria porcina a nivel mundial, siendo también un importante agente zoonótico. Aunque son varias las aproximaciones que se han desarrollado mediante vacunas vivas o recombinantes para prevenir las enfermedades provocadas por S. suis, los esfuerzos para controlar su infección se ven dificultados por la falta de herramientas efectiv...

  20. Binding of Human Fibrinogen to MRP Enhances Streptococcus suis Survival in Host Blood in a αXβ2 Integrin-dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Yaya; Li, Xueqin; Zheng, Yuling; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-05-27

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2), an important zoonotic pathogen, induces strong systemic infections in humans; sepsis and meningitis are the most common clinical manifestations and are often accompanied by bacteremia. However, the mechanisms of S. suis 2 survival in human blood are not well understood. In our previous study, we identified muramidase-released protein (MRP), a novel human fibrinogen (hFg)-binding protein (FBP) in S. suis 2 that is an important epidemic infection marker with an unknown mechanism in pathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that the N-terminus of MRP (a.a. 283-721) binds to both the Aα and Bβ chains of the D fragment of hFg. Strikingly, the hFg-MRP interaction improved the survival of S. suis 2 in human blood and led to the aggregation and exhaustion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) via an αXβ2 integrin-dependent mechanism. Other Fg-binding proteins, such as M1 (GAS) and FOG (GGS), also induced PMNs aggregation; however, the mechanisms of these FBP-hFg complexes in the evasion of PMN-mediated innate immunity remain unclear. MRP is conserved across highly virulent strains in Europe and Asia, and these data shed new light on the function of MRP in S. suis pathogenesis.

  1. FlpS, the FNR-Like Protein of Streptococcus suis Is an Essential, Oxygen-Sensing Activator of the Arginine Deiminase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Jörg; Koczula, Anna; Fulde, Marcus; de Greeff, Astrid; Beineke, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2016-07-21

    Streptococcus (S.) suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing septicemia and meningitis in pigs and humans. During infection S. suis must metabolically adapt to extremely diverse environments of the host. CcpA and the FNR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators are important for metabolic gene regulation in various bacteria. The role of CcpA in S. suis is well defined, but the function of the FNR-like protein of S. suis, FlpS, is yet unknown. Transcriptome analyses of wild-type S. suis and a flpS mutant strain suggested that FlpS is involved in the regulation of the central carbon, arginine degradation and nucleotide metabolism. However, isotopologue profiling revealed no substantial changes in the core carbon and amino acid de novo biosynthesis. FlpS was essential for the induction of the arcABC operon of the arginine degrading pathway under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The arcABC-inducing activity of FlpS could be associated with the level of free oxygen in the culture medium. FlpS was necessary for arcABC-dependent intracellular bacterial survival but redundant in a mice infection model. Based on these results, we propose that the core function of S. suis FlpS is the oxygen-dependent activation of the arginine deiminase system.

  2. FlpS, the FNR-Like Protein of Streptococcus suis Is an Essential, Oxygen-Sensing Activator of the Arginine Deiminase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Willenborg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus (S. suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing septicemia and meningitis in pigs and humans. During infection S. suis must metabolically adapt to extremely diverse environments of the host. CcpA and the FNR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators are important for metabolic gene regulation in various bacteria. The role of CcpA in S. suis is well defined, but the function of the FNR-like protein of S. suis, FlpS, is yet unknown. Transcriptome analyses of wild-type S. suis and a flpS mutant strain suggested that FlpS is involved in the regulation of the central carbon, arginine degradation and nucleotide metabolism. However, isotopologue profiling revealed no substantial changes in the core carbon and amino acid de novo biosynthesis. FlpS was essential for the induction of the arcABC operon of the arginine degrading pathway under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The arcABC-inducing activity of FlpS could be associated with the level of free oxygen in the culture medium. FlpS was necessary for arcABC-dependent intracellular bacterial survival but redundant in a mice infection model. Based on these results, we propose that the core function of S. suis FlpS is the oxygen-dependent activation of the arginine deiminase system.

  3. Control of Competence for DNA Transformation in Streptococcus suis by Genetically Transferable Pherotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaccaria, E.; Baarlen, van P.; Greeff, de A.; Morrison, D.A.; Smith, H.; Wells, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that S. suis, a major bacterial pathogen of pigs and emerging pathogen in humans responds to a peptide pheromone by developing competence for DNA transformation. This species does not fall within any of the phylogenetic clusters of streptococci previously shown to regulate competence vi

  4. Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Ancillary Pilin Subunit of the Streptococcus suis srtF Cluster Result in Pili Formed by the Major Subunit Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Takamatsu, Daisuke; la Cruz Domínguez-Punaro, María de; Lecours, Marie-Pier; Montpetit, Diane; Osaki, Makoto; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Pili have been shown to contribute to the virulence of different Gram-positive pathogenic species. Among other critical steps of bacterial pathogenesis, these structures participate in adherence to host cells, colonization and systemic virulence. Recently, the presence of at least four discrete gene clusters encoding putative pili has been revealed in the major swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis. However, pili production by this species has not yet been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the functionality of one of these pili clusters, known as the srtF pilus cluster, by the construction of mutant strains for each of the four genes of the cluster as well as by the generation of antibodies against the putative pilin subunits. Results revealed that the S. suis serotype 2 strain P1/7, as well as several other highly virulent invasive S. suis serotype 2 isolates express pili from this cluster. However, in most cases tested, and as a result of nonsense mutations at the 5′ end of the gene encoding the minor pilin subunit (a putative adhesin), pili were formed by the major pilin subunit only. We then evaluated the role these pili play in S. suis virulence. Abolishment of the expression of srtF cluster-encoded pili did not result in impaired interactions of S. suis with porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, non-piliated mutants were as virulent as the wild type strain when evaluated in a murine model of S. suis sepsis. Our results show that srtF cluster-encoded, S. suis pili are atypical compared to other Gram-positive pili. In addition, since the highly virulent strains under investigation are unlikely to produce other pili, our results suggest that pili might be dispensable for critical steps of the S. suis pathogenesis of infection. PMID:20052283

  5. Prevalência de Streptococcus suis tipo 2 por meio da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase em suínos abatidos no Estado do Mato Grosso Prevalence of Streptococcus suis type 2 using the polimerase chain reaction in slaughtered pigs in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Silva de Faria

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis é um patógeno que a afeta a produção industrial de suínos em todo o mundo. É de extrema importância, pois está associado a doenças em suínos e humanos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência do Streptococcus suis tipo 2 em 201 amostras de tonsilas de animais clinicamente sadios a partir da técnica de PCR. As amostras positivas foram submetidas à pesquisa do gene codificador do fator extracelular (ef. Os resultados demonstraram que a prevalência (23,38% foi maior que em outro estudo recentemente realizado no mesmo Estado, indicando que a PCR é um método mais sensível em relação ao isolamento bacteriano. Houve baixa ocorrência do gene ef* (1,49%, o que mostra uma grande importância para população analisada, pois cepas negativas são potencialmente menos virulentas que cepas positivas.Streptococcus suis is a pathogen that affects the industrial production of swine worldwide. It is extremely important, because it is associated with pigs and humans diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Streptococcus suis type 2 in 201 samples of tonsils from clinically healthy animals by the PCR technique. The samples positive for S. suis type 2 were tested for the gene encoding extracellular factors (ef. The results showed that the prevalence (23.38% was higher than other recent survey in the State, demonstrating that the PCR is a more sensitive method in relation to the bacterial isolation. There was a low occurrence of ef* gene in samples (1.49% showing great importance to local swine population, because negative strains are potentially less virulent that positive strains.

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of Streptococcus suis biofilms and planktonic cells that identified biofilm infection-related immunogenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yi, Li; Wu, Zongfu; Shao, Jing; Liu, Guangjin; Fan, Hongjie; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (SS) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease symptoms in pigs and humans. Biofilms of SS bind to extracellular matrix proteins in both endothelial and epithelial cells and cause persistent infections. In this study, the differences in the protein expression profiles of SS grown either as planktonic cells or biofilms were identified using comparative proteomic analysis. The results revealed the existence of 13 proteins of varying amounts, among which six were upregulated and seven were downregulated in the Streptococcus biofilm compared with the planktonic controls. The convalescent serum from mini-pig, challenged with SS, was applied in a Western blot assay to visualize all proteins from the biofilm that were grown in vitro and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 10 immunoreactive protein spots corresponding to nine unique proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Of these nine proteins, five (Manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, phosphoglycerate kinase, Hypothetical protein SSU05_0403) had no previously reported immunogenic properties in SS to our knowledge. The remaining four immunogenic proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hemolysin, pyruvate dehydrogenase and DnaK) were identified under both planktonic and biofilm growth conditions. In conclusion, the protein expression pattern of SS, grown as biofilm, was different from the SS grown as planktonic cells. These five immunogenic proteins that were specific to SS biofilm cells may potentially be targeted as vaccine candidates to protect against SS biofilm infections. The four proteins common to both biofilm and planktonic cells can be targeted as vaccine candidates to protect against both biofilm and acute infections.

  7. Control of competence for DNA transformation in streptococcus suis by genetically transferable pherotypes.

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    Edoardo Zaccaria

    Full Text Available Here we show that S. suis, a major bacterial pathogen of pigs and emerging pathogen in humans responds to a peptide pheromone by developing competence for DNA transformation. This species does not fall within any of the phylogenetic clusters of streptococci previously shown to regulate competence via peptide pheromones suggesting that more species of streptococci may be naturally competent. Induction of competence was dependent on ComX, a sigma factor that controls the streptococcal late competence regulon, extracellular addition of a comX-inducing peptide (XIP, and ComR, a regulator of comX. XIP was identified as an N-terminally truncated variant of ComS. Different comS alleles are present among strains of S. suis. These comS alleles are not functionally equivalent and appear to operate in conjuction with a cognate ComR to regulate comX through a conserved comR-box promoter. We demonstrate that these 'pherotypes' can be genetically transferred between strains, suggesting that similar approaches might be used to control competence induction in other lactic acid bacteria that lack ComR/ComS homologues but possess comX and the late competence regulon. The approaches described in this paper to identify and optimize peptide-induced competence may also assist other researchers wishing to identify natural competence in other bacteria. Harnessing natural competence is expected to accelerate genetic research on this and other important streptococcal pathogens and to allow high-throughput mutation approaches to be implemented, opening up new avenues for research.

  8. GidA, a tRNA modification enzyme, contributes to the growth and virulence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2

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    Ting eGao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-inhibited division protein (GidA, is a tRNA modification enzyme functioning together with MnmE in the addition of a carboxymethylaminomethyl group to position 5 of the anticodon wobble uridine of tRNA. Here, we report a GidA homologue from a Chinese isolate SC-19 of the zoonotic Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2. gidA disruption led to a defective growth, increased capsule thickness, and reduced hemolytic activity. Moreover, the gidA deletion mutant (ΔgidA displayed reduced mortality and bacterial loads in mice, reduced ability of adhesion to and invasion in epithelial cells, and increased sensitivity to phagocytosis. The iTRAQ analysis identified 372 differentially expressed (182 up- and 190 down-regulated proteins in ΔgidA and SC-19. Numerous DNA replication, cell division and virulence associated proteins were downregulated, whereas many capsule synthesis enzymes were upregulated by gidA disruption. This is consistent with the phenotypes of the mutant. Thus, GidA is a translational regulator that plays an important role in the growth, cell division, capsule biosynthesis, and virulence of SS2. Our findings provide new insight into the regulatory function of GidA in bacterial pathogens.

  9. Contribution of eukaryotic-type serine/threonine kinase to stress response and virulence of Streptococcus suis.

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    Haodan Zhu

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 is an important swine and human pathogen responsible for septicemia and meningitis. The bacterial homologues of eukaryotic-type serine/threonine kinases (ESTKs have been reported to play critical roles in various cellular processes. To investigate the role of STK in SS2, an isogenic stk mutant strain (Δstk and a complemented strain (CΔstk were constructed. The Δstk showed a significant decrease in adherence to HEp-2 cells, compared with the wild-type strain, and a reduced survival ratio in whole blood. In addition, the Δstk exhibited a notable reduced tolerance of environmental stresses including high temperature, acidic pH, oxidative stress, and high osmolarity. More importantly, the Δstk was attenuated in both the CD1 mouse and piglet models of infection. The results of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the expressions of a few genes involving in adherence, stress response and virulence were clearly decreased in the Δstk mutant strain. Our data suggest that SsSTK is required for virulence and stress response in SS2.

  10. Development of fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism for Streptococcus suis%猪链球菌荧光DNA扩增片段长度多态性检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楷成; Linda van der Graaf; 陆承平; 黄保续; 范伟兴

    2012-01-01

    The fluorescent amplified fragment length for Streptococcus suis was developed using 2 pairs of primers.51 to 98 fragments of highly polymorphic products were obtained by 2 pairs of primers in 12 Streptococcus suis isolates.The fluorescent amplified fragment length technique can be used to detect the DNA polymorphism of Streptococcus suis.Different serotypes or different isolates of the same serotype in Streptococcus suis can be distinguished by the method.It is available in identification or tracking for Streptococcus suis strains.%利用荧光标记技术,采用2对引物初步建立检测猪链球菌荧光DNA扩增片段长度多态性方法,结果表明12株猪链球菌扩增的多态性位点数从51~98条不等,该方法能够检测猪链球菌的多态性,区分不同血清型以及同一血清型不同特性的菌株,可用于菌株鉴定及流行病学研究中细菌源的追踪。

  11. Simultaneous Quantification and Differentiation of Streptococcus suis Serotypes 2 and 9 by Quantitative Real-Time PCR, Evaluated in Tonsillar and Nasal Samples of Pigs

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    Niels Dekker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Streptococcus suis (S. suis infections in pigs are often associated with serotypes 2 and 9. Mucosal sites of healthy pigs can be colonized with these serotypes, often multiple serotypes per pig. To unravel the contribution of these serotypes in pathogenesis and epidemiology, simultaneous quantification of serotypes is needed. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR targeting cps2J (serotypes 2 and 1/2 and cps9H (serotype 9 was evaluated with nasal and tonsillar samples from S. suis exposed pigs. qPCR specifically detected serotypes in all pig samples. The serotypes loads in pig samples estimated by qPCR showed, except for serotype 9 in tonsillar samples (correlation coefficient = 0.25, moderate to strong correlation with loads detected by culture (correlation coefficient > 0.65, and also in pigs exposed to both serotypes (correlation coefficient > 0.75. This qPCR is suitable for simultaneous differentiation and quantification of important S. suis serotypes.

  12. 猪链球菌的比较基因组学研究进展%Progress on research of comparative genomics of Streptococcus suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑霄

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic agent and could cause outbreaks of the infections among pigs and humans. Over the past five years, great progress had been achieved in the field of S. suis genomics. By now six S. suis genomes have been sequenced and publicly available. Furthermore, the application of new comparative genomics technologies on such genomes had led to the identification of new pathogenicity islands and pathogenesis-related genes,which greatly boosted the research on pathogenic mechanisms of S. suis.%猪链球菌是一种重要的人兽共患病病原菌,可以引起人猪链球菌病暴发流行.近几年来,猪链球菌的基因组学研究发展迅速:共有6株猪链球菌的基因组全序列公布;采用多种比较基因组技术发现了高致病性猪链球菌相关的毒力岛和特异基因,为研究猪链球菌的致病机制提供了重要线索.

  13. Serological patterns of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis in pig herds affected by pleuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallgren, Per; Nörregård, Erik; Molander, Benedicta; Persson, Maria; Ehlorsson, Carl-Johan

    2016-10-04

    Respiratory illness is traditionally regarded as the disease of the growing pig, and has historically mainly been associated to bacterial infections with focus on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. These bacteria still are of great importance, but continuously increasing herd sizes have complicated the scenario and the influence of secondary invaders may have been increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae and M. hyopneumoniae, as well as that of the secondary invaders Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis by serology in four pig herds (A-D) using age segregated rearing systems with high incidences of pleuritic lesions at slaughter. Pleuritic lesions registered at slaughter ranged from 20.5 to 33.1 % in the four herds. In herd A, the levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae exceeded A450 > 1.5, but not to any other microbe searched for. The seroconversion took place early during the fattening period. Similar levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae were also recorded in herd B, with a subsequent increase in levels of antibodies to P. multocida. Pigs seroconverted to both agents during the early phase of the fattening period. In herd C, pigs seroconverted to P. multocida during the early phase of the fattening period and thereafter to A. pleuropneumoniae. In herd D, the levels of antibodies to P. multocida exceeded A450 > 1.0 in absence (A450 pleuropneumoniae. The levels of serum antibodies to M. hyopneumoniae and to S. suis remained below A450 pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida, either alone or in combination with each other. Seroconversion to M. hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period or not at all, confirmed the positive effect of age segregated rearing in preventing or delaying infections with M. hyopneumoniae. The results obtained highlight the necessity of diagnostic investigations to define the true disease pattern in herds with a high incidence

  14. ArgR is an essential local transcriptional regulator of the arcABC operon in Streptococcus suis and is crucial for biological fitness in an acidic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulde, Marcus; Willenborg, Joerg; de Greeff, Astrid; Benga, Laurentiu; Smith, Hilde E; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2011-02-01

    Streptococcus suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs and can also cause severe infections in humans. Despite its clinical relevance, very little is known about the factors that contribute to its virulence. Recently, we identified a new putative virulence factor in S. suis, the arginine deiminase system (ADS), an arginine catabolic enzyme system encoded by the arcABC operon, which enables S. suis to survive in an acidic environment. In this study, we focused on ArgR, an ADS-associated regulator belonging to the ArgR/AhrC arginine repressor family. Using an argR knockout strain we were able to show that ArgR is essential for arcABC operon expression and necessary for the biological fitness of S. suis. By cDNA expression microarray analyses and quantitative real-time RT-PCR we found that the arcABC operon is the only gene cluster regulated by ArgR, which is in contrast to the situation in many other bacteria. Reporter gene analysis with gfp under the control of the arcABC promoter demonstrated that ArgR is able to activate the arcABC promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with fragments of the arcABC promoter and recombinant ArgR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against ArgR, revealed that ArgR interacts with the arcABC promoter in vitro and in vivo by binding to a region from -147 to -72 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point. Overall, our results show that in S. suis, ArgR is an essential, system-specific transcriptional regulator of the ADS that interacts directly with the arcABC promoter in vivo.

  15. Crystal Structure and Identification of Two Key Amino Acids Involved in AI-2 Production and Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus suis LuxS.

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    Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis has emerged as an important zoonotic pathogen that causes meningitis, arthritis, septicemia and even sudden death in pigs and humans. Quorum sensing is the signaling network for cell-to-cell communication that bacterial cells can use to monitor their own population density through production and exchange of signal molecules. S-Ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS is the key enzyme involved in the activated methyl cycle. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2 is the adduct of borate and a ribose derivative and is produced from S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH. AI-2 can mediate interspecies communication and in some species facilitate the bacterial behavior regulation such as biofilm formation and virulence in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we reported the overexpression, purification and crystallographic structure of LuxS from S. suis. Our results showed the catalytically active LuxS exists as a homodimer in solution. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS revealed the presence of Zn2+ in LuxS. Although the core structure shares the similar topology with LuxS proteins from other bacterial species, structural analyses and comparative amino acid sequence alignments identified two key amino acid differences in S. suis LuxS, Phe80 and His87, which are located near the substrate binding site. The results of site-directed mutagenesis and enzymology studies confirmed that these two residues affect the catalytic activity of the enzyme. These in vitro results were corroborated in vivo by expression of the LuxS variants in a S. suis ΔluxS strain. The single and two amino acid of LuxS variant decreased AI-2 production and biofilm formation significantly compared to that of the parent strain. Our findings highlight the importance of key LuxS residues that influence the AI-2 production and biofilm formation in S.suis.

  16. Investigation of Pathogenesis of H1N1 Influenza Virus and Swine Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Co-Infection in Pigs by Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian; Huang, Canhui; Shi, Jian; Wang, Ruifang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza virus and Streptococcus suis are two important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex, and both have significant economic impacts. Clinically, influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infections in pigs are very common, which often contribute to severe pneumonia and can increase the mortality. However, the co-infection pathogenesis in pigs is unclear. In the present study, co-infection experiments were performed using swine H1N1 influenza virus and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). The H1N1-SS2 co-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical symptoms, serious pathological changes, and robust apoptosis of lungs at 6 days post-infection compared with separate H1N1 and SS2 infections. A comprehensive gene expression profiling using a microarray approach was performed to investigate the global host responses of swine lungs against the swine H1N1 infection, SS2 infection, co-infection, and phosphate-buffered saline control. Results showed 457, 411, and 844 differentially expressed genes in the H1N1, SS2, and H1N1-SS2 groups, respectively, compared with the control. Noticeably, genes associated with the immune, inflammatory, and apoptosis responses were highly overexpressed in the co-infected group. Pathway analysis indicated that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, MAPK, toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, antigen processing and presentation, and apoptosis pathway were significantly regulated in the co-infected group. However, the genes related to these were less regulated in the separate H1N1 and SS2 infection groups. This observation suggested that a certain level of synergy was induced by H1N1 and SS2 co-infection with significantly stronger inflammatory and apoptosis responses, which may lead to more serious respiratory disease syndrome and pulmonary pathological lesion.

  17. Epidemiology Investigation of Streptococcus suis Type 2 in slaughtered Swine in Hechi of Guangxi%河池市屠宰猪群中猪链球菌2型的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢婷; 韦瑛; 廖安翠; 姚伟

    2012-01-01

      从我市4个县区的屠宰场采集屠宰猪扁桃体426份,其中东兰195份、宜州78份、环江35份、巴马118份.采用多重PCR方法检测样品中猪链球菌2型的流行病学情况.检出240份(56.34%)样品猪链球菌(SS)阳性,其中7份(1.64%)携带猪链球菌2型(SS2).表明河池市屠宰猪群中广泛存在猪链球菌,但猪链球菌2型带菌率较低.%  In order to investigate the presence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in slaughtered swine in Hechi,426 tonsils collected from slaughtered swine were detected by multiple PCR. The positive rates for Streptococcus,Streptococcus suis,Streptococcus suis serotype 2 were 78.87%,56.34%,1.64%,respectively. The results showed that in the carrier rate of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 slaughtered swine was lower in Hechi of Guangxi.

  18. First insights into the protective effects of a recombinant swinepox virus expressing truncated MRP of Streptococcus suis type 2 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongyan; Zhu, Haodan; Lin, Huixing; Xu, Jiarong; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    To explore the potential of the swinepox virus (SPV) as vector for Streptococcus suis vaccines, a vector system was developed for the construction of a recombinant SPV carrying bacterial genes. Using this system, a recombinant virus expressing truncated muramidase-released protein (MRP) of S. suis type 2 (SS2), designated rSPV-MRP, was produced and identified by PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. The rSPV-MRP was found to be only slightly attenuated in PK-15 cells, when compared with the wild-type virus. After immunization intramuscularly with rSPV-MRP, SS2 inactive vaccine (positive control), wild-type SPV (negative control) and PBS (blank control) respectively, all CD1 mice were challenged with a lethal dose or a sublethal dose of SS2 highly virulent strain ZY05719. While SS2 inactive vaccine protected all mice, immunization with rSPV-MRP resulted in 60% survival and protected mice against a lethal dose of the highly virulent SS2 strain, compared with the negative control (P MRP had a significantly reduced bacterial burden in all organs examined, compared to negative controls and blank controls (P MRP-vaccinated group were significantly higher (P MRP provided mice with protection from systemic SS2 infection. If SPV recombinants have the potential as S. suis vaccines for the use in pigs has to be evaluated in further studies.

  19. The roles of RelA/(p)ppGpp in glucose-starvation induced adaptive response in the zoonotic Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengfei; Zhu, Jiawen; Wei, Shun; Luo, Qingping; Li, Lu; Li, Shengqing; Tucker, Alexander; Shao, Huabin; Zhou, Rui

    2016-06-03

    The (p)ppGpp signal molecules play a central role in the stringent response (SR) to adapt to nutrient starvation in bacteria, yet the carbohydrate starvation induced adaptive response and the roles of SR in this response is not well characterized, especially in Gram-positives. Here, two (p)ppGpp synthetases RelA and RelQ are identified in Streptococcus suis, an important emerging zoonotic Gram-positive bacterium, while only RelA is functional under glucose starvation. To characterize the roles of RelA/(p)ppGpp in glucose starvation response in S. suis, the growth curves and transcriptional profiles were compared between the mutant strain ΔrelA [a (p)ppGpp(0) strain under glucose starvation] and its parental strain SC-19 [(p)ppGpp(+)]. The results showed great difference between SC-19 and ΔrelA on adaptive responses when suffering glucose starvation, and demonstrated that RelA/(p)ppGpp plays important roles in adaptation to glucose starvation. Besides the classic SR including inhibition of growth and related macromolecular synthesis, the extended adaptive response also includes inhibited glycolysis, and carbon catabolite repression (CCR)-mediated carbohydrate-dependent metabolic switches. Collectively, the pheno- and genotypic characterization of the glucose starvation induced adaptive response in S. suis makes a great contribution to understanding better the mechanism of SR.

  20. Screening of virulence-associated genes as a molecular typing method for characterization of Streptococcus suis isolates recovered from wild boars and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Domínguez, Lucas; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Vela, Ana I

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases in pigs, but has also been isolated from wild animals such as rabbits and wild boars. In the current study, 126 S. suis isolates recovered from pigs (n = 85) and wild boars (n = 41) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of nine virulence-associated genes. S. suis isolates from wild boars were differentiated by the lower detection rates of the epf, sly, mrp, sao and dltA genes (0%, 2.4%, 2.4%, 4.8% and 21.9%, respectively) compared with the isolates from pigs (56.5%, 75.3%, 56.5%, 88.2.0% and 88.2%, respectively). The differences in the content of these virulence-associated genes were statistically significant (P wild boar isolates and 22 VPs among pig isolates, with only two VPs common to wild boars and pigs. The predominant VPs among isolates from wild boars (VP1, VP7) were different from those observed in pig isolates (VP16 and VP26). VP16 was detected exclusively in clinical pig isolates of serotype 9 and VP26 was detected in 71.4% of the serotype 2 clinical pig isolates. Further multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed a significant correlation association between certain VPs and STs (VP16 and VP17 with ST123 and ST125 and VP26 with ST1). In conclusion, the current study showed that combination of virulence-associated gene profiling and MLST analysis may provide more information of the relatedness of the S. suis strains from different animal species that could be useful for epidemiological purposes.

  1. Gene Regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: interplay between nutrition and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T. Hendriksen (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the species of streptococci. Other pathogenic bacteria belonging to this class include Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus bovi

  2. Gene Regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: interplay between nutrition and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T. Hendriksen (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the species of streptococci. Other pathogenic bacteria belonging to this class include Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus

  3. Overcoming function annotation errors in the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus suis by a proteomics-driven approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárcena José A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annotation of protein-coding genes is a key step in sequencing projects. Protein functions are mainly assigned on the basis of the amino acid sequence alone by searching of homologous proteins. However, fully automated annotation processes often lead to wrong prediction of protein functions, and therefore time-intensive manual curation is often essential. Here we describe a fast and reliable way to correct function annotation in sequencing projects, focusing on surface proteomes. We use a proteomics approach, previously proven to be very powerful for identifying new vaccine candidates against Gram-positive pathogens. It consists of shaving the surface of intact cells with two proteases, the specific cleavage-site trypsin and the unspecific proteinase K, followed by LC/MS/MS analysis of the resulting peptides. The identified proteins are contrasted by computational analysis and their sequences are inspected to correct possible errors in function prediction. Results When applied to the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis, of which two strains have been recently sequenced and annotated, we identified a set of surface proteins without cytoplasmic contamination: all the proteins identified had exporting or retention signals towards the outside and/or the cell surface, and viability of protease-treated cells was not affected. The combination of both experimental evidences and computational methods allowed us to determine that two of these proteins are putative extracellular new adhesins that had been previously attributed a wrong cytoplasmic function. One of them is a putative component of the pilus of this bacterium. Conclusion We illustrate the complementary nature of laboratory-based and computational methods to examine in concert the localization of a set of proteins in the cell, and demonstrate the utility of this proteomics-based strategy to experimentally correct function annotation errors in sequencing projects. This

  4. Invloed van kunstmelk en voersamenstelling na spenen op energieopname en Streptococcus suis infecties bij biggen = Effect of milk intake and feed composition after weaning on energy intake and Streptococcus suis infection in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Dirx-Kuijken, N.C.P.M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Raymakers, R.

    2011-01-01

    Op VIC Sterksel is onderzocht of het verstrekken van kunstmelk gedurende de eerste dagen 6 dagen na spenen en het verstrekken van een luxer speenvoer de energie-opname van de biggen verhoogt en het aantal biggen met klinische verschijnselen passend bij een S. suis infectie vermindert. De resultaten

  5. Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licensed in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisselink, Henk J; Veldman, Kees T; Van den Eede, Chris; Salmon, Sarah A; Mevius, Dik J

    2006-03-10

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n=384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Using breakpoints established by CLSI for veterinary pathogens, all strains were susceptible to ceftiofur, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and penicillin. MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were 8, 16 and 2 microg/mL, respectively. A high level of resistance was observed for tetracycline (75.1%). A MIC-90 value of 64 microg/mL was found for this antibiotic. Serotype-associated differences in MIC-90 values were observed for tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/suphamethoxazole.

  6. Relatedness of Streptococcus suis isolates of various serotypes and clinical backgrounds as evaluated by macrorestriction analysis and expression of potential virulence traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, A; Goethe, R; Wisselink, H J; Smith, H E; Valentin-Weigand, P

    2001-02-01

    We evaluated the genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis isolates of different serotypes by macrorestriction analysis and elucidated possible relationships between the genetic background, expression of potential virulence traits, and source of isolation. Virulence traits included expression of serotype-specific polysaccharides, muramidase-released protein (MRP), extracellular protein factor (EF), hemolysin activity, and adherence to epithelial cells. Macrorestriction analysis of streptococcal DNA digested with restriction enzymes SmaI and ApaI allowed differentiation of single isolates that could be assigned to four major clusters, named A1, A2, B1, and B2. Comparison of the genotypic and phenotypic features of the isolates with their source of isolation showed that (i) the S. suis population examined, which originated mainly from German pigs, exhibited a genetic diversity and phenotypic patterns comparable to those found for isolates from other European countries; (ii) certain phenotypic features, such as the presence of capsular antigens of serotypes 2, 1, and 9, expression of MRP and EF, and hemolysin activity (and in particular, combinations of these features), were strongly associated with the clinical background of meningitis and septicemia; and (iii) isolates from pigs with meningitis and septicemia showed a significantly higher degree of genetic homogeneity compared to that for isolates from pigs with pneumonia and healthy pigs. Since the former isolates are considered highly virulent, this supports the theory of a clonal relationship among highly virulent strains.

  7. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs

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    Xu Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7 have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Results Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV-infected pigs (4/12 and the coinfected pigs (8/10; however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10 than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12 and SS7-infected pigs (0/10. The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. Conclusion HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  8. Functional definition of LuxS, an autoinducer-2 (AI-2) synthase and its role in full virulence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Min; Feng, Youjun; Wang, Changjun; Zheng, Feng; Li, Ming; Liao, Hui; Mao, Yinghua; Pan, Xiuzhen; Wang, Jing; Hu, Dan; Hu, Fuquan; Tang, Jiaqi

    2011-12-01

    Quorum sensing is a widespread chemical communication in response to fluctuation of bacterial population density, and has been implicated into bacterial biofilm formation and regulation of expression of virulence factors. The luxS gene product, S-ribosylhomocysteinase, catalizes the last committed step in biosynthetic pathway of autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a signaling molecule for inter-species quorum sensing. We found a luxS homologue in 05ZYH33, an epidemic strain of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) in China. A luxS null mutant (ΔluxS) of 05ZYH33 strain was obtained using an approach of homologous recombination. LuxS was determined to be required for AI-2 production in 05ZYH33 strain of S. suis 2. Inactivation of luxS gene led to a wide range of phenotypic changes including thinner capsular walls, increased tolerance to H(2)O(2), reduced adherence capacity to epithelial cells, etc. In particular, loss of LuxS impaired dramatically its full virulence of SS2 in experimental model of piglets, and functional complementation restored it nearly to the level of parent strain. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses suggested that some known virulence factors such as CPS are down-regulated in the ΔluxS mutant, which might in part explain virulence attenuation by luxS deletion. Similarly, 29 of 71 genes with different expression level were proposed to be targets candidate regulated by LuxS/AI-2-dependent quorum sensing.

  9. Sorotipagem de amostras de Streptococcus suis isoladas de suínos em granjas dos Estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Paraná Serotyping of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs in the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila J.R. Pagnani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Infecções causadas por Streptococcus suis são muito comuns em países onde a indústria de carne suína é desenvolvida. Estas infecções estão relacionadas a casos clínicos de broncopneumonia, meningite, artrite, pericardite, miocardite, endocardite, poliserosite fibrinosa, septicemia, rinite e aborto. Esta bactéria também foi descrita como patógeno de ruminantes e humanos. No Brasil há evidências clínicas da existência de processos infecciosos causados por S. suis afetando mais de 50% das granjas em Estados como São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Paraná. No presente estudo foram isoladas 51 amostras de S. suis de granjas do Estados acima referidos, coletadas de diferentes casos clínicos como septicemia, meningite, artrite e pneumonia, tendo sido obtidas ou em cultura pura ou como patógeno de maior predominância nos tecidos de suínos. Este material foi semeado em Columbia ágar sangue adicionado de 5% de sangue bovino e incubado a 37°C por 24 horas. Para a identificação bioquímica as colônias que apresentavam a-hemólise, bem como as amostras padrão, foram submetidas a testes convencionais para a confirmação da espécie S. suis, tais como: hidrólise de arginina, teste de Voges-Proskauer, e produção de ácido a partir de vários carboidratos (inulina, salicina, trealose, lactose, sacarose, sorbitol, manitol e glicerol. As amostras também foram testadas para habilidade de crescimento em meio de TSA com 6,5% de NaCl e para a produção de amilase. Todas as amostras que fizeram parte desta pesquisa foram testadas pelo sistema Api 20 Strep para confirmação dos resultados obtidos nos testes convencionais. Para a sorotipagem foram produzidos antissoros de 1 a 8. Outras amostras não pertencentes a estes sorotipos também foram sorotipadas. O antissoro produzido em coelhos foi titulado pelo teste de aglutinação em tubo com 2-mercaptoetanol e pelo teste de reação capsular e, quando adequados, foram usados no teste de co

  10. The CcpA regulon of Streptococcus suis reveals novel insights into the regulation of the streptococcal central carbon metabolism by binding of CcpA to two distinct binding motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Jörg; de Greeff, Astrid; Jarek, Michael; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a neglected zoonotic streptococcus causing fatal diseases in humans and in pigs. The transcriptional regulator CcpA (catabolite control protein A) is involved in the metabolic adaptation to different carbohydrate sources and virulence of S. suis and other pathogenic streptococci. In this study, we determined the DNA binding characteristics of CcpA and identified the CcpA regulon during growth of S. suis. Electrophoretic mobility shift analyses showed promiscuous DNA binding of CcpA to cognate cre sites in vitro. In contrast, sequencing of immunoprecipitated chromatin revealed two specific consensus motifs, a pseudo-palindromic cre motif (WWGAAARCGYTTTCWW) and a novel cre2 motif (TTTTYHWDHHWWTTTY), within the regulatory elements of the genes directly controlled by CcpA. Via these elements CcpA regulates expression of genes involved in carbohydrate uptake and conversion, and in addition in important metabolic pathways of the central carbon metabolism, like glycolysis, mixed-acid fermentation, and the fragmentary TCA cycle. Furthermore, our analyses provide evidence that CcpA regulates the genes of the central carbon metabolism by binding either the pseudo-palindromic cre motif or the cre2 motif in a HPr(Ser)∼P independent conformation.

  11. Delta-pgm, a new live-attenuated vaccine against Brucella suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czibener, Cecilia; Del Giudice, Mariela Giselda; Spera, Juan Manuel; Fulgenzi, Fabiana Rosa; Ugalde, Juan Esteban

    2016-03-18

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonosis in the world affecting many domestic and wild animals including bovines, goats, pigs and dogs. Each species of the Brucella genus has a particular tropism toward different mammals being the most relevant for human health Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis that infect bovines, goats/camelids and swine respectively. Although for B. abortus and B. melitensis there are vaccines available, there is no efficient vaccine to protect swine from B. suis infection so far. We describe here the construction of a novel vaccine strain that confers excellent protection against B. suis in a mouse model of infection. This strain is a clean deletion of the phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene that codes for a protein that catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-P to glucose-1-P, which is used as a precursor for the biosynthesis of many polysaccharides. The Delta-pgm strain lacks a complete lipopolysaccharide, is unable to synthesize cyclic beta glucans and is sensitive to several detergents and Polymyxin B. We show that this strain replicates in cultured cells, is completely avirulent in the mouse model of infection but protects against a challenge of the virulent strain inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This novel strain could be an excellent candidate for the control of swine brucellosis, a disease of emerging concern in many parts of the world.

  12. Serological characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolates from diagnostic samples in Denmark during 1995 and 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind; Jensen, N. E.

    1998-01-01

    antimicrobial agents. The majority of cases were lung diseases (57%), followed by septicaemia (16%), meningitis (15%) and endocarditis (8%). Almost 96% of the isolates could be typed using the 28 antisera. The most common serotype was serotype 2 (29%), followed by serotype 7 (17%), and serotypes 3, 4 and 8 (9...... to lincomycin and spiramycin. The differences in susceptibility between isolates of serotype 2 and the other serotypes were statistically significant. Compared to a previous Danish study the distribution of serotypes of S. suis causing infections among pigs in Denmark has changed during the last 15 years....

  13. HP1330 Contributes to Streptococcus suis Virulence by Inducing Toll-Like Receptor 2- and ERK1/2-Dependent Pro-inflammatory Responses and Influencing In Vivo S. suis Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jingjing; Yu, Junping; Xu, Zhongmin; Liu, Liang; Song, Yajing; Sun, Xiaomei; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) has evolved into a highly invasive pathogen responsible for two large-scale outbreaks of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS) in China. Excessive inflammation stimulated by SS2 is considered a hallmark of STSLS, even it also plays important roles in other clinical symptoms of SS2-related disease, including meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death. However, the mechanism of SS2-caused excessive inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, a novel pro-inflammatory protein was identified (HP1330), which could induce robust expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β) in RAW264.7 macrophages. To evaluate the role of HP1330 in SS2 virulence, an hp1330-deletion mutant (Δhp1330) was constructed. In vitro, hp1330 disruption led to a decreased pro-inflammatory ability of SS2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In vivo, Δhp1330 showed reduced lethality, pro-inflammatory activity, and bacterial loads in mice. To further elucidate the mechanism of HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, antibody blocking and gene-deletion experiments with macrophages were performed. The results revealed that the pro-inflammatory activity of HP1330 depended on the recognition of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways could significantly decrease HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and western blot analysis showed that HP1330 could induce activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that HP1330 contributes to SS2 virulence by inducing TLR2- and ERK1/2-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production and influencing in vivo bacterial loads, implying that HP1330 may be associated with STSLS caused by SS2.

  14. HP1330 Contributes to Streptococcus suis Virulence by Inducing Toll-Like Receptor 2- and ERK1/2-Dependent Pro-inflammatory Responses and Influencing In Vivo S. suis Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2 has evolved into a highly invasive pathogen responsible for two large-scale outbreaks of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS in China. Excessive inflammation stimulated by SS2 is considered a hallmark of STSLS, even it also plays important roles in other clinical symptoms of SS2-related disease, including meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death. However, the mechanism of SS2-caused excessive inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, a novel pro-inflammatory protein was identified (HP1330, which could induce robust expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β in RAW264.7 macrophages. To evaluate the role of HP1330 in SS2 virulence, an hp1330-deletion mutant (Δhp1330 was constructed. In vitro, hp1330 disruption led to a decreased pro-inflammatory ability of SS2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In vivo, Δhp1330 showed reduced lethality, pro-inflammatory activity, and bacterial loads in mice. To further elucidate the mechanism of HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, antibody blocking and gene-deletion experiments with macrophages were performed. The results revealed that the pro-inflammatory activity of HP1330 depended on the recognition of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 pathways could significantly decrease HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and western blot analysis showed that HP1330 could induce activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that HP1330 contributes to SS2 virulence by inducing TLR2- and ERK1/2-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production and influencing in vivo bacterial loads, implying that HP1330 may be associated with STSLS caused by SS2.

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure determination of the N terminal domain of Fhb, a factor H binding protein from Streptococcus suis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunmao [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijng Institute of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, No. 20 Dongda Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071 (China); Yu, You [Key Laboratory for Protein Sciences of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing (China); Yang, Maojun, E-mail: maojunyang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Protein Sciences of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing (China); Jiang, Yongqiang, E-mail: jiangyq@bmi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijng Institute of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, No. 20 Dongda Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071 (China)

    2015-10-23

    Fhb is a surface virulence protein from Streptococcus suis, which could aid bacterial evasion of host innate immune defense by recruiting complement regulator factor H to inactivate C3b deposited on bacterial surface in blood. Here we successfully expressed and purified the N terminal domain of Fhb (N-Fhb) and obtained crystals of the N-Fhb by sitting-drop vapor diffusion method with a resolution of 1.50 Å. The crystals belong to space group C2 with unit cell parameters a = 127.1 Å, b = 77.3 Å, c = 131.6 Å, α = 90°, β = 115.9°, γ = 90°. The structure of N-Fhb was determined by SAD method and the core structure of N-Fhb is a β sandwich. We speculated that binding of Fhb to human factor H may be mainly mediated by surface amino acids with negative charges. - Highlights: • We expressed N-Fhb as the soluble protein in Escherichia coli. • Crystals of N-Fhb were grown by sitting drop vapor diffusion method. • Crystals of N-Fhb could diffracted to 1.5 Å. • The core structure of N-Fhb was a β sandwich. • A part of the surface of N-Fhb was rich with negative charges.

  16. Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Effects on Clinical Isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of Extracts from Several Parts of Cladogynos orientalis and Their Phytochemical Screenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongtip Sithisarn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial assays against clinically isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of the extracts prepared by decoction and ethanolic reflux of different parts of Chettaphangki (Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span, including the leaves, roots, and stems, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging assay and disc diffusion method were conducted. Quantitative analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods was also performed. Finally, phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was conducted. Leaf ethanolic reflux extract (100 g contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 7.21 ± 0.28 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE and 11.51 ± 2.02 μg rutin equivalent (RE, respectively. Chettaphangki extracts promoted low antioxidant activity with EC50 values in the range of 0.27–0.48 mg/mL. Extracts and fractions from the roots and stems of this plant promoted low to intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with the inhibition zones between 7 and 14 mm. The chromatographic data suggested that the leaf extracts of C. orientalis contained rutin while the root and stem extracts contained scopoletin and chettaphanin I. Rutin promoted strong antioxidant activity while chettaphanin I showed low antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus intermedius.

  17. Polar invasion and translocation of Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus suis in a novel human model of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwerk

    Full Text Available Acute bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease in humans. Discussed as entry sites for pathogens into the brain are the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB. Although human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC constitute a well established human in vitro model for the blood-brain barrier, until now no reliable human system presenting the BCSFB has been developed. Here, we describe for the first time a functional human BCSFB model based on human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP, which display typical hallmarks of a BCSFB as the expression of junctional proteins and formation of tight junctions, a high electrical resistance and minimal levels of macromolecular flux when grown on transwell filters. Importantly, when challenged with the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis or the human pathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis the HIBCPP show polar bacterial invasion only from the physiologically relevant basolateral side. Meningococcal invasion is attenuated by the presence of a capsule and translocated N. meningitidis form microcolonies on the apical side of HIBCPP opposite of sites of entry. As a functionally relevant human model of the BCSFB the HIBCPP offer a wide range of options for analysis of disease-related mechanisms at the choroid plexus epithelium, especially involving human pathogens.

  18. Factor H specifically capture novel Factor H-binding proteins of Streptococcus suis and contribute to the virulence of the bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Ma, Caifeng; Fu, Yang; He, Yanan; Yu, Yanfei; Du, Dechao; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Factor H (FH), a regulatory protein of the complement system, can bind specifically to factor H-binding proteins (FHBPs) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2), which contribute to evasion of host innate immune defenses. In the present study, we aimed to identify novel FHBPs and characterize the biological functions of FH in SS2 pathogenesis. Here, a method that combined proteomics and Far-western blotting was developed to identify the surface FHBPs of SS2. With this method, fourteen potential novel FHBPs were identified among SS2 surface proteins. We selected eight newly identified proteins and further confirmed their binding activity to FH. The binding of SS2 to immobilized FH decreased dramatically after pre-incubation with anti-FHBPs polyclonal antibodies. We showed for the first time that SS2 also interact specifically with mouse FH. Furthermore, we found that FH play an important role in adherence and invasion of SS2 to HEp-2 cells. Additionally, using a mouse model of intraperitoneal challenge, we confirmed that SS2 pre-incubated with FH enhanced bacteremia and brain invasion, compared with SS2 not pretreated with FH. Taken together, this study provides a useful method to characterize the host-bacteria interactions. These results first indicated that binding of FH to the cell surface improved the adherence and invasion of SS2 to HEp-2 cells, promoting SS2 to resist killing and leading to enhance virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. 抗猪链球菌戊糖乳杆菌素的纯化及特性研究%Purification and characterization of pentocin against streptococcus suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武朋朋; 刘国荣; 畅晓渊; 张香美; 李平兰

    2011-01-01

    对分离自健康未断奶仔猪粪便的抗猪链球菌的戊糖乳杆菌LPL1—5所产细菌素进行提取、纯化,以及理化和生物学特性研究。戊糖乳杆菌LPL15所产细菌素经饱和度为80%的硫酸铵盐析、葡聚糖凝胶树脂G-10层析和SPSepharoseFastFlow阳离子树脂交换层析可得到纯化的细菌素,其比活力为1732.16AU/mg,纯度较发酵液提高了26.37倍;Tricine—SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳及活性检测试验结果显示,3313~5856u范围内存在1条活性蛋白带;纯化后细菌素特性分析发现,该细菌素具有良好的热稳定性、酸耐受性及溶解性,并基本确定其等电点为8.7;胃蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶、中性蛋白酶和蛋白酶K处理可使细菌素完全失活;该细菌素抑菌谱较广,不仅对猪链球菌(Sreptococcussuis)、单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌(Listeriamonocytogenes)、金黄色葡萄球菌(sfnphylococcus aereu)等革兰氏阳性菌有明显抑制作用,同时对大肠杆菌(Escherichiacoli)及假单胞菌(Pseudomonasspp.)等革兰氏阴性菌也表现出抑菌活性,具有作为食品防腐剂良好的应用前景。%Purification and characterization of an anti-streptococcus suis bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus pentosus LPL1-5,isolated from faeces of healthy piglets,were studied. The bacteriocin was purified by 80% ammonium sulphate precipitation, Sephadex G-10 gel filtration chromatography and SP Sepharose Fast Flow cation exchange chromatography. And the specific activity of purified bacteriocin reached 1 732.16 AU/mg and the purity was increased by 26.37 fold. Tricine- SDS-PAGE of the purified bacteriocin contained only one active protein band between 3.3 and 5.8 ku. Purified bacteriocin was heat resistant, active at pH values between 2.0 - 8.0 and inactivated by pepsin, trypsin,neutro-proteinase and proteinase K. It also could easily be dissorved in different media and its isoelectric point was 8.7. In

  20. 可视化2型猪链球菌LAMP检测方法的建立%Establishment of a Visible LAMP Method for the Detection of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊炜; 魏晓锋; 王艳; 林颖峥; 张强; 李春阳; 黄忠荣; 胡建华; 李健

    2016-01-01

    由2型猪链球菌(Streptococcus suis serotype 2)引起的猪链球菌病(Swine streptococosis)是一种重要的人兽共患疾病,具有高感染率、高死亡率的特点。为加强口岸动物源性产品中2型猪链球菌的现场查验力度,建立了2型猪链球菌LAMP检测方法,并对方法的特异性、敏感性和稳定性进行了测试。通过在LAMP反应产物中加入显色液,提高了对检测结果肉眼判定的准确性,实现了结果判定可视化的目标,有助于在出入境口岸货物查验现场及猪场等一线实验室使用。%Swine streptococosis is caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2,which is one of the important zoonosis diseases with characteristics of high infection and high mortality rate. In order to strengthen the spot inspection of the Streptococcus suis serotype 2 carried by animal-derived products at each entry-exit port,a loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP)method was established. Then its specificity,sensitivity and stability were tested. With the entry of SYBR Green into LAMP reaction products,the accuracy of the testing results judged by naked eyes has been enhanced,and the objective of visibility of result judging was realized. The LAMP method would offer help to the front-line laboratories,such as in the goods inspection spots belonging to the entry-exit ports and the pig farms.

  1. Streptococcus suis small RNA rss04 contributes to the induction of meningitis by regulating capsule synthesis and by inducing biofilm formation in a mouse infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Genhui; Tang, Huanyu; Zhang, Shouming; Ren, Haiyan; Dai, Jiao; Lai, Liying; Lu, Chengping; Yao, Huochun; Fan, Hongjie; Wu, Zongfu

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus suis (SS) is an important pathogen for pigs, and it is also considered as a zoonotic agent for humans. Meningitis is one of the most common features of the infection caused by SS, but little is known about the mechanisms of SS meningitis. Recent studies have revealed that small RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of the virulence in several bacteria. In the previous study, we reported that SS sRNA rss04 was up-regulated in pig cerebrospinal fluid and contributes to SS virulence in a zebrafish infection model. Here, we show that rss04 facilitates SS invasion of mouse brain and lung in vivo. Label-free quantitation mass spectrometry analysis revealed that rss04 regulates transcriptional regulator CcpA and several virulence factors including LuxS. Transmission electron microscope and Dot-blot analyses indicated that rss04 represses capsular polysaccharide (CPS) production, which in turn facilitates SS adherence and invasion of mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells bEnd.3 in vitro and activates the mRNA expression of TLR2, CCL2, IL-6 and TNF-α in mouse brain in vivo at 12h post-infection. In addition, rss04 positively regulates SS biofilm formation. Survival analysis of infected mice showed that biofilm state in brain contributes to SS virulence by intracranial subarachnoidal route of infection. Together, our data reveal that SS sRNA rss04 contributes to the induction of meningitis by regulating the CPS synthesis and by inducing biofilm formation, thereby increasing the virulence in a mouse infection model. To our knowledge, rss04 represents the first bacterial sRNA that plays definitive roles in bacterial meningitis.

  2. Research Progress of Streptococcus suis Type 2, One Newly Found Zoonosis Pathogen%人畜共患新病原--猪链球菌2型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国英; 李敏; 向华

    2005-01-01

    @@ 猪链球菌2型(Streptococcus suis type 2,SS2)又称猪链球菌血清2型或荚膜2型猪链球菌,分类上属于兰氏(Lancefield)R群[1].1954年首先在英国从暴发败血症、脑膜炎和关节炎的乳猪中分离到,1968年Elliot按荚膜分类法将其命名为荚膜2型猪链球菌.

  3. 广东部分地区猪场猪链球菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of Streptococcus suis in some farms in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国开; 李婉雁; 臧莹安

    2010-01-01

    对从广东省广州、韶关、增城、湛江、东莞、四会、河源、汕头等地规模猪场疑似猪链球菌病病猪中分离的细菌进行了鉴定,经纯化培养、菌落形态观察、革兰氏染色镜检及生化试验等传统检测方法并结合PCR检测,将20株分离菌株鉴定为猪链球菌(Streptococcus suis).

  4. Outbreak of neurological disorder associated with Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreak of neurological disorder associated with Streptococcus suis in a pig ... Kenya was referred to Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and ... was a hemolytic S. suis that was isolated from meninges and lungs tissues.

  5. Detection of Streptococcus suis by in situ hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence, and peroxidase-antiperoxidase assays in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Feenstra, Anne Avlund; Tegtmeier, Conny

    2000-01-01

    methods, an indirect immunofluorescence assay and a peroxidase-antiperoxidase method, using polyclonal antibodies also were developed. The specificity of the oligonucleotide probe was examined by whole-cell and dot-blot hybridization against reference strains of the 35 serotypes of S. suis and other...... closely related streptococci and other bacteria commonly isolated from pigs. The probe was specific for S, suis serotypes 1-31. The specificity of the polyclonal antibodies, which has previously been evaluated for use in diagnostic bacteriology for typing of serotype 2, was further evaluated...... in experimentally infected murine tissue with pure culture of different serotypes of S. suis, related streptococci, and other bacteria commonly found in pigs. The polyclonal antibodies against S. suis serotype 2 cross-reacted with serotypes 1 and 1/2 in these assays. The in situ hybridization...

  6. hsdS, Belonging to the Type I Restriction-Modification System, Contributes to the Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Survival Ability in Phagocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Ping; Li, Weiyi; Liu, Rui; Tang, Jinsheng; Fan, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic agent in swine and humans. Anti-phagocytosis and survival in phagocytic cells and whole blood is essential for bacteria to be pathogenic. In this study, the host specificity determinant specificity subunit (coded by hsdS) of the Type I Restriction-Modification system and two peptidoglycan-binding proteins (coded by lysM and lysM′, respectively), which were simultaneously found to be subjected to transcript-level influence by hsdS, were identified to facilitate the anti-phagocytosis of SS2 to a microglia cell line BV2. Furthermore, they significantly enhanced its survival in BV2, whole blood, and a peroxidation environment (H2O2) (p < 0.05), yet not in the acidic condition based on statistical analysis of the characteristic differences between gene mutants and wild-type SS2. In contrast, another specificity subunit, coded by hsdS′, that belonged to the same Type I Restriction-Modification system, only significantly reduced the survival ability of SS2 in the acidic condition when in the form of a gene-deleted mutant (p < 0.05), but it did not significantly influence the survival ability in other conditions mentioned above or have enhanced anti-phagocytosis action when compared with wild-type SS2. In addition, the mutation of hsdS significantly enhanced the secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α by BV2 with SS2 incubation (p < 0.05). The SS2 was tested, and it failed to stimulate BV2 to produce IFN-γ. These results demonstrated that hsdS contributed to bacterial anti-phagocytosis and survival in adverse host environments through positively impacting the transcription of two peptidoglycan-binding protein genes, enhancing resistance to reactive oxygen species, and reducing the secretion of TNF-α and nitric oxide by phagocytes. These findings revealed new mechanisms of SS2 pathogenesis. PMID:28848531

  7. hsdS, Belonging to the Type I Restriction-Modification System, Contributes to the Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Survival Ability in Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 is an important zoonotic agent in swine and humans. Anti-phagocytosis and survival in phagocytic cells and whole blood is essential for bacteria to be pathogenic. In this study, the host specificity determinant specificity subunit (coded by hsdS of the Type I Restriction-Modification system and two peptidoglycan-binding proteins (coded by lysM and lysM′, respectively, which were simultaneously found to be subjected to transcript-level influence by hsdS, were identified to facilitate the anti-phagocytosis of SS2 to a microglia cell line BV2. Furthermore, they significantly enhanced its survival in BV2, whole blood, and a peroxidation environment (H2O2 (p < 0.05, yet not in the acidic condition based on statistical analysis of the characteristic differences between gene mutants and wild-type SS2. In contrast, another specificity subunit, coded by hsdS′, that belonged to the same Type I Restriction-Modification system, only significantly reduced the survival ability of SS2 in the acidic condition when in the form of a gene-deleted mutant (p < 0.05, but it did not significantly influence the survival ability in other conditions mentioned above or have enhanced anti-phagocytosis action when compared with wild-type SS2. In addition, the mutation of hsdS significantly enhanced the secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α by BV2 with SS2 incubation (p < 0.05. The SS2 was tested, and it failed to stimulate BV2 to produce IFN-γ. These results demonstrated that hsdS contributed to bacterial anti-phagocytosis and survival in adverse host environments through positively impacting the transcription of two peptidoglycan-binding protein genes, enhancing resistance to reactive oxygen species, and reducing the secretion of TNF-α and nitric oxide by phagocytes. These findings revealed new mechanisms of SS2 pathogenesis.

  8. Identification and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis of 2 Streptococcus suis strains isolated in Changsha City%猪链球菌长沙分离株的鉴定与16S rRNA系统进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏良; 欧新华; 杨柳青; 张如胜; 刘如春; 陈田木; 李亚曼; 孙边成

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify 2 strains of Streptococcus suis isolated in Changsha City and elucidate their phylogenetic relationship through the 16S rRNA . The 16S rRNA of 2 strains was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) through universal primer of 16S rRNA . The products of 16S rRNA of 2 strains were obtained successfully with length about 1 500 bp. The products were sequenced successfully then the sequences were submitted to GenBank . And the sequences were compared with related sequence through online BLAST in NCBI , showing the 2 strains of Streptococcus suis were Streptococcus suis type 2 . The identification result through the 16S rRNA was consistent with traditional method . Then the phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA was constructed through the Mege 4.0 software. The phylogenetic tree showed that the 2 strains of Streptococcus suis were at the same evolutionary branch with most of Streptococcus suis type 2 and had the nearest phylogenetic relationship with Streptococcus suis 05ZYH33 in Sichuan Province . In conclusion , Streptococcus suis could be quickly and accurately identified through the 16S rRNA and this method could be applied in rapid detection . The 2 strains of Streptococcus suis isolated in Changsha City were Streptococcus suis type 2 and was not variable in 16S rRNA gene.%目的 对2株猪链球菌(Streptococcus suis,SS)长沙分离株进行分离培养和分子鉴定,并对其16S rRNA基因进行测序,阐明其系统进化关系.方法 利用分离培养法对2株 SS进行分离鉴定,同时对分离株16S rRNA 基因进行PCR扩增和核苷酸序列测定,将测序结果提交GenBank,通过在线Blast同源性分析进行菌株鉴定,并与传统培养鉴定方法进行比较,利用Mega4.0软件构建SS长沙分离株系统进化树.结果 成功扩增出2株菌的目的 片段,通过测序后Blast同源性分析,证实2株菌株均为SS,且与传统鉴定方法结果一致,进化树显示长沙2株SS和国内外2型位于同

  9. 猪链球菌脉冲场凝胶电泳分析方法的建立%Development of a protocol on pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis for Streptococcus suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽丽; 赵爱兰; 徐建国; 叶长芸; 许彦梅; 崔志刚; 景怀琦; 金东; 杜华茂; 张守印; 白雪梅

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop a PFGE protocol for Streptococcus suis.Methods We developed and optimized a PFGE protocol for S.suis,in terms of plug preparation,choice of restriction endonucleases and optimized electrophoresis parameters.By analyzing the genome sequences of S.suis P1/7 with Mapdraw of DNAStar.we found three restriction enzymes,Swa Ⅰ,Sma Ⅰ and Apa Ⅰ,were more suitable than others.Results Analysis of 100 isolates of S.suis including 34 of 35 serotypes identified,59,53 and 43 patterns were obtained from Swa Ⅰ,Sma Ⅰ and Apa Ⅰ restriction,respectively.The enzyme Swa Ⅰ had the greatest power for discrimination ability.Conclusion By optimization of the protocol at various conditions,a rapid,reproducible,economic and practical PFGE method for S.suis was developed.%目的 建立一种可共享的猪链球菌脉冲场凝胶电泳分析(PFGE)方法.方法 利用PulseNet技术优化猪链球菌PFGE分子分型方法,提出新的分析方案,包括胶块的制备、内切酶的选择、电泳条件等.利用DNAStar的Mapdraw软件对猪链球菌基因组序列进行分析,发现在242种内切酶中,Swa Ⅰ、Sma Ⅰ、Apa Ⅰ种酶比较适合.结果 通过对34个血清型共100株菌的分析,发现使用Swa Ⅰ可获得59种带型,使用Sma Ⅰ可获得53种带型,使用Apa Ⅰ可获得43种带型.其中以Swa Ⅰ的分辨率最好.结论 提出猪链球菌的Swa Ⅰ PFGE分析方法,并对条件进行优化,较原方法所需时间短、图像清晰,更具有可重复性,基本具备推广的条件.

  10. A novel pro-inflammatory protein of Streptococcus suis 2 induces the Toll-like receptor 2-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages via activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Yujie; Yan, Shuxian; Liu, Jiantao; Xu, Zhongmin; Yu, Junping; Song, Yajing; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis 2 is an important swine pathogen and an emergent zoonotic pathogen. Excessive inflammation caused by S. suis is responsible for the high levels of early mortality observed in septic shock-like syndrome cases. However, the mechanisms through which S. suis 2 (SS2) causes excessive inflammation remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to identify novel pro-inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the development of therapies against SS2 infection. In this study, the novel pro-inflammatory protein HP0459, which was encoded by the SSUSC84_0459 gene, was discovered. The stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with recombinant HP0459 protein induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, MCP-1 and TNF-α). Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, the isogenic knockout of HP0459 in SS2 led to reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages and in vivo. The pro-inflammatory activity of HP0459 was significantly reduced by an antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in RAW264.7 macrophages and was lower in TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) macrophages than in WT macrophages. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways significantly decreased the HP0459-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and a western blot assay showed that HP0459 stimulation induced the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that HP0459 is a novel pro-inflammatory mediator of SS2 and induces TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory activity in RAW264.7 macrophages through the ERK1/2 pathway.

  11. Multiple-class antimicrobial resistance surveillance in swine Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis isolates from Ontario and the impact of the 2004-2006 Porcine Circovirus type-2 Associated Disease outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K; Pearl, David L; Reid-Smith, Richard; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; Fairles, Jim; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this work was to describe trends in multiple-class antimicrobial resistance present in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis from Ontario swine 1998-2010. Temporal changes in multiple-class resistance varied by the pathogens examined; significant yearly changes were apparent for the E. coli and P. multocida data. Although not present in the E. coli data, significant increases in multiple-class resistance within P. multocida isolates occurred from 2003 to 2005, coinciding with the expected increase in antimicrobials used to treat clinical signs of Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) before it was confirmed. Prospective temporal scan statistics for multiple-class resistance suggest that significant clusters of increased resistance may have been found in the spring of 2004; months before the identification of the PCVAD outbreak in the fall of 2004. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 猪链球菌核酸检测量值溯源研究及方法评估%Assessment of traceability measurement for Streptococcus suis nucleic acid detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婷婷; 王复甦; 占利; 程苏云; 朱水荣; 徐宝祥

    2011-01-01

    针对病原微生物检测中急需解决的计量标准和量值溯源问题,建立猪链球菌核酸量值荧光定量PCR方法,研制猪链核酸检测标准物质,探索等效一致的核酸测量技术。方法根据已报告的DNA序列设计并合成种特异性16S rRNA引物,建立荧光定量PCR方法,摸索最佳上、下游引物配比浓度,利用已知核酸浓度的标准品作标准曲线并获得Ct值与样本起始拷贝数的关系,对方法的特异性、灵敏度、稳定性和不确定性进行评估,并进行DNA标准品效期实验。结果建立的猪链球菌DNA实时定量PCR方法,最佳引物浓度为上游0.6μmol/L,下游0.3μmol/L。方法的灵敏度为18.6 DNA拷贝数,DNA最佳检出浓度为1.86× 102~1.86× 104拷贝/10 μL反应体系。Ct值只与模板的DNA起始浓度有关(F= 597.60,P<0.01),与不同的实验时间及实验人员(F=0.60、1.90,P>0.05)无关。Ct值的不确定度为0.46%~5.40%。DNA标准品4℃可保存半年以上,而-60℃保存则可达1年以上。结论建立的荧光定量PCR方法特异性及稳定性良好,可用于猪链球菌核酸量值测定;制备的核酸标准物质具备国际计量标准,且稳定性好,可作为猪链球菌核酸检测的量值溯源和传递示范的标准物质。%Objective By establishing quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay for Streptococcus suis DNA detection and preparing reference materials in order to research the measurement traceability technology and metrological standard to apply on pathogenic microbes nucleic acid inspection. Methods According to reported Streptococcus suis DNA sequence,16S rRNA specific primers were designed and synthesized and the concentration ratio of forward to reverse primer was tested and employed for QPCR. A standard curve was drawn according as the concentration of reference DNA materials. From there, the relation between Ct (Cycle threshold) value and sample DNA copies was demonstrated

  13. Development of live attenuated sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae polyvalent vaccines to protect Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  14. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  15. 20味中草药与抗生素联用对猪源链球菌体外抑菌作用的分析%Antibacterial Effect of Combination of Twenty Chinese Herbs with Ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus suis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立杰; 赵晴; 宋晓言; 刘树明; 马红霞

    2014-01-01

    To observe the antibacterial effect in vitro of Chinese medicine herbs combined with antibiotics against Streptococcus suis.Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of water extract and alcohol extract of twenty Chinese herbs against Streptococcus suis in vitro were determined by tube two-double dilution method. Fractional inhibitory concentrations ( FIC ) of water extract and alcohol extract of twenty medicine herbs combined with antibiotics against Streptococcus suis were determined by constant checkerboard dilution method. The results showed that water extract and alcohol extract of twenty medicine herbs have antibactierial effect against Streptococcus suis in certain extent. It ’s shown that some extracts such as alcohol extract of Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim have strong antibactierial effect on Streptococcus suis in vitro. The antibactierial effect of some extracts such as water extract of Patrinia were low on Streptococcus suis in vitro. Inhibitory bacterium additive effect was existed in the alcohol extract of Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim, alcohol extract of smoked plum and water extract of smoked plum combined with ciprofloxacin. Inhibitory bacterium unrelated effect was existed in some extracts such as alcohol extract of Isatidis Radix combined with ciprofloxacin.%为观察中草药与抗生素联用对猪源链球菌的体外抑菌效果,采用试管二倍稀释法测定20味中草药水提物、醇提物的最低抑菌浓度( MIC),用常量棋盘稀释法测定20味中草药水提物、醇提物与抗生素联用对猪源链球菌的部分抑菌浓度( FIC)。结果显示,所选20味中草药的水提物、醇提物对猪源链球菌均具有一定的抑菌作用,瓜蒌醇提物等对猪源链球菌的体外抑菌作用较强;败酱草水提物等对猪源链球菌的体外抑菌作用较弱。瓜蒌醇提物、乌梅醇提物、乌梅水提物与环丙沙星联合用药的抑菌作用表现为相加作用,板蓝根醇提物等与

  16. 猪链球菌2型毒力因子与MLST分型分析%Analysis of Virulence Factors and Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme of Streptococcus Suis Serotype 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楷宬; 陈继明; 黄保续

    2016-01-01

    To understand the characterization of virulence factors and multilocus sequence typing scheme ofStreptococ-cus suis serotype 2,22Streptococcus suis serotype 2 isolates from Sichuan,Chongqing and Shandong were detected in the virulence factors and multilocus sequence typing scheme analysis. The results showed that 78%(17/22)isolates were high virulent withsly+mrp+epf+ genotype. Only 5 strains isolated from Shandong were low virulent. 89% isolates from Sichuan and Chongqing were high virulent ST7 type,but the isolates from Shandong were all lower virulent ST1 type. Comprehensive analysis of the research results and the occurrence situation of swine streptococcsis showed that the viru-lence factors and multilocus sequence typing scheme were related to the pathogenicity ofStreptococcus suis serotype 2.%为了解我国猪链球菌2型毒力因子和MLST型的特点,对四川、重庆和山东等地的22株猪链球菌2型进行毒力因子检测和ST型分析。结果显示,78%(17/22)的分离株为sly+ mrp+epf+基因型的强毒株,仅山东省的5株分离株为弱毒力型。四川省和重庆市89%(15/17)的分离株为毒力较强的ST7型,而山东省的分离株均为毒力稍弱的ST1型。结合这些地区的猪链球菌病发病情况,分析提示猪链球菌2型的毒力因子和ST分型与菌株的致病性有一定的相关性。

  17. Detection of MRP of Streptococcus Suis Type 2 by PCR%检测猪链球菌2型的溶菌酶释放蛋白(MRP)的PCR方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪艳秀; 何孔旺; 王继春; 何家惠; 还红华; 陆承平; 姚火春

    2001-01-01

    A PCR assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of MRP of Streptococcus suis type 2 was developed.The PCR primers based on the MRP gene of S.suis type 2 could extend a 885bp PCR product.With Xba I digestion,the PCR product could produce a 578bp and a 307bp DNA fragment as expected.Using the same pairs no PCR product was detected from S.equisimilis,E.rhusiopathiae,P.pneumotropica, and M.hyopneumoniae.The PCR could detect 100 bacteria.Of 9 strains of S. Suis type 2 isolated from diseased pigs,8 were positive.Of 15 porcine tonsillar specimens,1 was positive.The results demonstrated that the PCR is a highly specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of MRP from S.suis type 2 and can be used for fast diagnosis and epidemic survey.%根据猪链球菌2型的mrp基因自行设计和合成了一对可扩增长度为885bp目的片段的引物,成功地建立了检测溶菌酶释放蛋白(MRP)的PCR方法。用XbaⅠ内切酶进行酶切,获得了与预期一致的578bp和307bp的2个片段。并进行了PCR的特异性试验和敏感性试验。对马链球菌兽疫亚种、猪丹毒杆菌、猪肺疫巴氏杆菌和猪肺炎支原体的PCR检测结果均呈阴性;检测的敏感度可达100个细菌。另外,对9株从病猪体内分离的猪链球菌2型菌株进行了检测,8株呈阳性;对15份正常屠宰猪扁桃体分离物的检测结果是1份为阳性。结果表明此法特异性和敏感性均很高,可作为MRP快速诊断和流行病学调查的手段。

  18. 猪链球菌对氟喹诺酮类药物的耐药性与靶位突变相关性%Relationship between Fluoroquinolone Resistance and Gene Mutation in streptococcus suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮萍; 马增军; 段玲欣; 刘谢荣; 倪静; 沈建忠

    2011-01-01

    To detect the relationship between fluoroquinolone resistance and gyrA and parC gene mutation in Streptococcus suis. The MIC of 34 strains of Streptococcus suis were determined by microdilution. The genes encoding the quinolone-resistance determining region (QRDRs) of parC and gyrA in fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus suis clinical isolates were identified and sequenced. Ser to Phe and Arg to Leu mutation at position 79 and 87 of the parC gene was detected in fluoroquinolone resistance S. suis, and Arg to Ser, or Ser to Arg mutations at the position 66 or 81 of gyrA gene were detected in 4 highly resistance strains; no amino acid changes in gyrA or parC were detected for 9 fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains, the mutations in both genes was found in the strains with MIC of fluoroquinolone higher than 32μg · L-1. Mutations in parC gene result in low level resistance against fluoroquinolone, and high level resistance is resulted from the mutations in gyrA and parC both genes.%旨在了解猪链球菌对氟喹诺酮类药物耐药性与parC、gyrA基因突变的相关性,通过微量稀释法测定34株猪链球菌对4种氟喹诺酮类药物的MIC值,采用PCR方法扩增并测序分析了临床分离的猪链球菌对氟唪诺酮类约物10株耐药株和9株敏感株的parC和gyrA基因喹诺酮耐药决定区(QRDRs).在氟喹诺酮类药物耐药菌株parC基因QRDRs发生Ser79→Phe、Arg 87→Leu的氨基酸突变,在4株高度耐药菌株gyrA基因QRDRs发生Arg66→Ser,Ser81→Arg氨基酸突变;当菌株对氟喹诺酮类药物敏感时,parC和gyrA基因的QRDR区均未有突变;而当MIC≥32 μg·L-1 时,parC的氨基酸发生了 Ser79→Phe的突变,同时发生gyrA氨基酸Arg66→Ser,Set81→Arg突变.结果表明,猪链球菌对氟喹诺酮类药物低水平类耐药是由parC单一位点突变引起,而高水平耐药是由parC和gyrA双位点突变引起.

  19. 30味中药提取物与环丙沙星联用对猪源链球菌体外抑菌作用研究%Cooperative Effect of Thirty Chinese Herbs Extract in Combination with Ciprofloxacin against on Streptococcus suis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓言; 赵晴; 田立杰; 刘树明; 马红霞

    2014-01-01

    To screen synergistic inhibitory effect of active ingredients from Chinese herbs combined with ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus suis in vitro. Minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) of water exact and alcohol extract from thirty Chinese herbs against streptococcus suis in vitro were determined by two-double dilution method. Fractional inhibitory concentrations ( FIC ) of water exact and alcohol exact from thirty Chinese herbs combined with antibiotics against Streptococcus suis were determined by constant checkerboard dilution method. To track inhibitory effect from Chinese herds with synergistic inhibitory effect combine with ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus suis in vitro by organic extraction method. The results showed that water extract and alcohol extract from thirty medicine herbs have antibactierial effect against streptococcus suis in certain extent. It is showen that some extracts such as alcohol extract , water extract of Eupatorium fortunei Turcz, Coptidis Rhizoma, Aurantii Fructus, Curcumae Radix have stronger antibactierial activity against on Streptococcus suis in vitro. And the antibactierial activity of some extracts such as water extract of Atractylodis Rhizoma have weaker inhibitory effect on streptococcus suis in vitro. Inhibitory bacterium additive effect was existed in the alcohol extract of Eupatorium fortunei Turcz combine with ciprofloxaxin. Inhibitory bacterium additive effect, synergistic inhibitory effect was existed in some extracts such as chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract of alcohol extract from Eupatorium fortune Turcz combined with ciprofloxacin on streptococcus suis in vitro.%为筛选与环丙沙星联用对猪源链球菌具有协同抑菌作用的中药提取物,采用试管二倍稀释法测定30味中药醇提物、水提物的最低抑菌浓度( MIC ),采用棋盘稀释法测定30味中药醇提物、水提物与环丙沙星联用对猪源链球菌的部分抑菌浓度( FIC ),采用有机溶

  20. Advance in Streptococcus suis Serotype 2-host Cells Interaction in Vitro Study%猪链球菌2型与宿主细胞体外相互作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付忠琳; 马世良; 袁媛; 纪颖; 霍春月

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype2 (SS2) is a worldwide causative agent for a variety of infections in pigs and humans, which is also frequently identified as a cause of septicemia and meningitis in humans. The outbreak of SS2 in areas of Sichuan province, China in 2005 and the emerging sporadic cases in recent years brought great threats to the public health and food security . However,the pathogenic mechanism of SS2 hadn't been deeply studied so far. The pathogenesis of SS2 seems to represent a strongly relationship in which bacteria-host interaction. To set up in vitro model in SS2-host cells interaction is of great significance to disclose the pathogenic molecular mechanism. The present researches focusing on SS2-host cells interaction are mainly involved as followings: adherence and invasion of SS2 to epithelial cells or endothelial cells, anti-phagocytic ability of SS2 to phagocytes and the inflammatory response stimulated by SS2. However, compare to other causative streptococcus such as S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae, it's short of uniform standards for some SS2-host cells interaction models and the results may differ depending on the experimental parameter of the infection model that is used. The in vitro study on the SS2-host cells interaction and pathogenic mechanism of SS2 are reviewed in this paper.%猪链球菌2型(Streptococcus suis serotype 2,SS2)是一种世界范围内的引起猪链球菌病的重要的人兽共患病原菌,人感染SS2后多呈现败血症型和脑膜炎型.2005年猪链球菌在我国四川省的感染暴发和近年来不断出现的零散病例给我国的公共卫生和食品安全带来了威胁,但迄今为止,对SS2致病机制研究尚不够深入.SS2的致病过程和宿主细胞相互作用密切相关,SS2-体外宿主细胞相互作用模型的建立对于揭示SS2致病分子机理具有重要的意义.目前的研究报道主要是从猪链球菌黏附与侵袭上皮细胞或内皮细胞、猪链球菌抗吞噬细胞的吞

  1. Monitoring of multiple resistance of Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis strains from clinical isolates%临床分离猪链球菌和副猪嗜血杆菌多重耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡军勇; 汤细彪; 汤电; 刘望宏; 倪德斌; 吴斌

    2012-01-01

    为了解我国规模化猪场链球菌和副猪嗜血杆菌的耐药情况,用纸片扩散法对临床分离的112株猪链球菌和92株副猪嗜血杆菌进行23种药物的敏感性试验.结果表明,猪链球菌对林可胺类、大环内酯类、硝基呋喃类药物的耐药率均在90%以上,对链霉素、庆大霉素、卡那霉素、阿米卡星、多西环素的耐药率在60%~90%之间,而对β-内酰胺类和氟喹诺酮类的耐药率相对较低.副猪嗜血杆菌对四环素耐药率最高(78.3%),对螺旋霉素、复方磺胺甲(嗯)唑、克林霉素、阿米卡星、林可霉素、新霉素的耐药率在50%~70%之间,对头孢类和氟喹诺酮类耐药率相对较低.2种细菌对不同种类药物的敏感性各异,并且多重耐药性严重,主要耐药谱具有多样性.%One hundred and twelve Streptococcus suis and 92 Haemophilus parasuis were isolated from pig farm to investigate susceptibility of the two bacteria strains to 23 antimicrobials by using disk diffusion method. Results showed that for the S. Suis strain,the resistance rates of lincosamtde,macroli-des and nitrofurans were all above 90%,followed by streptomycin,gentamicin,kanamycin,amikacin and doxycycline with the resistance rates ranged from 60% to 90% and resistance rates of β-lactams and quinolones were relatively lower. For the H. Parasuis strain, the resistance rate of tetracycline was the highest (78. 3%), followed by spiramycin, sulfamethoxazole/TMP, clindymycin, lincomycin, amikacin and neomycin varied from 50% to 70% and resistance rates of cephalosporins and quinolones were relatively lower. The susceptibility of the two kinds of bacteria to the antimicrobials were different, multiple resistance was severe and the resistance profiles were various.

  2. 猪链球菌溶血素(SLY)引起血小板聚集活性分析%Activity identification of Streptococcus suis suilysin inducing platelets aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张省委; 刘鹏; 徐茂凯; 尚学义; 郑玉玲; 袁媛; 姜永强

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究重组表达的2型猪链球菌溶血素( SLY)与血小板的相互作用,为临床猪链球菌感染的救治提供理论基础。方法镍柱亲和层析法纯化重组SLY蛋白,光密度法检测其溶血活性,再通过血小板聚集仪和扫描电子显微镜观察SLY蛋白与血小板的相互作用,并研究抗血小板药物阿司匹林对SLY引起的血小板聚集的影响,通过比较野生株05ZYH33和sly基因突变株Δsly对小鼠体内血小板体积和数量的影响,推测SLY蛋白对体内血小板的影响。结果与结论重组SLY蛋白溶血活性为2000 HU,1μg/ml SLY蛋白可引起血小板高度聚集,5 mmol/L阿司匹林可显著抑制聚集,SLY蛋白可引起小鼠体内单个血小板体积增大和血小板数量减少。%Objective To explore the interaction of streptococcus suis serotype 2 recombinant suilysin ( SLY ) with platelets, and provide the theoretical basis for clinic treatment of patients infected with S.suis.Methods The nickel column affinity chromatography was used to purify the recombinant SLY.The hemolytic acivity was identified by optical density before the platelets aggregation induced by a SLY was detected by a platelet aggregometer or electron microscope and the effect of aspirin on platelets aggregation was analyzed.The impact of wild type 05ZYH33 and sly-deficient mutant strainΔSLY on platelets of mice was compared to predict the interaction of the SLY with platelets in vivo.Results and Conclusion Hemolytic activity of recombinant SLY was 2000 hemolytic units( HU) and platelets aggregation was induced at 1 μg/ml.The aggregation can be inhibited by aspirin in 5 mmol/L.SLY can also increase the volume and reduce the amount of platelets in mice.

  3. Streptococcus pyogenes Infection in a Free-Living European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklinos, Lydia H V; Efstratiou, Androulla; Macgregor, Shaheed K; John, Shinto K; Hopkins, Timothy; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, a common pathogen of humans, was isolated from the carcass of a free-living European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) found in northern England in June 2014. The animal had abscessation of the deep right cervical lymph node, mesenteric lymph nodes and liver. The S. pyogenes strain isolated from the lesions, peritoneal and pleural cavities was characterised as emm 28, which can be associated with invasive disease in humans. This is the first known report of S. pyogenes in a hedgehog and in any free-living wild animal that has been confirmed by gene sequencing. As close associations between wild hedgehogs and people in England are common, we hypothesise that this case might have resulted from anthroponotic infection.

  4. 珠江口西岸地区致病性猪链球菌的分离鉴定与血清型分析%Isolation and identification of pathogenic Streptococcus suis and its serotypes analysis in the west coast of Pearl River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李儒曙; 伍时达; 罗宝正; 冷和平; 曾俊霞; 邱民希

    2013-01-01

    To investigate four major serotypes of pathogenic Streptococcus suis in the west coast of Pearl River Estuary,we process a risk evaluation of epidemiology.Tissue samples of suspected pigs infected with Streptococcus suis were collected from 21 scaled pig-farms in the west coast of Pearl River Estuary and nearby,and bacterial isolation and cultivation were con ducted; 168 suspected Streptococcus suis positive strains were conducted for multiple PCR method for the identification and serotype analysis.Results showed that 61 strains of pathogenic Streptococcus suis were identified,including 19 strains of type Ⅱ,3 strains of type Ⅰ,and 2 strains of type Ⅶ,while type u was not detected.The positive rates were 31%,4.9%,3.3%,and 0,respectively.It's indicated that Streptococcussuis is widely spread in the west coast of Pearl River Estuary with the dominating serotype of type Ⅱ,which is a significant risk to animal epidemic prevention and public health.%目的 调查珠江口西岸地区致病性猪链球菌血清型的分布情况.方法 从调查地21个猪场内疑似病猪中采集标本,进行细菌分离培养,对疑似猪链球菌阳性的168个菌株以多重PCR方法鉴定血清型.结果 检测到61株致病性猪链球菌,分布于12个区县,其中2型19株,1型3株,7型2株,阳性率分别为31%、4.9%、3.3%.结论 珠江口西岸地区猪链球菌流行广泛,并以2型流行为主,兼有1型和7型.存在较大的动物疫病和公共卫生风险.

  5. Mutation analysis of induced fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of Streptococcus suis in vitro%人工诱导猪链球菌氟喹诺酮耐药株的靶位突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨菡; 姚杰; 陆承平; 王丽平

    2009-01-01

    To perform a systematic analysis of point mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase genes of Streptococcus suis type 2 strain after in vitro exposure to stepwise increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Four parent strains of S. suis type 2 were chosen for stepwise exposure to increasing levels of enro-floxacin and ciprofloxacin followed by selection of resistant mutants. The QRDRs of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE correlating to mutants with increased MICs were analysed for point mutations. Multiple mutants with significantly increased MICs (128 mg· L~(-1)) were generated from each parent strain. Most of the amino acid substitutions identified were Ser79Phe of ParC, Ser81 Arg of GyrA, Asp315Asn, Ser285Leu, Glu354Lys of GryB and Pro278Ser of ParE, which were consistent to the mechanisms of resistance reported in clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae. However, it has some mutable points Glnll8His of GyrA, Asn297Tyr of ParE as well as the deletions 288 -291 amino acids of GyrB and 62 amino acid of ParC, which haven't been documented and whether these nuleoti-de mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance are not clear. The number of induction/selection cycles required for the emergence of key point mutations in gyrA and parC was variable among strains. The results indicate that stepwise increasing concentration of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin can easily select resistant strains of S. suis.%以4株临床分离的对环丙沙星和恩诺沙星敏感的猪链球菌2型菌株为研究对象,采用体外递增药物浓度的方法分别诱导了其对环丙沙星和恩诺沙星耐药的菌株,按CLSI推荐方法测定了环丙沙星和恩诺沙星对亲本敏感株和诱导耐药株的MIC,测定了亲本株和诱导耐药株的生长曲线,并采用PCR和基因测序的方法分析了诱导耐药株的DNA回旋酶(GyrA和GyrB)和拓扑异构酶Ⅳ(ParC和ParE)

  6. Tracking of chromosome dynamics in live Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals that transcription promotes chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Morten; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2014-03-01

    Chromosome segregation is an essential part of the bacterial cell cycle but is poorly characterized in oval-shaped streptococci. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we have tracked the dynamics of chromosome segregation in live cells of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our observations show that the chromosome segregation process last for two-thirds of the total cell cycle; the origin region segregates rapidly in the early stages of the cell cycle while nucleoid segregation finishes just before cell division. Previously we have demonstrated that the DNA-binding protein ParB and the condensin SMC promote efficient chromosome segregation, likely by an active mechanism. We now show that in the absence of SMC, cell division can occur over the unsegregated chromosomes. However, neither smc nor parB are essential in S. pneumoniae, suggesting the importance of additional mechanisms. Here we have identified the process of transcription as one of these mechanisms important for chromosome segregation in S. pneumoniae. Transcription inhibitors rifampicin and streptolydigin as well as mutants affected in transcription elongation cause chromosome segregation defects. Together, our results highlight the importance of passive (or indirect) processes such as transcription for chromosome segregation in oval-shaped bacteria.

  7. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2013-05-31

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates were tested in 10-12g Nile tilapia by intraperitoneal injection at dose of 2×10(7)CFU/fish, 31 were found to be avirulent to fish. Of the 31 avirulent sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates, 30 provided 75-100% protection to 10-12g Nile tilapia against challenges with a virulent S. agalactiae isolate Sag 50. When the virulence of the 30 sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates was tested in 3-5g Nile tilapia by intraperitoneal injection at dose of 2×10(7)CFU/fish, six were found to be avirulent to 3-5g Nile tilapia. Of the six avirulent sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates, four provided 3-5g Nile tilapia 100% protection against challenges with homologous isolates, including Sag 97-spar isolate that was non-hemolytic. However, Sag 97-spar failed to provide broad cross-protection against challenges with heterologous isolates. When Nile tilapia was vaccinated with a polyvalent vaccine consisting of 30 sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates at dose of 2×10(6)CFU/fish, the polyvalent vaccine provided significant (P<0.001) protection to both 3-5g and 15-20g Nile tilapia against challenges with 30 parent isolates of S. agalactiae. Taken together, our results suggest that a polyvalent vaccine consisting of various strains of S. agalactiae might be essential to provide broader protection to Nile tilapia against infections caused by S. agalactiae.

  8. Expulsion of the swine whipworm, Trichuris suis 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene

    The whipworm of swine, Trichuris suis, is a gastrointestinal nematode that lives attached to the large intestinal mucosa of its host. Except for when infection levels are high, this parasite rarely causes disease in pigs. Nevertheless, increased interest in T. suis has arisen from studies...... demonstrating the potential use of its eggs as immunomodulators, treating patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease and possibly other autoimmune diseases. The immune response induced by T. suis in its host and particularly, the resulting expulsion of worms is the focus of this thesis. Whipworms...

  9. Incidence and duration of group B Streptococcus by serotype among male and female college students living in a single dormitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, Betsy; Gillespie, Brenda; Manning, Shannon D; Howard, Laura J; Tallman, Patricia; Zhang, Lixin; Marrs, Carl F

    2006-03-15

    Group B Streptococcus causes a variety of morbid and sometimes fatal conditions affecting individuals of all age groups. There are nine known serotypes of this Gram-positive coccus but few estimates of the incidence and duration of its colonization and none by serotype in the literature. In 2001, the authors conducted a prospective cohort study among 257 men and women living in a single dormitory in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The 3-week incidence with any serotype was 11.3% (+/-3.9%) among women and 8.8% (+/-3.0%) among men; 3-week incidence rates were highest for serotype V (4.7% for women and 3.5% for men) and type Ia (2.3% for women and 2.4% for men), with no significant differences by gender. The estimated average duration of any group B Streptococcus colonization was longer for women (13.7 weeks) than men (8.5 weeks); serotype Ia was carried an average of 6.5 weeks longer in women, and serotype III was carried 4.9 weeks longer. Colonization with more than one serotype occurred significantly less than would be expected by chance (p < 0.001). Based on the overall incidence, transmission occurred between roommate pairs at the rate expected. Group B Streptococcus colonization is frequent and dynamic, but it is not transmitted by casual contact.

  10. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine for tilapia via continuous passage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L P; Wang, R; Liang, W W; Huang, T; Huang, Y; Luo, F G; Lei, A Y; Chen, M; Gan, X

    2015-08-01

    Fish Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) seriously harms the world's aquaculture industry and causes huge economic losses. This study aimed to develop a potential live attenuated vaccine of S. agalactiae. Pre-screened vaccine candidate strain S. agalactiae HN016 was used as starting material to generate an attenuated strain S. agalactiae YM001 by continuous passage in vitro. The biological characteristics, virulence, and stability of YM001 were detected, and the protective efficacy of YM001 immunization in tilapia was also determined. Our results indicated that the growth, staining, characteristics of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotype, and virulence of YM001 were changed significantly as compared to the parental strain HN016. High doses of YM001 by intraperitoneal (IP) injection (1.0 × 10(9) CFU/fish) and oral gavage (1.0 × 10(10) CFU/fish) respectively did not cause any mortality and morbidity in tilapia. The relative percent survivals (RPSs) of fishes immunized with YM001 (1.0 × 10(8) CFU/fish, one time) via injection, immersion, and oral administration were 96.88, 67.22, and 71.81%, respectively, at 15 days, and 93.61, 60.56, and 53.16%, respectively, at 30 days. In all tests with 1-3 times of immunization in tilapia, the dosages at 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) CFU/fish displayed the similar best results, whereas the immunoprotection of the dosages at 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(7) CFU/fish declined significantly (P 0.05). The level of protective antibody elicited by oral immunization was significantly higher compared to that of the control group (P < 0.01), and the antibody reached their maximum levels 14-21 days after the immunization but decreased significantly after 28 days of vaccination. YM001 bacteria were isolated from the brain, liver, kidney, and spleen tissues of fish after oral immunization and the bacteria existed for the longest time in the spleen (up to 15 days). Taken together, this study obtained a safe, stable, and highly

  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae and reactive oxygen species : an unusual approach to living with radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesilkaya, Hasan; Andisi, Vahid Farshchi; Andrew, Peter W.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, an aerotolerant anaerobe, is an important human pathogen that regularly encounters toxic oxygen radicals from the atmosphere and from the host metabolism and immune system. Additionally, S. pneumoniae produces large amounts of H2O2 as a byproduct of its metabolism, which

  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae and reactive oxygen species : an unusual approach to living with radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesilkaya, Hasan; Andisi, Vahid Farshchi; Andrew, Peter W.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, an aerotolerant anaerobe, is an important human pathogen that regularly encounters toxic oxygen radicals from the atmosphere and from the host metabolism and immune system. Additionally, S. pneumoniae produces large amounts of H2O2 as a byproduct of its metabolism, which co

  13. Sub-MICs of Azithromycin Decrease Biofilm Formation of S. suis and Increase Capsular Polysaccharide Content of S. suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbei Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available S. suis (Streptococcus suis caused serious disease symptoms in humans and pigs. S. suis is able to form thick biofilms and this increases the difficulty of treatment. After growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin, 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, or 1/8 MIC of azithromycin, biofilm formation of S. suis dose-dependently decreased in the present study. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the obvious effect of azithromycin against biofilm formation of S. suis. Especially, at two different conditions (1/2 MIC of azithromycin nontreated cells and treated cells, we carried out comparative proteomic analyses of cells by using iTRAQ technology. Finally, the results revealed the existence of 19 proteins of varying amounts. Interestingly, several cell surface proteins (such as ABC superfamily ATP binding cassette transporter (G7SD52, CpsR (K0FG35, Cps1/2H (G8DTL7, CPS16F (E9NQ13, Putative uncharacterized protein (G7SER0, NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G5L259, Putative uncharacterized protein (G7S2D6, Amino acid permease (B0M0G6 and NsuB (G5L351 were found to be implicated in biofilm formation. More importantly, we also found that azithromycin affected expression of the genes cps1/2H, cpsR and cps16F. Especially, after growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin and 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, the capsular polysaccharide (CP content of S. suis was significantly higher.

  14. 猪链球菌细胞壁蛋白SSU05_0272的表达、纯化及生物活性分析%Expression, purification and biological activity analysis of Streptococcus suis cell wall protein SSU05_0272

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈哲; 郑玉玲; 郝淮杰; 律清宇; 任志强; 王涛; 姜永强; 吕淑霞

    2012-01-01

    In order to prepare recombinant Streptococcus suis, China cell zvall protein SSL/05_0272 and assess its functions on the regulation of cylokines, SSL/05_0272 gene was amplified by using the genome of S. Suis 05ZYH33 and cloned to the expression plasmid pET28a. The recombinant protein was induced with 1 mM IPTG to express in E. Coli BL21 and purified by nickel affinity chromatography and HiTrap Q HP chromatography in turn. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the purify of the recombinant protein was up to 90%. The purified protein was then treated with Triton X-114 to remove the contamination of endotoxin. Then, the human brain microvascular endothelial cell hCMEC/D3 was treated by SSU05_0272 for different time and tested the expression of cytokines by real-time PCR. Real-time PCR assay indicated SSU05_0272 could up-regulate the expression of several cytokine such as IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β and down-regulate the expression of IL-12P40. As an important cell wall protein of S. Suis, SSU05_0272 might contribute to the inflammation responses induced by S. Suis.%目的 制备获得高纯度的重组SSU05_0272蛋白,并研究其对细胞因子的调控.方法 以05ZYH33基因组为模版,PCR扩增SSU05_0272基因,构建表达质粒,转化至大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中并诱导表达.上清表达蛋白先后经过镍亲和层析和离子交换层析方法 进行纯化.实时定量PCR方法 检测纯化后的SSU05_0272蛋白与人脑微血管内皮细胞作用后其细胞因子的转录水平变化.结果 制备的SSU05_0272蛋白具有较高的纯度,RT-PCR结果 显示,SSU05_0272蛋白与人脑微血管内皮细胞作用后能上调IL-6、IL-8、TNF-α、IL-1β的表达,下调IL-12P40的表达.结论 SSU05_0272蛋白能够调控促炎症细胞因子和趋化因子转录水平变化,提示其在猪链球菌致炎症反应中起重要作用.

  15. Streptococcus iniae M-Like Protein Contributes to Virulence in Fish and Is a Target for Live Attenuated Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jeffrey B.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Vicknair, Mike R.; Nizet, Victor; Buchanan, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Background Streptococcus iniae is a significant pathogen in finfish aquaculture, though knowledge of virulence determinants is lacking. Through pyrosequencing of the S. iniae genome we have identified two gene homologues to classical surface-anchored streptococcal virulence factors: M-like protein (simA) and C5a peptidase (scpI). Methodology/Principal Findings S. iniae possesses a Mga-like locus containing simA and a divergently transcribed putative mga-like regulatory gene, mgx. In contrast to the Mga locus of group A Streptococcus (GAS, S. pyogenes), scpI is located distally in the chromosome. Comparative sequence analysis of the Mgx locus revealed only one significant variant, a strain with an insertion frameshift mutation in simA and a deletion mutation in a region downstream of mgx, generating an ORF which may encode a second putative mga-like gene, mgx2. Allelic exchange mutagenesis of simA and scpI was employed to investigate the potential role of these genes in S. iniae virulence. Our hybrid striped bass (HSB) and zebrafish models of infection revealed that M-like protein contributes significantly to S. iniae pathogenesis whereas C5a peptidase-like protein does not. Further, in vitro cell-based analyses indicate that SiMA, like other M family proteins, contributes to cellular adherence and invasion and provides resistance to phagocytic killing. Attenuation in our virulence models was also observed in the S. iniae isolate possessing a natural simA mutation. Vaccination of HSB with the ΔsimA mutant provided 100% protection against subsequent challenge with a lethal dose of wild-type (WT) S. iniae after 1,400 degree days, and shows promise as a target for live attenuated vaccine development. Conclusions/Significance Analysis of M-like protein and C5a peptidase through allelic replacement revealed that M-like protein plays a significant role in S. iniae virulence, and the Mga-like locus, which may regulate expression of this gene, has an unusual arrangement

  16. Streptococcus iniae M-like protein contributes to virulence in fish and is a target for live attenuated vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Locke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus iniae is a significant pathogen in finfish aquaculture, though knowledge of virulence determinants is lacking. Through pyrosequencing of the S. iniae genome we have identified two gene homologues to classical surface-anchored streptococcal virulence factors: M-like protein (simA and C5a peptidase (scpI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. iniae possesses a Mga-like locus containing simA and a divergently transcribed putative mga-like regulatory gene, mgx. In contrast to the Mga locus of group A Streptococcus (GAS, S. pyogenes, scpI is located distally in the chromosome. Comparative sequence analysis of the Mgx locus revealed only one significant variant, a strain with an insertion frameshift mutation in simA and a deletion mutation in a region downstream of mgx, generating an ORF which may encode a second putative mga-like gene, mgx2. Allelic exchange mutagenesis of simA and scpI was employed to investigate the potential role of these genes in S. iniae virulence. Our hybrid striped bass (HSB and zebrafish models of infection revealed that M-like protein contributes significantly to S. iniae pathogenesis whereas C5a peptidase-like protein does not. Further, in vitro cell-based analyses indicate that SiMA, like other M family proteins, contributes to cellular adherence and invasion and provides resistance to phagocytic killing. Attenuation in our virulence models was also observed in the S. iniae isolate possessing a natural simA mutation. Vaccination of HSB with the Delta simA mutant provided 100% protection against subsequent challenge with a lethal dose of wild-type (WT S. iniae after 1,400 degree days, and shows promise as a target for live attenuated vaccine development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of M-like protein and C5a peptidase through allelic replacement revealed that M-like protein plays a significant role in S. iniae virulence, and the Mga-like locus, which may regulate expression of this gene, has an

  17. Research advances in clinical laboratory diagnosis of Streptococcus suis infection%人猪链球菌感染的临床实验室诊断研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海珠; 袁晓明

    2016-01-01

    猪链球菌(S.suis)是一种重要的人兽共患病原菌,可感染人并导致严重的脑膜炎、败血症,甚至引起死亡.自1968年国际首次发现了2型猪链球菌引起人类严重感染的病例以来,国内外又有诸多相关报道.人类在感染该菌的早期并无特异性表现,但病情进展迅速,若不及时诊断并予以干预,死亡率较高.2005年6月至8月在四川省资阳、内江等地区相继暴发人感染猪链球菌病疫情,广泛引起了国内外的关注.由于S.suis不仅给养猪业造成很大威胁,而且严重危害公共卫生安全,对该菌进行准确的早期诊断是控制猪链球菌病流行的关键.目前,针对该病原体的常见实验室检测方法包括微生物检测法、免疫学检测法、分子生物学检测法及动物实验法等.本文将就人感染S.suis的实验室诊断研究进展做一简要综述.

  18. Tracking of chromosome dynamics in live Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals that transcription promotes chromosome segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, Morten; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome segregation is an essential part of the bacterial cell cycle but is poorly characterized in oval-shaped streptococci. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we have tracked the dynamics of chromosome segregation in live cells of the

  19. 猪链球菌2型血清混浊因子基因的鉴定及其结构特征分析%Identification and Structure Features of Opacity Factor Genes from Two Streptococcus suis 2 Strains Originated from China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯亚莉; 冉雪琴; 王嘉福; 钱龙

    2012-01-01

    猪链球菌是猪的主要病原,也可导致人感染,其致病机理尚未明确.作者设计了1对特异性引物,采用特异性PCR从2株猪链球菌血清2型606中国分离株和607日本分离株的基因组中,分离出2种血清混浊因子(of)基因,全长3 016 bp,编码938个氨基酸,其中日本分离株607的ofs基因序列与已知基因完全相同.中国分离株606的ofs基因与已知基因相差7个碱基,导致3个氨基酸替换,其中1个突变(Asp353Gly)位于蛋白的N端功能区,可能影响其血清混浊功能;另外2个氨基酸突变位于蛋白的C端重复区内.从2种OFS蛋白中,找出了细菌黏附因子共有的结构特征,2种OFS蛋白C端区含有保守的LPXTG结构,使OFS蛋白可固定于细菌的表面,但其中的3个重复序列与纤黏蛋白结合蛋白A等的相似性很低,两种OFS蛋白可能通过特殊的途径协助猪链球菌的黏附.猪链球菌ofs基因中重复序列和突变使得编码的蛋白表现出丰富的长度多态性.本研究获得的2种OFS属于中等长度的蛋白,均来自强毒力型猪链球菌.这些结果提示菌株606和607携带的ofs基因可能是猪链球菌的毒力基因,对猪链球菌的致病机理及其防治具有重要的意义.%Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen which causes serious inflammation of piglets. It can infect people in contact with diseased pig or its by-products. The mechanisms of S. Suis path-ogenesis are poorly understood. Taking two S. Suis serotype 2 strains 606 isolated from China and 607 from Japan as samples, opacity factor of S. Suis (o/s) genes were amplified from the ge-nomic DNA of these bacteria by PCR method. The ofs genes contained 3 016 bp which encoded for 938 aa based on alignment analysis. The identity of nucleotide sequence of ofs gene from SS2 strain 607 was 100% to the reported SS2 genes while seven nucleotides in ofs of SS2 strain 606 were different and resulted in three amino acids substitution. One of the substitutions

  20. Expression of Streptococcus suis Type 2 Secreted Nuclease A (SsnA),Development of the SsnA-ELISA and Its Application in the Differential Diagnosis%猪链球菌2型分泌核酸酶(SsnA)的表达、ELISA方法建立及其在鉴别诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱剑; 康超; 张安定; 金梅林

    2011-01-01

    猪链球菌2型(Streptococcus suis type 2,SS2)是一种广泛分布的人畜共患病原菌,严重危害着人类健康和养猪业的发展.本试验旨在研究分泌核酸酶基因(SsnA)作为分子诊断标识在对SS2感染的鉴别诊断中所起的作用.作者以SS2-LT菌株基因组DNA为模板,通过PCR扩增SsnA基因片段,将该片段克隆到表达载体pET-28a(+)中,在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中成功表达,获得大小为46 ku的融合蛋白,经SDS-PAGE和Western blot分析表明,重组蛋白质具有抗原反应活性.以纯化的融合蛋白作为包被抗原,建立了SsnA-ELISA鉴别诊断方法.对已知背景的人工感染及疫苗免疫血清和临床血清进行检测,比较感染血清和免疫血清的检测结果,结果发现两者差异显著(P<0.05),表明建立的SsnA-ELISA方法具有良好的检测效果.利用该方法对采集自8个省份的1 446份血清进行检测,显示SS2的阳性率为0%~14.77%,平均阳性率为5.39%.本研究结果表明:猪链球菌2型SsnA可以作为一个良好的鉴别感染的分子诊断标识;对临床血清的检测结果表明感染及流行与气候环境存在明显的关系.%Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is a zoonotic infectious pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases in human health and pig industry. This article aims to study the role of SsnA gene as a molecular diagnosis marker in the differential diagnosis of SS2. SsnA gene was amplified using SS2-LT genome DNA as template and the sequence was then inserted into expression vector pET-28a(+). The plasmid was introduced into E. coli BL21(DE3) for expression and 46 kD recombinant protein was obtained, which had been proved to be immunoreactive by SDSPAGE and Western blotting. An SsnA-ELISA diagnostic method was developed by using the pu rified SsnA fusion protein as coating antigen. The detected results of immune serum and infected serum were compared by using SsnA-ELISA Kit, and the significant difference (P<O. 05

  1. Bioethics and cara sui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2005-01-01

    Cara sui (care of the self) is a guiding thread in Foucault's later writings on ethics. Following Foucault in that inquiry, we are urged beyond our fairly superficial conceptions of consequences, harms, benefits, and the rights of persons, and led to examine ourselves and try to articulate the sense of life that animates ethical reasoning. The result is a nuanced understanding with links to virtue ethics and post-modern approaches to ethics and subjectivity. The approach I have articulated draws on the phenomenology of Levinas and Heidegger, the Virtue ethics of Baier, and the post-structuralist writing of Michel Foucault. The subject is seen as negotiable, embodied, provisional and able to be transformed in a way that denies essentialism about human beings, their moral status, and the idea of the good. The human being emerges as responsible because, properly, responsive to the context of discourse in which morality becomes articulated. When we import this style of thinking into bioethics we find that it reaches beyond issues of policy or right conduct and allows us to use the biomedical sciences and the clinical world to revise and interrogate our understanding of ourselves and the theoretical foundations of health care ethics.

  2. Effect of Ciprofloxacin on the Immune Response of Growing Piglets to Streptococcosis suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Liu-ting; YUAN Zong-hui

    2003-01-01

    24 seven-week-old hybrid healthy pigs (weighted 25.5?.4 kg ) from a source were randomly allotted to four groups (six each): the blank group, the negative group, the positive group and the test group. Pigs in the negative group and the test group were developed into a typical subacute Streptococcosis suis by inoculating subcutaneously 0.45 billion of pure living Streptococcus suis (type C55126) per kilogram body weight. Pigs in the positive group and the test group were intravenously injected ciprofloxacin (5 mg kg1 of BW) for 8 consecutive days (twice daily). Pigs in the blank group and positive group were inoculated with a placebo (0.85% NaCl). Some immunity parameters were tested on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after inoculation. Total leukocytes were counted with microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The effect on the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction of neutrophil was used to determine its phagocytic ability. Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by using the mitogens PHA. The total serum IgG concentration was measured by radial single immunodiffusion. A 50% hemolytic test was used to investigate the complement activity in serum. Whereas, a phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test was used to investigate in vivo immunity. We got the following results: Ciprofloxacin can retard the clinical signs of an increase of leukocyte counts, a large percent of lymphocytes and a relative percentage decrease of neutrophis. Ciprofloxacin could promote nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction by neutrophil. Though there was no obvious difference (P>0.05) between the test group and the negative group, the interaction of both Streptococcosis suis and ciprofloxacin was significantly different(P0.05) between the test group and the blank group. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to PHA was increased in diseased animals after receiving the treatment with ciprofloxacin. Owing to the difference of interaction (P<0.01, on day 21, 28 after

  3. A glimpse of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome from comparative genomics of S. suis 2 Chinese isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Tang, Jiaqi; Dong, Wei;

    2007-01-01

    shock syndrome (STSS), which was originally associated with Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) in Streptococci. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying STSS are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To elucidate the genetic determinants of STSS caused by SS2, whole genome sequencing of 3 different......BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing more than 200 cases of severe human infection worldwide, with the hallmarks of meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, etc. Very recently, SS2 has been recognized as an etiological agent for streptococcal toxic...

  4. Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous Extract Is a Potential Biofilm Inhibitor in S. suis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jingwen; Yang, Yanbei; Wang, Shuai; Gao, Lingfei; Chen, Jianqing; Ren, Yongzhi; Ding, Wenya; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Li, Yanhua

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease symptoms in pigs and humans. Syringa oblata Lindl. distributed in the middle latitudes of Eurasia and North America were proved as the most development potential of Chinese Medicine. In this study, biofilm formation by S. suis decreased after growth with 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC, or 1/8 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the potential effect of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin against biofilm formation by S. suis. Using iTRAQ technology, comparative proteomic analyses was performed at two conditions: 1/2 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract treated and non-treated cells. The results revealed the existence of 28 proteins of varying amounts. We found that the majority of the proteins were related to cell growth and metabolism. We also found that Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous extract affected the synthesis enzymes. In summary, Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract might be used to inhibit the biofilm formation effectively by S. suis, and the active ingredients of the Syringa oblate Lindl. aqueous extract is rutin. The content of rutin is 9.9 ± 0.089 mg/g dry weight. PMID:28194111

  5. 猪链球菌1、7、9型多重PCR诊断方法的建立及初步应用%Establishment and Application of Multiplex PCR Assay for Detection of Streptococcus suis Serotypes 1, 7 and 9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫若潜; 吴志明; 张志凌; 盛敏; 王英华; 拜延阳

    2009-01-01

    为了建立猪链球菌(Streptococcus suis,SS)1、7、9型(SS1、SS7、SS9)的快速鉴别诊断和分型方法,本研究根据Gen-Bank已登录的SSl型特异性的CPS1 Ⅰ基因、7型CPS7H基因、9型CPS9H基因设计引物,以标准SS1、SS7、SS9株基因组DNA为模板,建立了SS1、SS7和SS9的多重PCR检测方法,并进行了特异性、敏感性和重复性试验;利用所建立的多重PCR检测方法对11份猪链球菌的临床分离纯化菌株进行了的应用检测.结果表明,成功建立了SS1、SS7和SS9的多重PCR检测方法,该方法的检测灵敏度可达100 CFU/mL,特异性和重复性好;利用多重PCR检测方法对11份猪链球菌临床分离纯化菌株检测结果表明,11份样品中有3份样品为SS9阳性、2份样品为SS7阳性、1份样品为SS1阳性.本研究为临床上SS1、SS7、SS9的快速鉴别诊断提供了一种新方法.

  6. 猪链球菌2型分离株精氨酸脱亚氨酸酶遗传变异分析%Analysis in Heredity and Variation of the Arginine-deiminase Gene Sequence of Streptococcus suis Serotyp 2 Isolation Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹国友; 孙婕; 陈兰英; 谢朝晖; 王福梅

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to analyze the reason and epidemic trend of Streptococcus suis serotype 2, and provide theoretical basis for preventing and controlling it. According to the sequence of arginine deiminase gene published by the Genbank, The primers was designed for RT-PCR amplification of ADS isolates from Henan obtaining its DNA fragments, which were cloned into pMD18-T vector respectively and sequenced. The sequences of ADS genes were analysed by DNAStar,analysed nucleotide sequence homology and drawed phylogenetic tree. The nuclear acid analysis indicated that the homology was 94.9% to 100% between the isolation strains,the homology was 100% between HN5 and HN6 from the same region,and the homology of nuclear acid sequence was 95.9% to 99.2% between Henan isolation strains and SX332 issued by the GenBank. The homology of ADS gene sequence was higher and genetic relationship was near during prevalence strains in the same region,and it was far in different regions.%为了分析猪链球菌2型(SS2)发病原因、流行趋势,为预防和控制猪链球菌2型提供理论依据,根据GenBank发表的猪链球菌精氨酸脱亚氨酸酶(arginine deiminase,ADS)基因序列,设计并合成引物,采用RT-PCR技术,对阳性病料进行扩增,回收扩增产物并将其克隆人pMD18-T载体中,提取质粒测序.应用DNAStar软件分析核苷酸序列的同源性,并绘制系统进化树.结果显示,分离株HN1-HN8核苷酸的同源性为94.9%~100%,来自同一地区的分离株HN5和HN6同源性为100%,而河南分离株与GenBank发表的SX332同源性为95.9%~99.2%.因此,同一地域分离株间ADS基因序列同源性较高且亲缘关系较近,不同地域则较远.

  7. Construction and characteristic of srtA gene mutant strain of Streptococcus suis 2%猪链球菌2型srtA基因缺失菌株的构建及生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涛; 常海涛; 谭臣; 付婷; 司有辉; 贝为成; 陈焕春

    2009-01-01

    In the present study,srtA gene mutant strain was constructed by using the thermo-sensitive suicide vector pSET4s and confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting.The results showed that the construction of the mutant strain was successful,named SC211.In addition complementation mutant strain was constructed by using the E.coli/Streptococcus shuttle vector pAT18,named SC212.The characteristic of SC211 and SC212 was further researched.The virulence of different strains was determined by animal infection,which demonstrated that the virulence was decreased clearly when the srtA gene knocked out.The virulence of the mutant was restored when strain mediated by plasmid-containing the srtA gene.However,it could not reach the level of the wild type.The hemolytic activity of the srtA gene mutant strain and the complementation strain had no difference when compared with the wild type strain.The adherence to the Hep2 cell of the srtA gene mutant strain degraded obviously,and the adherence to the Hep2 cell of the complementation strain had no obvious difference compared with the wild type.%扩增了srtA基因的上、下游同源臂P1和P2及其全长序列,利用温度敏感型"自杀性"质粒pSET4s构建了重组质粒pSET4s-P1-P2,并将该质粒电转化入野生菌株SS2(SC21)中,通过抗生素和温度双重筛选,得到srtA基因缺失菌株,命名SC211.同时,将srtA基因定向插入穿梭质粒pAT18,构建穿梭质粒pAT18-srtA,并将该质粒电转入srtA基因缺失菌株SC211中,通过抗生素筛选,得到质粒介导的srtA基因互补菌株SC212.通过PCR、South-ern blotting等对缺失突变菌株和互补菌株进行了鉴定.对基因缺失突变菌株和回复菌株传代培养遗传稳定性试验结果显示,缺失突变菌株和互补菌株能够稳定遗传.比较了基因缺失突变菌株、互补菌株及野生菌株的生长特性、溶血活性、细胞粘附特性,结果表明,3个菌株的生长速度、溶血活性没有

  8. Live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis activate the inflammatory response trhough Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in species-specific patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T.H.; Paludan, Søren Riis; Kilian, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    activation by live bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis, the three principal causes of bacterial meningitis, use distinct sets of TLRs to trigger the inflammatory response. Using human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines......, each overexpressing one type of TLR, we found that S. pneumoniae triggered activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB and expression of interleukin-8, only in cells expressing TLR2 or -9. The same response was evoked by H. influenzae in cells expressing TLR2 or -4 and by N....... meningitidis in cells expressing TLR2, -4, or -9. It is interesting that the ability of S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis to activate TLR9 was severely attenuated when bacteria had been heat-inactivated prior to stimulation of the cells. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we blocked TLR2, -4, or -9...

  9. 高致病性2型猪链球菌毒素-抗毒素系统SezAT的鉴定与活性研究%Identification and activity assay of the SezAT toxin-antitoxin system of highly pathogenic Streptococcus suis serotype 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 李明; 钟秋; 赵岩; 饶贤才; 黎庶; 谭银玲; 胡福泉

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对我国高致病性2型猪链球菌05ZYH33基因组的89K毒力岛序列进行生物信息学分析,发现存在一对与化脓链球菌Epsilon-zeta(ε-ζ)同源的Ⅱ型毒素-抗毒素系统(Toxin-antitoxin system,TA)-SezAT,推测该系统具有稳定89K毒力岛使其不易丢失的作用.验证SezAT为有活性的TA系统.[方法]对SezAT进行了生物信息学分析;RT-PCR验证SezAT共转录特性;在大肠杆菌中选择性地诱导表达毒素蛋白SezT和抗毒素蛋白SezA;最后通过同源重组技术敲除SezAT系统.[结果]sezAT由同一操纵子控制,SezT可抑制细菌生长,SezA可中和SezT的毒性作用,同源重组成功获得sezT敲除突变株.[结论]证实SezAT为一对有活性的毒素-抗毒素(TA)系统,为进一步研究SezAT可能发挥稳定89K毒力岛的功能,同时获得89K毒力岛缺失突变株并深入认识89K在我国高致病性SS2中的作用奠定了基础.%[Objective] Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the 89K pathogenicity island(PAI) of highly pathogenic Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) in China encodes a putative type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system named SezAT, which is homologous to the epsilon-zeta system from S. Pyogenes. SezAT is presumed to be requisite for the stability of the 89K PAI in SS2. To confirm the SezAT system is a functional TA system. [Methods] The sequence characteristics of SezAT were subjected to further bioinformatics analysis. RT-PCR was performed to analyze the transcriptions of the sezAT locus and the flanking genes. The SezT toxin and SezA antitoxin proteins were selectively overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Deletion mutagenesis was carried out to obtain a SezAT-deficient mutant. [Results] Bioinformatics analysis and RT-PCR results suggest that sezAT are in the same operon. Overexpression of SezT led to severe growth inhibition of the host bacteria, while this toxicity was counteracted by the expression of SezA. Finally, the toxin-encoding gene sezT was successfully

  10. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  11. Construction of a Streptococcus iniae sortase A mutant and evaluation of its potential as an attenuated modified live vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zou, L L; Li, A X

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus iniae is a major Gram-positive aquatic pathogen, which causes invasive diseases in cultured fish worldwide. The identification of potential virulence determinants of streptococcal infections will help to understand and control this disease, but only a few have been confirmed in S. iniae. Sortase A (srtA) is the key enzyme that anchors pre-mature cell wall-attached proteins to peptidoglycan and it can affect the correct positioning of surface proteins, as well as the course of Gram-positive bacterial infection, thereby making it a potential target in the study of virulence factors and disease control. In this study, the 759 bp srtA gene was cloned from pathogenic S. iniae TBY-1 strain and the mutant strain TBY-1ΔsrtA was constructed via allelic exchange mutagenesis. We found that srtA shares high similarities with sortase A from other Streptococcus spp. Direct survival rate assay and challenge experiments were performed, which showed that the mutant strain TBY-1ΔsrtA had a lower survival capacity in healthy tilapia blood and it was less virulent than the wild type strain in tilapia, thereby indicating that the deletion of sortase A affects the virulence and infectious capacity of S. iniae. The mutant strain TBY-1ΔsrtA was used as a live vaccine, which was administered via intraperitoneal injection, and it provided the relative percent survival value of 95.5% in Nile tilapia, thereby demonstrating its high potential as an effective attenuated live vaccine candidate.

  12. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum Show Different Sensitivity and Accumulation of Fenbendazole, Albendazole and Levamisole In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina V. A.; Nejsum, Peter; Friis, Christian; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    Background The single-dose benzimidazoles used against Trichuris trichiura infections in humans are not satisfactory. Likewise, the benzimidazole, fenbendazole, has varied efficacy against Trichuris suis whereas Oesophagostomum dentatum is highly sensitive to the drug. The reasons for low treatment efficacy of Trichuris spp. infections are not known. Methodology We studied the effect of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole on the motility of T. suis and O. dentatum and measured concentrations of the parent drug compounds and metabolites of the benzimidazoles within worms in vitro. The motility and concentrations of drug compounds within worms were compared between species and the maximum specific binding capacity (Bmax) of T. suis and O. dentatum towards the benzimidazoles was estimated. Comparisons of drug uptake in living and killed worms were made for both species. Principal findings The motility of T. suis was generally less decreased than the motility of O. dentatum when incubated in benzimidazoles, but was more decreased when incubated in levamisole. The Bmax were significantly lower for T. suis (106.6, and 612.7 pmol/mg dry worm tissue) than O. dentatum (395.2, 958.1 pmol/mg dry worm tissue) when incubated for 72 hours in fenbendazole and albendazole respectively. The total drug concentrations (pmol/mg dry worm tissue) were significantly lower within T. suis than O. dentatum whether killed or alive when incubated in all tested drugs (except in living worms exposed to fenbendazole). Relatively high proportions of the anthelmintic inactive metabolite fenbendazole sulphone was measured within T. suis (6–17.2%) as compared to O. dentatum (0.8–0.9%). Conclusion/Significance The general lower sensitivity of T. suis towards BZs in vitro seems to be related to a lower drug uptake. Furthermore, the relatively high occurrence of fenbendazole sulphone suggests a higher detoxifying capacity of T. suis as compared to O. dentatum. PMID:24699263

  13. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum show different sensitivity and accumulation of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina V A Hansen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The single-dose benzimidazoles used against Trichuris trichiura infections in humans are not satisfactory. Likewise, the benzimidazole, fenbendazole, has varied efficacy against Trichuris suis whereas Oesophagostomum dentatum is highly sensitive to the drug. The reasons for low treatment efficacy of Trichuris spp. infections are not known. METHODOLOGY: We studied the effect of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole on the motility of T. suis and O. dentatum and measured concentrations of the parent drug compounds and metabolites of the benzimidazoles within worms in vitro. The motility and concentrations of drug compounds within worms were compared between species and the maximum specific binding capacity (Bmax of T. suis and O. dentatum towards the benzimidazoles was estimated. Comparisons of drug uptake in living and killed worms were made for both species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The motility of T. suis was generally less decreased than the motility of O. dentatum when incubated in benzimidazoles, but was more decreased when incubated in levamisole. The Bmax were significantly lower for T. suis (106.6, and 612.7 pmol/mg dry worm tissue than O. dentatum (395.2, 958.1 pmol/mg dry worm tissue when incubated for 72 hours in fenbendazole and albendazole respectively. The total drug concentrations (pmol/mg dry worm tissue were significantly lower within T. suis than O. dentatum whether killed or alive when incubated in all tested drugs (except in living worms exposed to fenbendazole. Relatively high proportions of the anthelmintic inactive metabolite fenbendazole sulphone was measured within T. suis (6-17.2% as compared to O. dentatum (0.8-0.9%. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The general lower sensitivity of T. suis towards BZs in vitro seems to be related to a lower drug uptake. Furthermore, the relatively high occurrence of fenbendazole sulphone suggests a higher detoxifying capacity of T. suis as compared to O. dentatum.

  14. Actinobaculum suis Detection Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Román Amigo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinobaculum suis is an important agent related to urinary infection in swine females. Due to its fastidious growth characteristics, the isolation of this anaerobic bacterium is difficult, thus impairing the estimation of its prevalence. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the detection and identification of A. suis and then compare these results with traditional isolation methods. Bacterial isolation and PCR were performed on one hundred and ninety-two urine samples from sows and forty-five preputial swabs from boars. The results indicate that this PCR was specific for A. suis, presenting a detection limit between 1.0×101 CFU/mL and 1.0×102 CFU/mL. A. suis frequencies, as measured by PCR, were 8.9% (17/192 in sow urine samples and 82.2% (37/45 in preputial swabs. Assessed using conventional culturing techniques, none of the urine samples were positive for A. suis; however, A. suis was detected in 31.1% (14/45 of the swabs. This PCR technique was shown to be an efficient method for the detection of A. suis in urine and preputial swabs.

  15. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Donati

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C and tetR(C gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11 were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C and tetR(C transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  16. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Balboni, Andrea; Laroucau, Karine; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Borel, Nicole; Morandi, Federico; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C) and tetR(C) gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11) were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C) resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C) and tetR(C) transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  17. A glimpse of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome from comparative genomics of S. suis 2 Chinese isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing more than 200 cases of severe human infection worldwide, with the hallmarks of meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, etc. Very recently, SS2 has been recognized as an etiological agent for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS, which was originally associated with Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS in Streptococci. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying STSS are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To elucidate the genetic determinants of STSS caused by SS2, whole genome sequencing of 3 different Chinese SS2 strains was undertaken. Comparative genomics accompanied by several lines of experiments, including experimental animal infection, PCR assay, and expression analysis, were utilized to further dissect a candidate pathogenicity island (PAI. Here we show, for the first time, a novel molecular insight into Chinese isolates of highly invasive SS2, which caused two large-scale human STSS outbreaks in China. A candidate PAI of approximately 89 kb in length, which is designated 89K and specific for Chinese SS2 virulent isolates, was investigated at the genomic level. It shares the universal properties of PAIs such as distinct GC content, consistent with its pivotal role in STSS and high virulence. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first PAI candidate from S. suis worldwide. Our finding thus sheds light on STSS triggered by SS2 at the genomic level, facilitates further understanding of its pathogenesis and points to directions of development on some effective strategies to combat highly pathogenic SS2 infections.

  18. Quorum-sensing systems LuxS/autoinducer 2 and Com regulate Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilms in a bioreactor with living cultures of human respiratory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jorge E; Howery, Kristen E; Ludewick, Herbert P; Nava, Porfirio; Klugman, Keith P

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae forms organized biofilms in the human upper respiratory tract that may play an essential role in both persistence and acute respiratory infection. However, the production and regulation of biofilms on human cells is not yet fully understood. In this work, we developed a bioreactor with living cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells (HREC) and a continuous flow of nutrients, mimicking the microenvironment of the human respiratory epithelium, to study the production and regulation of S. pneumoniae biofilms (SPB). SPB were also produced under static conditions on immobilized HREC. Our experiments demonstrated that the biomass of SPB increased significantly when grown on HREC compared to the amount on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, pneumococcal strains produced more early biofilms on lung cells than on pharyngeal cells. Utilizing the bioreactor or immobilized human cells, the production of early SPB was found to be regulated by two quorum-sensing systems, Com and LuxS/AI-2, since a mutation in either comC or luxS rendered the pneumococcus unable to produce early biofilms on HREC. Interestingly, while LuxS/autoinducer 2 (AI-2) regulated biofilms on both HREC and abiotic surfaces, Com control was specific for those structures produced on HREC. The biofilm phenotypes of strain D39-derivative ΔcomC and ΔluxS QS mutants were reversed by genetic complementation. Of note, SPB formed on immobilized HREC and incubated under static conditions were completely lysed 24 h postinoculation. Biofilm lysis was also regulated by the Com and LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing systems.

  19. Immunization with the immunodominant Helicobacter suis urease subunit B induces partial protection against H. suis infection in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermoote Miet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter (H. suis is a porcine and human gastric pathogen. Previous studies in mice showed that an H. suis infection does not result in protective immunity, whereas immunization with H. suis whole-cell lysate (lysate protects against a subsequent experimental infection. Therefore, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of H. suis proteins was performed followed by immunoblotting with pooled sera from H. suis- infected mice or mice immunized with lysate. Weak reactivity against H. suis proteins was observed in post-infection sera. Sera from lysate-immunized mice, however, showed immunoreactivity against a total of 19 protein spots which were identified using LC-MS/MS. The H. suis urease subunit B (UreB showed most pronounced reactivity against sera from lysate-immunized mice and was not detected with sera from infected mice. None of the pooled sera detected H. suis neutrophil-activating protein A (NapA. The protective efficacy of intranasal vaccination of BALB/c mice with H. suis UreB and NapA, both recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli (rUreB and rNapA, respectively, was compared with that of H. suis lysate. All vaccines contained choleratoxin as adjuvant. Immunization of mice with rUreB and lysate induced a significant reduction of H. suis colonization compared to non-vaccinated H. suis-infected controls, whereas rNapA had no significant protective effect. Probably, a combination of local Th1 and Th17 responses, complemented by antibody responses play a role in the protective immunity against H. suis infections.

  20. Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enikő; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2014-08-27

    Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs.

  1. Brucella suis-Impaired Specific Recognition of Phagosomes by Lysosomes due to Phagosomal Membrane Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroeni, Aroem; Jouy, Nicolas; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Porte, Françoise

    2001-01-01

    Brucella species are gram-negative, facultatively intracellular bacteria that infect humans and animals. These organisms can survive and replicate within a membrane-bound compartment in phagocytic and nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion has been proposed as a mechanism for intracellular survival in both types of cells. However, the biochemical mechanisms and microbial factors implicated in Brucella maturation are still completely unknown. We developed two different approaches in an attempt to gain further insight into these mechanisms: (i) a fluorescence microscopy analysis of general intracellular trafficking on whole cells in the presence of Brucella and (ii) a flow cytometry analysis of in vitro reconstitution assays showing the interaction between Brucella suis-containing phagosomes and lysosomes. The fluorescence microscopy results revealed that fusion properties of latex bead-containing phagosomes with lysosomes were not modified in the presence of live Brucella suis in the cells. We concluded that fusion inhibition was restricted to the pathogen phagosome and that the host cell fusion machinery was not altered by the presence of live Brucella in the cell. By in vitro reconstitution experiments, we observed a specific association between killed B. suis-containing phagosomes and lysosomes, which was dependent on exogenously supplied cytosol, energy, and temperature. This association was observed with killed bacteria but not with live bacteria. Hence, this specific recognition inhibition seemed to be restricted to the pathogen phagosomal membrane, as noted in the in vivo experiments. PMID:11119541

  2. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Brucella suis Outer Membrane Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    acquired after brucellosis is characterized by fever, chills, malaise, ingestion of foodstuffs, especially unpasteurized dairy and a chronic course...synthesis of OMP genes of B. suis. Seven OMP genes of the samples were incubated with 1:2000 secondary goat B, suis were PCR synthesized using...antibody and protects rhesus macaques from infectious brucellosis induced by subsequent aerosolFig. 3. PCR detection of pET-DEST42-B, suis OMP genes

  3. Lexicon and Description of Sui Adjective Intensifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Stanford

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sui, an indigenous minority language of southwest China, has an elaborate system of adjective intensification. Adjectives are intensified with word-specific, bound morphemes that usually either rhyme with the base or alliterate with the base. Stanford (2007 notes morpho-phonological patterns that suggest reduplication, rhyme, alliteration, The Emergence of the Unmarked (McCarthy & Prince 1994, Yip 2001, identity avoidance, and “Copy But Don’t Repeat” (Kennard 2004. However, the adjective intensifiers defy a simple, fully predictable explanation in such terms; the intensifier lexicon may be best described as “patterned variety,” a case of lexicalized poetry or a poeticized lexicon. Word formation is guided by general patterns, but each specific intensifier may vary within those overall guidelines. Many adjectives have multiple intensifiers that bear subtle semantic and pragmatic distinctions. The current paper serves as a complement to Stanford (2007 by providing a detailed lexicon of the Sui adjective intensifiers for future reference and further analysis. This lexicon is based on the author’s fieldwork and represents the first detailed account of Sui adjective intensifiers for the wider linguistic community.

  4. Narrowing mutant selection window of Streptococcus suis by combination use of tylosin tartrate and amoxicillin sodium in vitro%酒石酸泰乐菌素联合阿莫西林钠缩小猪链球菌耐药突变选择窗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 徐刚; 王敏; 李洪涛; 李艳华

    2010-01-01

    为了使临床合理使用抗菌药物,防止细菌耐药性的产生提供理论依据.本研究探讨了在体外初步联合用药缩小猪链球菌(S.suis)的耐药突变选择窗(MSW).应用肉汤法富集10~(10)CFU/mL细菌,琼脂平板二倍稀释法分别测定酒石酸泰乐菌素(TLST)、阿莫西林(Amoxil)钠及两药联用后对S.suis分离株D_(10)的防突变浓度(MPC)和MSW.TLST、Amoxil钠单药和两药联用对S.suis分离株D_(10)的MSW分别为9.71、5.16和2.81.TLST和Amoxil钠联合用药使TLST对D_(10)的MSW缩小3.5倍;TLST和Amoxil钠联合用药使Amoxil钠对D_(10)的MSW缩小1.8倍.TLST和Amoxil钠联合用药可缩小各自单药对S.suis分离株D_(10)的MSW.

  5. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species.

  6. Hostos y el Positivismo sui Generis Latinoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guadarrama González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El positivismo fue asumido y cultivado en Latinoamérica de forma sui generis como una filosofía optimista llena de confianza en el hombre, en la capacidad creativa de su pensamiento, en la cultura, la educación, la ciencia, el progreso y el desarrollo industrial. Aliado al liberalismo y a la defensa de la democracia sus ideas resultaban muy avanzadas para los países latinoamericanos, recién liberados en su mayoría del colonialismo español y enfrascados entonces en profundas luchas entre las oligarquías retrogradas y la naciente burguesía nacional. Las ideas filosóficas y educativas de Hostos ponen de manifiesto la riqueza alcanzada por el pensamiento latinoamericano en el siglo XIX que aunque compartió algunas posiciones con el krausismo y el positivismo no se dejó arrastrar de forma unilateral por estas corrientes y supo aprovechar los elementos de valor contenidos especialmente en el positivismo que supo asumir de modo sui generis como la mayoría de los intelectuales latinoamericanos de esa época que se identificaron con él en correspondencia con una praxis educativa y política beneficiosa a los pueblos de América Latina.

  7. [Primary human demodicosis. A disease sui generis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C-K; Zink, A; Wei, K-J; Dzika, E; Plewig, G; Chen, W

    2015-03-01

    Human Demodex mites (Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis) are unique in that they are an obligate human ectoparasite that can inhabit the pilosebaceous unit lifelong without causing obvious host immune response in most cases. The mode of symbiosis between humans and human Demodex mites is unclear, while the pathogenicity of human Demodex mites in many inflammatory skin diseases is now better understood. Primary human demodicosis is a skin disease sui generis not associated with local or systemic immunosuppression. Diagnosis is often underestimated and differentiation from folliculitis, papulopustular rosacea and perioral dermatitis is not always straightforward. Dependent on the morphology and degree of inflammation, the clinical manifestations can be classified into spinulate, papulopustular, nodulocystic, crustic and fulminant demodicosis. Therapy success can be achieved only with acaricides/arachidicides. The effective doses, optimal regimen and antimicrobial resistance remain to be determined.

  8. Surgical innovation as sui generis surgical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2013-12-01

    Successful innovative 'leaps' in surgical technique have the potential to contribute exponentially to surgical advancement, and thereby to improved health outcomes for patients. Such innovative leaps often occur relatively spontaneously, without substantial forethought, planning, or preparation. This feature of surgical innovation raises special challenges for ensuring sufficient evaluation and regulatory oversight of new interventions that have not been the subject of controlled investigatory exploration and review. It is this feature in particular that makes early-stage surgical innovation especially resistant to classification as 'research', with all of the attendant methodological and ethical obligations--of planning, regulation, monitoring, reporting, and publication--associated with such a classification. This paper proposes conceptual and ethical grounds for a restricted definition according to which innovation in surgical technique is classified as a form of sui generis surgical 'research', where the explicit goal of adopting such a definition is to bring about needed improvements in knowledge transfer and thereby benefit current and future patients.

  9. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  10. Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura are different nematode species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, C; Callejón, R; de Rojas, M; Tewes, B; Ubeda, J M; Ariza, C; Guevara, D C

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, a morphological and biometrical study by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) of Trichuris suis isolated from different hosts (Sus scrofa domestica and Sus scrofa scrofa) and Trichuris trichiura isolated from chimpanzee, has been carried out. Our results demonstrate the existence of typical pericloacal papillae in both species. Biometrical parameters of T. suis and T. trichiura overlapped but males and females of T. trichiura tended to be shorter and thinner than those of T. suis. Our results suggest that T. suis and T. trichiura cannot be differentiated using standard procedures as morphological and biometrical determinations. Thus, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA was sequenced to allow a differentiation between T. suis and T. trichiura on genetic level. The ITS1 and ITS2 sequences derived from T. trichiura eggs isolated from feces of primates (Colobus guereza kikuyensis and Nomascus gabriellae) showed clear differences to the respective sequences of T. suis derived from eggs of different porcine hosts. The 5.8S gene was similar between the two species. Sequences obtained from different populations of the same species showed no significant differences indicating that the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences reported in this study are representative for T. trichiura and T. suis, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships have been determined attending to the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences from different species of the genus Trichuris. In conclusion, T. trichiura and T. suis are considered to be closely related but genetically different species. Both species can be easily and reliably distinguished by a PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences with different restriction enzymes.

  11. Genetic analysis of Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura recovered from humans and pigs in a sympatric setting in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Sofie; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Hansen, Tina V A; Olsen, Annette; Christensen, Henrik; Thamsborg, Stig M; Nejsum, Peter

    2012-08-13

    The whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis in humans and pigs, respectively, are believed to be two different species yet closely related. Morphologically, adult worms, eggs and larvae of the two species are indistinguishable. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic variation of Trichuris sp. mainly recovered from natural infected pigs and humans. Worm material isolated from humans and pigs living in the same geographical region in Uganda were analyzed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. Measurements of morphometric characters were also performed. The analysis of the ITS-2 (internal transcribed spacer) region showed a high genetic variation in the human-derived worms with two sequence types, designated type 1 and type 2, differing with up to 45%, the type 2 being identical to the sequence found in pig-derived worms. A single human-derived worm showed exclusively the type 2-genotype (T. suis-type) and three cases of 'heterozygote' worms in humans were identified. However, the analysis showed that sympatric Trichuris primarily assorted with host origin. Sequence analysis of a part of the genetically conserved β-tubulin gene confirmed two separate populations/species but also showed that the 'heterozygote' worms had a T. suis-like β-tubulin gene. A PCR-RFLP on the ITS-2 region was developed, that could distinguish between worms of the pig, human and 'heterozygote' type. The data suggest that Trichuris in pigs and humans belong to two different populations (i.e. are two different species). However, the data presented also suggest that cross-infections of humans with T. suis takes place. Further studies on sympatric Trichuris populations are highly warranted in order to explore transmission dynamics and unravel the zoonotic potential of T. suis.

  12. Novel bacteriophage lysin with broad lytic activity protects against mixed infection by Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Daniel B; Schmitz, Jonathan E; Euler, Chad W; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GrAS]) cause serious and sometimes fatal human diseases. They are among the many Gram-positive pathogens for which resistance to leading antibiotics has emerged. As a result, alternative therapies need to be developed to combat these pathogens. We have identified a novel bacteriophage lysin (PlySs2), derived from a Streptococcus suis phage, with broad lytic activity against MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), Streptococcus suis, Listeria, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), S. pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis, group G streptococci (GGS), group E streptococci (GES), and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PlySs2 has an N-terminal cysteine-histidine aminopeptidase (CHAP) catalytic domain and a C-terminal SH3b binding domain. It is stable at 50 °C for 30 min, 37 °C for >24 h, 4°C for 15 days, and -80 °C for >7 months; it maintained full activity after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. PlySs2 at 128 μg/ml in vitro reduced MRSA and S. pyogenes growth by 5 logs and 3 logs within 1 h, respectively, and exhibited a MIC of 16 μg/ml for MRSA. A single, 2-mg dose of PlySs2 protected 92% (22/24) of the mice in a bacteremia model of mixed MRSA and S. pyogenes infection. Serially increasing exposure of MRSA and S. pyogenes to PlySs2 or mupirocin resulted in no observed resistance to PlySs2 and resistance to mupirocin. To date, no other lysin has shown such notable broad lytic activity, stability, and efficacy against multiple, leading, human bacterial pathogens; as such, PlySs2 has all the characteristics to be an effective therapeutic.

  13. Live-cell and super-resolution imaging reveal that the distribution of wall-associated protein A is correlated with the cell chain integrity of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Liu, Z; Zhang, Y; Su, Q P; Xue, B; Shao, S; Zhu, Y; Xu, X; Wei, S; Sun, Y

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a primary pathogen responsible for dental caries. It has an outstanding ability to form biofilm, which is vital for virulence. Previous studies have shown that knockout of Wall-associated protein A (WapA) affects cell chain and biofilm formation of S. mutans. As a surface protein, the distribution of WapA remains unknown, but it is important to understand the mechanism underlying the function of WapA. This study applied the fluorescence protein mCherry as a reporter gene to characterize the dynamic distribution of WapA in S. mutans via time-lapse and super-resolution fluorescence imaging. The results revealed interesting subcellular distribution patterns of WapA in single, dividing and long chains of S. mutans cells. It appears at the middle of the cell and moves to the poles as the cell grows and divides. In a cell chain, after each round of cell division, such dynamic relocation results in WapA distribution at the previous cell division sites, resulting in a pattern where WapA is located at the boundary of two adjacent cell pairs. This WapA distribution pattern corresponds to the breaking segmentation of wapA deletion cell chains. The dynamic relocation of WapA through the cell cycle increases our understanding of the mechanism of WapA in maintaining cell chain integrity and biofilm formation.

  14. Duplex PCR for differentiation of the vaccine strain Brucella suis S2 and B. suis biovar 1 from other strains of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Tan, Pengfei; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zouliang; Mao, Kairong; Peng, Daxin; Chen, Yiping

    2014-09-01

    Immunisation with attenuated Brucella spp. vaccines prevents brucellosis, but may also interfere with diagnosis. In this study, a duplex PCR was developed to distinguish Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from field strains of B. suis biovar 1 and other Brucella spp. The PCR detected 60 fg genomic DNA of B. suis S2 or biovar 1 field strains and was able to distinguish B. suis S2 and wild-type strains of B. suis biovar 1 among 76 field isolates representing all the common species and biovars, as well as four vaccine strains, of Brucella.

  15. Safety design of next generation SUI of CANDU stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasimi, Elnara [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. N., Oshawa, L1H 7K4 ON (Canada); Gabbar, Hossam A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.ca [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. N., Oshawa, L1H 7K4 ON (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of current SUI technologies and challenges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propose a new type of SUI detectors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propose a new SUI system architecture and layout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propose implementation procedure for SUI with reduced risks. - Abstract: Due to the age and operating experience of Nuclear Power Plants, equipment ageing and obsolescence has become one of the main challenges that need to be resolved for all systems, structures and components in order to ensure a safe and reliable production of energy. This paper summarizes the research into a methodology for modernization of Start-Up Instrumentation (SUI), both in-core and Control Room equipment, using a new generation of detectors and cables in order to manage obsolescence. The main objective of this research is to develop a new systematic approach to SUI installation/replacement procedure development and optimization. Although some additional features, such as real-time data monitoring and storage/archiving solutions for SUI systems are also examined to take full advantage of today's digital technology, the objectives of this study do not include detailed parametrical studies of detector or system performance. Instead, a number of technological, operational and maintenance issues associated with Start-Up Instrumentation systems at Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) will be identified and a structured approach for developing a replacement/installation procedure that can be standardized and used across all of the domestic CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) stations is proposed.

  16. Uptake of benzimidazoles by Trichuris suis in vivo in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina V.A.; Friis, Christian; Nejsum, Peter; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    It is recognized that the clinical efficacy of single dose benzimidazoles (BZs) against the nematode, Trichuris suis of pigs and the closely related Trichuris trichiura in humans is only poor to moderate. Recent in vitro studies have indicated that a low uptake of fenbendazole (FBZ) in T. suis may be responsible for its poor efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis by measuring the concentrations of FBZ and its metabolites, oxfendazole (OXF) and FBZ sulphone (FBZSO2), in T. suis isolated from FBZ treated pigs and in plasma of the pigs. The highest concentration of FBZ measured in T. suis was 66.6 pmol/mg dry worm tissue which was approximately half of what was measured in a previous in vitro study. The correlation between drug concentrations in plasma and in T. suis worms was highly positive for OXF (r = 0.93, P = 0.0007) and FBZSO2 (r = 0.85, P = 0.007), but no correlation was found for FBZ. This study shows that the low uptake of FBZ observed for T. suis in vitro, also takes place in vivo. The high and significant correlations between OXF and FBZSO2 concentrations in plasma of the pigs and T. suis (and the lack of this correlation for FBZ) suggests that the metabolites reach the worms via the blood–enterocyte interface while FBZ primarily reaches the worms via the intestinal lumen of the host. PMID:25057460

  17. Distribution of serotypes, vaccine coverage, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children living in SAARC countries: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Jaiswal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Each SAARC nation falls in the zone of high incidence of pneumococcal disease but there is a paucity of literature estimating the burden of pneumococcal disease in this region. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalent serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in children of SAARC countries, to determine the coverage of these serotypes by the available vaccines, and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: We searched major electronic databases using a comprehensive search strategy, and additionally searched the bibliography of the included studies and retrieved articles till July 2014. Both community and hospital based observational studies which included children aged ≤12 years as/or part of the studied population in SAARC countries were included. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included in the final analysis. The period of surveillance varied from 12-96 months (median, 24 months. The most common serotypes country-wise were as follows: serotype 1 in Nepal; serotype 14 in Bangladesh and India; serotype 19F in Sri Lanka and Pakistan. PCV-10 was found to be suitable for countries like India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, whereas PCV-13 may be more suitable for Pakistan. An increasing trend of non-susceptibility to antibiotics was noted for co-trimoxazole, erythromycin and chloramphenicol, whereas an increasing trend of susceptibility was noted for penicillin. CONCLUSION: Due to paucity of recent data in majority of the SAARC countries, urgent large size prospective studies are needed to formulate recommendations for specific pneumococcal vaccine introduction and usage of antimicrobial agents in these regions.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of an oral DNA vaccine encoding Sip of Streptococcus agalactiae from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus delivered by live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L Y; Wang, K Y; Xiao, D; Chen, D F; Geng, Y; Wang, J; He, Y; Wang, E L; Huang, J L; Xiao, G Y

    2014-05-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7207 was used as a carrier for a reconstructed DNA vaccine against Streptococcus agalactiae. A 1.02 kb DNA fragment, encoding for a portion of the surface immunogenic protein (Sip) of S. agalactiae was inserted into pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sip was transfected in EPC cells to detect the transient expression by an indirect immunofluorescence assay, together with Western blot analysis. The pVAX1-sip was transformed by electroporation into SL7207. The stability of pVAX1-sip into Salmonella was over 90% after 50 generations with antibiotic selection in vitro while remained stable over 80% during 35 generations under antibiotic-free conditions. The LD50 of SL/pVAX1-sip was 1.7 × 10(11) CFU/fish by intragastric administration which indicated a quite low virulence. Tilapias were inoculated orally at 10(8) CFU/fish, the recombinant bacteria were found present in intestinal tract, spleens and livers and eventually eliminated from the tissues 4 weeks after immunization. Fish immunized at 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/fish with different immunization times caused various levels of serum antibody and an effective protection against lethal challenge with the wild-type strain S. agalactiae. Integration studies showed that the pVAX1-sip did not integrate with tilapia chromosomes. The DNA vaccine SL/pVAX1-sip was proved to be safe and effective in protecting tilapias against S. agalactiae infection.

  19. Association of Streptococcus pluranimalium with valvular endocarditis and septicaemia in adult broiler parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedegaard, L; Christensen, H; Chadfield, M S; Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M

    2009-04-01

    The genus Streptococcus consists of more than 60 species, but only Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus, Streptococcus gallinaceus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus suis have been isolated from poultry. During investigations of the aetiology of increased mortality in broiler parent stock at the end of production, pure cultures of streptococcal-like organisms that could not be classified among these six species were obtained from 24 cases of septicaemia or valvular endocarditis and septicaemia. Phenotypic characterization using the API20 STREP kit identified the isolates as Aerococcus viridans (10), Aerococcus urinae (2), Leuconostoc species (4), Streptococcus salivarius (2), Streptococcus bovis II 3 (1), Enterococcus avium (3), Enterococcus faecium (1) or Gemella morbillorum (1). However, this identification was misleading as subsequent genetic investigations using pulse field gel electrophoresis and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that 19 isolates were classified as Streptococcus pluranimalium, while the remaining isolates were E. avium (3), E. faecium (1) or Lactobacillus species (1). Misidentification by API20 STREP was related to the database provided by the manufacturer, as the phenotypic characteristics could identify these organisms as S. pluranimalium. The isolates of S. pluranimalium belonged to at least three different clones as determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested genomic DNA. The capacity that these isolates had to colonize the valvular endothelium was suggested by the occurrence of valvular endocarditis in 12 of 19 cases. Demonstration of the same clone in all four houses on a farm suggested the pathogenic potential of this organism.

  20. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Strep and Pregnancy • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be colonized ... planned cesarean birth? •Glossary What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of the ...

  1. Brucella suis strain 2 vaccine is safe and protective against heterologous Brucella spp. infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangquan; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Nan; Ding, Jiabo; Suo, Xun

    2016-01-12

    Brucellosis is a wide spread zoonotic disease that causes abortion and infertility in mammals and leads to debilitating, febrile illness in humans. Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis are the major pathogenic species to humans. Vaccination with live attenuated B. suis strain 2 (S2) vaccine is an essential and critical component in the control of brucellosis in China. The S2 vaccine is very effective in preventing brucellosis in goats, sheep, cattle and swine. However, there are still debates outside of China whether the S2 vaccine is able to provide protection against heterologous virulent Brucella species. We investigated the residual virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the S2 vaccine in BALB/c mice by determining bacteria persistence in spleen, serum antibody response, cellular immune response and protection against a heterologous virulent challenge. The S2 vaccine was of low virulence as there were no bacteria recovered in spleen four weeks post vaccination. The vaccinated mice developed Brucella-specific IgG in 2-3 weeks, and a burst production of IFN-γ at one week as well as a two-fold increase in TNF-α production. The S2 vaccine protected mice from a virulent challenge by B. melitensis M28, B. abortus 2308 and B. suis S1330, and the S2 vaccinated mice did not develop any clinical signs or tissue damage. Our study demonstrated that the S2 vaccine is of low virulence, stimulates good humoral and cellular immunity and protects animals against infection by heterologous, virulent Brucella species.

  2. Case report: Helicobacter suis infection in a pig veterinarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Myrthe; Flahou, Bram; Meyns, Tom; Smet, Annemieke; Arts, Joris; De Cooman, Lien; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2013-10-01

    This study describes a non-Helicobacter (H.) pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) infection in a pig veterinarian. The patient suffered from reflux esophagitis and general dyspeptic symptoms and was referred to the hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histologic examination of corpus and antrum biopsies revealed a chronic gastritis. Large spiral-shaped non-H. pylori helicobacters could be visualized and were identified as H. suis by PCR. The patient was treated with a triple therapy, consisting of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and pantoprazole for 10 days. Successful eradication was confirmed after a follow-up gastrointestinal endoscopy and PCR 10 weeks after treatment. A mild chronic gastritis was, however, still observed at this point in time. This case report associates porcine H. suis strains with gastric disease in humans, thus emphasizing the zoonotic importance of H. suis bacteria from pigs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Coccidiosis in swine: dose and age response to Isospora suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, B P; Gosser, H S; Allen, C B; Bedell, D M

    1982-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease of the young piglet due to infection with Isospora suis and is characterized by diarrhea which is nonresponsive to antibacterial therapy. There is variable morbidity and mortality. Piglets develop a more severe clinical illness and enteritis when infected with I. suis at one to three days of age than when infected at two weeks of age. Microscopic lesions range from villous atrophy and mild erosion to severe fibrinonecrotic enteritis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6889908

  4. Group B Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H. Adriaanse

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae is an important cause of neonatal sepsis. Prevention is possible by intrapartum screening for maternal GBS carriership and antimicrobial treatment of colonized women with risk factors during labor. The conflicting results of diagnostic performance are reported both for the newly developed rapid GBS antigen tests and Gram's stain.

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae endogenous endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Saffra, Norman; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Husney, Robert; Ghitan, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (SA) is a Group B Streptococcus, which is a common pathogen implicated in neonatal and geriatric sepsis. Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE) is a condition that results from haematogenous seeding of the globe, during transient or persistent bacteremia. We document a case of a non-septic geriatric patient, who developed EBE after a transient bacteraemia with SA.

  6. Characterization of Streptococcus suis serotype 7 isolates from diseased pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Y.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lu, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    to erythromycin (41%), tetracycline (24%) and streptomycin (28%) was observed. Furthermore, almost all isolates (101) were resistant to sulphamethoxazol. Most isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and trimethoprim + sulphonamides. The tet...

  7. Potential use of G-CSF for protection against Streptococcus suis infection in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of immunomodulators is a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics for therapeutic, prophylactic, and metaphylactic use to prevent and combat infectious disease. We developed a replication-defective adenovirus vector that expresses porcine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) ...

  8. Genome Sequence of Actinobacillus suis Type Strain ATCC 33415T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Mhlanga-Mutangadura, Tendai; Reilly, Thomas J

    2014-09-18

    The assembled and annotated genome of Actinobacillus suis ATCC 33415(T) is reported here. The 2,501,598-bp genome encodes 2,246 open reading frames (ORFs) with strain variable incursion of an integrative conjugative element into a tRNA locus. Comparative analysis of the deduced gene set should inform our understanding of pathogenesis, genomic plasticity, and serotype variation.

  9. Isolation of Actinobacillus suis from a cat's lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daignault, D.; Chouinard, L.; Møller, Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis has been isolated from the lungs of a 9-month-old cat. The bacterium was characterized biochemically as well as genetically, and its sensitivity profile to different antimicrobial agents was established. The role of this isolate in the cat's condition is discussed....

  10. Elimination of Mange Mites Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from Two Naturally Infested Danish Sow Herds Using a Single Injection Regime with Doramectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnason T

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to eliminate Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis were made in 2 naturally infested sow herds, by intramuscular (IM injection of doramectin (Dectomax®, Pfizer, New York, USA. A single injection strategy was used. In one of the herds, the environment was treated with an acaricide following dry cleaning of floors, walls and equipment. In the second herd, no environmental treatment was performed. Results were measured by skin lesion scoring, ear scrapings to show Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis, and calculating rubbing index throughout the observation period of 20 months following treatment. Skin lesion scores decreased and stayed low following treatment for the entire observation period. Live Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis mites were isolated prior to treatment from both herds, but not following treatment. Rubbing index decreased following treatment, but was occasionally at or above 0.4. The results of these studies indicate that elimination of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from 2 naturally infested herds was successful, using doramectin in a single injection strategy. Precautions must be taken to ensure adequate dosing of every pig, and to avoid reinfestation due to poor biosecurity.

  11. Insight into the evolution of the histidine triad protein (HTP) family in Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Pan, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2013-01-01

    The Histidine Triad Proteins (HTPs), also known as Pht proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae, constitute a family of surface-exposed proteins that exist in many pathogenic streptococcal species. Although many studies have revealed the importance of HTPs in streptococcal physiology and pathogenicity, little is known about their origin and evolution. In this study, after identifying all htp homologs from 105 streptococcal genomes representing 38 different species/subspecies, we analyzed their domain structures, positions in genome, and most importantly, their evolutionary histories. By further projecting this information onto the streptococcal phylogeny, we made several major findings. First, htp genes originated earlier than the Streptococcus genus and gene-loss events have occurred among three streptococcal groups, resulting in the absence of the htp gene in the Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups. Second, the copy number of htp genes in other groups of Streptococcus is variable, ranging from one to four functional copies. Third, both phylogenetic evidence and domain structure analyses support the division of two htp subfamilies, designated as htp I and htp II. Although present mainly in the pyogenic group and in Streptococcus suis, htp II members are distinct from htp I due to the presence of an additional leucine-rich-repeat domain at the C-terminus. Finally, htp genes exhibit a faster nucleotide substitution rate than do housekeeping genes. Specifically, the regions outside the HTP domains are under strong positive selection. This distinct evolutionary pattern likely helped Streptococcus to easily escape from recognition by host immunity.

  12. Insight into the evolution of the histidine triad protein (HTP family in Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Qing Shao

    Full Text Available The Histidine Triad Proteins (HTPs, also known as Pht proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae, constitute a family of surface-exposed proteins that exist in many pathogenic streptococcal species. Although many studies have revealed the importance of HTPs in streptococcal physiology and pathogenicity, little is known about their origin and evolution. In this study, after identifying all htp homologs from 105 streptococcal genomes representing 38 different species/subspecies, we analyzed their domain structures, positions in genome, and most importantly, their evolutionary histories. By further projecting this information onto the streptococcal phylogeny, we made several major findings. First, htp genes originated earlier than the Streptococcus genus and gene-loss events have occurred among three streptococcal groups, resulting in the absence of the htp gene in the Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups. Second, the copy number of htp genes in other groups of Streptococcus is variable, ranging from one to four functional copies. Third, both phylogenetic evidence and domain structure analyses support the division of two htp subfamilies, designated as htp I and htp II. Although present mainly in the pyogenic group and in Streptococcus suis, htp II members are distinct from htp I due to the presence of an additional leucine-rich-repeat domain at the C-terminus. Finally, htp genes exhibit a faster nucleotide substitution rate than do housekeeping genes. Specifically, the regions outside the HTP domains are under strong positive selection. This distinct evolutionary pattern likely helped Streptococcus to easily escape from recognition by host immunity.

  13. The Complete Genome of Brucella Suis 019 Provides Insights on Cross-Species Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucella species are the most important zoonotic pathogens worldwide and cause considerable harm to humans and animals. In this study, we presented the complete genome of B. suis 019 isolated from sheep (ovine with epididymitis. B. suis 019 has a rough phenotype and can infect sheep, rhesus monkeys and possibly humans. The comparative genome analysis demonstrated that B. suis 019 is closest to the vaccine strain B. suis bv. 1 str. S2. Further analysis associated the rsh gene to the pathogenicity of B. suis 019, and the WbkA gene to the rough phenotype of B. suis 019. The 019 complete genome data was deposited in the GenBank database with ID PRJNA308608.

  14. [Cura sui--selfcare and its relationship to nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Martin W

    2010-02-01

    Self care is an answer to the response of finiteness, which is given through the fact of the human body. The article demonstrates in reference to the Selfcaredeficit-Theory (Orem, 2006) how self care in everyday life, ancient roman called it cura sui, is related to nursing practice, specially to acutecare. Self care turns out as an category of ambivalence between ethics and power.

  15. INDIKASI GEOGRAFIS: REZIM HKI YANG BERSIFAT SUI GENERIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Sasongko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the Geographical Indication (GI was estabilished at the same time as the TRIPs Agreement in 1994. In the TRIPs Agreement, GI is Intellectual Property Rights (hereafter IPR regime that is typical of sui generis due to its distinctive features. It is reflected in the elements that are in the definition of GI. Basically, GI has set the use of Geographical names to recognise an object. Previously, the IPR regime had also set them, namely: Indication of Source (IS and Apellation of Origin (AO, that were set in the Paris Convention in 1883, Madrid Agreement in 1891, and the Lisbon Agreement in 1958. Instead, the geographical names are also used as brands. The paper is a theoretical study towards two problems. First, the elements that become the characteristics of GI so that it is typical of sui generis. Second, the similiarities and the differences amongst GI and IS, AO and other trademarks. The findings of the study reveal that GI is typical of sui generis, reflected in the elements that are in the GI definition as it has already been agreed upon in the TRIPs Agreement. There are similiarities amongst GI and AS, AO and other trademarks, namely they can use the geographical names as a label on objects. Meanwhile, the differences are in the elements themselves. IS has the simplest element, followed by GI and the trademark is in ownership system that is individual in the trademark and communal in GI.

  16. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM TERHADAP PENGETAHUAN TRADISIONAL MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN SUI GENERIS LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaini Rohaini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It’s cannot deny that intellectual property right laws, in certain aspects are possible for using to protect traditional knowledge from their utilization. However, in the same time, intelectuual property rezim also become “a tool” to legitimate of biopiracy practices. Due to the massive of international pressure, mostly developing countries, and the awereness that intellectual property regimes doesn’t optimal to protect traditional knowledge, it develops a discourse to develop a sui generis law outside of intellectual property right regimes. By using the normative method and qualitative approach, this research shows that in order to develop the sui generis law in Indonesia, there are several minimum elements that shall be contained in it, inter alia: the purposes of protection; scope of protection; creteria of protection; the beneficiaries of protection: the holder of traditional knowledge; the kind of rights to be granted; how does the rights acquired; how to enforce it; how does the rights lost or expired; and dispute resolution.Keywords: protection, traditional knowledge, sui generis law

  17. Immune and inflammatory responses in pigs infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Annette; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Kringel, Helene;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate parasite induced immune responses in pigs co-infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum as compared to mono-species infected pigs. T. suis is known to elicit a strong immune response leading to rapid expulsion, and a strong antagonist...

  18. Uptake of benzimidazoles by Trichuris suis in vivo in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Friis, Christian; Nejsum, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    It is recognized that the clinical efficacy of single dose benzimidazoles (BZs) against the nematode, Trichuris suis of pigs and the closely related Trichuris trichiura in humans is only poor to moderate. Recent in vitro studies have indicated that a low uptake of fenbendazole (FBZ) in T. suis may...

  19. [Study on weight units of chinese medicine in Sui and Tang dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-xian; Lu, Qin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Mu-qun

    2008-09-01

    Although there were changes in measuring system of Sui dynasty, the measuring units of medicine, astronomy and music still remained unchanged. So there appeared two systems of measuring units. For medicine, the government of Tang dynasty followed the regulations of Sui dynasty in measuring system. Besides this, the measuring units of Qian and Fen also were also related to medicine.

  20. The antigenic relationship between Brettanomyces-Debaryomyces strains and the Salmonella cholerae-suis O antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoycan, N; Sağanak, I; Wells, G

    1978-01-01

    The immune sera for Brettanomyces lambicus, B. claussenii, Debaryomyces hansenii and D. marama agglutinated Salmonella cholerae-suis (0:6(2), 7). The immune serum for S. cholerae-suis agglutinated B. lambicus, B. clausenni, D. hansenii and D. marama. Absorption and agglutination cross-tested demonstrated common antigen factor(s) in the tested yeasts and Salmonella 0:7 antigen.

  1. Macedovicin, the second food-grade lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalaki, Marina; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Rania; Pot, Bruno; Van Driessche, Gonzalez; Devreese, Bart; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was found to produce a second lantibiotic named macedovicin in addition to macedocin. Macedovicin was purified to homogeneity and mass spectrometric analysis identified a peptide of approximately 3.4 kDa. Partial N-terminal sequence analysis and tandem mass spectrometry revealed that macedovicin was identical to bovicin HJ50 and thermophilin 1277 produced by Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus thermophilus, respectively. Macedovicin inhibits a broad spectrum of lactic acid bacteria, several food spoilage species (e.g. Clostridium spp.) and oral streptococci. We determined the complete biosynthetic gene cluster of macedovicin. Even though the gene clusters of macedovicin, thermophilin 1277 and bovicin HJ50 were almost identical at the nucleotide level, there were important differences in their predicted genes and proteins. Bovicin HJ50-like lantibiotics were also found to be encoded by Streptococcus suis strains SC84 and D12, Enterococcus columbae PLCH2, Clostridium perfringens JGS1721 and several Bacillus strains. All these lantibiotics contained a number of conserved amino acids that may be important for their biosynthesis and activity, while phylogenetic analysis supported their dispersion by horizontal gene transfer. In conclusion, the production of multiple bacteriocins may enhance the bio-protective potential of S. macedonicus during food fermentation.

  2. Host age influence on the intensity of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen S.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of age-related resistance on the regulation of population dynamics of adult Trichuris suis was investigated in an experimental pig model. Helminth-naive pigs varying in age from five weeks to four years were infected with T. suis to determine susceptibility to infection. Sows had a significantly lower establishment of adult T. suis worms compared with weaner pigs. Adult worm populations were highly overdispersed in both sows and grower pigs contrasted by a more even distribution among weaner pigs. Sows had significantly lower worm fecundities compared to weaner and grower pigs; T. suis from grower pigs, in turn, had reduced fecundity compared to worms in weaner pigs. In conclusion, we provide the first controlled experimental evidence that age-related resistance to T. suis occurs in pigs.

  3. Mental imagery during daily life: Psychometric evaluation of the Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelis, Sabine; Holmes, Emily A.; Griffith, James W.; Raes, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS) is used to measure the tendency to use visual mental imagery in daily life. Its psychometric properties were evaluated in three independent samples (total N = 1297). We evaluated the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the questionnaire. We also examined the structure of the items using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, correlations with other imagery questionnaires provided evidence about convergent validity. The SUIS had acceptable reliability and convergent validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a unidimensional structure fit the data, suggesting that the SUIS indeed measures a general use of mental imagery in daily life. Future research can further investigate and improve the psychometric properties of the SUIS. Moreover, the SUIS could be useful to determine how imagery relates to e.g. psychopathology. PMID:26290615

  4. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among adult patients with first-time Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB) from 2000 through 2008. Patients were identified in a population-based bacteremia database and followed up for mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS...

  5. Enzymatic, immunological and phylogenetic characterization of Brucella suis urease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriranganathan Nammalwar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequenced genomes of the Brucella spp. have two urease operons, ure-1 and ure-2, but there is evidence that only one is responsible for encoding an active urease. The present work describes the purification and the enzymatic and phylogenomic characterization of urease from Brucella suis strain 1330. Additionally, the urease reactivity of sera from patients diagnosed with brucellosis was examined. Results Urease encoded by the ure-1 operon of Brucella suis strain 1330 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The urease was purified 51-fold with a recovery of 12% of the enzyme activity and 0.24% of the total protein. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5, and showed optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 28–35°C. The purified enzyme exhibited a Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics with a Km of 5.60 ± 0.69 mM. Hydroxyurea and thiourea are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki of 1.04 ± 0.31 mM and 26.12 ± 2.30 mM, respectively. Acetohydroxamic acid also inhibits the enzyme in a competitive way. The molecular weight estimated for the native enzyme was between 130–135 kDa by gel filtration chromatography and 157 ± 7 kDa using 5–10% polyacrylamide gradient non-denaturing gel. Only three subunits in SDS-PAGE were identified: two small subunits of 14,000 Da and 15,500 Da, and a major subunit of 66,000 Da. The amino terminal sequence of the purified large subunit corresponded to the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by ureC1. The UreC1 subunit was recognized by sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. By phylogenetic and cluster structure analyses, ureC1 was related to the ureC typically present in the Rhizobiales; in contrast, the ureC2 encoded in the ure-2 operon is more related to distant species. Conclusion We have for the first time purified and characterized an active urease from B. suis. The enzyme was characterized at the kinetic

  6. DIPLOMASI TAKHTA SUCI SEBAGAI SUBJEK HUKUM INTERNASIONAL SUI GENERIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Supriyanto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Holy See is different from the Vatican. The Vatican is a state, whereas the Holy See is the central governing institution of the Catholic Church. The position of the Holy See is in the Vatican State. The international status of the Holy See is very unique. It is a sui generis subject of international law. Although it is not a state, it enjoys international recognition. Its diplomacy consists of intern and extern aspect. The intern aspect of its diplomacy is that of church interest. The extern aspect is that of diplomacy itself. It is neutral in internationally political interests. It focuses on humanitarian and moral diplomacy.

  7. Inorganic pyrophosphatase in uncultivable hemotrophic mycoplasmas: identification and properties of the enzyme from Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittenbrink Max M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma suis belongs to a group of highly specialized hemotrophic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. Hemotrophic mycoplasmas are uncultivable and the genomes are not sequenced so far. Therefore, there is a need for the clarification of essential metabolic pathways which could be crucial barriers for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system for these veterinary significant bacteria. Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPase are important enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate PPi to inorganic phosphate Pi. PPases are essential and ubiquitous metal-dependent enzymes providing a thermodynamic pull for many biosynthetic reactions. Here, we describe the identification, recombinant production and characterization of the soluble (sPPase of Mycoplasma suis. Results Screening of genomic M. suis libraries was used to identify a gene encoding the M. suis inorganic pyrophosphatase (sPPase. The M. suis sPPase consists of 164 amino acids with a molecular mass of 20 kDa. The highest identity of 63.7% was found to the M. penetrans sPPase. The typical 13 active site residues as well as the cation binding signature could be also identified in the M. suis sPPase. The activity of the M. suis enzyme was strongly dependent on Mg2+ and significantly lower in the presence of Mn2+ and Zn2+. Addition of Ca2+ and EDTA inhibited the M. suis sPPase activity. These characteristics confirmed the affiliation of the M. suis PPase to family I soluble PPases. The highest activity was determined at pH 9.0. In M. suis the sPPase builds tetramers of 80 kDa which were detected by convalescent sera from experimentally M. suis infected pigs. Conclusion The identification and characterization of the sPPase of M. suis is an additional step towards the clarification of the metabolism of hemotrophic mycoplasmas and, thus, important for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system. As an antigenic and conserved

  8. Septicemia with Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Littauer, Pia Jeanette; Greve, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    patients, growth of an atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae (non-capsular, non-serotypeable, optochin susceptible under ambient atmosphere and bile-intermediately soluble) was recovered. All three patients had a history of a haematological disease (myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma......Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was described in 2004 as a new human pathogen, acknowledged in a range of clinical infections typically associated to the respiratory tract. This report demonstrates that S. pseudopneumoniae has the potential to cause invasive infection. In blood cultures from three......) and an apparent origin of infection related to the liver or bile duct. All isolates were genome sequenced and subsequently identified as S. pseudopneumoniae by multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA). Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) based on the S. pneumoniae scheme revealed unknown sequence types...

  9. Genome sequence of Helicobacter suis supports its role in gastric pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis has been associated with chronic gastritis and ulcers of the pars oesophagea in pigs, and with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. In order to obtain better insight into the genes involved in pathogenicity and in the specific adaptation to the gastric environment of H. suis, a genome analysis was performed of two H. suis strains isolated from the gastric mucosa of swine. Homologs of the vast majority of genes shown to be important for gastric colonization of the human pathogen H. pylori were detected in the H. suis genome. H. suis encodes several putative outer membrane proteins, of which two similar to the H. pylori adhesins HpaA and HorB. H. suis harbours an almost complete comB type IV secretion system and members of the type IV secretion system 3, but lacks most of the genes present in the cag pathogenicity island of H. pylori. Homologs of genes encoding the H. pylori neutrophil-activating protein and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were identified in H. suis. H. suis also possesses several other presumptive virulence-associated genes, including homologs for mviN, the H. pylori flavodoxin gene, and a homolog of the H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin A gene. It was concluded that although genes coding for some important virulence factors in H. pylori, such as the cytotoxin-associated protein (CagA), are not detected in the H. suis genome, homologs of other genes associated with colonization and virulence of H. pylori and other bacteria are present. PMID:21414191

  10. Genome sequence of Helicobacter suis supports its role in gastric pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermoote Miet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter (H. suis has been associated with chronic gastritis and ulcers of the pars oesophagea in pigs, and with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. In order to obtain better insight into the genes involved in pathogenicity and in the specific adaptation to the gastric environment of H. suis, a genome analysis was performed of two H. suis strains isolated from the gastric mucosa of swine. Homologs of the vast majority of genes shown to be important for gastric colonization of the human pathogen H. pylori were detected in the H. suis genome. H. suis encodes several putative outer membrane proteins, of which two similar to the H. pylori adhesins HpaA and HorB. H. suis harbours an almost complete comB type IV secretion system and members of the type IV secretion system 3, but lacks most of the genes present in the cag pathogenicity island of H. pylori. Homologs of genes encoding the H. pylori neutrophil-activating protein and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were identified in H. suis. H. suis also possesses several other presumptive virulence-associated genes, including homologs for mviN, the H. pylori flavodoxin gene, and a homolog of the H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin A gene. It was concluded that although genes coding for some important virulence factors in H. pylori, such as the cytotoxin-associated protein (CagA, are not detected in the H. suis genome, homologs of other genes associated with colonization and virulence of H. pylori and other bacteria are present.

  11. Identification of Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius in clinical laboratories.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruoff, K L; Ferraro, M J; Holden, J; Kunz, L J

    1984-01-01

    Streptococci identified as Streptococcus bovis, S. bovis variant, and Streptococcus salivarius were examined with respect to physiological and serological characteristics and cellular fatty acid content. Similarities in physiological reactions and problems encountered in serological analysis were noted, suggesting that an expanded battery of physiological tests is needed to definitively identify these streptococci. Cellular fatty acid analysis provided an accurate method for distinguishing S....

  12. On Why There Is No Milton Friedman Today: Sui Generis, Sui Temporis

    OpenAIRE

    Medema, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    This essay responds to the question, “Why is there no Milton Friedman today?” In doing so, it briefly examines several aspects of Friedman’s professional life that contributed to his success in the academic, policy, and public realms as well as the influence of the social and political context in which Friedman lived and worked. The conclusion reached is that we are unlikely to see another Milton Friedman—or Friedman-like figure of any political persuasion—anytime soon.

  13. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis: looking to the future from an analysis of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, P; Betson, M; Bendall, R P; Thamsborg, S M; Stothard, J R

    2012-06-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected pigs found in most production systems. In areas where pigs and humans live in close proximity or where pig manure is used as fertilizer on vegetables for human consumption, there is a potential risk of cross-infections. We therefore review this relationship between Ascaris and Trichuris in the human and pig host, with special focus on recent evidence concerning the zoonotic potential of these parasites, and identify some open questions for future research.

  14. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  15. The Brucella suis Genome Reveals Fundamental Similarities between Animal and Plant Pathogens and Symbionts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ian T. Paulsen; Rekha Seshadri; Karen E. Nelson; Jonathan A. Eisen; John F. Heidelberg; Timothy D. Read; Robert J. Dodson; Lowell Umayam; Lauren M. Brinkac; Maureen J. Beanan; Sean C. Daugherty; Robert T. Deboy; A. Scott Durkin; James F. Kolonay; Ramana Madupu; William C. Nelson; Bola Ayodeji; Margaret Kraul; Jyoti Shetty; Joel Malek; Susan E. van Aken; Steven Riedmuller; Herve Tettelin; Steven R. Gill; Owen White; Steven L. Salzberg; David L. Hoover; Luther E. Lindler; Shirley M. Halling; Stephen M. Boyle; Claire M. Fraser

    2002-01-01

    .... Extensive gene synteny between B. suis chromosome 1 and the genome of the plant symbiont Mesorhizobium loti emphasizes the similarity between this animal pathogen and plant pathogens and symbionts...

  16. LA COMUNICAZIONE POLITICA SUI SOCIAL NETWORK: UN’ANALISI LINGUISTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Spoladore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro si propone di analizzare le scelte linguistiche dei soggetti politici che utilizzano Facebook e Twitter per rivolgersi al sempre più frammentato panorama dei potenziali elettori. In particolare, analizza le tendenze linguistiche comuni che questi social network hanno fatto emergere nel rapporto tra politica, web e lettori. Cominciando dall’analisi della presenza di parlamentari e senatori su Facebook e Twitter, si cerca di riassumere le principali caratteristiche delle due piattaforme, per giungere ad una classificazione dei testi prodotti attraverso di esse; si analizza la scrittura di post e tweet, sottolineando la presenza di espedienti tipici del mezzo e valutando il loro effetto sui lettori, e si studiano le scelte sintattiche e morfosintattiche in relazione alla struttura e alle possibilità dei due social network. In ultima analisi si osservano le scelte lessicali dei soggetti politici, studiandone i campi semantici e la quantità di tecnicismi. Infine, si cerca di compiere una valutazione delle due differenti tipologie di trasmesso scritto rinvenute nei campioni, osservando come ognuna di esse abbia uno scopo ben preciso nell’economia della comunicazione politica sui social network. Political communication policy in social networks: a language analysis  Daniele Spoladore This paper aims to analyze the linguistic choices of politicians who use Facebook and Twitter to address the increasingly fragmented landscape of potential voters. In particular, it analyzes the common language trends that these social networks have revealed in the relationship between politics, the web and readers. Starting from the analysis of the presence of MPs and senators on Facebook and Twitter, we try to summarize the key features of the two platforms, in order to arrive at a classification of the texts produced using them.  We analyzed posts and tweets, emphasizing the  typical characteristics of these means and evaluating their effect on

  17. Genetic Manipulation of Streptococcus pyogenes (The Group A Streptococcus, GAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild superficial infections (pharyngitis, impetigo) to severe often life-threatening invasive diseases (necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome) in humans. This unit describes molecular techniques for the genetic manipulation of S. pyogenes with detailed protocols for transformation, gene disruption, allelic exchange, transposon mutage...

  18. Identification of Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, K L; Ferraro, M J; Holden, J; Kunz, L J

    1984-08-01

    Streptococci identified as Streptococcus bovis, S. bovis variant, and Streptococcus salivarius were examined with respect to physiological and serological characteristics and cellular fatty acid content. Similarities in physiological reactions and problems encountered in serological analysis were noted, suggesting that an expanded battery of physiological tests is needed to definitively identify these streptococci. Cellular fatty acid analysis provided an accurate method for distinguishing S. salivarius from S. bovis and S. bovis variant.

  19. Identification of the nik Gene Cluster of Brucella suis: Regulation and Contribution to Urease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubier-Maurin, Véronique; Rodrigue, Agnès; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Layssac, Marion; Mandrand-Berthelot, Marie-Andrée; Köhler, Stephan; Liautard, Jean-Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of a Brucella suis 1330 gene fused to a gfp reporter, and identified as being induced in J774 murine macrophage-like cells, allowed the isolation of a gene homologous to nikA, the first gene of the Escherichia coli operon encoding the specific transport system for nickel. DNA sequence analysis of the corresponding B. suis nik locus showed that it was highly similar to that of E. coli except for localization of the nikR regulatory gene, which lies upstream from the structural nikABCDE genes and in the opposite orientation. Protein sequence comparisons suggested that the deduced nikABCDE gene products belong to a periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport system. The nikA promoter-gfp fusion was activated in vitro by low oxygen tension and metal ion deficiency and was repressed by NiCl2 excess. Insertional inactivation of nikA strongly reduced the activity of the nickel metalloenzyme urease, which was restored by addition of a nickel excess. Moreover, the nikA mutant of B. suis was functionally complemented with the E. coli nik gene cluster, leading to the recovery of urease activity. Reciprocally, an E. coli strain harboring a deleted nik operon recovered hydrogenase activity by heterologous complementation with the B. suis nik locus. Taking into account these results, we propose that the nik locus of B. suis encodes a nickel transport system. The results further suggest that nickel could enter B. suis via other transport systems. Intracellular growth rates of the B. suis wild-type and nikA mutant strains in human monocytes were similar, indicating that nikA was not essential for this step of infection. We discuss a possible role of nickel transport in maintaining enzymatic activities which could be crucial for survival of the bacteria under the environmental conditions encountered within the host. PMID:11133934

  20. Purification of Helicobacter suis Strains From Biphasic Cultures by Single Colony Isolation: Influence on Strain Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jungang; De Bruyne, Ellen; Ducatelle, Richard; Smet, Annemieke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis causes gastritis and decreased weight gain in pigs. It is also the most prevalent non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species in humans with gastric disease. H. suis is extremely fastidious, and so far, biphasic culture conditions were essential for isolation and culture, making it impossible to obtain single colonies. Hence, cultures obtained from an individual animal may contain multiple H. suis strains, which is undesirable for experiments aiming for instance at investigating H. suis strain differences. Pure cultures of H. suis were established by growing bacteria as colonies on 1% brucella agar plates, followed by purification and enrichment by biphasic subculture. Characteristics of these single colony-derived strains were compared with those of their parent strains using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and by studying bacterium-host interactions using a gastric epithelial cell line and Mongolian gerbil model. The purification/enrichment procedure required a nonstop culture of several weeks. For 4 of 17 H. suis strains, MLST revealed differences between parental and single colony-derived strains. For three of four single colony-derived strains tested, the cell death-inducing capacity was higher than for the parental strain. One single colony-derived strain lost its capacity to colonize Mongolian gerbils. For the four other strains tested, colonization capacity and histopathologic changes were similar to what has been described when using strains with only a history of limited biphasic culture. A method was developed to obtain single colony-derived H. suis strains, but this procedure may affect the bacterial genotype and phenotype. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S

    2014-11-01

    The pathogenicity of ß-hemolytic group A streptococcus (GAS) is particularly diverse, ranging from mild infections, such as pharyngitis or impetigo, to potentially debilitating poststreptococcal diseases, and up to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis or the dreaded streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This variety of clinical expressions, often radically different in individuals infected with the same strain, results from a complex interaction between the bacterial virulence factors, the mode of infection and the immune system of the host. Advances in comparative genomics have led to a better understanding of how, following this confrontation, GAS adapts to the immune system's pressure, either peacefully by reducing the expression of certain virulence factors to achieve an asymptomatic carriage, or on the contrary, by overexpressing them disproportionately, resulting in the most severe forms of invasive infection.

  2. Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regianne Umeko Kamiya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virulence factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing, classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis.

  3. Colecistitis aguda por Streptococcus constellatus

    OpenAIRE

    M Sandra Gómez-Canosa; Cristina Lijó-Carballeda; Begoña Vázquez-Vázquez; M José Bello-Peón

    2016-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de una paciente de edad avanzada y significativa comorbilidad que se diagnosticó de colecistitis aguda por Streptococcus constellatus. El drenaje de la vesícula biliar por colecistostomía percutánea, asociado a penicilinas, ha conseguido una evolución favorable. We report the case of a patient of advanced age and significant comorbidity diagnosed acute cholecystitis by Streptococcus constellatus. Gallbladder drainage by percutaneous cholecystostomy associated ...

  4. Characterization of Arcobacter suis isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Salas-Massó, Nuria; Serraino, Andrea; Figueras, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    During a survey in a dairy plant in Italy, the second strain (strain FG 206) of Arcobacter suis described in the literature was isolated from raw water buffalo milk. The objective of this study was to confirm the species identification, better define the species by comparing its characteristics with those of the reference strain (F41(T) = CECT 7833(T) = LMG 26152(T)) and to investigate its potential clinical relevance by detecting the virulence gene pattern of the new strain. Phenotypical characterization and 16S rRNA-RFLP gave a complete overlap of results for the two strains. As expected, an RFLP pattern common to A. suis and Arcobacter defluvii was obtained by MseI endonuclease digestion, and a pattern specific for A. suis was obtained by BfaI endonuclease digestion. 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) showed a robust relatedness of strain FG 206 to the A. suis type strain F41(T). The recovery of strain FG 206 from a dairy plant shows that this species of Arcobacter is present in the food chain. Like the type strain recovered from pig meat, the species A. suis may not be confined to a single type of food.

  5. Porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 and Chlamydia suis to modelize ocular chlamydiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Tobias; Cnudde, Thomas; Hamonic, Glenn; Rieder, Meghanne; Pasternak, J Alex; Lai, Ken; Tikoo, Suresh K; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, François

    2015-08-15

    Human ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections can lead to trachoma, the major cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Trachoma control strategies are very helpful but logistically challenging, and a trachoma vaccine is needed but not available. Pigs are a valuable large animal model for various immunological questions and could facilitate the study of human ocular chlamydial infections. In addition, a recent study identified the zoonotic potential of Chlamydia suis, the natural pathogen of pigs. In terms of the One Health Initiative, understanding the host-pathogen-interactions and finding a vaccine for porcine chlamydia infections would also benefit human health. Thus, we infected the porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 with C. suis and analyzed the chlamydial life cycle and the innate immune response of the infected cells. Our results indicate that C. suis completes its life cycle in VIDO R1 cells within 48 h, comparable to C. trachomatis in humans. C. suis infection of VIDO R1 cells led to increased levels of various innate immune mediators like pathogen recognition receptors, cytokines and chemokines including IL6, TNFα, and MMP9, also most relevant in human C. trachomatis infections. These results illustrate the first steps in the host-pathogen-interactions of ocular C. suis infections in pigs and show their similarity to C. trachomatis infections in humans, justifying further testing of pigs as an animal model for human trachoma.

  6. Study on the amoxillin-tylosin tartrate compound against Streptococcos suis in mice%阿莫西林钠-酒石酸泰乐菌素复方药物治疗猪链球菌病的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 徐刚; 刘洋; 陈俭清; 李艳华

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the pharmacodynamics of amoxillin-tylosintartrate against Streptococcus suis in Kunming mice. Kunming mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 1 mL of Streptococcus suis isolated. LD_(50)was 9.61×10~8cfu·mL~(-1) by Reed-Muench method. The mice were given by amoxillin, tylosin tartrate and amoxillin-tylosin tartrate compound respectively. The results showed that amoxillin-tylosin-tartrate was better than amoxilin, the survival rate was 80%.%为研究阿莫西林钠-酒石酸泰复方药物乐菌素治疗猪链球茵病的药效学,选用60只15 g左右的昆明鼠.以多重耐药的临床分离猪链球菌为病原,以腹腔注射为感染途径,对猪链球茵的病理模型进行了复制,按照Reed-Munch法计算LD_(50)为9.61×10~8 cfu·mL~(-1).在此基础上,选用80只昆明鼠,接种LD_(50)茵液,分别口服阿莫西林钠.酒石酸泰乐菌素及阿莫西林钠一酒石酸泰乐菌素复方药物.结果表明,阿莫西林钠-酒石酸泰乐茵素复方药物组的作用效果明显优于单药组,小鼠存活率为80%,阿莫西林钠组的小鼠存活率为70%,酒石酸泰乐菌素组为60%.

  7. The whipworm (Trichuris suis) secretes prostaglandin E2 to suppress proinflammatory properties in human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, Lisa C; Williams, Andrew R; Stavenhagen, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trials have shown that administration of the nematode Trichuris suis can be beneficial in treating various immune disorders. To provide insight into the mechanisms by which this worm suppresses inflammatory responses, an active component was purified from T. suis soluble products (TsSPs)...

  8. Differentiation between serological responses to Brucella suis and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 after natural or experimental infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Vibeke; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    with responses of B. suis biovar 2-inoculated pigs. FPSR were limited to 2-9 weeks post-YeO:9 inoculation, while B. suis-infected pigs were test-positive throughout the 21-week period of investigation. Although YeO:9-inoculated pigs exhibited FPSR in Brucella tests for a limited period of time, the serological...

  9. Development and validation of a real-time PCR for Chlamydia suis diagnosis in swine and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristien De Puysseleyr

    Full Text Available Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C. The tet(C gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates.

  10. Development and validation of a real-time PCR for Chlamydia suis diagnosis in swine and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Puysseleyr, Kristien; De Puysseleyr, Leentje; Geldhof, Julie; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C) PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C). The tet(C) gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates.

  11. Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Streptococcus equi evolution: the role of CRISPRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Andrew S; Robinson, Carl

    2013-12-01

    The host-restricted bacterium Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of equine strangles, the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide. The disease is characterized by abscessation of the lymph nodes of the head and neck, leading to significant welfare and economic cost. S. equi is believed to have evolved from an ancestral strain of Streptococcus zooepidemicus, an opportunistic pathogen of horses and other animals. Comparison of the genome of S. equi strain 4047 with those of S. zooepidemicus identified examples of gene loss due to mutation and deletion, and gene gain through the acquisition of mobile genetic elements that have probably shaped the pathogenic specialization of S. equi. In particular, deletion of the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) locus in the ancestor of S. equi may have predisposed the bacterium to acquire and incorporate new genetic material into its genome. These include four prophages and a novel integrative conjugative element. The virulence cargo carried by these mobile genetic elements is believed to have shaped the ability of S. equi to cause strangles. Further sequencing of S. zooepidemicus has highlighted the diversity of this opportunistic pathogen. Again, CRISPRs are postulated to influence evolution, balancing the need for gene gain over genome stability. Analysis of spacer sequences suggest that these pathogens may be susceptible to a limited range of phages and provide further evidence of cross-species exchange of genetic material among Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

  12. Interferon-γ-producing B cells induce the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles after Helicobacter suis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Yamamoto, K; Nishiumi, S; Nakamura, M; Matsui, H; Takahashi, S; Dohi, T; Okada, T; Kakimoto, K; Hoshi, N; Yoshida, M; Azuma, T

    2015-03-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis is capable of infecting various animals including humans, and H. suis infections can lead to gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Recently, we reported that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was highly expressed in the stomachs of H. suis-infected mice, but the direct relationship between the upregulation of IFN-γ expression and the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles after H. suis infection remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the IFN-γ produced by B cells plays an important role in the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles after H. suis infection. In addition, IFN-γ-producing B cells evoked gastric lymphoid follicle formation independent of T-cell help, suggesting that they are crucial for the development of gastric MALT induced by Helicobacter infection.

  13. Parasite population dynamics in pigs infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Andreasen, Annette; Kringel, Helene

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the population dynamics and potential interactions between Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum in experimentally co-infected pigs, by quantification of parasite parameters such as egg excretion, worm recovery and worm location. Forty...... that O. dentatum was located more posteriorly in the gut. The changes in the Trichuris population were less prominent, but faecal egg counts, worm counts 5 wpi (57% recovered vs. 39%) and the proportion of infected animals at 10 wpi were higher in group OT compared to group T. The location of T. suis...

  14. Epidemiology of brucellosis in domestic animals caused by Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis and Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Aparicio, E

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis is a disease that causes severe economic losses for livestock farms worldwide. Brucella melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis, which are transmitted between animals both vertically and horizontally, cause abortion and infertility in their primary natural hosts - goats and sheep (B. melitensis), cows (B. abortus) and sows (B. suis). Brucella spp. infect not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, which in turn can act as reservoirs of the disease for other animal species and humans. Brucellosis is therefore considered to be a major zoonosis transmitted by direct contact with animals and/or their secretions, or by consuming milk and dairy products.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Khanal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns plays important role in the selection of appropriate therapy. Present study was undertaken to analyze the susceptibility patterns of pneumococcal isolates against commonly used antimicrobials with special reference to determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of penicillin in a tertiary care hospital in eastern Nepal. Methods: Twenty-six strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from various clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratory were evaluated. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method. MIC of penicillin was tested by broth dilution method. Results: Of the total isolates 19 (73% were from invasive infections. Seven isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. No resistance to penicillin was seen in disk diffusion testing. Less susceptibility to penicillin (MIC 0.1-1.0 mg/L was observed in five (17% isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not detected. One isolate was multidrug resistant. Conclusions: S. pneumoniaeisolates with intermediate resistance to penicillin prevail in Tertiary Care Hospital in eastern Nepal, causing invasive and noninvasive infections. As intermediate resistance is not detected in routine susceptibility testing, determination of MIC is important. It helps not only in the effective management of life threatening infections but is also essential in continuous monitoring and early detection of resistance. In addition, further study on pneumococcal infections, its antimicrobial resistance profile and correlation with clinical and epidemiological features including serotypes and group prevalence is recommended in future. Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  16. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-29

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens.

  17. Molecular pathogenicity of Streptococcus anginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asam, D; Spellerberg, B

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus anginosus and the closely related species Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius, are primarily commensals of the mucosa. The true pathogenic potential of this group has been under-recognized for a long time because of difficulties in correct species identification as well as the commensal nature of these species. In recent years, streptococci of the S. anginosus group have been increasingly found as relevant microbial pathogens in abscesses and blood cultures and they play a pathogenic role in cystic fibrosis. Several international studies have shown a surprisingly high frequency of infections caused by the S. anginosus group. Recent studies and a genome-wide comparative analysis suggested the presence of multiple putative virulence factors that are well-known from other streptococcal species. However, very little is known about the molecular basis of pathogenicity in these bacteria. This review summarizes our current knowledge of pathogenicity factors and their regulation in S. anginosus.

  18. Colecistitis aguda por Streptococcus constellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sandra Gómez-Canosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de edad avanzada y significativa comorbilidad que se diagnosticó de colecistitis aguda por Streptococcus constellatus. El drenaje de la vesícula biliar por colecistostomía percutánea, asociado a penicilinas, ha conseguido una evolución favorable. We report the case of a patient of advanced age and significant comorbidity diagnosed acute cholecystitis by Streptococcus constellatus. Gallbladder drainage by percutaneous cholecystostomy associated with penicillins has achieved a favorable outcome.

  19. Sui Generis Plant Variety Protection: The Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Dang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant variety protection relates to intellectual property rights over plant varieties which guarantee rights-holders exclusive commercial rights for a specific period of time. Article 27 (3(b of the TRIPS Agreement, compulsorily mandates that every member-state of the WTO must introduce such protection through domestic legislation by certain set time frames. These rights are one form of IPR being aggressively imposed on developing countries and are often touted as a 'soft' patent regime. Plant variety laws are just as threatening as industrial patents on biodiversity and also represent an attack on the rights of farming an other communities at the local level. From a legal perspective, the protection of plant varieties in India remains an issue which is far from settled even though the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act was adopted in 2001 in compliance with the TRIPS Agreement. This study argued that the goal of the IP regime should be to balance the competing needs of maximizing societal innovation while appropriately rewarding the individuals that contribute to that innovation. Towards this end, the study seeks to analyze the issues related to the protection of plant varieties with reference to the TRIPS agreement along with the biodiversity treaty and the PGRFA Treaty. One of the chief distinguishing features of the PGRFA Treaty is its emphasis on farmers' rights. This characteristic is analyzed further in the Indian context. Conclusion: Plant variety protection is linked to both agricultural innovation and the conservation of biological resources, although on different levels. The present international legal framework remains partly inconclusive with regard to they type of agricultural management that it seeks to encourage. Though the development of sui generis programs for plant variety protection is still in a nascent stage, this paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the Farmers' Rights

  20. Development of primer sets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification that enables rapid and specific detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three ...

  1. Trichuris suis secrete products that reduce disease severity in a multiple sclerosis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christine Soholm; Hasseldam, Henrik; Bacher, Idahella Hyldgaard

    2017-01-01

    of excretory/secretory products before disease onset, resulted in a significant decrease in disease severity as well as markedly reduced TH1 and TH17 T-cell responses, centrally in the spinal cord as well as in the periphery, i.e. the spleen. Thus, parenteral administration of T. suis-derived products results...

  2. Treatment of Meniere's Disease with A Heavy Dosage of Gu Sui Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Tun

    2006-01-01

    @@ In treating Meniere's disease, author has found that the compatible use of heavy dosage of Gu Sui Bu (骨碎补 Rhizoma Drynariae) can produce very good effect for relieving dizziness, vertigo and tinnitus. Some of the sample cases are cited in the following.

  3. Immuogenicity and safety of a natural rough mutant of Brucella suis as a vaccine for swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and clearance of the natural rough mutant of Brucella suis strain 353-1 (353-1) as a vaccine in domestic swine. In three studies encompassing 155 animals, pigs were inoculated with 353-1 by conjunctival (5 x 10**7 CFU), p...

  4. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a rough Brucella suis vaccine delivered orally or parenterally to feral swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis strain 353-1 is a stable vaccine strain that is clinically safe, does not cause positive serologic responses on conventional brucellosis surveillance tests, and induces humoral and cellular immunity in swine after vaccination. In this study, we evaluated tissue clearance and immunologi...

  5. Estudio de factores de riesgo asociados a la infección por Mycoplasma suis Study of risk factors associated with Mycoplasma suis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Pereyra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propuso estimar la distribución de la infección por Mycoplasma suis en poblaciones de cerdos de Argentina e identificar factores de riesgo asociados. Se recolectaron 284 muestras de sangre de cerdos de diferentes categorías productivas en frigoríficos y granjas de las provincias de Santa Fe, Córdoba y Buenos Aires. Amplificando el gen del ARNr 16S de M. suis a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, se calculó un porcentaje de infectados del 64%. Se estimó además que no existía asociación estadísticamente significativa (p>0,1 entre un resultado positivo a la PCR y el sexo del animal muestreado, los antecedentes de anemia en la granja y las condiciones de alojamiento. Contrariamente se encontró asociación significativa (pThe objective of this study was to estimate the distribution of Mycoplasma suis infection in pig populations of Argentina and identify associated risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 284 pigs, including different productive categories of animals, in abattoirs and herds from Santa Fe, Córdoba and Buenos Aires provinces. Based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of the M. suis 16S rRNA gene, it was estimated a proportion of infected animals of 0.64. Non-statistically significant (P>0.1 associations were found between gender, anemia herd history, and breeding conditions with PCR results. On the other hand, significant associations (P<0.1 were found between sanitary status to the infection and geographic origin and productive categories. It was estimated that pigs from Buenos Aires and Córdoba provinces were at higher risk of being PCR-positive than pigs from Santa Fe, while piglets and post-weaning pigs were at lower risk of being PCR-positive than other categories. This study suggests that M. suis infection is widespread in the studied pig populations of Argentina.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma suis and insights into its biology and adaption to an erythrocyte niche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M S Guimaraes

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma suis, the causative agent of porcine infectious anemia, has never been cultured in vitro and mechanisms by which it causes disease are poorly understood. Thus, the objective herein was to use whole genome sequencing and analysis of M. suis to define pathogenicity mechanisms and biochemical pathways. M. suis was harvested from the blood of an experimentally infected pig. Following DNA extraction and construction of a paired end library, whole-genome sequencing was performed using GS-FLX (454 and Titanium chemistry. Reads on paired-end constructs were assembled using GS De Novo Assembler and gaps closed by primer walking; assembly was validated by PFGE. Glimmer and Manatee Annotation Engine were used to predict and annotate protein-coding sequences (CDS. The M. suis genome consists of a single, 742,431 bp chromosome with low G+C content of 31.1%. A total of 844 CDS, 3 single copies, unlinked rRNA genes and 32 tRNAs were identified. Gene homologies and GC skew graph show that M. suis has a typical Mollicutes oriC. The predicted metabolic pathway is concise, showing evidence of adaptation to blood environment. M. suis is a glycolytic species, obtaining energy through sugars fermentation and ATP-synthase. The pentose-phosphate pathway, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, pyruvate dehydrogenase and NAD(+ kinase are missing. Thus, ribose, NADH, NADPH and coenzyme A are possibly essential for its growth. M. suis can generate purines from hypoxanthine, which is secreted by RBCs, and cytidine nucleotides from uracil. Toxins orthologs were not identified. We suggest that M. suis may cause disease by scavenging and competing for host' nutrients, leading to decreased life-span of RBCs. In summary, genome analysis shows that M. suis is dependent on host cell metabolism and this characteristic is likely to be linked to its pathogenicity. The prediction of essential nutrients will aid the development of in vitro cultivation systems.

  7. Detection of a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance to infection with Trichuris suis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher;

    2015-01-01

    Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) infect a variety of hosts, including domestic animals and humans. Of considerable interest is the porcine whipworm, T. suis, which is particularly prevalent in outdoor production systems. High infection levels may cause growth retardation, anaemia and haemorrhagic...... a whole-genome scan of an F1 resource population (n=195) trickle-infected with T. suis. A measured genotype analysis revealed a putative quantitative trait locus (QTL) for T. suis FEC on chromosome 13 covering ∼4.5Mbp, although none of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance. We tested the hypothesis...

  8. Symptoms after ingestion of pig whipworm Trichuris suis eggs in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Roepstorff, Allan Knud;

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms after human infection with the helminth Trichuris suis have not previously been described. Exposure to helminths has been suggested as immune therapy against allergy and autoimmune diseases. We randomized adults with allergic rhinitis to ingest a dose of 2500 T. suis eggs or placebo every...... by a fluoroenzymeimmunoassay (Phadia ApS). During 163 days complete follow-up, subjects ingesting T. suis eggs (N = 49) had a three to 19-fold higher rate of events (median duration, 2 days) with gastrointestinal reactions (moderate to severe flatulence, diarrhea, and upper abdominal pain) compared with placebo subjects (N...

  9. Selective Pressure Promotes Tetracycline Resistance of Chlamydia Suis in Fattening Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, Sabrina; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Hoffmann, Karolin; Seth-Smith, Helena M B; Marti, Hanna; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Tetracycline resistance in C. suis has been described in the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Cyprus and Israel. Tetracyclines are commonly used in pig production due to their broad-spectrum activity and relatively low cost. The aim of this study was to isolate clinical C. suis samples in cell culture and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro under consideration of antibiotic treatment on herd level. Swab samples (n = 158) identified as C. suis originating from 24 farms were further processed for isolation, which was successful in 71% of attempts with a significantly higher success rate from fecal swabs compared to conjunctival swabs. The farms were divided into three treatment groups: A) farms without antibiotic treatment, B) farms with prophylactic oral antibiotic treatment of the whole herd consisting of trimethoprime, sulfadimidin and sulfathiazole (TSS), or C) farms giving herd treatment with chlortetracycline with or without tylosin and sulfadimidin (CTS). 59 isolates and their corresponding clinical samples were selected and tested for the presence or absence of the tetracycline resistance class C gene [tet(C)] by conventional PCR and isolates were further investigated for their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro. The phenotype of the investigated isolates was either classified as tetracycline sensitive (Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] MIC MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Results of groups and individual pigs were correlated with antibiotic treatment and time of sampling (beginning/end of the fattening period). We found clear evidence for selective pressure as absence of antibiotics led to isolation of only tetracycline sensitive or intermediate strains whereas tetracycline treatment resulted in a greater number of tetracycline resistant isolates.

  10. Worm burden-dependent disruption of the porcine colon microbiota by Trichuris suis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitao Wu

    Full Text Available Helminth infection in pigs serves as an excellent model for the study of the interaction between human malnutrition and parasitic infection and could have important implications in human health. We had observed that pigs infected with Trichuris suis for 21 days showed significant changes in the proximal colon microbiota. In this study, interactions between worm burden and severity of disruptions to the microbial composition and metabolic potentials in the porcine proximal colon microbiota were investigated using metagenomic tools. Pigs were infected by a single dose of T. suis eggs for 53 days. Among infected pigs, two cohorts were differentiated that either had adult worms or were worm-free. Infection resulted in a significant change in the abundance of approximately 13% of genera detected in the proximal colon microbiota regardless of worm status, suggesting a relatively persistent change over time in the microbiota due to the initial infection. A significant reduction in the abundance of Fibrobacter and Ruminococcus indicated a change in the fibrolytic capacity of the colon microbiota in T. suis infected pigs. In addition, ∼10% of identified KEGG pathways were affected by infection, including ABC transporters, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis as well as α-linolenic acid metabolism. Trichuris suis infection modulated host immunity to Campylobacter because there was a 3-fold increase in the relative abundance in the colon microbiota of infected pigs with worms compared to naïve controls, but a 3-fold reduction in worm-free infected pigs compared to controls. The level of pathology observed in infected pigs with worms compared to worm-free infected pigs may relate to the local host response because expression of several Th2-related genes were enhanced in infected pigs with worms versus those worm-free. Our findings provided insight into the dynamics of the proximal colon microbiota in pigs in response to T

  11. Selective Pressure Promotes Tetracycline Resistance of Chlamydia Suis in Fattening Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, Sabrina; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Hoffmann, Karolin; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Marti, Hanna; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Tetracycline resistance in C. suis has been described in the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Cyprus and Israel. Tetracyclines are commonly used in pig production due to their broad-spectrum activity and relatively low cost. The aim of this study was to isolate clinical C. suis samples in cell culture and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro under consideration of antibiotic treatment on herd level. Swab samples (n = 158) identified as C. suis originating from 24 farms were further processed for isolation, which was successful in 71% of attempts with a significantly higher success rate from fecal swabs compared to conjunctival swabs. The farms were divided into three treatment groups: A) farms without antibiotic treatment, B) farms with prophylactic oral antibiotic treatment of the whole herd consisting of trimethoprime, sulfadimidin and sulfathiazole (TSS), or C) farms giving herd treatment with chlortetracycline with or without tylosin and sulfadimidin (CTS). 59 isolates and their corresponding clinical samples were selected and tested for the presence or absence of the tetracycline resistance class C gene [tet(C)] by conventional PCR and isolates were further investigated for their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro. The phenotype of the investigated isolates was either classified as tetracycline sensitive (Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] < 2 μg/ml), intermediate (2 μg/ml ≤ MIC < 4 μg/ml) or resistant (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Results of groups and individual pigs were correlated with antibiotic treatment and time of sampling (beginning/end of the fattening period). We found clear evidence for selective pressure as absence of antibiotics led to isolation of only tetracycline sensitive or intermediate strains whereas tetracycline treatment

  12. Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women in Zimbabwe: Epidemiology and serotype marker characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mavenyengwa, Rooyen Tinago

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundStreptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) is one of the leading causes of serious bacterial infections such as septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns, causing 0.5 to more than 2 cases per 1,000 live births. Children may be infected from their mothers during delivery from GBS colonizing the birth canal. GBS is also an important cause of premature delivery and may cause infections in parturient women. Significant differences in colonization rates have been shown...

  13. Living in Living Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of current and potential applications of living technology to urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, while solutions involving living technology are reviewed. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed.

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae Drugs Resistance in Acute Rhinosinusitis

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    Chong Jie Hao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute rhinosinusitis that usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes the reason why patients seek for medical care. Drugs resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. This study was conducted to determine drugs resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia from acute rhinosinusitis in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Methods: A descriptive laboratory study was conducted in June–October 2014 at the Laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. The sample was taken using nasopharyngeal swabbing from 100 acute rhinosinusitis patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and planted on tryptic soy agar containing 5% sheep blood and 5 μg/ml of gentamicin sulphate and then incubated in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The identification of Streptococcus pneumonia was performed by optochin test. The susceptibility test against Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using disk diffusion method.The antibiotic disks were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxacillin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, and doxycycline. Results: Out of 100 samples, 8 of them were tested positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates died with unknown reason after it were stored at -80 .The drugs resistance test showed the resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim were 6, whereas levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumonia drugs resistance in acute rhinosinusitis shows the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim are 6, whereas the resistance to levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4.

  15. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB).

  16. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Lefébure

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46% of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86% in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus and (ii the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB.

  17. Streptococcus oligofermentans inhibits Streptococcus mutans in biofilms at both neutral pH and cariogenic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; de Soet, J.J.; Tong, H.; Gao, X.; He, L.; van Loveren, C.; Deng, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (

  18. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Periodontal Streptococcus Constellatus and Streptococcus Intermedius Clinical Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Feik, Diane; Mortensen, Joel E; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius in subgingival dental plaque biofilms may contribute to forms of periodontitis that resist treatment with conventional mechanical root debridement/surgical procedures and may additionally participate in some extraoral infections. B

  19. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  20. Use of a Mycoplasma suis-PCR protocol for screening a population of captive peccaries (Tayassu tajacu and Tayassu pecari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Guimarães, Ana Marcia Sa; Santos, Andrea Pires Dos; Bonat, Marcelo; Javorouski, Manoel Lucas; Popp, Luciene; Santos, Leonilda Correia Dos; Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Vieira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Vidotto, Odilon; Filho, Ivan Roque Barros; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Messick, Joanne Belle

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma suis is a hemotropic bacteria of red blood cells and the causative agent of swine eperythrozoonosis. Diagnosis of infection may be reached by direct examination of blood smears; however, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S RNA gene of M. suis improves the sensitivity and specificity of detection. The aim of this study was to screen peccaries (Tayassu tajacu and T. pecari) for M. suis infection using a specific conventional PCR. A total of 28 blood samples from captive collared and white-lipped peccaries were collected, DNA extracted and a specific M. suis PCR assay performed. All samples were negatives by both blood smear examination and PCR testing. To verify the presence of amplifiable DNA, PCR for beta-actin gene was performed in all samples. This study was part of an active surveillance program, which is crucial for monitoring animal health status, particularly in wildlife species.

  1. Valutazione dell'efficacia di methotrexate e sua influenza sui titoli anticorpali patogenetici nei pazienti affetti da pemfigoide bolloso

    OpenAIRE

    Balestri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Studio osservazionale condotto presso la Dermatologia dell'Università di Bologna atto a valutare l'efficacia di methotrexate e, in particolare, la sua influenza sui titoli degli autoanticorpi patogeni nei pazienti affetti dalla malattia rara Pemfigoide Bolloso

  2. Brucella suis Vaccine Strain 2 Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress that Affects Intracellular Replication in Goat Trophoblast Cells In vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangguo; Lin, Pengfei; Li, Yang; Xiang, Caixia; Yin, Yanlong; Chen, Zhi; Du, Yue; Zhou, Dong; Jin, Yaping; Wang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Brucella has been reported to impair placental trophoblasts, a cellular target where Brucella efficiently replicates in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ultimately trigger abortion in pregnant animals. However, the precise effects of Brucella on trophoblast cells remain unclear. Here, we describe the infection and replication of Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 (B.suis.S2) in goat trophoblast cells (GTCs) and the cellular and molecular responses induced in vitro. Our studies demonstrated that B.suis.S2 was able to infect and proliferate to high titers, hamper the proliferation of GTCs and induce apoptosis due to ER stress. Tunicamycin (Tm), a pharmacological chaperone that strongly mounts ER stress-induced apoptosis, inhibited B.suis.S2 replication in GTCs. In addition, 4 phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA), a pharmacological chaperone that alleviates ER stress-induced apoptosis, significantly enhanced B.suis.S2 replication in GTCs. The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) chaperone molecule GRP78 also promoted B.suis.S2 proliferation in GTCs by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis. We also discovered that the IRE1 pathway, but not the PERK or ATF6 pathway, was activated in the process. However, decreasing the expression of phosphoIRE1α and IRE1α proteins with Irestatin 9389 (IRE1 antagonist) in GTCs did not affect the proliferation of B.suis.S2. Although GTC implantation was not affected upon B.suis.S2 infection, progesterone secretion was suppressed, and prolactin and estrogen secretion increased; these effects were accompanied by changes in the expression of genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes. This study systematically explored the mechanisms of abortion in Brucella infection from the viewpoint of pathogen invasion, ER stress and reproductive endocrinology. Our findings may provide new insight for understanding the mechanisms involved in goat abortions caused by Brucella infection.

  3. Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress that affects intracellular replication in goat trophoblast cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguo eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucella has been reported to impair placental trophoblasts, a cellular target where Brucella efficiently replicates in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and ultimately trigger abortion in pregnant animals. However, the precise effects of Brucella on trophoblast cells remain unclear. Here, we describe the infection and replication of Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 (B.suis.S2 in goat trophoblast cells (GTCs and the cellular and molecular responses induced in vitro. Our studies demonstrated that B.suis.S2 was able to infect and proliferate to high titers, hamper the proliferation of GTCs and induce apoptosis due to ER stress. Tunicamycin (Tm, a pharmacological chaperone that strongly mounts ER stress-induced apoptosis, inhibited B.suis.S2 replication in GTCs. In addition, 4 phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA, a pharmacological chaperone that alleviates ER stress-induced apoptosis, significantly enhanced B.suis.S2 replication in GTCs. The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR chaperone molecule GRP78 also promoted B.suis.S2 proliferation in GTCs by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis. We also discovered that the IRE1 pathway, but not the PERK or ATF6 pathway, was activated in the process. However, decreasing the expression of phosphoIRE1α and IRE1α proteins with Irestatin 9389 (IRE1 antagonist in GTCs did not affect the proliferation of B.suis.S2. Although GTC implantation was not affected upon B.suis.S2 infection, progesterone secretion was suppressed, and prolactin and estrogen secretion increased; these effects were accompanied by changes in the expression of genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes. This study systematically explored the mechanisms of abortion in Brucella infection from the viewpoint of pathogen invasion, ER stress and reproductive endocrinology. Our findings may provide new insight for understanding the mechanisms involved in goat abortions caused by Brucella infection.

  4. Differentiation between serological responses to Brucella suis and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 after natural or experimental infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Vibeke; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    responses in a YeO:9-purified O-antigen indirect ELISA did not decrease accordingly. Analysis of available cross-sectional serum samples from pig herds naturally infected with YeO: 9 or B. suis biovar 2 confirmed that the observed difference in the duration of the serological responses between the two...... infections could be used to discriminate between herds infected with B. suis biovar 2 and YeO:9....

  5. Mycoplasma suis infection results endothelial cell damage and activation: new insight into the cell tropism and pathogenicity of hemotrophic mycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokoli Albina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM are highly specialized red blood cell parasites that cause infectious anemia in a variety of mammals, including humans. To date, no in vitro cultivation systems for HM have been available, resulting in relatively little information about the pathogenesis of HM infection. In pigs, Mycoplasma suis-induced infectious anemia is associated with hemorrhagic diathesis, and coagulation dysfunction. However, intravasal coagulation and subsequent consumption coagulopathy can only partly explain the sequence of events leading to hemorrhagic diathesis manifesting as cyanosis, petechial bleeding, and ecchymosis, and to disseminated coagulation. The involvement of endothelial activation and damage in M. suis-associated pathogenesis was investigated using light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cell sorting. M. suis interacted directly with endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial activation, widespread endothelial damage, and adherence of red blood cells to the endothelium were evident in M. suis-infected pigs. These alterations of the endothelium were accompanied by hemorrhage, intravascular coagulation, vascular occlusion, and massive morphological changes within the parenchyma. M. suis biofilm-like microcolonies formed on the surface of endothelial cells, and may represent a putative persistence mechanism of M. suis. In vitro analysis demonstrated that M. suis interacted with the endothelial cytoskeletal protein actin, and induced actin condensation and activation of endothelial cells, as determined by the up-regulation of ICAM, PECAM, E-selectin, and P-selectin. These findings demonstrate an additional cell tropism of HM for endothelial cells and suggest that M. suis interferes with the protective function of the endothelium, resulting in hemorrhagic diathesis.

  6. Genomic comparison between pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Nile tilapia in Thailand and fish-derived ST7 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B streptococcus (GBS), is a highly virulent pathogen in aquatic animals, causing huge mortalities worldwide. In Thailand, the serotype Ia, β-hemolytic GBS, belonging to sequence type (ST) 7 of clonal complex (CC) 7, was found to be the major cause of streptococcosis outbreaks in fish farms. In this study, we performed an in silico genomic comparison, aiming to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between the pathogenic fish strains of Thai ST7 and other ST7 from different hosts and geographical origins. In general, the genomes of Thai ST7 strains are closely related to other fish ST7s, as the core genome is shared by 92-95% of any individual fish ST7 genome. Among the fish ST7 genomes, we observed only small dissimilarities, based on the analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), surface protein markers, insertions sequence (IS) elements and putative virulence genes. The phylogenetic tree based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the core genome sequences clearly categorized the ST7 strains according to their geographical and host origins, with the human ST7 being genetically distant from other fish ST7 strains. A pan-genome analysis of ST7 strains detected a 48-kb gene island specifically in the Thai ST7 isolates. The orientations and predicted amino acid sequences of the genes in the island closely matched those of Tn5252, a streptococcal conjugative transposon, in GBS 2603V/R serotype V, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus suis. Thus, it was presumed that Thai ST7 acquired this Tn5252 homologue from related streptococci. The close phylogenetic relationship between the fish ST7 strains suggests that these strains were derived from a common ancestor and have diverged in different geographical regions and in different hosts.

  7. First Isolation of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae from a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kichan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo; Her, Moon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. We report the isolation and identification of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

  8. A genetic analysis of Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis from Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meekums, Hayley; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Sparks, Alexandra M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the nematodes Trichuris trichiura and T. suis are morphologically indistinguishable, genetic analysis is required to assess epidemiological cross-over between people and pigs. This study aimed to clarify the transmission biology of trichuriasis in Ecuador. FINDINGS: Adult...... Trichuris worms were collected during a parasitological survey of 132 people and 46 pigs in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Morphometric analysis of 49 pig worms and 64 human worms revealed significant variation. In discriminant analysis morphometric characteristics correctly classified male worms according...... to genetically analyse Trichuris parasites. Although T. trichiura does not appear to be zoonotic in Ecuador, there is evidence of genetic exchange between T. trichiura and T. suis warranting more detailed genetic sampling....

  9. The helminth Trichuris suis suppresses TLR4-induced inflammatory responses in human macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottow, M. K.; Klaver, E. J.; van der Pouw Kraan, T. C. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    -CSF)-differentiated) macrophages. Interestingly, we here show that T. suis SPs potently skew inflammatory macrophages into a more anti-inflammatory state in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner, and less effects are seen when stimulating macrophages with TLR2 or -3 ligands. Gene microarray analysis of GM......Recent clinical trials in patients with inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have shown the beneficial effects of probiotic helminth administration, although the underlying mechanism of action remains largely unknown. Potential cellular targets may...... include innate immune cells that propagate inflammation in these diseases, like pro-inflammatory macrophages. We here investigated the effects of the helminth Trichuris suis soluble products (SPs) on the phenotype and function of human inflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM...

  10. Genetic affinity between the Kam-Sui speaking Chadong and Mulam people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong-Ying DENG; Chuan-Chao WANG; Xiao-Qing WANG; Ling-Xiang WANG; Zhong-Yan WANG; Wen-Jun WU; Hui LI

    2013-01-01

    The origins of Kam-Sui speaking Chadong and Mulam people have been controversial subjects in ethnic history studies and other related fields.Here,we studied Y chromosome (40 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms and 17 short tandem repeats in a non-recombining region) and mtDNA (hypervariable segment I and coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms) diversities in 50 Chadong and 93 Mulam individuals.The Y chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup components and network analyses indicated that both Chadong and Mulam originated from the admixture between surrounding populations and the indigenous Kam-Sui populations.The newly found Chadong is more closely related to Mulam than to Maonan,especially in the matemal lineages.

  11. Profiling circulating miRNAs in serum from pigs infected with the porcine whipworm, Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Eline Palm; Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered as key regulators of gene translation and are becoming increasingly recognized for their involvement in various diseases. This study investigates the miRNA profile in pig serum during the course of an infection with the gastrointestinal parasite, Trichuris...... for asthma and we hypothesize possible interactions between these host- and parasite-derived miRNAs and their immunomodulating roles....... suis. Of this panel, the expression of selected miRNAs in serum from T. suis infected and uninfected pigs were determined by quantitative real time PCR using Exiqon Human Panel assays at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks post first infection (wpi). One miRNA, ssc-let-7d-3p, was significantly up...

  12. The merchants of Chang'an in the Sui and Tang dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Pingshuan

    2006-01-01

    As the capital of the Sui and Tang dynasties,Chang'an brought together large numbers of high-ranking officials,aristocrats,local residents,and sojourners.The promise of profits caused by the high demand for consumer goods attracted merchants.Chang'an was also the starting point of the renowned Silk Road.For all these reasons,Chang'an became a gathering point for Small and medium-scale merchants,rich merchants,ethnic-minority merchants,and foreign merchants.All these merchants engaged in a wide variety of business activities and made money by surprisingly diverse means.Those with great economic power were quite active politically.The activities of these merchants symbolize the unprecedented growth of commerce in Chang'an and reveal the high level of development of urban trade in the Sui and the Tang dynasties.

  13. Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, Helena; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2006-01-01

    Transmission of Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis was studied in outdoor reared pigs. Six farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated in May to mid-June 2001 by experimentally infected seeder pigs. Early July, 1 sow farrowed on each paddock and starting week 3 post partum (p.......p.) the offspring was slaughtered serially every 2 weeks for parasite recovery. Faeces were collected regularly for parasite egg counts and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) content as an indicator of geophagy. Weaning took place week 7 p.p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated in mid-June (O....... dentatum) and late November (O. dentatum and T. suis) using helminth naïve tracer pigs. Soil and vegetation samples were collected regularly. Despite a high initial contamination by the seeder pigs, O. dentatum paddock infectivity was negligible to low throughout the raising of the experimental piglets...

  14. Effects of Helicobacter suis γ-glutamyl transpeptidase on lymphocytes: modulation by glutamine and glutathione supplementation and outer membrane vesicles as a putative delivery route of the enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Helicobacter (H. suis colonizes the stomach of the majority of pigs as well as a minority of humans worldwide. Infection causes chronic inflammation in the stomach of the host, however without an effective clearance of the bacteria. Currently, no information is available about possible mechanisms H. suis utilizes to interfere with the host immune response. This study describes the effect on various lymphocytes of the γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT from H. suis. Compared to whole cell lysate from wild-type H. suis, lysate from a H. suis ggt mutant strain showed a decrease of the capacity to inhibit Jurkat T cell proliferation. Incubation of Jurkat T cells with recombinantly expressed H. suis GGT resulted in an impaired proliferation, and cell death was shown to be involved. A similar but more pronounced inhibitory effect was also seen on primary murine CD4(+ T cells, CD8(+ T cells, and CD19(+ B cells. Supplementation with known GGT substrates was able to modulate the observed effects. Glutamine restored normal proliferation of the cells, whereas supplementation with reduced glutathione strengthened the H. suis GGT-mediated inhibition of proliferation. H. suis GGT treatment abolished secretion of IL-4 and IL-17 by CD4(+ T cells, without affecting secretion of IFN-γ. Finally, H. suis outer membrane vesicles (OMV were identified as a possible delivery route of H. suis GGT to lymphocytes residing in the deeper mucosal layers. Thus far, this study is the first to report that the effects on lymphocytes of this enzyme, not only important for H. suis metabolism but also for that of other Helicobacter species, depend on the degradation of two specific substrates: glutamine and reduced glutatione. This will provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of H. suis infection in particular and infection with gastric helicobacters in general.

  15. Constitutive and Inducible Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein in Brucella suis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Layssac, Marion; Teyssier, Jacques; Liautard, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    A gene fusion system based on plasmid pBBR1MCS and the expression of green fluorescent protein was developed for Brucella suis, allowing isolation of constitutive and inducible genes. Bacteria containing promoter fusions of chromosomal DNA to gfp were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and examined by flow cytometry. Twelve clones containing gene fragments induced inside J774 murine macrophages were isolated and further characterized. PMID:10569794

  16. Constitutive and Inducible Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein in Brucella suis

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Stephan; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Layssac, Marion; Teyssier, Jacques; Liautard, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    A gene fusion system based on plasmid pBBR1MCS and the expression of green fluorescent protein was developed for Brucella suis, allowing isolation of constitutive and inducible genes. Bacteria containing promoter fusions of chromosomal DNA to gfp were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and examined by flow cytometry. Twelve clones containing gene fragments induced inside J774 murine macrophages were isolated and further characterized.

  17. Development and optimization of new generation Start-Up Instrumentation systems (SUI) for domestic CANDU reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, Elnara

    Due to the age and operating experience of Bruce Power units, equipment ageing and obsolescence has become one of the main challenges that need to be resolved for all systems, structures and components in order to ensure a safe and reliable production of energy. The research objectives of this thesis will focus on methodology for modernization of Start-Up Instrumentation (SUI), both in-core and Control Room equipment, using a new generation of detectors and cables in order to manage obsolescence. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a new systematic approach to SUI installation/replacement procedure development and optimization. Although some additional features, such as real-time data monitoring and storage/archiving solutions for SUI systems are also examined to take full advantage of today's digital technology, the objective of this thesis does not include detailed parametrical studies of detector or system performance. Instead, a number of technological, operational and maintenance issues associated with Start-Up Instrumentation systems at Bruce Power will be identified in this project and a structured approach to developing a replacement/installation procedure that can be standardized and used across all of the domestic CANDU stations is proposed. Finally, benefits of Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) methodology for all stages of plant life management, such as system design, development, operation and maintenance are demonstrated. Keywords: Task Breakdown and Analysis methodology, installation/removal procedure development and optimization, risk-based analysis and optimization, Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) methodology for system maintenance and troubleshooting, Start-Up Instrumentation (SUI), Ion Chambers, Fission Chambers, proportional counters, Shutdown System 1 (SDS1), Shutdown System 2 (SDS2).

  18. Isolamento di Brucella suis biovariante 2 da un cinghiale in Abruzzo, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio De Massis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Un cinghiale selvatico femmina, di circa due anni di età, è stato trovato morto dai Servizi Veterinari a Pianola di Roio a L'Aquila, Provincia situata nella Regione Abruzzo nell'Italia centrale. La carcassa è stata conferita all'Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise "G. Caporale" di Teramo per l'esecuzione dell'esame autoptico. Dai linfonodi sotto-mandibolari di questo esemplare è stato isolato un ceppo di Brucella suis biovariante 2. Questa è la prima segnalazione d'isolamento di B. suis nella Regione Abruzzo. Diversi autori hanno accettato, in passato, l'ipotesi che B. suis biovariante 2 sia stata introdotta in Italia attraverso l'importazione di lepri provenienti dai paesi europei in cui l'infezione è endemica nelle popolazioni selvatiche. Questa considerazione ha portato le autorità italiane a rafforzare i controlli esistenti sulle lepri selvatiche importate a scopo di ripopolamento. Tuttavia, attualmente, non è in vigore alcuna disposizione (né lo è stata in passato per il controllo della brucellosi nei cinghiali movimentati, sia a livello nazionale che europeo. L'isolamento di B. suis biovariante 2 da cinghiali in altre Regioni italiane geograficamente distanti potrebbe suggerire che questa specie, piuttosto che le lepri importate, possa essere stata la fonte d'introduzione dell'infezione in tali aree. Le norme nazionali ed europee di gestione della brucellosi nella fauna selvatica dovrebbero essere indirizzate al controllo dello stato di salute dei cinghiali negli allevamenti prima delle movimentazioni o del rilascio, con l'obiettivo di prevenire la diffusione di questo patogeno in territori indenni.

  19. Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., two novel Streptococcus species isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Vandamme, Peter; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Elfahime, El Mostafa; Farricha, Omar El; Swings, Jean; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on two unidentified Gram-stain positive, catalase and oxidase negative, non-hemolytic Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from raw camel milk in Morocco. Phenotypic characterization and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the two strains were highly different from each other and that they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the unidentified organisms each formed a hitherto unknown sub-line within the genus Streptococcus, displaying a close affinity with Streptococcus moroccensis, Streptococcus minor and Streptococcus ovis. DNA G+C content determination, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biochemical tests demonstrated the bacterial isolates represent two novel species. Based on the phenotypic distinctiveness of the new bacteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed to classify the two strains as Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov., with CCMM B832(T) (=LMG 27683(T)) as the type strain, and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., with CCMM B834(T) (=LMG 27685(T)) as the type strain.

  20. Secretion of RNA-Containing Extracellular Vesicles by the Porcine Whipworm, Trichuris suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eline Palm; Kringel, Helene; Williams, Andrew R; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Trichuris suis is a common parasitic helminth of pigs. As with many other parasites, T. suis ensures its own survival by evading host immune responses, but little is known about how this is achieved. MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been shown to be involved in various immunological processes by post-transcriptional regulation of specific genes, and the potential of using these molecules as biomarkers of disease is currently being examined. It has recently been shown that parasites may secrete extracellular structures such as exosomes and microvesicles, containing proteins and miRNA. The fusion of these structures with host cells has been demonstrated, and a role of exosome-derived miRNA in host gene regulation has been suggested. In the present study, we show that exosome- and microvesicular-like structures are secreted by T. suis L1 larvae and also demonstrate the presence of miRNA-sized RNA inside these structures. A potential role of these molecules in host-parasite interactions is suggested. In addition, an electron-dense layer covering the surface of the larvae was observed, which may play a function in host immune evasion.

  1. Rediscovery of Trypanosoma (Pycnomonas) suis, a tsetse-transmitted trypanosome closely related to T. brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Rachel; Gibson, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    The African tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes are considered to be a well-known group of parasitic protozoa, but in 2008 a novel and distinctive trypanosome related to Trypanosoma brucei was discovered among tsetse isolates from Msubugwe in Tanzania. The host range, distribution and potential pathogenicity of this new trypanosome remain to be elucidated; such studies would be facilitated by a sensitive and specific identification method. Here, we identified two highly repetitive elements in the genome of the new trypanosome: a 177 bp repeat, which was located predominantly on the highly abundant minichromosomes, and a 138 bp repeat, which was widely dispersed in the genome. A PCR test based on each repeat was specific for the new trypanosome and sensitive to Trypanosoma (Pycnomonas) suis. We also present data on the molecular karyotype and spliced leader (SL, miniexon) repeat of the new trypanosome, both of which distinguish T. suis from other, better-known African tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes. The rediscovery of T. suis opens new lines of research into the evolution and biology of the African trypanosomes.

  2. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  3. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy.

  4. Seeing Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Common Killer Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of ink, watercolours and computer graphics. We propose a novel artistic visual rendering of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ask what the value of these kind of representations are compared to traditional scientific data. We ask if drawings and computer...

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes toxic-shock syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, R; M Diogo; Carvalho, A.; Pimentel, T.; J. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been an exponential increase in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus ß hemolyticcus group A. In about one third of cases they are complicated by toxic shock syndrome, characterized by septic shock and multiorgan failure. The authors, by their rarity, report a case of bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes complicated by toxic shock syndrome.

  6. [Streptococcus pyogenes toxic-shock syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Rui; Diogo, Marco; Carvalho, Alexandre; Pimentel, Teresa; Oliveira, José

    2011-12-01

    Recently there has been an exponential increase in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus ß hemolyticus group A. In about one third of cases they are complicated by toxic shock syndrome, characterized by septic shock and multiorgan failure. The authors, by their rarity, report a case of bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes complicated by toxic shock syndrome.

  7. Group A Streptococcus vulvovaginitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Lacy, Judith; Hillard, Paula A

    2008-08-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus-associated vulvovaginitis is uncommon in adult women. Clinicians should include group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus as a possible cause of vulvovaginal symptoms in breastfeeding women. Along with appropriate antibiotic therapy, vaginal estrogen therapy may be considered to diminish susceptibility to recurrent infection in women with vaginal atrophy.

  8. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschem, Iris; Bayry, Jagadeesh; De Bruyne, Ellen; Van Deun, Kim; Smet, Annemieke; Vercauteren, Griet; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter suis (H. suis) is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin), administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC)/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT)/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually) is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.

  9. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Bosschem

    Full Text Available Helicobacter suis (H. suis is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin, administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.

  10. Group G Streptococcus bacteremia in recurrent cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Gubertini, Nicoletta; Patriarca, Maria Martina; Trevisan, Giusto

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, group G Streptococcus has been reported with increasing frequency as the cause of a variety of human infections. Underlying host factors such as immunosuppression, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis may be predisposing conditions leading to infection. Toxic involvement and post-streptococcal sequalae, once believed to be exclusive to infections caused by group A Streptococcus, are now known to occur following acute group G Streptococcus and group C Streptococcus infections. We report on a case of group G Streptococcus bacteremia and recurrent cellulitis with toxic involvement. Patient blood cultures were always negative for β-hemolytic Streptococci in all the recurrences, except during the last one. Antibiotic therapy based on antibiogram quickly resolved the infection. A regimen of intramuscular injection of 1.2 million units of benzathine penicillin every 15 days for one year prevented recurrences of cellulitis.

  11. Streptococcus milleri in the appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, P M; Wilson, G

    1977-10-01

    The appendix was investigated as a possible habitat of Streptococcus milleri. Both normal and inflamed appendices were examined and the isolation rates compared. S. milleri was present in a quarter of the normal appendices and more than half of those associated with apendicitis--a difference that was statistically highly significant. The isolation rates throughout were indepencent of age. There was a pronounced connection between the presence of S. milleri in the appendix and the purulent manifestations of appendicitis. S. milleri was isolated from other abdominal sites associated with appendicitis. The frequency of isolation was increased by culture in an enrichment broth containing nalidixic acid and sulphadimidine.

  12. Characterization of Brucella suis clpB and clpAB Mutants and Participation of the Genes in Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaza, Euloge; Teyssier, Jacques; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Köhler, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    Pathogens often encounter stressful conditions inside their hosts. In the attempt to characterize the stress response in Brucella suis, a gene highly homologous to Escherichia coli clpB was isolated from Brucella suis, and the deduced amino acid sequence showed features typical of the ClpB ATPase family of stress response proteins. Under high-temperature stress conditions, ClpB of B. suis was induced, and an isogenic B. suis clpB mutant showed increased sensitivity to high temperature, but also to ethanol stress and acid pH. The effects were reversible by complementation. Simultaneous inactivation of clpA and clpB resulted in a mutant that was sensitive to oxidative stress. In B. suis expressing gfp, ClpA but not ClpB participated in degradation of the green fluorescent protein at 42°C. We concluded that ClpB was responsible for tolerance to several stresses and that the lethality caused by harsh environmental conditions may have similar molecular origins. PMID:11274130

  13. Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Stephan; Barnett, Timothy C; Rivera-Hernandez, Tania; Rohde, Manfred; Walker, Mark J

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) is a human-adapted pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of disease. GAS can cause relatively mild illnesses, such as strep throat or impetigo, and less frequent but severe life-threatening diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. GAS is an important public health problem causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The main route of GAS transmission between humans is through close or direct physical contact, and particularly via respiratory droplets. The upper respiratory tract and skin are major reservoirs for GAS infections. The ability of GAS to establish an infection in the new host at these anatomical sites primarily results from two distinct physiological processes, namely bacterial adhesion and colonization. These fundamental aspects of pathogenesis rely upon a variety of GAS virulence factors, which are usually under strict transcriptional regulation. Considerable progress has been made in better understanding these initial infection steps. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of GAS adhesion and colonization. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Excreted/secreted Trichuris suis products reduce barrier function and suppress inflammatory cytokine production of intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiemstra, I. H.; Klaver, E. J.; Vrijland, K.;

    2014-01-01

    studies indicate that T. suis E/S glycans affect the function of the intestinal epithelium in order to modulate DC function. Identification of the T. suis E/S glycans that modulate IEC and DC function may lead to a strategy to reduce symptoms of autoimmune and allergic immune diseases by orally...

  15. Immune responses and parasitological observations induced during probiotic treatment with medicinal Trichuris suis ova in a healthy volunteer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Dige, Anders; Rasmussen, Tue Kruse

    2017-01-01

    of the local immune responses in humans. Here, we used colonoscopy to investigate the development of T. suis and related mucosal and systemic immune responses during TSO treatment in an intestinally healthy male volunteer. TSO treatment induced T. suis-specific serum antibodies, a transient blood eosinophilia...

  16. Bacteria-induced egg hatching differs for Trichuris muris and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Adelfio, Roberto; Keiser, Jennifer;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eggs of the porcine whipworm Trichuris suis are currently explored in human clinical trials as a treatment of immune-mediated diseases. In this context, only the infective, embryonated eggs, constitute the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). The rodent whipworm, Trichuris muris...... is commonly used as a laboratory model to study Trichuris biology. The embryonated eggs (containing a fully developed larva) are biologically active and will invade the large intestinal mucosa of the host. This study aims to assess the in vitro hatching of T. muris and T. suis eggs in various bacterial...... cultures as a measure for their biological activity. METHODS: Eggs of T. muris and T. suis were incubated with Escherichia coli strain (BL-21) at three concentrations in a slightly modified in vitro egg hatching assay previously developed for T. muris. Additionally, E. coli strains (M15, SG13009, PMC103...

  17. Antibody binding to Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis cell fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Katherine A.; Bowden, George H.; Richmond, Dorothy A.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Cole, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine which cell fraction(s) of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 serve as the best source of antigens recognized by salivary SIgA antibodies in infants. Design Whole cells of 38 reference and wild-type isolates of Streptococcus mitis, S. oralis, S. gordonii, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and E. faecalis were fractionated into cell walls CW), protease-treated cell walls (PTCW), cell membranes (CM) and cell protein (CP). Whole cells and these fractions were tested for binding by rabbit anti-S. mitis SK145 and anti-S. oralis SK100 sera, and also by salivary SIgA antibodies from infants and adults. Results Anti-SK145 and anti-SK100 sera bound whole cells and fractions of all strains of S. mitis and S. oralis variably. Cluster analysis of antibody binding data placed the strains into S. mitis, S. oralis and ‘Non-S. mitis/non-S. oralis’ clusters. Antigens from CW and CM best discriminated S. mitis from S. oralis. CM bound the most infant salivary SIgA antibody and PTCW bound the least. In contrast, adult salivary SIgA antibody bound all of the cell fractions and at higher levels. Conclusions Presumably the relatively short period of immune stimulation and immunological immaturity in infants, in contrast to adults, result in low levels of salivary SIgA antibody that preferentially bind CM of S. mitis but not PTCW. By utilizing isolated cell walls and membranes as sources of antigens for proteomics it may be possible to identify antigens common to oral streptococci and dissect the fine specificity of salivary SIgA antibodies induced by oral colonization by S. mitis. PMID:17904095

  18. In vitro hatching of Trichuris suis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kringel, Helene

    2015-01-01

    after inoculation with a known number of eggs. To minimize testing in animal models, development of an in vitro egg hatching assay is proposed as a reliable, cost-effective, and a faster alternative to test the egg viability. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of different chemical......Eggs of the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), are currently tested in human clinical trials for their potential immunomodulatory capacity. The biological potency of TSO (egg viability and infectivity) is traditionally assessed in Göttingen minipigs as the establishment of intestinal larvae...

  19. Gregory of Nazianzus's De rebus suis and the tradition of epic didactic poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Čelica

    2008-01-01

    Gregory's poem De rebus suis (Carm.2.1.1) is examined in this article from the point of view both of its content and of its literary and stylistic features. In content, the poem is personal and reflexive, and its central theme appears to be a crisis of faith that its author had experienced in his later years. In form, it has all the characteristics of the epic didactic genre: it is metaphrastic in nature (i.e., it turns prose material into verse form); it is written in the archaizing epic lan...

  20. Antimicrobial activity of propolis against Streptococcus mutans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Key words: Dental caries, antimicrobial activity, Apis mellifera, Streptococcus mutans, ethanol extract of propolis. ... of oral micro- organisms and inhibits cell adhesion as well as water .... A review: J. Peadiatric. Dent. 6: 79-. 83.

  1. Interference Between Lactobacilli And Group A Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interference Between Lactobacilli And Group A Streptococcus pyogenes : An Expansion To The Concept Of ... New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology ... However, little is known about their health benefits in respiratory and skin infections.

  2. Factors associated with colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Microbiology, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, Mwanza, ... with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Kinabo et al., 2013). ..... Streptococcus pneumoniae to tracheal epithelium of mice infected with influenza A/PR8 virus.

  3. Pulp response to Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R C; Pountney, S K

    1987-09-01

    The maxillary molar pulps of germ-free rats were mechanically exposed, and suspensions of a strain of freshly grown Streptococcus mutans were applied to the pulp wounds. The pulps were left open to the oral environment, and the animals were maintained in the isolator until they were killed in groups after 2, 7, and 28 days. After 2 days there was little evidence of any pulp response. In the 7-day group early pulp necrosis was present. No evidence of inflammatory infiltration was detected in either the 2- or 7-day animals. After 28 days there was extensive pulp necrosis in many specimens. Dentine bridges were present in fewer than one fourth of the teeth.

  4. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake......, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion...

  5. Storia, analisi e valutazioni sui mamuthones (I parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Sale

    2010-12-01

    sculptor of masks, is the author of these “memoirs”, written between February 1997 and October 2004, and the conscious heir of the ancient tradition of the rituals of the carnival of Mamojada (Nuoro, Sardinia. This consciousness is also the consciousness of the danger of corruption – caused by touristic exploitation of the ritual contents and items, excessive zeal of folkloristic associations, carelessness from the local institutions, extinction of moments and actors of the oral transmission – which threatens the rituals of the carnival of Mamojada. In this account, published in two parts on this and on the next issue of “Antropologia e teatro”, Sale reports places and mores, describing a historical survey, among influences and repressive attempts of the religious power, until the hard present tradition, “jealously” protected by a minority and proudly performed back to the people of the town, as if it was a mission. Moreover Sale describes the organization of the performance, the roles, the clothing and the action of the mamuthones and the issohadores, the protagonists of the carnival of Mamohada, focusing on elements of deep anthropological interest, such as the use and the meaning of female clothing worn by performers and the actual start time of the procession. In particular this account is worthy thanks to the accurate autobiographical arguments of the author, who lives in this world since childhood and transmits his feelings through precious passages in which he reveals the impression of a different flow of time in the frame of the carnival, evoked by the memory of silent herds, deprived of bells which were used by mamuthones, and the emotional impact of mask and rite.

  6. The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.

  7. In Vitro Brucella suis Infection Prevents the Programmed Cell Death of Human Monocytic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Antoine; Terraza, Annie; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Dornand, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    During the complex interaction between an infectious agent and a host organism, the pathogen can interfere with the host cell's programmed death to its own benefit. Induction or prevention of host cell apoptosis appears to be a critical step for determining the infection outcome. Members of the gram-negative bacterial genus Brucella are intracellular pathogens which preferentially invade monocytic cells and develop within these cells. We investigated the effect of Brucella suis infection on apoptosis of human monocytic phagocytes. The present study provides evidence that Brucella infection inhibited spontaneously occurring apoptosis in human monocytes. Prevention of monocyte apoptosis was not mediated by Brucella lipopolysaccharide and required bacterial survival within infected cells. Both invaded and noninvaded cells were protected, indicating that soluble mediators released during infection were involved in the phenomenon. Analysis of Brucella-infected monocytes revealed specific overexpression of the A1 gene, a member of the bcl-2 family implicated in the survival of hematopoietic cells. Brucella infection also rendered macrophage-like cells resistant to Fas ligand- or gamma interferon-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Brucella infection protected host cells from several cytotoxic processes occurring at different steps of the immune response. The present data clearly show that Brucella suis modulated the monocyte/macrophage's apoptotic response to the advantage of the pathogen, thus preventing host cell elimination. This might represent a strategy for Brucella development in infected hosts. PMID:10603407

  8. [Cosmetological thinking and methods in TCM in the Sui-Tang Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y J

    2016-11-28

    In the heyday of Chinese feudal society, women's status in the society of the Sui-Tang period was improved in the Tang Dynasty.The demand for female to stay young and anti-aging had attracted lots of attention in the society, thus providing a favorable social environment for the formation and development of Chinese herbal cosmetology. The important representative medical works on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were published in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, such as Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold), Qian jin yi fang (Supplement to Recipes Worth A Thousand Gold), Wai tai mi yao (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) etc., all carry chapter(s) on Chinese herbal cosmetology. In the Tang Dynasty, beauty techniques became perfect, with rich exquisite make-up style. Make-up had become an integral part of daily life. Cosmetic surgery has reached a fairly high level, with a number of cosmetic surgeries appeared, such as the making of artificial dimples, artificial eyes, and dental cosmetic.

  9. Experimental Infection of Swine by Isospora suis Biester 1934 for Species Confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Oliveira Sayd

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Isospora suis performed in 177 faecal samples from 30 swine farms detected thin wall type I. suis oocysts in seven samples. This type of oocyst measuring 23.9 by 20.7 mm had a retracted thin wall similar to that of the genus Sarcocystis. This type of oocysts, isolated from four different faecal samples, was inoculated in four-five-days-old piglets free of contamination in order to verify the life cycle and pathogenicity of the species. The pigs were kept in individual metal cages and fed with cow milk. Daily faecal collections and examinations were performed until the 21st day after infection. MacMaster and Sheather' s methods were used for oocyst counting and identification. Infected piglets produced yellowish-pasty diarrhoea with slight dehydration. The prepatent and patent periods were respectively from 6 to 9 and 3 to 10 days after infection. Oocyst elimination was interrupted on the 10th and 11th days after infection with biphasic cycles. Thin and thick wall oocysts were detected in the same faecal samples. Thin walls were not observed in unsporulated oocysts. The observations suggest that this type of oocysts could appear in specific strains which occur in the later stages of their development. These oocysts seem to be responsible for clinical and pathogenic signs of neonatal isosporosis in pigs.

  10. Faecal microbiota transplantation: a sui generis biological drug, not a tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megerlin, F; Fouassier, E; Lopert, R; Bourlioux, P

    2014-07-01

    Responding to Smith et al. (Nature, 2014), this paper argues that for medical use, faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) should be considered a sui generis biological drug, rather than a tissue. Smith and colleagues' thesis is based on possible undesirable economic consequences of this designation--not on its scientific and conceptual basis. The faecal transplant (including gut microbiota, metabolites, mucus, human cells, viruses, fungi, etc.) is not a tissue; it is of topographic--not cellular--human origin. We consider the donor a bioreactor, producing the faecal substrate of therapeutic interest. The debate is of singular importance as the FDA considers FMT a drug and released a new guidance for public consultation in February 2014, whereas to date the European Medicines Agency has not promulgated its position. The UK's National Institute for Heath and Care Excellence does not consider FMT to involve the transplantation of body tissue, and in March 2014 the French regulatory agency ANSM expressly declared it to be a drug. As FM is a complex and highly variable admixture, its components cannot be completely characterized, and to date, compositional quality cannot be assessed. We consider FMT to be a sui generis biologic drug, albeit one prepared with unconventional raw material under microbiologic control. The possibility of associating identified bacterial species with particular diseases and cultivating selected bacteria of therapeutic interest would certainly define a second generation of microbiome therapeutics, but is still speculative. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional variation of the antigen I/II surface protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, FC; Assev, S; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Scheie, AA

    2002-01-01

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the role

  12. Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient.

  13. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis.

  14. 水稻穗颈极度缩短突变体sui(t)的遗传分析与基因定位%Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of Extremely Shortened Uppermost Internode Mutant sui(t) in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓雯; 苗润隆; 蒋钰东; 杜川; 杨正林; 凌英华; 何光华; 桑贤春

    2013-01-01

    One novel mutant,tentatively designated as sui(t),was discovered from the progeny of indica rice restorer line Jinhui10,whose seeds were treated with EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate).This mutant was characterized by fully sheathed panicle and was insensitive to GA3.Morphology analysis showed that its uppermost internode was greatly shortened while the other internodes were normal.Genetic analysis suggested that the mutational character was controlled by a single recessive gene.Zhonghua11 was crossed with sui(t) and the F2 population was then used for gene mapping.SUI(t) gene was mapped between the SSR markers RM5336/RM3425 and the tag end of the short arm of Chromosome Ⅰ.SSR and Indel markers were designed and S UI(t) gene was finally restricted within the region of RM3148 and ClIn002 (swu),with a genetic distance of 0.8 cM and 1.4 cM,respectively,and a physical distance of 382 kb.The above result provides a foundation for SUI(t) gene cloning and functional analysis.%来源于EMS处理籼型恢复系缙恢10号的穗颈节间极度缩短突变体其他节间与恢复系缙恢10号无显著变化,表现为全包穗,对GA3不敏感,暂命名为sui(t).遗传分析表明变异性状受一对隐性核基因控制.以中花11/sui(t)的F2隐性单株为定位群体,将sui(t)基因定位在第1染色体SSR标记RM5336,RM3425向短臂末端一侧,进一步合成SSR,Indel等标记,最终将sui(t)基因定位在RM3148和C1 In002(swu)之间,遗传距离分别为0.8 cM和1.4 cM,物理距离为382 kb,为下一步基因克隆和功能研究奠定了基础.

  15. Toxinas e perfil protéico de amostras de Actinobacillus suis provenientes de plantéis suínos norte-americanos Toxins and proteic profile of Actinobacillus suis samples from North American hog herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silveira Carreon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacillus suis (A.suis surgiu como uma grande ameaça aos plantéis suínos norte-americanos. Os sinais clínicos e as lesões são particularmente variáveis e podem lembrar aquelas causadas por outros organismos, como o Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App, podendo ter como causa a similaridade na produção das toxinas ApxI e ApxII. Os objetivos do estudo foram confirmar a produção das toxinas ApxI e ApxII, investigar a produção de toxina geneticamente semelhante à Apx III e analisar as proteínas totais, verificando se existe similaridade entre os isolados provenientes de diferentes plantéis de suínos norte-americanos. Neste estudo, todas as cepas de A. suis foram positivas para os genes codificadores das toxinas ApxI e ApxII, usando o método de reação em cadeia de polimerase - multiplex (PCR-multiplex; e as proteínas totais de 70 amostras de A. suis, oriundos de diferentes plantéis suínos norte-americanos, foram analisadas por meio de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilaminda desnaturante (SDS-PAGE e foram idênticas. A similaridade eletroforética observada entre as proteínas totais das bactérias analisadas indica a possibilidade de haver uma proteção cruzada a partir de uma provável vacina universal desenvolvida com esses antígenos para A. suis.Actinobacillus suis (A. suis has arisen as a great threat to the North American hog herds. The clinical symptoms and lesions are particularly variable and may resemble the same caused by other pathogenic organisms, such as Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App, which can similarly lead to the production of the toxins ApxI and ApxII. This study aimed to confirm the production of the toxins ApxI and ApxII, as well as, to investigate the production of toxins that are genetically similar to ApxIII, and analyze total protein to verify whether there is any similarity among the isolated samples obtained from different North American hog herds. In this study, all the strains of A. suis

  16. Targeting of the Virulence Factor Acetohydroxyacid Synthase by Sulfonylureas Results in Inhibition of Intramacrophagic Multiplication of Brucella suis

    OpenAIRE

    Boigegrain, Rose-Anne; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Köhler, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) of Brucella suis can be effectively targeted by the sulfonylureas chlorimuron ethyl and metsulfuron methyl. Growth in minimal medium was inhibited, and multiplication in human macrophages was totally abolished with 100 μM of sulfonylureas. Metsulfuron methyl-resistant mutants showed reduced viability in macrophages and reduced AHAS activity.

  17. The first report on Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Jeníková, Martina; Kváč, Martin

    2012-03-23

    A total of 193 faecal samples of adult Eurasian wild boars were collected at 12 enclosures across the Czech Republic and examined for Cryptosporidium infection using both microscopic and molecular tools. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 193 faecal samples examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Thirty-two positive cases of Cryptosporidium infection were detected using either genus- or species-specific nested PCR. Mono-infection with Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II were found in 13 and 7 cases, respectively. Five mixed infections of C. suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II were detected using PCR/RFLP with genus specific primers. The number of detected mixed infections increased 2.4 fold when a species-specific PCR was employed. No other Cryptosporidium spp. was detected. Unlike cryptosporidiosis of domestic pigs, C. suis was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars. There was no association between diarrhoea and the presence of Cryptosporidium infection in the Eurasian wild boars studied. This is the first report on the Cryptosporidium infection caused by C. suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa).

  18. Identification and Isolation of Brucella suis Virulence Genes Involved in Resistance to the Human Innate Immune System▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liautard, Janny; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Jubier-Maurin, Véronique; Lafont, Virginie; Köhler, Stephan; Liautard, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Brucella strains are facultative intracellular pathogens that induce chronic diseases in humans and animals. This observation implies that Brucella subverts innate and specific immune responses of the host to develop its full virulence. Deciphering the genes involved in the subversion of the immune system is of primary importance for understanding the virulence of the bacteria, for understanding the pathogenic consequences of infection, and for designing an efficient vaccine. We have developed an in vitro system involving human macrophages infected by Brucella suis and activated syngeneic γ9δ2 T lymphocytes. Under these conditions, multiplication of B. suis inside macrophages is only slightly reduced. To identify the genes responsible for this reduced sensitivity, we screened a library of 2,000 clones of transposon-mutated B. suis. For rapid and quantitative analysis of the multiplication of the bacteria, we describe a simple method based on Alamar blue reduction, which is compatible with screening a large library. By comparing multiplication inside macrophages alone and multiplication inside macrophages with activated γ9δ2 T cells, we identified four genes of B. suis that were necessary to resist to the action of the γ9δ2 T cells. The putative functions of these genes are discussed in order to propose possible explanations for understanding their exact role in the subversion of innate immunity. PMID:17709411

  19. Bacteria-induced egg hatching differs for Trichuris muris and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Adelfio, Roberto; Keiser, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eggs of the porcine whipworm Trichuris suis are currently explored in human clinical trials as a treatment of immune-mediated diseases. In this context, only the infective, embryonated eggs, constitute the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). The rodent whipworm, Trichuris muris...... eggs incubated with selected bacteria, indicate significant biological differences which may reflect specific adaptation to different host-specific gut microbiota....

  20. Temperature dependent embryonic development of Trichuris suis eggs in a medicinal raw material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Kringel, Helene; Bruun, Johan Musaeus

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of infective pig whipworm eggs, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), is currently tested in several clinical trials on immune-mediated diseases. This paper studied the embryonic development of TSO in a medicinal raw product, where the parasite eggs were suspended in sulphuric acid (p...

  1. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Betson, M.; Bendall, R. P.;

    2012-01-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected...

  2. Population dynamics and intra-litter transmission patterns of Isospora suis in suckling piglets under on-farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sotiraki, S.; Roepstorff, A.; Nielsen, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-litter infection dynamics of Isospora suis under natural conditions, and to study any association between parasite transmission and the contamination level of the farrowing pen by applying different interventions in order to reduce the transmission...

  3. Ultrastructural characteristics and molecular identification of Entamoeba suis isolated from pigs with hemorrhagic colitis: implications for pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Suzuta, Fumiko; Terayama, Yoshimi; Shimojo, Kengo; Yui, Takeshi; Haritani, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2014-08-01

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Entamoeba infect many classes of vertebrates and are primarily classified based on morphological criteria. To date, only a few species have been proven to cause disease. Here, we examined the pathology of infected pigs with hemorrhage and detected Entamoeba parasites. Isolates were characterized genetically and ultrastructurally to identify the species. Histopathologically, bleeding and thrombus formation were seen only in the large intestine mucosa, where a large number of trophozoites or some Entamoeba cysts were observed around breakdowns in the lamina propria. No screw-shaped bacteria were detected in the lesions, and no pathogenic bacteria such as Brachyspira spp. were detected in fecal cultures. Interestingly, electron microscopy revealed that the parasites possessed mitochondrial organelles, unlike other Entamoeba spp. The isolates were identified as Entamoeba suis by PCR analysis and sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. In phylogenetic analyses based on the actin gene, the E. suis isolate formed a cluster with Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba invadens, as well as with other parasites of the Amoebidae. Whether the pathogenicity of the E. suis isolate is affected by the severity of infection or host health status remains unclear; however, our results suggest that E. suis could cause or exacerbate clinical symptoms such as hemorrhagic colitis or diarrhea.

  4. Comparative virulence of in vitro-cultured primate- and pig-associated Helicobacter suis strains in a BALB/c mouse and a Mongolian gerbil model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschem, Iris; Flahou, Bram; Bakker, Jaco; Heuvelman, Edwin; Langermans, Jan A M; De Bruyne, Ellen; Joosten, Myrthe; Smet, Annemieke; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter suis (H. suis) is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. This bacterium mainly colonizes the stomach of pigs, but it has also been detected in the stomach of nonhuman primates. The aim of this study was to obtain better insights into potential differences between pig- and primate-associated H. suis strains in virulence and pathogenesis. In vitro-isolated H. suis strains obtained from pigs, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used for intragastric inoculation of BALB/c mice and Mongolian gerbils. Nine weeks and six months later, samples of the stomach of inoculated and control animals were taken for PCR analysis and histopathological examination. The cynomolgus monkey-associated H. suis strain only colonized the stomach of mice, but not of Mongolian gerbils. All other H. suis strains colonized the stomach in both rodent models. In all colonized animals, severe gastric inflammation was induced. Gastric lymphoid follicles and destruction of the antral epithelium were observed in infected gerbils, but not in mice. Infection with both pig- and primate-associated H. suis strains evoked a similar marked Th17 response in mice and gerbils, accompanied by increased CXCL-13 expression levels. Apart from the cynomolgus monkey-associated strain which was unable of colonizing the stomach of Mongolian gerbils, no substantial differences in virulence were found in rodent models between in vitro-cultured pig-associated, cynomolgus monkey-associated and rhesus monkey-associated H. suis strains. The experimental host determines the outcome of the immune response against H. suis infection, rather than the original host. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. ISOLASI BAKTERIOFAGA ANTI Streptococcus agalactiae DARI IKAN NILA (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2016-11-01

    -hemolytic. Streptococcus iniae, a b-hemolytic bacterium is the main causative agent of septicemia, meningoencephalitis, and fish mortality. Moreover, the other causative agent is S. agalactiae. Bacteriophages which are viruses that live on bacteria can be selected and used as therapy for Streptococcosis. The aim of this research is to isolate bacteriophage of S. agalactiae as therapeutic agent candidate giving protecting effect for Streptococcosis. Phages was isolated from Brain Heart Infusion Agar (BHIA were obtained from cultures of S. iniae and S. agalactiae. Strains S. iniae and S. agalactiae were isolated from Streptococcosis fish. The predominant types of colonies were subcultured and subjected to biochemical and physiological tests such as Gram staining, catalase test, hemolytic activity in blood agar and API 20 Strep System. Phages were isolated by using a double agar layer method. A zona lysis with plaques was removed from the plate, centrifuged and the supernatant was filtered through a 0.45 µm membrane filter and stored at 4oC. From 15 isolates of S. iniae and S. agalactiae, only one isolate PSaT-18 showed lysis zone. The lysis zone developed because the phages give protection to S. agalactiae. The lysis zone is not clear because the phage concentration is too low and the dilution in filtration process is too high. Later, these phages were used for invitro and invivo test.

  6. Streptococcus pyogenes pili promote pharyngeal cell adhesion and biofilm formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manetti, Andrea G. O; Zingaretti, Chiara; Falugi, Fabiana; Capo, Sabrina; Bombaci, Mauro; Bagnoli, Fabio; Gambellini, Gabriella; Bensi, Giuliano; Mora, Marirosa; Edwards, Andrew M; Musser, James M; Graviss, Edward A; Telford, John L; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2007-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes ) is a Gram‐positive human pathogen responsible for several acute diseases and autoimmune sequelae that account for half a million deaths worldwide every year...

  7. Symptoms after ingestion of pig whipworm Trichuris suis eggs in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Roepstorff, Allan Knud;

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms after human infection with the helminth Trichuris suis have not previously been described. Exposure to helminths has been suggested as immune therapy against allergy and autoimmune diseases. We randomized adults with allergic rhinitis to ingest a dose of 2500 T. suis eggs or placebo every...... by a fluoroenzymeimmunoassay (Phadia ApS). During 163 days complete follow-up, subjects ingesting T. suis eggs (N = 49) had a three to 19-fold higher rate of events (median duration, 2 days) with gastrointestinal reactions (moderate to severe flatulence, diarrhea, and upper abdominal pain) compared with placebo subjects (N...

  8. The changing epidemiology of group B streptococcus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballard, Mark S; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Lyytikäinen, Outi;

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based studies conducted in single regions or countries have identified significant changes in the epidemiology of invasive group B streptococcus (GBS) infection. However, no studies have concurrently compared the epidemiology of GBS infections among multiple different regions......, Sweden, Finland and the UK during 2000-2010. Incidence rates were age- and gender-standardised to the EU population. Results During 114 million patient-years of observation, 3464 cases of GBS BSI were identified for an overall annual incidence of 3.4 patients per 100 000 persons. There were marked...... differences in the overall (range = 1.8-4.1 per 100 000 person-year) and neonatal (range = 0.19-0.83 per 1000 live births) incidences of GBS BSI observed among the study regions. The overall incidence significantly (p = 0.05) increased. Rates of neonatal disease were stable, while the incidence in individuals...

  9. The efficacy of neem extract on four microorganisms responsible for causing dental caries viz Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chava, Venkateswara Rao; Manjunath, S M; Rajanikanth, A V; Sridevi, N

    2012-11-01

    HISTORY AND OBJECTIVES: From the ancient time, neem used to be the traditional medicine for many diseases and was mainly used for cleaning the oral cavity. The incidence of dental caries was less a few decades ago but now the incidence of caries is very aggressive. This might be due to change in dietary habits, life style and more tendency toward processed food. The objective of this study is to find out the truth that if the neem is really efficacious against caries-inducing microorganisms, mainly Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis. The dried neem sticks ground into a coarse powder and weighed into 5, 10 and 50 gm were added to 100 ml of deionized double distilled water. After soaking for 2 days, the water was filtered at 4 °C and the fine filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates contains individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37 °C for 2 days. At maximum concentrations, neem extract has shown the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans. At less concentration, the efficacy of neem has shown some inhibition of growth for all the four species of microorganisms. Neem chewing provides the maximum benefits. Hence, the use of chewing sticks of neem can be recommended.

  10. Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kazuko; Saito, Masanori; Tsudukibashi, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirasawa, Masatomo

    2013-08-01

    Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)).

  11. Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (aged from 9 to 44 years, mean ± SD, 26.9 ± 12.6 years) in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University were enrolled in this research and brushing bacterial samples collected from them. Streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n = 46) were identified as thirteen species by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). Mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), this species having been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%). However, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous to human and monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. Of the mutans streptococci, S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface.

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus and reduction of gastrointestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus and reduction of gastrointestinal discomfort. According to the applicant, the food constituent which is the subject of the claim is beta-galactosidase from Streptococcus...... thermophilus. Streptococcus thermophilus is added to infant formulae in the production process for fermentation purposes and the live organisms are inactivated after the fermentation process. The Panel considers that the food constituent, beta-galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus, under the conditions...

  13. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for differentiation between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prehn, Joffrey; van Veen, Suzanne Q; Schelfaut, Jacqueline J G; Wessels, Els

    2016-05-01

    We compared the Vitek MS and Microflex MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform for species differentiation within the Streptococcus mitis group with PCR assays targeted at lytA, Spn9802, and recA as reference standard. The Vitek MS correctly identified 10/11 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 13/13 Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and 12/13 S. mitis/oralis. The Microflex correctly identified 9/11 S. pneumoniae, 0/13 S. pseudopneumoniae, and 13/13 S. mitis/oralis. MALDI-TOF is a powerful tool for species determination within the mitis group. Diagnostic accuracy varies depending on platform and database used.

  14. Trichurs suis ova theraphy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsgaard, A.; Bager, P.; Garde, E.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An observational study has suggested that relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with helminth infections have lower disease activity and progression than uninfected multiple sclerosis patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy on MRI activity of treatment with ...... not change. CONCLUSIONS: In a small group of relapsing multiple sclerosis patients, Trichuris suis oral therapy was well tolerated but without beneficial effect.......BACKGROUND: An observational study has suggested that relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with helminth infections have lower disease activity and progression than uninfected multiple sclerosis patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy on MRI activity of treatment...... with TSO in relapsing MS. METHODS: The study was an open-label, magnetic resonance imaging assessor-blinded, baseline-to-treatment study including ten patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Median (range) age was 41 (24-55) years, disease duration 9 (4-34) years, Expanded Disability Status...

  15. Experimental infection of pigs with three dose levels of Trichuris suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen S.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to follow the course of Trichuris suisinfection in pigs given infective eggs at low (400 eggs, medium (4,000 eggs and high inoculation dose (40,000 eggs, respectively. Interestingly, despite a 100-fold difference in dose level no significant difference was found in either blood parameters, total faecal egg excretion, fecundity or worm burdens at necropsy 12 weeks post inoculation. The highest and lowest median faecal egg output was found in the medium and high dose group, respectively. With increasing dose level, worm size, establishment and prevalence of T. suis positive pigs decreased while worms were dislocated aborally. In addition there was a highly significant correlation between female worm burden and faecal egg excretion.

  16. Borrowed philosophy: bedside physicalism and the need for a sui generis metaphysic of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Shawn D

    2014-12-01

    The character of medicine has changed over the last 100 years such that medicine is more interested in diseases than the people who suffer from them. Despite notable efforts to address this, the medical humanities do not challenge doctors' fundamental view of the world. Students adopt a metaphysic of physicalism during basic science training that gets carried into medical training. While necessary for medical science, physicalism is insufficient for clinical care. Physicalism offers no foundation for the sine qua non of medicine, the doctor-patient relationship. The character of medicine will not see a renewed interest in humanity until educators address the insufficiency of physicalism for clinical care, and clinicians partner with experts in the humanities to build a sui generis philosophy of medicine.

  17. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule...... evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S. pneumoniae...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  18. A Rare Cause of Endocarditis: Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Gültekin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although group A β-hemolytic streptococcus is an uncommon cause of infective endocarditis, an increase in the incidence of invasive group A streptococcus infections including bacteremia has been reported in the last two decades. Herein we report Streptococcus pyogenes endocarditis in a previously healthy adult patient who was hospitalized to investigate the etiology of fever. Because of a suspicion of a new vegetation appeared in the second (aortic valve in the 14th day of high dose penicillin G treatment, the mitral and aortic valves were replaced by mechanical prosthesis on the 22nd day of treatment. He was discharged from hospital after the 6 week course of antibiotic treatment.

  19. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30% of these cultures, 26 (44.8% corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%, to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%, to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 % to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%, to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7% to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germanyprovides a typical pattern ("good identification" for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

  20. Monoclonal Idiotope Vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Mary K.; Ward, Ronald E.; Kohler, Heinz

    1984-12-01

    A monoclonal anti-idiotope antibody coupled to a carrier protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice against a lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Vaccinated mice developed a high titer of antibody to phosphorylcholine, which is known to protect against infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Measurement of the median lethal dose of the bacteria indicated that anti-idiotope immunization significantly increased the resistance of BALB/c mice to the bacterial challenge. Antibody to an idiotope can thus be used as an antigen substitute for the induction of protective immunity.

  1. Differentiation of Listeria and Streptococcus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herendi, A; Ralovich, B

    1989-01-01

    Colonial morphology of non-beta haemolytic Listeria strains is frequently similar to that of non-haemolytic streptococci. Biochemical characteristics, motility, haemolysis on ox blood agar, growth on Clauberg, selective streptococcus (Si) and Mitis-Salivarius agar medium, CAMP test, serological behaviour of 16 Listeria strains were studied and the results were compared with the properties of Streptococcus strains. Microscopic morphology, motility and catalase activity are useful for distinguishing these strains. To avoid a false diagnosis, latex-agglutination should be supplemented with the above tests.

  2. Iron acquisition and regulation systems in Streptococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ruiguang; Sun, Xuesong

    2014-05-01

    Gram-positive Streptococcus species are responsible for millions of cases of meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis. Iron is essential for the growth and survival of Streptococcus in the host environment. Streptococcus species have developed various mechanisms to uptake iron from an environment with limited available iron. Streptococcus can directly extract iron from host iron-containing proteins such as ferritin, transferrin, lactoferrin and hemoproteins, or indirectly by relying on the employment of specialized secreted hemophores (heme chelators) and small siderophore molecules (high affinity ferric chelators). This review presents the most recent discoveries in the iron acquisition system of Streptococcus species - the transporters as well as the regulators.

  3. Martius flap and anterior vaginal wall sling for correction of urethrovaginal fistula (UVF associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI after vaginal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Abdelbary

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: Patients with a post-birth trauma in the form of UVF should be examined intra-operatively for the presence of associated SUI following correction of UVF. The use of the Martius flap and anterior vaginal wall sling in treating such patients is safe, efficient and reproducible. An anterior vaginal wall sling should be avoided in distal UVF to avoid recurrence of SUI.

  4. 猪链球菌2型毒力因子研究进展%Advance in Virulence Factors of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立志; 王金良; 肖跃强; 李书光; 祖立闯; 伍晓雄; 沈志强

    2012-01-01

    猪链球菌2型(SS2)是一种重要的人兽共患病病原菌,其主要毒力因子包括英膜多糖、溶菌酶释放蛋白、溶血素、纤连蛋白结合蛋白、谷氨酸脱氢酶等,但是这些经典的毒力因子不足以解释猪链球菌病发病的临床症状,而且毒力表型往往与实际毒力及临床症状不符.近年来随着研究的深入,鉴定出一系列毒力相关元件,主要有Sao蛋白、存在于89K毒力岛的双信号转导系统(salk-salR)、dltA基因、pgdA基因、srtA基因、Ⅳ型二肽基肽酶(dipeptidyl peptidaseⅣ,DPPⅣ)、毒力调控子R(control of virulence R,CovR)、烯醇酶(enolase)、谷氨酰胺合成酶(glutamine synthetase,GlnA)等.论文对以上毒力因子研究进展进行综述,以期为SS2毒力因子及致病机制研究提供参考.

  5. 链球菌猪主要致病种和型多重PCR检测方法的建立%Establishment of a multiplex PCR assay for detection of pig-pathogenic species and types of Streptococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹君; 王楷宬; 田莉莉; 王旭远; 曾巧英; 范伟兴

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method to detect streptococci at genus,species and type levels simultaneously by just a single PCR.Targeting at mainly pig-pathogenic species and types including Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus and Streptococcus suis types 1,2,7,9(SS1,SS2,SS7 and SS9),based on genetic sequences in GenBank,7 pairs of primers respectively targeting at Streptococcus genus-conservative gene(elongation factor,EF-TU),Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus conservative gene(glutamate dehydrogenase,GDH and M-like protein respectively),and type specific genes(capsular polysaccharide,CPS,CPS1I,CPS2J,CPS7H,CPS9H respectively for SS1,SS2,SS7 and SS9).The novel multiplex PCR assay could clearly produce the 7 expected bands with correct sizes and sequences at 61 ℃ as annealing temperature.Specificity and accuracy were confirmed by expected bands when detecting standard SS strains and Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus strain 555,and even further proven by 100% in agreement with bacteriological and PCR results when detecting 16 Streptococcus isolates.Sensitivity reached 0.08 ng/μL and stability was verified by same performance in 5 separate tests.The multiplex PCR are the only assay up to date which could detect pig-pathogenic Streptococcus at genus,species and type levels by a single PCR with high specificity,accuracy,sensitivity and stability,suiting for Streptococcus surveillance on pig farm and fast epidemiological survey.%根据GenBank中登录的链球菌属保守基因(EF-TU)、猪链球菌种保守基因(GDH)、C群马链球菌兽疫亚种保守基因(M-like)、猪链球菌型特异性基因(SS1型CPS1I、SS2型CPS2J、SS7型CPS7H和SS9型CPS9H)的序列设计合成7对引物,建立了一次性在属、种、型3个水平上检测链球菌猪主要致病种和型(C群马链球菌兽疫亚种和猪链球菌1、2、7、9型)的多重PCR方法。结

  6. Use of a Serotype-Specific DNA Microarray for Identification of Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Linyan; Wang, Quan; Li, Yayue; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Cao, Boyang; Wang, Lei; Feng, Lu

    2006-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is an important cause of sepsis and meningitis. Nine GBS serotypes, based on capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens, have been described. Their distribution varies worldwide and needs to be monitored to understand the epidemiology of GBS disease and inform the development of vaccines. In this study, we sequenced cpsH of GBS serotype II (cpsHII) and compared it with that of the other eight serotypes to identify serotype-specific regions. We...

  7. The Chlamydia suis Genome Exhibits High Levels of Diversity, Plasticity, and Mobile Antibiotic Resistance: Comparative Genomics of a Recent Livestock Cohort Shows Influence of Treatment Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, Sabrina; Bachmann, Nathan; Marti, Hanna; Qi, Weihong; Donati, Manuela; di Francesco, Antonietta; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia suis is an endemic pig pathogen, belonging to a fascinating genus of obligate intracellular pathogens. Of particular interest, this is the only chlamydial species to have naturally acquired genes encoding for tetracycline resistance. To date, the distribution and mobility of the Tet-island are not well understood. Our study focused on whole genome sequencing of 29 C. suis isolates from a recent porcine cohort within Switzerland, combined with data from USA tetracycline-resistant isolates. Our findings show that the genome of C. suis is very plastic, with unprecedented diversity, highly affected by recombination and plasmid exchange. A large diversity of isolates circulates within Europe, even within individual Swiss farms, suggesting that C. suis originated around Europe. New World isolates have more restricted diversity and appear to derive from European isolates, indicating that historical strain transfers to the United States have occurred. The architecture of the Tet-island is variable, but the tetA(C) gene is always intact, and recombination has been a major factor in its transmission within C. suis. Selective pressure from tetracycline use within pigs leads to a higher number of Tet-island carrying isolates, which appear to be lost in the absence of such pressure, whereas the loss or gain of the Tet-island from individual strains is not observed. The Tet-island appears to be a recent import into the genome of C. suis, with a possible American origin. PMID:28338777

  8. Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H; Hance, I

    2008-01-01

    We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat...... with loss and acquisition from contacts. These findings provide a platform for understanding the mechanisms that govern the balance within the complex microbiota at mucosal sites and between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system of the host....

  9. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed.

  10. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed.

  11. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing....

  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae and the host cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstedt, Per Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is een bacterie die in de menselijke keel-neusholte voorkomt. Vaak is zij ongevaarlijk, maar soms kan zij van leefomgeving veranderen en zich als invasieve ziekteverwekker door het lichaam verspreiden. Dan kan de bacterie longontsteking, bloedvergiftiging of hersenvliesontst

  13. Prostatic Abscess Caused by Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Nguyen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The first reported case of prostatic abscess caused by Streptococcus mutans isolated in pure culture is described. Urethral dilation for obstruction was unsuccessful, so suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Perineal aspiration under ultrasonic guidance resulted in 10 mL of pus containing pure Strep mutans. Diagnosis of prostatic abscess is difficult since the clinical manifestations are nonspecific.

  14. Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae as an Otopathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingfu; Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Sabharwal, Vishakha; Pelton, Stephen; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Among 34 Spn sequential isolates from middle ear fluid we found a case of a nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae (NT-Spn) in a child with AOM. The strain was pneumolysin PCR positive and capsule gene PCR negative. Virulence of the NT-Spn was confirmed in a chinchilla model of AOM. PMID:21251566

  15. NEW VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Peter Wilhelmus Maria; Bootsma, Jeanette Hester; Burghout, Pieter Jan; Kuipers, Oscar; Bijlsma, Johanna Jacoba Elisabeth; Kloosterman, Tomas Gerrit; Andersen, Christian O.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides proteins/genes, which are essential for survival, and consequently, for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo, and thus are ideal vaccine candidates for a vaccine preparation against pneumococcal infection. Further, also antibodies against said protein(s) are i

  16. How Does Streptococcus pneumoniae Invade the Brain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iovino, Federico; Seinen, Jolien; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the major cause of bacterial meningitis. The mechanisms by which pneumococci from the bloodstream penetrate the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain are not fully understood. Receptor-mediated adhesion of the bacteria to the brain endothelium is consi

  17. NEW VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, Jeanette Hester; Burghout, Pieter Jan; Hermans, Peter Wilhelmus Maria; Bijlsma, Johanna; Kuipers, Oscar; Kloosterman, Tomas Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides proteins/genes, which are essential for survival, and consequently, for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo, and thus are ideal vaccine candidates for a vaccine preparation against pneumococcal infection. Further, also antibodies against said protein(s) are i

  18. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  19. Epidemiological investigation of the first human brucellosis case in Spain due to Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compés Dea, Cecilia; Guimbao Bescós, Joaquín; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Muñoz Álvaro, Pilar María; Blasco Martínez, José María; Villuendas Usón, María Cruz

    2017-03-01

    No cases of human brucellosis caused by Brucella suis has been reported in Spain. This study involved interviews with the case and his co-workers, inspection of their workplace, checking infection control measures, and typing the Brucella strain isolated in the blood culture. Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330 was isolated from a patient who worked in a waste treatment plant. Food borne transmission, contact with animals, and risk jobs were ruled out. An accidental inoculation with a contaminated needle from a research laboratory waste container was identified as the most probable mode of transmission. There should be controls to ensure that waste containers are sealed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Theoretical and practical considerations on Kyoto Protocol; In teoria e in pratica. Alcune riflessioni sui meccanismi di Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giulio, E. [Eni Corporate University, Mattei School, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    This paper deals with principles, open issues and economic attractiveness of CDM and Jl. In the first part, some reflections about additionality, baseline criteria and problems that can arise in implementing CDM and JI projects are carried out. In the second part, with reference to a CDM project, some simulations are performed in order to clarify its economic results and understand the role that different variables can play. [Italian] Questo articolo tratta dei principi, delle questioni aperte e dell'attrattivita' economica del CDM e della JI. Nella prima parte , vengono sviluppate alcune riflessioni sui criteri che definiscono l'addizionalita' e la baseline, e sui problemi che sorgono quando occorre implementare progetti di CDM e JI. Nella seconda parte, vengono proposte alcuni simulazioni quantitative su un progetto di CDM, al fine di verificare il suo risultato economico e comprendere il ruolo svolto dalle diverse variabili.

  1. A genetic analysis of Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis from Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meekums, Hayley; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Sparks, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris worms were collected during a parasitological survey of 132 people and 46 pigs in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Morphometric analysis of 49 pig worms and 64 human worms revealed significant variation. In discriminant analysis morphometric characteristics correctly classified male worms according...... to genetically analyse Trichuris parasites. Although T. trichiura does not appear to be zoonotic in Ecuador, there is evidence of genetic exchange between T. trichiura and T. suis warranting more detailed genetic sampling....

  2. Release of periplasmic proteins of Brucella suis upon acidic shock involves the outer membrane protein Omp25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boigegrain, Rose-Anne; Salhi, Imed; Alvarez-Martinez, Maria-Teresa; Machold, Jan; Fedon, Yann; Arpagaus, Martine; Weise, Christoph; Rittig, Michael; Rouot, Bruno

    2004-10-01

    The survival and replication of Brucella in macrophages is initially triggered by a low intraphagosomal pH. In order to identify proteins released by Brucella during this early acidification step, we analyzed Brucella suis conditioned medium at various pH levels. No significant proteins were released at pH 4.0 in minimal medium or citrate buffer, whereas in acetate buffer, B. suis released a substantial amount of soluble proteins. Comparison of 13 N-terminal amino acid sequences determined by Edman degradation with their corresponding genomic sequences revealed that all of these proteins possessed a signal peptide indicative of their periplasmic location. Ten proteins are putative substrate binding proteins, including a homologue of the nopaline binding protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The absence of this homologue in Brucella melitensis was due to the deletion of a 7.7-kb DNA fragment in its genome. We also characterized for the first time a hypothetical 9.8-kDa basic protein composed of five amino acid repeats. In B. suis, this protein contained 9 repeats, while 12 were present in the B. melitensis orthologue. B. suis in acetate buffer depended on neither the virB type IV secretory system nor the omp31 gene product. However, the integrity of the omp25 gene was required for release at acidic pH, while the absence of omp25b or omp25c displayed smaller effects. Together, these results suggest that Omp25 is involved in the membrane permeability of Brucella in acidic medium.

  3. Cosa Juzgada Constitucional Sui Generis y su Efecto en las Sentencias del Tribunal Constitucional en materia de Inaplicabilidad e Inconstitucionalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alfonso Garrote Campillay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se abordara la cosa juzgada constitucional y su efecto en las sentencias del Tribunal Constitucional, en materia de inaplicabilidad e inconstitucionalidad. Proponemos una cosa juzgada constitucional sui generis o cosa decidida, en atención a las particularidades que presenta esta institución en el ámbito del Derecho Constitucional, por ende no nos ceñiremos al concepto tradicional del Derecho Procesal Civil.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Brucella suis Biovar 4 Strain NCTC 10385, Brucella ceti Strain NCTC 12891T, Brucella inopinata Strain CAMP 6436T, and Brucella neotomae Strain ATCC 23459T

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wahab, Tara; Ferrari, Sevinc; Lindberg, Martina; Bäckman, Stina; Kaden, Rene

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of developing quantitative PCR methods for the detection and differentiation of Brucella species, the genomes of Brucella ceti, Brucella inopinata, Brucella netotomae, and Brucella suis...

  5. Pheromone Recognition and Selectivity by ComR Proteins among Streptococcus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Shanker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural transformation, or competence, is an ability inherent to bacteria for the uptake of extracellular DNA. This process is central to bacterial evolution and allows for the rapid acquirement of new traits, such as antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. For the Gram-positive bacteria genus Streptococcus, genes required for competence are under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS mediated by peptide pheromones. One such system, ComRS, consists of a peptide (ComS that is processed (XIP, secreted, and later imported into the cytoplasm, where it binds and activates the transcription factor ComR. ComR then engages in a positive feedback loop for the expression of ComS and the alternative sigma-factor SigX. Although ComRS are present in the majority of Streptococcus species, the sequence of both ComS/XIP and ComR diverge significantly, suggesting a mechanism for species-specific communication. To study possible cross-talk between streptococcal species in the regulation of competence, and to explore in detail the molecular interaction between ComR and XIP we undertook an interdisciplinary approach. We developed a 'test-bed' assay to measure the activity of different ComR proteins in response to cognate and heterologous XIP peptides in vivo, revealing distinct ComR classes of strict, intermediate, and promiscuous specificity among species. We then solved an X-ray crystal structure of ComR from S. suis to further understand the interaction with XIP and to search for structural features in ComR proteins that may explain XIP recognition. Using the structure as a guide, we probed the apo conformation of the XIP-binding pocket by site-directed mutagenesis, both in test-bed cultures and biochemically in vitro. In alignments with ComR proteins from other species, we find that the pocket is lined by a variable and a conserved face, where residues of the conserved face contribute to ligand binding and the variable face discriminate among XIP

  6. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  7. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  8. [The effect of fluoride on adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis on the dental pure titanium surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Qiao, Guang-yan; Shen, Qing-ping; Gu, Kai-kai

    2015-04-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of fluoride on adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis on the dental pure titanium surface. The adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis on the dental pure titanium surface were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after soaked in artificial saliva containing different concentrations of sodium fluoride for 24 h. Then the surface roughness and surface morphology of the pure titanium were analyzed by atomic force microscope after bacterial adhesion experiments. The data was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance(ANOVA) with SPSS11.0 software package. After soaked in artificial saliva containing different concentrations of sodium fluoride for 24 h, the sequence of OD values showed the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis on dental pure titanium surface was 0 g/L adhesion experiments was 0 g/L adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis, surface roughness and surface morphology reveal that fluoride aggravates the corrosion of pure titanium, increases the surface roughness, and thus promots the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis on the titanium surface.

  9. The Brucella suis virB operon is induced intracellularly in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Foulongne, Vincent; Michaux-Charachon, Sylvie; Bourg, Gisele; Allardet-Servent, Annick; Cazevieille, Chantal; Liautard, Jean Pierre; Ramuz, Michel; O'Callaghan, David

    2002-01-01

    A type IV secretion system similar to the VirB system of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens is essential for the intracellular survival and multiplication of the mammalian pathogen Brucella. Reverse transcriptase–PCR showed that the 12 genes encoding the Brucella suis VirB system form an operon. Semiquantitative measurements of virB mRNA levels by slot blotting showed that transcription of the virB operon, but not the flanking genes, is regulated by environmental factors in vitro. Flow cytometry used to measure green fluorescent protein expression from the virB promoter confirmed the data from slot blots. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and fluorescence microscopy showed that the virB promoter is induced in macrophages within 3 h after infection. Induction only occurred once the bacteria were inside the cells, and phagosome acidification was shown to be the major signal inducing intracellular expression. Because phagosome acidification is essential for the intracellular multiplication of Brucella, we suggest that it is the signal that triggers the secretion of unknown effector molecules. These effector molecules play a role in the remodeling of the phagosome to create the unique intracellular compartment in which Brucella replicates. PMID:11830669

  10. a Topic Modeling Based Representation to Detect Tweet Locations. Example of the Event "je Suis Charlie"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morchid, M.; Josselin, D.; Portilla, Y.; Dufour, R.; Altman, E.; Linarès, G.

    2015-09-01

    Social Networks became a major actor in information propagation. Using the Twitter popular platform, mobile users post or relay messages from different locations. The tweet content, meaning and location, show how an event-such as the bursty one "JeSuisCharlie", happened in France in January 2015, is comprehended in different countries. This research aims at clustering the tweets according to the co-occurrence of their terms, including the country, and forecasting the probable country of a non-located tweet, knowing its content. First, we present the process of collecting a large quantity of data from the Twitter website. We finally have a set of 2,189 located tweets about "Charlie", from the 7th to the 14th of January. We describe an original method adapted from the Author-Topic (AT) model based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) method. We define an homogeneous space containing both lexical content (words) and spatial information (country). During a training process on a part of the sample, we provide a set of clusters (topics) based on statistical relations between lexical and spatial terms. During a clustering task, we evaluate the method effectiveness on the rest of the sample that reaches up to 95% of good assignment. It shows that our model is pertinent to foresee tweet location after a learning process.

  11. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-11-08

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars.

  12. Le prime sensazioni al pianoforte restano per sempre? Indagine sui metodi pianistici per principianti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sellari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I metodi d’insegnamento del pianoforte utilizzati in Italia sono caratterizzati da percorsi basati su differenti ipotesi teoriche e indicazioni pratiche. Il primo libro di pianoforte, qualunque sia il suo valore, stabilisce il primo contatto con lo strumento, lasciando una forte impressione e tracciando il profilo delle competenze inizialmente sviluppate. Una più profonda comprensione di questi testi può mostrare quali sono le capacità e le strategie di apprendimento proposte dai metodi adottati e conseguentemente dagli insegnanti. L'obiettivo di questo studio è quello di identificare quali sono le scelte metodologiche più rappresentative nella didattica pianistica italiana degli ultimi 50 anni. I risultati sono basati sui dati raccolti dai questionari somministrati a 200 pianisti, di età compresa tra 20 e 60, ai quali è stato chiesto, insieme a informazioni generiche, quale fosse stato il loro primo libro pianoforte, quali aspetti positivi o negativi ricordavano maggiormente e quali ritenevano essere più utili. I dati suggeriscono una preferenza rilevante di cinque metodi, che sono stati analizzati secondo una serie di criteri metodologici e analitici. I risultati indicano un panorama metodologico concentrato principalmente sul rapporto iniziale con lo strumento e sulla lettura musicale. Questo studio contribuisce alla riflessione su due aspetti metodologici: lo sviluppo di nuovi repertori e la proposta di metodologie in grado di rispettare il mondo emotivo e cognitivo dei principianti.

  13. Toltrazuril and sulphonamide treatment against naturally Isospora suis infected suckling piglets: is there an actual profit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Demontis, Francesca; Varcasia, Antonio; Pipia, Anna Paola; Poglayen, Giovanni; Ferrari, Nicola; Genchi, Marco

    2009-08-26

    A study was carried out to assess the efficacy and the economic profit of prophylactic treatment against Isopsora suis with toltrazuril or with a sulfamethazine/trimethoprim combination in piglets from an intensive pig farm. Thirty-one litters were included in study. Eight litters were treated once with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg b.w.) at 3 days of age (Toltra group); 8 litters were treated with 2 ml/animal of a [corrected] sulphonamide combination (sodium sulfamethazine 250 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg and trimethoprim 50 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg/kg b.w.) for 3 consecutive days starting at 3 days of age (Sulfa group), and 15 litters were untreated (control group). Counts of oocyst per gram on pooled feces sampled from each litter were carried out on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28 and diarrhea was registered daily from pooled samples. Piglets were weighed on Days 1, 7 and 28 and mean weight gain (WG) and daily weight gain (DWG) were evaluated. The economic profit of treatment was evaluated comparing the WG of piglets of each treatment group from the day of birth to Day 28. On Days 14, 21 and 28, toltrazuril showed a better efficacy in controlling fecal oocyst output, diarrhea and weight gain compared with sulphamidic treatment (Psulphonamide-treated piglets.

  14. Hume, Mill, Hill, and the sui generis epidemiologic approach to causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    The epidemiologic approach to causal inference (i.e., Hill's viewpoints) consists of evaluating potential causes from the following 2, noncumulative angles: 1) established results from comparative, observational, or experimental epidemiologic studies; and 2) reviews of nonepidemiologic evidence. It does not involve statements of statistical significance. The philosophical roots of Hill's viewpoints are unknown. Superficially, they seem to descend from the ideas of Hume and Mill. Hill's viewpoints, however, use a different kind of evidence and have different purposes than do Hume's rules or Mill's system of logic. In a nutshell, Hume ignores comparative evidence central to Hill's viewpoints. Mill's logic disqualifies as invalid nonexperimental evidence, which forms the bulk of epidemiologic findings reviewed from Hill's viewpoints. The approaches by Hume and Mill cannot corroborate successful implementations of Hill's viewpoints. Besides Hume and Mill, the epidemiologic literature is clueless about a plausible, pre-1965 philosophical origin of Hill's viewpoints. Thus, Hill's viewpoints may be philosophically novel, sui generis, still waiting to be validated and justified.

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1580 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1580 ref|YP_001197683.1| hypothetical protein SSU05_0315 [Streptococcus... suis 05ZYH33] ref|YP_001199869.1| hypothetical protein SSU98_0311 [Streptococcus suis 98HAH33] ref|YP_0030...24335.1| hypothetical protein SSUSC84_0283 [Streptococcus suis SC84] ref|YP_003026235.1| hypothetical protein SSU0294 [Streptococcus... suis P1/7] gb|ABP89284.1| Uncharacterized conserved protein [Streptococcus... suis 05ZYH33] gb|ABP91470.1| Uncharacterized conserved protein [Streptococcus suis 98HAH3

  16. Mismatch repair genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae: HexA confers a mutator phenotype in Escherichia coli by negative complementation.

    OpenAIRE

    Prudhomme, M; Méjean, V; Martin, B; Claverys, J P

    1991-01-01

    DNA repair systems able to correct base pair mismatches within newly replicated DNA or within heteroduplex molecules produced during recombination are widespread among living organisms. Evidence that such generalized mismatch repair systems evolved from a common ancestor is particularly strong for two of them, the Hex system of the gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Mut system of the gram-negative Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The homology existing between HexA and ...

  17. [Thousand faces of Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Bálint Gergely; Lénárt, Katalin Szidónia; Kádár, Béla; Gombos, Andrea; Dezsényi, Balázs; Szanka, Judit; Bobek, Ilona; Prinz, Gyula

    2015-11-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are high worldwide and in Hungary among paediatric as well as adult populations. Pneumococci account for 35-40% of community acquired adult pneumonias requiring hospitalization, while 25-30% of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonias are accompanied by bacteraemia. 5-7% of all infections are fatal but this rate is exponentially higher in high risk patients and elderly people. Mortality could reach 20% among patients with severe invasive pneumococcal infections. Complications may develop despite administration of adequate antibiotics. The authors summarize the epidemiology of pneumococcal infections, pathogenesis of non-invasive and invasive disease and present basic clinical aspects through demonstration of four cases. Early risk stratification, sampling of hemocultures, administration of antibiotics and wider application of active immunization could reduce the mortality of invasive disease. Anti-pneumococcal vaccination is advisable for adults of ≥50 years and high risk patients of ≥18 years who are susceptible to pneumococcal disease.

  18. Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Su-Min Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye.

  19. Acute Mastoiditis Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, Emily; Chen, Judy L

    2016-05-01

    Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a relatively rare complication of acute otitis media (AOM). The most common pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Pneumococcal vaccination and changes in antibiotic prescribing recommendations for AOM may change the incidence of AM in the future. Diagnosis of AM can be made based on clinical presentation, but computed tomography of the temporal bone with contrast should be considered if there is concern for complicated AM. Both extracranial and intracranial complications of AM may occur. Previously, routine cortical mastoidectomy was recommended for AM treatment, but new data suggest that a more conservative treatment approach can be considered, including intravenous (IV) antibiotics alone or IV antibiotics with myringotomy. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(5):e176-e179.].

  20. Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescombe, Philip A; Hale, John D F; Heng, Nicholas C K; Tagg, John R

    2012-12-01

    Considerable human illness can be linked to the development of oral microbiota disequilibria. The predominant oral cavity commensal, Streptococcus salivarius has emerged as an important source of safe and efficacious probiotics, capable of fostering more balanced, health-associated oral microbiota. Strain K12, the prototype S. salivarius probiotic, originally introduced to counter Streptococcus pyogenes infections, now has an expanded repertoire of health-promoting applications. K12 and several more recently proposed S. salivarius probiotics are now being applied to control diverse bacterial consortia infections including otitis media, halitosis and dental caries. Other potential applications include upregulation of immunological defenses against respiratory viral infections and treatment of oral candidosis. An overview of the key steps required for probiotic development is also presented.

  1. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.

  2. Dual Functions of Streptococcus salivarius Urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Weaver, Cheryl A.; Burne, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A urease-deficient derivative of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I was constructed by allelic exchange at the ureC locus. The wild-type strain was protected against acid killing through hydrolysis of physiologically relevant concentrations of urea, whereas the mutant was not. Also, S. salivarius could use urea as a source of nitrogen for growth exclusively through a urease-dependent pathway. PMID:10913107

  3. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered...... specific for S. pneumoniae hamper the exact identification of S. pneumoniae. Based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes of a collection of 634 streptococcal strains, identified by multilocus sequence analysis, we detected a cytosine at position 203 present in all 440 strains of S. pneumoniae but replaced...... by an adenosine residue in all strains representing other species of mitis group streptococci. The S. pneumoniae-specific sequence signature could be demonstrated by sequence analysis or indirectly by restriction endonuclease digestion of a PCR amplicon covering the site. The S. pneumoniae-specific signature...

  4. Genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J A

    2015-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. The classification of SBSEC has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the Streptococcus gallolyticus, the Streptococcus equinus, the Streptococcus infantarius and the Streptococcus alactolyticus branch. In animals, SBSEC are causative agents for ruminal acidosis, potentially laminitis and infective endocarditis (IE). In humans, a strong association was established between bacteraemia, IE and colorectal cancer. Especially the SBSEC-species S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an emerging pathogen for IE and prosthetic joint infections. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and the S. infantarius branch are further associated with biliary and urinary tract infections. Knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms is so far limited to colonization factors such as pili and biofilm formation. Certain strain variants of S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius are associated with traditional dairy and plant-based food fermentations and display traits suggesting safety. However, due to their close relationship to virulent strains, their use in food fermentation has to be critically assessed. Additionally, implementing accurate and up-to-date taxonomy is critical to enable appropriate treatment of patients and risk assessment of species and strains via recently developed multilocus sequence typing schemes to enable comparative global epidemiology. Comparative genomics revealed that SBSEC strains harbour genomics islands (GI) that seem acquired from other streptococci by horizontal gene transfer. In case of virulent strains these GI frequently encode putative virulence factors, in strains from food fermentation the GI encode functions that are

  5. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum show different sensitivity and accumulation of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Nejsum, Peter; Friis, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    ). Relatively high proportions of the anthelmintic inactive metabolite fenbendazole sulphone was measured within T. suis (6-17.2%) as compared to O. dentatum (0.8-0.9%). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The general lower sensitivity of T. suis towards BZs in vitro seems to be related to a lower drug uptake. Furthermore...

  6. Local use of iontophoresis with traditional Chinese herbal medicine, e.g., Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mechanical force is not the only means to cause tooth movement, but just one kind of stimuli for it. Biological stimuli, with potential of accelerating alveolar bone remodeling, other than mechanical force, have been attracted by orthodontists who are combating prolonged treatment duration. It has been approved that some traditional Chinese medicines, such as Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynaria, affect the process of bone remodeling. The Hypothesis: We make the hypothesis that local use of iontophoresis with Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynaria as a non-invasive and safe drug delivery system with no trauma, risk of infection or damage to patients is a new potential approach for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, and shorten the orthodontic treatment time. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Gu-Sui-Bu is effective at inducing bone remodeling, and iontophoresis as a non-invasive technique for drug delivery, is suitable for the transmission of some traditional Chinese herbal medicines into periodontal tissues.

  7. Development, Hatching, and Intestinal Establishment of Trichuris suis, - in vivo and in vitro Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina

    Trichuris suis, the pig whipworm is a nematode parasite located in the large intestine of pigs. Embryonated eggs of T. suis (T. suis ova = TSO) constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a new medicinal product, which is currently tested in human clinical trials as a potential...... treatment against several immune-mediated disease. In order to ensure that TSO can induce the immunomodulatory effect (pharmaceutical potency) and ultimately the treatment effect, the contained eggs need to be biologically potent. Biological potency refers to the ability of eggs to hatch (measurement...... of viability) and for larvae to invade the intestinal tissue (measurement of biological infectivity). The current “gold standard” to test the biological potency is by larval establishment in the large intestine of Göttingen minipigs three weeks after inoculation. The minipig infectivity model is reliable, safe...

  8. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  9. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  10. Sympathetic empyema arising from streptococcus anginosus splenic abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissa E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 52 year old male with a history splenic infarction, abdominal pain and shortness of breath. CT scanning revealed a splenic abcess and empyema. Cultures from both sites grew Streptococcus anginosus. These resolved with drainage and antibiotics. Physicians should consider Streptococcus species when confronted with a patient with splenic infarction.

  11. Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Joyce J.; Phillip H. Klesius; Pasnik, David J.; Bohnsack, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  12. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points.

  13. Clinical utility of the MMPI-2-RF SUI items and scale in a forensic inpatient setting: Association with interview self-report and future suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Burchett, Danielle; Martinez, Jennifer; Gomez, Anthony

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we examined whether the 5 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI) items (93, 120, 164, 251, and 334) would provide incremental suicide-risk assessment information after accounting for information garnered from clinical interview questions. Among 229 forensic inpatients (146 men, 83 women) who were administered the MMPI-2-RF, 34.9% endorsed at least 1 SUI item. We found that patients who endorsed SUI items on the MMPI-2-RF concurrently denied conceptually related suicide-risk information during the clinical interview. For instance, 8% of the sample endorsed Item 93 (indicating recent suicidal ideation), yet denied current suicidal ideation upon interview. Conversely, only 2.2% of the sample endorsed current suicidal ideation during the interview, yet denied recent suicidal ideation on Item 93. The SUI scale, as well as the MMPI-2-RF Demoralization (RCd) and Low Positive Emotions (RC2) scales, correlated significantly and meaningfully with conceptually related suicide-risk information from the interview, including history of suicide attempts, history of suicidal ideation, current suicidal ideation, and months since last suicide attempt. We also found that the SUI scale added incremental variance (after accounting for information garnered from the interview and after accounting for scores on RCd and RC2) to predictions of future suicidal behavior within 1 year of testing. Relative risk ratios indicated that both SUI-item endorsement and the presence of interview-reported risk information significantly and meaningfully increased the risk of suicidal behavior in the year following testing, particularly when endorsement of suicidal ideation occurred for both methods of self-report. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Trichuris suis excretory secretory products (ESP) elicit interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 secretion from intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, G; Mansfield, L S

    2005-08-10

    Immune responses to gastrointestinal helminth infections have received increasing attention due to similarities to allergen-induced responses. In fact, the whipworm parasite of swine, Trichuris suis, has been used in beginning clinical trials as an antidote to inflammatory bowel disease. This strategy was based on this similarity and the recognition that other worms have been documented to induce anti-inflammatory responses in the host. In an effort to understand the basis for this response, we hypothesized that the proteins and peptides secreted by T. suis stimulate local intestinal epithelial cells to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines. To test this hypothesis in a correlate system of the natural swine host, T. suis excretory secretory products (ESP) were used to treat both differentiated and undifferentiated intestinal pig epithelial cells (IPEC-1) in vitro as a model for the effect on villus tip and crypt epithelial cells in the vicinity of the worms. IPEC-1 were exposed to low-level doses (0.3mg/ml) of T. suis ESP, and IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokine responses were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). IL-6 was the predominant cytokine produced, accompanied by moderate IL-10 secretion from both differentiated and undifferentiated cells. As expected, IL-4 was not produced by IPEC-1. Additionally, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokines were produced within 24h, suggesting that these two cytokines form part of the primary host response to T. suis infections. These data suggest that T. suis ESP could enhance host immune responses and modulation through the induction of enteric IL-6 and IL-10.

  15. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Trichuris suis ova (TSO) in active Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schölmerich, Jürgen; Fellermann, Klaus; Seibold, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: To investigate the efficacy and safety of three different dosages of embryonated, viable eggs of Trichuris suis (TSO) versus placebo for induction of remission in mildly-to-moderately active ileocolonic, uncomplicated Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Adults with active CD (n=252......) randomly received six fortnightly doses of 250, 2500 or 7500 TSO/15 ml suspension/day (TSO 250, TSO 2500, TSO 7500), or 15ml placebo solution/day, in a double-blind fashion, with four weeks' follow-up. Primary endpoint was the rate of clinical remission (Crohn's disease activity index [CDAI

  16. Spring forward with improved Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus resistant to Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture worldwide is valued around US $ 7 billion. Tilapia are an important source of protein for domestic (top 5 most consumed seafoods) and global food security. Two gram postitive bacteria, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae, are responsible for billion dollar losses annually. Gen...

  17. Influence of pH on inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by Streptococcus oligofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chu, Lei; Wu, Fei; Guo, Lili; Li, Mengci; Wang, Yinghui; Wu, Ligeng

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus oligofermentans is a novel strain of oral streptococcus that can specifically inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. The aims of this study were to assess the growth of S. oligofermentans and the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans at different pH values. Growth inhibition was investigated in vitro using an interspecies competition assay. The 4-aminoantipyine method was used to measure the initial production rate and the total yield of hydrogen peroxide in S. oligofermentans. S. oligofermentans grew best at pH 7.0 and showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect when it was inoculated earlier than S. mutans. In terms of the total yield and the initial production rate of hydrogen peroxide by S. oligofermentans, the effects of the different culture pH values were as follows: pH 7.0 > 6.5 > 6.0 > 7.5 > 5.5 = 8.0 (i.e. there was no significant difference between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0). Environmental pH and the sequence of inoculation significantly affected the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit the growth of S. mutans. The degree of inhibition may be attributed to the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced.

  18. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term care and institutional living. Sheltered Housing Sheltered housing is often in a home that offers personal-care support, housekeeping services, and meals. Social work services and coordination for activities can be ...

  19. Assisted Living

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    ... if needs change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or their families usually pay for it. Health and long-term care insurance policies may cover ...

  20. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . HIV Treatment Works Get In Care HIV 101 Locate a ... Sharing Your Status Stay In Care Understanding Care HIV Treatment Cost of HIV Treatment Related Health Conditions Live ...